WorldWideScience

Sample records for mercury 196

  1. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg.sup.196 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg.sup.196 isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

  2. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg[sup 196] enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.

    1993-02-16

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg[sup 196] isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

  3. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg196 enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg 196 isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment

  4. Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilas, F.; Chapman, C.R.; Matthews, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on future observations of and missions to Mercury, the photometry and polarimetry of Mercury, the surface composition of Mercury from reflectance spectrophotometry, the Goldstone radar observations of Mercury, the radar observations of Mercury, the stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury, the geomorphology of impact craters on Mercury, and the cratering record on Mercury and the origin of impacting objects. Consideration is also given to the tectonics of Mercury, the tectonic history of Mercury, Mercury's thermal history and the generation of its magnetic field, the rotational dynamics of Mercury and the state of its core, Mercury's magnetic field and interior, the magnetosphere of Mercury, and the Mercury atmosphere. Other papers are on the present bounds on the bulk composition of Mercury and the implications for planetary formation processes, the building stones of the planets, the origin and composition of Mercury, the formation of Mercury from planetesimals, and theoretical considerations on the strange density of Mercury

  5. Mercury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Irma

    2017-01-01

    Mercury is a naturally occurring metal that exists in several physical and chemical forms. Inorganic mercury refers to compounds formed after the combining of mercury with elements such as chlorine, sulfur, or oxygen. After combining with carbon by covalent linkage, the compounds formed are called

  6. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... build up in fish, shellfish, and animals that eat fish. The nervous system is sensitive to all forms of mercury. Exposure to high levels can damage the brain and kidneys. Pregnant women can pass the mercury in their bodies to their babies. It is important to protect your family from ...

  7. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has set a limit of 2 parts of mercury per billion parts of drinking water (2 ppb). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has set a maximum permissible level of 1 part of methylmercury in a million ... of 0.1 milligram of organic mercury per cubic meter of workplace air (0.1 ...

  8. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André; Steiger, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun, is different in several respects from the other three terrestrial planets. In appearance, it resembles the heavily cratered surface of the Moon, but its density is high, it has a magnetic field and magnetosphere, but no atmosphere or ionosphere. This book reviews the progress made in Mercury studies since the flybys by Mariner 10 in 1974-75, based on the continued research using the Mariner 10 archive, on observations from Earth, and on increasingly realistic models of its interior evolution.

  9. Method for mercury refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-04-09

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  10. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-07-16

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  11. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the 196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg 2 Cl 2 . The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg 2 Cl 2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures

  12. 32 CFR 196.310 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 196.310 Section 196.310 National... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 196.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 196.300 through 196.310 apply shall not discriminate on the...

  13. Filter for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1989-01-01

    A filter for enriching the .sup.196 Hg content of mercury, including a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill of mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. The reactor is arranged around said filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of quartz, and are transparent to ultraviolet light. The .sup.196 Hg concentration in the mercury fill is less than that which is present in naturally occurring mercury, that is less than about 0.146 atomic weight percent. Hydrogen is also included in the fill and serves as a quenching gas in the filter, the hydrogen also serving to prevent disposition of a dark coating on the interior of the filter.

  14. ELEMENTAL MERCURY ADSORPTION BY ACTIVATED CARBON TREATED WITH SULFURIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of a study of the adsorption of elemental mercury at 125 C by a sulfuric-acid (H2S04, 50% w/w/ solution)-treated carbon for the removal of mercury from flue gas. The pore structure of the sample was characterized by nitrogen (N2) at -196 C and the t-plot m...

  15. Mercury and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Risk of Exposure to Mercury Learn About Mercury What is Mercury What is Metallic mercury? Toxicological Profile ToxFAQs Mercury Resources CDC’s National Biomonitoring Program Factsheet on Mercury ...

  16. 32 CFR 196.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Application. The provisions of §§ 196.500 through 196.550 apply to: (1) Recruitment, advertising, and the..., leave for persons of either sex to care for children or dependents, or any other leave; (7) Fringe...

  17. 46 CFR 196.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 196.15-10 Section 196.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief engineer...

  18. 32 CFR 196.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 196.525 Section 196.525... Prohibited § 196.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit...

  19. 46 CFR 196.43-5 - Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Availability. 196.43-5 Section 196.43-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Placard of Lifesaving Signals § 196.43-5 Availability. On all vessels to which this subpart applies there must be...

  20. 12 CFR 19.196 - Disreputable conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disreputable conduct. 19.196 Section 19.196... PROCEDURE Parties and Representational Practice Before the OCC; Standards of Conduct § 19.196 Disreputable conduct. Disreputable conduct for which an individual may be censured, debarred, or suspended from...

  1. 32 CFR 196.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Housing. 196.405 Section 196.405 National... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 196.405 Housing. (a... different fees or requirements, or offer different services or benefits related to housing, except as...

  2. Got Mercury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, J. Torin; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the operational and payload lighting units used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury. If these devices were damaged on-orbit, elemental mercury could be released into the cabin. Although there are plans to replace operational units with alternate light sources, such as LEDs, that do not contain mercury, mercury-containing lamps efficiently produce high quality illumination and may never be completely replaced on orbit. Therefore, exposure to elemental mercury during spaceflight will remain possible and represents a toxicological hazard. Elemental mercury is a liquid metal that vaporizes slowly at room temperature. However, it may be completely vaporized at the elevated operating temperatures of lamps. Although liquid mercury is not readily absorbed through the skin or digestive tract, mercury vapors are efficiently absorbed through the respiratory tract. Therefore, the amount of mercury in the vapor form must be estimated. For mercury releases from lamps that are not being operated, we utilized a study conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Quality to calculate the amount of mercury vapor expected to form over a 2-week period. For longer missions and for mercury releases occurring when lamps are operating, we conservatively assumed complete volatilization of the available mercury. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, both short-term and long-term exposures to mercury vapors are possible. Acute exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapors can cause irritation of the respiratory tract and behavioral symptoms, such as irritability and hyperactivity. Chronic exposure can result in damage to the nervous system (tremors, memory loss, insomnia, etc.) and kidneys (proteinurea). Therefore, the JSC Toxicology Group recommends that stringent safety controls and verifications (vibrational testing, etc.) be applied to any hardware that contains elemental mercury that could yield

  3. Basic Information about Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Environment Contact Us Share Basic Information about Mercury On this page: What is mercury? Emissions of ... Consumer products that traditionally contain mercury What is Mercury? Mercury is a naturally-occurring chemical element found ...

  4. 32 CFR 196.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 196.540 Section 196.540 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation...

  5. 34 CFR 300.196 - Filing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing requirements. 300.196 Section 300.196 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH...

  6. Mercury and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Mercury and pregnancy Mercury and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... vision problems. How can you be exposed to mercury? Mercury has several forms: It can be a ...

  7. Mercury's Messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after Mariner 2, planetary exploration has still only just begun, and many more missions are on drawing boards, nearing the launch pad, or even en route across interplanetary space to their targets. One of the most challenging missions that will be conducted this decade is sending the MESSENGER spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury.…

  8. Dicty_cDB: VSK196 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VS (Link to library) VSK196 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U10274-1 VSK196P (Link... to Original site) VSK196F 423 VSK196Z 453 VSK196P 876 - - Show VSK196 Library VS (Link to library) Clone ID VSK196 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U10274-1 Original site URL http://dict...TTATNAACAATTAAAAAAAA sequence update 2001. 3.22 Translated Amino Acid sequence kdgklvslkdfikdqkpivlyfypkdetsict...*NKIX--- ---KLKVGDQAPDFTCPDKDGKLVSLKDFIKDQKPIVLYFYPKDETSICTKEACEFRDKY QKFIEAGADVI

  9. Mercury Report-Children's exposure to elemental mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov . Mercury Background Mercury Report Additional Resources Mercury Report - Children's Exposure to Elemental Mercury Recommend on Facebook ... I limit exposure to mercury? Why was the report written? Children attending a daycare in New Jersey ...

  10. 32 CFR 196.510 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 196.510... members of one sex if such actions have the effect of discriminating on the basis of sex in violation of...

  11. Environmental mercury problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Itri, F.M.

    1972-01-01

    The urgent need to eliminate or greatly reduce the discharge of mercury into the environment is paramount to the health and well being of man. That all forms of mercury are hazardous is widely recognized, but what is more devastating to our society is that all forms of mercury appear to have the potential to be converted in to highly toxic monomethylmercury, or dimethylmercury. This paper examined the historical uses of mercury, the background concentrations of mercury, the analytical methods for the determination of mercury, the contamination of the food chain by mercury, the biological methylation of mercury, the decontamination and restoration of mercury polluted areas, the epidemiology and toxicology of mercury, and the chronology of the world's mercury poisoning problem.

  12. Mercury contamination extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Mark [Silver Spring, MD; Heiser, John [Bayport, NY; Kalb, Paul [Wading River, NY

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  13. 49 CFR 572.196 - Thorax without arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Thorax without arm. 572.196 Section 572.196... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.196 Thorax without arm. (a) The thorax is part of the upper torso... (drawing 180-0000) with the arm (180-6000) on the impacted side removed. The dummy's thorax is equipped...

  14. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressur...

  15. 46 CFR 196.95-1 - Pilot boarding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilot boarding operations. 196.95-1 Section 196.95-1... Pilot Boarding Operations § 196.95-1 Pilot boarding operations. (a) The master shall ensure that pilot boarding equipment is maintained as follows: (1) The equipment must be kept clean and in good working order...

  16. 22 CFR 19.6 - Court orders and divorce decrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Court orders and divorce decrees. 19.6 Section 19.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.6 Court orders and divorce decrees. ...

  17. 46 CFR 196.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 196.37-47 Section 196.37-47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST — FLAMMABLE — KEEP...

  18. 46 CFR 196.85-1 - Magazine operation and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Magazine operation and control. 196.85-1 Section 196.85... OPERATIONS Magazine Control § 196.85-1 Magazine operation and control. (a) Keys to magazine spaces and magazine chests shall be kept in the sole control or custody of the Master or one delegated qualified...

  19. 27 CFR 28.196 - Consignment, shipment, and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... delivery. 28.196 Section 28.196 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Benefit of Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.196 Consignment, shipment, and delivery. The consignment, shipment, and delivery of distilled spirits removed under this subpart for export, use on vessels...

  20. Mercury Quick Facts: Health Effects of Mercury Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury Quick Facts Health Effects of Mercury Exposure What is Elemental Mercury? Elemental (metallic) mercury is the shiny, silver-gray metal found in thermometers, barometers, and thermostats and other ...

  1. Mass spectrometric study of the mercury isotopes in the Allende meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Isotopic abundance ratios for mercury were determined by mass spectrometry in six samples of bulk material and in one sample of chondrules from the Allende meteorite. A primary purpose of the work was to attempt to verify the anomalous ratios reported for Hg-196/Hg-202 by neutron activation. Measurements were made on the mercury released at temperatures of 250, 450, 600 C, and in some cases, higher temperatures. The precision of the measurements was such that if an anomaly of the magnitude reported exists, it should have been seen. The isotopic abundance ratios for the other mercury isotopes were also measured. Within the errors of measurement these agreed with normal terrestrial values.

  2. Minamata Convention on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 6, 2013 the United States signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury, a new multilateral environmental agreement that addresses specific human activities which are contributing to widespread mercury pollution

  3. Mercury in Your Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about mercury, how it gets in the air, how people are exposed to it and health effects associated with exposure; what EPA and other organizations are doing to limit exposures; what citizens should know to minimize exposures and to reduce mercury in the environment; and information about products that contain mercury.

  4. Intentional intravenous mercury injection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three forms of mercury exist: elemental, inorganic and organic, all of which may be toxic with clinical consequences, depending on the type of exposure. Elemental mercury poisoning usually occurs via vapour inhalation, as mercury is well absorbed through the lungs. The central nervous system is then the major site of ...

  5. 46 CFR 196.15-55 - Requirements for fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for fuel oil. 196.15-55 Section 196.15-55... Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-55 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer to cause an entry in the log to be made of each supply of fuel oil received on board...

  6. 32 CFR 196.305 - Preference in admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preference in admission. 196.305 Section 196.305 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED... applicants for admission, on the basis of attendance at any educational institution or other school or entity...

  7. 32 CFR 196.435 - Employment assistance to students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment assistance to students. 196.435... Prohibited § 196.435 Employment assistance to students. (a) Assistance by recipient in making available... available to any of its students: (1) Shall assure itself that such employment is made available without...

  8. 46 CFR 196.37-13 - Fire extinguishing system controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire extinguishing system controls. 196.37-13 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-13 Fire extinguishing system controls. (a) The control cabinets or spaces containing valves or manifolds for the various fire...

  9. 16 CFR 1.96 - Compromise of penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compromise of penalty. 1.96 Section 1.96 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL... may compromise any penalty or proposed penalty at any time, with leave of court when necessary, taking...

  10. Mercury evaporation from amalgams with varied mercury contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmoto, K; Nakajima, H; Ferracane, J L; Shintani, H; Okabe, T

    2000-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between mercury content and mercury evaporation from amalgams during setting. Two different types of commercial high-copper amalgams (single composition and admixed types) were used. Cylindrical specimens of each amalgam were prepared with five different mercury contents according to ADA Specification No.1. Specimens were also prepared by hand condensation. Mercury evaporation from amalgam specimens maintained at 37 degrees C was measured using a gold film mercury analyzer from 10 min after the end of trituration until the mercury concentration in air reached an undetectable level. The mercury content more clearly influenced the mercury evaporation from the admixed type amalgam specimens when the mercury content decreased below the manufacturers' recommended trituration conditions. Triturating with less mercury than the manufacturers' recommended amount cannot lower the evaporation of mercury from freshly made amalgam. Proper condensing procedures can minimize the mercury evaporation from the amalgam surface.

  11. Mercury balance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maag, J.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed assessment of the consumption of mercury, divided into use areas, was carried out. Disposal and emissions to the environment were also qualified. The assessment is mainly based on data from 1992 - 1993. The most important source of emission of mercury to air is solid waste incineration which is assessed in particular to be due to the supply of mercury in batteries (most likely mercury oxide batteries from photo equipment) and to dental fillings. The second most important source of mercury emission to air is coal-fired power plants which are estimated to account for 200-500 kg of mercury emission p.a. Other mercury emissions are mainly related to waste treatment and disposal. The consumption of mercury is generally decreasing. During the period from 1982/83 - 1992-93, the total consumption of mercury in Denmark was about halved. This development is related to the fact that consumption with regard to several important use areas (batteries, dental fillings, thermometers etc.) has been significantly reduced, while for other purposes the use of mercury has completely, or almost disappeared, i.e. (fungicides for seed, tubes etc.). (EG)

  12. Process for low mercury coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Norman W.; Grimes, R. William; Tweed, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  13. Mercury is Moon's brother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksanfomalifi, L.V.

    1976-01-01

    The latest information on Mercury planet is presented obtained by studying the planet with the aid of radar and space vehicles. Rotation of Mercury about its axis has been discovered; within 2/3 of its year it executes a complete revolution about its axis. In images obtained by the ''Mariner-10'' Mercurys surface differs little from that of the Moon. The ''Mariner-10'' has also discovered the Mercurys atmosphere, which consists of extremely rarefied helium. The helium is continuously supplied to the planet by the solar wind. The Mercury's magnetic field has been discovered, whose strength is 35 x 10 -4 at the Equator and 70 x 10 -4 E at the poles. The inclination of the dipole axis to the Mercury's rotation axis is 7 deg

  14. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in

  15. Investigation of mercury-containing proteins by enriched stable isotopic tracer and size-exclusion chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma-isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Junwen; Feng Weiyue; Wang Meng; Zhang Fang; Li Bai; Wang Bing; Zhu Motao; Chai Zhifang

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate trace mercury-containing proteins in maternal rat and their offspring, a method of enriched stable isotopic tracer ( 196 Hg and 198 Hg) combined with size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (ICP-IDMS) was developed. Prior to the analysis, 196 Hg- and 198 Hg-enriched methylmercury was administrated to the pregnant rats. Then the mercury-containing proteins in serum and brain cytosol of the dam and pup rats were separated by size-exclusion columns and the mercury was detected by ICP-MS. The ICP-MS spectrogram of the tracing samples showed significantly elevated 196 Hg and 198 Hg isotopic signals compared with the natural ones, indicating that the detection sensitivity could be increased by the tracer method. The contents of mercury in chromatographic fractions of the dam and pup rat brain cytosol were quantitatively estimated by post-column reverse ID-ICP-MS. The quantitative speciation differences of mercury in brain cytosol between the dam and pup rats were observed, indicating that such studies could be useful for toxicological estimation. Additionally, the isotopic ratio measurement of 198 Hg/ 202 Hg in the tracing samples could be used to identify the artifact mercury species caused in the analytical procedure. The study demonstrates that the tracer method combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-IDMS could provide reliably qualitative and quantitative information on mercury-containing proteins in organisms

  16. Novel methodology for the study of mercury methylation and reduction in sediments and water using 197Hg radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio; Perez Catan, Soledad; Zizek, Suzana; Repinc, Urska; Jacimovic, Radojko; Horvat, Milena

    2007-01-01

    Mercury tracers are powerful tools that can be used to study mercury transformations in environmental systems, particularly mercury methylation, demethylation and reduction in sediments and water. However, mercury transformation studies using tracers can be subject to error, especially when used to assess methylation potential. The organic mercury extracted can be as low as 0.01% of the endogenous labeled mercury, and artefacts and contamination present during methylmercury (MeHg) extraction processes can cause interference. Solvent extraction methods based on the use of either KBr/H 2 SO 4 or HCl were evaluated in freshwater sediments using 197 Hg radiotracer. Values obtained for the 197 Hg tracer in the organic phase were up to 25-fold higher when HCl was used, which is due to the coextraction of 197 Hg 2+ into the organic phase during MeHg extraction. Evaluations of the production of MeHg gave similar results with both MeHg extraction procedures, but due to the higher Hg 2+ contamination of the controls, the uncertainty in the determination was higher when HCl was used. The Hg 2+ contamination of controls in the HCl extraction method showed a nonlinear correlation with the humic acid content of sediment pore water. Therefore, use of the KBr/H 2 SO 4 method is recommended, since it is free from these interferences. 197 Hg radiotracer (T 1/2 = 2.673 d) has a production rate that is about 50 times higher than that of 203 Hg (T 1/2 46.595 d), the most frequently used mercury radiotracer. Hence it is possible to obtain a similar level of performance to 203 Hg when it is used it in short-term experiments and produced by the irradiation of 196 Hg with thermal neutrons, using mercury targets with the natural isotopic composition. However, if the 0.15% natural abundance of the 196 Hg isotope is increased, the specific activity of the 197 Hg tracer can be significantly improved. In the present work, 197 Hg tracer was produced from mercury 51.58% enriched in the 196 Hg

  17. Modeling Mercury in Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively non-toxic, other forms such as Hg2+ and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg2+ can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg2+ to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intra-protein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confers mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multi-scale model of environmental mercury cycling.

  18. Intentional intravenous mercury injection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this case report, intravenous complications, treatment strategies and possible ... Mercury toxicity is commonly associated with vapour inhalation or oral ingestion, for which there exist definite treatment options. Intravenous mercury ... personality, anxiousness, irritability, insomnia, depression and drowsi- ness.[1] However ...

  19. International mercury conference

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leaner, J

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg) affects human health and the environment, it calls for immediate action. Action is needed at local, regional and international level to reduce the risk associated with mercury, which is a global international problem, as it is a...

  20. Mercury's shifting, rolling past

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of scalloped-edged cliffs or lobate scarps on Mercury's surface are thrust faults that are consistent with the planet shrinking and cooling with time. However, compression occurred in the planet's early history and Mariner 10 images revealed decades ago that lobate scarps are among the youngest features on Mercury. Why don't we find more evidence of older compressive features?

  1. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. Mercury's magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed dri-fi paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts; the characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short possibly coupling kinetic and fluid modes; magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to directly impact the dayside regolith; inductive currents in Mercury's interior should act to modify the solar In addition, Mercury's magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionosphere. This lack of an ionosphere is thought to be the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short lived, approx. 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 in Mercury's magnetic tail. In this seminar, we review what we think we know about Mercury's magnetosphere and describe the MESSENGER science team's strategy for obtaining answers to the outstanding science questions surrounding the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury and its small, but dynamic magnetosphere.

  2. Global Mercury Assessment 2013

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    mercury pollution. This summary report and the accompanying. Technical Background Report for the Global. Mercury Assessment 2013 are developed in response to Decision 25/5, paragraph ... The use of different pollution control technologies in different ...... vegetation, snow, freshwater, and seawater. One of the largest ...

  3. Mercury Production and Use in Colonial Andean Silver Production: Emissions and Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Nicole A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Colonial cinnabar mining and refining began in Huancavelica, Peru, in 1564. With a local source of mercury, the amalgamation process was adopted to refine silver in Potosí, Bolivia, in the early 1570s. As a result, large quantities of mercury were released into the environment. Objectives: We used archival, primary, and secondary sources to develop the first estimate of mercury emissions from cinnabar refining in Huancavelica and to revise previous estimates of emissions from silver refining in Potosí during the colonial period (1564–1810). Discussion: Although other estimates of historical mercury emissions have recognized Potosí as a significant source, Huancavelica has been overlooked. In addition, previous estimates of mercury emissions from silver refining under-estimated emissions because of unrecorded (contra-band) production and volatilization of mercury during processing and recovery. Archival descriptions document behavioral and health issues during the colonial period that are consistent with known effects of mercury intoxication. Conclusions: According to our calculations, between 1564 and 1810, an estimated 17,000 metric tons of mercury vapor were emitted from cinnabar smelting in Huancavelica, and an estimated 39,000 metric tons were released as vapor during silver refining operations in Potosí. Huancavelica and Potosí combined contributed > 25% of the 196,000 metric tons of mercury vapor emissions in all of Latin America between 1500 and 1800. The historical record is laden with evidence of mercury intoxication consistent with effects recognized today. Our estimates serve as the foundation of investigations of present-day contamination in Huancavelica and Potosí resulting from historical emissions of mercury. PMID:22334094

  4. Mercury production and use in colonial Andean silver production: emissions and health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole A

    2012-05-01

    Colonial cinnabar mining and refining began in Huancavelica, Peru, in 1564. With a local source of mercury, the amalgamation process was adopted to refine silver in Potosí, Bolivia, in the early 1570s. As a result, large quantities of mercury were released into the environment. We used archival, primary, and secondary sources to develop the first estimate of mercury emissions from cinnabar refining in Huancavelica and to revise previous estimates of emissions from silver refining in Potosí during the colonial period (1564-1810). Although other estimates of historical mercury emissions have recognized Potosí as a significant source, Huancavelica has been overlooked. In addition, previous estimates of mercury emissions from silver refining under-estimated emissions because of unrecorded (contra-band) production and volatilization of mercury during processing and recovery. Archival descriptions document behavioral and health issues during the colonial period that are consistent with known effects of mercury intoxication. According to our calculations, between 1564 and 1810, an estimated 17,000 metric tons of mercury vapor were emitted from cinnabar smelting in Huancavelica, and an estimated 39,000 metric tons were released as vapor during silver refining operations in Potosí. Huancavelica and Potosí combined contributed > 25% of the 196,000 metric tons of mercury vapor emissions in all of Latin America between 1500 and 1800. The historical record is laden with evidence of mercury intoxication consistent with effects recognized today. Our estimates serve as the foundation of investigations of present-day contamination in Huancavelica and Potosí resulting from historical emissions of mercury.

  5. Municipal actions to reduce mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    This paper presented proper management practices for products containing mercury. The measures can help reduce mercury releases, occupational exposure and mercury spills, thereby preventing impacts on human health and the environment. Despite mercury's toxic nature, many common products that contain mercury are commercially available. These include thermostats, thermometers, fluorescent lamps, pressure measuring devices, electrical switches and relays, and dental amalgam. Mercury emissions are also associated with base metal smelting, waste incineration and coal-fired power generation. Mercury in the environment is a global issue, because it can travel in the atmosphere on wind currents. The actions taken by municipalities to address the issue include reducing or eliminating mercury releases from internal municipal operations and sources within the community. This document provided guidance on how to develop a Municipal Mercury Elimination Policy and Plan that will help reduce mercury releases. It presented information and case studies that will help municipalities manage mercury-containing products found in municipal buildings and street lighting. Information on sources of mercury from within the community was presented along with case studies that can help municipalities determine where community action is needed to reduce mercury releases. The 5 modules of this document were intended to help municipalities identify priorities, timelines and budget requirements for mercury initiatives. It was emphasized that municipalities that adopt a Municipal Mercury Elimination Policy and Plan formally commit to reducing and eliminating mercury from the environment. tabs., figs.

  6. Getting Mercury out of Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This guide was prepared while working with many Massachusetts schools to remove items that contain mercury and to find suitable alternatives. It contains fact sheets on: mercury in science laboratories and classrooms, mercury in school buildings and maintenance areas, mercury in the medical office and in medical technology classrooms in vocational…

  7. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  8. Inorganic: the other mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risher, John F; De Rosa, Christopher T

    2007-11-01

    There is a broad array of mercury species to which humans may be exposed. While exposure to methylmercury through fish consumption is widely recognized, the public is less aware of the sources and potential toxicity of inorganic forms of mercury. Some oral and laboratory thermometers, barometers, small batteries, thermostats, gas pressure regulators, light switches, dental amalgam fillings, cosmetic products, medications, cultural/religious practices, and gold mining all represent potential sources of exposure to inorganic forms of mercury. The route of exposure, the extent of absorption, the pharmacokinetics, and the effects all vary with the specific form of mercury and the magnitude and duration of exposure. If exposure is suspected, a number of tissue analyses can be conducted to confirm exposure or to determine whether an exposure might reasonably be expected to be biologically significant. By contrast with determination of exposure to methylmercury, for which hair and blood are credible indicators, urine is the preferred biological medium for the determination of exposure to inorganic mercury, including elemental mercury, with blood normally being of value only if exposure is ongoing. Although treatments are available to help rid the body of mercury in cases of extreme exposure, prevention of exposure will make such treatments unnecessary. Knowing the sources of mercury and avoiding unnecessary exposure are the prudent ways of preventing mercury intoxication. When exposure occurs, it should be kept in mind that not all unwanted exposures will result in adverse health consequences. In all cases, elimination of the source of exposure should be the first priority of public health officials.

  9. Application of atomic vapor laser isotope separation to the enrichment of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, J.; Erbert, G.; Paisner, J.; Chen, H.; Chiba, Z.; Beeler, R.; Combs, R.; Mostek, S.

    1986-09-01

    Workers at GTE/Sylvania have shown that the efficiency of fluorescent lighting may be markedly improved using mercury that has been enriched in the 196 Hg isotope. A 5% improvement in the efficiency of fluorescent lighting in the United States could provide a savings of $450 million dollars in the corresponding reduction of electrical power consumption. We discuss the results of recent work done at our laboratory to develop a process for enriching mercury. The discussion centers around the results of spectroscopic measurements of excited-state lifetimes, photoionization cross sections, and isotope shifts

  10. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  11. The tectonics of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melosh, H.J.; Mckinnon, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    The probable tectonic history of Mercury and the relative sequence of events are discussed on the basis of data collected by the Mariner-10 spacecraft. Results indicate that Mercury's tectonic activity was confined to its early history; its endogenic activity was principally due to a small change in the shape of its lithosphere, caused by tidal despinning, and a small change in area caused by shrinkage due to cooling. Exogenic processes, in particular the impact activity, have produced more abundant tectonic features. Many features associated with the Caloris basin are due to loading of Mercury's thick lithosphere by extrusive lavas or subsidence due to magma withdrawal. It is emphasized that tectonic features observed on Mercury yield insight into the earliest tectonic events on planets like Mars and, perhaps, the earth, where subsequent events obscured or erased the most ancient tectonic records

  12. Mercury CEM Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

  13. Mercury in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapauan, P.A.; Cruz, C.C.; Verceluz, F.P.

    1980-10-01

    The analysis of mercury (Hg) in scalp hair obtained from individuals residing in five different localities in the Philippines - Metro Manila, Naga City in Bicol, Bataan, Oriental Mindoro, and Palawan is presented. An overall mean of 1.46 ug/g of hair was obtained for all samples excluding those from Palawan and represents a baseline value.'' In terms of the mercury levels found in hair, the Honda Bay area in Palawan is, relatively, a ''contaminated area.'' (author)

  14. Combined Elevation of microRNA-196a and microRNA-196b in Sera Predicts Unfavorable Prognosis in Patients with Osteosarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate whether the aberrant expression of microRNA (miR-196a and miR-196b can be used as potential prognostic markers of human osteosarcoma. Methods: Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR analysis was performed to detect the expression levels of miR-196a and miR-196b in osteosarcoma tissues and patients’ sera. Results: Expression levels of miR-196a and miR-196b in osteosarcoma tissues were both significantly higher than those in noncancerous bone tissues (both p < 0.001, in line with which, the serum levels of the two miRNAs were also markedly upregulated in patients with osteosarcomas compared with healthy controls (both p < 0.001. Then, the elevation of serum miR-196a and miR-196b levels both more frequently occurred in osteosarcoma patients with high tumor grade (p = 0.008 and 0.01, respectively, positive metastasis (p = 0.001 and 0.006, respectively and recurrence (p = 0.001 and 0.006, respectively. Moreover, high serum miR-196a, high serum miR-196b and conjoined expression of miR-196a/miR-196b were all independent prognostic factors for OS (overall survival and DFS (disease-free survival of osteosarcoma patients. Conclusion: Our present data indicate the involvement of miR-196a and miR-196b upregulation in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. More importantly, the altered levels of circulating miR-196a and miR-196b might have great potential to serve as novel and non-invasive prognostic factors for this malignancy.

  15. Acalabrutinib (ACP-196): a selective second-generation BTK inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjing; Zhang, Mingzhi; Liu, Delong

    2016-03-09

    More and more targeted agents become available for B cell malignancies with increasing precision and potency. The first-in-class Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, ibrutinib, has been in clinical use for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma, and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. More selective BTK inhibitors (ACP-196, ONO/GS-4059, BGB-3111, CC-292) are being explored. Acalabrutinib (ACP-196) is a novel irreversible second-generation BTK inhibitor that was shown to be more potent and selective than ibrutinib. This review summarized the preclinical research and clinical data of acalabrutinib.

  16. Acalabrutinib (ACP-196: a selective second-generation BTK inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract More and more targeted agents become available for B cell malignancies with increasing precision and potency. The first-in-class Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK inhibitor, ibrutinib, has been in clinical use for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma, and Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia. More selective BTK inhibitors (ACP-196, ONO/GS-4059, BGB-3111, CC-292 are being explored. Acalabrutinib (ACP-196 is a novel irreversible second-generation BTK inhibitor that was shown to be more potent and selective than ibrutinib. This review summarized the preclinical research and clinical data of acalabrutinib.

  17. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Michael D.; Schlager, Richard J.; Sappey, Andrew D.; Sagan, Francis J.; Marmaro, Roger W.; Wilson, Kevin G.

    1997-01-01

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber.

  18. 78 FR 2657 - Foreign-Trade Zone 196-Fort Worth, TX, Foreign-Trade Subzone 196A-TTI, Inc.; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [S-2-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 196--Fort Worth, TX, Foreign-Trade Subzone 196A--TTI, Inc.; Application for Additional Subzone Site An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by Alliance Corridor, Inc., grantee of FTZ 196...

  19. Mercury pollution in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Jinap, S; Ismail, Ahmad; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have been published on levels of mercury contamination of the environment, and of food and human tissues in Peninsular Malaysia, there is a serious dearth of research that has been performed in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). Industry is rapidly developing in East Malaysia, and, hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury contamination in environmental media in that part of the country by performing monitoring studies. Residues of total mercury and inorganic in food samples have been determined in nearly all previous studies that have been conducted; however, few researchers have analyzed samples for the presence of methlymercury residues. Because methylmercury is the most toxic form of mercury, and because there is a growing public awareness of the risk posed by methylmercury exposure that is associated with fish and seafood consumption, further monitoring studies on methylmercury in food are also essential. From the results of previous studies, it is obvious that the economic development in Malaysia, in recent years, has affected the aquatic environment of the country. Primary areas of environmental concern are centered on the rivers of the west Peninsular Malaysian coast, and the coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca, wherein industrial activities are rapidly expanding. The sources of existing mercury input to both of these areas of Malaysia should be studied and identified. Considering the high levels of mercury that now exists in human tissues, efforts should be continued, and accelerated in the future, if possible, to monitor mercury contamination levels in the coastal states, and particularly along the west Peninsular Malaysian coast. Most studies that have been carried out on mercury residues in environmental samples are dated, having been conducted 20-30 years ago; therefore, the need to collect much more and more current data is urgent. Furthermore, establishing baseline levels of mercury exposure to

  20. Fabrication of mercury target vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakui, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Hayashi, Ryoichi; Uchiyama, Naoyoshi; Okamoto, Yoshinao; Nakamura, Koji

    2010-03-01

    The construction of materials and life science experimental facility in J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Complex) project had been completed and accepted pulsed proton beams with low power. Since 2003, the detailed design, fabrication and examination for the mercury target vessel as a pulsed neutron source were carried out by the vender. The mercury target vessel consists of triple-walled structure in order to prevent the leak of mercury to outside at the failure of the mercury vessel and to remove the heat of the safety hull, which covers the mercury vessel, due to the injection of the pulsed proton beams. The high fabrication accuracy is required for the mercury target vessel assembled by the welding, because there are the relationships between the mercury target vessel and other components (target trolley, target storage container, flange of helium vessel, reflector and water-cooled shield). At each fabrication step, the examinations for the mercury target vessel with multi-walled structure were required. In this report, the required specification and basic structure of parts in the mercury target vessel are described and the fabrication procedure of the mercury target vessel by the vender is reported. In the fabrication of the mercury target vessel, there were many troubles such as large deformation due to the welding and then the vender repaired and brought the mercury target vessel to completion. Furthermore, improvements for the design and fabrication of the mercury target are reported. (author)

  1. Mercury Emissions: The Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury emissions are a global problem that knows no national or continental boundaries. Mercury that is emitted to the air can travel thousands of miles in the atmosphere before it is eventually deposited back to the earth.

  2. Phenotype-gene: 196 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 196 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u3ria224u1194i decreased sensitivity under influence... http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u17347412i decreased sensitivity under influence o

  3. 196Hg and 202Hg isotopic ratios in chondrites: revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Additional evidence for an isotopically anomalous Hg fraction in unequilibrated meteorites has been obtained using neutron activation to produce 196 Hg and 202 Hg followed by stepwise heating to extract the Hg. In the latest experiments Allende matrix samples released the anomalous Hg but various high-temperature inclusions did not. Nucleogenetic processes are suggested as the probable cause of the anomaly. (Auth.)

  4. 38 CFR 17.196 - Aid for hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aid for hospital care. 17... to States for Care of Veterans in State Homes § 17.196 Aid for hospital care. Aid may be paid to the designated State official for hospital care furnished in a recognized State home for any veteran if: (a) The...

  5. The onset of collectivity in {sup 196}Po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, L.A.; Cizewski, J.A.; Jin, H.Q.; Henry, R.G.; Farris, L.P. [Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Khoo, T.L.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Lauritsen, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bearden, I.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States); Ye, D. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    We have studied the in-beam {gamma}-ray spectroscopy of {sup 196}Po, which is the first Po isotope to exhibit collective vibrational structure. The onset of collective motion occurs in this isotope because of the large overlap between valence protons in h{sub 9/2} and valence neutrons in i{sub 13/2} orbitals.

  6. The onset of collectivity in sup 196 Po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, L.A.; Cizewski, J.A.; Jin, H.Q.; Henry, R.G.; Farris, L.P. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)); Khoo, T.L.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Lauritsen, T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Bearden, I.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States) Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States)); Ye, D. (Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States))

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the in-beam {gamma}-ray spectroscopy of {sup 196}Po, which is the first Po isotope to exhibit collective vibrational structure. The onset of collective motion occurs in this isotope because of the large overlap between valence protons in h{sub 9/2} and valence neutrons in i{sub 13/2} orbitals.

  7. Mercury's magnetic field and interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connerney, J.E.P.; Ness, N.F.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetic-field data collected on Mercury by the Mariner-10 spacecraft present substantial evidence for an intrinsic global magnetic field. However, studies of Mercury's thermal evolution show that it is most likely that the inner core region of Mercury solidified or froze early in the planet's history. Thus, the explanation of Mercury's magnetic field in the framework of the traditional planetary dynamo is less than certain

  8. Reference Atmosphere for Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2002-01-01

    We propose that Ar-40 measured in the lunar atmosphere and that in Mercury's atmosphere is due to current diffusion into connected pore space within the crust. Higher temperatures at Mercury, along with more rapid loss from the atmosphere will lead to a smaller column abundance of argon at Mercury than at the Moon, given the same crustal abundance of potassium. Because the noble gas abundance in the Hermean atmosphere represents current effusion, it is a direct measure of the crustal potassium abundance. Ar-40 in the atmospheres of the planets is a measure of potassium abundance in the interiors, since Ar-40 is a product of radiogenic decay of K-40 by electron capture with the subsequent emission of a 1.46 eV gamma-ray. Although the Ar-40 in the Earth's atmosphere is expected to have accumulated since the late bombardment, Ar-40 in the atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon is eroded quickly by photoionization and electron impact ionization. Thus, the argon content in the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury is representative of current effusion rather than accumulation over the lifetime of the planet.

  9. Mercury content of edible mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woidich, H.; Pfannhauser, W.

    1975-05-01

    The mercury content of edible fungi is different. Relatively high burdened are Boletus and Agaricus campestris. A minimum of mercury is found in Russula, Agaricus bisporus and Cantharellus cibarius. The possibilities of mercury uptake and the potential cumulation mechanism is discussed. 8 references, 3 tables.

  10. Mercury (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Mercury The Basics Mercury — sometimes called quicksilver — is a natural metal. It’s ... to breathe it in without knowing it. When mercury combines with other chemical elements, it creates compounds, ...

  11. Sensing Mercury for Biomedical and Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Xiaojun Zhao

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a very toxic element that is widely spread in the atmosphere, lithosphere, and surface water. Concentrated mercury poses serious problems to human health, as bioaccumulation of mercury within the brain and kidneys ultimately leads to neurological diseases. To control mercury pollution and reduce mercury damage to human health, sensitive determination of mercury is important. This article summarizes some current sensors for the determination of both abiotic and biotic mercury. A wide array of sensors for monitoring mercury is described, including biosensors and chemical sensors, while piezoelectric and microcantilever sensors are also described. Additionally, newly developed nanomaterials offer great potential for fabricating novel mercury sensors. Some of the functional fluorescent nanosensors for the determination of mercury are covered. Afterwards, the in vivo determination of mercury and the characterization of different forms of mercury are discussed. Finally, the future direction for mercury detection is outlined, suggesting that nanomaterials may provide revolutionary tools in biomedical and environmental monitoring of mercury.

  12. Water displacement mercury pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  13. Mercury CEM Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2008-02-29

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks. The power industry desires to conduct at least a full year of monitoring before the formal monitoring and reporting requirement begins on January 1, 2009. It is important for the industry to have available reliable, turnkey equipment from CEM vendors. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The generators are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 requires that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards (Federal Register 2007). Traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury generators (EPA 2007). The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of generators by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the generator models that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The

  14. Method and apparatus for sampling atmospheric mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Patricio E.; Campbell, Evan E.; Eutsler, Bernard C.

    1976-01-20

    A method of simultaneously sampling particulate mercury, organic mercurial vapors, and metallic mercury vapor in the working and occupational environment and determining the amount of mercury derived from each such source in the sampled air. A known volume of air is passed through a sampling tube containing a filter for particulate mercury collection, a first adsorber for the selective adsorption of organic mercurial vapors, and a second adsorber for the adsorption of metallic mercury vapor. Carbon black molecular sieves are particularly useful as the selective adsorber for organic mercurial vapors. The amount of mercury adsorbed or collected in each section of the sampling tube is readily quantitatively determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  15. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Jiménez, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    laboratories. Training sessions were organized for field workers and four external quality-assessment exercises (ICI/EQUAS), followed by the corresponding web conferences, were organized between March 2011 and February 2012. ICI/EQUAS used native hair samples at two mercury concentration ranges (0...

  16. Mercury exposure in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cullen, Elizabeth; Evans, David S; Davidson, Fred

    2014-01-01

    of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES) pilot biomonitoring study. METHODS: Hair mercury concentrations were determined from a convenience sample of 120 mother/child pairs. Mothers also completed a questionnaire. Rigorous quality assurance within DEMOCOPHES...

  17. Metabolic models for methyl and inorganic mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, S.R.; Purdue, P.

    1984-03-01

    Following the outbreak of mercury poisoning in Minimata, Japan (1953-60), much work has been done on the toxicology of mercury - in particular methyl mercury. In this paper, the authors derive two compartmental models for the metabolism of methyl mercury and inorganic mercury based upon the data which have been collected since 1960.

  18. [Mercury in vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Thiomersal, also called thimerosal, is an ethyl mercury derivative used as a preservative to prevent bacterial contamination of multidose vaccine vials after they have been opened. Exposure to low doses of thiomersal has essentially been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Nevertheless there is no evidence that allergy to thiomersal could be induced by thiomersal-containing vaccines. Allergy to thiomersal is usually of delayed-hypersensitivity type, but its detection through cutaneous tests is not very reliable. Hypersensitivity to thiomersal is not considered as a contraindication to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines. In 1999 in the USA, thiomersal was present in approximately 30 different childhood vaccines, whereas there were only 2 in France. Although there were no evidence of neurological toxicity in infants related to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines, the FDA considered that the cumulative dose of mercury received by young infants following vaccination was high enough (although lower than the FDA threshold for methyl mercury) to request vaccine manufacturers to remove thiomersal from vaccine formulations. Since 2002, all childhood vaccines used in Europe and the USA are thiomersal-free or contain only minute amounts of thiomersal. Recently published studies have shown that the mercury levels in the blood, faeces and urine of children who had received thiomersal-containing vaccines were much lower than those accepted by the American Environmental Protection Agency. It has also been demonstrated that the elimination of mercury in children was much faster than what was expected on the basis of studies conducted with methyl mercury originating from food. Recently, the hypothesis that mercury contained in vaccines could be the cause of autism and other neurological developmental disorders created a new debate in the medical community and the general public. To date, none of the epidemiological studies conducted in Europe and elsewhere

  19. Mercury Information Clearinghouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad A. Wocken; Michael J. Holmes; Dennis L. Laudal; Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett; Greg F. Weber; Nicholas V. C. Ralston; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Edwin S. Olson; Laura J. Raymond; John H. Pavlish; Everett A. Sondreal; Steven A. Benson

    2006-03-31

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. With the support of CEA, the Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the EERC developed comprehensive quarterly information updates that provide a detailed assessment of developments in the various areas of mercury monitoring, control, policy, and research. A total of eight topical reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. The original quarterly reports can be viewed at the CEA Web site (www.ceamercuryprogram.ca). In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. Members of Canada's coal-fired electricity generation sector (ATCO Power, EPCOR, Manitoba Hydro, New Brunswick Power, Nova Scotia Power Inc., Ontario Power Generation, SaskPower, and TransAlta) and CEA, have compiled an extensive database of information from stack-, coal-, and ash-sampling activities. Data from this effort are also available at the CEA Web site and have provided critical information for establishing and reviewing a mercury standard for Canada that is protective of environment and public health and is cost-effective. Specific goals outlined for the CEA mercury program included the following: (1) Improve emission inventories and develop management options through an intensive 2-year coal-, ash-, and stack-sampling program; (2) Promote effective stack testing through the development of guidance material and the support of on-site training on the Ontario Hydro method for employees, government representatives, and contractors on an as-needed basis; (3) Strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities through

  20. Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Peter L.; Vincent, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy of solar system tests of gravitational theory could be very much improved by range and Doppler measurements to a Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter. A nearly circular orbit at roughly 2400 km altitude is assumed in order to minimize problems with orbit determination and thermal radiation from the surface. The spacecraft is spin-stabilized and has a 30 cm diameter de-spun antenna. With K-band and X-band ranging systems using a 50 MHz offset sidetone at K-band, a range accuracy of 3 cm appears to be realistically achievable. The estimated spacecraft mass is 50 kg. A consider-covariance analysis was performed to determine how well the Earth-Mercury distance as a function of time could be determined with such a Relativity Orbiter. The minimum data set is assumed to be 40 independent 8-hour arcs of tracking data at selected times during a two year period. The gravity field of Mercury up through degree and order 10 is solved for, along with the initial conditions for each arc and the Earth-Mercury distance at the center of each arc. The considered parameters include the gravity field parameters of degree 11 and 12 plus the tracking station coordinates, the tropospheric delay, and two parameters in a crude radiation pressure model. The conclusion is that the Earth-Mercury distance can be determined to 6 cm accuracy or better. From a modified worst-case analysis, this would lead to roughly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in the knowledge of the precession of perihelion, the relativistic time delay, and the possible change in the gravitational constant with time.

  1. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior in Salt Processing Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, V. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Shah, H. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States). Sludge and Salt Planning; Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, W. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-25

    Mercury (Hg) in the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (LWS) originated from decades of canyon processing where it was used as a catalyst for dissolving the aluminum cladding of reactor fuel. Approximately 60 metric tons of mercury is currently present throughout the LWS. Mercury has long been a consideration in the LWS, from both hazard and processing perspectives. In February 2015, a Mercury Program Team was established at the request of the Department of Energy to develop a comprehensive action plan for long-term management and removal of mercury. Evaluation was focused in two Phases. Phase I activities assessed the Liquid Waste inventory and chemical processing behavior using a system-by-system review methodology, and determined the speciation of the different mercury forms (Hg+, Hg++, elemental Hg, organomercury, and soluble versus insoluble mercury) within the LWS. Phase II activities are building on the Phase I activities, and results of the LWS flowsheet evaluations will be summarized in three reports: Mercury Behavior in the Salt Processing Flowsheet (i.e. this report); Mercury Behavior in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Flowsheet; and Mercury behavior in the Tank Farm Flowsheet (Evaporator Operations). The evaluation of the mercury behavior in the salt processing flowsheet indicates, inter alia, the following: (1) In the assembled Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 in Tank 21, the total mercury is mostly soluble with methylmercury (MHg) contributing over 50% of the total mercury. Based on the analyses of samples from 2H Evaporator feed and drop tanks (Tanks 38/43), the source of MHg in Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 can be attributed to the 2H evaporator concentrate used in assembling the salt batches. The 2H Evaporator is used to evaporate DWPF recycle water. (2) Comparison of data between Tank 21/49, Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), and Tank 50 samples suggests that the total mercury as well as speciated

  2. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior in Salt Processing Flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (LWS) originated from decades of canyon processing where it was used as a catalyst for dissolving the aluminum cladding of reactor fuel. Approximately 60 metric tons of mercury is currently present throughout the LWS. Mercury has long been a consideration in the LWS, from both hazard and processing perspectives. In February 2015, a Mercury Program Team was established at the request of the Department of Energy to develop a comprehensive action plan for long-term management and removal of mercury. Evaluation was focused in two Phases. Phase I activities assessed the Liquid Waste inventory and chemical processing behavior using a system-by-system review methodology, and determined the speciation of the different mercury forms (Hg+, Hg++, elemental Hg, organomercury, and soluble versus insoluble mercury) within the LWS. Phase II activities are building on the Phase I activities, and results of the LWS flowsheet evaluations will be summarized in three reports: Mercury Behavior in the Salt Processing Flowsheet (i.e. this report); Mercury Behavior in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Flowsheet; and Mercury behavior in the Tank Farm Flowsheet (Evaporator Operations). The evaluation of the mercury behavior in the salt processing flowsheet indicates, inter alia, the following: (1) In the assembled Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 in Tank 21, the total mercury is mostly soluble with methylmercury (MHg) contributing over 50% of the total mercury. Based on the analyses of samples from 2H Evaporator feed and drop tanks (Tanks 38/43), the source of MHg in Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 can be attributed to the 2H evaporator concentrate used in assembling the salt batches. The 2H Evaporator is used to evaporate DWPF recycle water. (2) Comparison of data between Tank 21/49, Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), and Tank 50 samples suggests that the total mercury as well as speciated

  3. A mercury transport and fate model (LM2-mercury) for mass budget assessment of mercury cycling in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    LM2-Mercury, a mercury mass balance model, was developed to simulate and evaluate the transport, fate, and biogeochemical transformations of mercury in Lake Michigan. The model simulates total suspended solids (TSS), disolved organic carbon (DOC), and total, elemental, divalent, ...

  4. Octupole vibration in the superdeformed {sup 196}Pb nucleus; Vibration octupolaire dans le noyau superdeforme {sup 196}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouneau, S.; Azaiez, F.; Duprat, J. [Experimental Research Division, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)] [and others

    1999-11-01

    The study of the superdeformed (SD) {sup 196}Pb nucleus has been revisited using the EUROGAM phase 2 spectrometer. All the three observed excited SD bands were found to decay to the Yrast SD band through, presumably, E1 transitions, allowing relative spin and excited energy assignments. Comparisons with calculation using the random phase approximation suggests that all three excited bands can be interpreted as octupole vibrational structures. (authors) 5 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genchi, Giuseppe; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Carocci, Alessia; Lauria, Graziantonio; Catalano, Alessia

    2017-01-12

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system.

  6. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Genchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system.

  7. 27 CFR 44.196a - To a foreign-trade zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false To a foreign-trade zone. 44.196a Section 44.196a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Shipment § 44.196a To a foreign-trade zone. Where tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes are...

  8. 28 CFR 0.196 - Procedures for resolving disagreements concerning mail or case assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concerning mail or case assignments. 0.196 Section 0.196 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Jurisdictional Disagreements § 0.196 Procedures for resolving... assigned, the disagreement, together with a statement of the view of the unit or units involved, shall be...

  9. Mercury's exosphere: observations during MESSENGER's First Mercury flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, William E; Bradley, E Todd; Vervack, Ronald J; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Izenberg, Noam R; Solomon, Sean C

    2008-07-04

    During MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer measured Mercury's exospheric emissions, including those from the antisunward sodium tail, calcium and sodium close to the planet, and hydrogen at high altitudes on the dayside. Spatial variations indicate that multiple source and loss processes generate and maintain the exosphere. Energetic processes connected to the solar wind and magnetospheric interaction with the planet likely played an important role in determining the distributions of exospheric species during the flyby.

  10. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-12-05

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  11. Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... and, in some situations, criminal prosecution. Dangers of Mercury Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences. ...

  12. Independent regulation of vertebral number and vertebral identity by microRNA-196 paralogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Siew Fen Lisa; Agarwal, Vikram; Mansfield, Jennifer H; Denans, Nicolas; Schwartz, Matthew G; Prosser, Haydn M; Pourquié, Olivier; Bartel, David P; Tabin, Clifford J; McGlinn, Edwina

    2015-09-01

    The Hox genes play a central role in patterning the embryonic anterior-to-posterior axis. An important function of Hox activity in vertebrates is the specification of different vertebral morphologies, with an additional role in axis elongation emerging. The miR-196 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) are predicted to extensively target Hox 3' UTRs, although the full extent to which miR-196 regulates Hox expression dynamics and influences mammalian development remains to be elucidated. Here we used an extensive allelic series of mouse knockouts to show that the miR-196 family of miRNAs is essential both for properly patterning vertebral identity at different axial levels and for modulating the total number of vertebrae. All three miR-196 paralogs, 196a1, 196a2, and 196b, act redundantly to pattern the midthoracic region, whereas 196a2 and 196b have an additive role in controlling the number of rib-bearing vertebra and positioning of the sacrum. Independent of this, 196a1, 196a2, and 196b act redundantly to constrain total vertebral number. Loss of miR-196 leads to a collective up-regulation of numerous trunk Hox target genes with a concomitant delay in activation of caudal Hox genes, which are proposed to signal the end of axis extension. Additionally, we identified altered molecular signatures associated with the Wnt, Fgf, and Notch/segmentation pathways and demonstrate that miR-196 has the potential to regulate Wnt activity by multiple mechanisms. By feeding into, and thereby integrating, multiple genetic networks controlling vertebral number and identity, miR-196 is a critical player defining axial formulae.

  13. Investigation of mercury-containing proteins by enriched stable isotopic tracer and size-exclusion chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma-isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Junwen [Laboratory for Bio-Environmental Health Sciences of Nanoscale Materials and Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)]|[Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng Weiyue [Laboratory for Bio-Environmental Health Sciences of Nanoscale Materials and Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)]. E-mail: fengwy@mail.ihep.ac.cn; Wang Meng [Laboratory for Bio-Environmental Health Sciences of Nanoscale Materials and Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)]|[Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang Fang [Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Bai [Laboratory for Bio-Environmental Health Sciences of Nanoscale Materials and Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Bing; Zhu Motao [Laboratory for Bio-Environmental Health Sciences of Nanoscale Materials and Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)]|[Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chai Zhifang [Laboratory for Bio-Environmental Health Sciences of Nanoscale Materials and Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)]|[Institute of Nuclear Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)]|[Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanosafety, Shanghai University, Shanghai (China)

    2007-01-30

    In order to investigate trace mercury-containing proteins in maternal rat and their offspring, a method of enriched stable isotopic tracer ({sup 196}Hg and {sup 198}Hg) combined with size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (ICP-IDMS) was developed. Prior to the analysis, {sup 196}Hg- and {sup 198}Hg-enriched methylmercury was administrated to the pregnant rats. Then the mercury-containing proteins in serum and brain cytosol of the dam and pup rats were separated by size-exclusion columns and the mercury was detected by ICP-MS. The ICP-MS spectrogram of the tracing samples showed significantly elevated {sup 196}Hg and {sup 198}Hg isotopic signals compared with the natural ones, indicating that the detection sensitivity could be increased by the tracer method. The contents of mercury in chromatographic fractions of the dam and pup rat brain cytosol were quantitatively estimated by post-column reverse ID-ICP-MS. The quantitative speciation differences of mercury in brain cytosol between the dam and pup rats were observed, indicating that such studies could be useful for toxicological estimation. Additionally, the isotopic ratio measurement of {sup 198}Hg/{sup 202}Hg in the tracing samples could be used to identify the artifact mercury species caused in the analytical procedure. The study demonstrates that the tracer method combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-IDMS could provide reliably qualitative and quantitative information on mercury-containing proteins in organisms.

  14. Mercury, Vaccines, and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jeffrey P.

    2008-01-01

    The controversy regarding the once widely used mercury-containing preservative thimerosal in childhood vaccines has raised many historical questions that have not been adequately explored. Why was this preservative incorporated in the first place? Was there any real evidence that it caused harm? And how did thimerosal become linked in the public mind to the “autism epidemic”? I examine the origins of the thimerosal controversy and their legacy for the debate that has followed. More specifically, I explore the parallel histories of three factors that converged to create the crisis: vaccine preservatives, mercury poisoning, and autism. An understanding of this history provides important lessons for physicians and policymakers seeking to preserve the public’s trust in the nation’s vaccine system. PMID:18172138

  15. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebone, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  16. Method for scavenging mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-ger [El Cerrito, CA; Liu, Shou-heng [Kaohsiung, TW; Liu, Zhao-rong [Beijing, CN; Yan, Naiqiang [Berkeley, CA

    2009-01-20

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  17. Magnetic field of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.J.; Beard, D.B.

    1977-01-01

    The geomagnetic field, suitably scaled down and parameterized, is shown to give a very good fit to the magnetic field measurements taken on the first and third passes of the Mariner 10 space probe past Mercury. The excellence of the fit to a reliable planetary magnetospheric model is good evidence that the Mercury magnetosphere is formed by a simple, permanent, intrinsic planetary magnetic field distorted by the effects of the solar wind. The parameters used for a best fit to all the data are (depending slightly on the choice of data) 2.44--2.55 for the ratio of Mercury's magnetic field strength at the subsolar point to that of the earth's subsolar point field (this results in a dipole moment of 170 γR/sub M/ 3 (R/sub M/ is Mercury Radius), i.e., 2.41 x 10 22 G cm 3 in the same direction as the earth's dipole), approx.-113 γR/sub M/ 4 for the planetary quadrupole moment parallel to the dipole moment, 10degree--17degree for the tilt of the planet dipole toward the sun, 4.5degree for the tilt of the dipole toward dawn, and 2.5degree--7.6degree aberration angle for the shift in the tail axis from the planet-sun direction because of the planet's orbital velocity. The rms deviation overall for the entire data set compared with the theoretical fitted model for the magnetic field strength was 17 γ (approx.4% of the maximum field measured). If the data from the first pass that show presumed strong time variations are excluded, the overall rms deviation for the field magnitude is only 10 γ

  18. The planet Mercury (1971)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The physical properties of the planet Mercury, its surface, and atmosphere are presented for space vehicle design criteria. The mass, dimensions, mean density, and orbital and rotational motions are described. The gravity field, magnetic field, electromagnetic radiation, and charged particles in the planet's orbit are discussed. Atmospheric pressure, temperature, and composition data are given along with the surface composition, soil mechanical properties, and topography, and the surface electromagnetic and temperature properties.

  19. Mercury removal sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2016-03-29

    Sorbents and methods of using them for removing mercury from flue gases over a wide range of temperatures are disclosed. Sorbent materials of this invention comprise oxy- or hydroxyl-halogen (chlorides and bromides) of manganese, copper and calcium as the active phase for Hg.sup.0 oxidation, and are dispersed on a high surface porous supports. In addition to the powder activated carbons (PACs), this support material can be comprised of commercial ceramic supports such as silica (SiO.sub.2), alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3), zeolites and clays. The support material may also comprise of oxides of various metals such as iron, manganese, and calcium. The non-carbon sorbents of the invention can be easily injected into the flue gas and recovered in the Particulate Control Device (PCD) along with the fly ash without altering the properties of the by-product fly ash enabling its use as a cement additive. Sorbent materials of this invention effectively remove both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury from flue gases and can be used at elevated temperatures. The sorbent combines an oxidation catalyst and a sorbent in the same particle to both oxidize the mercury and then immobilize it.

  20. Experimental cross-sections for proton induced nuclear reactions on mercury up to 65 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanne, A., E-mail: aherman@vub.ac.be [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels (Belgium); Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Szücs, Z.; Brezovcsik, K. [Institute of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary)

    2016-07-01

    Cross-sections for formation of activation products induced by protons on natural mercury targets were measured. Results for {sup 196m,196g,197g}(cum), {sup 198m,198g,199g}(cum), {sup 200g}(cum), {sup 201,202}Tl, {sup 194g}(cum), {sup 195g}(cum), {sup 196g}(cum), {sup 198m,199g}(cum) Au and {sup 195m,197m,203}Hg are presented up to 65 MeV incident particle energy, many of these for the first time. The experimental data are compared with literature values and with the predictions of the TALYS 1.6 code (results taken from TENDL-2015 on-line library), thick target yields were derived and possible applications in biomedical sciences are discussed.

  1. 78 FR 14512 - Foreign-Trade Zone 196-Fort Worth, TX, Foreign-Trade Subzone 196A-TTI, Inc., Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [S-2-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 196--Fort Worth, TX, Foreign-Trade Subzone 196A--TTI, Inc., Approval of Additional Subzone Site, Fort Worth, TX On January 4, 2013, the Executive Secretary of the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board docketed an application submitted...

  2. Mercury's Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury is the only inner solar system body other than Earth to possess an active core dynamo-driven magnetic field and the only planet with a small, highly dynamic magnetosphere. Measurements made by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft have provided a wealth of data on Mercury's magnetic field environment. Mercury's weak magnetic field was discovered 40 years ago by the Mariner 10 spacecraft, but its large-scale geometry, strength and origin could not be definitively established. MESSENGER data have shown that the field is dynamo-generated and can be described as an offset axisymmetric dipole field (hereafter OAD): the magnetic equator lies ~0.2 RM (RM = 2440 km) north of the geographic equator and the dipole moment is 2.8 x1019 Am2 (~0.03% that of Earth's). The weak internal field and the high, but variable, solar wind ram pressure drive vigorous magnetospheric dynamics and result in an average distance from the planet center to the sub-solar magnetopause of only 1.42 RM. Magnetospheric models developed with MESSENGER data have allowed re-analysis of the Mariner 10 observations, establishing that there has been no measureable secular variation in the internal field over 40 years. Together with spatial power spectra for the OAD, this provides critical constraints for viable dynamo models. Time-varying magnetopause fields induce secondary core fields, the magnitudes of which confirm the core radius estimated from MESSENGER gravity and Earth-based radar data. After accounting for large-scale magnetospheric fields, residual signatures are dominated by additional external fields that are organized in the local time frame and that vary with magnetospheric activity. Birkeland currents have been identified, which likely close in the planetary interior at depths below the base of the crust. Near-periapsis magnetic field measurements at altitudes greater than 200 km have tantalizing hints of crustal fields, but crustal

  3. Mercury: Exploration of a Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The flight of the Mariner 10 spacecraft to Venus and Mercury is detailed in animation and photography. Views of Mercury are featured. Also included is animation on the origin of the solar system. Dr. Bruce C. Murray, director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, comments on the mission.

  4. Rotation of the planet mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferys, W H

    1966-04-08

    The equations of motion for the rotation of Mercury are solved for the general case by an asymptotic expansion. The findings of Liu and O'Keefe, obtained by numerical integration of a special case, that it is possible for Mercury's rotation to be locked into a 2:3 resonance with its revolution, are confirmed in detail. The general solution has further applications.

  5. MicroRNA 196B regulates FAS-mediated apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, In-Hong; Park, Won Cheol; Seo, Geom-Seog; Choi, Suck-Chei; Kim, Hun-Soo; Moon, Hyung-Bae; Yun, Ki-Jung; Chae, Soo-Cheon

    2015-01-01

    Using miRNA microarray analysis, we identified 31 miRNAs that were significantly up-regulated or down-regulated in colon cancer tissues. We chose MIR196B, which was specifically up-regulated in colon cancer, for further study. We identified 18 putative MIR196B target genes by comparing between the mRNAs down-regulated in MIR196B-overexpressed cells and the assumed MIR196B target genes predicted by public bioinformatics tools. The association between MIR196B and FAS was verified in this study. FAS expression was constitutively elevated in normal human colorectal tissues. However, its expression was often reduced in human colorectal cancer. The decrease in FAS expression could be responsible for the reduction of apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. In colorectal cancer tissue, we showed that MIR196B up-regulation was mutually followed by down regulation of FAS expression. We also showed that MIR196B directly repressed FAS expression in colorectal cells. Furthermore, anti-MIR196B up-regulated FAS expression and increased apoptosis in colorectal cancer cell lines. Our results suggest that the up-regulation of MIR196B modulates apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells by partially repressing FAS expression and that anti-MIR196B could be a potential candidate as an anti-cancer drug in colorectal cancer therapy. PMID:25605245

  6. 49 CFR 173.164 - Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.164 Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury). (a) For transportation by aircraft, mercury must be packaged in packagings which meet the requirements of part 178 of...

  7. Mercury concentration in bivalve molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szkoda Józef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 85 mussel samples of eight species were examined. Analysis of mercury in the freeze-dried samples was carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry method using direct mercury analyser AMA 254. The analytical procedure for determination of mercury was covered by the quality assurance programme of research and participation in national and international proficiency tests. Concentrations of total mercury in all investigated samples were found to be generally low, in the range of 0.033-0.577 mg/kg of dry weight and of 0.003-0.045 mg/kg of wet weight. The results indicate that obtained levels of mercury in bivalve molluscs are not likely to pose a risk to the health of consumers.

  8. Mercury: Beethoven Quadrangle, H-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Mercury: Computer Photomosaic of the Beethoven Quadrangle, H-7 The Beethoven Quadrangle, named for the 19th century classical German composer, lies in Mercury's Equatorial Mercator located between longitude 740 to 1440. The Mariner 10 spacecraft imaged the region during its initial flyby of the planet. The Image Processing Lab at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory produced this photomosaic using computer software and techniques developed for use in processing planetary data. The images used to construct the Beethoven Quadrangle were taken as Mariner 10 flew passed Mercury. The Mariner 10 spacecraft was launched in 1974. The spacecraft took images of Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury in March and September 1974 and March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 images of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon during its mission. The Mariner 10 Mission was managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C.

  9. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung-Duck; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability o...

  10. Methods for dispensing mercury into devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1987-04-28

    A process for dispensing mercury into devices which requires mercury. Mercury is first electrolytically separated from either HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 and plated onto a cathode wire. The cathode wire is then placed into a device requiring mercury.

  11. 21 CFR 872.3700 - Dental mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental mercury. 872.3700 Section 872.3700 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3700 Dental mercury. (a) Identification. Dental mercury is a device composed of mercury intended for use as a component of amalgam alloy in the restoration of a...

  12. Fluorescent sensor for mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zidong [Urbana, IL; Lee, Jung Heon [Evanston, IL; Lu, Yi [Champaign, IL

    2011-11-22

    The present invention provides a sensor for detecting mercury, comprising: a first polynucleotide, comprising a first region, and a second region, a second polynucleotide, a third polynucleotide, a fluorophore, and a quencher, wherein the third polynucleotide is optionally linked to the second region; the fluorophore is linked to the first polynucleotide and the quencher is linked to the second polynucleotide, or the fluorophore is linked to the second polynucleotide and the quencher is linked to the first polynucleotide; the first region and the second region hybridize to the second polynucleotide; and the second region binds to the third polynucleotide in the presence of Hg.sup.2+ ions.

  13. Measurement of mercury isotopic ratio in stone meteorites by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    196 Hg and 202 Hg isotopes have been measured by neutron activation analysis in samples of twelve stone meteorites. Hg is extracted from an irradiated sample by stepwise heating. The mercury concentrations vary from 0.07 to 33 ppm. While most of the samples give 196 Hg/ 202 Hg ratios similar to terrestrial value within error limits, in some cases large anomalies are observed. A number of control experiments have been devised, that show the absence of experimental artifacts, during sample preparation, neutron irradiation, chemical separation and counting stages. Several anomalous and normal Hg distillate have been re-irradiated as Hg-diethyl-dithio-carbamate complex to eliminate the influence of neutron self shielding and interfering reactions from matrix elements. The isotopic ratio patterns persist in the distillates too proving that any artifacts during meteorite irradiation and measurement are essentially absent. Both positive and negative anomalies are observed: however, the negative anomalies are much more frequent and abundant. In an extreme case of fine grained magnetic particles of Ambapur Nagla the 196 Hg is apparently absent in the Hg released at 100 deg C. A 2σ 196 Hg/ 202 Hg value is only 6% relative to the monitor. This experiment shows the robustness of neutron activation analysis and suggest some constrains on the formation history of stone meteorites. (author)

  14. Increased mercury emissions from modern dental amalgams

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Ulf G.; Hylander, Lars D.

    2017-01-01

    All types of dental amalgams contain mercury, which partly is emitted as mercury vapor. All types of dental amalgams corrode after being placed in the oral cavity. Modern high copper amalgams exhibit two new traits of increased instability. Firstly, when subjected to wear/polishing, droplets rich in mercury are formed on the surface, showing that mercury is not being strongly bonded to the base or alloy metals. Secondly, high copper amalgams emit substantially larger amounts of mercury vapor ...

  15. Mercury toxicity and neurodegenerative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocci, Alessia; Rovito, Nicola; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Genchi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is among the most toxic heavy metals and has no known physiological role in humans. Three forms of mercury exist: elemental, inorganic and organic. Mercury has been used by man since ancient times. Among the earliest were the Chinese and Romans, who employed cinnabar (mercury sulfide) as a red dye in ink (Clarkson et al. 2007). Mercury has also been used to purify gold and silver minerals by forming amalgams. This is a hazardous practice, but is still widespread in Brazil's Amazon basin, in Laos and in Venezuela, where tens of thousands of miners are engaged in local mining activities to find and purify gold or silver. Mercury compounds were long used to treat syphilis and the element is still used as an antiseptic,as a medicinal preservative and as a fungicide. Dental amalgams, which contain about 50% mercury, have been used to repair dental caries in the U.S. since 1856.Mercury still exists in many common household products around the world.Examples are: thermometers, barometers, batteries, and light bulbs (Swain et al.2007). In small amounts, some organo mercury-compounds (e.g., ethylmercury tiosalicylate(thimerosal) and phenylmercury nitrate) are used as preservatives in some medicines and vaccines (Ballet al. 2001).Each mercury form has its own toxicity profile. Exposure to Hg0 vapor and MeHg produce symptoms in CNS, whereas, the kidney is the target organ when exposures to the mono- and di-valent salts of mercury (Hg+ and Hg++, respectively)occur. Chronic exposure to inorganic mercury produces stomatitis, erethism and tremors. Chronic MeHg exposure induced symptoms similar to those observed in ALS, such as the early onset of hind limb weakness (Johnson and Atchison 2009).Among the organic mercury compounds, MeHg is the most biologically available and toxic (Scheuhammer et a!. 2007). MeHg is neurotoxic, reaching high levels of accumulation in the CNS; it can impair physiological function by disrupting endocrine glands (Tan et a!. 2009).The most

  16. Mercury kinetics in marine zooplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Heyraud, M.; LaRosa, J.

    1976-01-01

    Mercury, like many other heavy metals, is potentially available to marine animals by uptake directly from water and/or through the organisms food. Furthermore, bioavailability, assimilation and subsequent retention in biota may be affected by the chemical species of the element in sea water. While mercury is known to exist in the inorganic form in sea water, recent work has indicated that, in certain coastal areas, a good portion of the total mercury appears to be organically bound; however, the exact chemical nature of the organic fraction has yet to be determined. Methyl mercury may be one constituent of the natural organically bound fraction since microbial mechanisms for in situ methylation of mercury have been demonstrated in the aquatic environment. Despite the fact that naturally produced methyl mercury probably comprises only a small fraction of an aquatic ecosystem, the well-documented toxic effects of this organo-mercurial, caused by man-made introductions into marine food chains, make it an important compound to study

  17. Atmospheric mercury footprints of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Wang, Yafei; Cinnirella, Sergio; Pirrone, Nicola

    2015-03-17

    The Minamata Convention was established to protect humans and the natural environment from the adverse effects of mercury emissions. A cogent assessment of mercury emissions is required to help implement the Minamata Convention. Here, we use an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model to calculate atmospheric mercury footprints of nations based on upstream production (meaning direct emissions from the production activities of a nation), downstream production (meaning both direct and indirect emissions caused by the production activities of a nation), and consumption (meaning both direct and indirect emissions caused by final consumption of goods and services in a nation). Results show that nations function differently within global supply chains. Developed nations usually have larger consumption-based emissions than up- and downstream production-based emissions. India, South Korea, and Taiwan have larger downstream production-based emissions than their upstream production- and consumption-based emissions. Developed nations (e.g., United States, Japan, and Germany) are in part responsible for mercury emissions of developing nations (e.g., China, India, and Indonesia). Our findings indicate that global mercury abatement should focus on multiple stages of global supply chains. We propose three initiatives for global mercury abatement, comprising the establishment of mercury control technologies of upstream producers, productivity improvement of downstream producers, and behavior optimization of final consumers.

  18. Increased expression of microRNA-196a predicts poor prognosis in human ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yi; Fan, Jin; Huang, Liu; Ye, Ming; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Yibin; Li, Qiufen; Huang, Jiezhen

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of MicroRNA-196a (miR-196a) has recently been reported in different types of human cancers. However, the prognostic value of miR-196a in ovarian carcinoma remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression of miR-196a in ovarian carcinoma and its relationship with tumor progression and clinical prognosis. The expression level of miR-196a was examined by quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in surgically removed ovarian cancer tissues and ovarian cancer cell lines. The correlation between miR-196a expression and clinical features and prognosis were statistically analyzed. The results showed that the miR-196a expression was significantly upregulated in tumor tissues and ovarian cancer cell lines compared with that in normal ovarian surface tissues and normal ovarian epithelial cells. Moreover, miR-196a expression was positively correlated with FIGO stage (Povarian carcinoma. In conclusion, miR-196a may play an important role in the progression of ovarian carcinoma, and could be used as an independent prognostic biomarker for patients with ovarian carcinoma.

  19. Method for removal and stabilization of mercury in mercury-containing gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Thomas E.

    2005-09-13

    The present invention is directed to a process and apparatus for removing and stabilizing mercury from mercury-containing gas streams. A gas stream containing vapor phase elemental and/or speciated mercury is contacted with reagent, such as an oxygen-containing oxidant, in a liquid environment to form a mercury-containing precipitate. The mercury-containing precipitate is kept or placed in solution and reacts with one or more additional reagents to form a solid, stable mercury-containing compound.

  20. Exploring Mercury: The Iron Planet

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Planet Mercury is both difficult to observe and difficult to reach by spacecraft. Just one spacecraft, Mariner 10, flew by the planet 30 years ago. An upcoming NASA mission, MESSENGER, will be launched this year and will go into orbit around Mercury at the end of this decade. A European mission is planned for the following decade. It's worth going there because Mercury is a strange body and the history of planetary exploration has taught us that strangeness gives us insight into planetary ori...

  1. MESSENGER'S First Flyby of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. An overview of the MESSENGER mission and its January 14th close flyby of Mercury will be provided. Primary science objectives and the science instrumentation will be described. Initial results from MESSENGER'S first flyby on January 14th, 2008 will be discussed with an emphasis on the magnetic field and charged particle measurements.

  2. Distribution and retention of organic and inorganic mercury in methyl mercury-treated neonatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.J.; Fisher, H.L.; Sumler, M.R.; Hall, L.L.; Mushak, P.

    1988-01-01

    Seven-day-old Long Evans rats received one mumol of 203 Hg-labeled methyl mercury/kg sc and whole body retention and tissue distribution of organic and inorganic mercury were examined for 32 days postdosing. Neonates cleared mercury slowly until 10 days postdosing when the clearance rate abruptly increased. During the interval when whole body clearance of mercury was extremely slow, methyl mercury was metabolized to inorganic mercury. Peak concentration of mercury in kidney occurred at 2 days postdosing. At 32 days postdosing, 8% of mercury in kidney was in an organic from. Liver mercury concentration peaked at 2 days postdosing and organic mercury accounted for 38% at 32 days postdosing. Brain concentrations of mercury peaked at 2 days postdosing. At 10 days postdosing, organic mercury accounted for 86% of the brain mercury burden, and, at 32 days postdosing, for 60%. The percentage of mercury body burden in pelt rose from 30 to 70% between 1 and 10 days postdosing. At 32 days postdosing pelt contained 85% of the body burden of mercury. At all time points, about 95% of mercury in pelt was in an organic form. Compartmental analysis of these data permitted development of a model to describe the distribution and excretion of organic and inorganic mercury in methyl mercury-treated neonatal rats

  3. Elimination of mercury in health care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Mercury is a persistent, bioaccumulative toxin that has been linked to numerous health effects in humans and wildlife. It is a potent neurotoxin that may also harm the brain, kidneys, and lungs. Unborn children and young infants are at particular risk for brain damage from mercury exposure. Hospitals' use of mercury in chemical solutions, thermometers, blood pressure gauges, batteries, and fluorescent lamps makes these facilities large contributors to the overall emission of mercury into the environment. Most hospitals recognize the dangers of mercury. In a recent survey, four out of five hospitals stated that they have policies in place to eliminate the use of mercury-containing products. Sixty-two percent of them require vendors to disclose the presence of mercury in chemicals that the hospitals purchase. Only 12 percent distribute mercury-containing thermometers to new parents. Ninety-two percent teach their employees about the health and environmental effects of mercury, and 46 percent teach all employees how to clean up mercury spills. However, the same study showed that many hospitals have not implemented their policies. Forty-two percent were not aware whether they still purchased items containing mercury. In addition, 49 percent still purchase mercury thermometers, 44 percent purchase mercury gastrointestinal diagnostic equipment, and 64 percent still purchase mercury lab thermometers.

  4. Mercury pollution: a transdisciplinary treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zuber, Sharon L; Newman, Michael C

    2012-01-01

    .... Also included are smaller case studies, such as the Minamata tragedy, fish consumption, and international treaties"-- "Mercury is the gravest chemical pollutant problem of our time, and this is...

  5. Origin and composition of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The predictions of the expected range of composition of Mercury at the time of its formation made on the basis of a suite of condensation-accretion models of Mercury spanning a range of condensation temperature and accretion sampling functions appropriate to Mercury are examined. It is concluded that these compositonal models can, if modified to take into account the nonselective loss of most of the silicate component of the planet during accretion, provide compositional predictions for the Weidenschilling (1978, 1980) mechanism for the accretion of a metal-rich Mercury. The silicate portion would, in this case, contain 3.6 to 4.5 percent alumina, roughly 1 percent of alkali oxides, and between 0.5 and 6 percent FeO

  6. Localized surface plasmon resonance mercury detection system and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jay; Lucas, Donald; Crosby, Jeffrey Scott; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2016-03-22

    A mercury detection system that includes a flow cell having a mercury sensor, a light source and a light detector is provided. The mercury sensor includes a transparent substrate and a submonolayer of mercury absorbing nanoparticles, e.g., gold nanoparticles, on a surface of the substrate. Methods of determining whether mercury is present in a sample using the mercury sensors are also provided. The subject mercury detection systems and methods find use in a variety of different applications, including mercury detecting applications.

  7. Mercury Toolset for Spatiotemporal Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Palanisamy, Giri; Green, James; Wilson, Bruce; Rhyne, B. Timothy; Lindsley, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Mercury (http://mercury.ornl.gov) is a set of tools for federated harvesting, searching, and retrieving metadata, particularly spatiotemporal metadata. Version 3.0 of the Mercury toolset provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS (Really Simple Syndication) delivery of search results, and enhanced customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects that use Mercury. It provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems, each of which may use different metadata formats. Mercury harvests metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The search interfaces then allow the users to perform a variety of fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data. Mercury periodically (typically daily)harvests metadata sources through a collection of interfaces and re-indexes these metadata to provide extremely rapid search capabilities, even over collections with tens of millions of metadata records. A number of both graphical and application interfaces have been constructed within Mercury, to enable both human users and other computer programs to perform queries. Mercury was also designed to support multiple different projects, so that the particular fields that can be queried and used with search filters are easy to configure for each different project.

  8. Mercury Toolset for Spatiotemporal Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bruce E.; Palanisamy, Giri; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Rhyne, B. Timothy; Lindsley, Chris; Green, James

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (http://mercury.ornl.gov) is a set of tools for federated harvesting, searching, and retrieving metadata, particularly spatiotemporal metadata. Version 3.0 of the Mercury toolset provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS (Really Simple Syndication) delivery of search results, and enhanced customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects that use Mercury. It provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems, each of which may use different metadata formats. Mercury harvests metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The search interfaces then allow the users to perform a variety of fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data. Mercury periodically (typically daily) harvests metadata sources through a collection of interfaces and re-indexes these metadata to provide extremely rapid search capabilities, even over collections with tens of millions of metadata records. A number of both graphical and application interfaces have been constructed within Mercury, to enable both human users and other computer programs to perform queries. Mercury was also designed to support multiple different projects, so that the particular fields that can be queried and used with search filters are easy to configure for each different project.

  9. 75 FR 30372 - Foreign-Trade Zone 196 Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority ATC Logistics & Electronics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket T-2-2010] Foreign-Trade Zone 196 Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority ATC Logistics & Electronics (Cell Phone Kitting and Distribution... filed an application submitted by the ATC Logistics & Electronics, operator of Site 2, FTZ 196...

  10. 46 CFR 196.45-1 - Master and chief engineer responsible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master and chief engineer responsible. 196.45-1 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Carrying of Excess Steam § 196.45-1 Master and chief engineer responsible. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and the engineer in charge of the boilers of any vessel to require that a...

  11. 46 CFR 196.15-3 - Steering gear, whistle, and means of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear, whistle, and means of communication. 196... whistle, and the means of communication between the bridge or pilothouse and engineroom shall be examined... RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-3 Steering gear, whistle, and means of...

  12. 46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel...

  13. 46 CFR 196.30-1 - Repairs to boilers and pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repairs to boilers and pressure vessels. 196.30-1... VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-1 Repairs to boilers and pressure vessels. (a) Before making any repairs to boilers or unfired pressure vessels, the Chief Engineer...

  14. 32 CFR 196.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institutions. 196.210 Section 196.210 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE...

  15. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems. Our current strategy is to engineer plants to

  16. Autometallographic tracing of mercury in frog liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loumbourdis, N.S.; Danscher, G.

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of mercury in the liver of the frog Rana ridibunda with the autometallographic method was investigated. The mercury specific autometallographic (HgS/Se AMG ) technique is a sensitive histochemical approach for tracing mercury in tissues from mercury-exposed organisms. Mercury accumulates in vivo as mercury sulphur/mercury selenium nanocrystals that can be silver-enhanced. Thus, only a fraction of the Hg can be visualized. Six animals were exposed for one day and another group of six animals for 6 days in 1 ppm mercury (as HgCI 2 ) dissolved in fresh water. A third group of six animals, served as controls, were sacrificed the day of arrival at the laboratory. First, mercury appears in the blood plasma and erythrocytes. Next, mercury moves to hepatocytes and in the apical part of the cells, that facing bile canaliculi. In a next step, mercury appears in the endothelial and Kupffer cells. It seems likely that, the mercury of hepatocytes moves through bile canaliculi to the gut, most probably bound to glutathione and/or other similar ligands. Most probably, the endothelial and Kupffer cells comprise the first line of defense against metal toxicity. - Frogs can be good bioindicators of mercury

  17. Mercury: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of mercury compound contamination of environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of mercury pollution on the environment. The possible sources of mercury contamination in sea water are identified. The effects of mercury on food sources, as represented by swordfish, are analyzed. The physiological effects of varying concentrations of mercury are reported. Emphasis is placed on the situation existing in the Hawaiian Islands.

  18. Groundwater Modeling Of Mercury Pollution At A Former Mercury Cell Chlor Alkali Facility In Pavoldar, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Kazakhstan, there is a serious case of mercury pollution near the city of Pavlodar from an old mercury cell chlor-alkali plant. The soil, sediment, and water is severly contaminated with mercury and mercury compounds as a result of the industrial activity of this chemical pla...

  19. Sorption of mercury on chemically synthesized polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remya Devi, P.S.; Verma, R.; Sudersanan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Sorption of inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ) and methyl mercury, on chemically synthesized polyaniline, in 0.1-10N HCl solutions has been studied. Hg 2+ is strongly sorbed at low acidities and the extent of sorption decreases with increase in acidity. The sorption of methyl mercury is very low in the HCl concentration range studied. Sorption of Hg 2+ on polyaniline in 0.1-10N LiCl and H 2 SO 4 solutions has also been studied. The analysis of the data indicates that the sorption of Hg 2+ depends on the degree of protonation of polyaniline and the nature of mercury(II) chloride complexes in solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis (XPS) of polyaniline sorbed with mercury show that mercury is bound as Hg 2+ . Sorbed mercury is quantitatively eluted from polyaniline with 0.5N HNO 3 . Polyaniline can be used for separation and pre-concentration of inorganic mercury from aqueous samples. (author)

  20. EPA Leadership in the Global Mercury Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Global Mercury Partnership is a voluntary multi-stakeholder partnership initiated in 2005 to take immediate actions to protect human health and the environment from the releases of mercury and its compounds to the environment.

  1. Mercury-Containing Devices and Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some items inside residential buildings contain mercury, which poses a persistent and toxic human health and environmental threat. These materials should be carefully salvaged for proper recycling to prevent mercury contamination prior to demolition.

  2. Health Effects of Exposures to Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mercury in Your Environment Contact Us Share Health Effects of Exposures to Mercury Related Health Information for ... About PDF ; discussion starts on page 20) Methylmercury Effects Effects on People of All Ages Exposure to ...

  3. The effect of longterm exposure to mercury on the bacterial community in marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    1998-01-01

    Mercury pollution, bacteria, diversity, mercury resistance, antibiotic resistance, plasmid abundance......Mercury pollution, bacteria, diversity, mercury resistance, antibiotic resistance, plasmid abundance...

  4. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterly, Clay E.; Vass, Arpad A.; Tyndall, Richard L.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  5. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2004-12-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems.

  6. Mercury Continuous Emmission Monitor Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster; Joseph Rovani

    2009-03-12

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMs) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks throughput the U.S. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor calibrators/generators. These devices are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 and vacated by a Federal appeals court in early 2008 required that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Despite the vacature, mercury emissions regulations in the future will require NIST traceable calibration standards, and EPA does not want to interrupt the effort towards developing NIST traceability protocols. The traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued a conceptual interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The EPA traceability protocol document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of calibrator models by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the calibrators that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma

  7. MicroRNA-196b promotes cell proliferation and suppress cell differentiation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Donglin, E-mail: caodlgz@sina.com; Hu, Liangshan; Lei, Da; Fang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Zhihong; Wang, Ting; Lin, Maorui; Huang, Jiwei; Yang, Huawen; Zhou, Xuan; Zhong, Limei

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • miRNA-196b increases proliferation and blocks differentiation of progenitor cell. • miRNA-196b inhibits apoptosis and increases viability of cells lines. • Forced expression of miR-196b blocks the differentiation of THP1 induced by PMA. - Abstract: MicroRNA-196b (miR-196b) is frequently amplified and aberrantly overexpressed in acute leukemias. To investigate the role of miR-196b in acute leukemias, it has been observed that forced expression of this miRNA increases proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in human cell lines. More importantly, we show that this miRNA can significantly increase the colony-forming capacity of mouse normal bone marrow progenitor cells alone, as well as partially blocking the cells from differentiation. Taken together, our studies suggest that miRNA-196b may play an essential role in the development of MLL-associated leukemias through inhibiting cell differentiation and apoptosis, while promoting cell proliferation.

  8. Mercury detection with thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Z.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the work performed to design a gauge to detect mercury concealed within walls, floors, pipes, and equipment inside a building. The project arose out of a desire to decontaminate and decommission (D ampersand D) a building in which mercury had been used as part of a chemical process. The building contains plumbing and equipment, some with residual mercury even after draining, sumps, and hollow walls. So that releases of mercury to the environment might be minimized during D ampersand D activities, it was considered advisable to locate pockets of mercury that may have collected in concealed spaces so that they might be drained in a controlled fashion prior to the application of the wrecking ball or sledge hammer. The detection of such pockets within a building presents some problems not ordinarily encountered in a laboratory environment. Often, only a single side of a wall or pipe is accessible. This condition disqualifies transmission gauges (such as conventional x radiography) in which a probe is sent through the volume under test (VUT) from one side and its passage or attenuation is detected on the opposite side. A robust, one-sided system was needed

  9. Mercury bioaccumulation in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinnirella S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study details mercury pollution within the food chain of the Mediterranean by analysing the most comprehensive mercury dataset available for biota and water measurements. In this study we computed a bioaccumulation factor (BAF for datasets in the existing mercury-related scientific literature, in on-going programs, and in past measurement campaigns. Preliminary results indicate a major lack of information, making the outcome of any assessment very uncertain. Importantly, not all marine eco-regions are (or have ever been covered by measurement campaigns. Most lacking is information associated with the South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, and in several eco-regions it is still impossible to reconstruct a trophic net, as the required species were not accounted for when mercury measurements were taken. The datasets also have additional temporal sampling problems, as species were often not sampled systematically (but only sporadically during any given sampling period. Moreover, datasets composed of mercury concentrations in water also suffer from similar geographic limitations, as they are concentrated in the North-Western Mediterranean. Despite these concerns, we found a very clear bioaccumulation trend in 1999, the only year where comprehensive information on both methylmercury concentrations in water and biota was available.

  10. Mineral resource of the month: mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on mercury, a mineral commodity used in industrial and small-scale gold mining applications. Mercury has been reported to be used for amalgamation with gold since the Roman times. Mercury from cinnabar from Almadén, Spain has been used by Romans and has been continued to be used through the Middle Ages and the Colonial era.

  11. 40 CFR 721.10068 - Elemental mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elemental mercury. 721.10068 Section... Substances § 721.10068 Elemental mercury. (a) Definitions. The definitions in § 721.3 apply to this section... elemental mercury (CAS. No. 7439-97-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  12. Evaluation of Relation between Mercury Concentration in Saliva with Number and Surfaces of Amalgam Fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Agha Hosseini

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Amalgam is the most widely used dental restorative material.However, because of continuous low-level release of Mercury from amalgam fillings, its safety has been questionable.Purpose: The aim of this study was the evaluation of concentration of Mercury in saliva before and after amalgam fillings and its relation with numbers and surfaces of amalgam fillings.Materials and Methods: In an analytic interventional study we surveyed concentration Mercury in saliva before and after amalgam fillings. Twenty-five Patients (9 male, 16 female who referred to oral medicine department of Tehran university of medical scienceand Haj- Abdol- Vahab medical center who had no amalgam fillings were selected and the samples of saliva (5cc was collected before fillings. After that all of posterior decayed teeth were filled in an appointment with amalgam and, 24 hours later, the second samplesof saliva (5cc was collected. The amount of saliva Mercury before and after filling was measured and its difference was analyzed by paired t- test.Results: In this study the mean of Mercury in saliva was 0.00896 μg/ml before and 0.16404 μg/ml after amalgam fillings. The mean of number of fillings was 1.96 and mean of size of surfaces was 76.43 mm2 and mean of consumption amalgam was 4.1 units.Conclusion: There was no significant correlation between age (P=0.677, sex, number of fillings (P=0.055, number of surface of filling (P=0.059 and size of surfaces of fillings (P=0.072, with Mercury levels in saliva after amalgam fillings. There was a significant relation between Mercury level of saliva after fillings and amalgam amount (P= 0.036.Therefore amalgam may be designate a significant source for Mercury release in saliva.Since this is a preliminary study, it needs supplementary evaluations in saliva, blood and urine in different periods after amalgam fillings.

  13. How Tiny Collisions Shape Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    If space rocks are unpleasant to encounter, space dust isnt much better. Mercurys cratered surface tells of billions of years of meteoroid impacts but its thin atmosphere is what reveals its collisional history with smaller impactors. Now new research is providing a better understanding of what were seeing.Micrometeoroids Ho!The inner solar system is bombarded by micrometeoroids, tiny particles of dust (on the scale of a tenth of a millimeter) emitted by asteroids and comets as they make their closest approach to the Sun. This dust doesnt penetrateEarths layers of atmosphere, but the innermost planet of our solar system, Mercury, doesnt have this convenient cushioning.Just as Mercury is affected by the impacts of large meteoroids, its also shaped by the many smaller-scale impacts it experiences. These tiny collisions are thought to vaporize atoms and molecules from the planets surface, which quickly dissociate. This process adds metals to Mercurys exosphere, the planets extremely tenuous atmosphere.Modeling PopulationsDistribution of the directions from which meteoroids originate before impacting Mercurys surface, as averaged over its entire orbit. Local time of 12 hr corresponds to the Sun-facing side. A significant asymmetry is seen between the dawn (6 hrs) and dusk (18 hrs) rates. [Pokorn et al. 2017]The metal distribution in the exosphere provides a way for us to measure the effect of micrometeoroid impacts on Mercury but this only works if we have accurate models of the process. A team of scientists led by Petr Pokorn (The Catholic University of America and NASA Goddard SFC) has now worked to improve our picture of micrometeoroid impact vaporization on Mercury.Pokorn and collaborators argue that two meteoroid populations Jupiter-family comets (short-period) and Halley-type comets (long-period) contribute the dust for the majority of micrometeoroid impacts on Mercury. The authors model the dynamics and evolution of these two populations, reproducing the

  14. Control of mercury emissions: policies, technologies, and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2015-01-01

    Seung-Whee Rhee Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Owing to the Minamata Convention on Mercury and the Global Mercury Partnership, policies and regulations on mercury management in advanced countries were intensified by a mercury phaseout program in the mercury control strategy. In developing countries, the legislative or regulatory frameworks on mercury emissions are not established specifically, but mercury management is designed...

  15. The Association Between Blood Mercury Levels and Risk for Overweight in a General Adult Population: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Seok, Hongdeok; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the association between blood mercury levels and overweight in Korean adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 9228 participants (4283 men and 4945 women) who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007-2013. The population was divided into two groups according to the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Blood mercury levels were analyzed using a gold amalgam method with a DMA-80 instrument, categorized into quartiles, and stratified by sex. After adjusting for all covariates, blood mercury was significantly associated with overweight in all subjects. According to the BMI criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.75 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.53-2.01) overall, 2.09 (95 % CI, 1.71-2.55) in men, and 1.58 (95 % CI, 1.32-1.89) in women. According to the WC criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.85 (95 % CI, 1.49-2.30) in men and 1.96 (95 % CI, 1.62-2.36) in women compared to the lowest quartile. Additionally, a trend in overweight across increasing blood mercury levels was observed by the p for trend test in the multiple diagnostic criteria.

  16. Canadian mercury inventories: the missing pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagreen, L.A.; Lourie, B.A. [Summerhill Group, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Research was conducted to determine the significance of the deliberate use of mercury in products in Canada and the associated releases from these sources. Through a combination of literature review and new calculations, the reservoir, flux, and releases of mercury from eight product sources were calculated, and these results compared to historical Canadian inventories. Mercury contributions from the waste sector were also assessed and compared to total Canadian mercury releases and to mercury releases from coal-fired generating stations. Results suggest the use and release of mercury associated with its use in products is 4.5 times what previous inventories indicate. Including dental amalgam and sewage sludge, the total releases of mercury to all environmental compartments in Canada totals 20 tonnes per year. This accounts for less than one-half of the 44 tonnes per year of mercury released from mercury waste disposal each year in Canada. Waste mercury contributions from hazardous waste imports, unknown product sources, and incomplete information on the use of mercury in known products may account for this discrepancy. Waste-related mercury releases and transfers for disposal and recycling are 11 times greater than that of electricity generation in Canada. Results indicate that Canadian inventories have underestimated the significance of mercury use and release associated with products, calling into question the current priorities for mercury management. This paper was developed as part of a panel session at the International Joint Commission 'Mercury in the Ecosystem' workshop, February 26-27, 2003, Windsor, ON, Canada, as a complement to the information on Canadian Inventories presented by Luke Trip (Senes Consulting, Ottawa, ON, Canada).

  17. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  18. Apparatus for control of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing mercury in industrial gases such as the flue gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal adds hydrogen sulfide to the flue gas in or just before a scrubber of the industrial process which contains the wet scrubber. The method and apparatus of the present invention is applicable to installations employing either wet or dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization systems. The present invention uses kraft green liquor as a source for hydrogen sulfide and/or the injection of mineral acids into the green liquor to release vaporous hydrogen sulfide in order to form mercury sulfide solids.

  19. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  20. Marine biogeochemistry of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Noncontaminating sample collection and handling procedures and accurate and sensitive analysis methods were developed to measure sub-picomolar Hg concentrations in seawater. Reliable and diagnostic oceanographic Hg distributions were obtained, permitting major processes governing the marine biogeochemistry of Hg to be identified. Mercury concentrations in the northwest Atlantic, central Pacific, southeast Pacific, and Tasman Sea ranged from 0.5 to 12 pM. Vertical Hg distributions often exhibited a maximum within or near the main thermocline. At similar depths, Hg concentrations in the northwest Atlantic Ocean were elevated compared to the N. Pacific Ocean. This pattern appears to result from a combination of enhanced supply of Hg to the northwest Atlantic by rainfall and scavenging removal along deep water circulation pathways. These observations are supported by geochemical steady-state box modelling which predicts a relatively short mean residence time for Hg in the oceans; demonstrating the reactive nature of Hg in seawater and precluding significant involvement in nutrient-type recyclic. Evidence for the rapid removal of Hg from seawater was obtained at two locations. Surface seawater Hg measurements along 160 0 W (20 0 N to 20 0 S) showed a depression in the equatorial upwelling area which correlated well with the transect region exhibiting low 234 Th/ 238 U activity ratios. This relationship implies that Hg will be scavenged and removed from surface seawater in biologically productive oceanic zones. Further, a broad minimum in the vertical distribution of Hg was observed to coincide with the intense oxygen minimum zone in the water column in coastal waters off Peru

  1. Environmental contamination and risk assessment of mercury from a historic mercury mine located in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghua

    2013-02-01

    A field survey of mercury pollution in environmental media and human hair samples obtained from residents living in the area surrounding the Chatian mercury mine (CMM) of southwestern China was conducted to evaluate the health risks of mercury to local residents. The results showed that mine waste, and tailings in particular, contained high levels of mercury and that the maximum mercury concentration was 88.50 μg g(-1). Elevated mercury levels were also found in local surface water, paddy soil, and paddy grain, which may cause severe health problems. The mercury concentration of hair samples from the inhabitants of the CMM exceeded 1.0 μg g(-1), which is the limit recommended by the US EPA. Mercury concentrations in paddy soil were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in paddy roots, stalks, and paddy grains, which suggested that paddy soil was the major source of mercury in paddy plant tissue. The average daily dose (ADD) of mercury for local adults and preschool children via oral exposure reached 0.241 and 0.624 μg kg(-1) body weight per day, respectively, which is approaching or exceeds the provisional tolerable daily intake. Among the three oral exposure routes, the greatest contributor to the ADD of mercury was the ingestion of rice grain. Open-stacked mine tailings have resulted in heavy mercury contamination in the surrounding soil, and the depth of appreciable soil mercury concentrations exceeded 100 cm.

  2. Mercury accumulation plant Cyrtomium macrophyllum and its potential for phytoremediation of mercury polluted sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Yu; Feng, Liu; Li, Youdan; Dong, Haochen

    2017-12-01

    Cyrtomium macrophyllum naturally grown in 225.73 mg kg -1 of soil mercury in mining area was found to be a potential mercury accumulator plant with the translocation factor of 2.62 and the high mercury concentration of 36.44 mg kg -1 accumulated in its aerial parts. Pot experiments indicated that Cyrtomium macrophyllum could even grow in 500 mg kg -1 of soil mercury with observed inhibition on growth but no obvious toxic effects, and showed excellent mercury accumulation and translocation abilities with both translocation and bioconcentration factors greater than 1 when exposed to 200 mg kg -1 and lower soil mercury, indicating that it could be considered as a great mercury accumulating species. Furthermore, the leaf tissue of Cyrtomium macrophyllum showed high resistance to mercury stress because of both the increased superoxide dismutase activity and the accumulation of glutathione and proline induced by mercury stress, which favorited mercury translocation from the roots to the aerial parts, revealing the possible reason for Cyrtomium macrophyllum to tolerate high concentration of soil mercury. In sum, due to its excellent mercury accumulation and translocation abilities as well as its high resistance to mercury stress, the use of Cyrtomium macrophyllum should be a promising approach to remediating mercury polluted soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mercury emission monitoring on municipal waste combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, H.; Gerig, A.

    1991-01-01

    In waste incineration, mercury is the only heavy metal to be released as a gas, mostly as mercury(II) chloride, because of its high volatility. Continuous emission monitoring is possible only when mercury occurs in its elemental form. This paper reports on various possibilities of converting Hg(II) into Hg(0) that has been studied and tested on a laboratory scale and in the TAMARA refuse incineration pilot facility. Continuous mercury emission measurement appears to be possible, provided mercury is converted in the flue gas condensate precipitated. The measuring results obtained on two municipal solid waste and on one sewage treatment sludge incineration plants show that the mercury monitor is a highly sensitive and selective continuously working instrument for mercury emission monitoring

  4. Fate of mercury in the Arctic (FOMA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, H.; Christensen, J.; Asmund, G.

    This report is the final reporting of the project FONA, funded by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency with means from the MIKA/DANCEA funds for Environmental Support to the Arctic Region. The aim of the project is to study the intercompartment mercury transport chain in the arctic area. From...... atmospheric deposition of mercury on sea surfaces to uptake in marine organisms, bio-accumulation, and finally mercury levels in mammals. The studies in the project are focused on the behaviour of mercury during the spring period where special phenomena lead to an enhanced deposition of mercury in the Arctic...... environment, at a time where the marine ecosystem is particularly active. The studies also include a comprehensive time trend study of mercury in top carnivore species. Each of these studies contributes towards establishing the knowledge necessary to develop a general model for transport and uptake of mercury...

  5. Mercury in the environment : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, F.

    2000-01-01

    Both geogenic and anthropogenic sources are responsible for the input of mercury into the environment. However, mercury comes mostly from geogenic sources and is found naturally in air, water and soil. Crustal degassing results in emission of mercury into the atmosphere. Mercury in water and soil is due mostly to input from sedimentary rocks. Mercury in lake sediments is related mainly to input by country rock and anthropogenic activities such as agriculture. The mercury content of coal is similar to or less than the amount found in the earths crust. Natural charcoal is also able to capture mercury at low temperature combustion. The amount of mercury emitted from the stack of coal-fired power plants is related to the nature of the milled coal and its mineralogical and elemental content. Mercury emissions originating from the combustion of coal from electric utility power plants are considered to be among the greatest contributors to global mercury air emissions. In order to quantify the impact the electric power industry has on the environment, information regarding mercury concentrations in coal and their speciation is needed. For this reason the author examined the behaviour of mercury in three coal samples ashed at increasing temperatures. Mercury removal from coal-fired power plants ranges from 10 to 50 per cent by fabric filters and 20 to 95 per cent by FGD systems. This data will help in regulating emissions of hazardous air pollutants from electric utility steam generating units and will potentially provide insight into the industry's contribution to the global mercury burden. 50 refs

  6. Mercury biogeochemistry: Paradigm shifts, outstanding issues and research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonke, Jeroen E.; Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Dommergue, Aurélien

    2013-05-01

    Half a century of mercury research has provided scientists and policy makers with a detailed understanding of mercury toxicology, biogeochemical cycling and past and future impacts on human exposure. The complexity of the global biogeochemical mercury cycle has led to repeated and ongoing paradigm shifts in numerous mercury-related disciplines and outstanding questions remain. In this review, we highlight some of the paradigm shifts and questions on mercury toxicity, the risks and benefits of seafood consumption, the source of mercury in seafood, and the Arctic mercury cycle. We see a continued need for research on mercury toxicology and epidemiology, for marine mercury dynamics and ecology, and for a closer collaboration between observational mercury science and mercury modeling in general. As anthropogenic mercury emissions are closely tied to the energy cycle (in particular coal combustion), mercury exposure to humans and wildlife are likely to persist unless drastic emission reductions are put in place.

  7. Mercury erosion experiments for spallation target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro

    2003-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) are promoting a plan to construct the spallation neutron source at the Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI, under the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project (J-PARC). A mercury circulation system has been designed so as to supply mercury to the target stably under the rated flow rate of 41 m 3 /hr. Then, it was necessary to confirm a mercury pump performance from the viewpoint of making the mercury circulation system feasible, and more, to investigate erosion rate under the mercury flow as well as an amount of mercury remained on the surface after drain from the viewpoints of mechanical strength relating to the lifetime and remote handling of mercury components. The mercury pump performance was tested under the mercury flow conditions by using an experimental gear pump, which had almost the same structure as a practical mercury pump to be expected in the mercury circulation system, and the erosion rates in a mercury pipeline as well as the amount of mercury remained on the surface were also investigated. The discharged flow rates of the experimental gear pump increased linearly with the rotation speed, so that the gear pump would work as the flow meter. Erosion rates obtained under the mercury velocity less than 1.6 m/s was found to be so small that decrease of pipeline wall thickness would be 390 μm after 30-year operation under the rated mercury velocity of 0.7 m/s. For the amount of remaining mercury on the pipeline, remaining rates of weight and volume were estimated at 50.7 g/m 2 and 3.74 Hg-cm 3 /m 2 , respectively. Applying these remaining rates of weight and volume to the mercury target, the remaining mercury was estimated at about 106.5 g and 7.9 cm 3 . Radioactivity of this remaining mercury volume was found to be three-order lower than that of the target casing. (author)

  8. Touchstones and mercury at Hedeby

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Martin; Holub, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 1 (2014), s. 193-204 ISSN 0079-4848 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Hedeby * Viking Age * grave goods * touchstone * precious metal * mercury * chemical microanalysis * archaeometallurgy Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 0.278, year: 2014

  9. PERCEPTION OF MERCURY RISK INFORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 8% of American women have blood Mercury levels exceeding the EPA reference dose (a dose below which symptoms would be unlikely). The children of these women are at risk of neurological deficits (lower IQ scores) primarily because of the mother's consumption of conta...

  10. A downstream voyage with mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Retrospective essay for the Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology.As I look back on my paper, “Effects of Low Dietary Levels of Methyl Mercury on Mallard Reproduction,” published in 1974 in the Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, a thought sticks in my mind. I realize just how much my mercury research was not unlike a leaf in a stream, carried this way and that, sometimes stalled in an eddy, restarted, and carried downstream at a pace and path that was not completely under my control. I was hired in 1969 by the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to study the effects of environmental pollutants on the behavior of wildlife. A colleague was conducting a study on the reproductive effects of methylmercury on mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and he offered to give me some of the ducklings. I conducted a pilot study, testing how readily ducklings approached a tape-recorded maternal call. Sample sizes were small, but the results suggested that ducklings from mercury-treated parents behaved differently than controls. That’s how I got into mercury research—pretty much by chance.

  11. Venus and Mercury as Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A general evolutionary history of the solar planetary system is given. The previously observed characteristics of Venus and Mercury (i.e. length of day, solar orbit, temperature) are discussed. The role of the Mariner 10 space probe in gathering scientific information on the two planets is briefly described.

  12. Venus and Mercury as planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A general evolutionary history of the solar planetary system is given. The previously observed characteristics of Venus and Mercury (i.e. length of day, solar orbit, temperature) are discussed. The role of the Mariner 10 space probe in gathering scientific information on the two planets is briefly described

  13. 76 FR 75446 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mercury, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ...-0894; Airspace Docket No. 11-AWP-14] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mercury, NV AGENCY: Federal... Mercury, Desert Rock Airport, Mercury, NV. Decommissioning of the Mercury Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) at Mercury, Desert Rock Airport has made this action necessary for the safety and management of Instrument...

  14. The Plasma Environment at Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, James M.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Gloeckler, George; Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Sarantos, Menalos; hide

    2011-01-01

    Mercury is the least explored terrestrial planet, and the one subjected to the highest flux of solar radiation in the heliosphere. Its highly dynamic, miniature magnetosphere contains ions from the exosphere and solar wind, and at times may allow solar wind ions to directly impact the planet's surface. Together these features create a plasma environment that shares many features with, but is nonetheless very different from, that of Earth. The first in situ measurements of plasma ions in the Mercury space environment were made only recently, by the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) during the MESSENGER spacecraft's three flybys of the planet in 2008-2009 as the probe was en route to insertion into orbit about Mercury earlier this year. Here. we present analysis of flyby and early orbital mission data with novel techniques that address the particular challenges inherent in these measurements. First. spacecraft structures and sensor orientation limit the FIPS field of view and allow only partial sampling of velocity distribution functions. We use a software model of FIPS sampling in velocity space to explore these effects and recover bulk parameters under certain assumptions. Second, the low densities found in the Mercury magnetosphere result in a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio for many ions. To address this issue, we apply a kernel density spread function to guide removal of background counts according to a background-signature probability map. We then assign individual counts to particular ion species with a time-of-flight forward model, taking into account energy losses in the carbon foil and other physical behavior of ions within the instrument. Using these methods, we have derived bulk plasma properties and heavy ion composition and evaluated them in the context of the Mercury magnetosphere.

  15. Chemical form matters: differential accumulation of mercury following inorganic and organic mercury exposures in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbas, Malgorzata; Macdonald, Tracy C; Pickering, Ingrid J; George, Graham N; Krone, Patrick H

    2012-02-17

    Mercury, one of the most toxic elements, exists in various chemical forms each with different toxicities and health implications. Some methylated mercury forms, one of which exists in fish and other seafood products, pose a potential threat, especially during embryonic and early postnatal development. Despite global concerns, little is known about the mechanisms underlying transport and toxicity of different mercury species. To investigate the impact of different mercury chemical forms on vertebrate development, we have successfully combined the zebrafish, a well-established developmental biology model system, with synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging. Our work revealed substantial differences in tissue-specific accumulation patterns of mercury in zebrafish larvae exposed to four different mercury formulations in water. Methylmercury species not only resulted in overall higher mercury burdens but also targeted different cells and tissues than their inorganic counterparts, thus revealing a significant role of speciation in cellular and molecular targeting and mercury sequestration. For methylmercury species, the highest mercury concentrations were in the eye lens epithelial cells, independent of the formulation ligand (chloride versusl-cysteine). For inorganic mercury species, in absence of l-cysteine, the olfactory epithelium and kidney accumulated the greatest amounts of mercury. However, with l-cysteine present in the treatment solution, mercuric bis-l-cysteineate species dominated the treatment, significantly decreasing uptake. Our results clearly demonstrate that the common differentiation between organic and inorganic mercury is not sufficient to determine the toxicity of various mercury species.

  16. Chemical Form Matters: Differential Accumulation of Mercury Following Inorganic and Organic Mercury Exposures in Zebrafish Larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korbas, Malgorzata; MacDonald, Tracy C.; Pickering, Ingrid J.; George, Graham N.; Krone, Patrick H. (Saskatchewan)

    2013-04-08

    Mercury, one of the most toxic elements, exists in various chemical forms each with different toxicities and health implications. Some methylated mercury forms, one of which exists in fish and other seafood products, pose a potential threat, especially during embryonic and early postnatal development. Despite global concerns, little is known about the mechanisms underlying transport and toxicity of different mercury species. To investigate the impact of different mercury chemical forms on vertebrate development, we have successfully combined the zebrafish, a well-established developmental biology model system, with synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging. Our work revealed substantial differences in tissue-specific accumulation patterns of mercury in zebrafish larvae exposed to four different mercury formulations in water. Methylmercury species not only resulted in overall higher mercury burdens but also targeted different cells and tissues than their inorganic counterparts, thus revealing a significant role of speciation in cellular and molecular targeting and mercury sequestration. For methylmercury species, the highest mercury concentrations were in the eye lens epithelial cells, independent of the formulation ligand (chloride versus L-cysteine). For inorganic mercury species, in absence of L-cysteine, the olfactory epithelium and kidney accumulated the greatest amounts of mercury. However, with L-cysteine present in the treatment solution, mercuric bis-L-cysteineate species dominated the treatment, significantly decreasing uptake. Our results clearly demonstrate that the common differentiation between organic and inorganic mercury is not sufficient to determine the toxicity of various mercury species.

  17. Mercury emission from crematories in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Takaoka

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few μg/Nm3 (normal cubic meters. Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the United Kingdom. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.

  18. Environmental Mercury and Its Toxic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Rice

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exists naturally and as a man-made contaminant. The release of processed mercury can lead to a progressive increase in the amount of atmospheric mercury, which enters the atmospheric-soil-water distribution cycles where it can remain in circulation for years. Mercury poisoning is the result of exposure to mercury or mercury compounds resulting in various toxic effects depend on its chemical form and route of exposure. The major route of human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg is largely through eating contaminated fish, seafood, and wildlife which have been exposed to mercury through ingestion of contaminated lower organisms. MeHg toxicity is associated with nervous system damage in adults and impaired neurological development in infants and children. Ingested mercury may undergo bioaccumulation leading to progressive increases in body burdens. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of individual organ systems associated with mercury poisoning. Mercury has profound cellular, cardiovascular, hematological, pulmonary, renal, immunological, neurological, endocrine, reproductive, and embryonic toxicological effects.

  19. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  20. Mercury exposure from interior latex paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agocs, M M; Etzel, R A; Parrish, R G; Paschal, D C; Campagna, P R; Cohen, D S; Kilbourne, E M; Hesse, J L

    1990-10-18

    Many paint companies have used phenylmercuric acetate as a preservative to prolong the shelf life of interior latex paint. In August 1989, acrodynia, a form of mercury poisoning, occurred in a child exposed to paint fumes in a home recently painted with a brand containing 4.7 mmol of mercury per liter (at that time the Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit was 1.5 mmol or less per liter). To determine whether the recent use of that brand of paint containing phenylmercuric acetate was associated with elevated indoor-air and urinary mercury concentrations, we studied 74 "exposed" persons living in 19 homes recently painted with the brand and 28 "unexposed" persons living in 10 homes not recently painted with paint containing mercury. The paint samples from the homes of exposed persons contained a median of 3.8 mmol of mercury per liter, and air samples from the homes had a median mercury content of 10.0 nmol per cubic meter (range, less than 0.5 to 49.9). No mercury was detected in paint or air samples from the homes of unexposed persons. The median urinary mercury concentration was higher in the exposed persons (4.7 nmol of mercury per millimole of creatinine; range, 1.4 to 66.5) than in the unexposed persons (1.1 nmol per millimole; range, 0.02 to 3.9; P less than 0.001). Urinary mercury concentrations within the range that we found in exposed persons have been associated with symptomatic mercury poisoning. We found that potentially hazardous exposure to mercury had occurred among persons whose homes were painted with a brand of paint containing mercury at concentrations approximately 2 1/2 times the Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit.

  1. RECOVERY OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED LIQUID WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin M. Stewart

    1999-09-29

    Mercury was widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) weapons facilities, resulting in a broad range of mercury-contaminated wastes and wastewaters. Some of the mercury contamination has escaped to the local environment, particularly at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, where approximately 330 metric tons of mercury were discharged to the environment between 1953 and 1963 (TN & Associates, 1998). Effective removal of mercury contamination from water is a complex and difficult problem. In particular, mercury treatment of natural waters is difficult because of the low regulatory standards. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency has established a national ambient water quality standard of 12 parts-per-trillion (ppt), whereas the standard is 1.8 ppt in the Great Lakes Region. In addition, mercury in the environment is typically present in several different forms, but sorption processes are rarely effective with more than one or two of these forms. To meet the low regulatory discharge limits, an effective sorption process must be able to address all forms of mercury present in the water. One approach is to apply different sorbents in series depending on the mercury speciation and the regulatory discharge limits. ADA Technologies, Inc. has developed four new sorbents to address the variety of mercury species present in industrial discharges and natural waters. Three of these sorbents have been field tested on contaminated creek water at the Y-12 Plant. Two of these sorbents have been successfully demonstrated very high removal efficiencies for soluble mercury species, reducing mercury concentrations at the outlet of a pilot-scale system to less than 12 ppt for as long as six months. The other sorbent tested at the Y-12 Plant targeted colloidal mercury not removed by standard sorption or filtration processes. At the Y-12 Plant, colloidal mercury appears to be associated with iron, so a sorbent that removes mercury-iron complexes in the presence of a

  2. Heavy Metals (Mercury, Lead and Cadmium Determination in 17 Species of Fish Marketed in Khorramabad City, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mortazavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals entrance to fish body tissues and transferring to human body systems after their consuming makes numerous undesirable effects and health problems. The aim of this study was to determine some heavy metals (lead, cadmium and mercury in fresh fishes marketed in Khorramabad City, west of Iran. In this descriptive study, five samples of 17 fish species with high consumption were purchased randomly in 2014. Measurement of mercury, lead and cadmium was performed using atomic absorption spectrometry. All measurements were performed three times for each sample. Lead mean levels in fish samples was in the range 0.736 -1.005 ppm, cadmium range was from 0.196 to 0.015 ppm and mean content of mercury was  0.431 - 0.107 ppm. At present mean concentration of lead, mercury and cadmium in supplied fishes muscle is lower than maximum recommended levels according to WHO, EC and FDA guidelines. Based on the obtained results of this study and the importance of heavy metals in foods and their impacts on human health, continuous monitoring of heavy metals levels in foods is necessary.

  3. An Epidemiological Study of Mercury Sensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Sato

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury sensitization has been historically in question and may be related to recent increases of type I allergic diseases. To clarify the epidemiological factors of mercury sensitization, we investigated factors relating to mercury sensitization in 215 medical students. Their allergic symptoms, family histories and lifestyles were studied by questionnaire. Patch tests were performed with HgCI2 (0.05% aq. and NiS04 (5% aq.. Anti- Dermatophagoides and anti-Crypfomeria pollen IgE antibodies in sera were also measured. Urinary mercury concentrations were measured in 25 mercury sensitized and 44 non-sensitized subjects (controls. Hair mercury concentrations were also measured in 19 sensitized and 22 non-sensitized subjects. While the positive rate of nickel was 6.0% (13/215, that of mercury was high (13.0%; 28/215. The subjects' individual histories of allergic rhinitis, eczema, urticaria and allergic conjunctivitis were significantly associated with family histories of these conditions (P<0.01, P<0.005 and P<0.005, respectively, as reported in the literature. However, no allergen- specific antibody positivity or past history of allergic disease was associated with mercury sensitization. Mercury sensitized subjects had experienced eczema caused by cosmetics, shampoos, soaps and haircreams significantly more frequently (P<0.05. The history of mercurochrome usage was not associated with mercury sensitization. The number of teeth treated with metals in mercury sensitized subjects was significantly higher than that in the control group (6.8±4.3 vs 4.8±1; P<0.05. There were significant differences in urinary mercury concentrations (specific gravity adjusted levels between mercury sensitized subjects and non-sensitized subjects (2.0±0.9 and 1.3±0.6 (xg/L, respectively; P<0.001. There were also significant differences in hair mercury concentrations between mercury sensitized and non-sensitized subjects (2.0±0.9 and 1.2±0.5 μg/g, respectively; P<0

  4. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior across the High-Level Waste Evaporator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jackson, D. G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shah, H. B. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Jain, V. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Occhipinti, J. E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Wilmarth, W. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-17

    The Mercury Program team’s effort continues to develop more fundamental information concerning mercury behavior across the liquid waste facilities and unit operations. Previously, the team examined the mercury chemistry across salt processing, including the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU), and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheets. This report documents the data and understanding of mercury across the high level waste 2H and 3H evaporator systems.

  5. Assessing Mercury and Methylmercury Bioavailability in Sediment Pore Water Using Mercury-Specific Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    FINAL REPORT Assessing Mercury and Methylmercury Bioavailability in Sediment Pore Water Using Mercury -Specific Hydrogels SERDP Project ER-1771...From - To) 2010-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Assessing Mercury and Methylmercury Bioavailability in 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W912HQ-10-C-0069 Sediment...Using Mercury -Specific DGTs 5b. GRANT NUMBER ER-1771 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER NA 6. AUTHOR(S) Magar, Victor S.*, Steenhaut, Nicholas

  6. Mercury concentrations at a historically mercury-contaminated site in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Williams, CR

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available . Biogeochem., 43:237?257 Barrat GJ, Combrink J (2002) An Assessment of the degree of mercury (Hg) bio-transformation in two river systems following discharges from a mercury recovery plant. Water SA Special Edition: WISA Proceedings 2002 Benoit JM... in mercury and methylmercury biogeochemical cycling and bioaccumulation within shallow estuaries. PhD thesis, University of Maryland, College Park Kim E-H, Mason RP, Porter ET, Soulen HL (2006) The impact of resuspension on sediment mercury dynamics...

  7. Amended Silicated for Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Butz; Thomas Broderick; Craig Turchi

    2006-12-31

    Amended Silicates{trademark}, a powdered, noncarbon mercury-control sorbent, was tested at Duke Energy's Miami Fort Station, Unit 6 during the first quarter of 2006. Unit 6 is a 175-MW boiler with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The plant burns run-of-the-river eastern bituminous coal with typical ash contents ranging from 8-15% and sulfur contents from 1.6-2.6% on an as-received basis. The performance of the Amended Silicates sorbent was compared with that for powdered activated carbon (PAC). The trial began with a period of baseline monitoring during which no sorbent was injected. Sampling during this and subsequent periods indicated mercury capture by the native fly ash was less than 10%. After the baseline period, Amended Silicates sorbent was injected at several different ratios, followed by a 30-day trial at a fixed injection ratio of 5-6 lb/MMACF. After this period, PAC was injected to provide a comparison. Approximately 40% mercury control was achieved for both the Amended Silicates sorbent and PAC at injection ratios of 5-6 lbs/MMACF. Higher injection ratios did not achieve significantly increased removal. Similar removal efficiencies have been reported for PAC injection trials at other plants with cold-side ESPs, most notably for plants using medium to high sulfur coal. Sorbent injection did not detrimentally impact plant operations and testing confirmed that the use of Amended Silicates sorbent does not degrade fly ash quality (unlike PAC). The cost for mercury control using either PAC or Amended Silicates sorbent was estimated to be equivalent if fly ash sales are not a consideration. However, if the plant did sell fly ash, the effective cost for mercury control could more than double if those sales were no longer possible, due to lost by-product sales and additional cost for waste disposal. Accordingly, the use of Amended Silicates sorbent could reduce the overall cost of mercury control by 50% or more versus PAC for locations where

  8. Percolation of cadmium across a mercury film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, K.; Gobal, F.

    2003-01-01

    Electrodeposition/dissolution of cadmium onto a film of mercury shows some deviations from the natural liquidity of mercury caused by the reduction of Cd onto it. Percolation and fractal analyzes were done on the surface and the bulk of the mercury film during diffusion of Cd species (atoms). These show that the fractal dimensions of the Cd-inserted mercury film are about 2.11 and 2.54 near the surface of the mercury film and at deeper points inside the film, respectively. The insertion process has a negligible effect on the surface morphology of the mercury film and there is a phase transition in the bulk, as well as a geometrical transition during the Cd-insertion (de-insertion) process. This corresponds to a percolation threshold of about 0.2 mol l -1 Cd content

  9. Mercury in dated Greenland marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmund, G.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty marine sediment cores from Greenland were analysed for mercury, and dated by the lead-210 method. In general the cores exhibit a mercury profile with higher mercury concentrations in the upper centimetres of the core. The cores were studied by linear regression of In Hg vs, age...... of the sediment for the youngest 100 years. As a rule the mercury decreased with depth in the sediment with various degrees of significance. The increase of the mercury flux during the last 100 years is roughly a doubling. The increase may be of anthropogenic origin as it is restricted to the last 100 years....... In four cores the concentration of manganese was found also to increase in the top layers indicating diagenesis. In the other cases the higher concentrations were not accompanied by higher manganese concentrations. The mercury flux to the sediment surface was generally proportional to the Pb-210 flux...

  10. Human accumulation of mercury in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, P.; Mulvad, G.; Pedersen, H. S.

    2007-01-01

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a high intake of mercury especially from marine mammals. To determine whether the mercury is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver, kidney and spleen from adult ethnic Greenlanders who died between 1990 and 1994 from...... a wide range of causes, natural and violent. Liver, kidney and spleen samples from between 33 and 71 case subjects were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury, and liver samples also for selenium. Metal levels in men and women did not differ and were not related to age except in one case, i.......e. for total mercury in liver, where a significant declining concentration with age was observed. The highest total mercury levels were found in kidney followed by liver and spleen. Methylmercury followed the same pattern, but levels were much lower, constituting only 19% of the total mercury concentration...

  11. Acclimation of subsurface microbial communities to mercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lipthay, Julia R; Rasmussen, Lasse D; Øregaard, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    We studied the acclimation to mercury of bacterial communities of different depths from contaminated and noncontaminated floodplain soils. The level of mercury tolerance of the bacterial communities from the contaminated site was higher than those of the reference site. Furthermore, the level...... of mercury tolerance and functional versatility of bacterial communities in contaminated soils initially were higher for surface soil, compared with the deeper soils. However, following new mercury exposure, no differences between bacterial communities were observed, which indicates a high adaptive potential...... of the subsurface communities, possibly due to differences in the availability of mercury. IncP-1 trfA genes were detected in extracted community DNA from all soil depths of the contaminated site, and this finding was correlated to the isolation of four different mercury-resistance plasmids, all belonging...

  12. Thiosulphate assisted phytoextraction of mercury contaminated soils at the Wanshan Mercury Mining District, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wanshan, known as the “Mercury Capital” of China, is located in the Southwest of China. Due to the extensive mining and smelting works in the Wanshan area, the local ecosystem has been serious contaminated with mercury. In the present study, a number of soil samples were taken from the Wanshan mercury mining area and the mercury fractionations in soils were analyzed using sequential extraction procedure technique. The obtained results showed that the dominate mercury fractions (represent 95% of total mercury were residual and organic bound mercury. A field trial was conducted in a mercury polluted farmland at the Wanshan mercury mine. Four plant species Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var. ASKYC (ASKYC, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.DPDH (DPDH, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.CHBD(CHBD, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.LDZY (LDZY were tested their ability to extract mercury from soil with thiosulphate amendment. The results indicated that the mercury concentration in the roots and shoots of the four plants were significantly increased with thiosulphate treatment. The mercury phytoextraction yield of ASKYC, DPDH, CHBD and LDZY were 92, 526, 294 and 129 g/ha, respectively

  13. Blood Mercury Levels of Zebra Finches Are Heritable: Implications for the Evolution of Mercury Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenton A Buck

    Full Text Available Mercury is a ubiquitous metal contaminant that negatively impacts reproduction of wildlife and has many other sub-lethal effects. Songbirds are sensitive bioindicators of mercury toxicity and may suffer population declines as a result of mercury pollution. Current predictions of mercury accumulation and biomagnification often overlook possible genetic variation in mercury uptake and elimination within species and the potential for evolution in affected populations. We conducted a study of dietary mercury exposure in a model songbird species, maintaining a breeding population of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata on standardized diets ranging from 0.0-2.4 μg/g methylmercury. We applied a quantitative genetics approach to examine patterns of variation and heritability of mercury accumulation within dietary treatments using a method of mixed effects modeling known as the 'animal model'. Significant variation in blood mercury accumulation existed within each treatment for birds exposed at the same dietary level; moreover, this variation was highly repeatable for individuals. We observed substantial genetic variation in blood mercury accumulation for birds exposed at intermediate dietary concentrations. Taken together, this is evidence that genetic variation for factors affecting blood mercury accumulation could be acted on by selection. If similar heritability for mercury accumulation exists in wild populations, selection could result in genetic differentiation for populations in contaminated locations, with possible consequences for mercury biomagnification in food webs.

  14. Radioactive mercury distribution in biological fluids and excretion in human subjects after inhalation of mercury vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherian, M.G.; Hursh, J.B.; Clarkson, T.W.; Allen, J.

    1978-01-01

    The distribution of mercury in red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma, and its excretion in urine and feces are described in five human subjects during the first 7 days following inhalation of radioactive mercury vapor. A major portion (98%) of radioactive mercury in whole blood is initially accumulated in the RBCs and is transferred partly to the plasma compartment until the ratio of mercury in RBCs to plasma is about 2 within 20 h. The cumulative urinary and fecal excretion of mercury for 7 days is about 11.6% of the retained dose, and is closely related to the percent decline in body burden of mercury. There is little correlation between either the urinary excretion and plasma radioactivity of mercury, or the specific activities of urine and plasma mercury, suggesting a mechanism other than a direct glomerular filtration involved in the urinary excretion of recently exposed mercury. These studies suggest that blood mercury levels can be used as an index of recent exposure, while urinary levels may be an index of renal concentration of mercury. However, there is no reliable index for mercury concentration in the brain

  15. Thiosulphate assisted phytoextraction of mercury contaminated soils at the Wanshan Mercury Mining District, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wanshan, known as the “Mercury Capital” of China, is located in the Southwest of China. Due to the extensive mining and smelting works in the Wanshan area, the local ecosystem has been serious contaminated with mercury. In the present study, a number of soil samples were taken from the Wanshan mercury mining area and the mercury fractionations in soils were analyzed using sequential extraction procedure technique. The obtained results showed that the dominate mercury fractions (represent 95% of total mercury were residual and organic bound mercury. A field trial was conducted in a mercury polluted farmland at the Wanshan mercury mine. Four plant species Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var. ASKYC (ASKYC, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.DPDH (DPDH, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.CHBD(CHBD, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.LDZY (LDZY were tested their ability to extract mercury from soil with thiosulphate amendment. The results indicated that the mercury concentration in the roots and shoots of the four plants were significantly increased with thiosulphate treatment. The mercury phytoextraction yield of ASKYC, DPDH, CHBD and LDZY were 92, 526, 294 and 129 g/ha, respectively.

  16. STRESS SENSITIVITY OF MERCURY INJECTION MEASUREMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Guise, P; Grattoni, C; Allshorn, S; Fisher, QJ; Schiffer, A

    2017-01-01

    Many petrophysical properties (e.g. permeability, electrical resistivity etc.) of tight rocks are very stress sensitive. However, most mercury injection measurements are made using an instrument that does not apply a confining pressure to the samples. Here we further explore the implications of the use and analysis of data from mercury injection porosimetry or mercury capillary pressure measurements (MICP). Two particular aspects will be discussed. First, the effective stress acting on sample...

  17. Mercury in polar bears from Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentfer, J.W.; Galster, W.A.

    1987-04-01

    Alaskan polar bear (Ursus maritimus) muscle and liver samples collected in 1972 were analyzed for total mercury. Bears north of Alaska had more mercury than bears west of Alaska. The only difference between young and adult animals was in the northern area where adults had more mercury in liver tissue than young animals. Levels were probably not high enough to be a serious threat to bears.

  18. Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Googin, John M.; Napier, John M.; Makarewicz, Mark A.; Meredith, Paul F.

    1986-01-01

    A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

  19. Surface composition of Mercury from reflectance spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Faith

    1988-01-01

    The controversies surrounding the existing spectra of Mercury are discussed together with the various implications for interpretations of Mercury's surface composition. Special attention is given to the basic procedure used for reducing reflectance spectrophotometry data, the factors that must be accounted for in the reduction of these data, and the methodology for defining the portion of the surface contributing the greatest amount of light to an individual spectrum. The application of these methodologies to Mercury's spectra is presented.

  20. Accumulation of mercury in selected plant species grown in soils contaminated with different mercury compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yi; Han, Fengxiang; Shiyab, Safwan; Chen, Jian; Monts, David L.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of our research is to screen and search for suitable plant species for phyto-remediation of mercury-contaminated soil. Currently our effort is specifically focused on mercury removal from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, where mercury contamination is a major concern. In order to cost effectively implement mercury remediation efforts, it is necessary now to obtain an improved understanding of biological means of removing mercury and mercury compounds.. Phyto-remediation is a technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. In particular, phyto-extraction is the uptake of contaminants by plant roots and translocation within the plants to shoots or leaves. Contaminants are generally removed by harvesting the plants. We have investigated phyto-extraction of mercury from contaminated soil by using some of the known metal-accumulating plants since no natural plant species with mercury hyper-accumulating properties has yet been identified. Different natural plant species have been studied for mercury uptake, accumulation, toxicity and overall mercury removal efficiency. Various mercury compounds, such as HgS, HgCl 2 , and Hg(NO 3 ) 2 , were used as contaminant sources. Different types of soil were examined and chosen for phyto-remediation experiments. We have applied microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectrometry as well as conventional analytical chemistry to monitor the phyto-remediation processes of mercury uptake, translocation and accumulation, and the physiological impact of mercury contaminants on selected plant species. Our results indicate that certain plant species, such as beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), accumulated a very limited amount of mercury in the shoots ( 2 powder, respectively; no visual stress symptoms were observed. We also studied mercury phyto-remediation using aged soils that contained HgS, HgCl 2 , or Hg(NO 3 ) 2 . We have found that up to hundreds

  1. The Messenger Mission to Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Domingue, D. L

    2007-01-01

    NASA’s MESSENGER mission, launched on 3 August, 2004 is the seventh mission in the Discovery series. MESSENGER encounters the planet Mercury four times, culminating with an insertion into orbit on 18 March 2011. It carries a comprehensive package of geophysical, geological, geochemical, and space environment experiments to complete the complex investigations of this solar-system end member, which begun with Mariner 10. The articles in this book, written by the experts in each area of the MESSENGER mission, describe the mission, spacecraft, scientific objectives, and payload. The book is of interest to all potential users of the data returned by the MESSENGER mission, to those studying the nature of the planet Mercury, and by all those interested in the design and implementation of planetary exploration missions.

  2. Augustus as Mercury at last

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Martins

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available My purpose in this paper is to investigate and to analyse the representation of Augustus as Mercury, and what this association may suggest and mean to the Romans from both the urbs and the prouinciae, focusing the epigraphy, the numismatic, and the literature. Furthermore, I review three researches that someway work this problem: Bandinelli, Zanker and Martins. Even though the associations between divinities and rulers were very common – Augustus represented as Apollo, Jupiter or Neptune; Tiberius as Apollo; Claudius as Jupiter; or Commodus as Hercules –, the discussion on the relationship between Augustus and Mercury is very rare in recent bibliography. The latest relevant research on this subject dates back to the first half of the twentieth century. Chittenden’s work on numismatic and Grether’s article on epigraphy are both very important. Thus, new evidences must be considered, so that we can further investigate these representations in the Roman world.

  3. Mercury dosing solutions for fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corazza, A; Boffito, C [SAES Getters S.p.A., Viale Italia 77, Lainate (MI) 20020 (Italy)], E-mail: alessio_corazza@saes-group.com

    2008-07-21

    A review of the different technologies used to dose mercury in fluorescent lamps is presented. Conventional liquid mercury dosing is gradually being replaced with more reliable and environmentally friendly solutions that enable a significant reduction of the amount of mercury introduced in the lamp, so as to cope with more stringent regulations issued to minimize the environmental impact of exhausted lamps. This paper will review the most advanced novel methods to assure an accurate and fine dosing of mercury in fluorescent lamps, especially focusing on solutions based on the use of solid alloys.

  4. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  5. Risk assessment of mercury contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, M.

    1993-01-01

    At two sites, highly contaminated with mercury, risk assessment was executed. Methods were developed to determine organomercury compounds in water, air and soil. Toxicity tests demonstrated the high toxicity of organomercury compounds compared to inorganic mercury. Besides highly toxic methylmercury, ethylmercury was found in soils close to a chemical plant in Marktredwitz. In ultrafiltration-experiments mercury showed great affinity to high molecular substances in water. Lysimeter-experiments proved, that organomercury compounds are adsorbed and transformed to inorganic and elemental mercury. (orig.) [de

  6. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  7. Apparatus for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Marcucci, Rudolph V.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for enriching the isotopic Hg content of mercury is provided. The apparatus includes a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill including mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. In a preferred embodiment, constant mercury pressure is maintained in the filter by means of a water-cooled tube that depends from it, the tube having a drop of mercury disposed in it. The reactor is arranged around the filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of a material which is transparent to ultraviolet light.

  8. Identification of elemental mercury in the subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dennis G

    2015-01-06

    An apparatus and process is provided for detecting elemental mercury in soil. A sacrificial electrode of aluminum is inserted below ground to a desired location using direct-push/cone-penetrometer based equipment. The insertion process removes any oxides or previously found mercury from the electrode surface. Any mercury present adjacent the electrode can be detected using a voltmeter which indicates the presence or absence of mercury. Upon repositioning the electrode within the soil, a fresh surface of the aluminum electrode is created allowing additional new measurements.

  9. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  10. Ocular disorders among workers exposed to mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabal, M S; Raslan, O A

    1995-01-01

    Mercury vapor exposed workers may show ocular changes, as well as other systems affection. A sample of 84 workers in preparing mercury fulminate were examined for conjunctival corneal and lenticular manifestation of long duration exposure, together with mercury urinary output. Lens changes were found in 50% of the involved workers while keratopathy as recorded in 34.5% of them. No statistically significant association was found between the occurrence of eye lesions and levels of urinary elimination of mercury. These results suggest local absorption of this element is most probably the underlying cause of ocular affection.

  11. Increased mercury emissions from modern dental amalgams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Ulf G; Hylander, Lars D

    2017-04-01

    All types of dental amalgams contain mercury, which partly is emitted as mercury vapor. All types of dental amalgams corrode after being placed in the oral cavity. Modern high copper amalgams exhibit two new traits of increased instability. Firstly, when subjected to wear/polishing, droplets rich in mercury are formed on the surface, showing that mercury is not being strongly bonded to the base or alloy metals. Secondly, high copper amalgams emit substantially larger amounts of mercury vapor than the low copper amalgams used before the 1970s. High copper amalgams has been developed with focus on mechanical strength and corrosion resistance, but has been sub-optimized in other aspects, resulting in increased instability and higher emission of mercury vapor. This has not been presented to policy makers and scientists. Both low and high copper amalgams undergo a transformation process for several years after placement, resulting in a substantial reduction in mercury content, but there exist no limit for maximum allowed emission of mercury from dental amalgams. These modern high copper amalgams are nowadays totally dominating the European, US and other markets, resulting in significant emissions of mercury, not considered when judging their suitability for dental restoration.

  12. Side effects of mercury in dental amalgam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titiek Berniyanti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental amalgam is an alloy composed of mixture of approximately equal parts of elemental liquid mercury and an alloy powder. The popularity of amalgam arises from excellent long term performance, ease of use and low cost. Despite the popularity of dental amalgam as restorative material, there have been concerns regarding the potential adverse health and environmental effects arising from exposure to mercury in amalgam. They have long been believed to be of little significance as contributors to the overall body burden of mercury, because the elemental form of mercury is rapidly consumed in the setting reaction of the restoration. In 1997, 80% of dentist in Indonesia still using amalgam as an alternative material, and 60% of them treat the rest of unused amalgam carelessly. In recent years, the possible environmental and health impact caused by certain routines in dental practice has attracted attention among regulators. As part of point source reduction strategies, the discharge of mercury/amalgam-contaminated wastes has been regulated in a number of countries, even though it has been documented that by adopting appropriate mercury hygiene measures, the impact of amalgam use in dentistry is minimal. The purpose of this paper is to examine on studies that relate mercury levels in human to the presence of dental amalgams. It is concluded that even though mercury used in filling is hazardous, if normal occupational recommendations for proper mercury hygiene routines and source of reduction strategies are followed, no occupational health risk can be assumed.

  13. Observations of Mercury in 1988 and 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmude, R.W. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A visual study of the planet Mercury was carried out in May 1988 and in April and May 1989. Most of the observations were made with the 35.5-cm telescope at the Texas A ampersand M University Observatory. This report presents drawings and a map of Mercury that covers the longitude range of 195-285 deg. One important finding was that a polarizing filter combined with color filters gives a sharper view of the planet. It is also concluded that high-resolution images of Mercury's terminator, either as seen from the earth or with the Hubble Space Telescope, can provide information about Mercury's topography. 10 refs

  14. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems. Our current strategy is to engineer plants to

  15. EDITORIAL: Mercury-free discharges for lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverlag, M.

    2007-07-01

    This special Cluster of articles in Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics covers the subject of mercury-free discharges that are being investigated by different light source researchers, as an alternative to existing mercury-containing lamps. The main driving force to move away from mercury-containing discharge light sources is connected to the environmentally unfriendly nature of mercury. After inhalation or direct contact, severe mercury exposure can lead to damage to human brain cells, the kidneys, the liver and the nervous system. For this reason, the use of mercury in products is becoming more and more restricted by different governmental bodies. In the lighting industry, however, many products still make use of mercury, for different reasons. The main reason is that mercury-containing products are, in most cases, more efficient than mercury-free products. For a realistic comparison of the environmental impact, the mercury-contamination due to electricity production must be taken into account, which depends on the type of fuel being used. For an average European fuel-mix, the amount of mercury that is released into the environment is around 29 μg kWh-1. This means that a typical 30 W TL lamp during a lifetime of 20,000 hours will release a total of about 20 mg mercury due to electricity production, which exceeds the total mercury dose in the lamp (more and more of which is being recycled) by a factor of 5-10 for a modern TL lamp. This illustrates that, quite apart from other environmental arguments like increased CO2 production, mercury-free alternatives that use more energy can in fact be detrimental for the total mercury pollution over the lifetime of the lamp. For this reason, the lighting industry has concentrated on lowering the mercury content in lamps as long as no efficient alternatives exist. Nevertheless, new initiatives for HID lamps and fluorescent lamps with more or less equal efficiency are underway, and a number of them are described in this

  16. Rapid Monitoring of Mercury in Air from an Organic Chemical Factory in China Using a Portable Mercury Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Yasutake, Akira; Cheng, Jin Ping; Kiyono, Masako; Uraguchi, Shimpei; Liu, Xiaojie; Miura, Kyoko; Yasuda, Yoshiaki; Mashyanov, Nikolay

    2011-01-01

    A chemical factory, using a production technology of acetaldehyde with mercury catalysis, was located southeast of Qingzhen City in Guizhou Province, China. Previous research showed heavy mercury pollution through an extensive downstream area. A current investigation of the mercury distribution in ambient air, soils, and plants suggests that mobile mercury species in soils created elevated mercury concentrations in ambient air and vegetation. Mercury concentrations of up to 600 ng/m3 in air o...

  17. Multiscale geomorphometric modeling of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florinsky, I. V.

    2018-02-01

    Topography is one of the key characteristics of a planetary body. Geomorphometry deals with quantitative modeling and analysis of the topographic surface and relationships between topography and other natural components of landscapes. The surface of Mercury is systematically studied by interpretation of images acquired during the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission. However, the Mercurian surface is still little explored by methods of geomorphometry. In this paper, we evaluate the Mercury MESSENGER Global DEM MSGR_DEM_USG_SC_I_V02 - a global digital elevation model (DEM) of Mercury with the resolution of 0.015625° - as a source for geomorphometric modeling of this planet. The study was performed at three spatial scales: the global, regional (the Caloris basin), and local (the Pantheon Fossae area) ones. As the initial data, we used three DEMs of these areas with resolutions of 0.25°, 0.0625°, and 0.015625°, correspondingly. The DEMs were extracted from the MESSENGER Global DEM. From the DEMs, we derived digital models of several fundamental morphometric variables, such as: slope gradient, horizontal curvature, vertical curvature, minimal curvature, maximal curvature, catchment area, and dispersive area. The morphometric maps obtained represent peculiarities of the Mercurian topography in different ways, according to the physical and mathematical sense of a particular variable. Geomorphometric models are a rich source of information on the Mercurian surface. These data can be utilized to study evolution and internal structure of the planet, for example, to visualize and quantify regional topographic differences as well as to refine geological boundaries.

  18. X-ray dose enhancement effects on N80C196KC20 chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huaimin; Xu Xi; Deng Jianhong; Zhan Junling; Zhao Juchao; Wang Xuli; Yuan Guohuo

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics' degradation and X-ray enhancement effects of N80C196KC20 chips were presented. The X-ray and 60 Co irradiations of N80C196KC20 chips from Intel Company were performed to investigate the response of operating currents I cc . The operation failure symbolizes the total dose response of the chips. The total dose failure level of the chips is very low, and the γ total dose failure is about 165 Gy(Si). The operating current of the chip increases significantly when failure of the chip happens. The X-ray enhanced factor of N80C196KC20 chip is measured and the X-ray enhancement mechanism is studied. (authors)

  19. The quadrupole moment of 196Pt - a crucial test of nuclear models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fewell, M.P.; Gyapong, G.J.; Spear, R.H.; Esat, M.T.; Baxter, A.M.; Burnett, S.M.

    1985-05-01

    The static electric quadrupole moment Q 2 + and the B(E2;0 + → 2 + ) of the first excited state of 196 Pt have been determined using Coulomb excitation. The results are Q 2 + = 0.79+-0.12 eb and B(E2;0 + → 2 + ) = 1.382+-0.006 e 2 b 2 . The Bohr-Mottelson model and the 0(6) limit of the interacting boson model fail to reproduce these values when constrained to fit other known properties of 196 Pt

  20. Maternal transfer of mercury to songbird eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Hartman, C Alex; Herzog, Mark P

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated the maternal transfer of mercury to eggs in songbirds, determined whether this relationship differed between songbird species, and developed equations for predicting mercury concentrations in eggs from maternal blood. We sampled blood and feathers from 44 house wren (Troglodytes aedon) and 34 tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) mothers and collected their full clutches (n = 476 eggs) within 3 days of clutch completion. Additionally, we sampled blood and feathers from 53 tree swallow mothers and randomly collected one egg from their clutches (n = 53 eggs) during mid to late incubation (6-10 days incubated) to evaluate whether the relationship varied with the timing of sampling the mother's blood. Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in maternal blood sampled at (1) the time of clutch completion for both house wrens (R 2  = 0.97) and tree swallows (R 2  = 0.97) and (2) during mid to late incubation for tree swallows (R 2  = 0.71). The relationship between mercury concentrations in eggs and maternal blood did not differ with the stage of incubation when maternal blood was sampled. Importantly, the proportion of mercury transferred from mothers to their eggs decreased substantially with increasing blood mercury concentrations in tree swallows, but increased slightly with increasing blood mercury concentrations in house wrens. Additionally, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs at the same maternal blood mercury concentration differed between species. Specifically, tree swallow mothers transferred 17%-107% more mercury to their eggs than house wren mothers over the observed mercury concentrations in maternal blood (0.15-1.92 μg/g ww). In contrast, mercury concentrations in eggs were not correlated with those in maternal feathers and, likewise, mercury concentrations in maternal blood were not correlated with those in feathers (all R 2  mercury concentrations from maternal blood to eggs

  1. Recovery of Mercury From Contaminated Liquid Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Base Contract program emphasized the manufacture and testing of superior sorbents for mercury removal, testing of the sorption process at a DOE site, and determination of the regeneration conditions in the laboratory. During this project, ADA Technologies, Inc. demonstrated the following key elements of a successful regenerable mercury sorption process: (1) sorbents that have a high capacity for dissolved, ionic mercury; (2) removal of ionic mercury at greater than 99% efficiency; and (3) thermal regeneration of the spent sorbent. ADA's process is based on the highly efficient and selective sorption of mercury by noble metals. Contaminated liquid flows through two packed columns that contain microporous sorbent particles on which a noble metal has been finely dispersed. A third column is held in reserve. When the sorbent is loaded with mercury to the point of breakthrough at the outlet of the second column, the first column is taken off-line and the flow of contaminated liquid is switched to the second and third columns. The spent column is regenerated by heating. A small flow of purge gas carries the desorbed mercury to a capture unit where the liquid mercury is recovered. Laboratory-scale tests with mercuric chloride solutions demonstrated the sorbents' ability to remove mercury from contaminated wastewater. Isotherms on surrogate wastes from DOE's Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee showed greater than 99.9% mercury removal. Laboratory- and pilot-scale tests on actual Y-12 Plant wastes were also successful. Mercury concentrations were reduced to less than 1 ppt from a starting concentration of 1,000 ppt. The treatment objective was 50 ppt. The sorption unit showed 10 ppt discharge after six months. Laboratory-scale tests demonstrated the feasibility of sorbent regeneration. Results show that sorption behavior is not affected after four cycles

  2. Worldwide trend of atmospheric mercury since 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Slemr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Concern about the adverse effects of mercury on human health and ecosystems has led to tightening emission controls since the mid 1980s. But the resulting mercury emissions reductions in many parts of the world are believed to be offset or even surpassed by the increasing emissions in rapidly industrializing countries. Consequently, concentrations of atmospheric mercury are expected to remain roughly constant. Here we show that the worldwide atmospheric mercury concentrations have decreased by about 20 to 38 % since 1996 as indicated by long-term monitoring at stations in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres combined with intermittent measurements of latitudinal distribution over the Atlantic Ocean. The total reduction of the atmospheric mercury burden of this magnitude within 14 years is unusually large among most atmospheric trace gases and is at odds with the current mercury emission inventories with nearly constant anthropogenic emissions over this period. This suggests a major shift in the biogeochemical cycle of mercury including oceans and soil reservoirs. Decreasing reemissions from the legacy of historical mercury emissions are the most likely explanation for this decline since the hypothesis of an accelerated oxidation rate of elemental mercury in the atmosphere is not supported by the observed trends of other trace gases. Acidification of oceans, climate change, excess nutrient input and pollution may also contribute by their impact on the biogeochemistry of ocean and soils. Consequently, models of the atmospheric mercury cycle have to include soil and ocean mercury pools and their dynamics to be able to make projections of future trends.

  3. Mercury Methylation and Detoxification by Novel Microorganisms in Mercury Enriched Mesothermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionfriddo, C. M.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Stott, M.; Wick, R. R.; Schultz, M. B.; Holt, K. E.; Moreau, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Hot springs and fumaroles release significant quantities of aqueous and gaseous mercury into the environment. Yet few studies have looked at the microbial underpinnings of mercury transformations in geothermal settings. Recent advancements in culture-independent molecular techniques, such as ultra-high-throughput sequencing, allow us to delve deeply into the functional and phylogenetic make-up of these extreme environments. Here we present results from deep metagenomic sequencing of geothermal microbial communities cycling mercury, focussing on the connections between putative metabolisms and mercury methylation, and the evolution of the mer-operon. Presented are data from two adjacent, acidic (pHNew Zealand), extremely enriched in total mercury (>1000 ng L-1), and varying methylmercury concentrations (1-10 ng L-1). Microbial communities of both springs are dominated by mercury resistant acidophilic, sulfur- and iron-cycling microbes: Acidithiobacillus, Thiomonas, and Thermoplasma. Mercury methylation genes (hgcAB) were only detected in the cooler spring (ΔT~10 °C), with an order of magnitude greater methylmercury (10 ng L-1). The hgcAB genes have no known closest relatives (40°C), and methylmercury concentration. We conclude that the relative amount of mercury methylation in each hot spring is controlled by the presence of methylating bacteria and archaea, the release of bioavailable mercury species from sulfide minerals, counterbalanced by microbial mercury demethylation and reduction and mercury sulfide mineralization.

  4. Mercury rising : mercury emissions from Ontario Power Generation's coal-fired plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rang, S.

    2004-09-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) operates 5 coal-fired power plants which are the largest single source of mercury emissions in Ontario. Mercury is a persistent, bioaccumulative neurotoxin which is considered toxic under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. This report examines the health and environmental impacts of mercury, and the trends for mercury emission in Ontario. In 2002, the 5 coal-fired plants emitted 527 kg of mercury into the atmosphere and contributed 39 per cent of the total amount of mercury emitted into the air. While many other sectors have reduced their mercury emissions since 1988, Ontario's coal-fired plants have lagged behind and have actually increased mercury emissions by 16 per cent since 1988. This paper suggests that phasing out OPG coal-fired plants by 2007 could lead to a 39 per cent reduction in airborne mercury emissions. It would also allow Ontario to achieve the Canada Wide Standard for mercury emissions 3 years early, and would help both Ontario and Canada meet air pollution reduction commitments under international agreements. It was noted that phasing out coal-fired power plants by one-third will help Ontario achieve its goal of a 90 per cent reduction in mercury emissions by 2010. It was suggested that alternative power sources can offer a wide range of environmental advantages. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  5. Mercury(II) and methyl mercury speciation on Streptococcus pyogenes loaded Dowex Optipore SD-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuzen, Mustafa, E-mail: m.tuzen@gmail.com [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Karaman, Isa [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Biology Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-09-30

    A solid phase extraction procedure based on speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury on Streptococcus pyogenes immobilized on Dowex Optipore SD-2 has been established. Selective and sequential elution with 0.1 mol L{sup -1} HCl for methyl mercury and 2 mol L{sup -1} HCl for mercury(II) were performed at pH 8. The determination of mercury levels was performed by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Optimal analytical conditions including pH, amounts of biosorbent, sample volumes, etc., were investigated. The influences of the some alkaline and earth alkaline ions and some transition metals on the recoveries were also investigated. The capacity of biosorbent for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 4.8 and 3.4 mg g{sup -1}. The detection limit (3 sigma) of the reagent blank for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 2.1 and 1.5 ng L{sup -1}. Preconcentration factor was calculated as 25. The relative standard deviations of the procedure were below 7%. The validation of the presented procedure is performed by the analysis of standard reference material (NRCC-DORM 2 Dogfish Muscle). The procedure was successfully applied to the speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury in natural water and environmental samples.

  6. Mercury(II) and methyl mercury speciation on Streptococcus pyogenes loaded Dowex Optipore SD-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Karaman, Isa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    A solid phase extraction procedure based on speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury on Streptococcus pyogenes immobilized on Dowex Optipore SD-2 has been established. Selective and sequential elution with 0.1 mol L -1 HCl for methyl mercury and 2 mol L -1 HCl for mercury(II) were performed at pH 8. The determination of mercury levels was performed by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Optimal analytical conditions including pH, amounts of biosorbent, sample volumes, etc., were investigated. The influences of the some alkaline and earth alkaline ions and some transition metals on the recoveries were also investigated. The capacity of biosorbent for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 4.8 and 3.4 mg g -1 . The detection limit (3 sigma) of the reagent blank for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 2.1 and 1.5 ng L -1 . Preconcentration factor was calculated as 25. The relative standard deviations of the procedure were below 7%. The validation of the presented procedure is performed by the analysis of standard reference material (NRCC-DORM 2 Dogfish Muscle). The procedure was successfully applied to the speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury in natural water and environmental samples.

  7. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability of 7% to 15% after ingestion; they are also irritants and cause gastrointestinal symptoms. Upon entering the body, inorganic mercury compounds are accumulated mainly in the kidneys and produce kidney damage. In contrast, human exposure to elemental mercury is mainly by inhalation, followed by rapid absorption and distribution in all major organs. Elemental mercury from ingestion is poorly absorbed with a bioavailability of less than 0.01%. The primary target organs of elemental mercury are the brain and kidney. Elemental mercury is lipid soluble and can cross the blood-brain barrier, while inorganic mercury compounds are not lipid soluble, rendering them unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. Elemental mercury may also enter the brain from the nasal cavity through the olfactory pathway. The blood mercury is a useful biomarker after short-term and high-level exposure, whereas the urine mercury is the ideal biomarker for long-term exposure to both elemental and inorganic mercury, and also as a good indicator of body burden. This review discusses the common sources of mercury exposure, skin lightening products containing mercury and mercury release from dental amalgam filling, two issues that happen in daily life, bear significant public health importance, and yet undergo extensive debate on their safety. PMID:23230464

  8. Sexual differences in the excretion of organic and inorganic mercury by methyl mercury-treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.J.; Fisher, H.L.; Sumler, M.R.; Mushak, P.; Hall, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Adult male and female Long Evans rats received 1 mumole of methyl ( 203 Hg) mercuric chloride per kilogram sc. Whole-body retention of mercury and excretion of organic and inorganic mercury in urine and feces were monitored for 98 days after dosing. Females cleared mercury from the body more rapidly than did males. The major route of mercury excretion was feces. By 98 days after dosing, cumulative mercury excretion in feces accounted for about 51% of the dose in males and about 54% of the dose in females. For both sexes, about 33% of the dose was excreted in feces as inorganic mercury. Cumulative excretion of organic mercury in feces accounted for about 18 and 21% of the dose in males and females, respectively. Urinary excretion of mercury was quantitatively a smaller route for mercury clearance but important sexual differences in loss by this route were found. Over the 98-day experimental period, males excreted in urine about 3.2% of the dose and females excreted 7.5%. Cumulative organic Hg excretion in urine accounted for 1.8% of the dose in males and 5.3% of the dose in females. These sexual differences in urinary and fecal excretion of organic and inorganic mercury following methyl mercury treatment were consistent with previous reports of sexual differences in mercury distribution and retention in methyl mercury-treated rats, particularly sexual differences in organic mercury uptake and retention in the kidney. Relationships between body burdens of organic or inorganic Hg and output of these forms of Hg in urine and feces were also found to be influenced by the interval after MeHg treatment and by sex. Relationship between concentration of Hg in liver and feces and in kidney and urine differed for organic and inorganic Hg and depended upon sexual status and interval after MeHg treatment

  9. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogle, M.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-09-15

    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish.

  10. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogle, M.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish

  11. A Challenging Case of Acute Mercury Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nayfeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mercury exists in multiple forms: elemental, organic, and inorganic. Its toxic manifestations depend on the type and magnitude of exposure. The role of colonoscopic decompression in acute mercury toxicity is still unclear. We present a case of acute elemental mercury toxicity secondary to mercury ingestion, which markedly improved with colonoscopic decompression. Clinical Case. A 54-year-old male presented to the ED five days after ingesting five ounces (148 cubic centimeters of elemental mercury. Examination was only significant for a distended abdomen. Labs showed elevated serum and urine mercury levels. An abdominal radiograph showed radiopaque material throughout the colon. Succimer and laxatives were initiated. The patient had recurrent bowel movements, and serial radiographs showed interval decrease of mercury in the descending colon with interval increase in the cecum and ascending colon. Colonoscopic decompression was done successfully. The colon was evacuated, and a repeat radiograph showed decreased hyperdense material in the colon. Three months later, a repeat radiograph showed no hyperdense material in the colon. Conclusion. Ingested elemental mercury can be retained in the colon. Although there are no established guidelines for colonoscopic decompression, our patient showed significant improvement. We believe further studies on this subject are needed to guide management practices.

  12. The influence of floodplains on mercury availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallschlaeger, D.; Wilken, R.D. [GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht (Germany). Inst. of Physical and Chemical Analytics

    1997-09-01

    The floodplains of the German river Elbe affect the mercury distribution in the river system in two different ways: they act both as a medium-term sink and as a long-term source. The large amounts of mercury deposited onto the floodplains during annual floodings are first effectively fixed in the soils, rendering them basically unavailable. Sequential extraction experiments reveal that only a small fraction of the mercury (< 3%) is present in available forms, whereas the vast majority is associated with humic substances or present in sulfidic binding forms. After deposition, a small fraction of the total mercury is gradually remobilized into the aqueous phase bound passively to water-soluble humic acids. The availability of mercury in these complexes is still low, since environmental influences such as changes in pH or redox potential and competition with other cations do not cause any mercury liberation. In the next step, reactions in the aqueous phase lead to the formation of the highly available volatile species Hg{sup 0} and dimethylmercury (DMM). Their evaporation gives rise to a strong mercury flux from the floodplains into the atmosphere. Preliminary mass balances indicate that the majority of the deposited mercury stays bound in the floodplain soils, while small amounts are emitted back into the river`s ecosystem. Atmospheric emission is more important as a remobilization pathway than aquatic export.

  13. OCCURENCE OF MERCURY IN PET FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Abete

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mercury levels in 61 complete pet feed containing fish were evaluated. In five samples a mercury content exceeding the maximum residues level (0.4 mg/kg was detected. The statistical evaluation didn’t show a significant correlation between the percentage of fish in feedingstuffs and the contamination level.

  14. Hair mercury measurement in Egyptian autistic children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El-baz

    Abstract Background: A review of medical literature has shown that exposure to mercury, whether organic or inorganic, can give rise to the symptoms and traits defining or commonly found in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Mercury can cause impairments in social interaction, commu- nication difficulties, and repetitive ...

  15. Terahertz oscillations in mercury cuprate superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It has been recently reported that the three-dimensional Bose–Einstein con- densation of the quasi-particles is valid for the mercury cuprates at liquid helium tem- perature. In this study, the validity of the interlayer theory in three dimensions has been investigated for optimally oxygen-doped mercury cuprates at the ...

  16. Mercury poisoning | Shamley | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis of mercury poisoning requires a high index of suspicion. Mercury poisoning in a patient involved in illicit gold extraction is reported and 6 other cases considered. Some of the clinical features and treatment of this condition are discussed. S Afr Med J 1989; 76: 114-116 ...

  17. Mercury soil surveys: a good reconnaissance tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1981-05-01

    Three examples of mercury soil surveys are discussed, along with the gravity data. An excellent correlation was found in southern Arizona between buried structures revealed by gravity and mercury soil surveys. The advantages of the latter over the former as a reconnaissance tool are listed. (MHR)

  18. Intentional intravenous mercury injection | Yudelowitz | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intravenous mercury injection is rarely seen, with few documented cases. Treatment strategies are not clearly defined for such cases, although a few options do show benefit. This case report describes a 29-year-old man suffering from bipolar disorder, who presented following self-inflicted intravenous injection of mercury.

  19. Pneumonitis after Inhalation of Mercury Vapours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JD Glezos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year-old man presented to hospital with pneumonia but only after discharge from hospital did he admit to deliberate prior inhalation of mercury. His pulmonary involvement appeared to resolve almost completely with antibiotics and supportive care. Nevertheless, persisting elevated urinary excretion of mercury required two courses of chelation therapy. No serious systemic sequelae were observed.

  20. Recent Advances in Atmospheric Chemistry of Mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Si

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is one of the most toxic metals and has global importance due to the biomagnification and bioaccumulation of organomercury via the aquatic food web. The physical and chemical transformations of various mercury species in the atmosphere strongly influence their composition, phase, transport characteristics and deposition rate back to the ground. Modeling efforts to assess global cycling of mercury require an accurate understanding of atmospheric mercury chemistry. Yet, there are several key uncertainties precluding accurate modeling of physical and chemical transformations. We focus this article on recent studies (since 2015 on improving our understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of mercury. We discuss recent advances in determining the dominant atmospheric oxidant of elemental mercury (Hg0 and understanding the oxidation reactions of Hg0 by halogen atoms and by nitrate radical (NO3—in the aqueous reduction of oxidized mercury compounds (HgII as well as in the heterogeneous reactions of Hg on atmospheric-relevant surfaces. The need for future research to improve understanding of the fate and transformation of mercury in the atmosphere is also discussed.

  1. Urban artisanal gold shops and mercury emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordy, P.; Veiga, M.; Carrasco, V.H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Artisanal miners in developing countries use mercury amalgamation processes to extract gold. The amalgams are then refined before being sold on to urban gold shops. The amalgams can often contain between 2 to 40 per cent mercury. Unburned amalgams are also often sold directly to gold shops. There are serious health risks for shop employees and nearby populations when the gold is melted and further purified. Studies have shown that mercury concentrations in the ambient air of gold shops often exceeds World Health Organization (WHO) limits by an order of magnitude or more. This study examined the practices and technologies used to refine gold in Latin America and Indonesia. The study compared and contrasted various refining methods and their resulting mercury emissions. Methods of reducing mercury emissions were also investigated, including a filtration system designed to capture 80 per cent of mercury emissions. Barriers to implementing mercury emissions reduction plans were also investigated. It was concluded that the design of urban gold shops must include condensers, fume hoods, and efficient mercury capture systems. 15 refs

  2. Mercury cycling in peatland watersheds. Chapter 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Carl P.J. Mitchell; Jeffrey D. Jeremiason; Neal A. Hines; David F. Grigal; Daniel R. Engstrom; Jill K. Coleman-Wasik; Edward A. Nater; Edward B. Swain; Bruce A. Monson; Jacob A. Fleck; Brian Johnson; James E. Almendinger; Brian A. Branfireun; Patrick L. Brezonik; James B. Cotner

    2011-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is of great environmental concern due to its transformation into the toxic methylmercury (MeHg) form that bioaccumulates within the food chain and causes health concerns for both humans and wildlife (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2002). Mercury can affect neurological development in fetuses and young children. In adults, exposure to Hg can lead to...

  3. Mercury in tropical and subtropical coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Monica F.; Landing, William M.; Kehrig, Helena A.; Barletta, Mário; Holmes, Christopher D.; Barrocas, Paulo R. G.; Evers, David C.; Buck, David G.; Vasconcellos, Ana Claudia; Hacon, Sandra S.; Moreira, Josino C.; Malm, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities influence the biogeochemical cycles of mercury, both qualitatively and quantitatively, on a global scale from sources to sinks. Anthropogenic processes that alter the temporal and spatial patterns of sources and cycling processes are changing the impacts of mercury contamination on aquatic biota and humans. Human exposure to mercury is dominated by the consumption of fish and products from aquaculture operations. The risk to society and to ecosystems from mercury contamination is growing, and it is important to monitor these expanding risks. However, the extent and manner to which anthropogenic activities will alter mercury sources and biogeochemical cycling in tropical and sub-tropical coastal environments is poorly understood. Factors as (1) lack of reliable local/regional data; (2) rapidly changing environmental conditions; (3) governmental priorities and; (4) technical actions from supra-national institutions, are some of the obstacles to overcome in mercury cycling research and policy formulation. In the tropics and sub-tropics, research on mercury in the environment is moving from an exploratory “inventory” phase towards more process-oriented studies. Addressing biodiversity conservation and human health issues related to mercury contamination of river basins and tropical coastal environments are an integral part of paragraph 221 paragraph of the United Nations document “The Future We Want” issued in Rio de Janeiro in June 2012. PMID:22901765

  4. Episodic bioavailability of environmental mercury: implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perennial wildfires in Africa and other continents contribute an estimated 8 x 105 kg of mercury to the global atmosphere with a residence time of approximately one year. This phenomenon changes the flux of biologically available mercury in natural microbial communities where enzymatic actions, including mercuric ...

  5. Terahertz oscillations in mercury cuprate superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has been recently reported that the three-dimensional Bose–Einstein condensation of the quasi-particles is valid for the mercury cuprates at liquid helium temperature. In this study, the validity of the interlayer theory in three dimensions has been investigated for optimally oxygen-doped mercury cuprates at the temperature ...

  6. Mercury in Thana creek, Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Desai, B.N.

    Mercury content of the water column estimated along Thana Creek/Bombay Harbour gave a standing stock of about 77 kg in excess of the expected background. Mercury concentration in sediment from 23 locations which varied from 0.17 to 8.21 ppm (dry...

  7. Urban artisanal gold shops and mercury emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordy, P.; Veiga, M.; Carrasco, V.H.G. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Process Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Artisanal miners in developing countries use mercury amalgamation processes to extract gold. The amalgams are then refined before being sold on to urban gold shops. The amalgams can often contain between 2 to 40 per cent mercury. Unburned amalgams are also often sold directly to gold shops. There are serious health risks for shop employees and nearby populations when the gold is melted and further purified. Studies have shown that mercury concentrations in the ambient air of gold shops often exceeds World Health Organization (WHO) limits by an order of magnitude or more. This study examined the practices and technologies used to refine gold in Latin America and Indonesia. The study compared and contrasted various refining methods and their resulting mercury emissions. Methods of reducing mercury emissions were also investigated, including a filtration system designed to capture 80 per cent of mercury emissions. Barriers to implementing mercury emissions reduction plans were also investigated. It was concluded that the design of urban gold shops must include condensers, fume hoods, and efficient mercury capture systems. 15 refs.

  8. Mercury Sorption onto Malt Spent Rootlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manariotis, I. D.; Anagnostopoulos, V.; Karapanagioti, H. K.; Chrysikopoulos, C.

    2011-12-01

    Mercury is a metal of particular concern due to its toxicity even at relatively low concentrations. The maximum permissible level for mercury in drinking water set by the European Union is 0.001 mg/L. Mercury is released into the environment via four principal pathways: (1) natural processes; i.e. a volcanic eruption, (2) incidental to some other activity; i.e. coal burning power plants, (3) accidentally during the manufacture, breakage or disposal of products that have mercury put into them deliberately, and (4) direct use in industrial settings. The present study focuses on the removal of mercury (II) from aqueous solutions via sorption onto Malt Spent Rootlets (MSR). Batch experiments were conducted employing MSR with size ranging from 0.18 to 1 mm. The effects of pH, mercury concentration, contact time, and solid to liquid ratio on mercury sorption onto MSR were investigated. The highest mercury removal from the aqueous phase, of 41%, was observed at pH of 5.

  9. Low dose mercury toxicity and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Farhana; Rizwi, Shamim J; Haq, Soghra K; Khan, Rizwan H

    2005-09-01

    Post Minamata incident there has been awareness about mercury toxicity even among the general public. Previous researches contributed a vast amount of data regarding acute mercury exposure, but gradually information about the low dose [Ninomiya, T., Ohmori, H., Hashimoto, K., Tsuruta, K., Ekino, S., 1995. Expansion of methylmercury poisoning outside minamata: an epidemiological study on chronic methylmercury poisoninig outside of Minamata. Environ. Res. 70 (1) 47-50; Lebel, J., Mergler, D., Lucotte, M., Amorim, M., Dolbec, J., Miranda, D., Arantes, G., Rheault, I., Pichet, P., 1996. Evidence of early nervous system dysfunction in Amazonian populations exposed to low-levels of methylmercury. Neurotoxicology 17 (1) 157-167] of mercury toxicity has been trickling in. With mercury contaminating rain-, ground- and sea-water no one is safe. Polluted water leads to mercury laced fish, meat and vegetable. In aquatic environments, inorganic mercury is microbiologically transformed into lipophilic organic compound 'methylmercury'. This transformation makes mercury more prone to biomagnification in food chains. Consequently, populations with traditionally high dietary intake of food originating from fresh or marine environment have highest dietary exposure to mercury. Extensive research done on locals across the globe have already established this, persons who routinely consume fish or a particular species of fish are at an increased risk of methylmercury poisoning. The easy access of the toxicant to man through multiple pathways air, water, food, cosmetic products and even vaccines increase the exposure. Foetus and children are more susceptible towards mercury toxicity. Mothers consuming diet containing mercury pass the toxicant to foetus and to infants through breast milk. Decreased performance in areas of motor function and memory has been reported among children exposed to presumably safe mercury levels. Similarly, disruption of attention, fine motor function and verbal

  10. Effect of salinity on methylation of mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, J.E.; Bartha, R.

    1980-09-01

    Monomethyl and dimethylmercury are potent neurotoxins subject to biomagnification in food webs. This fact was tragically demonstrated by the Minamata and Niigata poisoning incidents in Japan in which 168 persons who ate seafood from mercury polluted waters were poisoned, 52 fatally. Shortly after these two incidents, work conducted in freshwater environments demonstrated the microbial conversion of inorganic and phenylmercury compounds to mono- and di-methylmercury. Consideration of some fragmentary evidence from the literature, however, indicates that the rate and the significance of microbial methylation of mercury in freshwater and saltwater environments may not be the same. A demonstrated relationship between mercury methylation rates and water salinity would greatly influence our thinking about mercury pollution effects in marine versus freshwater environments. Since we were unable to locate published reports on this subject, we are investigating the influence of salinity on the rate of mercury methylation in an estuarine sediment.

  11. High activity carbon sorbents for mercury capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavropoulos George G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High efficiency activated carbons have been prepared for removing mercury from gas streams. Starting materials used were petroleum coke, lignite, charcoal and olive seed waste, and were chemically activated with KOH. Produced adsorbents were primarily characterized for their porosity by N2 adsorption at 77 K. Their mercury retention capacity was characterized based on the breakthrough curves. Compared with typical commercial carbons, they have exhibited considerably enhanced mercury adsorption capacity. An attempt has been made to correlate mercury entrapment and pore structure. It has been shown that physical surface area is increased during activation in contrast to the mercury adsorption capacity that initially increases and tends to decrease at latter stages. Desorption of active sites may be responsible for this behavior.

  12. Human accumulation of mercury in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2007-01-01

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a high intake of mercury especially from marine mammals. To determine whether the mercury is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver, kidney and spleen from adult ethnic Greenlanders who died between 1990 and 1994 from...... a wide range of causes, natural and violent. Liver, kidney and spleen samples from between 33 and 71 case subjects were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury, and liver samples also for selenium. Metal levels in men and women did not differ and were not related to age except in one case, i...... in liver and spleen and as little as 3% in kidney. In liver selenium was found in surplus to mercury on a molar basis. Mercury concentrations in the liver and kidneys of Greenlanders were elevated compared to levels in the general population in Japan, Korea and several European countries, except...

  13. Autism: a novel form of mercury poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, S; Enayati, A; Redwood, L; Roger, H; Binstock, T

    2001-04-01

    Autism is a syndrome characterized by impairments in social relatedness and communication, repetitive behaviors, abnormal movements, and sensory dysfunction. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that autism may affect 1 in 150 US children. Exposure to mercury can cause immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions similar to traits defining or associated with autism, and the similarities extend to neuroanatomy, neurotransmitters, and biochemistry. Thimerosal, a preservative added to many vaccines, has become a major source of mercury in children who, within their first two years, may have received a quantity of mercury that exceeds safety guidelines. A review of medical literature and US government data suggests that: (i) many cases of idiopathic autism are induced by early mercury exposure from thimerosal; (ii) this type of autism represents an unrecognized mercurial syndrome; and (iii) genetic and non-genetic factors establish a predisposition whereby thimerosal's adverse effects occur only in some children. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  14. Removal of mercury by adsorption: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-Gang; Yue, Bao-Yu; Wu, Xiong-Wei; Liu, Qi; Jiao, Fei-Peng; Jiang, Xin-Yu; Chen, Xiao-Qing

    2016-03-01

    Due to natural and production activities, mercury contamination has become one of the major environmental problems over the world. Mercury contamination is a serious threat to human health. Among the existing technologies available for mercury pollution control, the adsorption process can get excellent separation effects and has been further studied. This review is attempted to cover a wide range of adsorbents that were developed for the removal of mercury from the year 2011. Various adsorbents, including the latest adsorbents, are presented along with highlighting and discussing the key advancements on their preparation, modification technologies, and strategies. By comparing their adsorption capacities, it is evident from the literature survey that some adsorbents have shown excellent potential for the removal of mercury. However, there is still a need to develop novel, efficient adsorbents with low cost, high stability, and easy production and manufacture for practical utility.

  15. 75 FR 15413 - Approval for Processing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 196, ATC Logistics & Electronics (Personal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1671] Approval for Processing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 196, ATC Logistics & Electronics (Personal Navigation Devices), Fort Worth.... 81a-81u), the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) adopts the following Order: Whereas, ATC Logistics...

  16. 75 FR 64248 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority Foreign-Trade Zone 196 ATC Logistics & Electronics (Cell...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... Authority Foreign-Trade Zone 196 ATC Logistics & Electronics (Cell Phone Kitting) Fort Worth, TX Pursuant to... Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) adopts the following Order: Whereas, ATC Logistics & Electronics... Logistics & Electronics, as described in the application and Federal Register notice, is approved, subject...

  17. 42 CFR 413.196 - Notification of changes in rate-setting methodologies and payment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of changes in rate-setting... NURSING FACILITIES Payment for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.196 Notification of changes in rate-setting methodologies and payment rates. Link to an amendment...

  18. 28 CFR 19.6 - Responsibility of DOJ organizational units for program implementation and implementation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Department of Justice, for a listing of DOJ principal organizational units designated as... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibility of DOJ organizational... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE USE OF PENALTY MAIL IN THE LOCATION AND RECOVERY OF MISSING CHILDREN § 19.6...

  19. 75 FR 17691 - Foreign-Trade Zone 196 - Fort Worth, Texas, Application for Manufacturing Authority, ATC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Worth, Texas, Application for Manufacturing Authority, ATC Logistics & Electronics (Cell Phone Kitting... Board (the Board) by ATC Logistics & Electronics (ATCLE), operator of Site 2, FTZ 196, Fort Worth, Texas.... Executive Secretary. [FR Doc. 2010-7886 Filed 4-6-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3510-DS-S ...

  20. 32 CFR 196.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 196.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A recipient shall not discriminate against any person on the basis of sex in the counseling or...

  1. Zagadnienie uczuć religijnych w kontekście art. 196 Kodeksu karnego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Tryka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes religious feelings in the context of criminal offence against religious feelings in the face of philosophical, psychological and juridical interpretations. According to Article 196 of the Polish Criminal Code from 1997 religious feelings are regarded as protected goods. However, the mentioned term has not been clearly defined, which provokes controversies in legal circles. The paper indicates the exact nature of religious feelings and their relation to religious beliefs. The author argues that Article 196 unnecessarily focuses on the offence of feelings rather than the defence of religion in the public sphere. The application of the expression religious feelings to the Criminal Code grants vast possibilities of its understanding and causes numerous over interpretations of Article 196. To avoid that confusion the law ought to circumscribe the extent to which religion can be protected. The inquiry into specific cases of offence against religious feelings must not be based on the subjective experience of the offended victim because one will never find the ultimate criterion to assess whether someone has actually been hurt. After the prohibited activities/possible offences against religion are defined, the behavior of the offender should be the main point of reference. A propounded amendment might generate other problems such as, for example, the transgression/violation of the neutrality of the state; therefore, Article 196 in its current meaning is unacceptable. Consequently, the religious feelings term should be clarified or removed.

  2. 30 CFR 250.196 - Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reimbursements for reproduction and processing... Reporting Requirements § 250.196 Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs. (a) MMS will... retains the information. (c) When you request reimbursement, you must identify reproduction and processing...

  3. 32 CFR 196.225 - Educational institutions eligible to submit transition plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Educational institutions eligible to submit... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 196.225 Educational institutions eligible to submit transition plans. (a) Application. This section applies to each educational institution...

  4. 32 CFR 196.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 196.535 Effect of state or local law or other... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of state or local law or other...

  5. 21 CFR 862.3600 - Mercury test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mercury test system. 862.3600 Section 862.3600....3600 Mercury test system. (a) Identification. A mercury test system is a device intended to measure mercury, a heavy metal, in human specimens. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis...

  6. 21 CFR 880.2920 - Clinical mercury thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical mercury thermometer. 880.2920 Section 880... Devices § 880.2920 Clinical mercury thermometer. (a) Identification. A clinical mercury thermometer is a... mercury. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket...

  7. Mercury flow experiments. 4th report: Measurements of erosion rate caused by mercury flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro

    2002-06-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) are promoting a construction plan of the Material-Life Science Facility, which is consisted of a Muon Science Facility and a Neutron Scattering Facility, in order to open up the new science fields. The Neutron Scattering Facility will be utilized for advanced fields of Material and Life science using high intensity neutron generated by the spallation reaction of a 1 MW pulsed proton beam and mercury target. Design of the spallation mercury target system aims to obtain high neutron performance with high reliability and safety. Since the target system is using mercury as the target material and contains large amount of radioactive spallation products, it is necessary to estimate reliability for strength of instruments in a mercury flow system during lifetime of the facility. Piping and components in the mercury flow system would be damaged by erosion with mercury flow, since these components will be weak by thickness decreasing. This report presents experimental results of wall thickness change by erosion using a mercury experimental loop. In the experiments, an erosion test section and coupons were installed in the mercury experimental loop, and their wall thickness was measured with an ultra sonic thickness gage after every 1000 hours. As a result, under 0.7 m/s of mercury velocity condition which is slightly higher than the practical velocity in mercury pipelines, the erosion is about 3 μm in 1000 hours. The wall thickness decrease during facility lifetime of 30 years is estimated to be less than 0.5 mm. According to the experimental result, it is confirmed that the effect of erosion on component strength is extremely small. Moreover, a measurement of residual mercury on the piping surface was carried out. As a result, 19 g/m 2 was obtained as the residual mercury for the piping surface. According to this result, estimated amount of residual mercury for

  8. Biomolecular Aspects of Mercury Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johs, A.; Shi, L.; Miller, S. M.; Summers, A. O.; Liang, L.

    2008-12-01

    Bacteria participate significantly in mercury transformation in natural and industrial environments. Previous studies have shown that bacterial mercury resistance is mediated by the mer operon, typically located on transposons or plasmids. It encodes specific genes that facilitate uptake of mercury species, cleavage of organomercurials, and reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0). Expression of mer operon genes is regulated by MerR, a metal-responsive regulator protein on the level of transcription. In vitro studies have shown that MerR forms a non-transcribing pre-initiation complex with RNA polymerase and the promoter DNA. Binding of Hg(II) induces conformational changes in MerR and other components of the complex resulting in the transcription of mer operon genes. As part of ongoing investigations on allosteric conformational changes induced by Hg(II) in dimeric MerR, and the implications on the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter of the mer operon, we applied small angle scattering to study the regulatory mechanism of MerR in the presence and absence of Hg(II). Our results show that in the presence of Hg(II) the MerR dimer undergoes a significant reorientation from a compact state to a conformation revealing two distinct domains. Bacterial reduction of Hg(II) can also occur at concentrations too low to induce mer operon functions. Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria, such as Shewanella and Geobacter are able to reduce Hg(II) in the presence of mineral oxides. This process has been linked to the activity of outer membrane multiheme cytochromes. We isolated and purified a decaheme outer membrane cytochrome OmcA from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and characterized its envelope shape in solution by small angle x-ray scattering. Structural features were identified and compared to homology models. These results show that OmcA is an elongated macromolecule consisting of separate modules, which may be connected by flexible linkers.

  9. Mercury in food items from the Idrija Mercury Mine area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklavčič, Ana; Mazej, Darja; Jaćimović, Radojko; Dizdarevi, Tatjana; Horvat, Milena

    2013-08-01

    As a consequence of over 500 years of mining and smelting activities (1490-1995), and of its natural geological occurrence, the soil in the Idrija region is highly contaminated with Hg. In order to assess the present situation regarding the Hg levels in local food samples, concentrations of total mercury (THg) and monomethyl mercury (MeHg) were determined in selected vegetables, mushrooms and fish from the Idrija Hg mine area. Hg levels in the foodstuffs analysed were not very high but were elevated compared to the levels in food from non-contaminated areas. The study showed that THg accumulates in mushrooms (X=5680ng/g dry weight, Min=346ng/g dry weight, Max=17,100 dry weight) and chicory (X=1950ng/g dry weight, Min=86ng/g dry weight, Max=17,100ng/g dry weight). In addition, Se and Cd concentrations were determined by ICP-MS in those vegetable and mushroom species in which the highest Hg levels were found. The levels of Cd and Se were below the threshold levels. Based on data from previous studies, we can conclude that the levels of Hg in food have not diminished significantly during the past 15 years after closure of the Hg mine. Special attention should be given to vegetables such as chicory, representing a local seasonal vegetable eaten frequently. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimating mercury emissions from a zinc smelter in relation to China's mercury control policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.X.; Song, J.X.; Li, G.H.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Wan, Q.; Streets, D.G.; Chin, Conrad K.; Hao, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury concentrations of flue gas at inlet/outlet of the flue gas cleaning, electrostatic demister, reclaiming tower, acid plant, and mercury contents in zinc concentrate and by-products were measured in a hydrometallurgical zinc smelter. The removal efficiency of flue gas cleaning, electrostatic demister, mercury reclaiming and acid plant was about 17.4%, 30.3%, 87.9% and 97.4% respectively. Flue gas cleaning and electrostatic demister captured 11.7% and 25.3% of the mercury in the zinc concentrate, respectively. The mercury reclaiming tower captured 58.3% of the mercury in the zinc concentrate. About 4.2% of the mercury in the zinc concentrate was captured by the acid plant. Consequently, only 0.8% of the mercury in the zinc concentrate was emitted to the atmosphere. The atmospheric mercury emission factor was 0.5 g t -1 of zinc produced for the tested smelter, indicating that this process offers the potential to effectively reduce mercury emissions from zinc smelting. - Modern scale production equipped with acid plant and Hg reclaiming tower will significantly reduce Hg emissions from zinc smelters in China.

  11. Treatment of mercury containing waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Paul D.; Melamed, Dan; Patel, Bhavesh R; Fuhrmann, Mark

    2002-01-01

    A process is provided for the treatment of mercury containing waste in a single reaction vessel which includes a) stabilizing the waste with sulfur polymer cement under an inert atmosphere to form a resulting mixture and b) encapsulating the resulting mixture by heating the mixture to form a molten product and casting the molten product as a monolithic final waste form. Additional sulfur polymer cement can be added in the encapsulation step if needed, and a stabilizing additive can be added in the process to improve the leaching properties of the waste form.

  12. Geodesy at Mercury with MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria t.; Peale, Stanley J.; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2006-01-01

    In 2011 the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft will enter Mercury orbit and begin the mapping phase of the mission. As part of its science objectives the MESSENGER mission will determine the shape and gravity field of Mercury. These observations will enable the topography and the crustal thickness to be derived for the planet and will determine the small libration of the planet about its axis, the latter critical to constraining the state of the core. These measurements require very precise positioning of the MESSENGER spacecraft in its eccentric orbit, which has a periapsis altitude as low as 200 km, an apoapsis altitude near 15,000 km, and a closest approach to the surface varying from latitude 60 to about 70 N. The X-band tracking of MESSENGER and the laser altimetry are the primary data that will be used to measure the planetary shape and gravity field. The laser altimeter, which has an expected range of 1000 to 1200 km, is expected to provide significant data only over the northern hemisphere because of MESSENGER's eccentric orbit. For the southern hemisphere, radio occultation measurements obtained as the spacecraft passes behind the planet as seen from Earth and images obtained with the imaging system will be used to provide the long-wavelength shape of the planet. Gravity, derived from the tracking data, will also have greater resolution in the northern hemisphere, but full global models for both topography and gravity will be obtained at low harmonic order and degree. The limiting factor for both gravity and topography is expected to be knowledge of the spacecraft location. Present estimations are that in a combined tracking, altimetry, and occultation solution the spacecraft position uncertainty is likely to be of order 10 m. This accuracy should be adequate for establishing an initial geodetic coordinate system for Mercury that will enable positioning of imaged features on the surface, determination of

  13. Mercury migration into ground water, a literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Carden, J.L.; Kury, R.; Eichholz, G.G.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents a broad review of the technical literature dealing with mercury migration in the soil. The approach followed was to identify relevant articles by searching bibliographic data bases, obtaining the promising articles and searching these articles for any additional relevant citations. Eight catagories were used to organize the literature, with a review and summary of each paper. Catagories used were the following: chemical states of mercury under environmental conditions; diffusion of mercury vapor through soil; solubility and stability of mercury in environmental waters; transport of mercury on colloids; models for mercury migration through the environment; analytical techniques; retention of mercury by soil components; formation of organomecurials.

  14. Study of high levels indoor air mercury contamination from mercury amalgam use in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, M.A.; Abbasi, M.S.; Mehmood, F.; Jahangir, S.

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) estimated that 362 tonnes of dental mercury are consumed annually worldwide. Dental mercury amalgams also called silver fillings and amalgam fillings are widely done. These fillings gave off mercury vapours. Estimated average absorbed concentrations of mercury vapours from dental fillings vary from 3,000 to 17,000 ng Hg. Mercury (Hg) also known as quick silver is an essential constituent of dental amalgam. It is a toxic substance of global concern. A persistent pollutant, mercury is not limited to its source but it travels, on time thousands of kilometers away from the source. Scientific evidence, including, UNEP Global Mercury report, establishes mercury as an extremely toxic substance, which is a major threat to wildlife, ecosystem and human health, at a global scale. Children are more at risk from mercury poisoning which affects their neurological development and brain. Mercury poisoning diminishes memory, attention, thinking and sight. In the past, a number of studies at dental sites in many countries have been carried out and reported which have been reviewed and briefly described. This paper describes and discusses the recent investigations, regarding mercury vapours level in air, carried out at 18 dental sites in Pakistan and other countries. It is evident from the data of 42 dental sites in 17 countries, including, selected dental sites in five main cities of Pakistan, described and discussed in this paper that at most dental sites in many countries including Pakistan, the indoor mercury vapours levels exceed far above the permissible limit, recommended for safe physical and mental health. At these sites, public, in general, and the medical, paramedical staff and vulnerable population, in particular, are at most serious risk to health resulting from exposure to toxic and hazardous mercury. (author)

  15. Substance Flow Analysis of Mercury in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, L. M.; Wang, S.; Zhang, L.; Wang, F. Y.; Wu, Q. R.

    2015-12-01

    In previous studies, the emission of anthropogenic atmospheric Hg in China as well as single sector have been examined a lot. However, there might have been more Hg released as solid wastes rather than air. Hg stored in solid wastes may be released to air again when the solid wastes experience high temperature process or cause local pollution if the solid wastes are stacked casually for a long time. To trace the fate of Hg in China, this study developed the substance flow of Hg in 2010 covering all the sectors summarized in table 1. Below showed in Figure 1, the total Hg input is 2825t. The unintentional input of Hg, mined Hg, and recycled Hg account for 57%, 32% and 11% respectively. Figure 2 provides the detail information of substance flow of Hg. Byproducts from one sector may be used as raw materials of another, causing cross Hg flow between sectors. The Hg input of cement production is 303 t, of which 34% comes from coal and limestone, 33% comes from non-ferrous smelting, 23% comes from coal combustion, 7% comes from iron and steel production and 3% comes from mercury mining. Hg flowing to recycledHg production is 639 t, mainly from Hg contained in waste active carbon and mercuric chloride catalyst from VCM production and acid sludge from non-ferrous smelting. There are 20 t mercury flowing from spent mercury adding products to incineration. Figure1 and Figure 2 also show that 46% of the output Hg belongs to "Lagged release", which means this part of mercury might be released later. The "Lagged release" Hg includes 809 t Hg contained in stacked byproducts form coal combustion, non-ferrous smelting, iron and steel production, Al production, cement production and mercury mining, 161t Hg stored in the pipeline of VCM producing, 10 t Hg in fluorescent lamps that are in use and 314 t mercury stored in materials waiting to be handled with in recycled mercury plants. There is 112 t Hg stored in landfill and 129 t Hg exported abroad with the export of mercury adding

  16. Mercury in the environment : a primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourie, B.; Glenn, W. (ed.); Ogilvie, K.; Everhardus, E.; Friesen, K.; Rae, S.

    2003-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the occurrence and effects of mercury in the environment and its impacts on human health. Low levels of mercury occur naturally everywhere in the environment in plants, animals, rocks and air. Incidental emissions occur when natural mercury is released to the environment through human activity. In Canada, coal burning and metal processing are the two largest point sources of atmospheric mercury emissions. Energy facilities have the option to invest in expensive control technologies for coal plants, or they can generate electricity from alternative energy sources. Energy conservation, however, offers the greatest overall benefits for the environment and the public. Mercury can also be released when products containing mercury (such as electrical switches, thermostats, dental amalgam, and thermometers) are broken while in use, or when they are crushed in garbage trucks and dumped in landfills. Source separation is the best way to reduce waste-related emissions. Once mercury is released to the natural environment, it can be transported long distances through air or watercourses. It is volatile, therefore evaporates readily to the atmosphere where it may do one of three things: it may fall out near the point where it was emitted; it may be transported long distances to some point downwind; or, it may enter the global atmospheric mercury pool where it will circle the globe for a year or more within the Earth's major weather systems before being deposited. Data from Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory indicates that mercury releases and transfers total 28,674 kg per year. The most critical component of the mercury cycle is the conversion of inorganic forms of mercury to the organic compound methylmercury which is more toxic to humans. Most concern about mercury focuses on lakes and other aquatic ecosystems. Fish in hydroelectric reservoirs have been found to contain elevated methylmercury levels because natural

  17. 40 CFR Appendix Xiii to Part 266 - Mercury Bearing Wastes That May Be Processed in Exempt Mercury Recovery Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mercury Bearing Wastes That May Be Processed in Exempt Mercury Recovery Units XIII Appendix XIII to Part 266 Protection of Environment... XIII to Part 266—Mercury Bearing Wastes That May Be Processed in Exempt Mercury Recovery Units These...

  18. Groundwater Modeling of Mercury Pollution at a Former Mercury Cell Chlor Alkali Facility in Pavlodar City, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    In northern Kazakhstan, there is a serious case of mercury pollution near the city of Pavlodar from an old mercury cell chlor-alkali plant. The soil, sediment, and water is severely contaminated with mercury and mercury compounds as a result of the industrial activity of this ch...

  19. Down-regulation of microRNA-196a in the sera and involved skin of localized scleroderma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Takamitsu; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Etoh, Mitsuhiko; Yamane, Keitaro; Kajihara, Ikko; Makino, Katsunari; Ichihara, Asako; Igata, Toshikatsu; Sakai, Keisuke; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    Localized scleroderma (LSc) exhibits fibrosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. LSc shows an excessive deposition of type 1 collagen. To elucidate the mechanism of type 1 collagen overexpression in LSc, we investigated the epigenetics, focusing on microRNA (miRNA). miRNA expression profile was determined by PCR array analysis. The expression of microRNA-196a (miR-196a) in the skin tissue was examined by in situ hybridization or real-time PCR. The serum levels of miR-196a were measured by real-time PCR. PCR array analysis demonstrated that the miR-196a level was markedly decreased in LSc skin tissue in vivo. The transfection of specific inhibitor for miR-196a into normal cultured human dermal fibroblasts led to the up-regulation of type 1 collagen protein in vitro. Furthermore, the serum levels of miR-196a were significantly decreased in LSc patients. Down-regulation of miR-196a and subsequent overexpression of type 1 collagen in dermal fibroblasts may play a key role in the pathogenesis of LSc. The serum levels of miR-196a may be useful as a diagnostic marker of LSc.

  20. 19 CFR 10.196 - Cost or value of materials produced in a beneficiary country or countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... directly into the U.S. Because the operations performed in the beneficiary country involved both the... finished belt. Example 4. A raw, perishable skin of an animal grown in the U.S. Virgin Islands is sent to a... beneficiary country or countries. 10.196 Section 10.196 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION...

  1. Dental amalgam and urinary mercury concentrations: a descriptive study

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae, Alexandra; Ames, Harry; Qui?onez, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental amalgam is a source of elemental and inorganic mercury. The safety of dental amalgam in individuals remains a controversial issue. Urinary mercury concentrations are used to assess chronic exposure to elemental mercury. At present, there are no indications of mercury-associated adverse effects at levels below 5??g Hg/g creatinine (Cr) or 7??g Hg/L (urine). The purpose of the present study is to determine the overall urinary mercury level in the Canadian general population in...

  2. Mercury's magnetosphere and magnetotial revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergan, S.; Engle, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetic observations which are not complicated by currents of trapped plasma are a good test of geomagnetopause and geomagnetotail predictions. Recent attempts to model the Hermean magnetospheric field based on a planet-centered magnetic multipole field with a quadrupole moment in addition to the planetary dipole field or a dipole field linearly displaced from planet center and no quadrupole moment have produced reasonably good fits to the Mercury magnetic field measurements. In this work we find a better fit for a dipole displacement from the planet center by making use of an improved representation of the magnetic field in the magnetotail, where many of the Mercury measurements were made. The rms deviation of the data was reduced from 10. or 11. γ to 9.3 γ by employing this new tail field representation. Also, by making use of this new tail field representation, we find a best fit for a dipole displacement of -0.0285 R/sub M/ (earlier, 0.026 R/sub M/) toward the dawn in the magnetic equatorial plane and 0.17 R/sub M/ (earlier, 0.189 R/sub M/ (earlier 0.189 R/sub M/) northward along the magnetic dipole axis, where R/sub M/ is the planet radius. Thus with only minor adjustments in the displacement vector of the dipole from the planet center we achieve a measurable improvement in the fit of the data by using the improved magnetotail field representation

  3. A thin, dense crust for Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sori, Michael M.

    2018-05-01

    Crustal thickness is a crucial geophysical parameter in understanding the geology and geochemistry of terrestrial planets. Recent development of mathematical techniques suggests that previous studies based on assumptions of isostasy overestimated crustal thickness on some of the solid bodies of the solar system, leading to a need to revisit those analyses. Here, I apply these techniques to Mercury. Using MESSENGER-derived elemental abundances, I calculate a map of grain density (average 2974 ± 89 kg/m3) which shows that Pratt isostasy is unlikely to be a major compensation mechanism of Mercury's topography. Assuming Airy isostasy, I find the best fit value for Mercury's mean crustal thickness is 26 ± 11 km, 25% lower than the most recently reported and previously thinnest number. Several geological implications follow from this relatively low value for crustal thickness, including showing that the largest impacts very likely excavated mantle material onto Mercury's surface. The new results also show that Mercury and the Moon have a similar proportion of their rocky silicates composing their crusts, and thus Mercury is not uniquely efficient at crustal production amongst terrestrial bodies. Higher resolution topography and gravity data, especially for the southern hemisphere, will be necessary to refine Mercury's crustal parameters further.

  4. Elimination of mercury from amalgam in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galic, N. [Dept. of Dental Pathology, School of Dentistry, Zagreb (Croatia); Prpic-Mehicic, G.; Prester, Lj.; Blanusa, M. [Inst. for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia); Krnic, Z.; Erceg, D. [Pliva Pharmaceutical Co., Biomedicine Research Inst. ' ' Pliva' ' , Zagreb (Croatia)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the urinary mercury excretion in rats exposed to amalgam over a two months period. Animals were either exposed to mercury from 4 dental amalgams or fed the diet containing powdered amalgams. The results showed significantly higher mercury amount in urine of both exposed groups than in control. Even two months after the amalgam had been placed in rats teeth, the amount of mercury in the urine remained 4-5 times higher than in control, and 4 times higher than in rats exposed to diet containing powdered amalgam. The elevated urinary Hg amount was accompanied by an increased level of total protein in urine. In the same exposure period the excretion of total protein in urine of rats with amalgam fillings was 2 times higher than in control and 1.5 times higher than in rats exposed to amalgam through diet. Concentrations of mercury in the sera of all groups were below the detection limit of the method. The results show that amount of mercury and protein in the urine of rats were related to the mercury release from dental amalgam. (orig.)

  5. Mercury flow experiments. 4th report Measurements of erosion rate caused by mercury flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kinoshita, H; Hino, R; Kaminaga, M

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) are promoting a construction plan of the Material-Life Science Facility, which is consisted of a Muon Science Facility and a Neutron Scattering Facility, in order to open up the new science fields. The Neutron Scattering Facility will be utilized for advanced fields of Material and Life science using high intensity neutron generated by the spallation reaction of a 1 MW pulsed proton beam and mercury target. Design of the spallation mercury target system aims to obtain high neutron performance with high reliability and safety. Since the target system is using mercury as the target material and contains large amount of radioactive spallation products, it is necessary to estimate reliability for strength of instruments in a mercury flow system during lifetime of the facility. Piping and components in the mercury flow system would be damaged by erosion with mercury flow, since these components will be we...

  6. Concentration of mercury in wheat samples stored with mercury tablets as preservative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalit, B.Y.; Ramachandran, T.V.

    1977-01-01

    Tablets consisting of mercury in the form of a dull grey powder made by triturating mercury with chalk and sugar are used in Indian household for storing food-grains. The contamination of wheat samples by mercury, when stored with mercury tablets for period of upto four years has been assessed by using non-destructive neutron activation analysis. The details of the analytical procedure used have also been briefly described. The concentration of mercury in wheat increases with storage period. Loss of weight of mercury tablet is proportional to the storage period to a first approximation. In the present experiment, the average weight loss at the and end of first year was 0.009716 g corresponding to 6 ppm in wheat. (T.G.)

  7. Hidden sources of mercury in clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Chavez, C R; Federico-Perez, R A; Gomez-Alvarez, A; Velazquez-Contreras, L E; Perez-Rios, R

    2014-09-01

    The healthcare sector is an important contributor to mercury (Hg) pollution because of the potential presence of mercury in thermometers, blood pressure cuffs, amalgams, etc. There are also other potential sources of mercury in this sector which are used frequently and in high volumes where the presence of the metal is not obvious and which might be collectively contributing to pollution. For instance, some chemicals used for the clinical diagnosis of illness may contain mercury. The goal of this study was to investigate potential sources of mercury pollution, which originate from clinical laboratory discharges, using an exploratory approach. The focus was on the residue generated during automatic analysis of patients' bodily fluids at a medical center in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. This study shows an overview of what might be happening in the region or the country related to non-obvious sources of mercury in the healthcare sector. The results showed measurable levels of mercury in the residues coming from urine sediment analysis. These amounts do not exceed the maximum allowed by Mexican environmental regulations; nevertheless, the frequency and cumulative volume of residues generated, combined with the potential for persistence and the bioaccumulation of mercury in the environment, warrant attention. The work carried out in this study is being taken as a model for future studies for pollution prevention in the healthcare sector with the goal of measuring mercury emissions to the environment from clinical laboratory wastewater, including identifying sources which--while not obvious--could be important given the frequency and volume of their use in the clinical diagnosis.

  8. The tropical African mercury anomaly: lower than expected mercury concentrations in fish and human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Frank J; Bokhutlo, Thethela; Somoxa, Aaron; Maethamako, Mothusi; Modisaemang, Ontlogetse; Kemosedile, Thebe; Cobb-Adams, Cristina; Mosepele, Ketlhatlogile; Chimbari, Moses

    2011-04-15

    Mercury is a neurotoxin and global pollutant, and wetlands and newly flooded areas are known to be sites of enhanced production of monomethylmercury, the form of mercury that is readily biomagnified in aquatic food chains to potentially toxic levels. The Okavango Delta in Botswana, Southern Africa, is the largest inland delta in the world and a wetland ecosystem that experiences dramatic annual flooding of large tracts of seasonal floodplains. The Delta was, therefore, expected to be home to high mercury levels in fish and to be an area where local subsistence fishing communities would be at substantial risk of mercury toxicity from fish consumption. Total mercury concentrations measured in 27 species of fish from the Okavango Delta averaged (mean±s.d., wet weight) 19±19ng g(-1) in non-piscivorous fish, and 59±53ng g(-1) in piscivorous fish. These mercury concentrations are similar to those reported for fish from lakes in other areas of tropical Africa, demonstrating that not all wetlands are sites of elevated mercury concentrations in biota. Even more intriguing is that concentrations of mercury in fish from across tropical Africa are systematically and substantially lower than those typically reported for fish from freshwater ecosystems elsewhere globally. The reasons for this apparent "African mercury anomaly" are unclear, but this finding poses a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of mercury's biogeochemical cycling in the environment. Mercury concentrations measured in human hair collected in subsistence fishing communities in the Okavango Delta were similarly low (0.21±0.22μg g(-1) dry weight) despite high levels of fish consumption, and reflect the low mercury concentrations in the fish here. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Methyl mercury, but not inorganic mercury, associated with higher blood pressure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ellen M; Herbstman, Julie B; Lin, Yu Hong; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Halden, Rolf U; Witter, Frank R; Goldman, Lynn R

    2017-04-01

    Prior studies addressing associations between mercury and blood pressure have produced inconsistent findings; some of this may result from measuring total instead of speciated mercury. This cross-sectional study of 263 pregnant women assessed total mercury, speciated mercury, selenium, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in umbilical cord blood and blood pressure during labor and delivery. Models with a) total mercury or b) methyl and inorganic mercury were evaluated. Regression models adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, prepregnancy body mass index, neighborhood income, parity, smoking, n-3 fatty acids and selenium. Geometric mean total, methyl, and inorganic mercury concentrations were 1.40µg/L (95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.52); 0.95µg/L (0.84, 1.07); and 0.13µg/L (0.10, 0.17), respectively. Elevated systolic BP, diastolic BP, and pulse pressure were found, respectively, in 11.4%, 6.8%, and 19.8% of mothers. In adjusted multivariable models, a one-tertile increase of methyl mercury was associated with 2.83mmHg (0.17, 5.50) higher systolic blood pressure and 2.99mmHg (0.91, 5.08) higher pulse pressure. In the same models, an increase of one tertile of inorganic mercury was associated with -1.18mmHg (-3.72, 1.35) lower systolic blood pressure and -2.51mmHg (-4.49, -0.53) lower pulse pressure. No associations were observed with diastolic pressure. There was a non-significant trend of higher total mercury with higher systolic blood pressure. We observed a significant association of higher methyl mercury with higher systolic and pulse pressure, yet higher inorganic mercury was significantly associated with lower pulse pressure. These results should be confirmed with larger, longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolation, screening and identification of mercury resistant bacteria from mercury contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalczyk Anna; Wilińska Magdalena; Chyc Marek; Bojko Monika; Latowski Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    New bacterial strains resistant to high concentration of mercury were obtained and character iz ed focusing on their potential application in bioremediation. The biological material was isolated from soil contaminated with mercury. The ability to removal of Hg from the liquid medium and the effect of the various pH and mercury concentrations in the environment on bacterial strains growth kinetics were tested. The selected strains were identified by analysis of the 16S ribosome subunit coding ...

  11. Mercury fluxes through the sediment water interface and bioavailability of mercury in southern Baltic Sea sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Bełdowski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sediment cores collected in several areas of the southern Baltic were analysed for total mercury (HgTOT and five operationally defined mercury fractions: HgA - contained in pore waters, HgF - bound to fulvic acids, HgH - bound to humic acids, HgS - bound to sulphide, and HgR - residual. An effort was made to quantify mercury fluxes at the sediment/water interface in the study area. Net mercury input, calculated on the basis of sedimentation rate and concentration in the uppermost sediments, ranged from 1 to 5.5 ng cm-2 year-1. Mercury remobilisation from sediments due to diffusion and resuspension was calculated from the proportion of labile mercury and the velocity of near-bottom currents. The results showed that the return soluble and particulate fluxes of mercury from the sediments to the water column constitute a substantial proportion of the input (20-50%, and are slightly higher than those found in pristine areas, although they are less than the values recorded in areas with a history of mercury contamination. In addition, an index was developed to assess the methylation potential of mercury in sediments. Mercury contained in pore waters, and mercury bound to fulvic and humic acids together with Loss on Ignition were used to calculate the semi-quantitative methylation potential (Pm. Despite the simplicity of this approach, Pm correlates well with methyl mercury in fish from the study area.full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0, 291.3 kB

  12. determination of mercury content in milk powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovchev, M.; Grigorov, T.; Apostolov, D.

    1985-01-01

    Four samples of humanized full cream cow milk powder of Bulgarian origin for new-born, sucklings, small children and soured milk powder were activated for 18-24 h in a neutron flux of 5.10 12 , resp. 2.10 13 n/cm 2 .sec in quartz ampules. The samples were activated without preliminary lyophilization, thus avoiding possible mistakes from mercury losses. Ag-110m, being eliminated in the amalgam, was not an obstacle to the mercury determination. The results obtained for the mercury content are in the same order as in other investigations and many times lower than the admissible norm for foodstuffs - 50 ppb

  13. Effect of mercury on algal growth rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannan, P.J.; Patouillet, C.

    1972-01-01

    In experiments with one freshwater (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) and three marine organisms (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Cyclotella nana, and Chaetoceras gavestonensis), mercury was more toxic than the other metals tested (silver, cadmium, lead, and copper); and its toxicity is comparatively irreversible. Growth was monitored by changes in fluorescence of the cultures over a 3-day test period. The toxicity of the mercury varied inversely with the concentrations of nutrients present. Preliminary experiments indicate that mercury in the form of mercuric chloride is more toxic than as dimethylmercury. 12 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  14. Conditioning of spent mercury by amalgamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, S. P.; Shon, J. S.; An, B. G.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, J. W.; Ji, C. G.; Kim, S. H.; Yoon, J. H.; Yang, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    Solidification by amalgamation was performed to immobilize and stabilize the liquid spent mercury. First, the appropriate metal and alloy which can convert liquid mercury into a solid form of amalgam were selected through initial tests. The amalgam form, formulated in optimum composition, was characterized and subjected to performance tests including compressive strength, water immersion, leachability and initial vaporization rate to evaluate mechanical integrity, durability and leaching properties. Finally, bench scale amalgamation trial was conducted with about 1 kg of spent mercury to verify the feasibility of amalgamation method

  15. A self-focusing mercury jet target

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, C

    2002-01-01

    Mercury jet production targets have been studied in relation to antiproton production and, more recently, pion production for a neutrino factory. There has always been a temptation to include some self-focusing of the secondaries by passing a current through the mercury jet analogous to the already proven lithium lens. However, skin heating of the mercury causes fast vaporization leading to the development of a gliding discharge along the surface of the jet. This external discharge can, nevertheless, provide some useful focusing of the secondaries in the case of the neutrino factory. The technical complications must not be underestimated.

  16. Mercury Thermal Hydraulic Loop (MTHL) Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felde, David K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Crye, Jason Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wendel, Mark W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Farquharson, George [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jallouk, Philip A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McFee, Marshall T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pointer, William David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ruggles, Art E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a high-power linear accelerator built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) which incorporates the use of a flowing liquid mercury target. The Mercury Thermal Hydraulic Loop (MTHL) was constructed to investigate and verify the heat transfer characteristics of liquid mercury in a rectangular channel. This report provides a compilation of previously reported results from the water-cooled and electrically heated straight and curved test sections that simulate the geometry of the window cooling channel in the target nose region.

  17. Physical properties of the planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Pamela E.

    1988-01-01

    The global physical properties of Mercury are summarized with attention given to its figure and orbital parameters. The combination of properties suggests that Mercury has an extensive iron-rich core, possibly with a still-functioning dynamo, which is 42 percent of the interior by volume. Mercury's three major axes are comparable in size, indicating that the planet is a triaxial ellipsoid rather than an oblate spheroid. In terms of the domination of its surface by an intermediate plains terrane, it is more Venus- or Mars-like; however, due to the presence of a large metallic magnetic core, its interior may be more earth-like.

  18. MESSENGER'S First and Second Flybys of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2009-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only approximately 1000 km above the surface. An overview of the MESSENGER mission and its January 14th and October 6th, 2008 close flybys of Mercury will be provided. Primary science objectives and the science instrumentation will be described. Initial results from MESSENGER will be discussed with an emphasis on the magnetic field and charged particle measurements.

  19. Injurious effect of mercury vapor from bichloride of mercury in soil of rose houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, P.W.; Crocker, W.

    1933-01-01

    Addition of mercuric chloride, or corrosive sublimate, to Rose soil for killing earthworms may injure the Roses. The organic matter of the soil reduces the bichloride to metallic mercury and the vapors of the mercury rise into the air and kill the buds and peduncles. When the soil is rich in tankage or other organic matter, the rate of reduction of the bichloride is increased and thereby the severity of the injury intensified. If a container of metallic mercury is set in an enclosed chamber with Rose plants, severe injuries of the type mentioned below soon appear. The Briarcliff Rose is especially susceptible to mercury injury. 1 figure.

  20. Mercury Information Clearinghouse. Quarterly 3: advanced and developmental mercury control technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Advanced mercury control technologies for coal-fired electric utilities are reviewed. The technologies evaluated are at various stages of development and most have been tested under limited operational conditions. The following technologies are described: K-Fuel and K-Fuel Plus pre-combustion technology, combustion modification and in situ generation of sorbents, new sorbent developments, direct bromine injection, MerCAP{sup {trademark}} (Mercury Control via Adsorption Process, Gore felt filter bag inserts, EnviroScrub Pahlman{sup {trademark}} process, combined oxidation of NO{sub x} and mercury, and mercury control with the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter. 36 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Solubility of helium in mercury for bubbling technology of the spallation neutron mercury target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, S.; Naoe, T.; Futakawa, M.

    2010-01-01

    The pitting damage of mercury target container that originates in the pressure wave excited by the proton beam incidence becomes a large problem to reach the high-power neutron source in JSNS and SNS. The lifetime of mercury container is decreased remarkably by the pitting damage. As one of solutions, the pressure wave is mitigated by injecting the helium micro bubbles in mercury. In order to inject the helium micro bubbles into mercury, it is important to understand the characteristic of micro bubbles in mercury. The solubility of mercury-helium system is a key factor to decide bubbling conditions, because the disappearance behavior, i.e. the lifetime of micro bubbles, depends on the solubility. In addition, the bubble generation method is affected by it. Moreover, the experimental data related to the solubility of helium in mercury hardly exist. In this work, the solubility was obtained experimentally by measuring precisely the pressure drop of the gas that is facing to mercury surface. The pressure drop was attributed to the helium dissolution into mercury. Based on the measured solubility, the lifetime of micro bubbles and the method of the bubble generation is estimated using the solubility data.

  2. Inorganic mercury exposure, mercury-copper interaction, and DMPS treatment in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Blanusa, M; Prester, L; Radić, S; Kargacin, B

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of oral treatment with sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) on reducing mercury deposits in rat kidney after chronic exposure to inorganic mercury. The effect on kidney copper levels was also evaluated. The results showed that after two months of exposure to 50 ppm of mercury (as mercuric chloride) the concentration of mercury in the kidney was 124 micrograms/g wet tissue. At the same time copper concentration rose from 11 to 77 ...

  3. Mercury nano-trap for effective and efficient removal of mercury(II) from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baiyan; Zhang, Yiming; Ma, Dingxuan; Shi, Zhan; Ma, Shengqian

    2014-11-01

    Highly effective and highly efficient decontamination of mercury from aqueous media remains a serious task for public health and ecosystem protection. Here we report that this task can be addressed by creating a mercury ‘nano-trap’ as illustrated by functionalizing a high surface area and robust porous organic polymer with a high density of strong mercury chelating groups. The resultant porous organic polymer-based mercury ‘nano-trap’ exhibits a record-high saturation mercury uptake capacity of over 1,000 mg g-1, and can effectively reduce the mercury(II) concentration from 10 p.p.m. to the extremely low level of smaller than 0.4 p.p.b. well below the acceptable limits in drinking water standards (2 p.p.b.), and can also efficiently remove >99.9% mercury(II) within a few minutes. Our work therefore presents a new benchmark for mercury adsorbent materials and provides a new perspective for removing mercury(II) and also other heavy metal ions from contaminated water for environmental remediation.

  4. Tundra uptake of atmospheric elemental mercury drives Arctic mercury pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Daniel; Agnan, Yannick; Jiskra, Martin; Olson, Christine L.; Colegrove, Dominique P.; Hueber, Jacques; Moore, Christopher W.; Sonke, Jeroen E.; Helmig, Detlev

    2017-07-01

    Anthropogenic activities have led to large-scale mercury (Hg) pollution in the Arctic. It has been suggested that sea-salt-induced chemical cycling of Hg (through ‘atmospheric mercury depletion events’, or AMDEs) and wet deposition via precipitation are sources of Hg to the Arctic in its oxidized form (Hg(II)). However, there is little evidence for the occurrence of AMDEs outside of coastal regions, and their importance to net Hg deposition has been questioned. Furthermore, wet-deposition measurements in the Arctic showed some of the lowest levels of Hg deposition via precipitation worldwide, raising questions as to the sources of high Arctic Hg loading. Here we present a comprehensive Hg-deposition mass-balance study, and show that most of the Hg (about 70%) in the interior Arctic tundra is derived from gaseous elemental Hg (Hg(0)) deposition, with only minor contributions from the deposition of Hg(II) via precipitation or AMDEs. We find that deposition of Hg(0)—the form ubiquitously present in the global atmosphere—occurs throughout the year, and that it is enhanced in summer through the uptake of Hg(0) by vegetation. Tundra uptake of gaseous Hg(0) leads to high soil Hg concentrations, with Hg masses greatly exceeding the levels found in temperate soils. Our concurrent Hg stable isotope measurements in the atmosphere, snowpack, vegetation and soils support our finding that Hg(0) dominates as a source to the tundra. Hg concentration and stable isotope data from an inland-to-coastal transect show high soil Hg concentrations consistently derived from Hg(0), suggesting that the Arctic tundra might be a globally important Hg sink. We suggest that the high tundra soil Hg concentrations might also explain why Arctic rivers annually transport large amounts of Hg to the Arctic Ocean.

  5. Tundra uptake of atmospheric elemental mercury drives Arctic mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Daniel; Agnan, Yannick; Jiskra, Martin; Olson, Christine L; Colegrove, Dominique P; Hueber, Jacques; Moore, Christopher W; Sonke, Jeroen E; Helmig, Detlev

    2017-07-12

    Anthropogenic activities have led to large-scale mercury (Hg) pollution in the Arctic. It has been suggested that sea-salt-induced chemical cycling of Hg (through 'atmospheric mercury depletion events', or AMDEs) and wet deposition via precipitation are sources of Hg to the Arctic in its oxidized form (Hg(ii)). However, there is little evidence for the occurrence of AMDEs outside of coastal regions, and their importance to net Hg deposition has been questioned. Furthermore, wet-deposition measurements in the Arctic showed some of the lowest levels of Hg deposition via precipitation worldwide, raising questions as to the sources of high Arctic Hg loading. Here we present a comprehensive Hg-deposition mass-balance study, and show that most of the Hg (about 70%) in the interior Arctic tundra is derived from gaseous elemental Hg (Hg(0)) deposition, with only minor contributions from the deposition of Hg(ii) via precipitation or AMDEs. We find that deposition of Hg(0)-the form ubiquitously present in the global atmosphere-occurs throughout the year, and that it is enhanced in summer through the uptake of Hg(0) by vegetation. Tundra uptake of gaseous Hg(0) leads to high soil Hg concentrations, with Hg masses greatly exceeding the levels found in temperate soils. Our concurrent Hg stable isotope measurements in the atmosphere, snowpack, vegetation and soils support our finding that Hg(0) dominates as a source to the tundra. Hg concentration and stable isotope data from an inland-to-coastal transect show high soil Hg concentrations consistently derived from Hg(0), suggesting that the Arctic tundra might be a globally important Hg sink. We suggest that the high tundra soil Hg concentrations might also explain why Arctic rivers annually transport large amounts of Hg to the Arctic Ocean.

  6. Rethinking mercury: the role of selenium in the pathophysiology of mercury toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Henry A

    2018-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that the pathophysiological target of mercury is in fact selenium, rather than the covalent binding of mercury to sulfur in the body's ubiquitous sulfhydryl groups. The role of selenium in mercury poisoning is multifaceted, bidirectional, and central to understanding the target organ toxicity of mercury. An initial search was performed using Medline/PubMed, Toxline, Google Scholar, and Google for published work on mercury and selenium. These searches yielded 2018 citations. Publications that did not evaluate selenium status or evaluated environmental status (e.g., lake or ocean sediment) were excluded, leaving approximately 500 citations. This initial selection was scrutinized carefully and 117 of the most relevant and representative references were selected for use in this review. Binding of mercury to thiol/sulfhydryl groups: Mercury has a lower affinity for thiol groups and higher affinity for selenium containing groups by several orders of magnitude, allowing for binding in a multifaceted way. The established binding of mercury to thiol moieties appears to primarily involve the transport across membranes, tissue distribution, and enhanced excretion, but does not explain the oxidative stress, calcium dyshomeostasis, or specific organ injury seen with mercury. Effects of mercury on selenium and the role this plays in the pathophysiology of mercury toxicity: Mercury impairs control of intracellular redox homeostasis with subsequent increased intracellular oxidative stress. Recent work has provided convincing evidence that the primary cellular targets are the selenoproteins of the thioredoxin system (thioredoxin reductase 1 and thioredoxin reductase 2) and the glutathione-glutaredoxin system (glutathione peroxidase). Mercury binds to the selenium site on these proteins and permanently inhibits their function, disrupting the intracellular redox environment. A number of other important possible target selenoproteins have been identified

  7. Mercury pollution in Wuchuan mercury mining area, Guizhou, Southwestern China: the impacts from large scale and artisanal mercury mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Wang, Shaofeng

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the environmental impacts from large scale mercury mining (LSMM) and artisanal mercury mining (AMM), total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) were determined in mine waste, ambient air, stream water and soil samples collected from Wuchuan mercury (Hg) mining area, Guizhou, Southwestern China. Mine wastes from both LSMM and AMM contained high THg concentrations, which are important Hg contamination sources to the local environment. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in the ambient air near AMM furnaces were highly elevated, which indicated that AMM retorting is a major source of Hg emission. THg concentrations in the stream water varied from 43 to 2100 ng/L, where the elevated values were mainly found in the vicinity of AMM and mine waste heaps of LSMM. Surface soils were seriously contaminated with Hg, and land using types and organic matter played an important role in accumulation and transportation of Hg in soil. The results indicated heavy Hg contaminations in the study area, which were resulted from both LSMM and AMM. The areas impacted by LSMM were concentrated in the historical mining and smelting facilities, while Hg pollution resulted from AMM can be distributed anywhere in the Hg mining area. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mercury content in electrum from artisanal mining site of Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, Satoshi [Geological Survey of Japan, AIST, Higashi 1-1-1, No. 7, Tsukuba 305-8567 (Japan)]. E-mail: s.murao@aist.go.jp; Naito, Kazuki [Geological Survey of Japan, AIST, Higashi 1-1-1, No. 7, Tsukuba 305-8567 (Japan); Dejidmaa, Gunchin [Geological Information Center, Mineral and Petroleum Resources Authority of Mongolia, State Building No. 5, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Sie, Soey H. [CSIRO, P.O. Box 136, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2006-08-15

    In Mongolia, artisanal gold mining, modern gold rush, in which people use mercury to extract gold, is being proliferated rapidly and the mercury contamination of mining site is becoming a serious social issue. For the risk assessment of mercury, it is necessary to understand how much mercury is introduced to the environment from what kind of materials during mining activity. It is already known that major contribution of the contamination comes from mercury that was bought at shops and brought to mining sites by miners. However, no information is available on how much mercury is removed from electrum (natural gold grain) to the environment. Since gold deposit is always accompanied by mercury anomaly, it is anticipated that electrum grains contain some amount of mercury of natural origin, and this mercury (primary mercury) contributes to some extent to the contamination. In order to clarify how much mercury is incorporated in electrum grains, micro-PIXE at CSIRO was used for grain-by-grain analysis. The result showed that electrum from study area contains mercury up to 8260 ppm. It is concluded that for the risk management of mercury contamination, release of natural mercury from electrum grains during smelting must not be ignored.

  9. Mercury content in electrum from artisanal mining site of Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murao, Satoshi; Naito, Kazuki; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Sie, Soey H.

    2006-08-01

    In Mongolia, artisanal gold mining, modern gold rush, in which people use mercury to extract gold, is being proliferated rapidly and the mercury contamination of mining site is becoming a serious social issue. For the risk assessment of mercury, it is necessary to understand how much mercury is introduced to the environment from what kind of materials during mining activity. It is already known that major contribution of the contamination comes from mercury that was bought at shops and brought to mining sites by miners. However, no information is available on how much mercury is removed from electrum (natural gold grain) to the environment. Since gold deposit is always accompanied by mercury anomaly, it is anticipated that electrum grains contain some amount of mercury of natural origin, and this mercury (primary mercury) contributes to some extent to the contamination. In order to clarify how much mercury is incorporated in electrum grains, micro-PIXE at CSIRO was used for grain-by-grain analysis. The result showed that electrum from study area contains mercury up to 8260 ppm. It is concluded that for the risk management of mercury contamination, release of natural mercury from electrum grains during smelting must not be ignored.

  10. Bioavailability and stability of mercury sulfide in Armuchee (USA) soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Fengxiang; Shiyab, Safwan; Su, Yi; Monts, David L.; Waggoner, Charles A.; Matta, Frank B.

    2007-01-01

    Because of the adverse effects of elemental mercury and mercury compounds upon human health, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is engaged in an on-going effort to monitor and remediate mercury-contaminated DOE sites. In order to more cost effectively implement those extensive remediation efforts, it is necessary to obtain an improved understanding of the role that mercury and mercury compounds play in the ecosystem. We have conducted pilot scale experiments to study the bioavailability of mercury sulfide in an Armuchee (eastern US ) soil. The effects of plants and incubation time on chemical stability and bioavailability of HgS under simulated conditions of the ecosystem have been examined, as has the dynamics of the dissolution of mercury sulfide by various extractants. The results show that mercury sulfide in contaminated Armuchee soil was still to some extent bioavailable to plants. After planting, soil mercury sulfide is more easily dissolved by both 4 M and 12 M nitric acid than pure mercury sulfide reagent. Dissolution kinetics of soil mercury sulfide and pure chemical reagent by nitric acid are different. Mercury release by EDTA from HgS-contaminated soil increased with time of reaction and soil mercury level. Chelating chemicals increase the solubility and bioavailability of mercury in HgS-contaminated soil. (authors)

  11. Mercury content in electrum from artisanal mining site of Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, Satoshi; Naito, Kazuki; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Sie, Soey H.

    2006-01-01

    In Mongolia, artisanal gold mining, modern gold rush, in which people use mercury to extract gold, is being proliferated rapidly and the mercury contamination of mining site is becoming a serious social issue. For the risk assessment of mercury, it is necessary to understand how much mercury is introduced to the environment from what kind of materials during mining activity. It is already known that major contribution of the contamination comes from mercury that was bought at shops and brought to mining sites by miners. However, no information is available on how much mercury is removed from electrum (natural gold grain) to the environment. Since gold deposit is always accompanied by mercury anomaly, it is anticipated that electrum grains contain some amount of mercury of natural origin, and this mercury (primary mercury) contributes to some extent to the contamination. In order to clarify how much mercury is incorporated in electrum grains, micro-PIXE at CSIRO was used for grain-by-grain analysis. The result showed that electrum from study area contains mercury up to 8260 ppm. It is concluded that for the risk management of mercury contamination, release of natural mercury from electrum grains during smelting must not be ignored

  12. Environmental chemistry and toxicology of mercury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Guangliang; Cai, Yong; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

    2012-01-01

    ... employed in recent studies. The coverage discusses the environmental behavior and toxicological effects of mercury on organisms, including humans, and provides case studies at the end of each chapter...

  13. Chemistry of impact events on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhnoy, Alexey A.

    2018-01-01

    Based on the equilibrium thermochemical approach and quenching theory, formation of molecules and dust grains in impact-produced clouds formed after collisions between meteoroids and Mercury is considered. Based on observations of Al, Fe, and Mn atoms in the exosphere of Mercury and new results of studies of the elemental composition of the surface of Mercury, quenching temperatures and pressures of main chemical reactions and condensation of dust particles were estimated. The behavior of the main Na-, K-, Ca-, Fe-, Al-, Mn-, Mg-, Si-, Ti, Ni-, Cr-, Co, Zn-, O-, H-, S-, C-, Cl-, N-, and P-containing species delivered to the Hermean exosphere during meteoroid impacts was studied. The importance of meteoroid bombardment as a source of Na, K, Ca, Fe, Al, Mn, Mg, and O atoms in the exosphere of Mercury is discussed.

  14. Mercury in the South African environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matooane, M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available ? Mercury, also known as quick silver, is ubiquitous in the environment ? Uses - Medical: medicines, thermometers, dental amalgam, etc. - Manufacturing industry: batteries, gold mining, chlorine production, cement production, etc. - Personal care...

  15. Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunder,; Edgar, B [Bethel Park, PA

    2009-02-24

    The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

  16. Environmental chemistry and toxicology of mercury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Guangliang; Cai, Yong; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

    2012-01-01

    .... Bringing together information normally spread across several books, this text is unique in covering the entire mercury cycle and providing a baseline for what is known and what uncertainties remain...

  17. Mercury and halogens in coal--Their role in determining mercury emissions from coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.; Senior, Connie L.; Belkin, Harvey E.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic pollutant. In its elemental form, gaseous mercury has a long residence time in the atmosphere, up to a year, allowing it to be transported long distances from emission sources. Mercury can be emitted from natural sources such as volcanoes, or from anthropogenic sources, such as coal-fired powerplants. In addition, all sources of mercury on the Earth's surface can re-emit it from land and sea back to the atmosphere, from which it is then redeposited. Mercury in the atmosphere is present in such low concentrations that it is not considered harmful. Once mercury enters the aquatic environment, however, it can undergo a series of biochemical transformations that convert a portion of the mercury originally present to methylmercury, a highly toxic organic form of mercury that accumulates in fish and birds. Many factors contribute to creation of methylmercury in aquatic ecosystems, including mercury availability, sediment and nutrient load, bacterial influence, and chemical conditions. In the United States, consumption of fish with high levels of methylmercury is the most common pathway for human exposure to mercury, leading the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue fish consumption advisories in every State. The EPA estimates that 50 percent of the mercury entering the atmosphere in the United States is emitted from coal-burning utility powerplants. An EPA rule, known as MATS (for Mercury and Air Toxics Standards), to reduce emissions of mercury and other toxic pollutants from powerplants, was signed in December 2011. The rule, which is currently under review, specifies limits for mercury and other toxic elements, such as arsenic, chromium, and nickel. MATS also places limits on emission of harmful acid gases, such as hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. These standards are the result of a 2010 detailed nationwide program by the EPA to sample stack emissions and thousands of shipments of coal to coal-burning powerplants. The United

  18. Prevalence of Fabry disease and GLA c.196G>C variant in Japanese stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamatsu, Kiyoshiro; Sekijima, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Katsuya; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Hattori, Kiyoko; Ota, Masao; Shimizu, Yusaku; Endo, Fumio; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi

    2017-07-01

    Fabry disease is an important underlying disease in young cryptogenic stroke patients. However, little is known regarding the frequency of Fabry disease in the general stroke population, especially in elderly patients. A total of 588 stroke patients (61.7% men; average age 74.1±12.5 years) were enrolled in this prospective study. Blood samples were obtained to produce blood spots to determine α-galactosidase A (α-GalA) activity and for GLA gene analysis. One 65-year-old female patient had a known GLA gene mutation, c.2T>C (p.M1T), causing Fabry disease. Five male patients and two female patients had GLA c.196G>C (p.E66Q) variant, which is not associated with the full clinical manifestations of Fabry disease. The allele frequency of GLA c.196G>C was significantly higher in male patients with small-vessel occlusion (odds ratio 3.95, P=0.048) and non-cardioembolism (odds ratio 4.08, P=0.012) than that in the general Japanese population. Fabry disease is rare in the general Japanese stroke population. However, screening identified one elderly female patient with Fabry disease. GLA c.196G>C variant is a genetic risk factor for cerebral small-vessel occlusion and non-cardioembolism in Japanese males but not in females.

  19. Meta-Analysis of the Association between Mir-196a-2 Polymorphism and Cancer Susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huan; Su, Yu-liang; Yu, Herbert; Qian, Bi-yun

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNA plays a vital role in gene expression, and microRNA dysregulation is involved in carcinogenesis. The miR-196a-2 polymorphism rs11614913 is reportedly associated with cancer susceptibility. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the overall association of miR-196a-2 with cancer risk. A total of 27 independent case-control studies involving 10,435 cases and 12,075 controls were analyzed for the rs11614913 polymorphism. A significant association was found between rs11614913 polymorphism and cancer risk in four genetic models (CT vs. TT, OR=1.15, 95%CI=1.05–1.27; CC vs. TT, OR=1.23, 95%CI=1.08–1.39; Dominant model, OR=1.17, 95%CI=1.06–1.30; Additive model, OR=1.08, 95%CI=1.01–1.14). In the subgroup analysis of different tumor types, the C allele was associated with increased risk of lung, breast, and colorectal cancer, but not with liver, gastric, or esophageal cancer. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, a significantly increased risk of cancer was found among Asians in all genetic models, but no associations were found in the Caucasian subgroup. The meta-analysis demonstrated that the miR-196a-2 polymorphism is associated with cancer susceptibility, especially lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and breast cancer among Asian populations

  20. Gamma radiation stability studies of mercury fulminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fondeur, F.F.

    2000-01-01

    Mercury fulminate completely decomposed in a gamma source (0.86 Mrad/h) after a dose of 208 Mrad. This exposure equates to approximately 2.4 years in Tank 15H and 4 years in Tank 12H, one of the vessels of concern. Since the tanks lost the supernatant cover layer more than a decade ago, this study suggests that any mercury fulminate or closely related energetic species decomposed long ago if ever formed

  1. Gamma radiation stability studies of mercury fulminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.F.

    2000-02-17

    Mercury fulminate completely decomposed in a gamma source (0.86 Mrad/h) after a dose of 208 Mrad. This exposure equates to approximately 2.4 years in Tank 15H and 4 years in Tank 12H, one of the vessels of concern. Since the tanks lost the supernatant cover layer more than a decade ago, this study suggests that any mercury fulminate or closely related energetic species decomposed long ago if ever formed.

  2. Stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spudis, P.D.; Guest, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The geologic evolution of Mercury based on the Mariner-10 mission data is discussed. As reconstructed through photogeological analysis of global geologic relations of rock-stratigraphic units, Mercury's geologic history is shown to involve intensive early impact bombardment and widespread resurfacing by volcanic lavas. Evidence is presented to indicate that this volcanic activity essentially ended as much as 3 Gyr ago, with most of the major geologic events being completed within the first 1 to 1.5 Gyr of Mercurian history

  3. Mercury's global evolution: New views from MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, S. A., II; Byrne, P. K.; Denevi, B. W.; Grott, M.; McCoy, T.; Stanley, S.

    2015-12-01

    MESSENGER's exploration of Mercury has revealed the planet's rich and dynamic history and provided new constraints on the processes that control its internal evolution. Mercury's surface records evidence of an extensive geological history. This evidence includes resurfacing by impacts and volcanism prior to the end of the late heavy bombardment (LHB) and a subsequent rapid waning of effusive volcanism. Volcanism is an important indicator of the history of melt production. Thousands of globally distributed, contractional tectonic landforms collectively have accommodated a decrease in Mercury's radius of 5-7 km since the end of the LHB. Such contraction results from planetary cooling and crystallization within Mercury's metallic core. Measurements of surface chemistry have provided constraints on internal radiogenic heat production necessary to understand more fully Mercury's thermal evolution. Elemental abundances also reveal that Mercury is strongly chemically reduced, suggesting that the core's iron is alloyed with silicon as well as sulfur, which constrains the dynamics and crystallization of the metallic core. Magnetometer observations show that Mercury's dynamo-generated, dominantly dipolar field is displaced ~500 km northward along the rotation axis. Low-altitude magnetic field observations late in the mission led to the discovery of crustal magnetization in Mercury's ancient crust, dating to at least 3.7 Ga, which places a new constraint on the timing of the dynamo. Monte Carlo parameterized mantle convection models, constrained by these observations, indicate that for global contraction of 7 km or less, mantle convection persists to the present ~40% of the time, with the likelihood of modern convection decreasing with less global contraction. Slow present cooling in these models indicates that dynamo generation is strongly influenced by both a static layer at the top of the core and convective motions within the core driven by compositional buoyancy.

  4. Thermal elastic deformations of the planet Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1972-01-01

    The variation in solar heating due to the resonance rotation of Mercury produces periodic elastic deformations on the surface of the planet. The thermal stress and strain fields under Mercury's surface are calculated after certain simplifications. It is found that deformations penetrate to a greater depth than the variation of solar heating, and that the thermal strain on the surface of the planet pulsates with an amplitude of .004 and a period of 176 days.

  5. Environmental costs of mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylander, Lars D; Goodsite, Michael E

    2006-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been used for millennia in many applications, primarily in artisanal mining and as an electrode in the chlor-alkali industry. It is anthropogenically emitted as a pollutant from coal fired power plants and naturally emitted, primarily from volcanoes. Its unique chemical characteristics enable global atmospheric transport and it is deposited after various processes, ultimately ending up in one of its final sinks, such as incorporated into deep sediment or bioaccumulated, primarily in the marine environment. All forms of Hg have been established as toxic, and there have been no noted biological benefits from the metal. Throughout time, there have been notable incidents of Hg intoxication documented, and the negative health effects have been documented to those chronically or acutely exposed. Today, exposure to Hg is largely diet or occupationally dependent, however, many are exposed to Hg from their amalgam fillings. This paper puts a tentative monetary value on Hg polluted food sources in the Arctic, where local, significant pollution sources are limited, and relates this to costs for strategies avoiding Hg pollution and to remediation costs of contaminated sites in Sweden and Japan. The case studies are compiled to help policy makers and the public to evaluate whether the benefits to the global environment from banning Hg and limiting its initial emission outweigh the benefits from its continued use or lack of control of Hg emissions. The cases we studied are relevant for point pollution sources globally and their remediation costs ranged between 2,500 and 1.1 million US dollars kg(-1) Hg isolated from the biosphere. Therefore, regulations discontinuing mercury uses combined with extensive flue gas cleaning for all power plants and waste incinerators is cost effective.

  6. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people never recover, but there has been some success in people who receive chelation treatment. References Sue ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  7. Detection of concealed mercury with thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Z.W.

    1994-01-01

    In the United States today, governments at all levels and the citizenry are paying increasing attention to the effects, both real and hypothetical, of industrial activity on the environment. Responsible modem industries, reflecting this heightened public and regulatory awareness, are either substituting benign materials for hazardous ones, or using hazardous materials only under carefully controlled conditions. In addition, present-day environmental consciousness dictates that we deal responsibly with legacy wastes. The decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of facilities at which mercury was used or processed presents a variety of challenges. Elemental mercury is a liquid at room temperature and readily evaporates in air. In large mercury-laden buildings, droplets may evaporate from one area only to recondense in other cooler areas. The rate of evaporation is a function of humidity and temperature; consequently, different parts of a building may be sources or sinks of mercury at different times of the day or even the year. Additionally, although mercury oxidizes in air, the oxides decompose upon heating. Hence, oxides contained within pipes or equipment, may be decomposed when those pipes and equipment are cut with saws or torches. Furthermore, mercury seeps through the pores and cracks in concrete blocks and pads, and collects as puddles and blobs in void spaces within and under them

  8. Magnesium-rich Basalts on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2013-05-01

    X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers on NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft are making key measurements regarding the composition and properties of the surface of Mercury, allowing researchers to more clearly decipher the planet's formation and geologic history. The origin of the igneous rocks in the crust of Mercury is the focus of recent research by Karen Stockstill-Cahill and Tim McCoy (National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution), along with Larry Nittler and Shoshana Weider (Carnegie Institution of Washington) and Steven Hauck II (Case Western Reserve University). Using the well-known MELTS computer code Stockstill-Cahill and coauthors worked with MESSENGER-derived and rock-analog compositions to constrain petrologic models of the lavas that erupted on the surface of Mercury. Rock analogs included a partial melt of the Indarch meteorite and a range of Mg-rich terrestrial rocks. Their work shows the lavas on Mercury are most similar to terrestrial magnesian basalt (with lowered FeO content). The implications of the modeling are that Mg-rich lavas came from high-temperature sources in Mercury's mantle and erupted at high temperature with exceptionally low viscosity into thinly bedded and laterally extensive flows, concepts open to further evaluation by laboratory experiments and by geologic mapping of Mercury's surface using MESSENGER's imaging system and laser altimeter to document flow features and dimensions.

  9. Mercury's Global Topography from Radar Ranging Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. D.; Schubert, G.; Asmar, S. W.; Jurgens, R. F.; Lau, E. L.; Moore, W. B.; Slade, M. A., III; Standish, E. M., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    When Mercury's radius is expanded in Legendre functions to the second degree and order, the systematic error in radar ranging data is reduced substantially. Previously, data spanning an observing interval from 1966 to 1990 were used to infer an equatorial ellipticity (a - b)/a = (540 +/- 54) X 10(exp -6) and a center-of-figure minus center-of-mass offset of (640 +/- 78) m. The magnitude of this equatorial center of figure offset implies an excess crustal thickness of 12 km or less, comparable to the Moon's excess. By comparing the equatorial ellipticity with the Mariner 10 gravity field, and assuming Airy isostatic compensation, bounds on crustal thickness can be derived. Mercury's crustal thickness is in the range from 100 to 300 km. The Mercury radar ranging observing interval has been extended from 1966 to the present. In addition, improvements in data reduction techniques have resulted in a set of Mercury ranging data less affected by systematic error, in particular the biases introduced by local topographic variations. We use this new set of reduced ranging data to improve Mercury's global topography and center-of-figure minus center-of-mass offset. New results on crustal thickness are derived, and prospects for further improvement with Mercury Orbiter data are discussed.

  10. Mercury's Seasonal Sodium Exosphere: MESSENGER Orbital Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Timothy A.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2014-01-01

    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft now orbiting Mercury provides the first close-up look at the planet's sodium exosphere. UVVS has observed the exosphere from orbit almost daily for over 10 Mercury years. In this paper we describe and analyze a subset of these data: altitude profiles taken above the low-latitude dayside and south pole. The observations show spatial and temporal variations, but there are no obvious year-to-year variations in most of the observations. We do not see the episodic variability reported by some ground-based observers. We used these altitude profiles to make estimates of sodium density and temperature. The bulk of the exosphere, at about 1200 K, is much warmer than Mercury's surface. This value is consistent with some ground-based measurements and suggests that photon-stimulated desorption is the primary ejection process. We also observe a tenuous energetic component but do not see evidence of the predicted thermalized (or partially thermalized) sodium near Mercury's surface temperature. Overall we do not see the variable mixture of temperatures predicted by most Monte Carlo models of the exosphere.

  11. Mercury exposure and risk of cardiovascular disease: a nested case-control study in the PREDIMED (PREvention with MEDiterranean Diet) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, Mary K; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Gea, Alfredo; Stampfer, Meir; Warnberg, Julia; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Ros, Emilio; Fitó, Montse; Estruch, Ramon; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Bullo, Monica; Sorli, Jose V; Muñoz, Miguel A; García-Rodriguez, Antonio; Gutierrez-Bedmar, Mario; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique

    2017-01-05

    Substantial evidence suggests that consuming 1-2 servings of fish per week, particularly oily fish (e.g., salmon, herring, sardines) is beneficial for cardiovascular health due to its high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content. However, there is some concern that the mercury content in fish may increase cardiovascular disease risk, but this relationship remains unclear. The PREDIMED trial included 7477 participants who were at high risk for cardiovascular disease at baseline. In this study, we evaluated associations between mercury exposure, fish consumption and cardiovascular disease. We randomly selected 147 of the 288 cases diagnosed with cardiovascular disease during follow-up and matched them on age and sex to 267 controls. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to assess toenail mercury concentration. In-person interviews, medical record reviews and validated questionnaires were used to assess fish consumption and other covariates. Information was collected at baseline and updated yearly during follow-up. We used conditional logistic regression to evaluate associations in the total nested case-control study, and unconditional logistic regression for population subsets. Mean (±SD) toenail mercury concentrations (μg per gram) did not significantly differ between cases (0.63 (±0.53)) and controls (0.67 (±0.49)). Mercury concentration was not associated with cardiovascular disease in any analysis, and neither was fish consumption or n-3 fatty acids. The fully-adjusted relative risks for the highest versus lowest quartile of mercury concentration were 0.71 (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.34, 1.14; p trend  = 0.37) for the nested case-control study, 0.74 (95% CI, 0.32, 1.76; p trend  = 0.43) within the Mediterranean diet intervention group, and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.13, 1.96; p trend  = 0.41) within the control arm of the trial. Associations remained null when mercury was jointly assessed with fish consumption at baseline and during follow

  12. Mercury Retention by Fly Ashes from Oxy-fuel Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Miranda, Nuria; Villamil Rumayor, Marta; López Antón, María Antonia; Díaz Somoano, Mercedes; Martínez Tarazona, María Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the mechanism of mercury retention in fly ashes, the main solid waste from coal combustion power plants, and to evaluate the interactions between the type of mercury and fly ashes. The work was based on the results of mercury speciation in the gas and the solid fly ash before and after mercury retention. The identification of the mercury species in the gas was performed using previously validated methods, but the speciation of the mercury retained i...

  13. NMR of mercury in porous coal and silica gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperovich, V.S.; Charnaya, E.V.; Tien, C.; Wur, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    Temperature dependences of the integral intensity and NMR signals Knight shift in 199 Hg nuclei are measured for liquid and solid mercury introduced into the porous coal and silica gel. The decrease in the crystallization completion temperature and small temperature hysteresis (from 4 up to 9 K) between melting and crystallization are identified. Mercury melting temperature in pores coincided with melting temperature of the bulk mercury. NMR signal from crystalline mercury under conditions of limited geometry was observed for the first time. It is ascertained that Knight shift for mercury in the pores both in liquid and crystalline phases is lesser than for the bulk mercury [ru

  14. 40 CFR 421.200 - Applicability: Description of the secondary mercury subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary mercury subcategory. 421.200 Section 421.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Mercury Subcategory § 421.200 Applicability: Description of the secondary mercury... mercury from secondary mercury facilities processing recycled mercuric oxide batteries and other mercury...

  15. Mercury recycling in the United States in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.; Matos, Grecia R.

    2005-01-01

    Reclamation and recycling of mercury from used mercury- containing products and treatment of byproduct mercury from gold mining is vital to the continued, though declining, use of this metal. Mercury is reclaimed from mercury-containing waste by treatment in multistep high-temperature retorts-the mercury is volatized and then condensed for purification and sale. Some mercury-containing waste, however, may be landfilled, and landfilled material represents loss of a recyclable resource and a threat to the environment. Related issues include mercury disposal and waste management, toxicity and human health, and regulation of mercury releases in the environment. End-users of mercury-containing products may face fines and prosecution if these products are improperly recycled or not recycled. Local and State environmental regulations require adherence to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act to regulate generation, treatment, and disposal of mercury-containing products. In the United States, several large companies and a number of smaller companies collect these products from a variety of sources and then reclaim and recycle the mercury. Because mercury has not been mined as a principal product in the United States since 1992, mercury reclamation from fabricated products has become the main source of mercury. Principal product mercury and byproduct mercury from mining operations are considered to be primary materials. Mercury may also be obtained as a byproduct from domestic or foreign gold-processing operations. In the early 1990s, U.S. manufacturers used an annual average that ranged from 500 to 600 metric tons of recycled and imported mercury for fabrication of automobile convenience switches, dental amalgam, fluorescent lamps, medical uses and thermometers, and thermostats. The amount now used for fabrication is estimated to be 200 metric tons per year or less. Much of the data on

  16. Mercury Exposure: Protein Biomarkers of Mercury Exposure in Jaraqui Fish from the Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, José Cavalcante Souza; Braga, Camila Pereira; de Oliveira, Grasieli; Padilha, Cilene do Carmo Federici; de Moraes, Paula Martin; Zara, Luiz Fabricio; Leite, Aline de Lima; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Padilha, Pedro de Magalhães

    2018-05-01

    This study presents data on the extraction and characterization of proteins associated with mercury in the muscle and liver tissues of jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp.) from the Madeira River in the Brazilian Amazon. Protein fractionation was carried out by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Mercury determination in tissues, pellets, and protein spots was performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Proteins in the spots that showed mercury were characterized by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The highest mercury concentrations were found in liver tissues and pellets (426 ± 6 and 277 ± 4 μg kg -1 ), followed by muscle tissues and pellets (132 ± 4 and 86 ± 1 μg kg -1 , respectively). Mercury quantification in the protein spots allowed us to propose stoichiometric ratios in the range of 1-4 mercury atoms per molecule of protein in the protein spots. The proteins characterized in the analysis by ESI-MS/MS were keratin, type II cytoskeletal 8, parvalbumin beta, parvalbumin-2, ubiquitin-40S ribosomal S27a, 39S ribosomal protein L36 mitochondrial, hemoglobin subunit beta, and hemoglobin subunit beta-A/B. The results suggest that proteins such as ubiquitin-40S ribosomal protein S27a, which have specific domains, possibly zinc finger, can be used as biomarkers of mercury, whereas mercury and zinc present characteristics of soft acids.

  17. Formation of Soluble Mercury Oxide Coatings: Transformation of Elemental Mercury in Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carrie L; Watson, David B; Lester, Brian P; Howe, Jane Y; Phillips, Debra H; He, Feng; Liang, Liyuan; Pierce, Eric M

    2015-10-20

    The impact of mercury (Hg) on human and ecological health has been known for decades. Although a treaty signed in 2013 by 147 nations regulates future large-scale mercury emissions, legacy Hg contamination exists worldwide and small-scale releases will continue. The fate of elemental mercury, Hg(0), lost to the subsurface and its potential chemical transformation that can lead to changes in speciation and mobility are poorly understood. Here, we show that Hg(0) beads interact with soil or manganese oxide solids and X-ray spectroscopic analysis indicates that the soluble mercury coatings are HgO. Dissolution studies show that, after reacting with a composite soil, >20 times more Hg is released into water from the coated beads than from a pure liquid mercury bead. An even larger, >700 times, release occurs from coated Hg(0) beads that have been reacted with manganese oxide, suggesting that manganese oxides are involved in the transformation of the Hg(0) beads and creation of the soluble mercury coatings. Although the coatings may inhibit Hg(0) evaporation, the high solubility of the coatings can enhance Hg(II) migration away from the Hg(0)-spill site and result in potential changes in mercury speciation in the soil and increased mercury mobility.

  18. OCCURRENCE OF MICROORGANISMS RESISTANT TO MERCURY IN MERCURY CONTAMINATED SOILS AND SEDIMENTS IN PAVLODAR, KAZAKHSTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is extensive mercury contamination of soil surrounding a chloralkali plant in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan that operated from 1970 to 1990. High-level mercury contamination exists within the confines of the plant, at nearby off-site waste storage and evaporation ponds, and in Balky...

  19. OCCURRENCE OF MERCURY-RESISTANT MICROORGANISMS IN MERCURY-CONTAMINATED SOILS AND SEDIMENTS IN PAVLODAR, KAZAKHSTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is extensive mercury contamination of soil surrounding a chloralkali plant in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan that operated from 1970 to 1990. High-level mercury contamination exists within the confines of the plant, at nearby off-site waste storage and evaporation ponds, and in Balky...

  20. Bacterial Mercury Methylation At The Sediment-Water Interface Of Mercury Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench scale experiments were conducted to improve our understanding of bacterial mediation of mercury transformation (methylation), specifically those factors which govern the production of methyl mercury (MeHg) at the sediment-water interface. The greatest cause for concern re...

  1. ANALYSIS OF MERCURY IN VERMONT AND NEW HAMPSHIRE LAKES: EVALUATION OF THE REGIONAL MERCURY CYCLING MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    An evaluation of the Regional Mercury Cycling Model (R-MCM, a steady-state fate and transport model used to simulate mercury concentrations in lakes) is presented based on its application to a series of 91 lakes in Vermont and New Hampshire. Visual and statistical analyses are pr...

  2. Aerobic Mercury-resistant bacteria alter Mercury speciation and retention in the Tagus Estuary (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Neusa L; Canário, João; O'Driscoll, Nelson J; Duarte, Aida; Carvalho, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Aerobic mercury-resistant bacteria were isolated from the sediments of two highly mercury-polluted areas of the Tagus Estuary (Barreiro and Cala do Norte) and one natural reserve area (Alcochete) in order to test their capacity to transform mercury. Bacterial species were identified using 16S rRNA amplification and sequencing techniques and the results indicate the prevalence of Bacillus sp. Resistance patterns to mercurial compounds were established by the determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations. Representative Hg-resistant bacteria were further tested for transformation pathways (reduction, volatilization and methylation) in cultures containing mercury chloride. Bacterial Hg-methylation was carried out by Vibrio fluvialis, Bacillus megaterium and Serratia marcescens that transformed 2-8% of total mercury into methylmercury in 48h. In addition, most of the HgR bacterial isolates showed Hg(2+)-reduction andHg(0)-volatilization resulting 6-50% mercury loss from the culture media. In summary, the results obtained under controlled laboratory conditions indicate that aerobic Hg-resistant bacteria from the Tagus Estuary significantly affect both the methylation and reduction of mercury and may have a dual face by providing a pathway for pollution dispersion while forming methylmercury, which is highly toxic for living organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Behavior of mercury in biosystems. III. Biotransference of mercury through food chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdy, M.K.; Prabhu, N.V.

    1979-01-01

    This study was conducted to follow the biotransference of radioactive mercury in a simple model food chain which consisted of four trophic levels: from mercury resistant bacteria to mosquito larvae; then from larvae to guppies (small fish); and finally from guppies to Cichlids (big fish). Factors affecting this biotransference in the various trophic levels were also examined.

  4. Mercury risk in poultry in the Wanshan Mercury Mine, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Runsheng; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Guangyi; Feng, Zhaohui; Hurley, James P; Yang, Liyuan; Shang, Lihai; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-11-01

    In this study, total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in muscles (leg and breast), organs (intestine, heart, stomach, liver) and blood were investigated for backyard chickens, ducks and geese of the Wanshan Mercury Mine, China. THg in poultry meat products range from 7.9 to 3917.1 ng/g, most of which exceeded the Chinese national standard limit for THg in meat (50 ng/g). Elevated MeHg concentrations (0.4-62.8 ng/g) were also observed in meat products, suggesting that poultry meat can be an important human MeHg exposure source. Ducks and geese showed higher Hg levels than chickens. For all poultry species, the highest Hg concentrations were observed in liver (THg: 23.2-3917.1 ng/g; MeHg: 7.1-62.8 ng/g) and blood (THg: 12.3-338.0 ng/g; MeHg: 1.4-17.6 ng/g). We estimated the Hg burdens in chickens (THg: 15.3-238.1 μg; MeHg: 2.2-15.6 μg), ducks (THg: 15.3-238.1 μg; MeHg: 3.5-14.7 μg) and geese (THg: 83.8-93.4 μg; MeHg: 15.4-29.7 μg). To not exceed the daily intake limit for THg (34.2 μg/day) and MeHg (6 μg/day), we suggested that the maximum amount (g) for chicken leg, breast, heart, stomach, intestine, liver, and blood should be 1384, 1498, 2315, 1214, 1081, 257, and 717, respectively; the maximum amount (g) for duck leg, breast, heart, stomach, intestine, liver, and blood should be 750, 1041, 986, 858, 752, 134, and 573, respectively; and the maximum amount (g) for goose leg, breast, heart, stomach, intestine, liver, and blood should be 941, 1051, 1040, 1131, 964, 137, and 562, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomarkers of mercury exposure at a mercury recycling facility in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, H.J.; Kozlov, K.; Buckley, J.P.; Centeno, J.; Jurgenson, V.; Kolker, A.; Conko, K.; Landa, E.; Panov, B.; Panov, Y.; Xu, H.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates biomarkers of occupational mercury exposure among workers at a mercury recycling operation in Gorlovka, Ukraine. The 29 study participants were divided into three occupational categories for analysis: (1) those who worked in the mercury recycling operation (Group A, n = 8), (2) those who worked at the facility but not in the yard where the recycling was done (Group B, n = 14), and (3) those who did not work at the facility (Group C, n = 7). Urine, blood, hair, and nail samples were collected from the participants, and a questionnaire was administered to obtain data on age, gender, occupational history, smoking, alcohol consumption, fish consumption, tattoos, dental amalgams, home heating system, education, source of drinking water, and family employment in the former mercury mine/smelter located on the site of the recycling facility. Each factor was tested in a univariate regression with total mercury in urine, blood, hair, and nails. Median biomarker concentrations were 4.04 ??g/g-Cr (urine), 2.58 ??g/L (blood), 3.95 ??g/g (hair), and 1.16 ??g/g (nails). Occupational category was significantly correlated (p < 0.001) with both blood and urinary mercury concentrations but not with hair or nail mercury. Four individuals had urinary mercury concentrations in a range previously found to be associated with subtle neurological and subjective symptoms (e.g., fatigue, loss of appetite, irritability), and one worker had a urinary mercury concentration in a range associated with a high probability of neurological effects and proteinuria. Comparison of results by occupational category found that workers directly involved with the recycling operation had the highest blood and urinary mercury levels. Those who worked at the facility but were not directly involved with the recycling operation had higher levels than those who did not work at the facility. Copyright ?? 2008 JOEH, LLC.

  6. MESSENGER at Mercury: Early Orbital Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Ralph L., Jr; Solomon, Sean C.; Bedini, Peter D.; Anderson, Brian J.; Blewett, David T.; Evans, Larry G.; Gold, Robert E.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Murchie, Scott L.; Nittler, Larry R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 under NASA's Discovery Program, was inserted into orbit about the planet Mercury in March 2011. MESSENGER's three flybys of Mercury in 2008-2009 marked the first spacecraft visits to the innermost planet since the Mariner 10 flybys in 1974-1975. The unprecedented orbital operations are yielding new insights into the nature and evolution of Mercury. The scientific questions that frame the MESSENGER mission led to the mission measurement objectives to be achieved by the seven payload instruments and the radio science experiment. Interweaving the full set of required orbital observations in a manner that maximizes the opportunity to satisfy all mission objectives and yet meet stringent spacecraft pointing and thermal constraints was a complex optimization problem that was solved with a software tool that simulates science observations and tracks progress toward meeting each objective. The final orbital observation plan, the outcome of that optimization process, meets all mission objectives. MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System is acquiring a global monochromatic image mosaic at better than 90% coverage and at least 250 m average resolution, a global color image mosaic at better than 90% coverage and at least 1 km average resolution, and global stereo imaging at better than 80% coverage and at least 250 m average resolution. Higher-resolution images are also being acquired of targeted areas. The elemental remote sensing instruments, including the Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer and the X-Ray Spectrometer, are being operated nearly continuously and will establish the average surface abundances of most major elements. The Visible and Infrared Spectrograph channel of MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer is acquiring a global map of spectral reflectance from 300 to 1450 nm wavelength at a range of incidence and emission

  7. Making Mercury's Core with Light Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Ross, D. Kent

    2016-01-01

    Recent results obtained from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging spacecraft showed the surface of Mercury has low FeO abundances (less than 2 wt%) and high S abundances (approximately 4 wt%), suggesting the oxygen fugacity of Mercury's surface materials is somewhere between 3 to 7 log10 units below the IW buffer. The highly reducing nature of Mercury has resulted in a relatively thin mantle and a large core that has the potential to exhibit an exotic composition in comparison to the other terrestrial planets. This exotic composition may extend to include light elements (e.g., Si, C, S). Furthermore, has argued for a possible primary floatation crust on Mercury composed of graphite, which may require a core that is C-saturated. In order to investigate mercurian core compositions, we conducted piston cylinder experiments at 1 GPa, from 1300 C to 1700 C, using a range of starting compositions consisting of various Si-Fe metal mixtures (Si5Fe95, Si10Fe90, Si22Fe78, and Si35Fe65). All metals were loaded into graphite capsules used to ensure C-saturation during the duration of each experimental run. Our experiments show that Fe-Si metallic alloys exclude carbon relative to more Fe-rich metal. This exclusion of carbon commences within the range of 5 to 10 wt% Si. These results indicate that if Mercury has a Si-rich core (having more than approximately 5 wt% silicon), it would have saturated in carbon at low C abundances allowing for the possible formation of a graphite floatation crust as suggested by. These results have important implications for the thermal and magmatic evolution of Mercury.

  8. Quantification of Labile Soil Mercury by Stable Isotope Dilution Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetaya, Waleed; Huang, Jen-How; Osterwalder, Stefan; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    been applied to estimate the labile pool of mercury in contaminated soils. We performed a series of soil incubations spiked with 196Hg2+aiming at measuring and modelling the progressive assimilation of Hg ions into less labile forms. Soils with a wide range of characteristics are taken for our research purpose, inclusive of Hg concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 390 mg kg-1, pH between 3.5 - 7.5 and total organic carbon (TOC) between 2.5 - 8 %. In parallel, the labile pool of Hg estimated using ID will be compared with that determined using conventional extraction methods, e.g. sequential extraction procedures. These altogether allows us to answer (1) how the E-value of Hg in soils is comparable to those estimated based on selective extraction methods, (2) how the labile Hg correlates with the total soil Hg, soil pH and TOC, and (3) how the solubility of added Hg (e.g. via rainfall) decreased in soils of different properties during aging. The obtained results fills the knowledge gap concerning Hg biogeochemistry in the terrestrial environment and serves as a basis for estimating (and predicting) the risk of soil Hg diffusion from a point source to the adjacent environments.

  9. Mercury Exposure among Garbage Workers in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsiri Decharat

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: Changing garbage workers’ hygiene habits can reduce urinary mercury levels. Personal hygiene is important, and should be stressed in education programs. Employers should institute engineering controls to reduce urinary mercury levels among garbage workers.

  10. Distribution of atmospheric mercury species near ground. [Tampa Bay, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.L.; Braman, R.S.

    1974-01-01

    A recently developed technique makes possible the routine analysis of atmospheric samples for particulate and volatile mercury. The volatile fraction can be analyzed for several chemical species. This work presents the results of some Tampb Bay area analyses and diurnal studies of atmospheric mercury speciation. The mercury in air in the area investigated was primarily volatile (>90%) and was composed of significant proportions of mercury (II)-type compounds, methylmercury (II)-type compounds, and elemental mercury. Dimethylmercury was rarely observed. Results were quite variable suggesting a variety of sources and irregular wind transport processes. The data indicate that background mercury concentrations and the percentage distribution of mercury species in air in a local area may be established by mercury emanations from the ground or from adjacent bodies of water.

  11. Mercury chloride-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    ). Intake of metallic mercury vapour amounts to 3, 9 - 21 µg /day ..... Comparative in vitro cytogenetic studies in mercury-exposed human lymphocytes. Mutat. Res. 157: 221-226. Verschaeve L, Kirsch-Volders M, Susanne C ...

  12. Reducing global mercury emissions in artisanal and small-scale ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-28

    caused mercury emissions, surpassing even coal-burning. With more than 15 million small-scale gold miners operating in more than 70 countries today, finding a way to reduce mercury emissions is vital.

  13. Removal of mercury from coal via a microbial pretreatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P [Knoxville, TN; Hamilton, Choo Y [Knoxville, TN

    2011-08-16

    A process for the removal of mercury from coal prior to combustion is disclosed. The process is based on use of microorganisms to oxidize iron, sulfur and other species binding mercury within the coal, followed by volatilization of mercury by the microorganisms. The microorganisms are from a class of iron and/or sulfur oxidizing bacteria. The process involves contacting coal with the bacteria in a batch or continuous manner. The mercury is first solubilized from the coal, followed by microbial reduction to elemental mercury, which is stripped off by sparging gas and captured by a mercury recovery unit, giving mercury-free coal. The mercury can be recovered in pure form from the sorbents via additional processing.

  14. What are the Connections between Mercury and CFLs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small amounts of mercury vapor can be released when CFLs break or are improperly disposed of. Despite these emissions, the use of CFLs actually helps reduce total mercury emissions in the U.S. because of their significant energy savings.

  15. Bioremediation of toxic substances by mercury resistant marine bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De, J.; Sarkar, A.; Ramaiah, N.

    Bioremediation of toxic substances includes microbe-mediated enzymatic transformation of toxicants to non-toxic, often assimilable, forms. Mercury-resistant marine bacteria are found to be very promising in dealing with mercury, and a host of other...

  16. Below a Historic Mercury Mine: Non-linear Patterns of Mercury Bioaccumulation in Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J.; Ichikawa, G.; Ode, P.; Salsbery, D.; Abel, J.

    2001-12-01

    Unlike most heavy metals, mercury is capable of bioaccumulating in aquatic food-chains, primarily because it is methylated by bacteria in sediment to the more toxic methylmercury form. Mercury concentrations in a number of riparian systems in California are highly elevated as a result of historic mining activities. These activities included both the mining of cinnabar in the coastal ranges to recover elemental mercury and the use of elemental mercury in the gold fields of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The most productive mercury mining area was the New Almaden District, now a county park, located in the Guadalupe River drainage of Santa Clara County, where cinnabar was mined and retorted for over 100 years. As a consequence, riparian systems in several subwatersheds of the Guadalupe River drainage are contaminated with total mercury concentrations that exceed state hazardous waste criteria. Mercury concentrations in fish tissue frequently exceed human health guidelines. However, the potential ecological effects of these elevated mercury concentrations have not been thoroughly evaluated. One difficulty is in extrapolating sediment concentrations to fish tissue concentrations without accounting for physical and biological processes that determine bioaccumulation patterns. Many processes, such as methylation and demethylation of mercury by bacteria, assimilation efficiency in invertebrates, and metabolic rates in fish, are nonlinear, a factor that often confounds attempts to evaluate the effects of mercury contamination on aquatic food webs. Sediment, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish tissue samples were collected in 1998 from the Guadalupe River drainage in Santa Clara County at 13 sites upstream and downstream from the historic mining district. Sediment and macroinvertebrate samples were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury. Fish samples were analyzed for total mercury as whole bodies, composited by species and size. While linear correlations of sediment

  17. Mercury Toxicity and Treatment: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin A. Bernhoft

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a toxic heavy metal which is widely dispersed in nature. Most human exposure results from fish consumption or dental amalgam. Mercury occurs in several chemical forms, with complex pharmacokinetics. Mercury is capable of inducing a wide range of clinical presentations. Diagnosis of mercury toxicity can be challenging but can be obtained with reasonable reliability. Effective therapies for clinical toxicity have been described.

  18. Mercury Toxicity and Treatment: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhoft, Robin A.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic heavy metal which is widely dispersed in nature. Most human exposure results from fish consumption or dental amalgam. Mercury occurs in several chemical forms, with complex pharmacokinetics. Mercury is capable of inducing a wide range of clinical presentations. Diagnosis of mercury toxicity can be challenging but can be obtained with reasonable reliability. Effective therapies for clinical toxicity have been described. PMID:22235210

  19. Mercury species in formerly contaminated soils and released soil gases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sysalová, J.; Kučera, Jan; Drtinová, B.; Červenka, R.; Zvěřina, O.; Komárek, J.; Kameník, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 584, APR (2017), s. 1032-1039 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : mercury contaminated soils * total mercury * elemental mercury * methylmercury * phynelmercury * gaseous elemental mercury Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  20. Toenail mercury and dyslipidemia: Interaction with selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyong; Seo, Eunmin

    2017-01-01

    Although compelling evidences from in vivo and in vitro studies exist, limited studies have examined the association between chronic mercury exposure and dyslipidemia. Particularly, data are sparse regarding the influence of selenium on this association of mercury with dyslipidemia in humans. The purpose of the current study was to examine the associations of toenail mercury with dyslipidemia and its components, and to examine whether selenium in toenails modifies these associations. We performed cross-sectional analyses using baseline data from a cohort in the Yeungnam area in South Korea, including 232 men and 269 women. Toenail mercury and selenium concentrations were quantified using neutron activation analysis, and fasting serum lipid measurements were obtained through the medical examination. Odds ratios of the prevalent hypercholesterolemia, hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia, hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and dyslipidemia in correlation with mercury levels were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. The mean levels of toenail mercury were 0.47μg/g for men and 0.34μg/g for women. After adjustment for multiple confounding variables, participants in the highest tertile of toenail mercury levels had 4.08 (95% CI 1.09-15.32, p for trend=0.02) times higher risk of hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia, and 2.24 (95% CI 1.15-4.37, p for trend=0.004) times higher risk of dyslipidemia than those in the lowest tertile. Selenium is a significant effect-modifier for these associations; the highest tertile of toenail mercury were significantly associated with a higher risk of hypercholesterolemia (OR 5.25, 95% CI 1.04-26.38) and dyslipidemia (OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.16-7.66) compared to the lowest tertile at toenail selenium levels ≤0.685μg/g, while these associations became weak and non-significant, showing OR 0.98 and 95% CI 0.25-3.80 for hypercholesterolemia and OR 1.99 and 95% CI 0.73-5.45 for dyslipidemia at toenail selenium levels >0.685μg/g. We

  1. Liquid Nitrogen (-196°C effect under pollen of some cultured or ornamental species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina GLIGOR

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The criopreservation involve the stock of the vegetal material at low temperatures (-196°C in liquid nitrogen, in thermal conditions in which the division of cells and metabolic processes slow down, thus that the samplings may be conserved for long periods without suffering any genetic modifications. This stock technique is applied till present only on 80 vegetal species, keeping their seeds and vitrocultures preponderantly; researches were made regarding the maintenance of pollen in liquid nitrogen.The mature pollen, able to resist a higher degree of desiccation, may be conserved at low temperatures, without criopreservation. It was made researches on criopreservation of rise, maize, wheat, roses, sun flower and soy pollen. Our study purpose was to follow the impact of liquid nitrogen (-196°C about on viability of some cultured and ornamental species. The designed time of criopreservation it was 30 minutes and 7 days, using the TTC (tripheniltetrazole chloride method which allows testing the viability of vegetal material based on dehydrogenase activity.It was observed at Petunia hybrida species, that the pollen viability was low - in relevance with the witness represented from the pollen which was not resigned to the nitrogen liquid treatment - between percentage limits of 3.5-8%, in the case when the vegetal material was submersed 30 minutes in liquid nitrogen and 7.5-14.5% 7 days at (-196°C. The submersing of Nicotiana alata var. grandiflora species at 7 days, determined a low viability with 11.53%. The following two studied species Cucurbita and Hosta were proved to be the most resistant at submersing and maintenance in liquid nitrogen. The most affected pollen was Campsis radicans species. At Datura stramonium species was observed 2.59% a low viability of pollen, after 30 minutes of liquid nitrogen treatment, was 19.56%, after 7 days of submersing, the most pollen granules losing completely their viability.

  2. Mercury separation from aqueous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.; Klasson, K.T.; Corder, S.L.

    1995-07-01

    This project is providing an assessment of new sorbents for removing mercury from wastes at US Department of Energy sites. Four aqueous wastes were chosen for lab-scale testing; a high-salt, acidic waste currently stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); a high-salt, alkaline waste stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS); a dilute lithium hydroxide solution stored at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; and a low-salt, neutral groundwater generated at the Y-12 Plant. Eight adsorbents have been identified for testing, covering a wide range of cost and capability. Screening tests have been completed, which identified the most promising adsorbents for each waste stream. Batch isotherm tests have been completed using the most promising adsorbents, and column tests are in progress. Because of the wide range of waste compositions tested, no one adsorbent is effective in all of these waste streams. Based on loading capacity and compatibility with the waste solutions. the most effective adsorbents identified to date are SuperLig 618 for the INEL tank waste stimulant; Mersorb followed by lonac SR-3 for the SRS tank waste stimulant; Durasil 70 and Ionac SR-3) for the LIOH solution; and lonac SR-3 followed by lonac SR-4 and Mersorb for the Y-12 groundwater

  3. Environmental and health aspects of lighting: Mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1993-07-01

    Most discharge lamps, including fluorescent lamps, metal halide lamps, and high pressure sodium lamps, contain Mercury, a toxic chemical. Lighting professionals need to be able to respond to questions about the direct hazards of Mercury from accidentally breaking lamps, and the potential environmental hazards of lamp operation and disposal. We calculated the exposures that could occur from an accidental breakage of lamps. Acute poisoning appears almost impossible. Under some circumstances a sealed environment, such as a space station, could be contaminated enough to make it unhealthy for long-term occupation. Mercury becomes a potential environmental hazard after it becomes methylated. Mercury is methylated in aquatic environments, where it may accumulate in fish, eventually rendering them toxic to people and other animals. Lighting causes Mercury to enter the environment directly from lamp disposal, and indirectly from power plant emissions. The environmental tradeoffs between incandescent and discharge lamps depend upon the amounts released by these two sources, their local concentrations, and their probabilities of being methylated. Indirect environmental effects of lighting also include the release of other heavy metals (Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic), and other air pollutants and carbon dioxide that are emitted by fossil fuel power plants. For a given light output, the level of power plant emissions depends upon the efficacy of the light source, and is thus much larger for incandescent lamps than for fluorescent or discharge lamps. As disposal and control technologies change the relative direct and indirect emissions from discharge and incandescent lamps will change.

  4. Mercury in waders from the Wash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parslow, J.L.F.

    1973-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury were determined in the livers of seventy-three waders (Limicolae) collected during August-March on the Wash, eastern England, in order to obtain baseline data on levels of this element in birds living in a non-industrial and presumably lightly polluted estuarine area. In the knot (Calidris canutus), mercury levels were relatively low, about 1 ppm dry weight, in early autumn but increased through the winter until, by February-March, they were about 10-20 times higher. On more limited or scattered data, the dunlin (C. alpina) and redshank (Tringa totanus) also showed much higher mercury levels in late winter compared with autumn. The results imply that mercury accumulation in the liver during the winter months (when the birds are exclusively estuarine, mainly in temperate latitudes) is eliminated in summer (on mainly inland arctic and subarctic breeding grounds). The results are discussed in relation to the moult, movements and food of the main species. The biological significance of the concentrations found in the Wash waders is uncertain, but it is suggested that in industrial estuaries mercury levels in the same species may be very much higher and, by analogy with other species, could be having detrimental physiological effects. 26 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  5. Passivation of dental amalgams and mercury release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joska, Ludĕk; Marek, Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    In this study the rate of dissolution of mercury from two dental amalgams with different compositions and structures was determined in vitro under different oxidation and abrasion conditions, and the results were correlated with the electrochemical characteristics. A spherical high copper and a lathe-cut very high-copper amalgam were tested in aerated and deaerated artificial saliva. The electrochemical characteristics were determined by potential-time, anodic polarization, polarization resistance and cathodic stripping measurements. Mercury release tests were performed after either stabilization in the solution, or abrasion using SiC papers or rotary toothbrush, with or without toothpaste. Dissolved mercury was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Both amalgams exhibited passivation, the amalgam with the higher copper content passivating spontaneously even when the oxygen content in the solution was minimized. At a higher oxygen content in the solution the rate of mercury release from the amalgams was lower than when the oxygen content was minimized, and decreased further after a pre-exposure. Brushing generally increased the release. The results show the importance of the oxidation conditions and passivation characteristics of dental amalgams for mercury release, especially in the transient state after abrasion by chewing or tooth brushing.

  6. The Battle for Crete (Operation Mercury): An Operational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-18

    NAVAL WAR COLLEGE Newport, R.I. The Battle for Crete (Operation Mercury ): An Operational Analysis by Kenneth J. Cox Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army...Title (Include Security Classification): The Battle for Crete (Operation Mercury ): An Operational Analysis (UNCLASSIFIED) 9. Personal Authors...Security Classification of this page Unclassified 3 ABSTRACT The Battle for Crete (Operation Mercury ): An Operational Analysis In May

  7. Mercury emission from a temperate lake during autumn turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, Jennifer L.; Peters, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Lakes in temperate regions stratify during summer and winter months, creating distinct layers of water differentiated by their physical and chemical characteristics. When lakes mix in autumn and spring, mercury cycling may be affected by the chemical changes that occur during mixing. Sampling was conducted in Lake Lacawac, Eastern Pennsylvania, USA, throughout the autumn of 2007 to characterize changes in emission of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) from the lake surface and dissolved mercury profiles in the water column during mixing. Water chemistry and weather parameters were also measured, including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), iron, and solar radiation which have been shown to interact with mercury species. Results indicate that emission of Hg 0 from the lake to the atmosphere during turnover was controlled both by solar radiation and by surface water mercury concentration. As autumn turnover progressed through the months of October and November, higher mercury concentration water from the hypolimnion mixed with epilimnetic water, increasing mercury concentration in epilimnetic waters. Dissolved absorbance was significantly correlated with mercury concentrations and with iron, but DOC concentrations were essentially constant throughout the study period and did not exhibit a relationship with either dissolved mercury concentrations or emission rates. Positive correlations between dissolved mercury and iron and manganese also suggest a role for these elements in mercury transport within the lake, but iron and manganese did not demonstrate a relationship with emission rates. This research indicates that consideration of seasonal processes in lakes is important when evaluating mercury cycling in aquatic systems

  8. mercury contamination in domestic ducks in geita, northwest tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. Total mercury concentrations (THg) were determined in domestic ducks (Anas platyrhncha) tissues in Mgusu Village, Geita District NW Tanzania. Elevated mercury levels were found in all tissue samples and showed a trend of increasing mercury concentration with weight/age of the poultry. Highest total ...

  9. PSYCHROPHILIC PSEUDOMONAS SP. RESISTANT TO MERCURY FROM PAVLODAR, KAZAKHSTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    As mercury circulates and deposits globally, the remediation of extensive mercury contamination surrounding a chloralkali plant in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan is critical. High-levels of mercury contamination exist within the confines of the plant, at nearby off-site waste storage and e...

  10. Interaction of ethanol and mercury body burden in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The interaction of ethanol with mercury in the body resulting in increased exhalation of the metal was studied in the mouse. A persistent elimination of the metal in the breath was demonstrated after single, sublethal (<1 mgHg/Kg body weight) exposures to mercury vapor (Hg/sup 0/) or mercury II chloride (HgCl/sub 2/). The amount of mercury exhaled per unit time was enhanced by oral or parenteral administration of ethanol solutions. These modifications were investigated in dose-response studies in which the drug was administered in doses ranging from 0.2g to 5.5g/Kg to mice pretreated with mercury. The EC/sub 50/ for blood ethanol with respect to mercury exhalation was determined to be approximately 200 mg/dl corresponding to an output rate of approximately 0.1% of the simultaneous body burden in 30 min several days after mercury. A hypothesis that mercury expired by these animals was proportional to the body burden after mercury administration was addressed in experiments whereby mice given one of several doses of mercuric chloride (0.16 to 500 ..mu..g/Kg) were monitored for pulmonary mercury elimination for a fifteen day period. The high correlation obtained between the amount of mercury exhaled in a standard time period and the body burden by group indicated that breath sampling could be applied as an indicator of the mercury body burden which may not be limited to the mouse.

  11. Mercury bioaccumulation in Southern Appalachian birds, assessed through feather concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Hylton Keller; Lingtian Xie; David B. Buchwalter; Kathleen E. Franzreb; Theodore R Simons

    2014-01-01

    Mercury contamination in wildlife has rarely been studied in the Southern Appalachians despite high deposition rates in the region. From 2006 to 2008 we sampled feathers from 458 birds representing 32 species in the Southern Appalachians for total mercury and stable isotope ä 15N. Mercury concentrations (mean ± SE) averaged 0.46...

  12. Seasonal variation of mercury vapor concentrations in industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mercury has been known as a toxic substance that could raise potential risks to human health. The main anthropogenic sources of mercury pollution in air include combustion of fossil fuel, metal smelting and processing, and vehicle transportation all of which exist in Ahvaz city in Southwestern Iran. Ambient air mercury ...

  13. Mercury Spill Responses - Five States, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Ryan J; Hirsch, Anne E; Bush, Christina R; Schmitz, Stuart; Wenzel, Jeff

    2017-03-17

    Despite measures to educate the public about the dangers of elemental mercury, spills continue to occur in homes, schools, health care facilities, and other settings, endangering the public's health and requiring costly cleanup. Mercury is most efficiently absorbed by the lungs, and exposure to high levels of mercury vapor after a release can cause cough, sore throat, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, and visual disturbances (1). Children and fetuses are most susceptible to the adverse effects of mercury vapor exposure. Because their organ systems are still developing, children have increased respiratory rates, and they are closer to the ground where mercury vapors are most highly concentrated (2). To summarize key features of recent mercury spills and lessons learned, five state health departments involved in the cleanup (Iowa, Michigan, Missouri, North Carolina, and Wisconsin) compiled data from various sources on nonthermometer mercury spills from 2012 to 2015. The most common sites of contamination were residences, schools and school buses, health care facilities, and commercial and industrial facilities. Children aged mercury exposure. To protect the public's health after a mercury spill, it is important that local, state, and federal agencies communicate and coordinate effectively to ensure a quick response, and to minimize the spread of contamination. To reduce the number of mercury spills that occur in the United States, public health officials should increase awareness about exchange programs for mercury-containing items and educate school and health care workers about sources of mercury and how to dispose of them properly.

  14. 21 CFR 872.3080 - Mercury and alloy dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mercury and alloy dispenser. 872.3080 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3080 Mercury and alloy dispenser. (a) Identification. A mercury and alloy dispenser is a device with a spring-activated valve intended to measure and...

  15. Technical report: mercury in the environment: implications for pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, L R; Shannon, M W

    2001-07-01

    Mercury is a ubiquitous environmental toxin that causes a wide range of adverse health effects in humans. Three forms of mercury (elemental, inorganic, and organic) exist, and each has its own profile of toxicity. Exposure to mercury typically occurs by inhalation or ingestion. Readily absorbed after its inhalation, mercury can be an indoor air pollutant, for example, after spills of elemental mercury in the home; however, industry emissions with resulting ambient air pollution remain the most important source of inhaled mercury. Because fresh-water and ocean fish may contain large amounts of mercury, children and pregnant women can have significant exposure if they consume excessive amounts of fish. The developing fetus and young children are thought to be disproportionately affected by mercury exposure, because many aspects of development, particularly brain maturation, can be disturbed by the presence of mercury. Minimizing mercury exposure is, therefore, essential to optimal child health. This review provides pediatricians with current information on mercury, including environmental sources, toxicity, and treatment and prevention of mercury exposure.

  16. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Standard for mercury (Hg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for mercury (Hg). 60.45Da... for mercury (Hg). (a) For each coal-fired electric utility steam generating unit other than an IGCC... gases that contain mercury (Hg) emissions in excess of each Hg emissions limit in paragraphs (a)(1...

  17. Comparative analysis of mercury content in human hair and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations were analysed in human hairs and cosmetic products sold in Dar es Salaam Tanzania. The average total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations in the scalp hair of females using mercury based cosmetic creams and soaps ranged from 7.0 ± 0.4 to 880 ± 12 ppm. Highest T-Hg concentrations ...

  18. Mercury and selenium in wild and experimental seals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de W.S.M.; Koeman, J.H.; Svenson, A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the tissue distribution of inorganic mercury, organic mercury selenium in Dutch and British seals as well as in seals which were dosed with methylmercury under experimental conditions. In the experimental animals, a time-related increase of both mercury and selenium was found in

  19. Mercury, fish oils and the risk of myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guallar, E.; Sanz-Gallardo, M.I.; Veer, van 't P.; Bode, P.; Aro, A.; Gomez-Aracena, J.; Kark, J.D.; Riemersma, R.A.; Martin-Moreno, J.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2002-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that mercury, a highly reactive heavy metal with no known physiologic activity, increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Because fish intake is a major source of exposure to mercury, the mercury content of fish may counteract the beneficial effects of its n-3

  20. Brazil — Mercury contamination in the Amazon | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-11

    Jan 11, 2011 ... By checking the corresponding month's growth against the diet sheet, they could tell how the food eaten was affecting mercury absorption. "For a similar amount of ... "Using specific tree species that bear fruit which slow the absorption of mercury can affect local people's exposure to mercury. Reinforcing or ...

  1. Roman Policies towards Antiochus III and the Greeks from Winter 197/196 B.C. to Autumn 196 B.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutschmann, Eike Hellmut

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Second Macedonian War (200-196 B.C., the res publica reduced the strength of the enemy King Philip V apparently to establish a new political order in Southern Balkans: Assumedly a pro-Roman balance of forces should prevail there, untainted by influence of another major power. A particular senatorial policy towards the Greeks probably did not exist before the fighting in Hellas came to an end in summer 197 B.C. In the same year, the Seleucid king Antiochus III brought large parts of the west coast of Asia Minor under control and set about crossing the Hellespont. Rome subsequently stylized itself as the guardian of freedom for the Greeks living in Hellas and Asia Minor. The statesmen of the res publica could have perceived Antiochus’ expansion as a threat to the mentioned new order. Therefore, the Roman Policy of Freedom was possibly applied primarily to take action against the Seleucid king. Die res publica verminderte im Zweiten Makedonischen Krieg (200-196 a.c. die Macht des gegnerischen Königs Philipp V - anscheinend um eine neue politische Ordnung im südlichen Balkanraum zu etablieren: Vermutlich sollte dort ein romfreundliches Kräftegleichgewicht vorherrschen, auf das keine andere Großmacht Einfluß hat. Eine speziell an die Griechen gerichtete Politik seitens des römischen Senats gab es wahrscheinlich nicht vor Ende der Kampfhandlungen in Hellas im Sommer 197 a.c. In dem Jahr erweiterte der seleukidische König Antiochos III. seinen Einflussbereich auf große Teile der kleinasiatischen Westküste und schickte sich an, den Hellespont zu überqueren. Rom stilisierte sich in der Folgezeit zum Freiheitsgarant der in Hellas und Kleinasien lebenden Griechen. Antiochos Expansion könnte von den Staatsmännern der res publica als Bedrohung der genannten neuen Ordnung angesehen worden sein. Demzufolge wurde die römische Freiheitspolitik möglicherweise in erster Linie angewendet, um gegen den seleukidischen König vorzugehen.

  2. The mixed waste focus area mercury working group: an integrated approach for mercury treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.; Holmes-Burns, H.; Petersell, J.; Schwendiman, L.

    1997-01-01

    In May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Work Group (HgWG), which was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury- contaminated mixed wastes. Three of the first four technology deficiencies identified during the MWFA technical baseline development process were related to mercury amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal. The HgWG will assist the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing all the efforts required to address these deficiencies. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury-related treatment needs at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. The team will initially focus on the sites with the most mercury-contaminated mixed wastes, whose representatives comprise the HgWG. However, the group will also work with the sites with less inventory to maximize the effectiveness of these efforts in addressing the mercury- related needs throughout the entire complex

  3. Mixed Waste Focus Area Mercury Working Group: An integrated approach to mercury waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1998-03-01

    In May 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Working Group (HgWG). The HgWG was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury contaminated mixed wastes. During the MWFA's initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation removal technologies for the treatment of mercury and mercury contaminated mixed waste. The HgWG is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury related treatment technologies at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. Based on the scope and magnitude of the mercury mixed waste problem, as defined by HgWG, solicitations and contract awards have been made to the private sector to demonstrate both the amalgamation and stabilization processes using actual mixed wastes. Development efforts are currently being funded that will address DOE's needs for separation removal processes. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of the HgWG to date through these various activities

  4. The mixed waste focus area mercury working group: an integrated approach for mercury treatment and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Holmes-Burns, H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Petersell, J. [AIMS, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Schwendiman, L. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-02-01

    In May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Work Group (HgWG), which was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury- contaminated mixed wastes. Three of the first four technology deficiencies identified during the MWFA technical baseline development process were related to mercury amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal. The HgWG will assist the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing all the efforts required to address these deficiencies. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury-related treatment needs at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. The team will initially focus on the sites with the most mercury-contaminated mixed wastes, whose representatives comprise the HgWG. However, the group will also work with the sites with less inventory to maximize the effectiveness of these efforts in addressing the mercury- related needs throughout the entire complex.

  5. Computer modeling of the neurotoxin binding site of acetylcholine receptor spanning residues 185 through 196

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduno-Juarez, R.; Shibata, M.; Zielinski, T. J.; Rein, R.

    1987-01-01

    A model of the complex between the acetylcholine receptor and the snake neurotoxin, cobratoxin, was built by molecular model building and energy optimization techniques. The experimentally identified functionally important residues of cobratoxin and the dodecapeptide corresponding to the residues 185-196 of acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit were used to build the model. Both cis and trans conformers of cyclic L-cystine portion of the dodecapeptide were examined. Binding residues independently identified on cobratoxin are shown to interact with the dodecapeptide AChR model.

  6. [Mercury Distribution Characteristics and Atmospheric Mercury Emission Factors of Typical Waste Incineration Plants in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhen-ya; Su, Hai-tao; Wang, Feng-yang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shu-xiao; Yu, Bin

    2016-02-15

    Waste incineration is one of the important atmospheric mercury emission sources. The aim of this article is to explore the atmospheric mercury pollution level of waste incineration industry from Chongqing. This study investigated the mercury emissions from a municipal solid waste incineration plant and a medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing. The exhaust gas samples in these two incineration plants were obtained using USA EPA 30B method. The mercury concentrations in the fly ash and bottom ash samples were analyzed. The results indicated that the mercury concentrations of the municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing were (26.4 +/- 22.7) microg x m(-3) and (3.1 +/- 0.8) microg x m(-3) in exhaust gas respectively, (5279.2 +/- 798.0) microg x kg(-1) and (11,709.5 +/- 460.5) microg x kg(-1) in fly ash respectively. Besides, the distribution proportions of the mercury content from municipal solid waste and medical waste in exhaust gas, fly ash, and bottom ash were 34.0%, 65.3%, 0.7% and 32.3%, 67.5%, 0.2% respectively; The mercury removal efficiencies of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were 66.0% and 67.7% respectively. The atmospheric mercury emission factors of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were (126.7 +/- 109.0) microg x kg(-1) and (46.5 +/- 12.0) microg x kg(-1) respectively. Compared with domestic municipal solid waste incineration plants in the Pearl River Delta region, the atmospheric mercury emission factor of municipal solid waste incineration plant in Chongqing was lower.

  7. Mercury Information Clearinghouse. Quarterly 1: sorbent injection technologies for mercury control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Sorbent injection technologies for mercury control in coal-fired power plants and, in particular, the injection of activated carbon sorbents are examined. The retrofit technology that has been demonstrated to have the widest application for the control of mercury in plants without flue gas desulphurization scrubbers is discussed. The report covers mercury control requirements, laboratory studies on factors that affect sorbent capacity, pilot scale tests of the capture performance of different coals, research on sorbent properties, and full scale demonstration of sorbent control technologies. 34 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Geochemical, Genetic, and Community Controls on Mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D.

    2014-11-10

    The sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are soil bacteria that share two common characteristics, strict anaerobiosis and the ability to respire sulfate. The metabolic activities of these bacteria play significant roles in the global sulfur cycle, anaerobic degradation of biomass, biological metal corrosion in the environment and, recently, degradation of toxic compounds. The accumulation of evidence suggests these bacteria are also key to the production of the neurotoxin methylmercury in environmental settings. We propose to use our experience with the development of genetics in sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio to create mutations that will eliminate the methylation of mercury, thereby identifying the genes essential for this process. This information may allow the environmental monitoring of the mercury methylation potential to learn the location and quantity of the production this toxin. From these data, more accurate predictive models of mercury cycling can be generated.

  9. Radiochemical aspects of liquid mercury spallation targets

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhausen, Joerg; Eichler, Bernd; Eller, Martin; Horn, Susanne; Schumann, Dorothea; Stora, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Liquid metal spallation targets using mercury as target material are used in state-of-the-art high power pulsed neutron sources that have been constructed in the USA and Japan within the last decade. Similar target concepts were also proposed for next generation ISOL, beta-beam and neutrino facilities. A large amount of radioactivity will be induced in the liquid metal during operation caused by the interaction of the target material with the intense proton beam. This radioactivity - carried by a wide range of radioisotopes of all the elements of the periodic table from hydrogen up to thallium - must be considered for the assessment of safe operation and maintenance procedures as well as for a final disposal of the used target material and components. This report presents an overview on chemical investigations performed in our laboratory that deal with the behavior of radionuclides in proton irradiated mercury samples. The solubility of elements in mercury was calculated using thermodynamical data obtained by...

  10. Transits of Venus and Mercury as muses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, William

    2013-11-01

    Transits of Venus and Mercury have inspired artistic creation of all kinds. After having been the first to witness a Venusian transit, in 1639, Jeremiah Horrocks expressed his feelings in poetry. Production has subsequently widened to include songs, short stories, novels, novellas, sermons, theatre, film, engravings, paintings, photography, medals, sculpture, stained glass, cartoons, stamps, music, opera, flower arrangements, and food and drink. Transit creations are reviewed, with emphasis on the English- and French-speaking worlds. It is found that transits of Mercury inspire much less creation than those of Venus, despite being much more frequent, and arguably of no less astronomical significance. It is suggested that this is primarily due to the mythological associations of Venus with sex and love, which are more powerful and gripping than Mercury's mythological role as a messenger and protector of traders and thieves. The lesson for those presenting the night sky to the public is that sex sells.

  11. Mercury levels in defined population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingrao, G.; Belloni, P.; Santaroni, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    Hair samples from subjects living in the areas of Bagnara Calabra, Fiumicino and Ravenna, having a fish consumption above the national average, have been analyzed. A new location close to the Lagoon of Grado and Marano, located near the border with Slovenia, has been Selected because of the high natural levels of mercury in this lagoon due to the discharge of the Isonzo river, a tributary of which crosses the mercury rich area of Idria in Slovenia. During the last year, a group of pregnant women were selected in Rome, Bagnara Calabra, Ravenna and the area of the Lagoon of Grado and Marano. Samples of hair, pubic hair and placenta were collected from each of the subjects. A sample of the newborn hair was also collected whenever possible. The preliminary results indicate higher mercury levels in the subjects living in the area around the Lagoon of Grado and Marano. (author)

  12. Mercury in products - a source of transboundary pollutant transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munthe, J.; Kindbom, K. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize current knowledge on product-related emissions of mercury to air on a European scale, and to estimate the contribution from mercury contained in products, to the total anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air and transboundary transport of mercury in Europe. Products included in this study are batteries, measuring and control instruments, light sources and electrical equipment, all intentionally containing mercury. The main result of this study is that product-related emission of mercury can contribute significantly to total emissions and transboundary transport of mercury in the European region and that measures to limit the use of mercury in products can contribute to an overall decrease of the environmental input of mercury in Europe. It is concluded that: -Mercury contained in products may be emitted to air during consumption, after disposal when incinerated or when volatilized from landfill. Mercury may also be emitted to air during recycling of scrap metal or when accumulated (stored) in society. -The amount of mercury consumed in batteries and in measuring and control instruments had decreased since the late 1980`s. The total use of mercury in light sources and electrical equipment has not changed significantly during the same time period. The contribution to total anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air in Europe in the mid 1990`s is estimated to be: for batteries 4%; for measuring and control instruments 3%; for lighting and electrical equipment 11%. -Mercury in products leads to significant wet deposition input in Scandinavia. The relative amount of the total deposition flux attributable to products is estimated to be 10-14% 26 refs, 4 figs, 10 tabs

  13. [Mercury in hair of patients with ALS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Y; Takayanagi, T; Ishitani, A; Hirota, T

    1989-07-01

    In middle of Kii peninsula, one of the biggest mercury mine in Japan had been present until about 10 years ago. The mercury contents in water and fish are reported to be higher in this district. So we investigated the mercury in hair of patients and normal controls. In this study the subjects are 23 cases of ALS including 15 cases in Nara and Mie and 8 cases in other prefectures except in Kii peninsula, 14 cases with ataxia, 11 cases with other degenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, 25 cases of cerebrovascular disease as compared to 26 normal controls. The hair are taken from 3 areas on head of patients and normal controls. They are washed in 2% sodium lauryl sulfate and stirred in distilled water several times, and they are soaked in acetone and dried in filter paper. They are inserted in fire and vaporized mercury are measured (Zeeman Effect Mercury Analyzer) in ppm. The hair mercury concentration is 2.81 ppm in ALS in total, 3.62 ppm in ALS in Nara and Mie and 1.39 ppm in outside of Kii Peninsula, 2.34 ppm in ataxia, 1.83 ppm in other degenerative diseases, 1.66 ppm in cerebrovascular disease and 1.44 ppm in normal controls. Statistically it is significant (p less than 0.05) between that in ALS in Nara and Mie and that in normal controls. 6 cases (40%) with ALS in Nara and Mie have the value above the mean +2 standard deviation of controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  15. Method for high temperature mercury capture from gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Evan J [Wexford, PA; Pennline, Henry W [Bethel Park, PA

    2006-04-25

    A process to facilitate mercury extraction from high temperature flue/fuel gas via the use of metal sorbents which capture mercury at ambient and high temperatures. The spent sorbents can be regenerated after exposure to mercury. The metal sorbents can be used as pure metals (or combinations of metals) or dispersed on an inert support to increase surface area per gram of metal sorbent. Iridium and ruthenium are effective for mercury removal from flue and smelter gases. Palladium and platinum are effective for mercury removal from fuel gas (syngas). An iridium-platinum alloy is suitable for metal capture in many industrial effluent gas streams including highly corrosive gas streams.

  16. Discharge residue from mercury fulminate-primed ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J S

    1998-01-01

    The scarcity of mercury in discharge residue particles from mercury-containing ammunition was investigated. It was found that 86% of the mercury was vaporized after discharge, mainly via the muzzle, 88% of which was not detectable by SEM. Of the 0.16% exiting via the breech, only approximately 40% was detectable by SEM. Only a small proportion of this was deposited on the firer. The recovered mercury did not make a significant contribution to the elemental composition of the discharge residue particles. The rate of loss of mercury from the spent cartridge case was also examined but was found to be of no practical value in estimating time of discharge.

  17. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Edwin S [Grand Forks, ND; Holmes, Michael J [Thompson, ND; Pavlish, John H [East Grand Forks, MN

    2008-10-14

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  18. Movement of mercury-203 in plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, D.D.; Butler, G.P.

    1977-10-01

    Seeds of Pisum sativum, varieties Little Marvel and Alaska, were planted in soils contaminated with radioactive ionic mercury, methylmercury or phenylmercury compounds. After saturation, stems, leaves, and pods were harvested and analyzed by gamma spectroscopy. Utilizing a least squares three-way analysis of covariance coupled with a Studentized Range Test, significant differences were noted among the levels of the three mercury compounds in the plants, between mercury levels in the two pea varieties and among mercury levels in the different pea tissues examined. Phenylmercury levels differed consistently from levels of ionic mercury and methylmercury suggesting a separate pathway for it in peas

  19. Histochemical demonstration of mercury induced changes in rat neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, G; Schrøder, H D

    1979-01-01

    A histochemical method modified for ultrastructural studies of mercury induced changes is described. Rat neurons from areas known to be influenced by mercury are used as examples. The histochemical reaction, suggested to be caused by polymercury sulphide complexes, is localized to "dense bodies" ......" where it is visible 14 days after initiation of peroral mercury treatment (20 mg HgCl2/l drinking water).......A histochemical method modified for ultrastructural studies of mercury induced changes is described. Rat neurons from areas known to be influenced by mercury are used as examples. The histochemical reaction, suggested to be caused by polymercury sulphide complexes, is localized to "dense bodies...

  20. Mercury accumulation in native mammals of the Southeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumbie, P.M.; Jenkins, J.H.

    1974-01-01

    Mercury levels in tissues of mammals collected in Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina were compared using hair mercury concentration as an index of total mercury content. Bobcats (Lynx rufus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) and gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) from the Lower Coastal Plain of Georgia had higher mercury levels than specimens from the Upper Coastal Plain or Piedmont. The highest individual mercury levels in raccoons and bobcats occurred in specimens from the Georgia Lower Coastal Plain flatwoods. Skeletal muscle and liver of individual raccoons and bobcats taken in the coastal flatwoods exceeded the 0.5 ppm limit for mercury in human foodstuffs. No pattern of mercury accumulation was detected in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Hair analysis revealed elevated mercury levels in mammals from a region exposed to mercury pollution. Mercury levels in wildlife exhibit a pattern similar to that of certain fallout radioisotopes such as /sub 137/Cs. These observations indicate that significant biomagnification of mercury may occur in native mammals in certain southeastern habitats. 28 references, 6 tables.

  1. Mercury in mussels of Bellingham Bay, Washington, (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesijadi, G.; Drum, A.S.; Bridge, J.R.

    1978-11-01

    Laboratory experiments demonstrated the existence of metallothionein-like, low molecular weight, mercury-binding proteins in the marine mussel Mytilus edulis. Relatively large quantities of mercury were associated with such proteins in gills and digestive gland, the organs of interest in the present study. /sup 14/C-incorporation indicated induction of the protein in gills, but not in digestive gland. Mercury in digestive gland may have bound to existing metal-binding proteins. Short-term incorporation of mercury occurred primarily in gills. The induction of mercury-binding proteins in gills may have facilitated detoxification of mercury at the site of uptake. Mercury in mussels of Bellingham Bay were shown to have decreased from 1970 to 1978, the collection date for the present study. Mercury levels were low but approximately three times higher than those from uncontaminated areas. Mercury associated with the mercury-binding protein of gills and digestive glands of Bellingham Bay mussels were low and reflected the concentrations measured in the whole tissues. However, the highest concentration of mercury was associated with the low molecular pool components, the identity of which is not presently known.

  2. Mercury Hazard Assessment for Piscivorous Wildlife in Glacier National Park

    KAUST Repository

    Stafford, Craig P.

    2016-12-14

    We examined the mercury hazard posed to selected piscivorous wildlife in Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana. Logging Lake was our focal site where we estimated the dietary mercury concentrations of wildlife (common loon [Gavia immer], American mink [Neovison vison], river otter [Lontra canadensis], and belted kingfisher [Megaceryle alcyon]) by assuming that fishes were consumed in proportion to their relative abundances. To evaluate if Logging Lake provided a suitable baseline for our study, we made geographic comparisons of fish mercury levels and investigated the distribution and abundance of high mercury fishes within GNP. We complimented our assessment by examining selenium:mercury molar ratios in fishes from Logging Lake and Saint Mary Lake. Our results suggest fish consumption does not imperil wildlife from Logging Lake based on published thresholds for adverse mercury effects, but some hazard may exist particularly if there is strong feeding selectivity for the most contaminated species, northern pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis). The geographic comparisons of fish mercury levels, together with the distribution and abundance of high mercury fishes within GNP, suggest that Logging Lake provided a relatively protective baseline among our study lakes. Risk may be further reduced by the molar excess of selenium relative to mercury, particularly in the smaller fishes typically consumed by GNP wildlife. Our findings contrast with studies from northeastern US and southeastern Canada where greater mercury hazard to wildlife exists. An emergent finding from our research is that waterborne concentrations of methylmercury may provide limited insight into regional differences in fish mercury levels.

  3. Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D.

    1997-01-01

    EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates

  4. Assessing elemental mercury vapor exposure from cultural and religious practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D M; Newby, C A; Leal-Almeraz, T O; Thomas, V M

    2001-08-01

    Use of elemental mercury in certain cultural and religious practices can cause high exposures to mercury vapor. Uses include sprinkling mercury on the floor of a home or car, burning it in a candle, and mixing it with perfume. Some uses can produce indoor air mercury concentrations one or two orders of magnitude above occupational exposure limits. Exposures resulting from other uses, such as infrequent use of a small bead of mercury, could be well below currently recognized risk levels. Metallic mercury is available at almost all of the 15 botanicas visited in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, but botanica personnel often deny having mercury for sale when approached by outsiders to these religious and cultural traditions. Actions by public health authorities have driven the mercury trade underground in some locations. Interviews indicate that mercury users are aware that mercury is hazardous, but are not aware of the inhalation exposure risk. We argue against a crackdown by health authorities because it could drive the practices further underground, because high-risk practices may be rare, and because uninformed government intervention could have unfortunate political and civic side effects for some Caribbean and Latin American immigrant groups. We recommend an outreach and education program involving religious and community leaders, botanica personnel, and other mercury users.

  5. Return to Mercury: a global perspective on MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sean C; McNutt, Ralph L; Watters, Thomas R; Lawrence, David J; Feldman, William C; Head, James W; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Murchie, Scott L; Phillips, Roger J; Slavin, James A; Zuber, Maria T

    2008-07-04

    In January 2008, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft became the first probe to fly past the planet Mercury in 33 years. The encounter revealed that Mercury is a dynamic system; its liquid iron-rich outer core is coupled through a dominantly dipolar magnetic field to the surface, exosphere, and magnetosphere, all of which interact with the solar wind. MESSENGER images confirm that lobate scarps are the dominant tectonic landform and record global contraction associated with cooling of the planet. The history of contraction can be related to the history of volcanism and cratering, and the total contractional strain is at least one-third greater than inferred from Mariner 10 images. On the basis of measurements of thermal neutrons made during the flyby, the average abundance of iron in Mercury's surface material is less than 6% by weight.

  6. On the oscillations in Mercury's obliquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bois, E.; Rambaux, N.

    2007-12-01

    Mercury's capture into the 3:2 spin-orbit resonance can be explained as a result of its chaotic orbital dynamics. One major objective of MESSENGER and BepiColombo spatial missions is to accurately measure Mercury's rotation and its obliquity in order to obtain constraints on internal structure of the planet. Analytical approaches at the first-order level using the Cassini state assumptions give the obliquity constant or quasi-constant. Which is the obliquity's dynamical behavior deriving from a complete spin-orbit motion of Mercury simultaneously integrated with planetary interactions? We have used our SONYR model (acronym of Spin-Orbit N-bodY Relativistic model) integrating the spin-orbit N-body problem applied to the Solar System (Sun and planets). For lack of current accurate observations or ephemerides of Mercury's rotation, and therefore for lack of valid initial conditions for a numerical integration, we have built an original method for finding the libration center of the spin-orbit system and, as a consequence, for avoiding arbitrary amplitudes in librations of the spin-orbit motion as well as in Mercury's obliquity. The method has been carried out in two cases: (1) the spin-orbit motion of Mercury in the 2-body problem case (Sun-Mercury) where an uniform precession of the Keplerian orbital plane is kinematically added at a fixed inclination ( S2K case), (2) the spin-orbit motion of Mercury in the N-body problem case (Sun and planets) ( S case). We find that the remaining amplitude of the oscillations in the S case is one order of magnitude larger than in the S2K case, namely 4 versus 0.4 arcseconds (peak-to-peak). The mean obliquity is also larger, namely 1.98 versus 1.80 arcminutes, for a difference of 10.8 arcseconds. These theoretical results are in a good agreement with recent radar observations but it is not excluded that it should be possible to push farther the convergence process by drawing nearer still more precisely to the libration center. We

  7. Mercury Exposure among Garbage Workers in Southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decharat, Somsiri

    2012-12-01

    1) To determine mercury levels in urine samples from garbage workers in Southern Thailand, and 2) to describe the association between work characteristics, work positions, behavioral factors, and acute symptoms; and levels of mercury in urine samples. A case-control study was conducted by interviewing 60 workers in 5 hazardous-waste-management factories, and 60 matched non-exposed persons living in the same area of Southern Thailand. Urine samples were collected to determine mercury levels by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometer mercury analyzer. The hazardous-waste workers' urinary mercury levels (10.07 µg/g creatinine) were significantly higher than the control group (1.33 µg/g creatinine) (p garbage workers' hygiene habits can reduce urinary mercury levels. Personal hygiene is important, and should be stressed in education programs. Employers should institute engineering controls to reduce urinary mercury levels among garbage workers.

  8. Selected case histories and epidemiologic examples of human mercury poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstner, H.B.; Huff, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical aspects of mercury poisoning are described for elemental mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. Critical targets of poisoning by elemental mercury are the lungs and the central nervous system. A case of acute pulmonary injury and a case of chronic brain injury are described. The effects of inorganic mercury compounds are chiefly injuries to the alimentary canal and kidneys. Two cases of acute intoxication from these compounds are described. An epidemiologic study on Africans suffering from the nephrotic syndrome showed that aminomercuric chloride was the causative agent. Organic mercury compounds are discussed with regard to the following: individual cases of the methylmercury syndrome in adults; individual cases of prenatal methylmercury intoxication; epidemic outbreaks of methylmercury poisoning; epidemiology of methylmercury poisoning through dressed seed grain; and epidemic outbreaks of poisonings by organomercurials other than methylmercury. (HLW)

  9. Mercury speciation analysis in marine samples by HPLC-ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Svendsen, Maja Erecius; Herbst, M. Birgitte Koch

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element, which is found in the earth’s crust and can be released into the environment through both natural and anthropogenic processes. Mercury exists as elemental mercury (metallic), inorganic mercury and organic mercury (primarily methylmercury......). Methylmercury is highly toxic, particularly to the nervous system, and the developing brain is thought to be the most sensitive target organ for methylmercury toxicity. Methylmercury bioaccumulates and biomagnifies along the food chain and it is the most common mercury species in fish and seafood. Human...... hydrochloric acid by sonication. Hereby the protein-bound mercury species are released. The extracts were then centrifuged (10 min at 3170 x g) and the supernatant decanted (extraction step was repeated twice). The combined extracts were added 10 M sodium hydroxide to increase pH, following further dilution...

  10. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Kathleen [Department of Biology, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)]. E-mail: skinnk@sage.edu; Wright, Nicole [NEIWPCC-NYSDEC, 625 Broadway, 4th Floor, Albany, NY 12233-3502 (United States)]. E-mail: ndwright@gw.dec.state.ny.us; Porter-Goff, Emily [Department of Biology, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox[reg] (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox[reg] results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. - Four species of aquatic plants reduced mercury in water.

  11. Cytochemical demonstration of mercury deposits in trout liver and kidney following methyl mercury intoxication: differentiation of two mercury pools by selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, E; Danscher, G

    1988-01-01

    The amount and the ultrastructural distribution of mercury was studied in seven different organs of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) fingerlings following exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg)-contaminated fodder for periods of 2 and 7 weeks. The amounts of mercury retained by the whole fish...... and the selected organs were determined by measuring the uptake of 203Hg-labeled MeHg. Spleen, liver, and kidney had the highest concentrations after both experimental periods, while the largest relative increases were found in brain, muscle, and kidney. The subcellular distribution of mercury accumulations...... was demonstrated cytochemically in liver and kidney using the silver enhancement method by which accumulations of mercury-sulfides and/or mercury-selenides are made visible for light and electron microscopy. When sections prepared from the liver and kidney from fish, injected with selenium 2 hr prior to being...

  12. [Dental amalgams and urine elimination of mercury in workers exposed to low concentrations of inorganic mercury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleo, L; Pesola, G; Vimercati, L; Elia, G; Michelazzi, M; Gagliardi, T; Drago, I; Lasorsa, G

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the research was to assess the contribution of dental amalgams and other non-occupational factors of exposure to inorganic mercury (diet, etc.) to the quantity of mercury excreted with urine in workers exposed to low level concentrations of inorganic mercury. Two groups of workers (Groups I and II) were studied who were exposed to low and different environmental concentrations of inorganic mercury. These two groups were compared with a group of subjects not occupationally exposed to mercury in the same geographical area (Group III). All subjects were administered a questionnaire concerning personal data, lifestyle, recent removal and/or insertion of dental amalgam fillings, presence of nasal obstruction or bruxism and consumption of fish. The number of amalgam-filled teeth was established for each subject. Mean environmental exposure to inorganic mercury was 0.0087 mg/m3 for Group I and 0.0030 mg/m3 for Group II. Urinary excretion in the 3 groups was 4.2 +/- 2.8 micrograms/l for Group I, 3.0 +/- 2.1 micrograms/l for Group II and 1.6 +/- 1.2 micrograms/l for Group III. The results showed that of the factors of exposure to inorganic mercury, only occupational exposure (T = 9.18; p = 0.000) and the number of amalgam-filled teeth (T = 2.03; p = 0.043) were able to influence significantly urinary excretion of mercury; the sources of non-occupational exposure did not appear to play any role. The contribution of each amalgam filling to urinary mercury excretion was calculated to be 0.08 microgram/l. Occupational exposure therefore, even at low level doses, is still the main cause of urinary mercury excretion in workers exposed to inorganic mercury; of the non-occupational exposure factors, a significant role is played by amalgam dental fillings, whose contribution needs to be taken into consideration in order to make a correct interpretation of the results of biological monitoring of exposed workers.

  13. Planet Mercury Conference, Tucson, AZ, Aug. 6-9, 1986, Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The present conference discusses the mass, gravity field, and ephemeris of the planet Mercury, the vulcanoid hypothesis for the chronology of Mercury's geological and geophysical evolution, the Mercurian crater-filling classes that constrain the intercrater plains material emplacement process, and the wavelength and longitude dependence of Mercury polarization. Also discussed are an analysis of the Mariner 10 color radio map of Mercury, Mercury's magnetosphere, exosphere, and surface, the dynamics of electrons and heavy ions in the Mercury magnetosphere, electron measurements and substorm time scales in the Mercury and earth magnetospheres, Mercury's sodium variations with solar radiation pressure, and appulses and occultations of SAO stars by Mercury in the 1987-1995 period

  14. Evidence of Mercurial Contamination and Denundation Downstream of New Idria Mercury Mine, San Benito County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsinger, H. E.; Sharma, R. K.; Weinman, B.

    2014-12-01

    California's Central Valley water quality and soils are essential to the survival of the valley's communities and agriculture. Therefore, detection of possible contaminants within the valley streams and soils are paramount to the protection of this land and the people that depend upon it. Here we explore the impact of the contaminated stream beds near the New Idria Mercury Mine site, San Benito County, California. Previous work by Ganguli et al. (2000) has been done in this area to determine the mercury levels associated with the water that flows near the ghost town of New Idria. We performed geochemical analyses on the finer bed sediments from channels draining the area, as well as the coarser sediments taken from along the channel banks, to determine mercury transport downriver from the source. Using a novel application of tau, a mass transfer coefficient typically used in critical zone studies or soil production and weathering rates, we determine downstream weathering, accumulation, and transport of mercury. Our initial geochemical data showed higher tau values upstream as well as within the banks of the contaminated streambed and a greater accumulation of mercury near the pollution source (i.e., mine tailings, (τ ~ 103)). Tau results also show elevated mercurial levels existing downstream, with accumulations in mid- (τ ~ 102) and down-stream (τ ~ 10) reaches. Combining tau results with more traditional indices of chemical weathering (CIA) support consistent overall Hg-weathering processes with low levels of chemical weathering and higher dominance of coupled physical-anthropogenic weathering.

  15. Use of mercury-based medical equipment and mercury content in effluents of tertiary care hospitals in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshin, Sharda Shah; Halder, Nabanita; Jathikarta, Chandrababu; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Environmental pollution due to mercury has raised serious concern over the last few decades. Various anthropogenic sources including the health sector play a vital role in increasing the mercury load on the environment. Mercury poses an important health issue because of its indiscriminate disposal into the environment. There are numerous mercury-containing devices being used in the health-care setup. The objective of the study was to obtain information on the procurement and consumption of mercury-containing items in the current year, the methods adopted for disposal and the contamination of the hospital effluents with mercury. A questionnaire-based study was conducted in government and corporate hospitals from different states of India, for the quantitative assessment of use of mercury-based items in tertiary care hospitals in India (n = 113). The results showed that mercury-containing items are still being used in India. The most common method adopted for disposal was collection in plastic bags and labeling them as hazardous waste. The hospital effluents contained mercury below the permissible limits. In view of the environmental pollution due to mercury and its adverse impact on health, efforts by the government are on for phasing out mercury-containing equipment from the health-care setup in India.

  16. Axial mercury segregation in direct current operated low-pressure argon-mercury gas discharge: Part II. Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielen, John W A M; Groot, Simon de; Dijk, Jan van; Mullen, Joost J A M van der

    2004-01-01

    In a previous paper we had presented experimental results on mercury segregation due to cataphoresis in direct current operated low-pressure argon-mercury gas discharges. In this paper, we present our model to describe cataphoretic segregation in argon (or another noble gas)-mercury discharges. The model is based on the balance equations for mass and momentum and includes electrophoresis effects of electrons on mercury. Good agreement is found between the experimental results and model calculations. The model confirms our experimental observation that the mercury vapour pressure gradient depends on the local mercury vapour pressure. Furthermore, the model predicts the reversal of the direction of the transport of mercury under certain conditions (the phenomenon known as retrograde cataphoresis)

  17. Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfritch, Dennis J.

    1998-07-28

    A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

  18. DIFFUSION AND PERCEPTION OF MERCURY RISK INFORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 8% of American women have blood Mercury levels exceeding the EPA reference dose (a dose below which symptoms would be unlikely). The children of these women are at risk of neurological deficits (lower IQ scores) primarily because of the mother’s consumption of...

  19. A Mercury Model of Atmospheric Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Alex B. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chodash, Perry A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Procassini, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-19

    Using the particle transport code Mercury, accurate models were built of the two sources used in Operation BREN, a series of radiation experiments performed by the United States during the 1960s. In the future, these models will be used to validate Mercury’s ability to simulate atmospheric transport.

  20. Terahertz oscillations in mercury cuprate superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    0–15 K. Furthermore, some thermodynamic and electrodynamics parameters of mercury cuprates have been ... to ILT, electron pairing in the superconducting state makes the transport process along the c-axis to be ... in order to provide the coherent transport mechanism along the c-axis, the Josephson coupling energy,.

  1. Deformed space-time transformations in Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardone, F.; Albertini, G.; Bassani, D.; Cherubini, G.; Guerriero, E.; Mignani, R.; Monti, M.; Petrucci, A.; Ridolfi, F.; Rosada, A.; Rosetto, F.; Sala, V.; Santoro, E.; Spera, G.

    2017-09-01

    A mole of Mercury was suitably treated by ultrasound in order to generate in it the same conditions of local Lorentz invariance violation that were generated in a sonicated cylindrical bar of AISI 304 steel and that are the cause of neutron emission during the sonication. After 3 min, part of the mercury turned into a solid material which turned out to contain isotopes having a different mass (higher and lower) with respect to the isotopes already present in the initial material (mercury). These transformations in the atomic weight without gamma production above the background are brought about during Deformed Space-Time reactions. We present the results of the analyses performed on samples taken from the transformation product. The analyses have been done in two groups, the first one using five different analytical techniques: ICP-OES, XRF, ESEM-EDS, ICP-MS, INAA. In the second group of analyses, we used only two techniques: INAA and ICP-MS. The second group of analyses confirmed the occurring of the transformations in mercury.

  2. Mercury levels in defined Italian population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingrao, G.; Belloni, P.

    1992-01-01

    The consumption of fish and seafood usually is the main source of intake of methylmercury for members of the general population. Therefore subjects having a diet rich in these food items present a high risk of exceeding the tolerable recommended weekly intake of mercury set by FAO and WHO. The average consumption of fish at a national level is rather small in Italy, 12.5 kg per year, consequently the risk of exposure to elevated levels of mercury through the diet for members of the Italian general population is rather negligible. However, fish is one of the main components of the diet of some population groups. These groups are usually found in coastal towns close fishing ports and include subjects working as fishermen, fish dealers, restaurant workers and their families. The purpose of this research programme, carried our with the collaboration of the National Institute of Nutrition is to determine the levels of mercury and methylmercury in hair samples of subjects having a higher than average fish consumption and to evaluate the effects of elevated intakes of mercury. 1 ref., 13 figs

  3. Potassium permanganate for mercury vapor environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivinen, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was evaluated for application in removing mercury vapor from exhaust air systems. The KMnO4 may be used in water solution with a liquid spray scrubber system or as a solid adsorber bed material when impregnated onto a zeolite. Air samples contaminated with as much as 112 mg/cu m of mercury were scrubbed to 0.06mg/cum with the KMnO4-impregnated zeolite (molecular sieve material). The water spray solution of permanganate was also found to be as effective as the impregnated zeolite. The KMnO4-impregnated zeolite was applied as a solid adsorber material to (1) a hardware decontamination system, (2) a model incinerator, and (3) a high vacuum chamber for ion engine testing with mercury as the propellant. A liquid scrubber system was also applied in an incinerator system. Based on the results of these experiments, it is concluded that the use of KMnO4 can be an effective method for controlling noxious mercury vapor.

  4. Total Mercury content of skin toning creams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-04-01

    Apr 1, 2008 ... has variously been reported (WHO, 1991; Al-. Saleh and Al-Doush, 1997; Kahatano et al., 1998;. Glahder, 1999). Product Name. Mercury. (µg g-1) ... 0.008. USA. White. Fair & Beautiful (Maxi-Tone). <0.001. Switzerland. Pale brown. Faire Age. 0.008. Unknown. White. Fashion Fair Cream. 0.045. Italy. White.

  5. 76 FR 56127 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mercury, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ...-0894; Airspace Docket No. 11-AWP-14] Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mercury, NV AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Mercury, Desert Rock Airport, Mercury, NV. Decommissioning of the Mercury Non- Directional Beacon (NDB) at Mercury, Desert Rock Airport has made this action...

  6. Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2006-04-30

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at DTE Energy's Monroe Power Plant, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program was to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the target established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The results from Monroe indicate that using DARCO{reg_sign} Hg would result in higher mercury removal (80%) at a sorbent cost of $18,000/lb mercury, or 70% lower than the benchmark. These results demonstrate that the goals established by DOE/NETL were exceeded during this test program. The increase in mercury removal over baseline conditions is defined for this program as a comparison in the outlet emissions measured using the Ontario Hydro method during the baseline

  7. Mercury and nickel contents in fish meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Toth

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of our work was to identify the content of mercury and nickel in selected fish species. Consumers today are increasingly aware of the association between diet and health, and thus in Europe consume more and more fish. Fish is a valuable source of high quality protein, minerals and vitamins, and fatty fish are also rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are normally considered to be beneficial to health. In our work we determined content of mercury and nickel harvested fish in particular were the following species: Common goldfish (Carassius auratus, L., Common roach (Rutilus rutilus, L. and Common bream (Abramis brama, L. Concentrations of mercury and nickel was analyzed and results evaluated according to current standards and compared to the values ​​established by the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic and the EU Commission Regulation no. 1881/2006, as well as in the EU Commission Regulation no. 420/2011 and no. 269/2008. In our research area we analysed 19 samples of fish muscle. Samples were taken from two water reservoirs – Golianovo and Vráble.  The highest mercury content was in sample Rutilus 1 - 0.052632 mg/kg. Lowest mercury content was in sample Abramis 2  - 0.010431 mg/kg. Largest nickel content was in meat of Abramis  - sample 2  - 0.78 mg/kg. Minimum content of nickel was in sample Carassius 1  - 0.11 mg/kg. We got out of the limit values ​​specified: Codex Alimentarius SR - Mercury 0.5 mg/kg and  Regulation of the EU Commission no. 1881/2006, no. 420/2011 and no. 629/2008. To optimize the protection of the population, it is necessary to continue to monitor the concentration of mercury in fish and fish products. Risk management strategy must focus on reducing potential exposure derived from consumption of fish. In particular, the definition of maximum levels for methylmercury, advising consumers and environmental activities oriented to reduce contamination.

  8. Mercury and plants in contaminated soils. 2: Environmental and physiological factors governing mercury flux to the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, T.L.; Gustin, M.S.; Fernandez, G.C.J. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Taylor, G.E. Jr. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of physiological and environmental factors in governing the flux of elemental mercury from plants to the atmosphere. Five species (Lepidium latifolium, Artemisia douglasiana, Caulanthus sp., Fragaria vesca, and Eucalyptus globulus) with different ecological and physiological attributes and growing in soils with high levels of mercury contamination were examined. Studies were conducted in a whole-plant, gas-exchange chamber providing precise control of environmental conditions, and mercury flux was estimated using the mass balance approach. Mercury flux increased linearly as a function of temperature within the range of 20 to 40 C, and the mean temperature coefficient (Q{sub 10}) was 2.04. The temperature dependence of mercury flux was attributed to changes in the contaminant`s vapor pressure in the leaf interior. Mercury flux from foliage increased linearly as a function of irradiance within the range of 500 to 1,500 {micro}mol m/s, and the light enhancement of mercury flux was within a factor of 2.0 to 2.5 for all species. Even though the leaf-to-atmosphere diffusive path for mercury vapor from foliage is similar to that of water vapor, stomatal conductance played a secondary role in governing mercury flux. In a quantitative comparison with other studies in both laboratory and field settings, a strong linear relationship is evident between mercury vapor flux and the natural logarithm of soil mercury concentration, and this relationship may have predictive value in developing regional- and continental-scale mercury budgets. The most critical factors governing mercury flux from plants are mercury concentration in the soil, leaf area index, temperature, and irradiance.

  9. Origin of oxidized mercury in the summertime free troposphere over the southeastern US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We collected mercury observations as part of the Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury, and Aerosol Distributions, Sources, and Sinks (NOMADSS aircraft campaign over the southeastern US between 1 June and 15 July 2013. We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to interpret these observations and place new constraints on bromine radical initiated mercury oxidation chemistry in the free troposphere. We find that the model reproduces the observed mean concentration of total atmospheric mercury (THg (observations: 1.49 ± 0.16 ng m−3, model: 1.51 ± 0.08 ng m−3, as well as the vertical profile of THg. The majority (65 % of observations of oxidized mercury (Hg(II were below the instrument's detection limit (detection limit per flight: 58–228 pg m−3, consistent with model-calculated Hg(II concentrations of 0–196 pg m−3. However, for observations above the detection limit we find that modeled Hg(II concentrations are a factor of 3 too low (observations: 212 ± 112 pg m−3, model: 67 ± 44 pg m−3. The highest Hg(II concentrations, 300–680 pg m−3, were observed in dry (RH  <  35 % and clean air masses during two flights over Texas at 5–7 km altitude and off the North Carolina coast at 1–3 km. The GEOS-Chem model, back trajectories and observed chemical tracers for these air masses indicate subsidence and transport from the upper and middle troposphere of the subtropical anticyclones, where fast oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg(0 to Hg(II and lack of Hg(II removal lead to efficient accumulation of Hg(II. We hypothesize that the most likely explanation for the model bias is a systematic underestimate of the Hg(0 + Br reaction rate. We find that sensitivity simulations with tripled bromine radical concentrations or a faster oxidation rate constant for Hg(0 + Br, result in 1.5–2 times higher modeled Hg(II concentrations and improved agreement with the observations. The modeled

  10. The Magnetic Field Structure of Mercury's Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Z. J.; Ding, Y.; Slavin, J. A.; Zhong, J.; Poh, G.; Sun, W. J.; Wei, Y.; Chai, L. H.; Wan, W. X.; Shen, C.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we use the magnetic field data measured by MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging from 2011 to 2015 to investigate the average magnetic field morphology of Mercury's magnetotail in the down tail 0-3 RM (RM = 2,440 km, Mercury's radius). It is found that Mercury has a terrestrial-like magnetotail; the magnetic field structure beyond 1.5 RM down tail is stretched significantly with typical lobe field 50 nT. A cross-tail current sheet separating the antiparallel field lines of lobes is present in the equatorial plane. The magnetotail width in north-south direction is about 5 RM, while the transverse width is about 4 RM. Thus, the magnetotail shows elongation along the north-south direction. At the cross-tail current sheet center, the normal component of magnetic field (10-20 nT) is much larger than the cross-tail component. The lobe-field-aligned component of magnetic field over current sheet can be well fitted by Harris sheet model. The curvature radius of field lines at sheet center usually reaches a minimum around midnight (100-200 km) with stronger current density (40-50 nA/m2), while the curvature radius increases toward both flanks (400-600 km) with the decreased current density (about 20 nA/m2). The half-thickness of current sheet around midnight is about 0.25 RM or 600 km, and the inner edge of current sheet is located at the down tail about 1.5 RM. Our results about the field structure in the near Mercury's tail show an evident dawn-dusk asymmetry as that found in the Earth's magnetotail, but reasons should be different. Possible reasons are discussed.

  11. Mercury baseline levels in Flemish soils (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tack, Filip M.G.; Vanhaesebroeck, Thomas; Verloo, Marc G.; Van Rompaey, Kurt; Ranst, Eric van

    2005-01-01

    It is important to establish contaminant levels that are normally present in soils to provide baseline data for pollution studies. Mercury is a toxic element of concern. This study was aimed at assessing baseline mercury levels in soils in Flanders. In a previous study, mercury contents in soils in Oost-Vlaanderen were found to be significantly above levels reported elsewhere. For the current study, observations were extended over two more provinces, West-Vlaanderen and Antwerpen. Ranges of soil Hg contents were distinctly higher in the province Oost-Vlaanderen (interquartile range from 0.09 to 0.43 mg/kg) than in the other provinces (interquartile ranges from 0.7 to 0.13 and 0.7 to 0.15 mg/kg for West-Vlaanderen and Antwerpen, respectively). The standard threshold method was applied to separate soils containing baseline levels of Hg from the data. Baseline concentrations for Hg were characterised by a median of 0.10 mg Hg/kg dry soil, an interquartile range from 0.07 to 0.14 mg/kg and a 90% percentile value of 0.30 mg/kg. The influence of soil properties such as clay and organic carbon contents, and pH on baseline Hg concentrations was not important. Maps of the spatial distribution of Hg levels showed that the province Oost-Vlaanderen exhibited zones with systematically higher Hg soil contents. This may be related to the former presence of many small-scale industries employing mercury in that region. - Increased mercury levels may reflect human activity

  12. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent regulation of miR-196a expression controls lung fibroblast apoptosis but not proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, Emelia [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Zago, Michela [Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Sarill, Miles [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Rico de Souza, Angela [Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gomez, Alvin; Matthews, Jason [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hamid, Qutayba; Eidelman, David H. [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Baglole, Carolyn J., E-mail: Carolyn.baglole@McGill.ca [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor implicated in the regulation of apoptosis and proliferation. Although activation of the AhR by xenobiotics such as dioxin inhibits the cell cycle and control apoptosis, paradoxically, AhR expression also promotes cell proliferation and survival independent of exogenous ligands. The microRNA (miRNA) miR-196a has also emerged as a regulator of proliferation and apoptosis but a relationship between the AhR and miR-196a is not known. Therefore, we hypothesized that AhR-dependent regulation of endogenous miR-196a expression would promote cell survival and proliferation. Utilizing lung fibroblasts from AhR deficient (AhR{sup −/−}) and wild-type (AhR{sup +/+}) mice, we show that there is ligand-independent regulation of miRNA, including low miR-196a in AhR{sup −/−} cells. Validation by qRT-PCR revealed a significant decrease in basal expression of miR-196a in AhR{sup −/−} compared to AhR{sup +/+} cells. Exposure to AhR agonists benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and FICZ as well as AhR antagonist CH-223191 decreased miR-196a expression in AhR{sup +/+} fibroblasts concomitant with decreased AhR protein levels. There was increased proliferation only in AhR{sup +/+} lung fibroblasts in response to serum, corresponding to a decrease in p27{sup KIP1} protein, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Increasing the cellular levels of miR-196a had no effect on proliferation or expression of p27{sup KIP1} in AhR{sup −/−} fibroblasts but attenuated cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis. This study provides the first evidence that AhR expression is essential for the physiological regulation of cellular miRNA levels- including miR-196a. Future experiments designed to elucidate the functional relationship between the AhR and miR-196a may delineate additional novel ligand-independent roles for the AhR. - Highlights: • The AhR controls proliferation and apoptosis in lung cells. • The AhR regulates the

  13. A Chinese Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patient with E196K mutation in PRNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qi; Chen, Cao; Song, Xiao-Nan; Gao, Chen; Tian, Chan; Zhou, Wei; Song, Xu-Hua; Yao, Lai-Shun; Han, Jun; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (gCJD) is caused by a range of mutations in the prion protein gene (PRNP) and account for approximately 10-15% of overall human prion diseases worldwide. They are different with disease onset, disease duration, clinical signs and diagnostic findings. Here we reported a 71 year-old female with an E196K mutation in one PRNP allele, while the codon 129 was a methionine homozygous genotype. The patient started with non-specific symptoms, but displayed rapidly progressive disturbances of speech, memory, cognitive and physical movement. No periodic activity was recorded at electroencephalography (EEG) during the entire disease course. Retrospective investigation of her family members did not reveal similar neurological disorders. Total clinical course was about seven months.

  14. QCD analysis of first b cross section data at 1.96 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciari, M.; Frixione, S.; Nason, P.; Ridolfi, G.; Mangano, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    The first data on bottom quark production in pp-bar collisions at 1.96 TeV have recently been obtained by the CDF collaboration. These data probe the region of p T ∼ 0, providing a new invaluable input on the issue of the compatibility between next-to-leading-order (NLO) QCD and data. We reconsider the evaluation of the b cross section, in view of recent theoretical developments, and of the latest inputs on structure function fits. We show that the new CDF measurements are in good agreement with NLO QCD. If CDF preliminary data are confirmed, a long-standing discrepancy between NLO QCD predictions and hadron-collider data can be settled. (author)

  15. QCD analysis of first b cross section data at 1.96 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciari, M; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Nason, P; Ridolfi, G

    2004-01-01

    The first data on bottom quark production in p-pbar collisions at 1.96 TeV have recently been obtained by the CDF collaboration. These data probe the region of pt~0, providing a new invaluable input on the issue of the compatibility between next-to-leading-order (NLO) QCD and data. We reconsider the evaluation of the $b$ cross section, in view of recent theoretical developments, and of the latest inputs on structure function fits. We show that the new CDF measurements are in good agreement with NLO QCD. If CDF preliminary data are confirmed, a long-standing discrepancy between NLO QCD predictions and hadron-collider data can be settled.

  16. Study of dimuon pair production in e+ e- collisions from 196 - 202 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Flacher, Henning

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis the electroweak process $e^{+} e^{-}$ --> $μ^{+} μ^{-}$ was studied and an inclusive and exclusive cross section were measured. Furthermore the forward-backward asymmetry Afb was determined from the exclusive event sample. The investigated data was recorded·with the detector ALEPH at centre-of-mass energies of 196, 200 and 202 GeV resulting in a total integrated luminosity of 208.1 pb-1. All the measured results are in good agreement with the Standard Model. From the measurements of total cross sections and angular distributions for all the two fermion processes at energies from 130 - 202 GeV limits on processes beyond the Standard Model were derived. For Contact Interactions they were found to be of the order of 10 TeV while for TeV-Scale Quantum Gravity a limit for the ultra-violet cut-off parameter of A::1 TeV could be derived.

  17. Mercury in the nation's streams - Levels, trends, and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Dennis A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Chasar, Lia C.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a potent neurotoxin that accumulates in fish to levels of concern for human health and the health of fish-eating wildlife. Mercury contamination of fish is the primary reason for issuing fish consumption advisories, which exist in every State in the Nation. Much of the mercury originates from combustion of coal and can travel long distances in the atmosphere before being deposited. This can result in mercury-contaminated fish in areas with no obvious source of mercury pollution.Three key factors determine the level of mercury contamination in fish - the amount of inorganic mercury available to an ecosystem, the conversion of inorganic mercury to methylmercury, and the bioaccumulation of methylmercury through the food web. Inorganic mercury originates from both natural sources (such as volcanoes, geologic deposits of mercury, geothermal springs, and volatilization from the ocean) and anthropogenic sources (such as coal combustion, mining, and use of mercury in products and industrial processes). Humans have doubled the amount of inorganic mercury in the global atmosphere since pre-industrial times, with substantially greater increases occurring at locations closer to major urban areas.In aquatic ecosystems, some inorganic mercury is converted to methylmercury, the form that ultimately accumulates in fish. The rate of mercury methylation, thus the amount of methylmercury produced, varies greatly in time and space, and depends on numerous environmental factors, including temperature and the amounts of oxygen, organic matter, and sulfate that are present.Methylmercury enters aquatic food webs when it is taken up from water by algae and other microorganisms. Methylmercury concentrations increase with successively higher trophic levels in the food web—a process known as bioaccumulation. In general, fish at the top of the food web consume other fish and tend to accumulate the highest methylmercury concentrations.This report summarizes selected stream studies

  18. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: Progress report on mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The main chemical contaminant of the environment is considered mercury and mercury compounds. Different from pesticides, detergents and other toxicants of anthropogenic origin mercury and its compounds occur in all parts of the environment and in all living organisms. In the process of geochemical cycle mercury is released to the environment. Unfavourable ecological effects are caused by elevated concentrations of mercury. In this report an attempt is made to generalize the materials submitted by the Baltic Sea States to the Helsinki Convention concerning the occurrence of mercury in natural systems, the use of mercury in various sectors of economy and emissions of mercury to the environment. The Baltic Sea States are aware of the actual and potential problems which can be caused by mercury pollution. The environmental protection efforts are concentrated on a number of counter-measures. Much is already been done both at national levels and within the Helsinki Convention to reduce the levels of mercury entering the marine environment. However, the national governments recognise that continuing actions need to be taken in order to ensure that the sea is kept free from pollution

  19. Mercury Hair Concentration among Primary School Children in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Izzah Abdul Samad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main concern regarding mercury exposure is the adverse health effect on the developing nervous system. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine hair mercury levels and their association with socio-demographic characteristics, complaints about mercury poisoning symptoms and the fish consumption pattern among children in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 215 school children aged 11 years old. Hair was collected from the children and the total mercury was analyzed using oxygen combustion–gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Anthropometric data, a fish consumption questionnaire and mercury poisoning symptoms were collected during a personal interview. The mean hair mercury level among primary school children was 0.63 ± 0.59 µg/g with the geometric mean of 0.47 µg/g. A total of 14% of respondents had hair mercury levels above 1 µg/g. A multiple binary logistic regression analysis outlined that fish consumption of at least one meal per week increased the likelihood of having a high mercury level (odds ratio (OR 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.3–10.4. This study confirms the existence of a mercury burden among Malaysian children and the level is high compared to other regional studies. This study provides important baseline data regarding the mercury level among children in Malaysia.

  20. Oxidation and methylation of dissolved elemental mercury by anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Haiyan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); Lin, Hui [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zheng, Wang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tomanicek, Stephen J [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johs, Alexander [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Feng, Xinbin [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); Elias, Dwayne A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liang, Liyuan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gu, Baohua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-08-04

    Methylmercury is a neurotoxin that poses significant health risks to humans. Some anaerobic sulphate- and iron-reducing bacteria can methylate oxidized forms of mercury, generating methylmercury1-4. One strain of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132) can also methylate elemental mercury5. The prevalence of this trait among different bacterial strains and species remains unclear, however. Here, we compare the ability of two strains of the sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio and one strain of the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in a series of laboratory incubations. Experiments were carried out under dark, anaerobic conditions, in the presence of environmentally-relevant concentrations of elemental mercury. We report differences in the ability of these organisms to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. In line with recent findings5, we show that Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can both oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. However, the rate of methylation of elemental mercury is only about one third the rate of methylation of oxidized mercury. We also show that Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 can oxidise, but not methylate, elemental mercury. Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA is able to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in the presence of cysteine. We suggest that the activity of methylating and non-methylating bacteria may together enhance the formation of methylmercury in anaerobic environments.

  1. Influences on Mercury Bioaccumulation Factors for the Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Mercury TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads) are a regulatory instrument designed to reduce the amount of mercury entering a water body and ultimately to control the bioaccumulation of mercury in fish. TMDLs are based on a BAF (bioaccumulation factor), which is the ratio of methyl mercury in fish to dissolved methyl mercury in water. Analysis of fish tissue and aqueous methyl mercury samples collected at a number of locations and over several seasons in a 118 km reach of the Savannah River demonstrated that species specific BAFs varied by factors of three to eight. Factors contributing to BAF variability were location, habitat and season related differences in fish muscle tissue mercury levels and seasonal differences in dissolved methyl mercury levels. Overall (all locations, habitats, and seasons) average BAFs were 3.7 x 106 for largemouth bass, 1.4 x 106 for sunfishes, and 2.5 x 106 for white catfish. Inaccurate and imprecise BAFs can result in unnecessary economic impact or insufficient protection of human health. Determination of representative and precise BAFs for mercury in fish FR-om large rivers necessitates collecting large and approximately equal numbers of fish and aqueous methyl mercury samples over a seasonal cycle FR-om the entire area and all habitats to be represented by the TMDL

  2. Mobilization of mercury from sediments into guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, D.C.

    1972-01-01

    Guppies (P. reticulata) were exposed in aquaria to aerobic and anaerobic sediments to which various forms of mercury were added and to sediments from two sites of industrial pollution. Whole body levels of total mercury (atomic absorption analysis) in these fish were used as a measure of mobilization of mercury from these sediments. Spot checks for methylmercury were carried out at intervals during the tests. Under aerobic conditions there was little mobilization of mercury from sediments to which mercuric chloride or sulfide had been added but total mercury concentrations rose rapidly in fish exposed to sediments containing metallic mercury. The proportion of methylmercury in fish reached maxima of 30% for metallic mercury, 40% for mercuric chloride, and 45% for mercuric sulfide. In anaerobic sediments, total mobilization was low and only mercuric chloride was significantly methylated (40% of the total in the fish). Both mobilization and methylation were proportionately greater in industrial sediments with a low mercury content than in sediments with a higher mercury content. Enrichment of sediments with lignosulfonate showed no real effects aerobically, possibly because of the chelation properties of the preparation used. Anaerobically, lignosulfonate stimulated methylation of mercury. 14 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  3. [Distribution characteristics of particulate mercury in aerosol in coastal city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fu-Wang; Zhao, Jin-Ping; Chen, Jin-Sheng; Xu, Ya

    2010-10-01

    Particulate mercury, which is bound with aerosol in atmosphere, has a negative impact on human health and the environment, also plays an important role in the biogeochemical process of mercury. In this paper, taking southeast coastal city of Xiamen as research object, the PM2.5, PM10 and TSP were collected in residential, tourism, industrial area and background, respectively, during four seasons (October 2008-September 2009). RA-915 + mercury analyzer was employed to determinate mercury concentration in different size particle matters based on zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that the contents of particulate mercury in different size of aerosol during Winter, Spring were obviously higher than that of Summer, Autumn; the concentrations of particulate mercury in fine particle during Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter were (51.46 +/- 19.28), (42.41 +/- 12.74), (38.38 +/- 6.08) and (127.23 +/- 33.70) pg/m3, respectively. The experimental data showed that the particulate mercury were mainly distributed in fine particles (PM2.5), which covered 42.48%-67.87%, and it can be concluded that the rate of particulate mercury enrichment in coarse particle was much lower than that of fine particle. The sequence of atmospheric particulate mercury concentration in different functional areas was: background tourism < industrial area < suburban; which showed characteristics of spatial distribution of particulate mercury was affected by the sampling location. On the whole, Xiamen had a low level of atmospheric particulate mercury; the enrichment of PM2.5 to particulate mercury was significantly higher than that of PM10 and TSP, and showed that fine particle pollution should be tightly controlled to reduce particulate mercury.

  4. Contribution of contaminated sites to the global mercury budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocman, David; Horvat, Milena; Pirrone, Nicola; Cinnirella, Sergio

    2013-08-01

    Global mercury emission inventories include anthropogenic emissions, contributing via current use or presence of mercury in a variety of products and processes, as well as natural source emissions. These inventories neglect the contribution of areas contaminated with mercury from historical accumulation, which surround mines or production plants associated with mercury production or use. Although recent studies have shown that releases of mercury from these historical sites can be significant, a database of the global distribution of mercury contaminated sites does not exist, nor are there means of scaling up such releases to estimate fluxes on a regional and global basis. Therefore, here we estimated for the first time the contribution of mercury releases from contaminated sites to the global mercury budget. A geo-referenced database was built, comprising over 3000 mercury contaminated sites associated with mercury mining, precious metal processing, non-ferrous metal production and various polluted industrial sites. In the assessment, mercury releases from these sites to both the atmosphere as well as the hydrosphere were considered based on data available for selected case studies, their number, the reported extent of contamination and geographical location. Annual average global emissions of mercury from identified contaminated sites amount to 198 (137-260) Mgyr(-1). Of that, 82 (70-95)Mgyr(-1) contribute to atmospheric releases, while 116 (67-165) Mgyr(-1) is estimated to be transported away from these sites by hydrological processes. Although these estimates are associated with large uncertainties, our current understanding of mercury releases from contaminated sites indicates that these releases can also be of paramount importance on the global perspective. This is especially important as it is known that these sites represent a long-term source of releases if not managed properly. Therefore, the information presented here is needed by governments and NGO

  5. Mercury speciation during in situ thermal desorption in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Min; Katz, Lynn E.; Liljestrand, Howard M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Impact of soil conditions on distribution and phase transitions of Hg was identified. • Metallic Hg was slowly transformed to Hg 0 gas until the temperature reached 358.15 K. • Phase change of HgCl 2(s) completely occurred without decomposition at 335.15 K. • HgS remained solid in dry soil sharply decreased in the narrow temperature range. • Hg gas can be easily captured with higher vapor pressures of soil compositions. - Abstract: Metallic mercury (Hg 0 ) and its compounds are highly mobile and toxic environmental pollutants at trace level. In situ thermal desorption (ISTD) is one of the soil remediation processes applying heat and vacuum simultaneously. Knowledge of thermodynamic mercury speciation is imperative to understand the fate and transport of mercury during thermal remediation and operate the treatment processes in a cost-effective manner. Hence, speciation model for inorganic mercury was developed over a range of environmental conditions to identify distribution of dissolved mercury species and potential transformations of mercury at near source environment. Simulation of phase transitions for metallic mercury, mercury(II) chloride and mercury sulfide with temperature increase showed that complete vaporization of metallic mercury and mercury(II) chloride were achieved below the boiling point of water. The effect of soil compositions on mercury removal was also evaluated to better understand thermal remediation process. Higher vapor pressures expected both from soil pore water and inorganic carbonate minerals in soil as well as creation of permeability were significant for complete vaporization and removal of mercury.

  6. Elemental, mercuric and organic mercury: biological interactions and dilemmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aposhian, H.V. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Biology

    2002-09-01

    The greatest exposure of the general population to mercury appears to be from the elemental mercury emitted by dental amalgams. The next greatest exposure is from methylmercury in seafood. One of the major sources of this methylmercury is from mercury emitted by power plants burning fossil fuel. After the mercury enters the atmosphere, some of it will be deposited in lakes, rivers, bays, seas and oceans. In an aquatic environment, inorganic mercury is converted to methylmercury by bacteria. Once in the methylmercury form, it is bioaccumulated up the food chain. The bacteria are consumed by other unicellular organisms that are eaten by small fish; small fish are eaten by bigger fish; then bigger fish are eaten by other animals and humans. Methylmercury and elemental mercury are efficiently absorbed by humans and are transported rapidly to and deposited in the brain. In the brain, methylmercury is converted very slow to mercuric mercury while the elemental mercury is converted very quickly. Methylmercury and elemental mercury are extremely toxic to the developing central nervous system. Those at greatest risk are fetuses, very young children, women of childbearing age and pregnant women. There are no safe or reliable methods to remove these two forms of mercury and their biotransformant mercuric mercury from the human brain. The chelating agents DMPS (sodium dimercaptopropanesulfonate) and DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid) decrease the body's burden of mercury but not the brain's. Because of the toxicity of methylmercury, the major source of mercury emissions, namely, emissions from power plants, needs to be curtailed. (orig.)

  7. Antinociceptive effects of morphine and naloxone in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice transfected with the MORS196A gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Pao-Luh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opioid analgesics such as morphine and meperidine have been used to control moderate to severe pain for many years. However, these opioids have many side effects, including the development of tolerance and dependence after long-term use, which has limited their clinical use. We previously reported that mutations in the mu-opioid receptors (MOR S196L and S196A rendered them responsive to the opioid antagonist naloxone without altering the agonist phenotype. In MORS196A knock-in mice, naloxone and naltrexone were antinociceptive but did not cause tolerance or physical dependence. In this study we delivery this mutated MOR gene into pain related pathway to confirm the possibility of in vivo transfecting MORS196A gene and using naloxone as a new analgesic agent. Methods The MOR-knockout (MOR-KO mice were used to investigate whether morphine and naloxone could show antinociceptive effects when MORS196A gene was transfected into the spinal cords of MOR-KO mice. Double-stranded adeno-associated virus type 2 (dsAAV2 was used to deliver the MORS196A-enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP gene by microinjected the virus into the spinal cord (S2/S3 dorsal horn region. Tail-flick test was used to measure the antinociceptive effect of drugs. Results Morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c. and naloxone (10 mg/kg, s.c. had no antinociceptive effects in MOR-KO mice before gene transfection. However, two or three weeks after the MOR-S196A gene had been injected locally into the spinal cord of MOR-KO mice, significant antinociceptive effects could be induced by naloxone or morphine. On the other hand, only morphine but not naloxone induced significant tolerance after sub-chronic treatment. Conclusion Transfecting the MORS196A gene into the spinal cord and systemically administering naloxone in MOR-KO mice activated the exogenously delivered mutant MOR and provided antinociceptive effect without causing tolerance. Since naloxone will not activate natural

  8. Observation of low-lying resonances in the quasicontinuum of 195,196Pt and enhanced astrophysical reaction rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacoppo F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An excess of strength on the low-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance recently has been observed in the γ-decay from the quasicontinuum of 195,196Pt. The nature of this phenomenon is not yet fully investigated. If this feature is present also in the γ-ray strength of the neutron-rich isotopes, it can affect the neutron-capture reactions involved in the formation of heavy-elements in stellar nucleosynthesis. The experimental level density and γ-ray strength function of 195,196Pt are presented together with preliminary calculations of the corresponding neutron-capture cross sections.

  9. Development of Nano-Sulfide Sorbent for Efficient Removal of Elemental Mercury from Coal Combustion Fuel Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailong; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Jun; Li, Liqing; Shih, Kaimin

    2016-09-06

    The surface area of zinc sulfide (ZnS) was successfully enlarged using nanostructure particles synthesized by a liquid-phase precipitation method. The ZnS with the highest surface area (named Nano-ZnS) of 196.1 m(2)·g(-1) was then used to remove gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg(0)) from simulated coal combustion fuel gas at relatively high temperatures (140 to 260 °C). The Nano-ZnS exhibited far greater Hg(0) adsorption capacity than the conventional bulk ZnS sorbent due to the abundance of surface sulfur sites, which have a high binding affinity for Hg(0). Hg(0) was first physically adsorbed on the sorbent surface and then reacted with the adjacent surface sulfur to form the most stable mercury compound, HgS, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and a temperature-programmed desorption test. At the optimal temperature of 180 °C, the equilibrium Hg(0) adsorption capacity of the Nano-ZnS (inlet Hg(0) concentration of 65.0 μg·m(-3)) was greater than 497.84 μg·g(-1). Compared with several commercial activated carbons used exclusively for gas-phase mercury removal, the Nano-ZnS was superior in both Hg(0) adsorption capacity and adsorption rate. With this excellent Hg(0) removal performance, noncarbon Nano-ZnS may prove to be an advantageous alternative to activated carbon for Hg(0) removal in power plants equipped with particulate matter control devices, while also offering a means of reusing fly ash as a valuable resource, for example as a concrete additive.

  10. Biogeochemistry of mercury and methylmercury in sediment cores from Sundarban mangrove wetland, India--a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Mousumi; Canário, João; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Branco, Vasco; Godhantaraman, Nallamuthu; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar Deb; Bhattacharya, Asokkumar

    2012-09-01

    This study was performed to elucidate the distribution, concentration trend and possible sources of total mercury (Hg(T)) and methylmercury (MeHg) in sediment cores (<63 μm particle size; n = 75) of Sundarban mangrove wetland, northeastern part of the Bay of Bengal, India. Total mercury was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in a Leco AMA 254 instrument and MeHg by gas chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (GC-AFS). A wide range of variation in Hg(T) (0.032-0.196 μg g(-1) dry wt.) as well as MeHg (0.04-0.13 ng g(-1) dry wt.) concentrations revealed a slight local contamination. The prevalent low Hg(T) levels in sediments could be explained by sediment transport by the tidal Hugli (Ganges) River that would dilute the Hg(T) values via sediment mixing processes. A broader variation of MeHg proportions (%) were also observed in samples suggesting that other environmental variables such as organic carbon and microbial activity may play a major role in the methylation process. An overall elevated concentration of Hg(T) in surface layers (0-4 cm) of the core is due to remobilization of mercury from deeper sediments. Based on the index of geoaccumulation (I (geo)) and low effects-range (ER-L) values, it is considered that the sediment is less polluted by Hg(T) and there is less ecotoxicological risk. The paper provides the first information of MeHg in sediments from this wetland environment and the authors strongly recommend further examination of Hg(T) fluxes for the development of a detailed coastal MeHg model. This could provide more refine estimates of a total flux into the water column.

  11. Spectrometric analysis of mercury content in 549 skin-lightening products: is mercury toxicity a hidden global health hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Carsten R; Boonchai, Waranya; Wen, Liping; Sakanashi, Emi Nishijima; Chu, Chia-Yu; Hamann, Kylin; Hamann, Curtis P; Sinniah, Kumar; Hamann, Dathan

    2014-02-01

    Cosmetic skin lightening is practiced worldwide. Mercury is a well-documented melanotoxin added to some lightening products. However, mercury can cause many dermatologic, renal, and neurologic problems. The Food and Drug Administration limits the amount of mercury in cosmetic products to trace amounts, 1 ppm. The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate a large international sample of lightening products for mercury content, focusing on products available to US consumers either online or in stores. A total of 549 skin-lightening products, manufactured in 32 countries, were purchased online in the United States, Taiwan, and Japan and in stores in the United States, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Japan, and Sri Lanka. Cosmetics were screened for mercury content above 200 ppm using a low-cost portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Of the 549 tested products, 6.0% (n = 33) contained mercury above 1000 ppm. In all, 45% of mercury-containing samples contained mercury in excess of 10,000 ppm. Of lightening products purchased in the United States, 3.3% were found to contain mercury in excess of 1000 ppm. Our study did not evaluate creams for other melanosuppressive ingredients. Only 1 sample of each product was tested. Our study confirms the national and global presence of mercury in skin-lightening products. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Heavy metals and zooplankton with special reference to Minamata (Japan) mercury pollution - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Hirota, R.

    samples were also analysed for methyl mercury, copper, zinc, iron, manganese, cadmium, lead and nickel. The sediment in Minamata Bay still contained high mercury concentrations. The mercury levels in zooplankton suggested that the Minamata Bay where...

  13. PATHOLOIGCAL EFFECTS OF DIETARY METHYL MERCURY IN AMERICAN KESTRELS ( FALCO SPARVERIUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl mercury in aquatic food webs poses significant health risks to both wildlife and humans. One primary source of mercury contamination for both aquatic and terrestrial systems is atmospheric deposition of inorganic mercury from industrial emissions. Once in the environment, ...

  14. Report to Congress on the Global Supply and Trade of Elemental Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report assembles available information on the global supply and trade of mercury, including both primary mercury mining as well as mercury that has been recovered from a wide variety of sources and redistilled to a high level of purity.

  15. Mercury exposure in young children living in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Helen S; Jeffery, Nancy; Kieszak, Stephanie; Fritz, Pat; Spliethoff, Henry; Palmer, Christopher D; Parsons, Patrick J; Kass, Daniel E; Caldwell, Kathy; Eadon, George; Rubin, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Residential exposure to vapor from current or previous cultural use of mercury could harm children living in rental (apartment) homes. That concern prompted the following agencies to conduct a study to assess pediatric mercury exposure in New York City communities by measuring urine mercury levels: New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's (NYCDOHMH) Bureau of Environmental Surveillance and Policy, New York State Department of Health/Center for Environmental Health (NYSDOHCEH), Wadsworth Center's Biomonitoring Program/Trace Elements Laboratory (WC-TEL), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). A previous study indicated that people could obtain mercury for ritualistic use from botanicas located in Brooklyn, Manhattan, and the Bronx. Working closely with local community partners, we concentrated our recruiting efforts through health clinics located in potentially affected neighborhoods. We developed posters to advertise the study, conducted active outreach through local partners, and, as compensation for participation in the study, we offered a food gift certificate redeemable at a local grocer. We collected 460 urine specimens and analyzed them for total mercury. Overall, geometric mean urine total mercury was 0.31 microg mercury/l urine. One sample was 24 microg mercury/l urine, which exceeded the (20 microg mercury/l urine) NYSDOH Heavy Metal Registry reporting threshold for urine mercury exposure. Geometric mean urine mercury levels were uniformly low and did not differ by neighborhood or with any clinical significance by children's ethnicity. Few parents reported the presence of mercury at home, in a charm, or other item (e.g., skin-lightening creams and soaps), and we found no association between these potential sources of exposure and a child's urinary mercury levels. All pediatric mercury levels measured in this study were well below a level considered to be of medical concern. This study found neither self-reported nor measured

  16. RECOVERY OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED PRIMARY AND SECONDARY WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Faucette; J. Bognar; T. Broderick; T. Battaglia

    2000-01-01

    Effective removal of mercury contamination from water is a complex and difficult problem. In particular, mercury treatment of natural waters is difficult because of the low regulatory standards. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency has established a national ambient water quality standard of 12 parts-per-trillion (ppt), whereas the standard is 1.8 ppt in the Great Lakes Region. In addition, mercury is typically present in several different forms, but sorption processes are rarely effective with more than one or two of these forms. To meet the low regulatory discharge limits, a sorption process must be able to address all forms of mercury present in the water. One approach is to apply different sorbents in series depending on the mercury speciation and the regulatory discharge limits. Four new sorbents have been developed to address the variety of mercury species present in industrial discharges and natural waters. Three of these sorbents have been field tested on contaminated creek water at the Y-12 Plant. Two of these sorbents have demonstrated very high removal efficiencies for soluble mercury species, with mercury concentrations at the outlet of a pilot-scale system less than 12 ppt for as long as six months. The other sorbent tested at the Y-12 Plant is targeted at colloidal mercury that is not removed by standard sorption or filtration processes. At the Y-12 Plant, colloidal mercury appears to be associated with iron, so a sorbent that removes mercury-iron complexes in the presence of a magnetic field was evaluated. Field results indicate good removal of this mercury fraction from the Y-12 waters. In addition, this sorbent is easily regenerated by simply removing the magnetic field and flushing the columns with water. The fourth sorbent is still undergoing laboratory development, but results to date indicate exceptionally high mercury sorption capacity. The sorbent is capable of removing all forms of mercury typically present in natural and

  17. Earth-based optical imaging of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksanfomality, L. V.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved in producing resolved images of Mercury electronically with short exposures at Earth-based telescopes. For the purpose of obtaining images of the unknown portion of Mercury, the previously started series of observations of this planet by the short exposure method was continued. About 20,000 electronic images of Mercury have been acquired on 1-2 May 2002 under good meteorological conditions during the evening elongation. The phase angle of Mercury was 95-99° and the observed range of longitudes was 210-285°W. Observations were carried out using Ritchy-Chrétien telescope ( D = 1.29 m, F = 9.86 m) with the KS 19 filter cutting wavelengths shorter than about 700 nm. The planet's disk was seen, on average, at an angle of 7.7″. A CCD with a pixel size of 7.4 × 7.4 ncm in the regime of short exposures was used. By processing a great number of electronic images, a sufficiently distinct synthesized image of the unknown portion of Mercury's surface was obtained. The most prominent formation in this region is a giant basin (or cratered "mare") centered at about 8°N, 280°W, which was given a working name "Skinakas basin" (after the name of the observatory where observations were made). By its size, the interior part of this basin exceeds the largest lunar Mare Imbrium. As opposed to Mare Imbrium, the Skinakas basin is presumably of impact origin. Its relief resembles that of Caloris Planitia but the size is much larger. A series of smaller formations are also seen on synthesized images. The resolution obtained on the surface of Mercury is about 100 km, which is close to the telescope diffraction limit. Also considered is the synthesized image obtained at the Mount Bigelow Observatory, on December 4, 2003 (Ritchy-Chrétien telescope, D = 1.54 m, F = 20.79 m, using the same CCD camera).

  18. Calcium in Mercury's Exosphere: Modeling MESSENGER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Merkel, Aimee; Vervack, Ronald J.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Sprague, Ann L.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury is surrounded by a surface-bounded exosphere comprised of atomic species including hydrogen, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and likely oxygen. Because it is collisionless. the exosphere's composition represents a balance of the active source and loss processes. The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) on the MErcury Surface. Space ENvironment. GEochemistry. and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft has made high spatial-resolution observations of sodium, calcium, and magnesium near Mercury's surface and in the extended, anti-sunward direction. The most striking feature of these data has been the substantial differences in the spatial distribution of each species, Our modeling demonstrates that these differences cannot be due to post-ejection dynamics such as differences in photo-ionization rate and radiation pressure. but instead point to differences in the source mechanisms and regions on the surface from which each is ejected. The observations of calcium have revealed a strong dawn/dusk asymmetry. with the abundance over the dawn hemisphere significantly greater than over the dusk. To understand this asymmetry, we use a Monte Carlo model of Mercury's exosphere that we developed to track the motions of exospheric neutrals under the influence of gravity and radiation pressure. Ca atoms can be ejected directly from the surface or produced in a molecular exosphere (e.g., one consisting of CaO). Particles are removed from the system if they stick to the surface or escape from the model region of interest (within 15 Mercury radii). Photoionization reduces the final weighting given to each particle when simulating the Ca radiance. Preliminary results suggest a high temperature ( I-2x 10(exp 4) K) source of atomic Ca concentrated over the dawn hemisphere. The high temperature is consistent with the dissociation of CaO in a near-surface exosphere with scale height <= 100 km, which imparts 2 eV to the freshly produced Ca atom. This

  19. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012–2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79–5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77–5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure. PMID:27598185

  20. Simultaneous determination of mercury and organic carbon using a direct mercury analyzer: Mercury profiles in sediment cores from oxbow lakes in the Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment cores from seasonal wetland and open water areas from six oxbow lakes in the Mississippi River alluvial flood plain were analyzed for total-mercury (Hg) using a direct mercury analyzer (DMA). In the process we evaluated the feasibility of simultaneously determining organic matter content by...

  1. Mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Antioquia, Colombia: The world's highest per capita mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordy, Paul; Veiga, Marcello M; Salih, Ibrahim; Al-Saadi, Sari; Console, Stephanie; Garcia, Oseas; Mesa, Luis Alberto; Velásquez-López, Patricio C; Roeser, Monika

    2011-12-01

    The artisanal gold mining sector in Colombia has 200,000 miners officially producing 30tonnes Au/a. In the Northeast of the Department of Antioquia, there are 17 mining towns and between 15,000 and 30,000 artisanal gold miners. Guerrillas and paramilitary activities in the rural areas of Antioquia pushed miners to bring their gold ores to the towns to be processed in Processing Centers or entables. These Centers operate in the urban areas amalgamating the whole ore, i.e. without previous concentration, and later burn gold amalgam without any filtering/condensing system. Based on mercury mass balance in 15 entables, 50% of the mercury added to small ball mills (cocos) is lost: 46% with tailings and 4% when amalgam is burned. In just 5 cities of Antioquia, with a total of 150,000 inhabitants: Segovia, Remedios, Zaragoza, El Bagre, and Nechí, there are 323 entables producing 10-20tonnes Au/a. Considering the average levels of mercury consumption estimated by mass balance and interviews of entables owners, the mercury consumed (and lost) in these 5 municipalities must be around 93tonnes/a. Urban air mercury levels range from 300ng Hg/m(3) (background) to 1million ng Hg/m(3) (inside gold shops) with 10,000ng Hg/m(3) being common in residential areas. The WHO limit for public exposure is 1000ng/m(3). The total mercury release/emissions to the Colombian environment can be as high as 150tonnes/a giving this country the shameful first position as the world's largest mercury polluter per capita from artisanal gold mining. One necessary government intervention is to cut the supply of mercury to the entables. In 2009, eleven companies in Colombia legally imported 130tonnes of metallic mercury, much of it flowing to artisanal gold mines. Entables must be removed from urban centers and technical assistance is badly needed to improve their technology and reduce emissions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mercury Wet Scavenging and Deposition Differences by Precipitation Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulfus, Aaron S; Nair, Udaysankar; Holmes, Christopher D; Landing, William M

    2017-03-07

    We analyze the effect of precipitation type on mercury wet deposition using a new database of individual rain events spanning the contiguous United States. Measurements from the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) containing single rainfall events were identified and classified into six precipitation types. Mercury concentrations in surface precipitation follow a power law of precipitation depth that is modulated by precipitation system morphology. After controlling for precipitation depth, the highest mercury deposition occurs in supercell thunderstorms, with decreasing deposition in disorganized thunderstorms, quasi-linear convective systems (QLCS), extratropical cyclones, light rain, and land-falling tropical cyclones. Convective morphologies (supercells, disorganized, and QLCS) enhance wet deposition by a factor of at least 1.6 relative to nonconvective morphologies. Mercury wet deposition also varies by geographic region and season. After controlling for other factors, we find that mercury wet deposition is greater over high-elevation sites, seasonally during summer, and in convective precipitation.

  3. Atmospheric mercury sources in the Mt. Amiata area, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, R.; Mazzolai, B.; Edner, H.; Svanberg, S.; Wallinder, E.

    1998-01-01

    Mt. Amiata, located in southern Tuscany (Italy), is part of the geologic anomaly of the Mediterranean basin, which contains about 65% of the world's cinnabar (HgS) deposits. Atmospheric mercury emissions from the main sources (geothermal power plants, abandoned mine structures and spoil banks of roasted cinnabar ore) were determined by flux chamber and by LIDAR remote sensing. Mercury emissions from five geothermal power plants were on the order of 24 g h -1 for each plant, a value that remains constant throughout the year. In the month of July, the mine spoils (covering an area of =200000 m 2 ) emit a few grams of mercury per hour, while the abandoned mine structures give off 100-110 g h -1 . These two mercury sources were strongly influenced by ambient temperature. The area affected by mercury sources displays an average air mercury concentration of 20 ng m -3 during the summer and 10 ng m -3 in winter

  4. Stabilization of Mercury in High pH Tank Sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.; Barton, J.

    2003-02-24

    DOE complex contains many tank sludges contaminated with mercury. The high pH of these tank sludges typically fails to stabilize the mercury, resulting in these radioactive wastes also being characteristically hazardous or mixed waste. The traditional treatment for soluble inorganic mercury species is precipitation as insoluble mercuric sulfide. Sulfide treatment and a commercial mercury-stabilizing product were tested on surrogate sludges at various alkaline pH values. Neither the sulfide nor the commercial product stabilized the mercury sufficiently at the high pH of the tank sludges to pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) treatment standards of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The commercial product also failed to stabilize the mercury in samples of the actual tank sludges.

  5. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Kathleen; Wright, Nicole; Porter-Goff, Emily

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively.

  6. Use of a new enrichment nanosorbent for speciation of mercury by FI-CV-ICP-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Trujillo, Irene; Vereda-Alonso, Elisa; Cano-Pavón, José Manuel; García-de-Torres, Amparo

    2015-01-01

    Mercury is one of the most toxic environmental pollutants and its effects on human and ecosystem health are well known. All mercury species are toxic, with organic mercury compounds generally being more toxic than inorganic species. Chromatography techniques (GC, HPLC) coupled to element specific detectors, are able to separate mercury species in order to elucidate mercury transformation and transport processes where the determination of all mercury species is desirable. However, in practice,...

  7. Chronic inorganic mercury exposure induces sex-specific changes in central TNFα expression: Importance in autism?

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, J. Thomas; Chen, Yue; Buck, Daniel J.; Davis, Randall L.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury is neurotoxic and increasing evidence suggests that environmental exposure to mercury may contribute to neuropathologies including Alzheimer's disease and autism spectrum disorders. Mercury is known to disrupt immunocompetence in the periphery, however, little is known about the effects of mercury on neuroimmune signaling. Mercury-induced effects on central immune function are potentially very important given that mercury exposure and neuroinflammation both are implicated in certain n...

  8. Isolation, screening and identification of mercury resistant bacteria from mercury contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New bacterial strains resistant to high concentration of mercury were obtained and character iz ed focusing on their potential application in bioremediation. The biological material was isolated from soil contaminated with mercury. The ability to removal of Hg from the liquid medium and the effect of the various pH and mercury concentrations in the environment on bacterial strains growth kinetics were tested. The selected strains were identified by analysis of the 16S ribosome subunit coding sequenc es as Pseudomonas syringae. The analysis of Hg concentration in liquid medium as effect of microbial metabolism demonstrated that P. syringae is able to remove almost entire metal from medium after 120 hours of incubation. Obtained results revealed new ability of the isolated strain P. syringae. Analyzed properties of this soil bacteria species able to reduce concentration of Hg ors immobi lize this metal are promising for industrial wastewater treatment and bioremediation of the soils polluted especially by mercury lamps scrapping, measuring instruments, dry batteries, detonators or burning fuels made from crude oil, which may also contain mercury. Selected bacteria strains provide efficient and relatively low-cost bioremediation of the areas and waters contaminated with Hg.

  9. Thermal shocks and magnetohydrodynamics in high power mercury jet targets

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, Jacques; Gilardoni, S S; Benedikt, Michael; Farhat, M; Robert, E

    2003-01-01

    The response of mercury samples submitted to a pulsed proton beam and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects of a mercury jet injected into a 20 T magnetic field are reported. The experimental conditions differ from those of proposed neutrino factories and the purpose of these measurements is to provide benchmarks for simulation tools of a realistic free mercury jet target. These measurements were completed in June 2002. Analysis is ongoing and the presented results are preliminary. (12 refs).

  10. Evaluation of mercury in the liquid waste processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Vijay [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shah, Hasmukh [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Occhipinti, John E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, William R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, Richard E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-13

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  11. Controlling mercury spills in laboratories with a thermometer exchange program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLouth, Lawrence D.

    2002-03-25

    This paper presents a case for replacing mercury thermometers with their organic-liquid-filled counterparts. A review of liquid-in glass-thermometers is given. In addition, a brief summary of mercury's health effects and exposure limits is presented. Spill cleanup methods and some lessons learned from our experience are offered as well. Finally, an overview of the mercury thermometer exchange program developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is presented.

  12. Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Evan J [Wexford, PA; Pennline, Henry W [Bethel Park, PA

    2011-12-06

    A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

  13. Assessment of the mercury emissions from burning mining waste dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Białecka

    2016-04-01

    occur and to which the environment and local inhabitants can be exposed, it is important to define the size of the emission of mercury compounds from these objects. Despite the potential threats so far no measurements of mercury concentration which would a llow quantifying this phenomenon have been done. The analyses presented in this article fill this gap. Additionally, initial calculation of annual mercury emissions from burning coal mining waste dumps in Poland is presented.

  14. Monitoring of mercury concentration in atmosphere in Usti nad Labem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synek, V.; Baloch, T.; Otcenasek, J.; Kremlova, S.; Subrt, P.

    2007-01-01

    This study elaborates the observation of mercury pollution of the atmosphere in the city of Usti nad Labem. The biggest source of the polluting mercury in Usti nad Labem is the chlor-alkali production in the factory of Spolchemie Inc. The method of mercury determination applied is based on capturing the mercury contented in a volume of the air on an amalgamator and measuring the mercury by an atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin -Elmer 4100ZL) equipped with a special adapter after a thermal release of the mercury from the amalgamator. The basic characteristics of this method were evaluated; e.g. the limit of detection and limit of determination are, respectively, 0.43 and 1.4 ng/m 3 , the relative expanded uncertainty is 28 %. The work gives results of long-term (1998-2006) observations in a few localities in Usti nad Labem situated in various distances from the mercury source (e.g. means of 28.6 and 14.1 ng/m3 were obtained, respectively, in places 350 and 700 m far from the electrolysis plant) and also in a different city (Duchcov). The cases with a higher mercury concentration are very frequent so the sets of the obtained results have lognormal distributions. This study statistically compares the total level and variability of the mercury concentrations in the time series. It also investigates their trends, correlations between them and meteorological influences upon the levels of mercury concentration in the air. The effect of the mercury emission from the chlor-alkali plant is dominant. It as the only factor determines when the cases with a high mercury concentration in the atmosphere occur. (author)

  15. Optimizing the procedure for mercury recovery from dental amalgam

    OpenAIRE

    Iano, Flávia Godoy; Santos Sobrinho, Ovídio dos; Silva, Thelma Lopes da; Pereira, Marlus Alves; Figueiredo, Paulo Jorge Moraes; Alberguini, Leny Borghesan Albertini; Granjeiro, José Mauro

    2008-01-01

    Mercury, as any other heavy metal, may cause environmental damages due to its accumulation and biotransformation. Dental offices, whether private or institutional, use dental amalgam as a restorative material on a daily basis. Dental amalgam is composed of mercury (50%), silver (30%) and other metals. Approximately 30% of the amalgam prepared in dental offices (0.6 g per capsule) are wasted and inadequately discarded without any treatment. Methods for mercury recovery have been proposed previ...

  16. The octanol/water distribution of mercury compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, S.

    1985-01-01

    Lipophilicity plays an important role in the biological action of mercurials. The distribution of one inorganic and five organic mercury compounds was determined in an n-octanol/water system. Lipophilicity decreased in the order CH 3 HgCl, bromomercurihydroxypropane HgCl 2 chlormerodrin, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid (PCMB), p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid (PCMBS). The toxicity of mercurials, as reported in the literature, appears to parallel their lipophilicity. (orig.)

  17. Accumulation factors of mercury by King Bolete Boletus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J.; Frankowska, A.

    2003-05-01

    To understand pollution picture with mercury and to examine suitability of King Bolete Boletits edulis Bull.: Fr. as possible bioindicator the total mercurv concentrations were determined both in the fruiting bodies and underlying soil substrate collected from various regions of Poland. There were quite large spatial variations of mercury concentration and some seasonal also were noted. Mercury content of the caps exceeded that of stalks (p<0.05), Nvhile Hg BCF values varied between 9 and 40, and 4 and 40, respectively.

  18. Mercury content of different species of wildlife and cultivated mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallotti, G.; Bencivenga, B.; Vegliante, A.

    1976-12-01

    The authors determined the total mercury content of 148 samples of wildlife fungi and of 50 samples of edible mushrooms (Psalliota hortenesis and Boletus edulis). They also determined the mercury content of some wildlife and cultivated mushrooms and of related soils. The concentration factor ranges from 7 to 107; however the mercury content, expressed on dry matter, both for fungi and soils, is lower than published data. 8 references, 1 table.

  19. Uptake of mercury vapor by wheat. An assimilation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, C.L.; Fang, S.C.

    1978-01-01

    Using a whole-plant chamber and 203 Hg-labeled mercury, a quantitative study was made of the effect of environmental parameters on the uptake, by wheat (Triticum aestivum), of metallic mercury vapor, an atmospheric pollutant. Factors were examined in relation to their influence on components of the gas-assimilation model, U(Hg) = (C/sub A' -- C/sub L')/(r/sub L.Hg/ + r/sub M.Hg/) where U(Hg) is the rate of mercury uptake per unit leaf surface, C/sub A'/ is the ambient mercury vapor concentration, C/sub L'/ is the mercury concentration at immobilization sites within the plant (assumed to be zero), r/sub L.Hg/ is the total leaf resistance to mercury vapor exchange, and r/sub M.Hg/ is a residual term to account for unexplained physical and biochemical resistances to mercury vapor uptake. Essentially all mercury vapor uptake was confined to the leaves. r/sub L.Hg/ was particularly influenced by illumination (0 to 12.8 klux), but unaffected by ambient temperature (17 to 33 0 C) and mercury vapor concentration (0 to 40 μg m -3 ). The principal limitation to mercury vapor uptake was r/sub M.Hg/, which was linearly related to leaf temperature, but unaffected by mercury vapor concentration and illumination, except for apparent high values in darkness. Knowing C/sub A'/ and estimating r/sub L.Hg/ and r/sub M.Hg/ from experimental data, mercury vapor uptake by wheat in light was accurately predicted for several durations of exposure using the above model

  20. Mercury vapor inhalation and poisoning of a family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Serife Gul; Tozlu, Mukaddes; Yalcin, Songul Siddika; Sozen, Tumay; Guven, Gulay Sain

    2012-08-01

    Acute mercury vapor poisoning is a rare but fatal toxicological emergency. People are exposed to mercury in daily life by the way of foods, vaccines, antiseptics, ointments, amalgam or occupation. We present here, the clinical picture and management of four members of the same family who were exposed to elemental mercury. Three of the family members were seen in another hospital with malaise, fever, eritematous rash and pulmonary problems. Their questioning revealed the mercury exposure. Having a suspicion of heavy metal intoxication, blood and urine mercury levels were measured and mercury intoxication was diagnosed. On admission to our hospital, two patients already had chelation therapy. In three of them we found three distinct abnormalities: encephalopathy, nephrotic syndrome and polyneuropathy. The fourth family member had minor symptoms. This family is an example for the inhalation exposure resulting from inappropriate handling of liquid mercury. During the first days, flu like illness ensues. Then, severe pulmonary, neurological, renal, hepatic, hematological and dermatological dysfunctions develop. Blood and urine mercury levels should be tested on suspicion, but it must be kept in mind that blood level is unreliable in predicting the severity of mercury toxicity. The priority in the treatment should be removing the patient from the source of exposure. Then British anti-Lewisite, edetate calcium disodium, penicillamine, Sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfhonate and 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid can be used for binding the mercury. We conclude that since mercury-containing devices are present in daily life, physicians must be able to recognize the clinical manifestations and treatment of mercury poisoning.