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Sample records for menthol executive summary

  1. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    This paper is an 'executive summary' of work undertaken to review proposals for transport, handling and emplacement of high level radioactive wastes in an underground repository, appropriate to the U.K. context, with particular reference to: waste block size and configuration; self-shielded or partially-shielded block; stages of disposal; transportation within the repository; emplacement in vertical holes or horizontal tunnels; repository access by adit, incline or shaft; and costs. The paper contains a section on general conclusions and recommendations. (U.K.)

  2. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Each session of the workshop consisted of a number of presentations followed by a panel discussion moderated by the session Chairs. A summary of each session and subsequent discussion that ensued are provided. Session 1: National approaches for long term interim storage facilities. Seven papers were presented during this session by representatives of research institutes in USA (EPRI) and in Norway (IFE), governmental authorities for the nuclear industry in Finland (STUK) and Slovak Republic (UJD), technical support organizations in Germany (GRS) and France (IRSN) and the public company in charge of waste management in Spain (ENRESA). The papers discussed the national policy, the regulatory framework and the current situation for storage of SF and HLW in various European countries (Germany, Spain, Finland, Norway and Slovak Republic). The main activities the EPRI is undertaking to establish the technical bases for extended (long-term) storage and the IRSN's definition of the safety principles and objectives for new storage facilities regarding long-term storage are also discussed. Session 2: Safety requirements, regulatory framework and implementation issues. Eleven papers were presented during this session by representatives from international groups (the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)), representatives of regulatory bodies from the United States (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) and Germany (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS)), German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), operators from the United Kingdom (Sellafield Limited, UK) and France (EDF), vendors (AREVA), and representatives of TSOs in Germany (TUV and Oko-Institut). Session 3: Technical issues and operational experience, needs for R and D. This session was chaired by Karl Wasinger (AREVA, Germany) and Fumihisa Nagase (JAEA, Japan). Ten papers were presented during this session by representatives of research institutes of Japan (CRIEPI

  3. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    systems. The scope of the workshop comprised reactor physics, fuel performance and fuel material technology, thermal-hydraulics, core behaviour and fuel cycle of advanced reactors with different types of fuels or fuel lattices. Reactor types considered were water-cooled, high-temperature gas-cooled and fast spectrum reactors as well as hybrid reactors with fast and thermal neutron spectra. The emphasis was on innovative concepts and issues related to the reactor and fuel. The workshop concluded with a wide-ranging panel discussion which considered some difficult questions from which it is hoped that some recommendations for future priorities can be derived. A record of the discussion is included at the end of this summary. (author)

  4. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    . These can be grouped into the following categories: the assessment process, licensee actions, regulatory actions. Summaries from the three days of workshop discussions as well as information from the licensee and regulatory responses to two pre-workshop surveys are presented. Also included are highlights from the numerous invited presentations. The conclusions and findings from the extensive group and plenary discussions are summarised too. Supporting material, discussion group presentation slides, slides from the invited presenters, and information/responses to the licensee and regulatory surveys are included in the attached Appendices

  5. Executive Summary - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Professor Andrzej Budzanowski was Director of IFJ in the years 1990-2004. On September 1st 2004, on IFJ joining the Polish Academy of Sciences, Professor Marek Jezabek has been nominated by the President of PAN as the Director of IFJ, for a 4-year term. Our Institute, with a personnel of 450 (182 research staff) and over 50 Ph.D. students, is presently one of the largest institutes of the Polish Academy of Sciences and one of the largest research institutes in Poland. The scientific staff consists on 120 post-doctoral researchers, 26 Associated Professors and 36 State-Nominated Professors. The total budget of the Institute for the year 2004 was about 56 million Euro. The IFJ is financed mainly from the state budget of the Ministry of Scientific Research and Information Technology. In 2004 this financing was about 4 million Euro, constituting 72% of the Institute's total budget. The remaining part of our 2004 budget came from individual research projects, also sponsored by the Ministry of Scientific Research (688 kEuro), from international projects (368 kEuro) and from the Institute's entrepreneurship activities (498 kEuro). Between 2003 and 2004 we doubled our income from international projects. For further budget information. The Scientific Council of the Institute, which consists of 40 elected members of the Institute's staff and 4 external members (elected representatives from other Polish institutes and universities), is authorized to confer Ph.D. degrees in Physics and related disciplines, and to initiate and conduct habilitation and professorship procedures. In 2003-2004 17 Ph.D. theses and 11 habilitations have been completed. Following their review procedures, 3 Associate Professors at the IFJ became state-nominated Professors, receiving their nominations from Poland's President, Mr. A. Kwasniewski. The Institute is structured into 17 scientific departments which cover the range of our scientific interests. A summary of our main scientific achievements in

  6. DECOVALEX II PROJECT Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, L.; Stephansson, O.; Kautsky, F.

    1999-11-01

    DECOVALEX II project started in November 1995 as a continuation of the DECOVALEX I project, which was completed at the end of 1994. The project was initiated by recognising the fact that a proper evaluation of the current capacities of numerical modelling of the coupled T-H-M processes in fractured media is needed not only for small scale, well controlled laboratory test cases such as those studied in DECOVALEX I, but also for less characterised, more complex and realistic in-situ experiments. This executive summary presents the motivation, structure, objectives, approaches, and highlights of the main tasks and main achievements of the DECOVALEX II project from 1995-1999. The main source of the materials came from four technical reports the project prepared by the project Secretariat, which, in turn, were based on numerous progress reports produced by a large number of international research teams over the three and half year period. The editors of this summary, together with the Steering Committee of the DECOVALEX II project, feel very encouraged by the progresses which have been made during the project time and very positive about the usefulness of the achievements reached by the project to the larger international community of scientific research and management of radioactive wastes in different countries. We sincerely hope that continued efforts be made to forward the research carried out in both DECOVALEX I and DECOVALEX II projects so that the disposal of radioactive waste could be managed on a more reliable scientific basis

  7. DECOVALEX II PROJECT Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, L.; Stephansson, O. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Tsang, C.F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Science Div.; Knight, L.J. [United Kingdom Nirex Ltd., Harwell (United Kingdom); Kautsky, F. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI), Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-11-01

    DECOVALEX II project started in November 1995 as a continuation of the DECOVALEX I project, which was completed at the end of 1994. The project was initiated by recognising the fact that a proper evaluation of the current capacities of numerical modelling of the coupled T-H-M processes in fractured media is needed not only for small scale, well controlled laboratory test cases such as those studied in DECOVALEX I, but also for less characterised, more complex and realistic in-situ experiments. This executive summary presents the motivation, structure, objectives, approaches, and highlights of the main tasks and main achievements of the DECOVALEX II project from 1995-1999. The main source of the materials came from four technical reports the project prepared by the project Secretariat, which, in turn, were based on numerous progress reports produced by a large number of international research teams over the three and half year period. The editors of this summary, together with the Steering Committee of the DECOVALEX II project, feel very encouraged by the progresses which have been made during the project time and very positive about the usefulness of the achievements reached by the project to the larger international community of scientific research and management of radioactive wastes in different countries. We sincerely hope that continued efforts be made to forward the research carried out in both DECOVALEX I and DECOVALEX II projects so that the disposal of radioactive waste could be managed on a more reliable scientific basis.

  8. Charles River Residual Designation: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read an executive summary of the Record of Decision's preliminary decision by the Regional Administrator of EPA Region 1 that storm water permits are needed to address serious water quality problems in the Charles River.

  9. Current State of Dental Education: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formicola, Allan J

    2017-08-01

    This executive summary for Section 1 of the "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century" project provides a composite picture of information from 12 background articles on the current state of dental education in the United States. The summary includes the following topics: the current status of the dental curriculum, the implications of student debt and dental school finances, the expansion of enrollment, student diversity, pre- and postdoctoral education, safety net status of dental school clinics, and trends in faculty.

  10. Hawaii energy strategy: Executive summary, October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This is an executive summary to a report on the Hawaii Energy Strategy Program. The topics of the report include the a description of the program including an overview, objectives, policy statement and purpose and objectives; energy strategy policy development; energy strategy projects; current energy situation; modeling Hawaii`s energy future; energy forecasts; reducing energy demand; scenario assessment, and recommendations.

  11. FAIR - Baseline technical report. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutbrod, H.H.; Augustin, I.; Eickhoff, H.; Gross, K.D.; Henning, W.F.; Kraemer, D.; Walter, G.

    2006-09-01

    This document presents the Executive Summary, the first of six volumes comprising the 2006 Baseline Technical Report (BTR) for the international FAIR project (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research). The BTR provides the technical description, cost, schedule, and assessments of risk for the proposed new facility. The purpose of the BTR is to provide a reliable basis for the construction, commissioning and operation of FAIR. The BTR is one of the central documents requested by the FAIR International Steering Committee (ISC) and its working groups, in order to prepare the legal process and the decisions on the construction and operation of FAIR in an international framework. It provides the technical basis for legal contracts on contributions to be made by, so far, 13 countries within the international FAIR Consortium. The BTR begins with this extended Executive Summary as Volume 1, which is also intended for use as a stand-alone document. The Executive Summary provides brief summaries of the accelerator facilities, the scientific programs and experimental stations, civil construction and safety, and of the workproject structure, costs and schedule. (orig.)

  12. Executive summary of the Cryofracture demonstration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.; Osborne, D.; Ancho, M.

    1991-09-01

    This report provides an executive summary of the Cryofracture demonstration program performed at Nuclear Remedial Technologies Corporation under contract to EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., for the Department of Energy (DOE). Cryofracture is a size-reducing process whereby objects are frozen whereby objects are frozen to liquid nitrogen temperatures and crushed in a large hydraulic press. Material at the cryogenic temperatures have low ductility and are easily size reduced by fracturing. The main application being investigated for the DOE is for retrieved buried and stored transuranic (TRU) waste. Six 55-gallon drums and six 2 ft x 2 ft x 8 ft boxes containing simulated waste with tracers were subjected to the Cryofracture process. Data was obtained on (a) cool-down time, (b) yield strength of the containers, (c) size distribution of the waste before and after the Cryofracture process, (d) volume reduction of the waste, and (e) sampling of air and surface dusts for spread of tracers to evaluate potential contamination spread. The Cryofracture process was compared to conventional shredders and detailed cost estimates were established for construction of a Cryofracture facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Although cost estimates for conventional shredding are higher for Cryofracture, the potential for fire and explosion during conventional shredding would incur additional costs to preclude these events. These additional costs are unknown and would require considerable research and development. 4 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Statewide intelligent transportation systems earmark evaluation. Part B, executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    As the recipient of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Integration Program funds, the Wisconsin Department of Transportation is required to perform a self-evaluation on each program supported by the funds. This executive summary summarizes the r...

  14. Growing Pains: Lessons from WAIT Training in Florida (Executive Summary)

    OpenAIRE

    Betsy Keating; Rachel Shapiro

    2014-01-01

    The executive summary provides a brief overview of the implementation study findings from the evaluation of WAIT Training in Florida. The full report on program implementation discusses these findings in more detail.

  15. Executive Summary, Hydraulic Fracturing Study - Draft Assessment 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this Executive Summary of the HF Draft report, EPA highlights the reviews of scientific literature to assess the potential for hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas to change the quality or quantity of drinking water resources.

  16. High-Impact Succession Management. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Kim; Campbell, Michael; Smith, Roland

    2009-01-01

    Most companies have an opportunity to improve their succession management programs. The number one challenge for succession management (as identified by both HR leaders and executives) is developing a succession planning strategy. This comprehensive industry study sets out to determine how succession management (when done well) helps improve…

  17. Nuclear Energy Innovation Workshops. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Todd [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jackson, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hildebrandt, Phil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Baker, Suzy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The nuclear energy innovation workshops were organized and conducted by INL on March 2-4, 2015 at the five NUC universities and Boise State University. The output from these workshops is summarized with particular attention to final summaries that were provided by technical leads at each of the workshops. The current revision includes 3-4 punctuation corrections and a correction of the month of release from May to June.

  18. Summon Post Implementation Interviews Study - Executive Summary

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-04-12

    This executive report summarizes the interview findings on the use of Summon by our community. Summon is the library\\'s new webscale discovery layer that was launched in May 2016. The findings highlighted that Google Scholar remains the popular resource to search for articles. In addition to that, library website (Koral / Summon) is commonly used to search for known items such as book / electronic book titles. The report also includes the author\\'s short and long term recommendations to address the shortcomings of the present situation.

  19. FWP executive summaries: Basic energy sciences materials sciences programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, G.A.

    1996-02-01

    This report provides an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

  20. Avian Flu Epidemic 2003: Public health consequences. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman A; Mulder YM; Leeuw JRJ de; Meijer A; Du Ry van Beest Holle M; Kamst RA; Velden PG van der; Conyn-van Spaendonck MAE; Koopmans MPG; Ruijten MWMM; Instituut voor Psychotrauma; CIE; MGO; LIS

    2004-01-01

    Executive summary Avian flu epidemic 2003: public health consequences.Risk factors, health, well-being, health care needs and preventive measures during the H7N7 avian flu outbreak control in the Netherlands.An estimated thousand people, possibly more have been infected with avian flu during the

  1. Mathematical model of a utility firm. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-08-21

    The project was aimed at developing an understanding of the economic and behavioral processes that take place within a utility firm, and without it. This executive summary, one of five documents, gives the project goals and objectives, outlines the subject areas of investigation, discusses the findings and results, and finally considers applications within the electric power industry and future research directions. (DLC)

  2. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-30

    This executive summary contains a description of the logic diagram format; some examples from the diagram (Vol. 2) and associated technology evaluation data sheets (Vol. 3); a complete (albeit condensed) listing of the RA, D&D, and WM problems at ORNL; and a complete listing of the technology rankings for all the areas covered by the diagram.

  3. Geography for Life: National Geography Standards 1994. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Anthony R.; Downs, Roger M.

    This booklet is both an executive summary of "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards 1994" and an introduction to geography as an essential part of every child's education, and as an integral part of the lives of all U.S. citizens. The publication is illustrated on every page with photographs, paintings, graphs, and maps. It…

  4. North Central Regional Geologic Characterization Report. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final North Central Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RGCR presents available regional geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  5. Northeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final Northeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RECR presents available regional environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the environmental disqualifying factors and the environmental regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  6. Executive Summary High-Yield Scenario Workshop Series Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Park Ovard; Thomas H. Ulrich; David J. Muth Jr.; J. Richard Hess; Steven Thomas; Bryce Stokes

    2009-12-01

    To get a collective sense of the impact of research and development (R&D) on biomass resource availability, and to determine the feasibility that yields higher than baseline assumptions used for past assessments could be achieved to support U.S. energy independence, an alternate “High-Yield Scenario” (HYS) concept was presented to industry experts at a series of workshops held in December 2009. The workshops explored future production of corn/agricultural crop residues, herbaceous energy crops (HECs), and woody energy crops (WECs). This executive summary reports the findings of that workshop.

  7. North Central regional environmental characterization report: executive summary - final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final North Central Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RECR presents available regional environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the States within the North Central Region, information is provided on the environmental disqualifying factors and the environmental regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  8. Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report: executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final ''Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report'' (RECR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RECR presents available regional environmental information pertinent to siting a repository or high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the environmental disqualifying factors and the environmental regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  9. Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    This is Volume 1 (Executive Summary) of the Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation Final Report for the Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) Study program conducted for NASA Lewis Research Center under contract No. NAS3-24235. This report presents the results of the study effort leading to five potential platform payloads to service CONUS and WARC Region 2 traffic demand as projected to the year 2008. The report addresses establishing the data bases, developing service aggregation scenarios, selecting and developing 5 payload concepts, performing detailed definition of the 5 payloads, costing them, identifying critical technology, and finally comparing the payloads with each other and also with non-aggregated equivalent services.

  10. ILC Reference Design Report Volume 1 - Executive Summary

    CERN Document Server

    Brau, James; Walker, Nicholas; Aarons, Gerald; Abe, Toshinori; Abernathy, Jason; Ablikim, Medina; Abramowicz, Halina; Adey, David; Adloff, Catherine; Adolphsen, Chris; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Agapov, Ilya; Ahn, Jung-Keun; Aihara, Hiroaki; Akemoto, Mitsuo; del Carmen Alabau, Maria; Albert, Justin; Albrecht, Hartwig; Albrecht, Michael; Alesini, David; Alexander, Gideon; Alexander, Jim; Allison, Wade; Amann, John; Amirikas, Ramila; An, Qi; Anami, Shozo; Ananthanarayan, B.; Anderson, Terry; Andricek, Ladislav; Anduze, Marc; Anerella, Michael; Anfimov, Nikolai; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa; Antipov, Sergei; Antoine, Claire; Aoki, Mayumi; Aoza, Atsushi; Aplin, Steve; Appleby, Rob; Arai, Yasuo; Araki, Sakae; Arkan, Tug; Arnold, Ned; Arnold, Ray; Arnowitt, Richard; Artru, Xavier; Arya, Kunal; Aryshev, Alexander; Asakawa, Eri; Asiri, Fred; Asner, David; Atac, Muzaffer; Atoian, Grigor; Attié, David; Augustin, Jean-Eudes; Augustine, David B.; Ayres, Bradley; Aziz, Tariq; Baars, Derek; Badaud, Frederique; Baddams, Nigel; Bagger, Jonathan; Bai, Sha; Bailey, David; Bailey, Ian R.; Baker, David; Balalykin, Nikolai I.; Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Baldy, Jean-Luc; Ball, Markus; Ball, Maurice; Ballestrero, Alessandro; Ballin, Jamie; Baltay, Charles; Bambade, Philip; Ban, Syuichi; Band, Henry; Bane, Karl; Banerjee, Bakul; Barbanotti, Serena; Barbareschi, Daniele; Barbaro-Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Desmond P.; Barbi, Mauricio; Bardin, Dmitri Y.; Barish, Barry; Barklow, Timothy L.; Barlow, Roger; Barnes, Virgil E.; Barone, Maura; Bartels, Christoph; Bartsch, Valeria; Basu, Rahul; Battaglia, Marco; Batygin, Yuri; Baudot, Jerome; Baur, Ulrich; Elwyn Baynham, D.; Beard, Carl; Bebek, Chris; Bechtle, Philip; Becker, Ulrich J.; Bedeschi, Franco; Bedjidian, Marc; Behera, Prafulla; Behnke, Ties; Bellantoni, Leo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Paul; Bentson, Lynn D.; Benyamna, Mustapha; Bergauer, Thomas; Berger, Edmond; Bergholz, Matthias; Beri, Suman; Berndt, Martin; Bernreuther, Werner; Bertolini, Alessandro; Besancon, Marc; Besson, Auguste; Beteille, Andre; Bettoni, Simona; Beyer, Michael; Bhandari, R.K.; Bharadwaj, Vinod; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Bhattacherjee, Biplob; Bhuyan, Ruchika; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Biagini, Marica; Bialowons, Wilhelm; Biebel, Otmar; Bieler, Thomas; Bierwagen, John; Birch, Alison; Bisset, Mike; Biswal, S.S.; Blackmore, Victoria; Blair, Grahame; Blanchard, Guillaume; Blazey, Gerald; Blue, Andrew; Blümlein, Johannes; Boffo, Christian; Bohn, Courtlandt; Boiko, V.I.; Boisvert, Veronique; Bondarchuk, Eduard N.; Boni, Roberto; Bonvicini, Giovanni; Boogert, Stewart; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Borras, Kerstin; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bosco, Alessio; Bosio, Carlo; Bosland, Pierre; Bosotti, Angelo; Boudry, Vincent; Boumediene, Djamel-Eddine; Bouquet, Bernard; Bourov, Serguei; Bowden, Gordon; Bower, Gary; Boyarski, Adam; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bozzi, Concezio; Brachmann, Axel; Bradshaw, Tom W.; Brandt, Andrew; Brasser, Hans Peter; Brau, Benjamin; Breidenbach, Martin; Bricker, Steve; Brient, Jean-Claude; Brock, Ian; Brodsky, Stanley; Brooksby, Craig; Broome, Timothy A.; Brown, David; Brown, David; Brownell, James H.; Bruchon, Mélanie; Brueck, Heiner; Brummitt, Amanda J.; Brun, Nicole; Buchholz, Peter; Budagov, Yulian A.; Bulgheroni, Antonio; Bulyak, Eugene; Bungau, Adriana; Bürger, Jochen; Burke, Dan; Burkhart, Craig; Burrows, Philip; Burt, Graeme; Burton, David; Büsser, Karsten; Butler, John; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buzulutskov, Alexei; Cabruja, Enric; Caccia, Massimo; Cai, Yunhai; Calcaterra, Alessandro; Caliier, Stephane; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cao, Jun-Jie; Cao, J.S.; Capatina, Ofelia; Cappellini, Chiara; Carcagno, Ruben; Carena, Marcela; Carloganu, Cristina; Carosi, Roberto; Stephen Carr, F.; Carrion, Francisco; Carter, Harry F.; Carter, John; Carwardine, John; Cassel, Richard; Cassell, Ronald; Cavallari, Giorgio; Cavallo, Emanuela; Cembranos, Jose A.R.; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chandez, Frederic; Charles, Matthew; Chase, Brian; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chauveau, Jacques; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chehab, Robert; Chel, Stéphane; Chelkov, Georgy; Chen, Chiping; Chen, He Sheng; Chen, Huai Bi; Chen, Jia Er; Chen, Sen Yu; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xun; Chen, Yuan Bo; Cheng, Jian; Chevallier, M.; Chi, Yun Long; Chickering, William; Cho, Gi-Chol; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Choi, Jin-Hyuk; Choi, Jong Bum; Choi, Seong Youl; Choi, Young-Il; Choudhary, Brajesh; Choudhury, Debajyoti; Rai Choudhury, S.; Christian, David; Christian, Glenn; Christophe, Grojean; Chung, Jin-Hyuk; Church, Mike; Ciborowski, Jacek; Cihangir, Selcuk; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Clarke, Christine; Clarke, Don G.; Clarke, James A.; Clements, Elizabeth; Coca, Cornelia; Coe, Paul; Cogan, John; Colas, Paul; Collard, Caroline; Colledani, Claude; Combaret, Christophe; Comerma, Albert; Compton, Chris; Constance, Ben; Conway, John; Cook, Ed; Cooke, Peter; Cooper, William; Corcoran, Sean; Cornat, Rémi; Corner, Laura; Cortina Gil, Eduardo; Clay Corvin, W.; Cotta Ramusino, Angelo; Cowan, Ray; Crawford, Curtis; Cremaldi, Lucien M; Crittenden, James A.; Cussans, David; Cvach, Jaroslav; da Silva, Wilfrid; Dabiri Khah, Hamid; Dabrowski, Anne; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dadoun, Olivier; Dai, Jian Ping; Dainton, John; Daly, Colin; Damerell, Chris; Danilov, Mikhail; Daniluk, Witold; Daram, Sarojini; Datta, Anindya; Dauncey, Paul; David, Jacques; Davier, Michel; Davies, Ken P.; Dawson, Sally; De Boer, Wim; De Curtis, Stefania; De Groot, Nicolo; de la Taille, Christophe; de Lira, Antonio; De Roeck, Albert; de Sangro, Riccardo; De Santis,Stefano; Deacon, Laurence; Deandrea, Aldo; Dehmelt, Klaus; Delagnes, Eric; Delahaye, Jean-Pierre; Delebecque, Pierre; Delerue, Nicholas; Delferriere, Olivier; Demarteau, Marcel; Deng, Zhi; Denisov, Yu.N.; Densham, Christopher J.; Desch, Klaus; Deshpande, Nilendra; Devanz, Guillaume; Devetak, Erik; Dexter, Amos; Di benedetto, Vito; Diéguez, Angel; Diener, Ralf; Dinh, Nguyen Dinh; Dixit, Madhu; Dixit, Sudhir; Djouadi, Abdelhak; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dollan, Ralph; Dong, Dong; Dong, Hai Yi; Dorfan, Jonathan; Dorokhov, Andrei; Doucas, George; Downing, Robert; Doyle, Eric; Doziere, Guy; Drago, Alessandro; Dragt, Alex; Drake, Gary; Drásal, Zbynek; Dreiner, Herbert; Drell, Persis; Driouichi, Chafik; Drozhdin, Alexandr; Drugakov, Vladimir; Du, Shuxian; Dugan, Gerald; Duginov, Viktor; Dulinski, Wojciech; Dulucq, Frederic; Dutta, Sukanta; Dwivedi, Jishnu; Dychkant, Alexandre; Dzahini, Daniel; Eckerlin, Guenter; Edwards, Helen; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrlichman, Michael; Ehrlichmann, Heiko; Eigen, Gerald; Elagin, Andrey; Elementi, Luciano; Eliasson, Peder; Ellis, John; Ellwood, George; Elsen, Eckhard; Emery, Louis; Enami, Kazuhiro; Endo, Kuninori; Enomoto, Atsushi; Eozénou, Fabien; Erbacher, Robin; Erickson, Roger; Oleg Eyser, K.; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Fang, Shou Xian; Fant, Karen; Fasso, Alberto; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Fehlberg, John; Feld, Lutz; Feng, Jonathan L.; Ferguson, John; Fernandez-Garcia, Marcos; Luis Fernandez-Hernando, J.; Fiala, Pavel; Fieguth, Ted; Finch, Alexander; Finocchiaro, Giuseppe; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Peter; Eugene Fisk, H.; Fitton, Mike D.; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischer, Manfred; Fleury, Julien; Flood, Kevin; Foley, Mike; Ford, Richard; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Brian; Fourches, Nicolas; Francis, Kurt; Frey, Ariane; Frey, Raymond; Friedsam, Horst; Frisch, Josef; Frishman, Anatoli; Fuerst, Joel; Fujii, Keisuke; Fujimoto, Junpei; Fukuda, Masafumi; Fukuda, Shigeki; Funahashi, Yoshisato; Funk, Warren; Furletova, Julia; Furukawa, Kazuro; Furuta, Fumio; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gadow, Karsten; Gaede, Frank; Gaglione, Renaud; Gai, Wei; Gajewski, Jan; Galik, Richard; Galkin, Alexei; Galkin, Valery; Gallin-Martel, Laurent; Gannaway, Fred; Gao, Jian She; Gao, Jie; Gao, Yuanning; Garbincius, Peter; Garcia-Tabares, Luis; Garren, Lynn; Garrido, Luís; Garutti, Erika; Garvey, Terry; Garwin, Edward; Gascón, David; Gastal, Martin; Gatto, Corrado; Gatto, Raoul; Gay, Pascal; Ge, Lixin; Ge, Ming Qi; Ge, Rui; Geiser, Achim; Gellrich, Andreas; Genat, Jean-Francois; Geng, Zhe Qiao; Gentile, Simonetta; Gerbick, Scot; Gerig, Rod; Ghosh, Dilip Kumar; Ghosh, Kirtiman; Gibbons, Lawrence; Giganon, Arnaud; Gillespie, Allan; Gillman, Tony; Ginzburg, Ilya; Giomataris, Ioannis; Giunta, Michele; Gladkikh, Peter; Gluza, Janusz; Godbole, Rohini; Godfrey, Stephen; Goldhaber, Gerson; Goldstein, Joel; Gollin, George D.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Goodrick, Maurice; Gornushkin, Yuri; Gostkin, Mikhail; Gottschalk, Erik; Goudket, Philippe; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gournaris, Filimon; Graciani, Ricardo; Graf, Norman; Grah, Christian; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grandjean, Damien; Grannis, Paul; Grassellino, Anna; Graugés, Eugeni; Gray, Stephen; Green, Michael; Greenhalgh, Justin; Greenshaw, Timothy; Grefe, Christian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Gerald; Grimes, Mark; Grimm, Terry; Gris, Philippe; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groll, Marius; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Grondin, Denis; Groom, Donald; Gross, Eilam; Grunewald, Martin; Grupen, Claus; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Gu, Jun; Gu, Yun-Ting; Guchait, Monoranjan; Guiducci, Susanna; Guler, Ali Murat; Guler, Hayg; Gulmez, Erhan; Gunion, John; Guo, Zhi Yu; Gurtu, Atul; Ha, Huy Bang; Haas, Tobias; Haase, Andy; Haba, Naoyuki; Haber, Howard; Haensel, Stephan; Hagge, Lars; Hagura, Hiroyuki; Hajdu, Csaba; Haller, Gunther; Haller, Johannes; Hallermann, Lea; Halyo, Valerie; Hamaguchi, Koichi; Hammond, Larry; Han, Liang; Han, Tao; Hand, Louis; Handu, Virender K.; Hano, Hitoshi; Hansen, Christian; Hansen, Jørn Dines; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hara, Kazufumi; Harder, Kristian; Hartin, Anthony; Hartung, Walter; Hast, Carsten; Hauptman, John; Hauschild, Michael; Hauviller, Claude; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Chris; Hawkings, Richard; Hayano, Hitoshi; Hazumi, Masashi; He, An; He, Hong Jian; Hearty, Christopher; Heath, Helen; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hedberg, Vincent; Hedin, David; Heifets, Samuel; Heinemeyer, Sven; Heini, Sebastien; Helebrant, Christian; Helms, Richard; Heltsley, Brian; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henschel, Hans; Hensel, Carsten; Hermel, Richard; Herms, Atilà; Herten, Gregor; Hesselbach, Stefan; Heuer, Rolf-Dieter; Heusch, Clemens A.; Hewett, Joanne; Higashi, Norio; Higashi, Takatoshi; Higashi, Yasuo; Higo, Toshiyasu; Hildreth, Michael D.; Hiller, Karlheinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen James; Himel, Thomas; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hioki, Zenro; Hirano, Koichiro; Hirose, Tachishige; Hisamatsu, Hiromi; Hisano, Junji; Hlaing, Chit Thu; Hock, Kai Meng; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hohlfeld, Mark; Honda, Yousuke; Hong, Juho; Hong, Tae Min; Honma, Hiroyuki; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horvath, Dezso; Hosoyama, Kenji; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Mi; Hou, Wei-Shu; Howell, David; Hronek, Maxine; Hsiung, Yee B.; Hu, Bo; Hu, Tao; Huang, Jung-Yun; Huang, Tong Ming; Huang, Wen Hui; Huedem, Emil; Huggard, Peter; Hugonie, Cyril; Hu-Guo, Christine; Huitu, Katri; Hwang, Youngseok; Idzik, Marek; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Ignatov, Fedor; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ilicheva, Tatiana; Imbault, Didier; Imhof, Andreas; Incagli, Marco; Ingbir, Ronen; Inoue, Hitoshi; Inoue, Youichi; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioakeimidi, Katerina; Ishihara, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Issakov, Vladimir; Ito, Kazutoshi; Ivanov, V.V.; Ivanov, Valentin; Ivanyushenkov, Yury; Iwasaki, Masako; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Jackson, David; Jackson, Frank; Jacobsen, Bob; Jaganathan, Ramaswamy; Jamison, Steven; Janssen, Matthias Enno; Jaramillo-Echeverria, Richard; Jaros, John; Jauffret, Clement; Jawale, Suresh B.; Jeans, Daniel; Jedziniak, Ron; Jeffery, Ben; Jehanno, Didier; Jenner, Leo J.; Jensen, Chris; Jensen, David R.; Jiang, Hairong; Jiang, Xiao Ming; Jimbo, Masato; Jin, Shan; Keith Jobe, R.; Johnson, Anthony; Johnson, Erik; Johnson, Matt; Johnston, Michael; Joireman, Paul; Jokic, Stevan; Jones, James; Jones, Roger M.; Jongewaard, Erik; Jönsson, Leif; Joshi, Gopal; Joshi, Satish C.; Jung, Jin-Young; Junk, Thomas; Juste, Aurelio; Kado, Marumi; Kadyk, John; Käfer, Daniela; Kako, Eiji; Kalavase, Puneeth; Kalinin, Alexander; Kalinowski, Jan; Kamitani, Takuya; Kamiya, Yoshio; Kamiya, Yukihide; Kamoshita, Jun-ichi; Kananov, Sergey; Kanaya, Kazuyuki; Kanazawa, Ken-ichi; Kanemura, Shinya; Kang, Heung-Sik; Kang, Wen; Kanjial, D.; Kapusta, Frédéric; Karataev, Pavel; Karchin, Paul E.; Karlen, Dean; Karyotakis, Yannis; Kashikhin, Vladimir; Kashiwagi, Shigeru; Kasley, Paul; Katagiri, Hiroaki; Kato, Takashi; Kato, Yukihiro; Katzy, Judith; Kaukher, Alexander; Kaur, Manjit; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamura, Hiroyuki; Kazakov, Sergei; Kekelidze, V.D.; Keller, Lewis; Kelley, Michael; Kelly, Marc; Kelly, Michael; Kennedy, Kurt; Kephart, Robert; Keung, Justin; Khainovski, Oleg; Khan, Sameen Ahmed; Khare, Prashant; Khovansky, Nikolai; Kiesling, Christian; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Kilian, Wolfgang; Killenberg, Martin; Kim, Donghee; Kim, Eun San; Kim, Eun-Joo; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Hongjoo; Kim, Hyoungsuk; Kim, Hyun-Chui; Kim, Jonghoon; Kim, Kwang-Je; Kim, Kyung Sook; Kim, Peter; Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Shin-Hong; Kim, Sun Kee; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Youngim; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimmitt, Maurice; Kirby, Robert; Kircher, François; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittel, Olaf; Klanner, Robert; Klebaner, Arkadiy L.; Kleinwort, Claus; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klinkby, Esben; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Marc; Kneisel, Peter; Ko, In Soo; Ko, Kwok; Kobayashi, Makoto; Kobayashi, Nobuko; Kobel, Michael; Koch, Manuel; Kodys, Peter; Koetz, Uli; Kohrs, Robert; Kojima, Yuuji; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolodziej, Karol; Kolomensky, Yury G.; Komamiya, Sachio; Kong, Xiang Cheng; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korbel, Volker; Koscielniak, Shane; Kostromin, Sergey; Kowalewski, Robert; Kraml, Sabine; Krammer, Manfred; Krasnykh, Anatoly; Krautscheid, Thorsten; Krawczyk, Maria; James Krebs, H.; Krempetz, Kurt; Kribs, Graham; Krishnagopal, Srinivas; Kriske, Richard; Kronfeld, Andreas; Kroseberg, Jürgen; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Kruecker, Dirk; Krüger, Hans; Krumpa, Nicholas A.; Krumshtein, Zinovii; Kuang, Yu Ping; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuchler, Vic; Kudoh, Noboru; Kulis, Szymon; Kumada, Masayuki; Kumar, Abhay; Kume, Tatsuya; Kundu, Anirban; Kurevlev, German; Kurihara, Yoshimasa; Kuriki, Masao; Kuroda, Shigeru; Kuroiwa, Hirotoshi; Kurokawa, Shin-ichi; Kusano, Tomonori; Kush, Pradeep K.; Kutschke, Robert; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Kvasnicka, Peter; Kwon, Youngjoon; Labarga, Luis; Lacasta, Carlos; Lackey, Sharon; Lackowski, Thomas W.; Lafaye, Remi; Lafferty, George; Lagorio, Eric; Laktineh, Imad; Lal, Shankar; Laloum, Maurice; Lam, Briant; Lancaster, Mark; Lander, Richard; Lange, Wolfgang; Langenfeld, Ulrich; Langeveld, Willem; Larbalestier, David; Larsen, Ray; Lastovicka, Tomas; Lastovicka-Medin, Gordana; Latina, Andrea; Latour, Emmanuel; Laurent, Lisa; Le, Ba Nam; Le, Duc Ninh; Le Diberder, Francois; Dû, Patrick Le; Lebbolo, Hervé; Lebrun, Paul; Lecoq, Jacques; Lee, Sung-Won; Lehner, Frank; Leibfritz, Jerry; Lenkszus, Frank; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Levy, Aharon; Lewandowski, Jim; Leyh, Greg; Li, Cheng; Li, Chong Sheng; Li, Chun Hua; Li, Da Zhang; Li, Gang; Li, Jin; Li, Shao Peng; Li, Wei Ming; Li, Weiguo; Li, Xiao Ping; Li, Xue-Qian; Li, Yuanjing; Li, Yulan; Li, Zenghai; Li, Zhong Quan; Liang, Jian Tao; Liao, Yi; Lilje, Lutz; Guilherme Lima, J.; Lintern, Andrew J.; Lipton, Ronald; List, Benno; List, Jenny; Liu, Chun; Liu, Jian Fei; Liu, Ke Xin; Liu, Li Qiang; Liu, Shao Zhen; Liu, Sheng Guang; Liu, Shubin; Liu, Wanming; Liu, Wei Bin; Liu, Ya Ping; Liu, Yu Dong; Lockyer, Nigel; Logan, Heather E.; Logatchev, Pavel V.; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lohse, Thomas; Lola, Smaragda; Lopez-Virto, Amparo; Loveridge, Peter; Lozano, Manuel; Lu, Cai-Dian; Lu, Changguo; Lu, Gong-Lu; Lu, Wen Hui; Lubatti, Henry; Lucotte, Arnaud; Lundberg, Björn; Lundin, Tracy; Luo, Mingxing; Luong, Michel; Luth, Vera; Lutz, Benjamin; Lutz, Pierre; Lux, Thorsten; Luzniak, Pawel; Lyapin, Alexey; Lykken, Joseph; Lynch, Clare; Ma, Li; Ma, Lili; Ma, Qiang; Ma, Wen-Gan; Macfarlane, David; Maciel, Arthur; MacLeod, Allan; MacNair, David; Mader, Wolfgang; Magill, Stephen; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Maiheu, Bino; Maity, Manas; Majchrzak, Millicent; Majumder, Gobinda; Makarov, Roman; Makowski, Dariusz; Malaescu, Bogdan; Mallik, C.; Mallik, Usha; Malton, Stephen; Malyshev, Oleg B.; Malysheva, Larisa I.; Mammosser, John; Mamta; Mamuzic, Judita; Manen, Samuel; Manghisoni, Massimo; Manly, Steven; Marcellini, Fabio; Marcisovsky, Michal; Markiewicz, Thomas W.; Marks, Steve; Marone, Andrew; Marti, Felix; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Victoria; Martin-Chassard, Gisèle; Martinez, Manel; Martinez-Rivero, Celso; Martsch, Dennis; Martyn, Hans-Ulrich; Maruyama, Takashi; Masuzawa, Mika; Mathez, Hervé; Matsuda, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Shuji; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Mättig, Peter; Mattison, Thomas; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mawatari, Kentarou; Mazzacane, Anna; McBride, Patricia; McCormick, Douglas; McCormick, Jeremy; McDonald, Kirk T.; McGee, Mike; McIntosh, Peter; McKee, Bobby; McPherson, Robert A.; Meidlinger, Mandi; Meier, Karlheinz; Mele, Barbara; Meller, Bob; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Mendez, Hector; Mercer, Adam; Merkin, Mikhail; Meshkov, I.N.; Messner, Robert; Metcalfe, Jessica; Meyer, Chris; Meyer, Hendrik; Meyer, Joachim; Meyer, Niels; Meyners, Norbert; Michelato, Paolo; Michizono, Shinichiro; Mihalcea, Daniel; Mihara, Satoshi; Mihara, Takanori; Mikami, Yoshinari; Mikhailichenko, Alexander A.; Milardi, Catia; Miller, David J.; Miller, Owen; Miller, Roger J.; Milstene, Caroline; Mimashi, Toshihiro; Minashvili, Irakli; Miquel, Ramon; Mishra, Shekhar; Mitaroff, Winfried; Mitchell, Chad; Miura, Takako; Miyamoto, Akiya; Miyata, Hitoshi; Mjörnmark, Ulf; Mnich, Joachim; Moenig, Klaus; Moffeit, Kenneth; Mokhov, Nikolai; Molloy, Stephen; Monaco, Laura; Monasterio, Paul R.; Montanari, Alessandro; Moon, Sung Ik; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid A.; Mora de Freitas, Paulo; Morel, Federic; Moretti, Stefano; Morgunov, Vasily; Mori, Toshinori; Morin, Laurent; Morisseau, François; Morita, Yoshiyuki; Morita, Youhei; Morita, Yuichi; Morozov, Nikolai; Morozumi, Yuichi; Morse, William; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Moultaka, Gilbert; Mtingwa, Sekazi; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Alex; Mueller, Wolfgang; Muennich, Astrid; Muhlleitner, Milada Margarete; Mukherjee, Bhaskar; Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Müller, Thomas; Munro, Morrison; Murayama, Hitoshi; Muto, Toshiya; Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Nabhiraj, P.Y.; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Nagamine, Tadashi; Nagano, Ai; Naito, Takashi; Nakai, Hirotaka; Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Nakamura, Isamu; Nakamura, Tomoya; Nakanishi, Tsutomu; Nakao, Katsumi; Nakao, Noriaki; Nakayoshi, Kazuo; Nam, Sang; Namito, Yoshihito; Namkung, Won; Nantista, Chris; Napoly, Olivier; Narain, Meenakshi; Naroska, Beate; Nauenberg, Uriel; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nelson, Charles; Nelson, Janice; Nelson, Timothy; Nemecek, Stanislav; Neubauer, Michael; Neuffer, David; Newman, Myriam Q.; Nezhevenko, Oleg; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Nguyen, Anh Ky; Nguyen, Minh; Van Nguyen Thi,Hong; Niebuhr, Carsten; Niehoff, Jim; Niezurawski, Piotr; Nishitani, Tomohiro; Nitoh, Osamu; Noguchi, Shuichi; Nomerotski, Andrei; Noonan, John; Norbeck, Edward; Nosochkov, Yuri; Notz, Dieter; Nowak, Grazyna; Nowak, Hannelies; Noy, Matthew; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nyffeler, Andreas; Nygren, David; Oddone, Piermaria; O'Dell, Joseph; Oh, Jong-Seok; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohkuma, Kazumasa; Ohlerich, Martin; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Ohnishi, Yukiyoshi; Ohsawa, Satoshi; Ohuchi, Norihito; Oide, Katsunobu; Okada, Nobuchika; Okamura, Takahiro; Okugi, Toshiyuki; Okumi, Shoji; Okumura, Ken-ichi; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliver, William; Olivier, Bob; Olsen, James; Olsen, Jeff; Olsen, Stephen; Olshevsky, A.G.; Olsson, Jan; Omori, Tsunehiko; Onel, Yasar; Onengut, Gulsen; Ono, Hiroaki; Onoprienko, Dmitry; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Will; Orimoto, Toyoko J.; Oriunno, Marco; Orlandea, Marius Ciprian; Oroku, Masahiro; Orr, Lynne H.; Orr, Robert S.; Oshea, Val; Oskarsson, Anders; Osland, Per; Ossetski, Dmitri; Österman, Lennart; Ostiguy, Francois; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ottewell, Brian; Ouyang, Qun; Padamsee, Hasan; Padilla, Cristobal; Pagani, Carlo; Palmer, Mark A.; Pam, Wei Min; Pande, Manjiri; Pande, Rajni; Pandit, V.S.; Pandita, P.N.; Pandurovic, Mila; Pankov, Alexander; Panzeri, Nicola; Papandreou, Zisis; Paparella, Rocco; Para, Adam; Park, Hwanbae; Parker, Brett; Parkes, Chris; Parma, Vittorio; Parsa, Zohreh; Parsons, Justin; Partridge, Richard; Pasquinelli, Ralph; Pásztor, Gabriella; Paterson, Ewan; Patrick, Jim; Patteri, Piero; Ritchie Patterson, J.; Pauletta, Giovanni; Paver, Nello; Pavlicek, Vince; Pawlik, Bogdan; Payet, Jacques; Pchalek, Norbert; Pedersen, John; Pei, Guo Xi; Pei, Shi Lun; Pelka, Jerzy; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pellett, David; Peng, G.X.; Penn, Gregory; Penzo, Aldo; Perry, Colin; Peskin, Michael; Peters, Franz; Petersen, Troels Christian; Peterson, Daniel; Peterson, Thomas; Petterson, Maureen; Pfeffer, Howard; Pfund, Phil; Phelps, Alan; Van Phi, Quang; Phillips, Jonathan; Phinney, Nan; Piccolo, Marcello; Piemontese, Livio; Pierini, Paolo; Thomas Piggott, W.; Pike, Gary; Pillet, Nicolas; Jayawardena, Talini Pinto; Piot, Phillippe; Pitts, Kevin; Pivi, Mauro; Plate, Dave; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poehler, Michael; Poelker, Matthew; Poffenberger, Paul; Pogorelsky, Igor; Poirier, Freddy; Poling, Ronald; Poole, Mike; Popescu, Sorina; Popielarski, John; Pöschl, Roman; Postranecky, Martin; Potukochi, Prakash N.; Prast, Julie; Prat, Serge; Preger, Miro; Prepost, Richard; Price, Michael; Proch, Dieter; Puntambekar, Avinash; Qin, Qing; Qu, Hua Min; Quadt, Arnulf; Quesnel, Jean-Pierre; Radeka, Veljko; Rahmat, Rahmat; Rai, Santosh Kumar; Raimondi, Pantaleo; Ramberg, Erik; Ranjan, Kirti; Rao, Sista V.L.S.; Raspereza, Alexei; Ratti, Alessandro; Ratti, Lodovico; Raubenheimer, Tor; Raux, Ludovic; Ravindran, V.; Raychaudhuri, Sreerup; Re, Valerio; Rease, Bill; Reece, Charles E.; Regler, Meinhard; Rehlich, Kay; Reichel, Ina; Reichold, Armin; Reid, John; Reid, Ron; Reidy, James; Reinhard, Marcel; Renz, Uwe; Repond, Jose; Resta-Lopez, Javier; Reuen, Lars; Ribnik, Jacob; Rice, Tyler; Richard, François; Riemann, Sabine; Riemann, Tord; Riles, Keith; Riley, Daniel; Rimbault, Cécile; Rindani, Saurabh; Rinolfi, Louis; Risigo, Fabio; Riu, Imma; Rizhikov, Dmitri; Rizzo, Thomas; Rochford, James H.; Rodriguez, Ponciano; Roeben, Martin; Rolandi, Gigi; Roodman, Aaron; Rosenberg, Eli; Roser, Robert; Ross, Marc; Rossel, François; Rossmanith, Robert; Roth, Stefan; Rougé, André; Rowe, Allan; Roy, Amit; Roy, Sendhunil B.; Roy, Sourov; Royer, Laurent; Royole-Degieux, Perrine; Royon, Christophe; Ruan, Manqi; Rubin, David; Ruehl, Ingo; Jimeno, Alberto Ruiz; Ruland, Robert; Rusnak, Brian; Ryu, Sun-Young; Sabbi, Gian Luca; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadygov, Ziraddin Y; Saeki, Takayuki; Sagan, David; Sahni, Vinod C.; Saini, Arun; Saito, Kenji; Saito, Kiwamu; Sajot, Gerard; Sakanaka, Shogo; Sakaue, Kazuyuki; Salata, Zen; Salih, Sabah; Salvatore, Fabrizio; Samson, Joergen; Sanami, Toshiya; Levi Sanchez, Allister; Sands, William; Santic, John; Sanuki, Tomoyuki; Sapronov, Andrey; Sarkar, Utpal; Sasao, Noboru; Satoh, Kotaro; Sauli, Fabio; Saunders, Claude; Saveliev, Valeri; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Sawyer, Lee; Saxton, Laura; Schäfer, Oliver; Schälicke, Andreas; Schade, Peter; Schaetzel, Sebastien; Scheitrum, Glenn; Schibler, Emilie; Schindler, Rafe; Schlösser, Markus; Schlueter, Ross D.; Schmid, Peter; Schmidt, Ringo Sebastian; Schneekloth, Uwe; Schreiber, Heinz Juergen; Schreiber, Siegfried; Schroeder, Henning; Peter Schüler, K.; Schulte, Daniel; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schumacher, Markus; Schumann, Steffen; Schumm, Bruce A.; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Scott, Duncan J.; Scuri, Fabrizio; Sefkow, Felix; Sefri, Rachid; Seguin-Moreau, Nathalie; Seidel, Sally; Seidman, David; Sekmen, Sezen; Seletskiy, Sergei; Senaha, Eibun; Senanayake, Rohan; Sendai, Hiroshi; Sertore, Daniele; Seryi, Andrei; Settles, Ronald; Sever, Ramazan; Shales, Nicholas; Shao, Ming; Shelkov, G.A.; Shepard, Ken; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Sheppard, John C.; Shi, Cai Tu; Shidara, Tetsuo; Shim, Yeo-Jeong; Shimizu, Hirotaka; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Yuuki; Shimogawa, Tetsushi; Shin, Seunghwan; Shioden, Masaomi; Shipsey, Ian; Shirkov, Grigori; Shishido, Toshio; Shivpuri, Ram K.; Shrivastava, Purushottam; Shulga, Sergey; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Shuvalov, Sergey; Si, Zongguo; Siddiqui, Azher Majid; Siegrist, James; Simon, Claire; Simrock, Stefan; Sinev, Nikolai; Singh, Bhartendu K.; Singh, Jasbir; Singh, Pitamber; Singh, R.K.; Singh, S.K.; Singini, Monito; Sinha, Anil K.; Sinha, Nita; Sinha, Rahul; Sinram, Klaus; Sissakian, A.N.; Skachkov, N.B.; Skrinsky, Alexander; Slater, Mark; Slominski, Wojciech; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smith, A J Stewart; Smith, Alex; Smith, Brian J.; Smith, Jeff; Smith, Jonathan; Smith, Steve; Smith, Susan; Smith, Tonee; Neville Snodgrass, W.; Sobloher, Blanka; Sohn, Young-Uk; Solidum, Ruelson; Solyak, Nikolai; Son, Dongchul; Sonmez, Nasuf; Sopczak, Andre; Soskov, V.; Spencer, Cherrill M.; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; Speziali, Valeria; Spira, Michael; Sprehn, Daryl; Sridhar, K.; Srivastava, Asutosh; St. Lorant, Steve; Stahl, Achim; Stanek, Richard P.; Stanitzki, Marcel; Stanley, Jacob; Stefanov, Konstantin; Stein, Werner; Steiner, Herbert; Stenlund, Evert; Stern, Amir; Sternberg, Matt; Stockinger, Dominik; Stockton, Mark; Stoeck, Holger; Strachan, John; Strakhovenko, V.; Strauss, Michael; Striganov, Sergei I.; Strologas, John; Strom, David; Strube, Jan; Stupakov, Gennady; Su, Dong; Sudo, Yuji; Suehara, Taikan; Suehiro, Toru; Suetsugu, Yusuke; Sugahara, Ryuhei; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Sugiyama, Akira; Suh, Jun Suhk; Sukovic, Goran; Sun, Hong; Sun, Stephen; Sun, Werner; Sun, Yi; Sun, Yipeng; Suszycki, Leszek; Sutcliffe, Peter; Suthar, Rameshwar L.; Suwada, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Atsuto; Suzuki, Chihiro; Suzuki, Shiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Swent, Richard; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swinson, Christina; Syresin, Evgeny; Szleper, Michal; Tadday, Alexander; Takahashi, Rika; Takahashi, Tohru; Takano, Mikio; Takasaki, Fumihiko; Takeda, Seishi; Takenaka, Tateru; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Tanaka, Masami; Tang, Chuan Xiang; Taniguchi, Takashi; Tantawi, Sami; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tartaglia, Michael A.; Tassielli, Giovanni Francesco; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Tavian, Laurent; Tawara, Hiroko; Taylor, Geoffrey; Telnov, Alexandre V.; Telnov, Valery; Tenenbaum, Peter; Teodorescu, Eliza; Terashima, Akio; Terracciano, Giuseppina; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Teubner, Thomas; Teuscher, Richard; Theilacker, Jay; Thomson, Mark; Tice, Jeff; Tigner, Maury; Timmermans, Jan; Titov, Maxim; Toge, Nobukazu; Tokareva, N.A.; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomasek, Lukas; Tomovic, Savo; Tompkins, John; Tonutti, Manfred; Topkar, Anita; Toprek, Dragan; Toral, Fernando; Torrence, Eric; Traversi, Gianluca; Trimpl, Marcel; Mani Tripathi, S.; Trischuk, William; Trodden, Mark; Trubnikov, G.V.; Tschirhart, Robert; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Tsukamoto, Toshifumi; Tsunemi, Akira; Tucker, Robin; Turchetta, Renato; Tyndel, Mike; Uekusa, Nobuhiro; Ueno, Kenji; Umemori, Kensei; Ummenhofer, Martin; Underwood, David; Uozumi, Satoru; Urakawa, Junji; Urban, Jeremy; Uriot, Didier; Urner, David; Ushakov, Andrei; Usher, Tracy; Uzunyan, Sergey; Vachon, Brigitte; Valerio, Linda; Valin, Isabelle; Valishev, Alex; Vamra, Raghava; Van der Graaf, Harry; Van Kooten, Rick; Van Zandbergen, Gary; Vanel, Jean-Charles; Variola, Alessandro; Varner, Gary; Velasco, Mayda; Velte, Ulrich; Velthuis, Jaap; Vempati, Sundir K.; Venturini, Marco; Vescovi, Christophe; Videau, Henri; Vila, Ivan; Vincent, Pascal; Virey, Jean-Marc; Visentin, Bernard; Viti, Michele; Vo, Thanh Cuong; Vogel, Adrian; Vogt, Harald; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Vos, Marcel; Votava, Margaret; Vrba, Vaclav; Wackeroth, Doreen; Wagner, Albrecht; Wagner, Carlos E.M.; Wagner, Stephen; Wake, Masayoshi; Walczak, Roman; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallon, Samuel; Walsh, Roberval; Walston, Sean; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walz, Dieter; Wang, Chao En; Wang, Chun Hong; Wang, Dou; Wang, Faya; Wang, Guang Wei; Wang, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Wang, Jiu Qing; Wang, Juwen; Wang, Lanfa; Wang, Lei; Wang, Min-Zu; Wang, Qing; Wang, Shu Hong; Wang, Xiaolian; Wang, Xue-Lei; Wang, Yi Fang; Wang, Zheng; Wanzenberg, Rainer; Ward, Bennie; Ward, David; Warmbein, Barbara; Warner, David W.; Warren, Matthew; Washio, Masakazu; Watanabe, Isamu; Watanabe, Ken; Watanabe, Takashi; Watanabe, Yuichi; Watson, Nigel; Wattimena, Nanda; Wayne, Mitchell; Weber, Marc; Weerts, Harry; Weiglein, Georg; Weiland, Thomas; Weinzierl, Stefan; Weise, Hans; Weisend, John; Wendt, Manfred; Wendt, Oliver; Wenzel, Hans; Wenzel, William A.; Wermes, Norbert; Werthenbach, Ulrich; Wesseln, Steve; Wester, William; White, Andy; White, Glen R.; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wienemann, Peter; Wierba, Wojciech; Wilksen, Tim; Willis, William; Wilson, Graham W.; Wilson, John A.; Wilson, Robert; Wing, Matthew; Winter, Marc; Wirth, Brian D.; Wolbers, Stephen A.; Wolff, Dan; Wolski, Andrzej; Woodley, Mark D.; Woods, Michael; Woodward, Michael L.; Woolliscroft, Timothy; Worm, Steven; Wormser, Guy; Wright, Dennis; Wright, Douglas; Wu, Andy; Wu, Tao; Wu, Yue Liang; Xella, Stefania; Xia, Guoxing; Xia, Lei; Xiao, Aimin; Xiao, Liling; Xie, Jia Lin; Xing, Zhi-Zhong; Xiong, Lian You; Xu, Gang; Xu, Qing Jing; Yajnik, Urjit A.; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yamada, Ryuji; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Naoto; Yamamoto, Richard; Yamamoto, Yasuchika; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Satoru; Yamazaki, Hideki; Yan, Wenbiao; Yang, Hai-Jun; Yang, Jin Min; Yang, Jongmann; Yang, Zhenwei; Yano, Yoshiharu; Yazgan, Efe; Yeh, G.P.; Yilmaz, Hakan; Yock, Philip; Yoda, Hakutaro; Yoh, John; Yokoya, Kaoru; Yokoyama, Hirokazu; York, Richard C.; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Yoshida, Takuo; Yoshioka, Tamaki; Young, Andrew; Yu, Cheng Hui; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Xian Ming; Yuan, Changzheng; Yue, Chong-Xing; Yue, Jun Hui; Zacek, Josef; Zagorodnov, Igor; Zalesak, Jaroslav; Zalikhanov, Boris; Zarnecki, Aleksander Filip; Zawiejski, Leszek; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zerwas, Dirk; Zerwas, Peter; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Zhai, Ji Yuan; Zhang, Bao Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Chuang; Zhang, He; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jing Ru; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Zhige; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhang, Ziping; Zhao, Haiwen; Zhao, Ji Jiu; Zhao, Jing Xia; Zhao, Ming Hua; Zhao, Sheng Chu; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Tong Xian; Zhao, Zhen Tang; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhou, De Min; Zhou, Feng; Zhou, Shun; Zhu, Shou Hua; Zhu, Xiong Wei; Zhukov, Valery; Zimmermann, Frank; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zisman, Michael S.; Zomer, Fabian; Zong, Zhang Guo; Zorba, Osman; Zutshi, Vishnu

    2007-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a 200-500 GeV center-of-mass high-luminosity linear electron-positron collider, based on 1.3 GHz superconducting radio-frequency (SCRF) accelerating cavities. The ILC has a total footprint of about 31 km and is designed for a peak luminosity of 2x10^34 cm^-2s^-1. This report is the Executive Summary (Volume I) of the four volume Reference Design Report. It gives an overview of the physics at the ILC, the accelerator design and value estimate, the detector concepts, and the next steps towards project realization.

  11. Northeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report: executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final Northeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RGCR presents available regional geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. 5 refs., 3 figs

  12. Transuranic waste form characterization and data base. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Transuranic Waste Form Characterization and Data Base (Volume 1) provides a wide range of information from which a comprehensive data base can be established and from which standards and criteria can be developed for the present NRC waste management program. Supplementary information on each of the areas discussed in Volume 1 is presented in Appendices A through K (Volumes 2 and 3). The structure of the study (Volume 1) is outlined and appendices of Volumes 2 and 3 correlate with each main section of the report. The Executive Summary reviews the sources, quantities, characteristics and treatment of transuranic wastes in the United States. Due to the variety of potential treatment processes for transuranic wastes, the end products for long-term storage may have corresponding variations in quantities and characteristics

  13. Sexuality Education: An Evaluation of Programs and Their Effects. An Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Douglas

    This executive summary and six additional volumes comprise a report which presents the results of an evaluation of selected sexuality education programs, and provides materials to help others implement and evaluate more successful approaches. The report is designed for policymakers, educators, and evaluators. The executive summary contains an…

  14. Belgian Workshop (November 2003) - Executive Summary and International Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    delegates to learn about the history, the natural environment and the socio-economic circumstances of potential host communities, as well as the day-by-day experiences of local people, involved in the local partnerships Visits also provided for interactions and exchange between local stakeholders and the FSC community. During Day 3 the central theme of the workshop was addressed. Invited plenary speakers including local stakeholders and social scientists gave presentations on how to integrate multiple interests, values and knowledge into joint risk management. Presentations provided a background to subsequent round table discussions, which allowed local stakeholders and international delegates to interact and exchange in detail. On Day 4 morning a panel discussion took place which focused on the design of a repository and investigated how it could reflect a plurality of interests, values, and knowledge. The rest of Day 4 was devoted to the feedback by two thematic rapporteurs. They evaluated the meeting from two distinct perspectives: that of urban and regional development, and of participatory decision making. This Executive Summary gives an overview of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop and the community visits. The structure of the Executive Summary follows the structure of the workshop itself. Complementary to this Executive Summary and also provided with this document, is a NEA Secretariat's reflection aiming to place the main lessons of the workshop into an international perspective

  15. What Should Oral Health Professionals Know in 2040: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Jane A

    2017-08-01

    The "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century" project assesses current status and trends to prepare for the future. Section 3 of the project asks what knowledge and skills should dental and advanced dental education learners have to provide dental care in 2040 and how should educators be preparing them. This executive summary of five background articles in this section focuses on predoctoral education, advanced dental education, the provision of medical services within dental practice, the incorporation of oral health services into primary care and medical practice, and interprofessional education and practice. The changing environment and external forces are presented along with their implications for advancing dental education. These forces include changes in population characteristics (e.g., demographics, disease prevalence, health disparities, consumerism), treatment needs and modalities, care delivery, science and technology, educational methods, and medical and dental integration. Future oral health professionals (OHPs) will care for more diverse patient populations, older patients with complex medical and dental needs, and relatively dentally healthy younger cohorts who require fewer complex restorative and prosthodontic treatments. Increasing integration of medical and oral health education and patient care will require OHPs to have more medical knowledge and to practice in intra- and interprofessional teams. OHPs increasingly will be providing patient-centered care as employees in large group practices, health care settings, and safety net clinics with expanded types of OHPs and improved materials and technology. Educators need to implement innovative curricula and educational methods to prepare for and adapt to the disruptive changes that lie ahead.

  16. Oral Health Research and Scholarship in 2040: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polverini, Peter J

    2017-09-01

    This executive summary for Section 6 of the "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century" project provides an overview of five background articles that address the role of research and scholarship in dental education in the year 2040. Beginning with a historical account of research and discovery science in dentistry's evolution as a profession, the article then reviews the role of early thought leaders and organized dentistry in establishing research as a cornerstone of dental education and dental practice. The dental research workforce faces an uncertain future fueled by a volatile funding environment and inadequate mentoring and training of research faculty. Dental schools must forge stronger academic and scientific ties to their university and academic health centers and will be challenged to develop sustainable research and patient care collaborations with other health professions. The changing health care environment will create new opportunities for oral health care providers to expand their scope of practice and focus on prevention and screening for non-communicable chronic diseases. Dental practitioners in the future are likely to place greater emphasis on managing the overall health of their patients while promoting closer integration with other health professionals. All dental schools must develop a sustainable research mission if they hope to graduate dentists who function effectively in a collaborative health care environment. The changing scientific and health care landscape will dramatically alter dental education and dental practice. Dental schools need to reconsider their research and educational priorities and clinical practice objectives. Until dental schools and the practicing community come to grips with these challenges, a persistent attitude of complacency will likely be at the dental profession's peril.

  17. Evaluation of the Anaheim Advanced Traffic Control System Field Operational Test : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    This Executive Summary provides an overview of the technical and institutional issues associated with the evaluation of the federally-sponsored Anaheim Advanced Traffic Control : System Field Operations Test. The primary FOT objective was the impleme...

  18. AASHTO transportation asset management guide : a focus on implementation executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This AASHTO Transportation Asset Management Executive Summary serves as a companion to the AASHTO Transportation : Asset Management GuideA Focus on Implementation, which takes as a starting point the Transportation : Asset Management Guide publish...

  19. Executive summary of the energy balance from Sao Paulo State, Brazil, 1996. Base year: 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document presents a executive summary of the energy balance in the year 1995, reporting the energy consumption considering the energy market dynamics and increasing ratio in the residential, public, commercial, agricultural, cattle breeding, transportation and industry areas

  20. Executive summaries of reports leading to the construction of the Baca Geothermal Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, P.B.; Newman, K.L.; Westermeier, J.F.; Giroux, H.D.; Lowe, G.D.; Nienberg, M.W.

    1980-05-01

    Executive summaries have been written for 61 reports and compilations of data which, in part, have led to the construction of the Baca 50 MW Geothermal Demonstration Project (GDP). The reports and data include environmental research, reservoir and feasibility studies, the project proposal to DOE and the Final Environmental Impact Statement. These executive summaries are intended to give the reader a general overview of each report prior to requesting the report from the GDP Data Manager.

  1. Executive summaries of reports leading to the construction of the Baca Geothermal Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, P.B.; Newman, K.L.; Westermeier, J.F.; Giroux, H.D.; Lowe, G.D.; Nienberg, M.W.

    1980-05-01

    Executive summaries have been written for 61 reports and compilations of data which in part, have led to the construction of the Baca 50 MW Geothermal Demonstration Project (GDP). The reports and data include environmental research, reservoir and feasibility studies, the project proposal to DOE and the Final Environmental Impact Statement. These executive summaries are intended to give the reader a general overview of each report prior to requesting the report from the GDP Data Manager.

  2. Menthol and Menthone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Karina A; Zaia, Maurício G; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Castro, Cynthia A; Correia, Ricardo de O; Pinto, Fábio G; Rossi, Karina N Z P; Avó, Lucimar R S; Afonso, Ana; Anibal, Fernanda F

    2017-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an important parasitic disease caused by Schistosoma mansoni , an intravascular trematode. Schistosomiasis treatment is limited to just one drug, Praziquantel (PZQ). Thus, studies on new antischistosomal compounds are of fundamental importance to disease control. Here we report on the effects of Mentha piperita L. compounds - menthol and menthone - in association with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in the regulation of hepatic fibrosis caused by schistosomiasis granulomas. Six different groups of Swiss rats were infected with 80 cercariae. Two groups received only menthol and menthol treatment at different concentrations (30 and 50 mg/kg); two groups received treatment with the same concentration of menthol and menthol, but associated the ASA. All groups received treatment for 14 consecutive days from the 35 days after the parasitic infection. In addition, three other groups were used: uninfected and untreated group, infected and untreated group and infected group treated with the commercial drug (single dose). Parasitological, cytological and histological analyses were performed. Results showed a significant reduction on the number of eosinophils found in the peritoneal cavity lavage (LPC) in all treated groups and on the number of eosinophils found in the blood of PZQ treated group, in the blood of the group treated with 30 mg/kg of Mentaliv ® and in the blood of group treated with 50 mg/kg Mentaliv ® + ASA when compared to the infected group. All treated groups presented a reduction in the parasite load, represented by the number of S. mansoni eggs, in the experimental group treated with 30 mg/kg of menthol and menthone a 62.80% reduction was observed and in the experimental group treated with 50 mg/kg of menthol and menthone + ASA a reduction of 64.21% was observed. In the liver histological analysis we observed that all Mentaliv ® treated groups expressed a unique cytological profile, with diffused cells through the granuloma. In the

  3. Climate and Weather of Central Africa. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Moi Intl Aprt, Kenya 638200 Musoma, Tanzania 637330 Mwanza, Tanzania 637560 Nairobi/ Jomo Kenyatta , Kenya 637400 Tabora Aprt, Tanzania 638320 Victoria...12 MONTH/YR ANNUAL TOTALS MAY NOT EQUAL THE SUM OF MONTHLY TOTALS DUE TO ROUNDING A-44 OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SU3MMARY STATION: NAIROBI/ JOMO ...ALL HOURS 1# # # # # # # # # # A 0 OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMMARY STATION: NAIROBI/ JOMO KUNYATTA, KENYA STATION #: 637400 ICAO

  4. Menthol Content in US Marketed Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jiu; Taylor, Kenneth M; Lisko, Joseph G; Tran, Hang; Watson, Clifford H; Holman, Matthew R

    2016-07-01

    In 2011 menthol cigarettes accounted for 32 percent of the market in the United States, but there are few literature reports that provide measured menthol data for commercial cigarettes. To assess current menthol application levels in the US cigarette market, menthol levels in cigarettes labeled or not labeled to contain menthol was determined for a variety of contemporary domestic cigarette products. We measured the menthol content of 45 whole cigarettes using a validated gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method. In 23 cigarette brands labeled as menthol products, the menthol levels of the whole cigarette ranged from 2.9 to 19.6mg/cigarette, with three products having higher levels of menthol relative to the other menthol products. The menthol levels for 22 cigarette products not labeled to contain menthol ranged from 0.002 to 0.07mg/cigarette. The type of packaging (soft vs. hard pack) for a given cigarette product does not appear to affect menthol levels based on the current limited data. Menthol levels in cigarette products labeled as containing menthol are approximately 50- to 5000-fold higher than those in cigarette products not labeled as containing menthol. In general, menthol content appears to occur within discrete ranges for both mentholated and nonmentholated cigarettes. This study shows that menthol may be present in non-mentholated cigarettes and adds to the understanding of how menthol may be used in cigarette products. It is the first systematic study from the same laboratory which will readily enable comparison among menthol and non-menthol cigarettes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Positive correlation between menthol content and in vitro menthol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Menthol is a highly valued monoterpene produced by Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis) as a natural product with wide applications ... types and the level of tolerance to externally supplied menthol of explants of these genotypes in culture medium. The easy use ... pharmaceuticals, food, confectionery and beverages. There-.

  6. Positive correlation between menthol content and in vitro menthol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    A positive correlation was observed in the present study between menthol content in oils of evaluated geno- types and the level of .... In this case, menthol the major monoterpene component of the essential oil, which is known to be cytotoxic to the plant at higher con- centrations, is expected to be produced up to a level that.

  7. Positive correlation between menthol content and in vitro menthol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Menthol is a highly valued monoterpene produced by Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis) as a natural product with wide applications in cosmetics, confectionery, flavours, beverages and therapeutics. Selection of high menthol yielding genotypes is therefore the ultimate objective of all genetic improvement programmes in ...

  8. Executive summary of European Task Force document on diagnostic tools in rhinology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellings, P. W.; Scadding, G.; Alobid, I.; Bachert, C.; Fokkens, W. J.; Gerth van Wijk, R.; Gevaerts, P.; Guilemany, J.; Kalogjera, L.; Lund, V. J.; Mullol, J.; Passalacqua, G.; Toskala, E.; van Drunen, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    This Executive Summary of the EAACI Task Force document on Diagnostic Tools in Rhinology provides the readers with an over- view of the currently available tools for diagnosis of nasal and sino-nasal disease, published in full version in the first issue of Clini- cal and Translational Allergy. A

  9. Diagnosis, evaluation, and management of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magee, Laura A.; Pels, Anouk; Helewa, Michael; Rey, Evelyne; von Dadelszen, Peter; Audibert, Francois; Bujold, Emmanuel; Côté, Anne-Marie; Douglas, Myrtle Joanne; Eastabrook, Genevieve; Firoz, Tabassum; Gibson, Paul; Gruslin, Andrée; Hutcheon, Jennifer; Koren, Gideon; Lange, Ian; Leduc, Line; Logan, Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    This executive summary presents in brief the current evidence assessed in the clinical practice guideline prepared by the Canadian Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy Working Group and published by Pregnancy Hypertension (http://www.pregnancyhypertension.org/article/S2210-7789(14)00004-X/fulltext)

  10. FWP executive summaries: basic energy sciences materials sciences and engineering program (SNL/NM).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, George A.; Simmons, Jerry A.

    2006-07-01

    This report presents an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences and Engineering Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. A general programmatic overview is also presented.

  11. Integrated Services Executive Summary [and] Review. Yellowhead School Division No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Education Response Centre.

    This report documents an evaluation study of the Yellowstone (Alberta) school district's program of full integration of students with disabilities (from 1986-1991). The executive summary highlights the historical context, the implementation process, and program outcomes and impacts. The study's limitations are listed and recommendations are made…

  12. Reviving the Rural Factory: Automation and Work in the South. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Stuart A.; And Others

    This document is the executive summary for a two volume report on technological innovation and southern rural industrial development. The first volume examines public and private factors that influence investment decisions in new technologies and the outcomes of those decisions; effects of automation on employment and the workplace; outcomes of…

  13. Building Management Information Systems to Coordinate Citywide Afterschool Programs: A Toolkit for Cities. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This executive summary describes highlights from the report, "Building Management Information Systems to Coordinate Citywide Afterschool Programs: A Toolkit for Cities." City-led efforts to build coordinated systems of afterschool programming are an important strategy for improving the health, safety and academic preparedness of children…

  14. Text of 'Executive Summary' of TIAA-CREF Panel's Recommendations on Pension Funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The executive summary of of TIAA-CREF's Special Trustee Joint Committee's report "TIAA-CREF: The Future Agenda," cites new accumulation funds and pay-out vehicles; transferability of annuity accumulations; reporting, services, and planning for policy holders and institutions; and governance and implementation. (MLW)

  15. Defense Science Board Task Force on Military Satellite Communication and Tactical Networking. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Board Task Force on Military Satellite Communication and Tactical Networking.” As a result, the Chairman of the Defense Science Board established a...Force on Military Satellite Communication and Tactical Networking Executive Summary This report is a...product of the Defense Science Board (DSB). The DSB is a Federal Advisory Committee established to provide independent advice to the Secretary of Defense

  16. Where We Work: Nova Scotia Child Care Centres As Workplaces (1990-1993). Executive Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, E. Elaine

    These four executive summaries report the results of an annual survey of child care centers conducted in Nova Scotia (Canada) from 1990 through 1993. Between 20 and 45 centers participated in the surveys. Centers were questioned about the following: (1) size and location; (2) for-profit or non-profit status; (3) teacher, teacher-directors, and…

  17. Environmental assessment of exploration drilling off Nova Scotia: executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The environmental assessment project of drilling offshore Nova Scotia covers year-around drilling conducted from jackup rigs, semi-submersible rigs, and drill ships that use the methods described in the project description on the Scotian Shelf, the Laurentian Channel and St, Pierre Bank. The assessment was sponsored by all the oil companies active in the area, namely Mobil Oil Canada, Shell Canada, Imperial Oil Resources, Gulf Canada Resources, Chevron Canada Resources, PanCanadian Petroleum, Murphy Oil Company and Norsk Hydro Canada Oil and Gas. This summary describes the impact assessment methodology used, provides a description of the project, reviews the cumulative impact, and the impacts of discrete activities such as noise and disturbances, operational discharges of oil, disruption of the benthos, garbage and waste disposal, and accidental oil spills, and outlines mitigation and monitoring activities to deal with the impacts. Mitigation measures encompass routine discharges, accidental oil spills, spill response, monitoring activities, contingency plans and an overall environmental protection plan. In addition to this generic assessment, the consultants recommend that individual exploration drilling programs that fall outside of the parameters outlined in the generic environmental assessment document, be required to undergo a program-specific assessment that focuses on those aspects of the proposed program that differ from the parameters prescribed in the present document. 9 refs

  18. Advanced MR moisture sensor market feasibility analysis. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This paper briefly documents activities, background information, and results of marketing studies on the Magnetic Resonance Advanced Moisture Sensor (AMS). The main goals of the study are to identify industrial uses to guide development efforts, to become familiar with the industrial and magnetic resonance research capabilities/resources at the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and to develop a summary data sheet describing the AMS product for use with a broad mail survey of potential users. The studies are being performed through an alliance of Quantum Magnetics, US DOE, SwRI, The Townsend Agency, and PAI Partners. Efforts are being focused on NIR, Raman, and other optical spectroscopies as process measurement tools for onstream applications. Domestic and world markets for process analytical instrumentation, process moisture instrumentation, and nuclear magnetic resonance instrumentation are summarized. Three applications are identified as the most promising for magnetic resonance instrumentation: (1) polymer production, (2) pharmaceuticals preparation, and (3) prepared food processing. It is estimated that the process magnetic resonance market could reach $5 to $10 million annually by the end of this decade.

  19. Fuego/Scefire MPMD Coupling L2 Milestone Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Flint [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tencer, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pautz, Shawn D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Drumm, Clifton R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This milestone campaign was focused on coupling Sandia physics codes SIERRA low Mach module Fuego and RAMSES Boltzmann transport code Sceptre(Scefire). Fuego enables simulation of low Mach, turbulent, reacting, particle laden flows on unstructured meshes using CVFEM for abnormal thermal environments throughout SNL and the larger national security community. Sceptre provides simulation for photon, neutron, and charged particle transport on unstructured meshes using Discontinuous Galerkin for radiation effects calculations at SNL and elsewhere. Coupling these ”best of breed” codes enables efficient modeling of thermal/fluid environments with radiation transport, including fires (pool, propellant, composite) as well as those with directed radiant fluxes. We seek to improve the experience of Fuego users who require radiation transport capabilities in two ways. The first is performance. We achieve this through leveraging additional computational resources for Scefire, reducing calculation times while leaving unaffected resources for fluid physics. This approach is new to Fuego, which previously utilized the same resources for both fluid and radiation solutions. The second improvement enables new radiation capabilities, including spectral (banded) radiation, beam boundary sources, and alternate radiation solvers (i.e. Pn). This summary provides an overview of these achievements.

  20. Summary of third international executive conference on photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, W.

    2001-07-01

    In December 1990, the International Energy Agency (IEA) invited photovoltaic manufacturers, electrical utilities, and government leaders to a groundbreaking First Congress of Executives conference in Taormina, Italy. The purpose was to develop a strategic approach to PV market development. The Taormina Congress focused on the diffusion of applications based on cost-effectiveness. A second IEA International Conference was held in Sun Valley, Idaho, in September 1995, focusing on the implementation of physical markets based on profit opportunities. Discussions in Sun Valley included the integration of utility and PV businesses into new partnerships in the developing world. By 1995, the strategic interaction of utility activity with photovoltaic technology was recognised and a number of new business opportunities were identified in both industrialised and developing countries. The November 1999 conference, held in Venice, Italy, has taken things a step further. It focused on communicating the 'value of the sun', as well as bringing in the developing business interests and expanding roles of the building construction industries and finance institutions. This theme was considered as being the most important issue of the conference and led to the conclusion that just selling kilowatt-hours is not enough, as the market needs complete products and better concepts. Further, all of the relevant stakeholders, including PV industry, project developers, architects, local, regional and national governments, and the IEA should collaborate in a world-wide effort to accelerate the growth of markets for photovoltaic electricity. The conference was designed to provide a unique forum for senior executives from the energy and building sectors, the photovoltaic industry, financial institutions and governments. The aim was to discuss and jointly develop strategic business opportunities for photovoltaics in a rapidly changing energy market and to take the growing movement

  1. General Public Space Travel and Tourism. Volume 1; Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeil, Daniel (Compiler); Bekey, Ivan; Mankins, John; Rogers, Thomas F.; Stallmer, Eric W.

    1998-01-01

    risk. A two-year cooperative Space Act agreement study has been conducted by our National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Space Transportation Association. It was conducted by NASA and STA study leaders drawing upon the competence, experience and hard-nosed imagination of a national Steering Group and scores of attendees at a multi-day Workshop. The study has involved scores of professionals and business people from various areas: astronauts; space booster technology and operations professionals; a hotel architect and a hotel operator; an airline planner; insurance underwriters; space sickness experts; space theme park designers; space and travel and tourism association and business executives; a space-related financier; university tourism and space policy experts; present and former space-responsible government officials; space entrepreneurs; space writers; This study concludes that serious national attention should now be given to activities that would enable the expansion of today's terrestrial space tourism businesses, and the creation of in-space travel and tourism businesses. Indeed, it concludes that, in time, it should become a very important part of our Country's overall commercial and civil space business-program structure.

  2. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rising Joshua

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to more fully understand why individuals smoke menthol cigarettes, it is important to understand the perceptions held by youth and adults regarding menthol cigarettes. Perceptions are driven by many factors, and one factor that can be important is marketing. This review seeks to examine what role, if any, the marketing of menthol cigarettes plays in the formation of consumer perceptions of menthol cigarettes. The available literature suggests that menthol cigarettes may be perceived as safer choices than non-menthol cigarettes. Furthermore, there is significant overlap between menthol cigarette advertising campaigns and the perceptions of these products held by consumers. The marketing of menthol cigarettes has been higher in publications and venues whose target audiences are Blacks/African Americans. Finally, there appears to have been changes in cigarette menthol content over the past decade, which has been viewed by some researchers as an effort to attract different types of smokers.

  3. Planning manual for energy resource development on Indian lands. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    This report is the Executive Summary for the other 5 volumes of the Study Report--see TID-28526/1-5. Information is provided here that the tribes can use to make energy-development decisions. The report is particularly concerned with management responsibilities and financial commitments that development will require on the part of the tribes and with the types of information and skilled personnel the tribes will need in the future to make informed decisions.

  4. Executive Summary - Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J.; Heath, G.; Macknick, J.; Paranhos, E.; Boyd, W.; Carlson, K.

    2013-01-01

    In November 2012, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) released a new report, 'Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity.' The study provides a new methodological approach to estimate natural gas related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, tracks trends in regulatory and voluntary industry practices, and explores various electricity futures. The Executive Summary provides key findings, insights, data, and figures from this major study.

  5. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  6. Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan H. Julius; Jordan M. West; Geoffrey M. Blate; Jill S. Baron; Brad Griffith; Linda A. Joyce; Peter Kareiva; Brian D. Keller; Margaret A. Palmer; Charles H. Peterson; J. Michael. Scott

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a preliminary review of adaptation options for climate-sensitive ecosystems and resources in the United States. The term “adaptation” in this document refers to adjustments in human social systems (e.g., management) in response to climate stimuli and their effects. Since management always occurs in the context of desired ecosystem conditions or...

  7. Executive summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Junge, A; Dvorak, J

    2014-01-01

    structure and improves its function. Blood pressure is markedly reduced with the mean arterial blood pressure being lowered by ~10 mmHg for hypertensive men and women training 2-3 times/week for 12-26 weeks. Triglycerides and cholesterol are lowered and body fat declines, especially in middle-aged men...... and women with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, muscle mass and bone mineral density increases in a number of participant groups, including 65-75-year-old men. The functional capacity is elevated with increases in VO2 max of 10-15%, and 50-100% improvements in the capacity to perform intermittent work within...

  8. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plompen, A.; Woznicka, U.; Dupont, E.

    2011-01-01

    In the session on data needs and impact, the use of sensitivity studies is highlighted to determine lists of nuclides requiring reduced uncertainty according to the type of activities: reactor design or waste management. In the session on nuclear data validation nuclear databases like ENDF/B-VII, JENDL-3.3 and JEFF-3.1.1 were confronted to some experimental results. During the workshop new experimental setups and measurement methodologies were presented particularly for (n, xng), (n,t) reactions and deuteron-induced activation reactions and fission yields

  9. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Since 2007, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency has been organising a series of workshops on Structural Materials for Innovative Nuclear Systems. The third meeting was held on 7-9 October 2013 in Idaho Falls (United States). The main objectives of this workshop are to stimulate an exchange of information on current materials R and D programmes for different innovative nuclear systems. The main topics of the workshop covered fundamental studies, modelling and experiments on innovative structural materials including cladding materials for the range of advanced nuclear systems such as thermal/fast systems, sub-critical systems, as well as fusion systems. During the workshop, the following topics were discussed: - Fundamental studies; - Metallic materials; - Ceramic materials; - Novel materials pathways; - Ion vs neutron irradiation. Fundamental studies focused on the identification of mechanisms driving the response of materials under the conditions expected in innovative nuclear systems. These mechanisms may have acted at the atomic or higher scale with the application of multi-scale approaches, together with related problems of scale-bridging or numerical methods, were of special interest. Moreover, irradiation experiments and subsequent characterisation of materials with analytical techniques were included in the session if aimed at better understanding the acting mechanisms or drawing physics-based correlations. Metal alloys, ceramic and ceramic composites included in- and out-of-core applications which took into account the scope of: data availability and gaps (considering also licensing issues); experimental and modelling needs for specific components or degradation modes; the link between R and D, standardisation and experimental protocols; coolant effects and mechanical properties. Code development and implementation plans were also discussed. Application of SiC composites to LWR systems was of interest as an advanced concept. Novel materials pathways considered routes to fabricate materials and components for innovative nuclear systems. The 'ions vs. neutron irradiation' topic focused on specific irradiation comparisons including mechanical properties and microstructural effects caused by ion or neutron irradiation. Comparative irradiation studies on a common material were also welcome. Fuel-cladding interaction was not covered in this edition of the workshop. The workshop received 74 abstracts, and was scheduled with 5 invited talks, 27 oral presentations and 2 poster sessions (42 posters) from 75 registered participants. However, it was necessary to reorganise the programme at extremely short notice to take into account the effects of the unexpected US government shutdown and the constraints this imposed on the workshop. In total, 38 participants from 12 countries and 2 international organisations attended, and the final number of presentations amounted to 51 (22 oral presentations and 29 posters). The re-scheduled workshop opened with the welcome address by S. Cornet on behalf of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency followed by technical sessions: Session I: Overview on programmes and metal alloys. Session II: Metal alloys. Session III: Novel pathways. Session IV: Ceramic composites, ions vs. neutrons and general

  10. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vari, Anna; Sakuma, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    Within the radioactive waste management community it is now broadly agreed that any decision making will, and should, take place in stages. This allows for better use of current knowledge, for further knowledge to be generated, and for increased opportunity for collective learning and self-training of the various actors. In this process each actor must feel the ability to influence the decision making process, including generating complementary investigations on topics of significance in the field of safety and regarding the long-term impacts. In the technical field of the long-term safety case for disposal it is specifically acknowledged that a safety case (SC) is built in stages, and that it should recognise, at each stage, the open issues and the relevant role of research, development and demonstration (RD and D). It is also acknowledged, in connection with the SC, that stakeholders have a role to play as partners or reviewers and, ultimately, can help to shape the concept of safety. Because today the issue is no longer how to implement an economically-optimal project of waste storage or disposal on a site imposed by the authorities, new challenges are posed to the technical community and to the roles and approaches they take. Important questions are: 1. How to improve on the interaction between science and society, and ensure opportunities for societal direction of RD and D? 2. How to clearly and effectively communicate scientific findings and uncertainties and/or address contradictory views of process participants? Alternatively, how to communicate confidence in the results so far and in the process of acquiring those results? 3. How to encourage 'stretching' of specialists for disclosure of interests, greater transparency, broader dialogue, and to ensure rigour of research programmes? On June 6, 2007 a Topical Session to discuss the above questions was held at OECD NEA. Presentations were invited from delegates of five RWM organisations, including SKI and KASAM (Sweden), NRC (USA), NWMO (Canada), and HSK (Switzerland), as well as representatives of NEA and its working parties the Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) and the Regulators? Forum. Presentations, discussions, and lessons learned are summarised in this paper

  11. Executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever

    1997-01-01

    The repair and remodeling of residential units in the existing housing stock is an important market for wood products. Included are many, and varied repair and remodeling activities and projects, some of which require substantial amounts of wood products, some of which do not. Currently, about 24 percent of all lumber, 23 percent of all structural panels, 15 percent of...

  12. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) organised a workshop to assess current understanding on the use of cementitious materials in radioactive waste disposal. The workshop was hosted by the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (Ondraf/Niras), in Brussels, Belgium on 17-19 November 2009. The workshop brought together a wide range of people involved in supporting safety case development and having an interest in cementitious materials: namely, cement and concrete experts, repository designers, scientists, safety assessors, disposal programme managers and regulators. The workshop was designed primarily to consider issues relevant to the post-closure safety of radioactive waste disposal, but also addressed some related operational issues, such as cementitious barrier emplacement. Where relevant, information on cementitious materials from analogous natural and anthropogenic systems was also considered. The workshop agenda is included as Appendix A. The workshop focused on: - The uses of different cementitious materials in various repository designs. - The evolution of cementitious materials over long time scales (1000s to 100000s of years). - The interaction of cementitious materials with surrounding components of the repository (e.g. waste, container, buffer, backfill, host rock). - The workshop comprised: - Plenary sessions in which the state-of-the-art on repository design and understanding the phenomenology of cementitious materials and their interactions were presented and discussed. - Dedicated working group sessions, which were used to discuss key safety assessment and safety case questions in more detail. For example: How strong is the scientific basis for incorporating the various aspects of the behaviour and interactions of cementitious materials in safety assessments and safety cases? How can the behaviour and interactions of cementitious materials best be incorporated within the safety case, and how can the safety case be used to help inform repository design choices? Which are the main open questions and uncertainties? In preparation for the workshop, a review was undertaken to identify and describe relevant examples of the use and functions of cementitious materials in geological disposal concepts from a range of settings. In accordance with the intent of the workshop, the review covered geological disposal concepts for high-level wastes (HLW) and spent fuel, as well as for intermediate-level wastes (ILW) and their equivalents. Abstracts and supporting papers for oral presentations and posters presented at the workshop are included as Appendices C and D. This report provides a synthesis of the workshop, and summarises its main results and findings. The structure of this report follows the workshop agenda: - Section 2 summarises plenary and working group discussions on the uses, functions and evolution of cementitious materials in geological disposal, and highlights key aspects and discussions points. - Section 3 summarises plenary and working group discussions on interactions of cementitious materials with other disposal system components, and highlights key aspects and discussions points. - Section 4 summarises the workshop session on the integration of issues related to cementitious materials using the safety case. - Section 5 presents the main conclusions from the workshop. - Section 6 contains a list of references. - Appendix A presents the workshop agenda. - Appendix B contains the abstracts and, where provided, technical papers supporting oral presentations at the workshop. - Appendix C contains the abstracts and, where provided, technical papers supporting posters presented at the workshop. - Appendix D records the workshop participants and the composition of the working groups

  13. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The workshop included an opening session, six sessions with participant presentations followed by short discussion, and two facilitated discussion sessions. The contributions presented were devoted to new methodological developments, projects with external hazards analysis activities, interesting aspects of external hazards analysis and expected challenges for future analyses. The contributions presented and the discussions organized during the workshop provided valuable input for strengthening the role of WGRISK in supporting the development and application of probabilistic safety assessment and risk-oriented decision making methods in the area of external hazards. The workshop supported the key general objectives of collecting and exchanging information from OECD member states on the methods and approaches used in probabilistic safety assessment in this area. The focus of the workshop was on external events PSA for nuclear power plants, including all modes of operation. The workshop scope was generally limited to external, natural hazards, including those hazards where the distinction between natural and man-made hazards is not sharp (e.g., external floods caused by dam failures). The participation was open to experts from regulatory authorities and their technical support organizations, research organizations, utilities, nuclear power plant (NPP) designers and vendors, industry associations and observers from OECD NEA member countries. The Background, Objectives, Organization, and Topics of the Workshop are presented in chapter 1. The WGRISK activities preceding the workshop and leading to the decision to organize it are described in Chapter 2. The detailed information about the presentations, discussions, and results of the workshop is presented in Chapter 3. Detailed information about the conclusions made during the workshop is presented in Chapter 4. The list of participants, the workshop agenda and the papers/presentations are attached in the appendixes

  14. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This is a report on studies that value the environmental impacts resulting from generation and conservation of electric power. The purpose is to review the literature on the methodologies used to assign monetary costs to environmental externalities and to present the results of studies which have applied these methodologies. For those environmental damages for which the literature has not established a value, the report identifies the indicated ranges of adverse effects and provides a road map of issues that require research. The report is intended to assist utilities, government regulators, legislators, policy analysts and public interest groups in estimating the costs of the environmental impacts of electricity. It should be useful, as well, to assist in valuing the environmental impacts of pollutants from other industries, for setting environmental control standards, and in establishing pollution taxes or fees

  15. Strategies and Decision Support Systems for Integrating Variable Energy Resources in Control Centers for Reliable Grid Operations. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Lawrence E. [Alstom Grid, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This is the executive summary for a report that provides findings from the field regarding the best ways in which to guide operational strategies, business processes and control room tools to support the integration of renewable energy into electrical grids.

  16. Cellular and Molecular Targets of Menthol Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Oz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Menthol belongs to monoterpene class of a structurally diverse group of phytochemicals found in plant-derived essential oils. Menthol is widely used in pharmaceuticals, confectionary, oral hygiene products, pesticides, cosmetics, and as a flavoring agent. In addition, menthol is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. Recently, there has been renewed awareness in comprehending the biological and pharmacological effects of menthol. TRP channels have been demonstrated to mediate the cooling actions of menthol. There has been new evidence demonstrating that menthol can significantly influence the functional characteristics of a number of different kinds of ligand and voltage-gated ion channels, indicating that at least some of the biological and pharmacological effects of menthol can be mediated by alterations in cellular excitability. In this article, we examine the results of earlier studies on the actions of menthol with voltage and ligand-gated ion channels.

  17. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member.

  18. Executive summary of safeguards systems concepts for nuclear material transportation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldonado, O.C.; Kevany, M.; Rodney, D.; Pitts, D.; Mazur, M.

    1977-09-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with System Development Corporation to develop integrated system concepts for the safeguard of special strategic nuclear materials (SSNM), which include plutonium, uranium 233 and uranium 235 of at least 20 percent enrichment, against malevolent action during interfacility transport. This executive summary outlines the conduct and findings of the project. The study was divided into three major subtasks: (1) The development of adversary action sequences; (2) The assessment of the vulnerability of the transport of nuclear materials to adversary action; (3) The development of conceptual safeguards system design requirements to reduce vulnerabilities

  19. Annual report of the Association EURATOM-Cea 2005 (executive summary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Progress in fusion technology is constant over the years and this report once again highlights a number of important steps that have been accomplished in this domain. This document is the executive summary of the full annual report, summarizing activities performed by the EURATOM-Cea association. This report has been organized into 10 issues: 1) physics integration, 2) reactor vessel, 3) plasma facing components, 4) remote handling, 5) magnets structures, 6) tritium breeding blankets, 7) structural material, 8) safety and environment, 9) system study, and 10) ITER site preparation

  20. Annual report of the Association EURATOM-Cea 2004 (executive summary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Progress in fusion technology is constant over the years and this report once again highlights a number of important steps that have been accomplished in this domain. This document is the executive summary of the full annual report, summarizing activities performed by the EURATOM-Cea association. This report has been organized into 10 issues: 1) physics integration, 2) reactor vessel, 3) plasma facing components, 4) remote handling, 5) magnets structures, 6) tritium breeding blankets, 7) structural material, 8) safety and environment, 9) system study, and 10) ITER site preparation

  1. (-)-Menthol biosynthesis and molecular genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney B.; Davis, Edward M.; Ringer, Kerry L.; Wildung, Mark R.

    2005-12-01

    (-)-Menthol is the most familiar of the monoterpenes as both a pure natural product and as the principal and characteristic constituent of the essential oil of peppermint ( Mentha x piperita). In this paper, we review the biosynthesis and molecular genetics of (-)-menthol production in peppermint. In Mentha species, essential oil biosynthesis and storage is restricted to the peltate glandular trichomes (oil glands) on the aerial surfaces of the plant. A mechanical method for the isolation of metabolically functional oil glands, has provided a system for precursor feeding studies to elucidate pathway steps, as well as a highly enriched source of the relevant biosynthetic enzymes and of their corresponding transcripts with which cDNA libraries have been constructed to permit cloning and characterization of key structural genes. The biosynthesis of (-)-menthol from primary metabolism requires eight enzymatic steps, and involves the formation and subsequent cyclization of the universal monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate to the parent olefin (-)-(4 S)-limonene as the first committed reaction of the sequence. Following hydroxylation at C3, a series of four redox transformations and an isomerization occur in a general “allylic oxidation-conjugate reduction” scheme that installs three chiral centers on the substituted cyclohexanoid ring to yield (-)-(1 R, 3 R, 4 S)-menthol. The properties of each enzyme and gene of menthol biosynthesis are described, as are their probable evolutionary origins in primary metabolism. The organization of menthol biosynthesis is complex in involving four subcellular compartments, and regulation of the pathway appears to reside largely at the level of gene expression. Genetic engineering to up-regulate a flux-limiting step and down-regulate a side route reaction has led to improvement in the composition and yield of peppermint oil.

  2. Sensory properties of menthol and smoking topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Allison C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual smokes a cigarette has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects smoking behavior. The objective of this review is to assess the sensory properties of menthol tobacco smoke, and smoking topography associated with menthol cigarettes. The cooling, analgesic, taste, and respiratory effects of menthol are well established, and studies have indicated that menthol’s sensory attributes can have an influence on the positive, or rewarding, properties associated smoking, including ratings of satisfaction, taste, perceived smoothness, and perceived irritation. Despite these sensory properties, the data regarding menthol’s effect on smoking topography are inconsistent. Many of the topography studies have limitations due to various methodological issues.

  3. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The fourth workshop of the OECD/NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was hosted by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste Management and enriched fissile materials. The central theme of the workshop was ''Dealing with interests, values and knowledge in managing risk''within the Belgian context of local partnerships for the long term management of low-level, short-lived radioactive waste. The four-day workshop started with a half-day session in Brussels giving a general introduction on the Belgian context and the local partnership methodology. This was followed by community visits to three local partnerships, PaLoFF in Fleurus-Farciennes, MONA in Mol, and STOLA in Dessel. After the visits, the workshop continued with two full-day sessions in Brussels. One hundred and nineteen registered participants, representing 13 countries, attended the workshop or participated in the community visits. About two thirds were Belgian stakeholders; the remainder came from FSC member organisations. The participants included representatives of municipal governments, civil society organisations, government agencies, industrial companies, the media, and international organisations as well as private citizens, consultants and academics. This Executive Summary gives an overview of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop and the community visits. The structure of the Executive Summary follows the structure of the workshop itself. Complementary to this Executive Summary and also provided with this document, is a NEA Secretariat's reflection aiming to place the main lessons of the workshop into an international perspective. (author)

  4. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education sector. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education (HE) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of six case studies of energy management in German universities. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project (Sorrell et al., 2000). The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the sector may be improved. The results of the study for the higher education sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the higher education sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German higher education sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German higher education sector; - The role of energy service companies in the higher education sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  5. Definition of technology development missions for early Space Station satellite servicing. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The Executive Summary volume 1, includes an overview of both phases of the Definition of Technology Development Missions for Early Space Station Satellite Servicing. The primary purpose of Phase 1 of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Satellite Servicing Phase 1 study was to establish requirements for demonstrating the capability of performing satellite servicing activities on a permanently manned Space Station in the early 1990s. The scope of Phase 1 included TDM definition, outlining of servicing objectives, derivation of initial Space Station servicing support requirements, and generation of the associated programmatic schedules and cost. The purpose of phase 2 of the satellite servicing study was to expand and refine the overall understanding of how best to use the manned space station as a test bed for demonstration of satellite servicing capabilities.

  6. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering sector. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering (ME) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of four case studies of energy management in German companies in the ME sector. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the ME sector may be improved. The results of the study for the ME sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the mechanical engineering sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German mechanical engineering sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German mechanical engineering sector; - The role of energy service companies in the mechanical engineering sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  7. Developing maintainability for tokamak fusion power systems. Phase II report. Volume I: executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, G.M.; Zahn, H.S.; Mantz, H.C.; Kaletta, G.R.; Waganer, L.M.; Carosella, L.A.; Conlee, J.L.

    1978-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify design features of fusion power reactors which contribute to the achievement of high levels of maintainability. Volume 1, the Executive Summary, presents the progress achieved toward this objective in this phase and includes a comparison with the results of the first phase study efforts. A series of maintainability design guidelines and an improved maintenance system are defined as initial steps in developing the requirements for a maintainable tokamak fusion power system. The principle comparative studies that are summarized include the determination of the benefits of various vacuum wall arrangements, the effect of unscheduled and scheduled maintenance of the first wall/blanket, some initial investigation of maintenance required for subsystems other than the first wall/blanket, and the impact of maintenance equipment failures

  8. Global Outlook on Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) Policies: Taking Action Together. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, Chris; Perera, Oshani [International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), Winnepeg, Ontario (Canada); Arden-Clarke, Charles; Farah, Adriana Zacarias; Polsterer, Nicole [UNEP, Paris (France)

    2012-03-21

    This executive summary, which will be complemented by the full report, was developed by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) with the financial support of the European Commission, The study provides a non-exhaustive review of policies and initiatives that are promoting the shift towards Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) patterns. It is illustrated by 56 case studies ranging from global multilateral agreements and regional strategies to specific policies and initiatives being implemented by governments, businesses and civil society organizations. The main objectives are to provide information about existing activities promoting SCP, to identify best practices, and to provide recommendations to adapt, replicate and scale up SCP policies and initiatives contributing to the overarching goal of achieving sustainable development.

  9. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.; Ostertag, K.; Radgen, P.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of five case studies of energy management in German breweries. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the brewing sector may be improved. The results of the study for the brewing sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the brewing sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German brewing sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German brewing sector; - The role of energy service companies in the brewing sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  10. Executive Summary: 30th Report on Physician Assistant Educational Programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lindsey M

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this executive summary was to provide an overview of key findings from By the Numbers: 30th Report on Physician Assistant Educational Programs in the United States. The 2014 Program Survey is a Web-based survey and is administered annually to all member physician assistant (PA) program directors. This executive summary will focus on 4 of the 7 sections of the survey instrument: general, financial, program personnel, and students. The typical PA program's sponsoring institution is private and in a nonacademic health center. Most PA programs (93.0%) offer a master's degree as the primary or highest credential. The average total program budget was $2,221,751 (SD=$2,426,852). The average total resident tuition was $64,961, and the average total nonresident tuition was $75,964. Overall, 181 programs reported 1843 program faculty. Of those, 1467 were identified as core faculty and 376 were identified as adjunct faculty. A typical first-year PA student is 26 years old (SD=2.51), female (70.3%, n=5898), non-Hispanic (89.3%, n=3631), White (79.9%, n=3712), and has an overall undergraduate and science grade point average (GPA) of 3.52 (SD=0.14) and 3.47 (SD=0.16), respectively. In 2014, there were approximately 7556 graduates from 164 responding programs. By gaining a better understanding of the characteristics of PA programs and their faculty and students, policy makers can be better informed. Physician assistant educators and stakeholders are encouraged to use this information to advance and advocate for the profession.

  11. An Experimental Study of the Effects of Employer-Sponsored Child Care Services on Selected Employee Behaviors. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ann Gilman; And Others

    This executive summary describes a study conducted to determine whether different kinds of employer-supported child care services had differing effects on service users. Turnover and attendance data on 891 randomly selected female employees were gathered from 39 companies and hospitals offering on-site or off-site child care, information and…

  12. National Lipid Association recommendations for patient-centered management of dyslipidemia: part 1 - executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Terry A; Ito, Matthew K; Maki, Kevin C; Orringer, Carl E; Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; McKenney, James M; Grundy, Scott M; Gill, Edward A; Wild, Robert A; Wilson, Don P; Brown, W Virgil

    2014-01-01

    Various organizations and agencies have issued recommendations for the management of dyslipidemia. Although many commonalities exist among them, material differences are present as well. The leadership of the National Lipid Association (NLA) convened an Expert Panel to develop a consensus set of recommendations for patient-centered management of dyslipidemia in clinical medicine. The current Executive Summary highlights the major conclusions in Part 1 of the recommendations report of the NLA Expert Panel and includes: (1) background and conceptual framework for formulation of the NLA Expert Panel recommendations; (2) screening and classification of lipoprotein lipid levels in adults; (3) targets for intervention in dyslipidemia management; (4) atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk assessment and treatment goals based on risk category; (5) atherogenic cholesterol-non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-as the primary targets of therapy; and (6) lifestyle and drug therapies intended to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2014 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnosis, evaluation, and management of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Laura A; Pels, Anouk; Helewa, Michael; Rey, Evelyne; von Dadelszen, Peter

    2014-05-01

    This executive summary presents in brief the current evidence assessed in the clinical practice guideline prepared by the Canadian Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy Working Group and published by Pregnancy Hypertension (http://www.pregnancyhypertension.org/article/S2210-7789(14)00004-X/fulltext) to provide a reasonable approach to the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in March 2012 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., pregnancy, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy toxemias) and key words (e.g., diagnosis, evaluation, classification, prediction, prevention, prognosis, treatment, postpartum follow-up). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials, controlled clinical trials, and observational studies published in French or English between January 2006 and February 2012. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to September 2013. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in the guideline summarized here was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventative Health Care (Table 1).

  14. 2007-2008 activity report of the Association EURATOM-CEA (Executive summary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labasse, F.

    2008-01-01

    This document is the executive summary of the full report, summarizing activities performed by EURATOM-CEA association in 2007-2008. The activities are various and have involved different issues like the study of dust generation processes and measurement techniques, ICRH antenna design for heating, integration studies inside the port-plug for diagnostics and in-situ divertor thermography, or the helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL) breeding blanket concept. Activities have been made to study the properties of the line defects governing the plastic behavior of iron base materials. Different options have been investigated for the superconducting magnet system. The measurement of in-vessel tritium inventory by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique has been investigated. 2007-2008 were also dedicated to the manufacture and complete tests of the AIA (Articulated Inspection Arm). AIA is designed to inspect divertor cassettes and the vacuum vessel first wall. Activities based on safety analysis or tests of ITER safety open issues have been carried out using several CEA facilities and expertise

  15. The energy accounts for the Nova Scotia genuine progress index : executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipp, J.; Cain, S.; Colman, R.; Parmenter, R.; Milne, K.; Mullaly, H.; Wysocki, A.

    2005-10-01

    GPI Atlantic has developed a Genuine Progress Index (GPI) involving a new measure of sustainability, wellbeing and quality of life in order to better evaluate energy supply and demand by accounting for all benefits and costs including natural capital, social capital, human capital, and conventional produced capital. The executive summary provides an energy overview and presents indicators of energy sustainability including socio-economic, health and environmental and institutional indicators. Socio-economic indicators are organized across the following 6 areas of concern: reliability, affordability, employment; energy efficiency, energy consumption; and energy production and supply. Health and environmental trends examined include carbon monoxide; nitrogen oxide; sulphur dioxide; mercury; total particulate matter; volatile organic compounds; and greenhouse gas emissions. Trends over time are assessed to determine if energy use is becoming more or less sustainable. Institutional indicators are grouped according to several areas of concern, such as leading by example; creating societal change; reporting; and evaluation. The full cost of energy was then discussed using the underlying physical indicators. It was concluded that Nova Scotia is not making sufficient progress towards sustainability in its energy system, and that the production and use of energy are the leading causes of a number of serious environmental problems. Several recommendations are made for government to lead on a number of initiatives. 4 tabs

  16. A Market Assessment of Residential Grid-Tied PV Systems in Colorado: Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.; Coburn, T.

    2000-09-13

    This is the Executive Summary of a report that presents research done in response to a decision by the Colorado Governor's Office of Energy Conservation and Management (OEC) and Colorado utility companies to consider making residential grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) systems available in Colorado. The idea was to locate homeowners willing to pay the costs of grid-tied PV (GPV) systems without batteries--$8,000 or $12,000 for a 2- or 3-kilowatt (kW) system, respectively, in 1996. These costs represented two-thirds of the actual installed cost of $6 per watt at that time and assumed the remainder would be subsidized. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and OEC partnered to conduct a market assessment for GPV technology in Colorado. The study encompassed both qualitative and quantitative phases. The market assessment concluded that a market for residential GPV systems exists in Colorado today. That market is substantial enough for companies to successfully market PV systems to Colorado homeowners. These homeowners appear ready to learn more, inform themselves, and actively purchase GPV systems. The present situation is highly advantageous to Colorado's institutions--primarily its state government and its utility companies, and also its homebuilders--if they are ready to move forward on GPV technology.

  17. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, Executive Summary, Volume I, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, David; DosSantos, Joseph M.

    1988-06-01

    This Executive Summary, Volume I, of the lower Flathead System Fisheries Study Final Report, was prepared to provide a study overview for persons who are not fisheries scientists. The contents provide an introduction to the study and its objectives, a short description of the study area, a discussion of the major findings and conclusions of the study, and the description of fisheries management alternatives available to managers of the lower Flathead system. Technical reports were prepared for those portions of the study dealing with the lower Flathead River and its tributaries, Volume II, and the South Bay of Flathead Lake, Volume III. The annual hydrographic regime of the Flathead system, consisting of upper rivers, lake and lower river, has been modified by the construction and operation of two major hydroelectric facilities, Hungry Horse Dam on the south fork Flathead River and Kerr Dam at the outlet of Flathead Lake. The modified hydrographic regime has resulted in significant impacts to kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) and several species of trout. Kerr Dam, closed in 1938, controls Flathead Lake levels between 878.7 m (2883 ft) and 881.8 m (2893 ft) and discharges into the lower Flathead River. Kerr Dam is a 63.4 m (208 ft) high concrete arch structure located 7.2 km (4.5 miles) downstream from the outlet of Flathead Lake. The facility is used by Montana Power Company primarily for system frequency load control with some use for low level base load. 77 refs., 5 figs.

  18. What would menthol smokers do if menthol in cigarettes were banned? Behavioral intentions and simulated demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carter, Lawrence P; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-07-01

      The US Food and Drug Administration must consider whether to ban the use of menthol in cigarettes. This study examines how current smokers might respond to such a ban on menthol cigarettes.   Convenience sample of adolescent and adult smokers recruited from an online survey panel.   United States, 2010.   A total of 471 adolescent and adult current cigarette smokers.   Respondents were asked a series of questions about how they might react if menthol cigarettes were banned. In addition, participants completed a simulation purchase task to estimate the demand for menthol and non-menthol cigarettes across a range of prices.   Overall, 36.1% of respondents said they always (18.9%) or usually (17.2%) smoked menthol cigarettes. When asked how they might respond to a ban on menthol cigarettes, 35% of current menthol smokers said they would stop smoking, and 25% said they would 'find a way to buy a menthol brand'. Those who reported they might quit tended to have greater current intentions to quit [odds ratio (OR) = 4.47], while those who reported that they might seek illicit menthol cigarettes were far less likely to report current intentions to quit (OR = 0.06). Estimates for demand elasticity for preferred cigarette type were similar for menthol (α = 0.0051) and non-menthol (α = 0.0049) smokers. Demand elasticity and peak consumption were related to usual cigarette type and cigarettes smoked per day, but did not appear to differ by race, gender or age.   Preliminary evidence suggests that a significant minority of smokers of menthol cigarettes in the United States would try to stop smoking altogether if such cigarettes were banned. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Market surveillance panel monitoring report on the IMO-administered electricity markets : Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The electricity market in Ontario was opened on May 1, 2002. This document provides the executive summary for the first monitoring report prepared by the Market Surveillance Panel covering the period May to August 2002. In the introductory chapter of the main report, explanations are provided on why competition, when effective, benefits consumers, as well as touching on the conditions for the design of an effective competitive electricity market with special emphasis on the electricity market in Ontario and its operations. For the period under review, the report presents a description and analysis of the activities and operations of the Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO)-administered markets (focus on energy markets). Rising costs for hydroelectric power and very high temperatures combined in July and August resulting in record levels of demand. It became apparent that the province relies on imports to satisfy demand. The figures reveal that reliability in July and August depended on imports 21 per cent of the time. A serious shortage of generating capacity exists in Ontario and steps to rectify the situation should be initiated to ensure reliability of electricity supply for next summer. Prospective entrants in the electricity market in Ontario may not be receiving clear, credible and consistent signals. Effective use of existing or potential transmission capacity may not always be made by the system. The lowering of consumption by consumers is difficult since consumers are not properly equipped, resulting in their lack of power to discipline price increases from suppliers. The future evolution of the market must be planned and measures implemented to enhance the effectiveness of competition. The incentives effects for some aspects of the market design do not completely satisfy the Panel

  20. Committee ARM User Executive Committee Meeting Summary March 30-31, 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-01-01

    This meeting was held at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Mesa Lab, Boulder, Colorado. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility User Executive Committee (UEC) members present were: Chuck Long, Ernie Lewis, Larry Berg, Hailong Wang, Matt Shupe, Andrew Gettelman, and Dave Turner. Rob Wood joined the discussion at several points via conference call, as he was unable to attend in person. Gannet Hallar and Pavlos Kollias were unable to attend. ARM Infrastructure members present were: Jim Mather, Jennifer Comstock, Jimmy Voyles, Ken Kehoe, Doug Sisterson, Hanna Goss, and Giri Prakash. The ARM UEC met face to face for the first time since the committee was formed in December, 2014 at the NCAR Mesa Lab in Boulder. Prior to this point, all UEC meetings were done via telephone, usually with the aid of collaboration software (e.g., Lync, GoToMeeting) allowing the entire committee to see a common presentation. These conference calls covered a wide range of topics, many of them on a recurrent basis; however, since the calls were limited to less than 90 minutes it was felt that a more dedicated meeting would allow us to delve more deeply into some of these topics. Three topics for this meeting came from previous conference call discussions: (1) data quality, (2) uncertainty quantification, and (3) improved communications. Two other topics were discussed during this meeting: (4) an overview of the LES (large-eddy simulation) ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) project and (5) the process for electing new UEC members. Summaries of each of these topics are provided below, along with recommendations that the UEC feels should be considered by the ARM Facility (which will be highlighted using italics).

  1. Hanford Site Environment Safety and Health (ES and H) FY 1999 and FY 2000 Execution Commitment Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REEP, I.E.

    1999-12-01

    All sites in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex prepare this report annually for the DOE Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the previous and current year's Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) execution commitments and the S&H resources that support these activities. The fiscal year (FY) 1999 and 2000 information (Sieracki 1999) and data contained in the ''Hanford Site Environment, Safety and Health Fiscal Year 2001 Budget-Risk Management Summary'' (RL 1999) were the basis for preparing this report. Fiscal year 2000 finding of Office of Environmental Management (EM) and Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (NE) activities is based on the President's budget of $1,065.1 million and $28.0 million, plus $2.7 million carryover finding, respectively, as of October 31, 1999. Any funding changes as a result of the Congressional appropriation process will be reflected in the Fiscal Year 2002 ES&H Budget-Risk Management Summary to be issued in May 2000. This report provides the end-of-year status of FY 1999 ES&H execution commitments, including actual S&H expenditures, and describes planned FY 2000 ES&H execution commitments and the S&H resources needed to support those activities. This requirement is included in the ES&H ''Guidance for FY200l Budget Formulations and Execution'' (DOE 1999).

  2. On the development of a theory of traveler attitude-behavior interrelationships. Volume 3 : executive summary : overview of methods, results, and conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    The executive summary of this Final Report offers an overview of : methods, results, and conclusions which support the development of a : theory of traveler attitude-behavior interrelationships. Such a theory : will be useful in the design of transpo...

  3. Clinical Practice Guideline: Improving Nasal Form and Function after Rhinoplasty Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Lisa E; Tollefson, Travis T; Basura, Gregory J; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Abramson, Peter J; Chaiet, Scott R; Davis, Kara S; Doghramji, Karl; Farrior, Edward H; Finestone, Sandra A; Ishman, Stacey L; Murphy, Robert X; Park, John G; Setzen, Michael; Strike, Deborah J; Walsh, Sandra A; Warner, Jeremy P; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2017-02-01

    Objective Rhinoplasty, a surgical procedure that alters the shape or appearance of the nose while preserving or enhancing the nasal airway, ranks among the most commonly performed cosmetic procedures in the United States, with >200,000 procedures reported in 2014. While it is difficult to calculate the exact economic burden incurred by rhinoplasty patients following surgery with or without complications, the average rhinoplasty procedure typically exceeds $4000. The costs incurred due to complications, infections, or revision surgery may include the cost of long-term antibiotics, hospitalization, or lost revenue from hours/days of missed work. The resultant psychological impact of rhinoplasty can also be significant. Furthermore, the health care burden from psychological pressures of nasal deformities/aesthetic shortcomings, surgical infections, surgical pain, side effects from antibiotics, and nasal packing materials must also be considered for these patients. Prior to this guideline, limited literature existed on standard care considerations for pre- and postsurgical management and for standard surgical practice to ensure optimal outcomes for patients undergoing rhinoplasty. The impetus for this guideline is to utilize current evidence-based medicine practices and data to build unanimity regarding the peri- and postoperative strategies to maximize patient safety and to optimize surgical results for patients. Purpose The primary purpose of this guideline executive summary is to provide evidence-based recommendations for clinicians who either perform rhinoplasty or are involved in the care of a rhinoplasty candidate, as well as to optimize patient care, promote effective diagnosis and therapy, and reduce harmful or unnecessary variations in care. The target audience is any clinician or individual, in any setting, involved in the management of these patients. The target patient population is all patients aged ≥15 years. The guideline is intended to focus on

  4. Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Environmental Safety Health (ES and H) FY 2000 and FY 2001 Execution Commitment Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REEP, I.E.

    2000-12-01

    All sites in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex prepare this report annually for the DOE Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the previous and current year's Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) execution commitments and the Safety and Health (S&H) resources that support these activities. The fiscal year (FY) 2000 and 2001 information and data contained in the Richland Operations Environment, Safefy and Health Fiscal Year 2002 Budget-Risk Management Summary (RL 2000a) were the basis for preparing this report. Fiscal year 2001 activities are based on the President's Amended Congressional Budget Request of $689.6 million for funding Ofice of Environmental Management (EM) $44.0 million for Fast Flux Test Facility standby less $7.0 million in anticipated DOE, Headquarters holdbacks for Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (NE); and $55.3 million for Safeguards and Security (SAS). Any funding changes as a result of the Congressional appropriation process will be reflected in the Fiscal Year 2003 ES&H Budget-Risk Management Summary to be issued in May 2001. This report provides the end-of-year status of FY 2000 ES&H execution commitments, including actual S&H expenditures, and describes planned FY 2001 ES&H execution commitments and the S&H resources needed to support those activities. This requirement is included in the ES&H guidance contained in the FY 2002 Field Budget Call (DOE 2000).

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) conceptual design report. Part I: executive summary. Part II: facilities and system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The pilot plant is developed for ERDA low-level contact-handled transuranic waste, ERDA remote-handled intermediate-level transuranic waste, and for high-level waste experiments. All wastes placed in the WIPP arrive at the site processed and packaged; no waste processing is done at the WIPP. All wastes placed into the WIPP are retrievable. The proposed site for WIPP lies 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. This document includes the executive summary and a detailed description of the facilities and systems

  6. CanVasc Recommendations for the Management of Antineutrophil Cytoplasm Antibody (ANCA-Associated Vasculitides – Executive Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy McGeoch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Vasculitis research network (CanVasc is composed of physicians from different medical specialties, including rheumatology and nephrology and researchers with expertise in vasculitis. One of its aims was to develop recommendations for the diagnosis and management of antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA-associated vasculitides in Canada. This executive summary features the 19 recommendations and 17 statements addressing general AAV diagnosis and management, developed by CanVasc group based on a synthesis of existing international guidelines, other published supporting evidence and expert consensus considering the Canadian healthcare context.

  7. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, analyses and trades, and system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative large deployable reflector (LDR) system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume includes the executive summary for the total study, a report of thirteen system analysis and trades tasks (optical configuration, aperture size, reflector material, segmented mirror, optical subsystem, thermal, pointing and control, transportation to orbit, structures, contamination control, orbital parameters, orbital environment, and spacecraft functions), and descriptions of three selected LDR system concepts. Supporting information is contained in appendices.

  8. Assessment of research needs for advanced heterogeneous catalysts for energy applications. Final report: Volume 1, Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G.A.

    1994-04-01

    This report assesses the direction, technical content, and priority of research needs judged to provide the best chance of yielding new and improved heterogeneous catalysts for energy-related applications over a period of 5--20 years. It addresses issues of energy conservation, alternate fuels and feedstocks, and the economics and applications that could alleviate pollution from energy processes. Recommended goals are defined in 3 major, closely linked research thrusts: catalytic science, environmental protection by catalysis, and industrial catalytic applications. This volume provides a comprehensive executive summary, including research recommendations.

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) conceptual design report. Part I: executive summary. Part II: facilities and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The pilot plant is developed for ERDA low-level contact-handled transuranic waste, ERDA remote-handled intermediate-level transuranic waste, and for high-level waste experiments. All wastes placed in the WIPP arrive at the site processed and packaged; no waste processing is done at the WIPP. All wastes placed into the WIPP are retrievable. The proposed site for WIPP lies 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. This document includes the executive summary and a detailed description of the facilities and systems. (DLC)

  10. Inventory of Federal energy-related environment and safety research for FY 1978. Volume 1. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The FY 1978 Federal Inventory is a compilation of 3225 federally funded energy-related environmental and safety reserch projects. It consists of three volumes: an executive summary providing an overview of the data (Volume I), a catalog listing each Inventory project followed by series of indexes (Volume II), and an interactive terminal guide giving instructions for on-line data retrieval (Volume III). Volume I reviews the inventory data as a whole and also within each of three major categories: biomedical and environmental research, environmental control technology research, and operational safety research

  11. Assessment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samei, Ehsan; Badano, Aldo; Chakraborty, Dev

    2005-01-01

    Digital imaging provides an effective means to electronically acquire, archive, distribute, and view medical images. Medical imaging display stations are an integral part of these operations. Therefore, it is vitally important to assure that electronic display devices do not compromise image quality and ultimately patient care. The AAPM Task Group 18 (TG18) recently published guidelines and acceptance criteria for acceptance testing and quality control of medical display devices. This paper is an executive summary of the TG18 report. TG18 guidelines include visual, quantitative, and advanced testing methodologies for primary and secondary class display devices. The characteristics, tested in conjunction with specially designed test patterns (i.e., TG18 patterns), include reflection, geometric distortion, luminance, the spatial and angular dependencies of luminance, resolution, noise, glare, chromaticity, and display artifacts. Geometric distortions are evaluated by linear measurements of the TG18-QC test pattern, which should render distortion coefficients less than 2%/5% for primary/secondary displays, respectively. Reflection measurements include specular and diffuse reflection coefficients from which the maximum allowable ambient lighting is determined such that contrast degradation due to display reflection remains below a 20% limit and the level of ambient luminance (L amb ) does not unduly compromise luminance ratio (LR) and contrast at low luminance levels. Luminance evaluation relies on visual assessment of low contrast features in the TG18-CT and TG18-MP test patterns, or quantitative measurements at 18 distinct luminance levels of the TG18-LN test patterns. The major acceptable criteria for primary/secondary displays are maximum luminance of greater than 170/100 cd/m 2 , LR of greater than 250/100, and contrast conformance to that of the grayscale standard display function (GSDF) of better than 10%/20%, respectively. The angular response is tested to

  12. Evaluation of Potential Effect of Menthol Solution on Oral Hygiene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To test the effect of menthol extract on the oral hygiene status of dental students of Faculty of Dentistry, Al- Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, Iraq. Methods: A solution (18 mg %) of menthol was prepared by dissolving menthol crystals in absolute ethanol. Chlorhexidine (CHX, 0.2 %) and deionized water were used ...

  13. Executive Summary: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery: Best Practice Guideline for Care of Patients With a Fecal Diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Debbie; Pearsall, Emily; Johnston, Debra; Frecea, Monica; McKenzie, Marg

    Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) is a multimodal program developed to decrease postoperative complications, improve patient safety and satisfaction, and promote early discharge. In the province of Ontario, Canada, a standardized approach to the care of adult patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery (including benign and malignant diseases) was adopted by 15 hospitals in March 2013. All colorectal surgery patients with or without an ostomy were included in the ERAS program targeting a length of stay of 3 days for colon surgery and 4 days for rectal surgery. To ensure the individual needs of patients requiring an ostomy in an ERAS program were being met, a Provincial ERAS Enterostomal Therapy Nurse Network was established. Our goal was to develop and implement an evidence-based, ostomy-specific best practice guideline addressing the preoperative, postoperative, and discharge phases of care. The guideline was developed over a 3-year period. It is based on existing literature, guidelines, and expert opinion. This article serves as an executive summary for this clinical resource; the full guideline is available as Supplemental Digital Content 1 (available at: http://links.lww.com/JWOCN/A36) to this executive summary.

  14. Guideline for the management of wounds in patients with lower-extremity venous disease: an executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelechi, Teresa J; Johnson, Jan J

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an executive summary of the lower extremity venous disease (LEVD) evidence-based guideline produced by the WOCN Wound Guidelines Task Force. The target audience for this guideline is health care professionals who specialize in, direct, or provide wound care for patients at risk for or with lower-extremity venous disease. The full guideline opens with an overview of definitions of LEVD, its prevalence, clinical relevance, etiology, related physiology and pathophysiology, and overall management goals for patients at risk for developing venous leg ulcers. A detailed assessment section describes how to conduct a full clinical history and physical examination. Two approaches to interventions are provided: one addresses prevention strategies to reduce the risk of developing LEVD with ulcers. Methods to prevent ulcer recurrence are summarized including compression therapy, adjunctive therapies, medications, and patient education. A second approach presents treatment interventions including wound cleansing, debridement, infection control, antibiotic use, along with management of the periwound skin, nutrition, pain, and edema. This section also discusses limb elevation, surgical options, adjunctive therapies, patient education, and health care provider follow-up. A comprehensive reference list, glossary of terms, and appendices on cellulitis and venous eczema, types of edema, and compression therapy are available at the end of the guideline. This article provides an executive summary of the essential features of the guideline.

  15. Positively Different: Guidance for Developing Inclusive Adult Literacy, Language, and Numeracy Curricula. [Report and] Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Sue; And Others

    A project was conducted in Australia to put together guidelines for developing gender-inclusive, ethnic-inclusive, and nonagist material in adult literacy curricula. Another purpose was to develop examples of adult literacy curricula exemplary in the use of nonsexist, nonagist, and nonracist material. This document combines the executive summary…

  16. Effluent Information System (EIS) / Onsite Discharge Information System (ODIS): 1986 executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.

    1987-09-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) data base systems aid DOE-Headquarters and Field Offices in managing the radioactive air and liquid effluents from DOE facilities. Data on effluents released offsite are entered into effluent information system (EIS) and data on effluents discharged onsite and retained onsite are entered into Onsite Discharge Information System (ODIS). This document is a summary of information obtained from the CY 1986 effluent data received from all DOE and DOE contractor facilities and entered in the data bases. Data from previous years are also included. The summary consists of information for effluents released offsite, and information for effluents retained onsite

  17. Deeper in Debt: Women and Student Loans. Executive Summary and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This document provides a summary of and recommendations from the larger report, "Deeper in Debt: Women and Student Loans" (ED580345). Over the course of the past few decades student loans have become an increasingly common means of paying for a college education. Most students who complete a college program now take on student loans, and…

  18. Preserving heritage resources through responsible use of southern Nevada’s lands [Chapter 9] (Executive Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol B. Raish

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada’s cultural resources (heritage resources) include archeological remains, sacred sites, historic sites, and cultural landscapes of significance to Native Americans and many other cultural groups. Locating, maintaining, and protecting these special places are part of the mandate of Nevada’s Federal and state agencies. This summary addresses Sub-goal 2.2...

  19. 'Literacy Octopus' Dissemination Trial: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Pippa; Rabiasz, Adam; Styles, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The "'Literacy Octopus' Dissemination Trial" aimed to test the impact on pupil outcomes of disseminating research summaries and evidence-based resources to schools. The materials aimed to support teaching and learning of Key Stage 2 literacy and were created by leading organisations with experience of engaging schools in evidence use.…

  20. FWP executive summaries. Basic Energy Sciences/Materials Sciences Programs (SNL/NM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report is divided into: budget, capital equipment requests, general programmatic overview and institutional issues, DOE center of excellence for synthesis and processing of advanced materials, industrial interactions and technology transfer, and research program summaries (new proposals, existing programs). Ceramics, semiconductors, superconductors, interfaces, CVD, tailored surfaces, adhesion, growth and epitaxy, boron-rich solids, nanoclusters, etc. are covered.

  1. Menthol cigarettes: moving toward a broader definition of harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Phillip; Clark, Pamela I

    2010-12-01

    The current practice of the tobacco industry of primarily focusing on the extent that menthol cigarettes contribute or do not contribute to excess morbidity and mortality in various diseases does not, in and of itself, fully illuminate the harm caused by these products. In fact, this practice actually masks and obscures the public health harm associated with menthol cigarettes. Given this, this commentary develops and presents a broader definition of harm in which to view menthol cigarettes and as the necessary and underlying rationale of why this candy-flavored ingredient should be removed from all tobacco products. This paper relies on the scientific presentations of the 2nd Conference on Menthol Cigarettes, and the peer-reviewed literature on menthol cigarettes. A broader definition of harm from menthol cigarettes must be analyzed from a broad public health perspective and take into account youth uptake and initiation, menthol's ability to augment addiction through unique sensory properties, spurious health messages associated with these products, menthol's role in cessation inhibition and relapse promotion, and the blatant predatory marketing of these products to the most vulnerable sectors of society. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) should apply the same logic that outlawed other candy flavorings and apply it to menthol cigarettes; in the end, all candy flavorings, including menthol, only serve to make the poisons inherent in tobacco smoke go down easier. Additionally, the mobilization of communities most affected by the menthol cigarettes, the FDA, and candy flavorings and the tobacco industry's machinations will be discussed.

  2. Biocatalytic enantiomeric resolution of l-menthol from an eight isomeric menthol mixture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brady, D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available was sought to preferentially esterify l-menthol in hexane, hence simplifying separation from this diasteromeric mix through distillation. From an initial screen of over 70 enzyme preparations, a commercial Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase (Amano AK...

  3. The health effects of menthol cigarettes as compared to non-menthol cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Allison C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the 1920s, menthol has been added to cigarettes and used as a characterizing flavor. The health effects of cigarette smoking are well documented, however the health effects of menthol cigarettes as compared to non-menthol cigarettes is less well studied. This review discusses menthol’s effects on 1 biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure, 2 toxicity and cellular effects, 3 lung function and respiration, 4 pulmonary and/or vascular function, 5 allergic reactions and inflammation, and 6 tobacco-related diseases. It is concluded that menthol is a biologically active compound that has effects by itself and in conjunction with nicotine, however much of the data on the other areas of interest are inconclusive and firm conclusions cannot be drawn.

  4. Impact of geothermal development on the state of Hawaii. Executive summary. Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    Questions regarding the sociological, legal, environmental, and geological concerns associated with the development of geothermal resources in the Hawaiian Islands are addressed in this summary report. Major social changes, environmental degradation, legal and economic constraints, seismicity, subsidence, changes in volcanic activity, accidents, and ground water contamination are not major problems with the present state of development, however, the present single well does not provide sufficient data for extrapolation. (ACR)

  5. Effluent information system (EIS)/onsite discharge information system (ODIS) 1985 executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.

    1986-09-01

    The Effluent Information System (EIS) and Onsite Discharge Information System (ODIS) are Department of Energy (DOE) data base systems that aid DOE-Headquarters and Field Offices in managing the radioactive air and liquid effluents from DOE facilities. Data on effluents released offsite are entered into EIS and data on effluents discharged onsite and retained onsite are entered into ODIS. This document is a summary of information obtained from the CY 1985 effluent data received from all DOE and DOE contractor facilities and entered in the data bases. Data from previous years are also included. The summary consists of two parts. The first part summarizes information for effluents released offsite, and the second part summarizes information for effluents retained onsite. These summaries are taken from the routine annual reports sent to each DOE Operations Office. Special tabulations or specific data can be supplied upon request. Explanations of the significant changes are included in the EIS and ODIS graphic sections. Only those changes in activity greater than a factor of two and having a magnitude greater than 0.1 Ci are considered significant and are addressed in the explanation

  6. Executive summary: Prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections and other coinfections in HIV-infected patients: May 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, José Antonio; Rubio, Rafael; Aguirrebengoa, Koldo; Arribas, Jose Ramón; Baraia-Etxaburu, Josu; Gutiérrez, Félix; Lopez Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Losa, Juan Emilio; Miró, José Ma; Moreno, Santiago; Pérez Molina, José; Podzamczer, Daniel; Pulido, Federico; Riera, Melchor; Rivero, Antonio; Sanz Moreno, José; Amador, Concha; Antela, Antonio; Arazo, Piedad; Arrizabalaga, Julio; Bachiller, Pablo; Barros, Carlos; Berenguer, Juan; Caylá, Joan; Domingo, Pere; Estrada, Vicente; Knobel, Hernando; Locutura, Jaime; López Aldeguer, José; Llibre, Josep Ma; Lozano, Fernando; Mallolas, Josep; Malmierca, Eduardo; Miralles, Celia; Miralles, Pilar; Muñoz, Agustín; Ocampo, Agustín; Olalla, Julián; Pérez, Inés; Pérez Elías, Ma Jesús; Pérez Arellano, José Luis; Portilla, Joaquín; Ribera, Esteban; Rodríguez, Francisco; Santín, Miguel; Sanz Sanz, Jesús; Téllez, Ma Jesús; Torralba, Miguel; Valencia, Eulalia; Von Wichmann, Miguel Angel

    2016-10-01

    Opportunistic infections continue to be a cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. They often arise because of severe immunosuppression resulting from poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy, failure of antiretroviral therapy, or unawareness of HIV infection by patients whose first clinical manifestation of AIDS is an opportunistic infection. The present article is an executive summary of the document that updates the previous recommendations on the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected patients, namely, infections by parasites, fungi, viruses, mycobacteria, and bacteria, as well as imported infections. The article also addresses immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. This document is intended for all professionals who work in clinical practice in the field of HIV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy from the desert. Very large scale photovoltaic systems: socio-economic, financial, technical and environmental aspects. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, K.; Ito, M.; Komoto, K.; Vleuten, P. van der; Faiman, D. (eds.)

    2009-05-15

    This executive summary report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) summarises the objectives and concepts of very large scale photovoltaic power generation (VLS-PV) systems and takes a look at the socio-economic, financial and technical aspects involved as well as the environmental impact of such systems. Potential benefits for desert communities, agricultural development and desalination of water are topics that are looked at. The potential of VLS-PV, its energy payback time and CO{sub 2} emission rates are discussed. Case studies for the Sahara and the Gobi Dessert areas are discussed. A VLS-PV roadmap is proposed and scenarios are discussed. Finally, conclusions are drawn and recommendations are made.

  8. Institut de recherche sur la fusion par confinement magnetique. Association EURATOM-CEA. Annual report 2008 (executive summary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 experimental campaign on Tore-Supra has been especially fruitful with the completion of multi-annual programmes bringing important answers, notably on operational aspects of long duration discharges. Concerning JET, particular effort have been devoted to: -) hydrogen isotopes retention studies, -) advanced scenarios studies such as JT60-JET physics identity experiments in ITB regimes, -) the commissioning of the ITER-like ICRH antenna, and -) high power level commissioning of the LHCD antenna and long distance coupling studies. Concerning integrated modelling, the development of the CRONOS code suite has been carried on, with particular emphasis on increasing its reliability and international coverage. CRONOS has been extensively used to investigate steady-state scenarios for ITER and DEMO. Most of the technological developments carried out by the Association concentrates on key domains that apply to ITER: superconducting conductors, actively cooled PFC (plasma facing components), or diagnostics. This document is an executive summary

  9. Essentials and guidelines for clinical medical physics residency training programs: executive summary of AAPM Report Number 249.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisciandaro, Joann I; Willis, Charles E; Burmeister, Jay W; Clarke, Geoffrey D; Das, Rupak K; Esthappan, Jacqueline; Gerbi, Bruce J; Harkness, Beth A; Patton, James A; Peck, Donald J; Pizzutiello, Robert J; Sandison, George A; White, Sharon L; Wichman, Brian D; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Both, Stefan

    2014-05-08

    There is a clear need for established standards for medical physics residency training. The complexity of techniques in imaging, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology continues to increase with each passing year. It is therefore imperative that training requirements and competencies are routinely reviewed and updated to reflect the changing environment in hospitals and clinics across the country. In 2010, the AAPM Work Group on Periodic Review of Medical Physics Residency Training was formed and charged with updating AAPM Report Number 90. This work group includes AAPM members with extensive experience in clinical, professional, and educational aspects of medical physics. The resulting report, AAPM Report Number 249, concentrates on the clinical and professional knowledge needed to function independently as a practicing medical physicist in the areas of radiation oncology, imaging, and nuclear medicine, and constitutes a revision to AAPM Report Number 90. This manuscript presents an executive summary of AAPM Report Number 249.

  10. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF THE SNOWMASS 2001 WORKING GROUP : ELECTROWEAK SYMMETRY BREAKING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARENA, M.; GERDES, D.W.; HABER, H.E.; TURCOT, A.S.; ZERWAS, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this summary report of the 2001 Snowmass Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Working Group, the main candidates for theories of electroweak symmetry breaking are surveyed, and the criteria for distinguishing among the different approaches are discussed. The potential for observing electroweak symmetry breaking phenomena at the upgraded Tevatron and the LHC is described. We emphasize the importance of a high-luminosity e + e - linear collider for precision measurements to clarify the underlying electroweak symmetry breaking dynamics. Finally, we note the possible roles of the μ + μ - collider and VLHC for further elucidating the physics of electroweak symmetry breaking

  11. Trends in public perceptions and preferences on energy and environmental policy: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.C.

    1993-03-01

    This is a summary of a report that presents selected results from a secondary analysis of public opinion surveys, taken at the national and state/local levels, relevant to energy and environmental policy choices. The data base used in the analysis includes about 2,000 items from nearly 600 separate surveys conducted between 1979 and 1992. Answers to word-for-word questions were traced over time, permitting trend analysis. Patterns of response were also identified for findings from similarly worded survey items. The analysis identifies changes in public opinion concerning energy during the past 10 to 15 years.

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant transuranic wastes experimental characterization program: executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1978-11-01

    A general overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant transuranic wastes experimental characterization program is presented. Objectives and outstanding concerns of this program are discussed. Characteristics of transuranic wastes are also described. Concerns for the terminal isolation of such wastes in a deep bedded salt facility are divided into two phases, those during the short-term operational phase of the facility, and those potentially occurring in the long-term, after decommissioning of the repository. An inclusive summary covering individual studies, their importance to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, investigators, general milestones, and comments are presented

  13. A Research Needs Assessment for waste plastics recycling: Volume 1, Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This first volume provides a summary of the entire project. The study utilized the talents of a large number of participants, including a significant number of peer reviewers from industrial companies, government agencies, and research institutes. in addition, an extensive analysis of relevant literature was carried out. In considering the attractiveness of recycling technologies that are alternatives to waste-to-energy combustion units, a systems approach was utilized. Collection of waste streams containing plastics, sortation, and reclamation of plastics and plastic mixtures, reprocessing or chemical conversion of the reclaimed polymers, and the applicability of the products to specific market segments have been analyzed in the study.

  14. Federal Facility Compliance Act, Proposed Site Treatment Plan: Background Volume. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This Federal Facility Compliance Act Site Treatment Plan discusses the options of radioactive waste management for Ames Laboratory. This is the background volume which discusses: site history and mission; framework for developing site treatment plans; proposed plan organization and related activities; characterization of mixed waste and waste minimization; low level mixed waste streams and the proposed treatment approach; future generation of TRU and mixed wastes; the adequacy of mixed waste storage facilities; and a summary of the overall DOE activity in the area of disposal of mixed waste treatment residuals

  15. Menthol binding and inhibition of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoor, Abrar; Nordman, Jacob C; Veltri, Daniel; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Al Kury, Lina; Shuba, Yaroslav; Mahgoub, Mohamed; Howarth, Frank C; Sadek, Bassem; Shehu, Amarda; Kabbani, Nadine; Oz, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Menthol is a common compound in pharmaceutical and commercial products and a popular additive to cigarettes. The molecular targets of menthol remain poorly defined. In this study we show an effect of menthol on the α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor function. Using a two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, menthol was found to reversibly inhibit α7-nACh receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Inhibition by menthol was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve endogenous Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channels, since menthol inhibition remained unchanged by intracellular injection of the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA and perfusion with Ca(2+)-free bathing solution containing Ba(2+). Furthermore, increasing ACh concentrations did not reverse menthol inhibition and the specific binding of [(125)I] α-bungarotoxin was not attenuated by menthol. Studies of α7- nACh receptors endogenously expressed in neural cells demonstrate that menthol attenuates α7 mediated Ca(2+) transients in the cell body and neurite. In conclusion, our results suggest that menthol inhibits α7-nACh receptors in a noncompetitive manner.

  16. Menthol Cigarettes, Time to First Cigarette, and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Edward

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work is to determine if menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers differ with respect to time to first cigarette (TTFC and successful smoking cessation via a meta-analysis of published results. For 13 independent estimates, menthol smokers were slightly but statistically significantly more likely to exhibit TTFC ≤ 5 min (random-effects odds ratio (OR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.04–1.21, while 17 independent estimates provided a non-significant difference for TTFC ≤ 30 min (random-effects OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.96–1.16. For cessation studies, meta-analysis of 30 published estimates indicated a decreased likelihood for menthol cigarette smokers to quit (random-effects OR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80–0.96. There was no difference between cessation rates for Caucasian menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers, but the results support that African American menthol cigarette smokers find it more difficult to quit. Adjustment of cessation for socioeconomic status eliminated any statistically significant advantage for smoking cessation in non-menthol smokers. In conclusion, these results suggest that the observed differences in cessation rates between menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers are likely explained by differences in socioeconomic status and also suggest that TTFC may not be a robust predictor of successful smoking cessation.

  17. Menthol binding and inhibition of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Ashoor

    Full Text Available Menthol is a common compound in pharmaceutical and commercial products and a popular additive to cigarettes. The molecular targets of menthol remain poorly defined. In this study we show an effect of menthol on the α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh receptor function. Using a two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, menthol was found to reversibly inhibit α7-nACh receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Inhibition by menthol was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve endogenous Ca(2+-dependent Cl(- channels, since menthol inhibition remained unchanged by intracellular injection of the Ca(2+ chelator BAPTA and perfusion with Ca(2+-free bathing solution containing Ba(2+. Furthermore, increasing ACh concentrations did not reverse menthol inhibition and the specific binding of [(125I] α-bungarotoxin was not attenuated by menthol. Studies of α7- nACh receptors endogenously expressed in neural cells demonstrate that menthol attenuates α7 mediated Ca(2+ transients in the cell body and neurite. In conclusion, our results suggest that menthol inhibits α7-nACh receptors in a noncompetitive manner.

  18. Menthol: a simple monoterpene with remarkable biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamatou, Guy P P; Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro M; Lawrence, Brian M

    2013-12-01

    Menthol is a cyclic monoterpene alcohol which possesses well-known cooling characteristics and a residual minty smell of the oil remnants from which it was obtained. Because of these attributes it is one of the most important flavouring additives besides vanilla and citrus. Due to this reason it is used in a variety of consumer products ranging from confections such as chocolate and chewing gum to oral-care products such as toothpaste as well as in over-the-counter medicinal products for its cooling and biological effects. Its cooling effects are not exclusive to medicinal use. Approximately one quarter of the cigarettes on the market contain menthol and small amounts of menthol are even included in non-mentholated cigarettes. Natural menthol is isolated exclusively from Mentha canadensis, but can also be synthesised on industrial scale through various processes. Although menthol exists in eight stereoisomeric forms, (-)-menthol from the natural source and synthesised menthol with the same structure is the most preferred isomer. The demand for menthol is high and it was previously estimated that the worldwide use of menthol was 30-32,000 metric tonnes per annum. Menthol is not a predominant compound of the essential oils as it can only be found as a constituent of a limited number of aromatic plants. These plants are known to exhibit biological activity in vitro and in vivo such as antibacterial, antifungal, antipruritic, anticancer and analgesic effects, and are also an effective fumigant. In addition, menthol is one of the most effective terpenes used to enhance the dermal penetration of pharmaceuticals. This review summarises the chemical and biological properties of menthol and highlights its cooling effects and toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Executive Summary of Ares V: Lunar Capabilities Concept Review Through Phase A-Cycle 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, J. B.; Baggett, K. E.; Feldman, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) was generated as an overall Ares V summary from the Lunar Capabilities Concept Review (LCCR) through Phase A-Cycle 3 (PA-C3) with the intent that it may be coupled with separately published appendices for a more detailed, integrated narrative. The Ares V has evolved from the initial point of departure (POD) 51.00.48 LCCR configuration to the current candidate POD, PA-C3D, and the family of vehicles concept that contains vehicles PA-C3A through H. The logical progression from concept to POD vehicles is summarized in this TM and captures the trade space and performance of each. The family-of-vehicles concept was assessed during PA-C3 and offered flexibility in the path forward with the ability to add options deemed appropriate. A description of each trade space is given in addition to a summary of each Ares V element. The Ares V contributions to a Mars campaign are also highlighted with the goal of introducing Ares V capabilities within the trade space. The assessment of the Ares V vehicle as it pertains to Mars missions remained locked to the architecture presented in Mars Design Reference Authorization 5.0 using the PA-C3D vehicle configuration to assess Mars transfer vehicle options, in-space EDS capabilities, docking adaptor and propellant transfer assessments, and lunar and Mars synergistic potential.

  20. Inventory of Federal energy-related environment and safety research for FY 1979. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    The FY 1979 Federal Inventory contains information on 3506 federally funded energy-related environmental and safety research projects. The Inventory is published in two volumes: Volume I, an executive summary and overview of the data and Volume II, project listings, summaries, and indexes. Research and development (R and D) categories were reorganized into three main areas; environmental and safety control technology, technology impacts overview and assessments, and biological and environmental R and D and assessments. Federal offices submitting project data were: Council on Environmental Quality; Department of Agriculture; Department of Commerce; Department of Defense; Department of Energy; Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; Department of Housing and Urban Development; Department of the Interior; Department of Transportation; Environmental Protection Agency; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Nuclear Regulatory Commission; National Science Foundation; Office of Technology Assessment; and Tennessee Valley Authority. The inventory also breaks out research sponsored by various federal agencies and the amount of funding provided by each in various research categories. The format and index system allows efficient access to information compiled. Users are able to identify projects by log agency, performing organization, principal investigator and subject.

  1. Inventory of Federal energy-related environment and safety research for FY 1979. Volume 1. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The FY 1979 Federal Inventory contains information on 3506 federally funded energy-related environmental and safety research projects. The Inventory is published in two volumes: Volume I, an executive summary and overview of the data and Volume II, project listings, summaries, and indexes. Research and development (R and D) categories were reorganized into three main areas; environmental and safety control technology, technology impacts overview and assessments, and biological and environmental R and D and assessments. Federal offices submitting project data were: Council on Environmental Quality; Department of Agriculture; Department of Commerce; Department of Defense; Department of Energy; Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; Department of Housing and Urban Development; Department of the Interior; Department of Transportation; Environmental Protection Agency; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Nuclear Regulatory Commission; National Science Foundation; Office of Technology Assessment; and Tennessee Valley Authority. The inventory also breaks out research sponsored by various federal agencies and the amount of funding provided by each in various research categories. The format and index system allows efficient access to information compiled. Users are able to identify projects by log agency, performing organization, principal investigator and subject

  2. ORGDP health and safety long-range management plan: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This document outlines those health and safety actions and costs which will be required to meet increased numbers of regulations and more stringent regulations. This document is not intended to be a budget document; however, it is intended to provide guidance to both Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) and Department of Energy (DOE) management as to the near order of magnitude of the resources (primarily funding requirements) and the time frame required to execute the strategy in the present revision of the plan. It is not, in all cases, in agreement with current budget (funding) requests and obligations for these immediate years. Beyond the immediate time frame, the document reflects the strategy and the project and funding estimates as a snapshot at the time of publication. The health and safety areas of all industry in general and the nuclear industry, in particular, are rapidly changing as more restrictive health and safety regulations are promulgated

  3. Workshop on using natural language processing applications for enhancing clinical decision making: an executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Vinay M; Rodgers, Mary; Conroy, Richard; Luo, James; Zhou, Ruixia; Seto, Belinda

    2014-02-01

    In April 2012, the National Institutes of Health organized a two-day workshop entitled 'Natural Language Processing: State of the Art, Future Directions and Applications for Enhancing Clinical Decision-Making' (NLP-CDS). This report is a summary of the discussions during the second day of the workshop. Collectively, the workshop presenters and participants emphasized the need for unstructured clinical notes to be included in the decision making workflow and the need for individualized longitudinal data tracking. The workshop also discussed the need to: (1) combine evidence-based literature and patient records with machine-learning and prediction models; (2) provide trusted and reproducible clinical advice; (3) prioritize evidence and test results; and (4) engage healthcare professionals, caregivers, and patients. The overall consensus of the NLP-CDS workshop was that there are promising opportunities for NLP and CDS to deliver cognitive support for healthcare professionals, caregivers, and patients.

  4. Near-Term Research and Testing of the CWE-300: Executive Summary of Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon Wind Eagle Corporation

    2000-08-24

    This report is a summary of activity on this subcontract during the period from September 1, 1997 through August 30, 1999. The contract entailed the engineering, component tests, system field tests, certification, and preparation for manufacturing the existing Cannon Wind Eagle 300-kW (CWE-300) wind turbine. The CWE 300 is a lightweight, flexible machine with a number of innovative design features that, relative to comparable rigid-hub machines, promises to contribute to reduced capital, installation, and maintenance costs. The architecture of the CWE-300 evolved from earlier wind turbine models developed over several decades. The current design retains many of the desirable features of earlier machines, addresses problems exhibited by those machines, and incorporates further innovative design features.

  5. Rehabilitation Research at the National Institutes of Health: Moving the Field Forward (Executive Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontera, Walter R.; Bean, Jonathan F.; Damiano, Diane; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Jette, Alan; Jung, Ranu; Lieber, Rick L.; Malec, James F.; Mueller, Michael J.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.; Tansey, Keith E.; Thompson, Aiko

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 53 million Americans live with a disability. For decades, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has been conducting and supporting research to discover new ways to minimize disability and enhance the quality of life of people with disabilities. After the passage of the Americans With Disabilities Act, NIH established the National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research, with the goal of developing and implementing a rehabilitation research agenda. Currently, 17 institutes and centers at NIH invest more than $500 million per year in rehabilitation research. Recently, the director of NIH, Francis Collins, appointed a Blue Ribbon Panel to evaluate the status of rehabilitation research across institutes and centers. As a follow-up to the work of that panel, NIH recently organized a conference, “Rehabilitation Research at NIH: Moving the Field Forward.” This report is a summary of the discussions and proposals that will help guide rehabilitation research at NIH in the near future. PMID:28422639

  6. Report to the Congress on the need for, and the feasibility of, establishing a security agency within the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    The Executive Summary of a report written in response to the Congressional mandate Section 204(b)-(2) (c) of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, by the Director of the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is given. It summarizes the main report, which assessed guard force effectiveness, and addressed public policy, administration and legal issues

  7. Forensic Investigation of AC and PCC Pavements with Extended Service Life : Volume 2 : Petrographic Examination of PCC Core Samples at Lankard Materials Laboratory ; Executive Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The overall purpose of this research project as described in : the Executive Summary Report for Volume 1 : (FHWA/OH-2010/04A) is to identify flexible, rigid and : composite pavements that have not received any structural : maintenance since construct...

  8. Findings from the Evaluation of the National Library Power Program. Executive Summary. An Initiative of the DeWitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweizig, Douglas; Hopkins, Dianne McAfee

    This document presents the executive summary of an evaluation of Library Power, a program of the DeWitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund to enhance and elevate the role of libraries in public schools. The report begins with an examination of Library Power's core components (collection development, facilities refurbishing, flexible scheduling,…

  9. Executive summary for the Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    This report is the sixth in a series of annual reports produced by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) since 1986. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of the Weldon Spring site (WSS) on the surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters; air quality; vegetation and wildlife; and, through these multiple pathways, the potential for exposure to receptor human populations. Information is also presented on the environmental monitoring quality assurance program, waste management activities, audits and reviews, and special environmental studies. Data are included for both the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. Based on the consistent exercise of quality assurance in both standard operating procedures and quality control sample collection, the WSSRAP asserts that the data presented in the WSS Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1991 accurately reflect the environmental conditions monitored at the WSS. This report presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions on environmental monitoring at the WSS and surrounding vicinity properties for the entire 1991 monitoring year. During 1991 the WSSRAP also published quarterly data reports, wherein all routine monitoring data were tabulated and presented quarterly to allow the public to review the data in a timely fashion prior to issuance of the annual report

  10. Estimating the Cold War mortgage: The 1995 Baseline Environmental Management report. Executive summary, March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This is the first annual report on the activities and potential costs required to address the waste, contamination, and surplus nuclear facilities that are the responsibility of DOE's Environmental Management program. Of the Base Case life-cycle cost estimate of $230 billion from 1995 to 2070, 49% is waste management, 28% environmental restoration, 10% nuclear material and facility stabilization, 5% technology development, and 8% other. The top 5 sites account for 70% of the costs: Hanford 21%, Savannah River Site 21%, Rocky Flats 10%, Oak Ridge 10%, and Idaho Laboratory 8%. Assumptions include significant productivity increases, meeting current compliance requirements, and use of existing technologies. Excluded were: cleanup where no feasible cleanup technology exists (eg, nuclear explosion sites and most contaminated groundwater), cleanup of currently active facilities, naval nuclear propulsion facilities (handled by US Navy), and first 5 years of program ($23 billion). Of the alternative cases evaluated, land use has the biggest potential cost impact. Total projected environmental costs are comparable to total U.S. nuclear weapons production costs. The makeup of Volumes I and II (the latter being site summaries) are outlined briefly

  11. Executive summary: Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at the Weldon Spring site has changed since it was initiated. Previously, the program focused on investigations of the extent and level of contaminants in the groundwater, surface waters, buildings, and air at the site. In 1992, the level of remedial activities required monitoring for potential impacts of those activities, particularly on surface water runoff and airborne effluents. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site; estimates of effluent releases; and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Also, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1992 to support environmental protection programs are reviewed

  12. Comparisons of three nicotine dependence scales in a multiethnic sample of young adult menthol and non-menthol smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Pebbles; Pohkrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus; Pagano, Ian; Vallone, Donna; Trinidad, Dennis R; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Sterling, Kymberle; Fryer, Craig S; Moolchan, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have compared nicotine dependence among menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers in a multiethnic sample of young adult daily cigarette smokers. This study examines differences in nicotine dependence among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers and the associations of nicotine dependence with quitting behaviors among Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and White cigarette smokers aged 18-35. Craigslist.org, newspaper advertisements, and peer-to-peer referrals were used to recruit daily smokers (n = 186) into a lab-based study. Nicotine dependence was assessed using the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND), the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS), and the brief Wisconsin Inventory for Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine differences in nicotine dependence between menthol and non-menthol smokers and the relationship between each nicotine dependence scale with self-efficacy to quit, quit attempt in the past 12 months, and number of attempts. Menthol smokers were more likely to report difficulty refraining from smoking in places where forbidden (p = .04) and had higher scores on social/environmental goads subscale of the WISDM (p = .0005). Two-way interaction models of the FTND and menthol status showed that menthol smokers with higher levels of dependence were more likely to have tried to quit smoking in the past 12 months (p = .02), but were less likely to have had multiple quit attempts (p = .01). Components of the FTND and WISDM distinguish levels of dependence between menthol and non-menthol smokers. Higher FTND scores were associated with having a quit attempt, but fewer quit attempts among menthol smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CSNI/NEA RASPLAV Seminar 2000, 14-15 November 2000, Munich, Germany - Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmolov, V.; Behbahani, A.; Hache, G.; Nakamura, H.; Raj Sehgal, B.; Strizhov, V.; Trambauer, K.; Tuomisto, H.; Vitanza, C.

    2000-11-01

    various boundary conditions were investigated. The work involved a combination of integral and separate effect tests including molten-salt tests to investigate non-eutectic mixtures and the effects of stratification, extension of the material property database to allow interpretation and modelling of the experimental data. The CSNI decided to hold a seminar where the major outcome of the RASPLAV Project could be presented and discussed also in the context of other experienced activities on Severe Accidents. The objectives of the seminar are: - to review the experimental results of the RASPLAV Project; - to exchange information on complementary research; - to discuss the progress made on understanding severe accident progression; - to discuss the applicability to nuclear power plants and use of the results. The Seminar was intended to provide an in-depth review of the RASPLAV Project in terms of the technical capabilities, results and analyses produced during the project execution. The application of the results and their significance for power plant applications were addressed. Relevant results of the complementary research carried out at various laboratories were also presented. The seminar consisted of five sessions. The abstracts of the presentations are given in the appendix, as well as the list of participants and the conference program

  14. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Mathematical Models of Coupled Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Processes for Nuclear Waste Repositories. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, L.; Stephansson, O.; Kautzky, F.

    2005-02-01

    DECOVALEX is an international consortium of governmental agencies associated with the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a number of countries. The consortium's mission is the DEvelopment of COupled models and their VALidation against EXperiments. Hence the acronym/name DECOVALEX. Currently, agencies from Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States are in DECOVALEX. Emplacement of nuclear waste in a repository in geologic media causes a number of physical processes to be intensified in the surrounding rock mass due to the decay heat from the waste. The four main processes of concern are thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical. Interactions or coupling between these heat-driven processes must be taken into account in modeling the performance of the repository for such modeling to be meaningful and reliable. DECOVALEX III is organized around four tasks. The FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barriers EXperiment) in situ experiment being conducted at the Grimsel site in Switzerland is to be simulated and analyzed in Task 1. Task 2, centered around the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain in Nevada, USA, has several sub-tasks (Task 2A, Task 2B, Task 2C and Task 2D) to investigate a number of the coupled processes in the DST. Task 3 studies three benchmark problems: a) the effects of thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) coupling on the performance of the near-field of a nuclear waste repository (BMT1); b) the effect of upscaling THM processes on the results of performance assessment (BMT2); and c) the effect of glaciation on rock mass behavior (BMT3). Task 4 is on the direct application of THM coupled process modeling in the performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories in geologic media. This executive summary presents the motivation, structure, objectives, approaches, and the highlights of the main achievements and outstanding issues of the tasks studied in the DECOVALEX III project. The

  15. Menthol cigarettes and the public health standard: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Collins, Lauren K; Niaura, Raymond S; Gagosian, Stacey Y; Abrams, David B

    2017-12-29

    Although menthol was not banned under the Tobacco Control Act, the law made it clear that this did not prevent the Food and Drug Administration from issuing a product standard to ban menthol to protect public health. The purpose of this review was to update the evidence synthesis regarding the role of menthol in initiation, dependence and cessation. A systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature on menthol cigarettes via a PubMed search through May 9, 2017. The National Cancer Institute's Bibliography of Literature on Menthol and Tobacco and the FDA's 2011 report and 2013 addendum were reviewed for additional publications. Included articles addressing initiation, dependence, and cessation were synthesized based on study design and quality, consistency of evidence across populations and over time, coherence of findings across studies, and plausibility of the findings. Eighty-two studies on menthol cigarette initiation (n = 46), dependence (n = 14), and cessation (n = 34) were included. Large, representative studies show an association between menthol and youth smoking that is consistent in magnitude and direction. One longitudinal and eight cross-sectional studies demonstrate that menthol smokers report increased nicotine dependence compared to non-menthol smokers. Ten studies support the temporal relationship between menthol and reduced smoking cessation, as they measure cessation success at follow-up. The strength and consistency of the associations in these studies support that the removal of menthol from cigarettes is likely to reduce youth smoking initiation, improve smoking cessation outcomes in adult smokers, and in turn, benefit public health.

  16. High integrity software for nuclear power plants: Candidate guidelines, technical basis and research needs. Executive summary: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, S.; Bail, W.; Cleaves, D.; Cohen, H.; Hybertson, D.; Schaefer, C.; Stark, G.; Ta, A.; Ulery, B.

    1995-06-01

    The work documented in this report was performed in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to examine the technical basis for candidate guidelines that could be considered in reviewing and evaluating high integrity computer software used in the safety systems of nuclear power plants. The framework for the work consisted of the following software development and assurance activities: requirements specification; design; coding; verification and validation, including static analysis and dynamic testing; safety analysis; operation and maintenance; configuration management; quality assurance; and planning and management. Each activity (framework element) was subdivided into technical areas (framework subelements). The report describes the development of approximately 200 candidate guidelines that span the entire range of software life-cycle activities; the assessment of the technical basis for those candidate guidelines; and the identification, categorization and prioritization of research needs for improving the technical basis. The report has two volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary, includes an overview of the framework and of each framework element, the complete set of candidate guidelines, the results of the assessment of the technical basis for each candidate guideline, and a discussion of research needs that support the regulatory function; Volume 2 is the main report

  17. Evaluation of Potential Effect of Menthol Solution on Oral Hygiene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To test the effect of menthol extract on the oral hygiene status of dental students of Faculty of. Dentistry ... positive and Gram-negative bacteria [9]. .... animals, which in turn indicates that this substance is well tolerated. Elimination of menthol extract from oral cavity. The volunteers in the study group had mean age.

  18. Differential trends in cigarette smoking in the USA: is menthol slowing progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovino, Gary A; Villanti, Andrea C; Mowery, Paul D; Sevilimedu, Varadan; Niaura, Raymond S; Vallone, Donna M; Abrams, David B

    2015-01-01

    Mentholated cigarettes are at least as dangerous to an individual's health as non-mentholated varieties. The addition of menthol to cigarettes reduces perceived harshness of smoke, which can facilitate initiation. Here, we examine correlates of menthol use, national trends in smoking menthol and non-menthol cigarettes, and brand preferences over time. We estimated menthol cigarette use during 2004-2010 using annual data on persons ≥12 years old from the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We adjusted self-reported menthol status for selected brands that were either exclusively menthol or non-menthol, based on sales data. Data were weighted to provide national estimates. Among cigarette smokers, menthol cigarette use was more common among 12-17 year olds (56.7%) and 18-25 year olds (45.0%) than among older persons (range 30.5% to 34.7%). In a multivariable analysis, menthol use was associated with being younger, female and of non-Caucasian race/ethnicity. Among all adolescents, the percentage who smoked non-menthol cigarettes decreased from 2004-2010, while menthol smoking rates remained constant; among all young adults, the percentage who smoked non-menthol cigarettes also declined, while menthol smoking rates increased. The use of Camel menthol and Marlboro menthol increased among adolescent and young adult smokers, particularly non-Hispanic Caucasians, during the study period. Young people are heavy consumers of mentholated cigarettes. Progress in reducing youth smoking has likely been attenuated by the sale and marketing of mentholated cigarettes, including emerging varieties of established youth brands. This study should inform the Food and Drug Administration regarding the potential public health impact of a menthol ban. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. The effect of inhaled menthol on upper airway resistance in humans: A randomized controlled crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effie J Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Menthol (l-menthol is a naturally-occurring cold receptor agonist commonly used to provide symptomatic relief for upper airway congestion. Menthol can also reduce the sensation of dyspnea. It is unclear whether the physiological action of menthol in dyspnea reduction is through its cold receptor agonist effect or whether associated mechanical changes occur in the upper airway.

  20. Public opinion about FDA regulation of menthol and nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcic-Jankovic, Dragana; Biener, Lois

    2015-12-01

    Regulations that reduce nicotine and eliminate menthol in cigarettes have been proposed to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as product alterations that could reduce smoking prevalence in the USA. This study sought to assess the public response to either action. A mail survey of a representative sample of 1074 adults was conducted in two major metropolitan areas to determine the level of support for immediate, gradual or no reduction of menthol and nicotine in cigarettes. There was more support for reducing nicotine (79%) than for reducing or removing menthol (59.5%). Most smokers (59.2%; 95% CI 50.7 to 67.2) and 36% of non-smokers (95% CI 31.7 to 40.8) opposed eliminating menthol, but few smokers (23.8%) or non-smokers (20.3%) were opposed to reducing nicotine. Logistic regression showed no significant effect of smoking status on support for reductions in nicotine, but that smokers were significantly less supportive than non-smokers of FDA action on menthol (OR=0.32, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.49). A significant race by smoking status interaction showed that African-American smokers were more supportive of removing menthol than non-African-American smokers. The greater smoker support for reductions in nicotine than menthol could be due to inaccurate beliefs about the disease risk associated with the two substances (ie, a belief that nicotine is more harmful than menthol), or to greater awareness of the sensory role that menthol plays in smokers' satisfaction. In any case, if FDA goes ahead with regulations to remove menthol, it will be important to develop strategies to reduce smoker resistance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. EHRA practical guide on the use of new oral anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbuchel, Hein; Verhamme, Peter; Alings, Marco; Antz, Matthias; Hacke, Werner; Oldgren, Jonas; Sinnaeve, Peter; Camm, A John; Kirchhof, Paulus

    2013-07-01

    New oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are an alternative for vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) to prevent stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). Both physicians and patients will have to learn how to use these drugs effectively and safely in specific clinical situations. This text is an executive summary of a practical guide that the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) has assembled to help physicians in the use of the different NOACs. The full text is being published in EP Europace. Practical answers have been formulated for 15 concrete clinical scenarios: (i) practical start-up and follow-up scheme for patients on NOACs; (ii) how to measure the anticoagulant effect of NOACs; (iii) drug-drug interactions and pharmacokinetics of NOACs; (iv) switching between anticoagulant regimens; (v) ensuring compliance of NOAC intake; (vi) how to deal with dosing errors; (vii) patients with chronic kidney disease; (viii) what to do if there is a (suspected) overdose without bleeding, or a clotting test is indicating a risk of bleeding?; (ix) management of bleeding complications; (x) patients undergoing a planned surgical intervention or ablation; (xi) patients undergoing an urgent surgical intervention; (xii) patients with AF and coronary artery disease; (xiii) cardioversion in a NOAC-treated patient; (xiv) patients presenting with acute stroke while on NOACs; (xv) NOACs vs. VKAs in AF patients with a malignancy. Since new information is becoming available at a rapid pace, an EHRA web site with the latest updated information accompanies the guide (www.NOACforAF.eu). It also contains links to the ESC AF Guidelines, a key message pocket booklet, print-ready files for a proposed universal NOAC anticoagulation card, and feedback possibilities.

  2. Identification and management of cardiometabolic risk in Canada: a position paper by the cardiometabolic risk working group (executive summary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Lawrence A; Fitchett, David H; Gilbert, Richard E; Gupta, Milan; Mancini, G B John; McFarlane, Philip A; Ross, Robert; Teoh, Hwee; Verma, Subodh; Anand, Sonia; Camelon, Kathryn; Chow, Chi-Ming; Cox, Jafna L; Després, Jean-Pierre; Genest, Jacques; Harris, Stewart B; Lau, David C W; Lewanczuk, Richard; Liu, Peter P; Lonn, Eva M; McPherson, Ruth; Poirier, Paul; Qaadri, Shafiq; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Rabkin, Simon W; Sharma, Arya M; Steele, Andrew W; Stone, James A; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tobe, Sheldon; Ur, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    With the objectives of clarifying the concepts related to "cardiometabolic risk," "metabolic syndrome" and "risk stratification" and presenting practical strategies to identify and reduce cardiovascular risk in multiethnic patient populations, the Cardiometabolic Working Group presents an executive summary of a detailed analysis and position paper that offers a comprehensive and consolidated approach to the identification and management of cardiometabolic risk. The above concepts overlap and relate to the atherogenic process and development of type 2 diabetes. However, there is confusion about what these terms mean and how they can best be used to improve our understanding of cardiovascular disease treatment and prevention. The concepts related to cardiometabolic risk, pathophysiology, and strategies for identification and management (including health behaviours, pharmacotherapy, and surgery) in the multiethnic Canadian population are presented. "Global cardiometabolic risk" is proposed as an umbrella term for a comprehensive list of existing and emerging factors that predict cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Health behaviour interventions (weight loss, physical activity, diet, smoking cessation) in people identified at high cardiometabolic risk are of critical importance given the emerging crisis of obesity and the consequent epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Vascular protective measures (health behaviours for all patients and pharmacotherapy in appropriate patients) are essential to reduce cardiometabolic risk, and there is growing consensus that a multidisciplinary approach is needed to adequately address cardiometabolic risk factors. Health care professionals must also consider ethnicity-related risk factors in order to appropriately evaluate all individuals in their diverse patient populations. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Artificial intelligence executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wamsley, S.J.; Purvis, E.E. III

    1984-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a high technology field that can be used to provide problem solving diagnosis, guidance and for support resolution of problems. It is not a stand alone discipline, but can also be applied to develop data bases for retention of the expertise that is required for its own knowledge base. This provides a way to retain knowledge that otherwise may be lost. Artificial Intelligence Methodology can provide an automated construction management decision support system, thereby restoring the manager's emphasis to project management

  4. Volume I: executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Everett; Paul Hessburg; Mark Jensen; Bernard. Bormann

    1994-01-01

    This report responds to the request by Speaker Foley and Senator Hatfield for a scientific evaluation of the effects of Forest Service management practices on the sustainability of eastern Oregon and Washington ecosystems. The report recommends analysis methods and management practices that can be used to build an experimental approach to the restoration of stressed...

  5. FWP executive summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, G.A.

    1995-02-01

    This document is a compilation of the Field Work Proposals (FWP) for the DOE BES Materials Sciences Program. The program is directed toward Scientifically Tailored Materials, specifically for energy applications.

  6. Executive Summary - Our mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    On September 1 st 2003, the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow joined the Polish Academy of Sciences. The Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN), founded in 1952, is a state-sponsored scientific institution acting through an elected corporation of leading scholars, their research organizations and through numerous scientific establishments. PAN is a major national scientific advisory body acting via its scientific committees which represent all disciplines of science. There are currently 79 PAN research establishments (institutes and research centers, research stations, botanical gardens and other research units) and a number of auxiliary scientific units (such as archives, libraries, museums, and PAN stations abroad). Our Institute is currently one of the largest research institutions of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The research activity of the Academy is financed mainly from the State budget via the Ministry of Scientific Research and Information Technology. The mission of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, IFJ is stated in its Charter. According to Paragraphs 5, 6, and 7 of the 2004 Charter, the Institute's duty is to carry out research activities in the following areas:1. High energy and elementary particle physics (including astrophysics), 2. Nuclear physics and physics of mechanisms of nuclear interaction, 3. Condensed matter physics, 4. Interdisciplinary research, and in particular: in radiation and environmental biology, environmental physics, medical physics, dosimetry, nuclear geophysics, radiochemistry and material engineering. The main tasks of the Institute are: 1. To perform research in the above disciplines, 2. To promote the development of scientists and of specialists qualified to carry out research in these disciplines, 3. To organize a Post-Doctoral Study Course, 4. To permit, through agreements with national and foreign research institutions, external scholars to train and gain academic qualifications in the Institute's laboratories, 5. To collaborate with national and local authorities in providing them with expertise in the Institute's research topics, especially concerning radiation protection. These tasks are fulfilled by: 1. Performing individual and coordinated research through individual and collective research grant projects, 2. Initiating and maintaining cooperation with laboratories, organizations and institutions performing similar activities, in Poland and abroad, 3. Conferring scientific degrees and titles, 4. Distributing research results obtained, through peer-reviewed publications and other public media, 5. Organizing scientific meetings, conferences, symposia, training workshops, etc., 6. Providing expertise and analytic reports to government institutions and local authorities, 7. Carrying out other duties, within the statutory mandate of the Institute

  7. Chapter 0: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter deals with the background (Gabcikovo hydro power scheme was input in October 1992), project objective, project framework, equipment, establishment of the integrated modelling system, model setup, calibration and validation, definitions of scenarios for model application and with the results of model applications

  8. Preliminaries & Executive Summary

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    jg

    2007-05-29

    May 29, 2007 ... Discussion of 'economic democracy': consumer sovereignty and effect on firms. 13 .... Use of franchised competition authorities for small local cases. 23 ...... UNCTAD and the World Bank. These technical assistance initiatives aimed at raising awareness of basic concepts of competition law and techniques.

  9. WEO-2011 Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    There are few signs that the urgently needed change in direction in global energy trends is underway. Although the recovery in the world economy since 2009 has been uneven, and future economic prospects remain uncertain, global primary energy demand rebounded by a remarkable 5% in 2010, pushing CO2 emissions to a new high. Subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption of fossil fuels jumped to over $400 billion. The number of people without access to electricity remained unacceptably high at 1.3 billion, around 20% of the world's population. Despite the priority in many countries to increase energy efficiency, global energy intensity worsened for the second straight year. Against this unpromising background, events such as those at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant and the turmoil in parts of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) have cast doubts on the reliability of energy supply, while concerns about sovereign financial integrity have shifted the focus of government attention away from energy policy and limited their means of policy intervention, boding ill for agreed global climate change objectives.

  10. Chapter 1 - Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew G. Rollins; Robert E. Keane; Zhiliang Zhu

    2006-01-01

    Geospatial data describing wildland fuel and current as well as historical vegetation conditions are essential for planning, implementing, and monitoring projects supported by the National Fire Plan and the Healthy Forests Restoration Act. Scientifically credible, consistent, and standardized spatial data allow fire and land managers to accurately identify the amount...

  11. Executive Summary - Future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Our Institute has sufficient scientific potential to play a key role in the field of particle physics, nuclear physics and in several aspects of solid state and applied physics, at least in our part of Europe. We believe the Institute should continue its present mode of operation, where basic research, closely coordinated through our collaboration with leading laboratories all over the world, stimulates our interdisciplinary research and technology transfer to the industry. If our present scientific potential is matched by suitably modernized infrastructure, we should be able to acquire the critical mass necessary for further effective development. In order to maintain our present world-level research, we have to continue and further extend our participation in large international collaborations, in the construction of large detectors and to seek further financial support from EU and international organizations. For experimental particle physics, our priorities remain in collaborating with major European and world laboratories such as CERN, DESY, Gran Sasso, Fermilab, KEK, SLAC and with laboratories developing astrophysics experiments, such as the PIERRE AUGER experiment. Collaboration in the field of nuclear physics, physics of condensed matter, theoretical physics and interdisciplinary research should be continued with leading European laboratories offering access to large accelerator facilities (such as GANIL or GSI), to synchrotron radiation or to unique polarized neutron beams, such as those available at ILL Grenoble. An exiting new frontier in research for our research teams will be opened by the X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) in DESY and the future International Linear Collider. We will be able to further invest towards upgrading our small-scale facilities, such as the infrastructure around the Van de Graaff accelerator, in order to perform single-ion beam experiments, or around the AIC-144 cyclotron, to treat ocular melanoma, in close collaboration with ophthalmologists at the Collegium Medicum (Jagiellonian University) and radiotherapists at the Centre of Oncology. Our Institute is capable of providing PET isotopes to the local medical community. We will continue to upgrade our technical infrastructure and research equipment basing on Structural Funds of the European Commission. We are able to achieve this through our Centres of Excellence and Centres of Advanced Technologies. We will further continue to strongly support the application of methods of nuclear physics in biological and medical research, such as single-ion studies of the effects of low-radiation doses, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance research in physiology, the Atomic Force microscope for studying properties of cell and membranes, the chromosome aberration/DNA studies for biological dosimetry, or advanced dosimetry techniques for medical physics and space dosimetry. We shall also continue our obligation to serve the national and local authorities with our expertise in radiation protection and dosimetry. We intend to further support the development of geophysical methods for searching natural resources. In view of the current discussion on the future sources of energy in Poland, our Institute will actively engage in promoting nuclear energy, based on new-generation reactor technology. We will be actively seeking the opportunity of maintaining the tradition of our Institute being focused around its major accelerator facility. While the present AIC-144 cyclotron is no longer adequate for treatment of deep-seated tumors, a medium-sized synchrotron able to accelerate light ions to energies of some several hundred MeV/amu, capable of generating ion beams suitable for light-ion radiotherapy, could fulfill this role, stimulating a renewal of our past close collaboration with radiotherapists in fighting cancer. Such radiotherapy centres are currently under development in other parts of the European Community. We will actively seek the opportunities to obtain external funding for this purpose. However, we are fully aware of the difficulty of introducing cutting-edge medical technology to the Polish national health care system, in view of the immediate needs of this seriously undercapitalized service of our 40-million community. We need to devote special attention to further training our personnel. The present potential of the Institute allows our research group to participate in the most ambitious projects and collaborations. Availability of such highly educated and experienced technical staff is absolutely essential for performing this type of work. Such personnel is not usually available at universities, where the potential is spread-out to a much larger extent. We would like to maintain our group of engineers specialized in the development and construction of detectors, dedicated electronics and software needed for experimental physics. One of the principal goals of the Institute is to promote professional careers of young researchers in Poland. We would like to increase the participation of undergraduate and graduate (Ph.D.) students and short-term postdoctoral researchers, originating from Europe and outside, in activities of the research groups in the Institute. We plan to strengthen our cooperation with universities and technical universities in southern Poland (Cracow, Rzeszow, Kielce, Katowice and others) by teaching students and providing our laboratories and expertise to help them complete their theses. Further development of our International Post-Graduate Study Course, in collaboration with other institutions in the European Research Area, will be strongly supported

  12. Executive Summary - Historical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) was established in Cracow in 1955. The post-war excitement of engaging in scientific activity, can certainly be credited to the talent, experience and unusual personality of Professor Henryk Niewodniczanski, the founder and first Director of the INP. In the 60's the INP research activity was concentrated around the Russian U120 Cyclotron, built in 1958 which provided deuteron beams up to 14.5 MeV and of alpha particles up to 29 MeV. A small 48 cm pole-piece cyclotron with was in-house constructed, and used for PIXE analyses and RBA material studies. In 1960's, the nuclear spectroscopy group began building several types of magnetic beta ray spectrometers to study excited levels of neutron-deficient isotopes provided by the 660 MeV cyclotron of the JINR. In parallel, studies of spin polarization of n and p emitted in the deuteron stripping reaction were performed. Studies of condensed matter using pulsed neutron beams from the IBR30 and Kjeller (Norway) reactors had also began. The NMR signal was first observed in Poland by physicists from the Jagiellonian University, and a well equipped NMR Laboratory was also created at the INP. A small theoretical physics department was established to support experimental research. Applied physics, based on the research performed in the INP was also developed. Following the interest in fast neutron radiotherapy, initiated by the Gray Laboratory in Hammersmith, a beam of fast neutrons was produced on a Be target by 13.5 MeV deuterons from the U120 and applied for cancer therapy, in a collaborative effort with the Centre of Oncology in Cracow. Over a period of 10 years, some 500 patients were treated, in selected types of salivary gland cancer and post-mastectomy recurrences. In the late 60's a technology of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) was developed at the INP, based on specially activated LiF. The method was patented and TLDs, manufactured at the INP, are nowadays applied by in over 30 countries. The INP had an important role to play during and after the Chernobyl accident, by serving the population with measurements of radioactive contamination of air, soil and food. This work is being continued, with a permanent early-warning and monitoring station at the INP, an element of the national radiation monitoring system. After 38 years of operation the U-120 cyclotron was replaced by an inhouse constructed 144 cm pole-piece AIC-144 one able to accelerate protons up to 60 MeV, which is now used to produce short-lived beta-plus isotopes and will be able to provide a proton beam for treating ocular melanoma. The small 48-cm cyclotron was replaced by a 2.5 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator. With a microbeam capacity, it serves to continue and further develop the interdisciplinary research in cell biology, archaeology and material structure. The particle and high energy physics group, which joined the INP in 1970 (and had originated from the Cosmic Ray Studies group initiated in 1938 by Professor Marian Miesowicz at the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy) was initially connected with accelerators of the JINR and later was able to expand to CERN and DESY. The theoretical physics group had also expanded, engaging in particle theory and astrophysics. We take part in assembling the LHC. We entered the ATLAS, ALICE, and LHCb collaborations and may possibly join the CASTOR project. We took part in constructing the HERA collider and are collaborators in the large ZEUS and H1 projects. We joined the TESLA project. Within the ZEUS collaboration we built the luminosity detector. At the RHIC collider we constructed a large part of the PHOBOS detector and within this collaboration we made a contribution to the discovery of the new state of hadronic matter. Within the BELLE collaboration at KEK we took part in the measurements of the CP violation effects in the B mesons decay. Our scientists participate in experiments performed at GANIL, Legnaro and GSI. We carry out condensed matter physics experiments at the High Flux Reactor of The Laue Langevin Institute and the ISIS spallation source at Rutherford-Appleton. Recently, we very actively entered the ICARUS neutrino collaboration and were invited to the PIERRE AUGER collaboration which will search for the highest energies in the Universe. Having close ties with CERN we are very actively engaged in CROSS-GRID, a large computer network project. To better understand the historical background of the INP development, it is necessary to add a few comments on financing of science in Poland. During the 70's and the 80's, research was financed through the so-called Central Research Projects for Science and Technical Development. The advantage of this system was that state-allocated research funds were divided only by a few representatives of the scientific community, which allowed realistic allocation of money to a small number of projects. After 1989 we were able to purchase commercially available equipment, which led to the closure of our large and very experienced electronic workshop. We also considerably reduced our well equipped mechanical shop. During the 90's the reduced state financing of science was accompanied by a newly established Committee of Scientific Research which led to the creation of a system of small research projects. This precluded the development of more ambitious research projects and led to the dispersion of equipment among many smaller laboratories and universities. A large research establishment, such as our Institute, could not develop properly under such conditions. In all, between 1989 and 2004 we reduced our personnel from about 800 to 470 and our infrastructure became seriously undercapitalised. However, with energetic search for research funds, from European rather than national research programs, we hope to improve and modernize our laboratories and their infrastructure in the coming years

  13. Choice alters Drosophila oviposition site preference on menthol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehbia Abed-Vieillard

    2013-09-01

    Food choice and preference relies on multiple sensory systems that are under the control of genes and sensory experience. Exposure to specific nutrients and nutrient-related molecules can change food preference in vertebrates and invertebrates. For example, larval exposure of several holometabolous insects to menthol can change their adult response to this molecule. However, studies involving Drosophila melanogaster exposure to menthol produced controversial results due maybe to methodological differences. Here, we compared the oviposition-site preference of wild-type D. melanogaster lines freely or forcibly exposed to menthol-rich food. After 12 generations, oviposition-site preference diverged between the two lines. Counterintuitively, menthol ‘forced’ lines showed a persistent aversion to menthol whereas ‘free choice’ lines exhibited a decreased aversion to menthol-rich food. This effect was specific to menthol since the ‘free choice’ lines showed unaltered responses to caffeine and sucrose. This suggests that the genetic factors underlying Drosophila oviposition site preference are more rapidly influenced when flies have a choice between alternative sources compared to flies permanently exposed to the same aversive substance.

  14. The intersection of gender and race/ethnicity in smoking behaviors among menthol and non-menthol smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubbin, Catherine; Soobader, Mah-Jabeen; LeClere, Felicia B

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether menthol is related to initiation, quantity or quitting, we examined differences in smoking behaviors among menthol and non-menthol smokers, stratified by gender and race/ethnicity, and adjusting for age, income and educational attainment. Cross-sectional, using data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey and Cancer Control Supplement. United States. Black, Hispanic and white women and men aged 25-64 years. For each group, we examined (i) proportion of menthol smokers (comparing current and former smokers); (ii) age of initiation, cigarettes smoked per day and quit attempt in the past year (comparing menthol and non-menthol current smokers); and (iii) time since quitting (comparing menthol and non-menthol former smokers). We calculated predicted values for each demographic group, adjusting for age, income and educational attainment. After adjusting for age, income and education, black (compared with Hispanic and white) and female (compared with male) smokers were more likely to choose menthol cigarettes. There was only one statistically significant difference in age of initiation, cigarettes smoked per day, quit attempts or time since quitting between menthol and non-menthol smokers: white women who smoked menthol cigarettes reported longer cessation compared with those who smoked non-menthol cigarettes. The results do not support the hypothesis that menthol smokers initiate earlier, smoke more or have a harder time quitting compared with non-menthol smokers. A menthol additive and the marketing of it, given the clear demographic preferences demonstrated here, however, may be responsible for enticing the groups least likely to smoke into this addictive behavior. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 1, Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kevin [Dravo Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beeghly, Joel H. [Dravo Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2000-11-30

    About 30 electric utility units with a combined total of 15,000 MW utilize magnesium enhanced lime flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. A disadvantage of this and other inhibited or natural oxidation wet FGD systems is the capital and operating cost associated with landfill disposal of the calcium sulfite based solids. Fixation to stabilize the solids for compaction in a landfill also consumes fly ash that otherwise may be marketable. This Executive Summary describes efforts to dewater the magnesium hydroxide and gypsum slurries and then process the solids into a more user friendly and higher value form. To eliminate the cost of solids disposal in its first generation Thiosorbic® system, the Dravo Lime Company developed the ThioClear® process that utilizes a magnesium based absorber liquor to remove S02 with minimal suspended solids. Magnesium enhanced lime is added to an oxidized bleed stream of thickener overflow (TOF) to produce magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] and gypsum (CaS04 • 2H20), as by-products. This process was demonstrated at the 3 to 5 MW closed loop FGD system pilot plant at the Miami Fort Station of Cinergy, near Cincinnati, Ohio with the help of OCDO Grant Agreement CDO/D-91-6. A similar process strictly for'recovery and reuse of Mg(OH)2 began operation at the Zimmer Station of Cinergy in late 1994 that can produce 900 pounds of Mg(OH)2 per hour and 2,600 pounds of gypsum per hour. This by-product plant, called the Zimmer Slipstream Magnesium Hydroxide Recovery Project Demonstration, was conducted with the help of OCDO Grant Agreement CDO/D-921-004. Full scale ThioClear® plants began operating in 1997 at the 130 MW Applied Energy Services plant, in Monaca, PA, and in year 2000 at the 1,330 MW Allegheny Energy Pleasants Station at St. Marys, WV.

  16. Critical human-factors issues in nuclear-power regulation and a recommended comprehensive human-factors long-range plan. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, C.O.; Snyder, H.L.; Price, H.E.; Hornick, R.J.; Mackie, R.R.; Smillie, R.J.; Sugarman, R.C.

    1982-08-01

    This comprehensive long-range human factors plan for nuclear reactor regulation was developed by a Study Group of the Human Factors Society, Inc. This Study Group was selected by the Executive Council of the Society to provide a balanced, experienced human factors perspective to the applications of human factors scientific and engineering knowledge to nuclear power generation. The report is presented in three volumes. Volume 1 contains an Executive Summary of the 18-month effort and its conclusions. Volume 2 summarizes all known nuclear-related human factors activities, evaluates these activities wherever adequate information is available, and describes the recommended long-range (10-year) plan for human factors in regulation. Volume 3 elaborates upon each of the human factors issues and areas of recommended human factors involvement contained in the plan, and discusses the logic that led to the recommendations

  17. Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement. Handling and storage of spent light water power reactor fuel. Volume 1. Executive summary and text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    The Generic Environmental Impact Statement on spent fuel storage was prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in response to a directive from the Commissioners published in the Federal Register, September 16, 1975 (40 FR 42801). The Commission directed the staff to analyze alternatives for the handling and storage of spent light water power reactor fuel with particular emphasis on developing long range policy. Accordingly, the scope of this statement examines alternative methods of spent fuel storage as well as the possible restriction or termination of the generation of spent fuel through nuclear power plant shutdown. Volume 1 includes the executive summary and the text

  18. DECOVALEX - Mathematical models of coupled T-H-M processes for nuclear waste repositories. Executive summary for Phases I,II and III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, L.; Stephansson, O.; Tsang, C.F.; Kautsky, F.

    1996-06-01

    This executive summary presents the motivation, structure, objectives, methodologies and results of the first stage of the international DECOVALEX project - DECOVALEX I (1992-1995). The acronym stands for Development of Coupled Models and their Validation against Experiment in Nuclear Waste Isolation, and the project is an international effort to develop mathematical models, numerical methods and computer codes for coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in fractured rocks and buffer materials for geological isolation of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive wastes, and validate them against laboratory and field experiments. 24 refs

  19. Legal obstacles and incentives to the third development of small-scale hydroelectric potential in the six New England states: executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    This executive summary describes the relationship of Federal law and regulation to state law and regulation of small-scale hydroelectric facilities. It also highlights important features of the constitutional law, statutory law, case law, and regulations of each of the six New England states. The summary may serve as a concise overview of and introduction to the detailed reports prepared by the Energy Law Institute on the legal and regulatory systems of each of the six states. The dual regulatory system is a function of the federalist nature of our government. This dual system is examined from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, i.e., the law of pre-emption, and the application of this law to the case of hydroelectric development. The regulation of small dams are discussed and flow diagrams of the regulations are presented for each of the six states - Maine, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Connecticut.

  20. Eleventh annual U.S. DOE low-level radioactive waste management conference: Executive summary, opening plenary, technical session summaries, and attendees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-01-01

    The conference consisted of ten technical sessions, with three sessions running simultaneously each day. Session topics included: regulatory updates; performance assessment;understanding remedial action efforts; low-level waste strategy and planning (Nuclear Energy); low-level waste strategy and planning (Defense); compliance monitoring; decontamination and decommissioning; waste characterization; waste reduction and minimization; and prototype licensing application workshop. Summaries are presented for each of these sessions.

  1. Adolescent menthol smokers: will they be a harder target for cessation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolchan, Eric T

    2004-02-01

    Menthol smoking may influence the development of tobacco addiction and related health consequences, yet limited data on menthol smoking by youth are available. We assessed usual brand menthol preference by Baltimore-area teenage smokers applying to a smoking cessation study between September 1999 and December 2002. Of a biethnic (Black and White) sample of 593 youths (mean age=15.5+/-1.4 years, 51% female, 45% African American), the overwhelming majority (93%) were menthol smokers. Menthol preference rates were highest among African American girls and lowest among White boys. Overall, a statistically significant association was found between ethnicity and menthol preference, chi2 (df=1)=19.4, page in either ethnic group. These findings of overwhelming menthol preference in a treatment-seeking sample of adolescents warrant further research on the developmental trajectory, cessation, and health-related impact of menthol smoking by youth.

  2. Tobacco industry control of menthol in cigarettes and targeting of adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslake, Jennifer M; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Alpert, Hillel R; Koh, Howard K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2008-09-01

    We examined whether tobacco manufacturers manipulate the menthol content of cigarettes in an effort to target adolescents and young adults. We analyzed data from tobacco industry documents describing menthol product development, results of laboratory testing of US menthol brands, market research reports, and the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. The tobacco industry attracted new smokers by promoting cigarettes with lower menthol content, which were popular with adolescents and young adults, and provided cigarettes with higher menthol content to long-term smokers. Menthol cigarette sales remained stable from 2000 to 2005 in the United States, despite a 22% decline in overall packs sold. Tobacco companies manipulate the sensory characteristics of cigarettes, including menthol content, thereby facilitating smoking initiation and nicotine dependence. Menthol brands that have used this strategy have been the most successful in attracting youth and young adult smokers and have grown in popularity.

  3. Menthol cigarette smoking and obesity in young adult daily smokers in Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Marie M. Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates 1 the relationship between menthol cigarette smoking and obesity and 2 the association of body mass index with the nicotine metabolite ratio among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 175. A brief survey on smoking and measures of height and weight, carbon monoxide, and saliva samples were collected from participants from May to December 2013 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Multiple regression was used to estimate differences in body mass index among menthol and non-menthol smokers and the association of menthol smoking with obesity. We calculated the log of the nicotine metabolite ratio to examine differences in the nicotine metabolite ratio among normal, overweight, and obese smokers. Sixty-eight percent of smokers used menthol cigarettes. Results showed that 62% of normal, 54% of overweight, and 91% of obese smokers used menthol cigarettes (p = .000. The mean body mass index was significantly higher among menthol compared with non-menthol smokers (29.4 versus 24.5, p = .000. After controlling for gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, and race/ethnicity, menthol smokers were more than 3 times as likely as non-menthol smokers to be obese (p = .04. The nicotine metabolite ratio was significantly lower for overweight menthol smokers compared with non-menthol smokers (.16 versus .26, p = .02 in the unadjusted model, but was not significant after adjusting for the covariates. Consistent with prior studies, our data show that menthol smokers are more likely to be obese compared with non-menthol smokers. Future studies are needed to determine how flavored tobacco products influence obesity among smokers.

  4. 2016 AHA/ACC Guideline on the Management of Patients With Lower Extremity Peripheral Artery Disease: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard-Herman, Marie D.; Gornik, Heather L.; Barrett, Coletta; Barshes, Neal R.; Corriere, Matthew A.; Drachman, Douglas E.; Fleisher, Lee A.; Fowkes, Francis Gerry R.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Kinlay, Scott; Lookstein, Robert; Misra, Sanjay; Mureebe, Leila; Olin, Jeffrey W.; Patel, Rajan A.G.; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Schanzer, Andres; Shishehbor, Mehdi H.; Stewart, Kerry J.; Treat-Jacobson, Diane; Walsh, M. Eileen; Halperin, Jonathan L.

    2017-01-01

    strives to avoid bias by selecting experts from a broad array of backgrounds representing different geographic regions, sexes, ethnicities, intellectual perspectives/biases, and scopes of clinical practice, and by inviting organizations and professional societies with related interests and expertise to participate as partners or collaborators. Individualizing Care in Patients With Associated Conditions and Comorbidities Managing patients with multiple conditions can be complex, especially when recommendations applicable to coexisting illnesses are discordant or interacting.8 The guidelines are intended to define practices meeting the needs of patients in most, but not all, circumstances. The recommendations should not replace clinical judgment. Clinical Implementation Management in accordance with guideline recommendations is effective only when followed. Adherence to recommendations can be enhanced by shared decision making between clinicians and patients, with patient engagement in selecting interventions on the basis of individual values, preferences, and associated conditions and comorbidities. Consequently, circumstances may arise in which deviations from these guidelines are appropriate. The reader is encouraged to consult the full-text guideline9 for additional guidance and details with regard to lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) because the executive summary contains limited information. PMID:27840332

  5. A cross-sectional study on tobacco use and dependence among women: Does menthol matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Judith; Rees, Vaughan W; Reid, Kathleen; Wong, Jeannie; Kinnunen, Taru

    2012-11-27

    The question of whether mentholation of cigarettes enhances tobacco dependence has generated conflicting findings. Potential mediating factors in a putative relationship between menthol use and tobacco dependence may include race and gender. While an association between menthol use and dependence is mixed, research on the role of race solely among women smokers is scarce. This study examined whether women menthol smokers have higher tobacco use and dependence than non-menthol smokers. Further, the study investigated differences between White and African American smokers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 928 women seeking tobacco dependence treatment in Boston, Massachusetts. Measures obtained included preferred brand and menthol content, dependence markers (cigarettes per day (CPD); time to first cigarette in the morning; number of and longest previous quit attempts) and smoking history (age of initiation; years smoking; menthol or non-menthol cigarette preference). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to detect interactions between menthol preference by race for continuous variables, and Pearson's chi-squared test was used for analyses with dichotomous variables. A greater proportion of menthol smokers smoked their first cigarette within five minutes of waking (p preferences. However, African American smokers smoked fewer CPD (pbrand for longer (p= .04). Women menthol smokers showed signs of greater tobacco dependence than non-menthol smokers. African Americans smoked fewer CPD but nevertheless had evidence of greater dependence.

  6. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions: a review of tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey J

    2011-05-01

    To examine tobacco industry marketing of menthol cigarettes and to determine what the tobacco industry knew about consumer perceptions of menthol. A snowball sampling design was used to systematically search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (LTDL) (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between 28 February and 27 April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results from the major US tobacco companies and affiliated organisations. A collection of 953 documents from the 1930s to the first decade of the 21st century relevant to 1 or more of the research questions were qualitatively analysed, as follows: (1) are/were menthol cigarettes marketed with health reassurance messages? (2) What other messages come from menthol cigarette advertising? (3) How do smokers view menthol cigarettes? (4) Were menthol cigarettes marketed to specific populations? Menthol cigarettes were marketed as, and are perceived by consumers to be, healthier than non-menthol cigarettes. Menthol cigarettes are also marketed to specific social and demographic groups, including African-Americans, young people and women, and are perceived by consumers to signal social group belonging. The tobacco industry knew consumers perceived menthol as healthier than non-menthol cigarettes, and this was the intent behind marketing. Marketing emphasising menthol attracts consumers who may not otherwise progress to regular smoking, including young, inexperienced users and those who find 'regular' cigarettes undesirable. Such marketing may also appeal to health-concerned smokers who might otherwise quit.

  7. Design, scale up and safe piloting of thymol hydrogenation and menthol racemisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudas, J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogenation of thymol and the racemisation of a menthol mixture were investigated as part of the development of novel process for the production of l-menthol. The key innovation in this l-menthol process is the enzymatic resolution of l...

  8. A cross-sectional study on tobacco use and dependence among women: Does menthol matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenbloom Judith

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question of whether mentholation of cigarettes enhances tobacco dependence has generated conflicting findings. Potential mediating factors in a putative relationship between menthol use and tobacco dependence may include race and gender. While an association between menthol use and dependence is mixed, research on the role of race solely among women smokers is scarce. This study examined whether women menthol smokers have higher tobacco use and dependence than non-menthol smokers. Further, the study investigated differences between White and African American smokers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 928 women seeking tobacco dependence treatment in Boston, Massachusetts. Measures obtained included preferred brand and menthol content, dependence markers (cigarettes per day (CPD; time to first cigarette in the morning; number of and longest previous quit attempts and smoking history (age of initiation; years smoking; menthol or non-menthol cigarette preference. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to detect interactions between menthol preference by race for continuous variables, and Pearson’s chi-squared test was used for analyses with dichotomous variables. Results A greater proportion of menthol smokers smoked their first cigarette within five minutes of waking (p Conclusions Women menthol smokers showed signs of greater tobacco dependence than non-menthol smokers. African Americans smoked fewer CPD but nevertheless had evidence of greater dependence.

  9. Senior expert symposium on electricity and the environment, Helsinki, Finland, 13-17 May 1991. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This document summarizes the key issues of the Senior Expert Symposium on Electricity and the Environment held in Helsinki, Finland in May 1991, and highlights the main findings. It is hoped that this summary will contribute to rational and objective discussion of different options and strategies aimed at ensuring the provision of adequate and economical electricity services while protecting health and the environment

  10. Definition of technology development missions for early space station, orbit transfer vehicle servicing. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) servicing study scope, propellant transfer, storage and reliquefaction technology development missions (TDM), docking and berthing TDM, maintenance TDM, OTV/payload integration TDM, combined TDMS design, summary space station accomodations, programmatic analysis, and TDM equipment operational usage are discussed.

  11. An Evaluation of the Mulligan Stew 4-H Television Series for Extension Service, USDA. Volume I: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Sydelle Stone; And Others

    Conducted on over 3,000 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children in six states, this study documents changes in nutrition-related knowledge and behaviors which can be related to participating in the Mulligan Stew televsion series. This volume contains a summary of the findings of the study and recommendations. After participating in the series,…

  12. Organization, execution and evaluation of the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference on Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care - an executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Basmah; Greenberg, Marna R

    2014-12-01

    With the goal of reducing inequalities in patient care, the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference, "Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," convened a diverse group of researchers, clinicians, health care providers, patients, and representatives of federal agencies and policy-makers in Dallas, Texas, in May 2014. The executive and steering committees identified seven clinical domains as key to gender-specific emergency care: cardiovascular, neurological, trauma/injury, substance abuse, pain, mental health, and diagnostic imaging. The main aims of the conference were to: 1) summarize and consolidate current data related to sex- and gender-specific research for acute care and identify critical gender-related gaps in knowledge to inform an EM research agenda; 2) create a consensus-driven research agenda that advances sex- and gender-specific research in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of acute diseases and identify strategies to investigate them; and 3) build a multinational interdisciplinary consortium to disseminate and study the sex and gender medicine of acute conditions. Over a 2-year period, this collaborative network of stakeholders identified key areas where sex- and gender-specific research is most likely to improve clinical care and ultimately patient outcomes. The iterative consensus process culminated in a daylong conference on May 13, 2014, with a total of 133 registrants, with the majority being between ages 31 and 50 years (57%), females (71%), and whites (79%). Content experts led the consensus-building workshops at the conference and used the nominal group technique to consolidate consensus recommendations for priority research. In addition, panel sessions addressed funding mechanisms for gender-specific research as well as gender-specific regulatory challenges to product development and approval. This special issue of AEM reports the

  13. Menthol differs from other terpenic essential oil constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolassa, Norbert

    2013-02-01

    The European Medicines Agency concluded that there is a risk of suppositories containing terpenic derivatives, which are used to treat coughs and colds, inducing neurological disorders, especially convulsions, in infants and small children. Terpenic derivatives are found in essential oils obtained from plants and include camphor, eucalyptol (syn. 1,8-cineol), thujone, and menthol. Chemistry, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of these compounds are clearly different and explain the appearance of convulsions following camphor, thujone, and eucalyptus oil overdose/poisoning, whereas no convulsions have been reported in cases of menthol overdose/poisoning in accordance with the pharmacological properties of menthol. Thus, a general verdict on all terpenic derivatives without differentiation appears inappropriate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. EFFECTS OF FOOD ASSISTANCE AND NUTRITION PROGRAMS ON NUTRITION AND HEALTH: VOLUME 4, EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Mary Kay; Hamilton, William L.; Lin, Biing-Hwan

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a summary of a comprehensive review and synthesis of published research on the impact of USDA's domestic food and nutrition assistance programs on participants' nutrition and health outcomes. The outcome measures reviewed include food expenditures, household nutrient availability, dietary intake, other measures of nutrition status, food security, birth outcomes, breastfeeding behaviors, immunization rates, use and cost of health care services, and selected nonhealth outco...

  15. Executive Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovici, Gil D.; Stephens, Melanie L.; Possin, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: Executive functions represent a constellation of cognitive abilities that drive goal-oriented behavior and are critical to the ability to adapt to an ever-changing world. This article provides a clinically oriented approach to classifying, localizing, diagnosing, and treating disorders of executive function, which are pervasive in clinical practice. Recent Findings: Executive functions can be split into four distinct components: working memory, inhibition, set shifting, and fluency. These components may be differentially affected in individual patients and act together to guide higher-order cognitive constructs such as planning and organization. Specific bedside and neuropsychological tests can be applied to evaluate components of executive function. While dysexecutive syndromes were first described in patients with frontal lesions, intact executive functioning relies on distributed neural networks that include not only the prefrontal cortex, but also the parietal cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum. Executive dysfunction arises from injury to any of these regions, their white matter connections, or neurotransmitter systems. Dysexecutive symptoms therefore occur in most neurodegenerative diseases and in many other neurologic, psychiatric, and systemic illnesses. Management approaches are patient specific and should focus on treatment of the underlying cause in parallel with maximizing patient function and safety via occupational therapy and rehabilitation. Summary: Executive dysfunction is extremely common in patients with neurologic disorders. Diagnosis and treatment hinge on familiarity with the clinical components and neuroanatomic correlates of these complex, high-order cognitive processes. PMID:26039846

  16. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Volume 1: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation (PE) to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 1 is an executive summary both of the PE methodology and of the results obtained from the PEs. While this volume briefly reviews the scope and method of analyses, its main objective is to emphasize the important insights and conclusions derived from the conduct of the PEs. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussions of the results for each site

  17. Joint Peru/United States report on Peru/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 1. Executive summary, main report and appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    In 1978, the US and Peru conducted a comprehensive assessment of Peru's energy resources, needs, and uses and developed several alternative energy strategies that utilize the available resources to meet their energy requirements. This Volume I reports the findings of the assessment and contains the executive summary, the main report, and five appendices of information that support the integrated energy supply and demand analysis. The following chapters are included: The Energy Situation in Peru (economic context and background, energy resources and production, energy consumption patterns); Reference Supply and Demand Projection (approach, procedures, and assumptions; economic projections; energy demand and supply projections; supply/demand integration; uncertainties); and The Development of Strategies and Options (the analysis of options; strategies; increased use of renewables, hydropower, coal; increased energy efficiency; and financial analysis of strategies).

  18. Estimation of the Retention of Menthol in the Respiratory Tract of Menthol Cigarette Smokers: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Melissa Hagan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Le menthol a été mesuré dans des cigarettes, dans des préparations de fumée de cigarettes ainsi que dans le sang et l'urine de fumeurs, mais l'efficacité de rétention par le fumeur du menthol délivré dans la fumée n'a fait l'objet d'aucun rapport jusqu'à présent. Treize fumeurs ont participé à une étude destinée à déterminer l'efficacité de dépôt et de rétention du menthol de la fumée de cigarette dans les voies respiratoires lors du fumage de cigarettes mentholées. Le présent document décrit les résultats obtenus pendant la mesure des analytes dans la fumée de cigarette exhalée. Le solanésol, la nicotine et le menthol dans la fumée exhalée ont été collectés en utilisant une pompe assistée par dépression pendant la session de fumage, au cours de laquelle chaque participant a fumé trois cigarettes mentholées en l'espace d'une heure. Les analytes ont été quantifiés en utilisant une méthode de chromatographie en phase liquide à haute performance (CLHP pour le solanésol et une méthode de chromatographie en phase gazeuse avec détection par ionisation de flamme (CPG-DIF pour la nicotine et le menthol. Les mégots de cigarette ont été collectés après le fumage et comparés à ceux des cigarettes fumées par machine pour fournir une estimation des expositions au niveau de la bouche aux composants de la fumée pendant un fumage normal. Une moyenne de 93% du menthol, 97% de la nicotine et 64% du solanésol délivrés dans la fumée ont été retenus par les fumeurs d'une cigarette mentholée. Les résultats pour le solanésol et la nicotine dans cette étude concordaient avec des valeurs précédemment publiées pour des fumeurs de cigarettes non-mentholées. Les résultats obtenus dans cette étude confirment l'utilité générale de la technique d'exposition au niveau de la bouche pour évaluer les expositions des fumeurs aux composants du flux principal de la fumée et concordent avec un ensemble

  19. Menthol evokes Ca2+ signals and induces oxidative stress independently of the presence of TRPM8 (menthol receptor in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Nazıroğlu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Menthol is a naturally occurring monoterpene alcohol possessing remarkable biological properties including antipruritic, analgesic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and cooling effects. Here, we examined the menthol-evoked Ca2+ signals in breast and prostate cancer cell lines. The effect of menthol (50–500 µM was predicted to be mediated by the transient receptor potential ion channel melastatin subtype 8 (TRPM8. However, the intensity of menthol-evoked Ca2+ signals did not correlate with the expression levels of TRPM8 in breast and prostate cancer cells indicating a TRPM8-independent signaling pathway. Menthol-evoked Ca2+ signals were analyzed in detail in Du 145 prostate cancer cells, as well as in CRISPR/Cas9 TRPM8-knockout Du 145 cells. Menthol (500 µM induced Ca2+ oscillations in both cell lines, thus independent of TRPM8, which were however dependent on the production of inositol trisphosphate. Results based on pharmacological tools point to an involvement of the purinergic pathway in menthol-evoked Ca2+ responses. Finally, menthol (50–500 µM decreased cell viability and induced oxidative stress independently of the presence of TRPM8 channels, despite that temperature-evoked TRPM8-mediated inward currents were significantly decreased in TRPM8-knockout Du 145 cells compared to wild type Du 145 cells. Keywords: Ca2+ oscillations, TRPM8, Menthol, Oxidative stress, Purinergic signaling

  20. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ha

    Full Text Available Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8, the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may

  1. Studying the interactive effects of menthol and nicotine among youth: An examination using e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Green, Barry G; Kong, Grace; Cavallo, Dana A; Jatlow, Peter; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Buta, Eugenia; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2017-11-01

    Tobacco products containing menthol are widely used by youth. We used e-cigarettes to conduct an experimental evaluation of the independent and interactive effects of menthol and nicotine among youth. Pilot chemosensory experiments with fourteen e-cigarette users identified low (barely perceptible, 0.5%) and high (similar to commercial e-liquid, 3.5%) menthol concentrations. Sixty e-cigarette users were randomized to a nicotine concentration (0mg/ml, 6mg/ml, 12mg/ml) and participated in 3 laboratory sessions. During each session, they received their assigned nicotine concentration, along with one of three menthol concentrations in random counterbalanced order across sessions (0, 0.5%, 3.5%), and participated in three fixed-dose, and an ad-lib, puffing period. Urinary menthol glucuronide and salivary nicotine levels validated menthol and nicotine exposure. We examined changes in e-cigarette liking/wanting and taste, coolness, stimulant effects, nicotine withdrawal and ad-lib use. Overall, the high concentration of menthol (3.5%) significantly increased e-cigarette liking/wanting relative to no menthol (pnicotine* menthol interactions (p=0.06), with an increase in liking/wanting when 3.5% menthol was combined with 12mg/ml nicotine, but not 6mg/ml nicotine. Importantly, both 0.5% and 3.5% menthol concentrations significantly improved taste and increased coolness. We did not observe nicotine or menthol-related changes in stimulant effects, nicotine withdrawal symptoms or ad-lib use. Menthol, even at very low doses, alters the appeal of e-cigarettes among youth. Further, menthol enhances positive rewarding effects of high nicotine-containing e-cigarettes among youth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. In Their Own Words: Young Adults' Menthol Cigarette Initiation, Perceptions, Experiences and Regulation Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Evans, Kiameesha R; Harrell, Melissa B; Loukas, Alexandra; Lewis, M Jane; Delnevo, Cristine D; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-02-17

    Menthol cigarettes are disproportionately used by young people and have been called smoking starter products. However, limited qualitative research exists on young adults' perceptions of and experiences with these products, with much of it based on document reviews of the tobacco industry's research. We conducted six focus groups with young adult (ages 18-24) menthol smokers in New Jersey (half with black smokers) between December 2014 and March 2015. Participants were asked open-ended questions about their menthol smoking initiation, preference reasons, substitution behaviors, and perceptions of menthol cigarette risks and regulation. Participants' menthol cigarette initiation and preference were influenced by their perceived popularity, brand recognition, taste, smoothness, satisfaction and access (including as "loosies," typically available for Newport). Some believed menthol cigarettes were less harmful than non-menthol cigarettes when initiating smoking. Many currently believed menthol cigarettes were more harmful because they contained extra "additives," were stronger (ie, requiring fewer cigarettes to feel satisfied), and/or based on hearsay. Many had tried new brand Camel Crush, which was perceived to be especially minty, fun, and attractive for newer smokers. While some used non-menthol cigarettes when menthols were unavailable, many said they would never or almost never substitute. Many acknowledged a menthol cigarettes ban would likely help them quit smoking, even though they did not support the idea. Menthol cigarette initiation is influenced by an interplay of multiple factors including their sensory properties, marketing, perceived popularity and availability. The FDA should continue to pursue closing this flavored cigarette loophole. In this first qualitative study of menthol cigarette use among young adults, we found further evidence that menthol cigarettes can act as starter products because they are perceived as easier to smoke and taste and smell

  3. Physiological and biochemical performances of menthol-induced aposymbiotic corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Terng Wang

    Full Text Available The unique mutualism between corals and their photosynthetic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium spp. is the driving force behind functional assemblages of coral reefs. However, the respective roles of hosts and Symbiodinium in this endosymbiotic association, particularly in response to environmental challenges (e.g., high sea surface temperatures, remain unsettled. One of the key obstacles is to produce and maintain aposymbiotic coral hosts for experimental purposes. In this study, a simple and gentle protocol to generate aposymbiotic coral hosts (Isopora palifera and Stylophora pistillata was developed using repeated incubation in menthol/artificial seawater (ASW medium under light and in ASW in darkness, which depleted more than 99% of Symbiodinium from the host within 4∼8 days. As indicated by the respiration rate, energy metabolism (by malate dehydrogenase activity, and nitrogen metabolism (by glutamate dehydrogenase activity and profiles of free amino acids, the physiological and biochemical performances of the menthol-induced aposymbiotic corals were comparable to their symbiotic counterparts without nutrient supplementation (e.g., for Stylophora or with a nutrient supplement containing glycerol, vitamins, and a host mimic of free amino acid mixture (e.g., for Isopora. Differences in biochemical responses to menthol-induced bleaching between Stylophora and Isopora were attributed to the former digesting Symbiodinium rather than expelling the algae live as found in the latter species. Our studies showed that menthol could successfully bleach corals and provided aposymbiotic corals for further exploration of coral-alga symbioses.

  4. High-Pressure Equilibrium of Menthol + CO2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Helena; Stateva, R.P.; Galushko, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2007), s. 1-9 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : menthol * solubility * melting point depression Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.189, year: 2007

  5. Bleeding risk assessment and management in atrial fibrillation patients. Executive Summary of a Position Document from the European Heart Rhythm Association [EHRA], endorsed by the European Society of Cardiology [ESC] Working Group on Thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Andreotti, Felicita; Fauchier, Laurent; Huber, Kurt; Hylek, Elaine; Knight, Eve; Lane, Deirdre; Levi, Marcel; Marín, Francisco; Palareti, Gualtiero; Kirchhof, Paulus

    2011-01-01

    In this executive summary of a Consensus Document from the European Heart Rhythm Association, endorsed by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Thrombosis, we comprehensively review the published evidence and propose a consensus on bleeding risk assessments in atrial fibrillation (AF)

  6. TRPM8 mediates cold and menthol allergies associated with mast cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yeongyo; Jang, Yongwoo; Yang, Young Duk; Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Yunjong; Oh, Uhtaek

    2010-10-01

    Exposure to low temperatures often causes allergic responses or urticaria. Similarly, menthol, a common food additive is also known to cause urticaria, asthma, and rhinitis. However, despite the obvious clinical implications, the molecular mechanisms responsible for inducing allergic responses to low temperatures and menthol have not been determined. Because a non-selective cation channel, transient receptor potential subtype M8 (TRPM8) is activated by cold and menthol, we hypothesized that this channel mediates cold- and menthol-induced histamine release in mast cells. Here, we report that TRPM8 is expressed in the basophilic leukemia mast cell line, RBL-2H3, and that exposure to menthol or low temperatures induced Ca(2+) influx in RBL-2H3 cells, which was reversed by a TRPM8 blocker. Furthermore, menthol, a TRPM8 agonist, induced the dose-dependent release of histamine from RBL-2H3 cells. When TRPM8 transcripts were reduced by siRNA (small interfering RNA), menthol- and cold-induced Ca(2+) influx and histamine release were significantly reduced. In addition, subcutaneous injection of menthol evoked scratching, a typical histamine-induced response which was reversed by a TRPM8 blocker. Thus, our findings indicate that TRPM8 mediates the menthol- and cold-induced allergic responses of mast cells, and suggest that TRPM8 antagonists be viewed as potential treatments for cold- and menthol-induced allergies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancing effect of menthol on nicotine self-administration in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Lisa; Harrison, Erin; Gong, Yongzhen; Avusula, Ramachandram; Lee, Jonathan; Zhang, Meiyu; Rousselle, Thomas; Lage, Janice; Liu, Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Tobacco smoking is a leading preventable cause of premature death in the United States. Menthol is a significant flavoring additive in tobacco products. Clinical evidence suggests that menthol may promote tobacco smoking and nicotine dependence. However, it is unclear whether menthol enhances the reinforcing actions of nicotine and thus facilitates nicotine consumption. This study employed a rat model of nicotine self-administration to examine the effects of menthol on nicotine-taking behavior. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in daily 1-h sessions to press a lever for intravenous nicotine self-administration under a fixed-ratio 5 schedule of reinforcement. In separate groups, rats self-administered nicotine at four different doses (0.0075, 0.015, 0.03, and 0.06 mg/kg/infusion). Five minutes prior to the two test sessions, menthol (5 mg/kg) or its vehicle was administered intraperitoneally in all rats in a counterbalanced design within each group. In separate rats that self-administered 0.015 mg/kg/infusion nicotine, menthol dose-response function was determined. Menthol was also tested on food self-administration. Results An inverted U-shaped nicotine dose-response curve was observed. Menthol pretreatment shifted the nicotine dose-response curve to the left. The facilitating effect of menthol on the self-administration of 0.015 mg/kg/infusion nicotine was dose-dependent, whereas it produced similar effects at doses above the threshold of 2.5 mg/kg. Menthol tended to suppress the self-administration of food pellets. Conclusions These data demonstrate that menthol enhances the reinforcing effects of nicotine, and the effect of menthol was specific to nicotine. The findings suggest that menthol directly facilitates nicotine consumption, thereby contributing to tobacco smoking. PMID:27473365

  8. Executive summary of NIH workshop on the Use and Biology of Energy Drinks: Current Knowledge and Critical Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Barbara C; Camp, Kathryn M; Haggans, Carol J; Deuster, Patricia A; Haverkos, Lynne; Maruvada, Padma; Witt, Ellen; Coates, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    Sales of energy drinks in the United States reached $12.5 billion in 2012. Emergency department visits related to consumption of these products have increased sharply, and while these numbers remain small relative to product sales, they raise important questions regarding biological and behavioral effects. Although some common ingredients of energy drinks have been extensively studied (e.g., caffeine, B vitamins, sugars, inositol), data on other ingredients (e.g., taurine) are limited. Summarized here are data presented elsewhere in this issue on the prevalence and patterns of caffeine-containing energy drink use, the effects of these products on alertness, fatigue, cognitive functions, sleep, mood, homeostasis, as well as on exercise physiology and metabolism, and the biological mechanisms mediating the observed effects. There are substantial data on the effects of some energy drink ingredients, such as caffeine and sugars, on many of these outcomes; however, even for these ingredients many controversies and gaps remain, and data on other ingredients in caffeine-containing energy drinks, and on ingredient interactions, are sparse. This summary concludes with a discussion of critical gaps in the data and potential next steps. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Executive summary - Geologic assessment of coal in the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Karlsen, Alexander K.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has assessed the quantity and quality of the nation's coal deposits that potentially could be mined during the next few decades. For eight years, geologic, geochemical, and resource information was collected and compiled for the five major coal-producing regions of the United States: the Appalachian Basin, Illinois Basin, Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains, Colorado Plateau, and the western part of the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain (Gulf Coast) region (Figure 1). In particular, the NCRA assessed resource estimates, compiled coal-quality information, and characterized environmentally sensitive trace elements, such as arsenic and mercury, that are mentioned in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1990). The results of the USGS coal assessment efforts may be found at: http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/coal/coal-assessments/index.html and a summary of the results from all assessment areas can be found in Ruppert et al. (2002) and Dennen (2009).Detailed assessments of the major coal-producing areas for the Gulf Coast region along with reviews of the stratigraphy, coal quality, resources, and coalbed methane potential of the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene coal deposits are presented in this report (Chapters 5-10).

  10. Executive summary: Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at the Weldon Spring site has changed since it was initiated. Previously, the program focused on investigations of the extent and level of contaminants in the groundwater, surface waters, buildings, and air at the site. In 1992, the level of remedial activities required monitoring for potential impacts of those activities, particularly on surface water runoff and airborne effluents. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site; estimates of effluent releases; and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Also, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1992 to support environmental protection programs are reviewed.

  11. Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Facilities Improvements Project and Geysers Effluent Pipeline Project. Draft EIR/EIS: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant (SERWTP) Facilities Improvement Plan and Geysers Effluent Pipeline and Effluent Injection Project are proposed as a plan to provide expanded wastewater treatment capabilities and to dispose of the effluent by injection in The Geysers geothermal field for purposes of power production. The project is located predominantly in the County of Lake, California, and also in part of Sonoma County. The plan includes various conventional facilities improvements in wastewater treatment to a secondary level of treatment at the SWERWTP. The plan includes facilities to convey the treated effluent in a 26-mile, 24-inch inside diameter pipeline to the Southeast Geysers. The wastewater from the SERWTP would be supplemented by raw lake water diverted from nearby Clear Lake. At The Geysers, the effluent would be directed into a system of distribution lines to wells. In the geothermal reservoir, the water will be converted to steam and collected in production wells that will direct the steam to six existing power plants. This document is a summary of a combined full Environmental Impact Report (EIR) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The EIR/EIS describes the environmental impacts of the various components of the project. Mitigation measures are suggested for reducing impacts to a less than significant level

  12. Executive summary of NIH workshop on the Use and Biology of Energy Drinks: Current Knowledge and Critical Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Barbara C; Camp, Kathryn M; Haggans, Carol J; Deuster, Patricia A; Haverkos, Lynne; Maruvada, Padma; Witt, Ellen; Coates, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Sales of energy drinks in the United States reached $12.5 billion in 2012. Emergency department visits related to consumption of these products have increased sharply, and while these numbers remain small relative to product sales, they raise important questions regarding biological and behavioral effects. Although some common ingredients of energy drinks have been extensively studied (e.g., caffeine, B vitamins, sugars, inositol), data on other ingredients (e.g., taurine) are limited. Summarized here are data presented elsewhere in this issue on the prevalence and patterns of caffeine-containing energy drink use, the effects of these products on alertness, fatigue, cognitive functions, sleep, mood, homeostasis, as well as on exercise physiology and metabolism, and the biological mechanisms mediating the observed effects. There are substantial data on the effects of some energy drink ingredients, such as caffeine and sugars, on many of these outcomes; however, even for these ingredients many controversies and gaps remain, and data on other ingredients in caffeine-containing energy drinks, and on ingredient interactions, are sparse. This summary concludes with a discussion of critical gaps in the data and potential next steps. PMID:25293538

  13. Authorization Decree Application for the creation of the Flamanville-3 Basic Nuclear Installation. Executive Summary of the Technical Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    On 9 May 2006, Electricite de France (EDF) submitted to the Ministers for Nuclear Safety an authorization decree application for an EPR-type reactor on the site of the Flamanville Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Article 29 of Act No. 2006-686 of 13 June 2006 on Transparency and Security in the Nuclear Field prescribes that the creation of any basic nuclear installation shall be issued by a decree taken after consultation with the Nuclear Safety Authority (Autorite de surete nucleaire - ASN). The purpose of this report is to provide ASN's Board with a summary of the technical review led by ASN services and carried out by their technical support agencies, namely the IRSN, the GPR and the Standing Nuclear Section of the CCAP between 2001 and 2006. After summing up the conclusions of the review on the safety options of the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) Project, as carried out between 1993 and 2000, this report describes the process and modalities of the review conducted from 2001 to 2006. Besides providing the opinion of ASN's services on the creation-licence application, it also outlines the further review to be carried out, if the authorization decree is issued. (authors)

  14. Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Integrated Network Architecture Definition Document (ADD). Volume 1; Executive Summary; Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Badri A.; Schier, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The SCaN Program has defined an integrated network architecture that fully meets the Administrator s mandate to the Program, and will result in a NASA infrastructure capable of providing the needed and enabling communications services to future space missions. The integrated network architecture will increase SCaN operational efficiency and interoperability through standardization, commonality and technology infusion. It will enable NASA missions requiring advanced communication and tracking capabilities such as: a. Optical communication b. Antenna arraying c. Lunar and Mars Relays d. Integrated network management (service management and network control) and integrated service execution e. Enhanced tracking for navigation f. Space internetworking with DTN and IP g. End-to-end security h. Enhanced security services Moreover, the SCaN Program has created an Integrated Network Roadmap that depicts an orchestrated and coherent evolution path toward the target architecture, encompassing all aspects that concern network assets (i.e., operations and maintenance, sustaining engineering, upgrade efforts, and major development). This roadmap identifies major NASA ADPs, and shows dependencies and drivers among the various planned undertakings and timelines. The roadmap is scalable to accommodate timely adjustments in response to Agency needs, goals, objectives and funding. Future challenges to implementing this architecture include balancing user mission needs, technology development, and the availability of funding within NASA s priorities. Strategies for addressing these challenges are to: define a flexible architecture, update the architecture periodically, use ADPs to evaluate options and determine when to make decisions, and to engage the stakeholders in these evaluations. In addition, the SCaN Program will evaluate and respond to mission need dates for technical and operational capabilities to be provided by the SCaN integrated network. In that regard, the architecture

  15. Menthol facilitates the intravenous self-administration of nicotine in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengfei eWang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Menthol is preferred by approximately 25% of smokers and is the most common flavoring additive in tobacco and electronic cigarettes. Although some clinical studies have suggested that menthol facilitates the initiation of smoking and enhances the dependence on nicotine, many controversies remain. Using licking as the operant behavior, we found that adolescent rats self-administering nicotine (30 μg/kg/infusion, free base, i.v. with contingent oral menthol (60 μl, 0.01% w/v obtained significantly more infusions than rats receiving a vehicle cue or rats self-administering i.v. saline with a menthol cue. Rats yoked to their menthol-nicotine masters emitted significantly fewer licks on the active spouts, indicating that contingent pairing between nicotine and menthol is required for sustained nicotine intake. Rats that self-administered nicotine with a menthol cue also exhibited a long-lasting extinction burst and robust reinstatement behavior, neither of which were observed in rats that self-administered saline with a menthol cue. The cooling sensation of menthol is induced by activating the transient receptor potential M8 (TRPM8 channel. When WS-23, an odorless agonist of the TRPM8 channel, was used as a contingent cue for nicotine, the rats obtained a similar number of nicotine infusions as the rats that were provided a menthol cue and exhibited a strong preference for the active spout. In contrast, highly appetitive taste and odor cues failed to support nicotine self-administration. These data indicated that menthol, likely by inducing a cooling sensation, becomes a potent conditioned reinforcer when it is contingently delivered with nicotine. Together, these results provide a key behavioral mechanism by which menthol promotes the use of tobacco products or electronic cigarettes.

  16. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions: a review of tobacco industry documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine tobacco industry marketing of menthol cigarettes and to determine what the tobacco industry knew about consumer perceptions of menthol. Methods A snowball sampling design was used to systematically search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (LTDL) (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between 28 February and 27 April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results from the major US tobacco companies and affiliated organisations. A collection of 953 documents from the 1930s to the first decade of the 21st century relevant to 1 or more of the research questions were qualitatively analysed, as follows: (1) are/were menthol cigarettes marketed with health reassurance messages? (2) What other messages come from menthol cigarette advertising? (3) How do smokers view menthol cigarettes? (4) Were menthol cigarettes marketed to specific populations? Results Menthol cigarettes were marketed as, and are perceived by consumers to be, healthier than non-menthol cigarettes. Menthol cigarettes are also marketed to specific social and demographic groups, including African–Americans, young people and women, and are perceived by consumers to signal social group belonging. Conclusions The tobacco industry knew consumers perceived menthol as healthier than non-menthol cigarettes, and this was the intent behind marketing. Marketing emphasising menthol attracts consumers who may not otherwise progress to regular smoking, including young, inexperienced users and those who find ‘regular’ cigarettes undesirable. Such marketing may also appeal to health-concerned smokers who might otherwise quit. PMID:21504928

  17. Executive summary. Summary of the workshop sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The workshop played a great role in sharing the current state-of-the art on the PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) of new and advanced reactors, and points of interest among member countries. The major concern expressed by the participants included passive safety system reliability, digital system reliability, new and advanced reactors-specific risk assessment methodology and relevant computational tool, and safety-security interface, etc). Main findings obtained from the workshop are as follows. For new reactors, the role of PSA is more important and more formalized comparing with exiting reactors. The PSAs are being used in the design of new reactors for purposes such as balance between accident prevention and mitigation features of the design, demonstration of safety, identification of design vulnerabilities and improvements, and comparison with the risk of existing plants, etc. For advanced reactors, the role of PSA is also being regarded as an essential tool for safety improvement and comparison of reactor designs at the conceptual or preliminary stages, but their practical use is at the early stage to gain the insights of risk into these reactors. This is due to the fact that the use of PSA for advanced reactors is mainly focused on identifying the PSA issues for designer and regulatory bodies, and developing the relevant methodologies and tools. Better guidance and peer review process on the PSA of new and advanced reactors was identified by both industry and regulatory as an important aspect

  18. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) and Acres American Incorporated (AAI) have carried out a preliminary design study of water-compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Underground Pumped Hydroelectric (UPH) plants for siting in geological conditions suitable for hard rock excavations. The work was carried out over a period of three years and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and PEPCO. The study was divided into five primary tasks as follows: establishment of design criteria and analysis of impact on power system; selection of site and establishment of site characteristics; formulation of design approaches; assessment of environmental and safety aspects; and preparation of preliminary design of plant. The salient aspects considered and the conclusions reached during the consideration of the five primary tasks for both CAES and UPH are presented in this Executive Summary, which forms Volume 1 of the series of reports prepared during the study. The investigations and analyses carried out, together with the results and conclusions reached, are described in detail in Volumes 2 through 13 and ten appendices.

  19. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository--Volume 1: Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.Z.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3)

  20. Electrospinning of functional poly(methyl methacrylate) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uyar, Tamer; Besenbacher, Flemming [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, DK-8000, Aarhus C (Denmark); Nur, Yusuf; Hacaloglu, Jale [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, 06530 (Turkey)], E-mail: tamer@inano.dk, E-mail: tamer@unam.bilkent.edu.tr

    2009-03-25

    Electrospinning of nanofibers with cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (CD-ICs) is particularly attractive since distinct properties can be obtained by combining the nanofibers with specific functions of the CD-ICs. Here we report on the electrospinning of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes (CD-menthol-ICs). These CD-menthol-IC functionalized nanofibers were developed with the purpose of producing functional nanofibers that contain fragrances/flavors with high temperature stability, and menthol was used as a model fragrance/flavor material. The PMMA nanofibers were electrospun with CD-menthol-ICs using three type of CD: {alpha}-CD, {beta}-CD, and {gamma}-CD. Direct pyrolysis mass spectrometry (DP-MS) studies showed that the thermal evaporation of menthol occurred over a very high and a broad temperature range (100-355 deg. C) for PMMA/CDmenthol-IC nanowebs, demonstrating the complexation of menthol with the CD cavity and its high temperature stability. Furthermore, as the size of CD cavity increased in the order {alpha}-CD<{beta}-CD<{gamma}-CD, the thermal evolution of menthol shifted to higher temperatures, suggesting that the strength of interaction between menthol and the CD cavity is in the order {gamma}-CD>{beta}-CD>{alpha}-CD.

  1. The role of menthol in cigarettes as a reinforcer of smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahijevych, Karen; Garrett, Bridgette E

    2010-12-01

    The World Health Organization has identified several additives such as menthol in the manufacturing of cigarettes to specifically reduce smoke harshness. These additives may have important implications for reinforcing smoking behavior and motivation to quit smoking. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize research related to the role of menthol's sensory characteristics in strengthening the reinforcing effects of nicotine in cigarettes and the impact on nicotine addiction and smoking behavior. Research reports from 2002 to 2010 on the addictive potential of menthol cigarettes were reviewed that included qualitative focus groups, self-reports and biomarkers of nicotine dependence, human laboratory, and epidemiological studies. Positive sensory effects of menthol cigarette use were identified via reports of early smoking experiences and as a potential starter product for smoking uptake in youth. Menthol cigarettes may serve as a conditioned stimulus that reinforces the rewarding effects of smoking. Nicotine dependence measured by shorter time-to-first cigarette upon waking was increased with menthol cigarette use in most of the studies reviewed. Smoking quit rates provide additional indicators of nicotine dependence, and the majority of the studies reviewed provided evidence of lower quit rates or higher relapse rates among menthol cigarette smokers. The effects of menthol cigarette use in increasing the reinforcing effects of nicotine on smoking behavior were evidenced in both qualitative and quantitative empirical studies. These findings have implications for enhanced prevention and cessation efforts in menthol smokers.

  2. A Multiscale Study on the Penetration Enhancement Mechanism of Menthol to Osthole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shufang; Wang, Ran; Wan, Guang; Wu, Zhimin; Guo, Shujuan; Dai, Xingxing; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-11-28

    Menthol is a widely used penetration enhancer in clinical medicine due to its high efficiency and relative safety. However, details of the penetration enhancement mechanism of menthol on the molecular level is rarely involved in the discussion. In this work, the penetration enhancement (PE) mechanism of menthol is explored by a multiscale method containing molecular dynamics simulations, in vitro penetration experiments, and transmission electron microscopy. Osthole is chosen to be the tested drug due to its common use in external preparations and because it often accompanies menthol as a PE in the preparations. The results show that menthol in each testing concentration can impair the lipid packing of stratum corneum (SC) and promote osthole permeating into SC, and the penetration promoting effect has an optimal concentration. At a low concentration, menthol causes the bilayer to relax with a reduction in thickness and increment in the lipid headgroup area. At a high concentration, menthol destroys the bilayer structure of SC and causes lipids to form a reversed micelle structure. The penetration enhancement mechanism of menthol is characterized mainly by the disruption of the highly ordered SC lipid in low concentrations and an improvement in the partitioning of drugs into the SC in high concentrations. The results can provide some assistance for additional studies and applications of menthol as a penetration enhancer.

  3. 76 FR 57980 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board AGENCY... the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review... summary rating of the senior executive's performance, the executive's response, and the higher level...

  4. Effects of Menthol on Nicotine Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacology and Dependence in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir D Alsharari

    Full Text Available Although menthol, a common flavoring additive to cigarettes, has been found to impact the addictive properties of nicotine cigarettes in smokers little is known about its pharmacological and molecular actions in the brain. Studies were undertaken to examine whether the systemic administration of menthol would modulate nicotine pharmacokinetics, acute pharmacological effects (antinociception and hypothermia and withdrawal in male ICR mice. In addition, we examined changes in the brain levels of nicotinic receptors of rodents exposed to nicotine and menthol. Administration of i.p. menthol significantly decreased nicotine's clearance (2-fold decrease and increased its AUC compared to i.p. vehicle treatment. In addition, menthol pretreatment prolonged the duration of nicotine-induced antinociception and hypothermia (2.5 mg/kg, s.c. for periods up to 180 min post-nicotine administration. Repeated administration of menthol with nicotine increased the intensity of mecamylamine-precipitated withdrawal signs in mice exposed chronically to nicotine. The potentiation of withdrawal intensity by menthol was accompanied by a significant increase in nicotine plasma levels in these mice. Western blot analyses of α4 and β2 nAChR subunit expression suggests that chronic menthol impacts the levels and distribution of these nicotinic subunits in various brain regions. In particular, co-administration of menthol and nicotine appears to promote significant increase in β2 and α4 nAChR subunit expression in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum of mice. Surprisingly, chronic injections of menthol alone to mice caused an upregulation of β2 and α4 nAChR subunit levels in these brain regions. Because the addition of menthol to tobacco products has been suggested to augment their addictive potential, the current findings reveal several new pharmacological molecular adaptations that may contribute to its unique addictive profile.

  5. Factoring the human into safety: translating research into practice. Executive summary for Vol.1 - Benchmarking (RR 059/2002); Vol. 2 - Accident analyses (RR 060/2002): Vol.3 - Crew resource management (RR 061/2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mearns, K.; Whitaker, S. (and others)

    2003-07-01

    This Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) executive summary encompasses the summaries of three workpackages on factoring the human into safety and translating research into practice entitled 'Benchmarking human and organisational factors in offshore safety' (Vol 1), 'The development and evaluation of human factors accident and near miss reporting form for the offshore industry' (Vol 2), and 'Crew resource management training for offshore operations' (Vol 3). The project objectives were to develop practical programmes for the offshore oil and gas industries leading to a continued improvement in safety management, enhancement of the safety culture within the industry, and an improvement in the understanding of human organisation factors in safety.

  6. Executive Summary: European Heart Rhythm Association Consensus Document on the Management of Supraventricular Arrhythmias: Endorsed by Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulación Cardiaca y Electrofisiologia (SOLAECE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katritsis, Demosthenes G; Boriani, Giuseppe; Cosio, Francisco G; Jais, Pierre; Hindricks, Gerhard; Josephson, Mark E; Keegan, Roberto; Knight, Bradley P; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Lane, Deirdre A; Lip, Gregory Yh; Malmborg, Helena; Oral, Hakan; Pappone, Carlo; Themistoclakis, Sakis; Wood, Kathryn A; Young-Hoon, Kim; Lundqvist, Carina Blomström

    2016-01-01

    This paper is an executive summary of the full European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) consensus document on the management of supraventricular arrhythmias, published in Europace . It summarises developments in the field and provides recommendations for patient management, with particular emphasis on new advances since the previous European Society of Cardiology guidelines. The EHRA consensus document is available to read in full at http://europace.oxfordjournals.org.

  7. Report of a European Society of Cardiology-European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions task force on the evaluation of coronary stents in Europe: executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Robert A; Serruys, Patrick W; Baumbach, Andreas; Escaned, Javier; Fajadet, Jean; James, Stefan; Joner, Michael; Oktay, Semih; Jüni, Peter; Kastrati, Adnan; Sianos, George; Stefanini, Giulio G; Wijns, William; Windecker, Stephan

    2015-10-07

    The evaluation for European Union market approval of coronary stents falls under the Medical Device Directive that was adopted in 1993. Specific requirements for the assessment of coronary stents are laid out in supplementary advisory documents. In response to a call by the European Commission to make recommendations for a revision of the advisory document on the evaluation of coronary stents (Appendix 1 of MEDDEV 2.7.1), the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) established a Task Force to develop an expert advisory report. As basis for its report, the ESC-EAPCI Task Force reviewed existing processes, established a comprehensive list of all coronary drug-eluting stents that have received a CE mark to date, and undertook a systematic review of the literature of all published randomized clinical trials evaluating clinical and angiographic outcomes of coronary artery stents between 2002 and 2013. Based on these data, the TF provided recommendations to inform a new regulatory process for coronary stents. The main recommendations of the task force include implementation of a standardized non-clinical assessment of stents and a novel clinical evaluation pathway for market approval. The two-stage clinical evaluation plan includes recommendation for an initial pre-market trial with objective performance criteria (OPC) benchmarking using invasive imaging follow-up leading to conditional CE-mark approval and a subsequent mandatory, large-scale randomized trial with clinical endpoint evaluation leading to unconditional CE-mark. The data analysis from the systematic review of the Task Force may provide a basis for determination of OPC for use in future studies. This paper represents an executive summary of the Task Force's report. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Lipids and bariatric procedures part 1 of 2: Scientific statement from the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and Obesity Medicine Association: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Jacobson, Terry A; Cohen, David E; Orringer, Carl E; Kothari, Shanu; Azagury, Dan E; Morton, John; Nguyen, Ninh T; Westman, Eric C; Horn, Deborah B; Scinta, Wendy; Primack, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric procedures often improve lipid levels in patients with obesity. This 2-part scientific statement examines the potential lipid benefits of bariatric procedures and represents contributions from authors representing the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and the Obesity Medicine Association. The foundation for this scientific statement was based on data published through June 2015. Part 1 of this 2-part scientific statement provides an overview of: (1) adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (2) bariatric procedures, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (3) endocrine factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (4) immune factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (5) bariatric procedures, bile acid metabolism, and lipids; and (6) bariatric procedures, intestinal microbiota, and lipids, with specific emphasis on how the alterations in the microbiome by bariatric procedures influence obesity, bile acids, and inflammation, which in turn, may all affect lipid levels. Included in part 2 of this comprehensive scientific statement will be a review of: (1) the importance of nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) and their absorption on lipid levels; (2) the effects of bariatric procedures on gut hormones and lipid levels; (3) the effects of bariatric procedures on nonlipid cardiovascular disease risk factors; (4) the effects of bariatric procedures on lipid levels; (5) effects of bariatric procedures on cardiovascular disease; and finally (6) the potential lipid effects of vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies that may occur after bariatric procedures. This document represents the executive summary of part 1. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.

  9. 2nd FSC Workshop - Executive Summary and International Perspective, Stakeholder Involvement and Confidence in the Process of Decision-making for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Finland, 15-16 November 2001, Turku, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The 2. FSC workshop examined 'Stakeholder Involvement and Confidence in the Process of Decision-making for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Finland'. By gathering Finnish Stakeholders, those who expressed favour and opposition, as well as observer-participants from the other NEA/FSC countries, a joint reflection on a complex reality was achieved from which general conclusions can also be drawn concerning stakeholder involvement in the long-term management of radioactive waste. This Executive Summary gives an overview of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop. It presents, for the most part, a factual account of the individual presentations and of the discussions that took place. It relies importantly on the notes that were taken at the meeting. Most materials are elaborated upon in a fuller way in the texts that the various speakers and session moderators contributed for these proceedings. The structure of the Executive Summary follows the structure of the workshop itself. Complementary to this Executive Summary and also provided with this document, is a NEA Secretariat's perspective aiming to place the results of all discussions, feedback and site visit into an international perspective

  10. Executive summary of RAK-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, Ilona

    1998-01-01

    The RAK-2 project comprised three research areas: RAK-2.1 Studies of the consequences of selected severe accident scenarios and phenomena in Nordic nuclear reactors; RAK-2.2 Development and testing of a computerised accident management support system (CAMS); RAK-2.3 Data collection on different mobile reactors and the British reactor types for extension of the Nordic database started in the previous NKS programme covering the reactors in Nordic close neighbourhood. The work scope of the RAK-2 project has involved research on quantification of the effects of selected severe accident phenomena for Nordic nuclear power plants, development and testing of a computerised accident management support system and data collection and description of various mobile reactors an of different reactor types existing in the UK. The severe accident phenomenology part of the project focused on studying in-vessel melt progression and core coolability at various stages of a severe accident. (EG)

  11. 10481 Executive Summary -- Computational Counting

    OpenAIRE

    Bürgisser, Peter; Goldberg, Leslie Ann; Jerrum, Mark

    2011-01-01

    From November 28 to December 3 2010, the Dagstuhl seminar 10481 ``Computational Counting'' was held in Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibnitz Center for Informatics. 36 researchers from all over the world, with interests and expertise in different aspects of computational counting, actively participated in the meeting.

  12. Executive summary of phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    The second phase of the Stripa project included the continued development of methods and techniques for repository site investigations. The crosshole investigations demonstrated that it is possible to characterize fractures in crystralline rock with a reliability and realism not obtained before. At the investigated site at Stripa, it was shown that groundwater flow is concentrated within a few major fractures that were idenfified by geophysical methods. The work at Stripa has shown that it is possible to collect and analyze data that enable one to determine the type of distribution and its parameters for each of the essential geometrical and hydraulic properties of the fracture system, and hence compare one site with another as part of experience builing in safety assessment studies. The migration experiment demonstrated that the groundwater flow could be very unevenly distributed in the rock. The hydrogeochemical investigations at Stripa also indicated that a new type of solute source must be considered - fluid inclusions in the host rock. The age of the solutes may be entirely different from the age of the groundwater. Sealing and redirection of the groundwater flow away from man made openings in the rock was tested at Stripa and found to be feasible as shown in the various plugging and sealing experiments. The use of Na bentonite in the form of suitably shaped blocks of highly compacted powder has been found to be very practical for sealing off boreholes, shafts and tunnels in repositories

  13. Effect of menthol coated craft paper on corrosion of copper in HCl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Natural menthol was coated on craft paper by impregnation and studied as volatile corrosion inhibitor for copper in hydrochloric acid environment. The effect of menthol on copper corrosion was studied by gravimetric and electrochemical methods such as potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical.

  14. The menthol marketing mix: targeted promotions for focus communities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Tess Boley; Wright, La Tanisha; Crawford, George

    2010-12-01

    This study analyzes tobacco industry menthol marketing strategies aimed at urban predominantly Black populations. Data are drawn from an interview with a former Brown & Williamson Tobacco Company trade marketing manager, tobacco industry documents on Kool promotions in urban areas, and public health literature on tobacco marketing. Tobacco companies recognize the growth potential for the menthol segment in these urban communities. They have higher levels of price discounts and signage, exert tight controls over the retail environment, and use hip-hop lifestyle to associate menthol products with urban nightlife, music, fame, and cultural edginess among younger smokers. Tobacco companies regard the urban Black menthol segment as one of the few markets in which they can grow sales despite declines elsewhere in the United States. Consequently, this population is surrounded by intense and integrated levels of marketing. We need strong monitoring, regulation, and enforcement efforts that will counter the industry's use of menthol at multiple levels in urban environments.

  15. Updated European Heart Rhythm Association practical guide on the use of non-vitamin-K antagonist anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: Executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbuchel, Hein; Verhamme, Peter; Alings, Marco; Antz, Matthias; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Hacke, Werner; Oldgren, Jonas; Sinnaeve, Peter; Camm, A John; Kirchhof, Paulus

    2017-07-14

    In 2013, the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) published a Practical Guide on the use of non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) (Heidbuchel H, Verhamme P, Alings M, Antz M, Hacke W, Oldgren J, Sinnaeve P, Camm AJ, Kirchhof P, European Heart Rhythm A. European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of new oral anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Europace 2013;15:625-651; Heidbuchel H, Verhamme P, Alings M, Antz M, Hacke W, Oldgren J, Sinnaeve P, Camm AJ, Kirchhof P. EHRA practical guide on the use of new oral anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: executive summary. Eur Heart J 2013;34:2094-2106). The document received widespread interest, not only from cardiologists but also from neurologists, geriatricians, and general practitioners, as became evident from the distribution of >350 000 copies of its pocket version (the EHRA Key Message Booklet) world-wide. Since 2013, numerous new studies have appeared on different aspects of NOAC therapy in AF patients. Therefore, EHRA updated the Practical Guide, including new information but also providing balanced guiding in the many areas where prospective data are still lacking. The outline of the original guide that addressed 15 clinical scenarios has been preserved, but all chapters have been rewritten. Main changes in the Update comprise a discussion on the definition of 'non-valvular AF' and eligibility for NOAC therapy, inclusion of finalized information on the recently approved edoxaban, tailored dosing information dependent on concomitant drugs, and/or clinical characteristics, an expanded chapter on neurologic scenarios (ischaemic stroke or intracranial haemorrhage under NOAC), an updated anticoagulation card and more specifics on start-up and follow-up issues. There are also many new flow charts, like on appropriate switching between anticoagulants (VKA to NOAC or vice versa), default scenarios for

  16. Electrospinning of functional poly(methyl methacrylate) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyar, Tamer; Besenbacher, Flemming; Nur, Yusuf; Hacaloglu, Jale

    2009-01-01

    Electrospinning of nanofibers with cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (CD-ICs) is particularly attractive since distinct properties can be obtained by combining the nanofibers with specific functions of the CD-ICs. Here we report on the electrospinning of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes (CD-menthol-ICs). These CD-menthol-IC functionalized nanofibers were developed with the purpose of producing functional nanofibers that contain fragrances/flavors with high temperature stability, and menthol was used as a model fragrance/flavor material. The PMMA nanofibers were electrospun with CD-menthol-ICs using three type of CD: α-CD, β-CD, and γ-CD. Direct pyrolysis mass spectrometry (DP-MS) studies showed that the thermal evaporation of menthol occurred over a very high and a broad temperature range (100-355 deg. C) for PMMA/CDmenthol-IC nanowebs, demonstrating the complexation of menthol with the CD cavity and its high temperature stability. Furthermore, as the size of CD cavity increased in the order α-CD β-CD>α-CD.

  17. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF L-MENTHOL IN THE UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPIC PROCEDURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hitomi; Hikichi, Takuto; Takagi, Tadayuki; Suzuki, Rei; Watanabe, K O; Nakamura, Jun; Sugimoto, Mitsuru; Waragai, Yuichi; Konno, Naoki; Asama, Hiroyuki; Takasumi, Mika; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Obara, Katsutoshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2015-01-01

    Peppermint oil, which suppresses gastric peristalsis during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), is effective for determining the margin of a gastric tumor. This study was conducted to evaluate the utility of an L-menthol preparation for suppressing gastric peristalsis and for diagnosing gastric tumors. The study examined 124 patients who underwent EGD between January and April 2012. After 20 mL of 0.8% L-menthol was sprayed directly onto the mucosal surface of the gastric antrum, the degree of peristalsis suppression in the antrum was evaluated. The effectiveness of L-menthol for identifying new gastric tumors and determining tumor margins was also evaluated. Gastric peristalsis was suppressed in 88.5% (69/78) of patients, with complete suppression of peristalsis achieved in 78.2%. L-menthol exerted a higher peristalsis-suppressive effect in patients with endoscopic gastric mucosal atrophy (93.3%, 56/60) than in patients without atrophy (72.2%, 13/18) (p = .014). L-menthol application caused the detection of new gastric tumors in 1.6% (2/124) of patients and clarification of the margin of three lesions (in 3 patients) identified as having an unclear margin before L-menthol application. These results suggest that L-menthol is effective for suppressing gastric peristalsis during EGD and suggest that it is useful for identifying gastric tumors and for determining tumor margins.

  18. Effect of Menthol on Respiratory and Perceptual Responses to Exercise in Firefighter Protective Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired respiration reduces firefighters’ work capacity. This study evaluated the effect of menthol lozenge on respiratory and perceptual responses during exercise in a hot environment. Ten participants wearing firefighter protective gear performed two repeated exercise and rest trials in a counter-balanced order. Exercise consisted of two bouts of 20-min treadmill exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake and one bout of 20-min stepping exercise at a wet bulb global temperature of 35°C. Participants either took 10-mg menthol or control lozenges prior to the beginning of each exercise bout. Respiratory gas exchange, heart rate, thermal sensation, and breathing comfort were continuously recorded. Menthol lozenges significantly increased pulmonary ventilation (menthol: 45.0±6.6 L•min-1 vs. control: 41.4±5.8 L•min-1 and menthol: 52.7±9.7 L•min-1 vs. control: 46.5±7.0 L•min-1, for the 1st and 2nd treadmill exercise, respectively and oxygen consumption (menthol: 26.7±2.0 ml•kg-1•min-1 vs. control: 25.2±2.3 ml•kg-1•min-1 and menthol: 28.8±2.3 ml•kg-1•min-1 vs. control: 26.9±1.9 ml•kg-1•min-1, for the 1st and 2nd treadmill exercise, respe¬cti¬ve¬ly (p0.05. The ventilatory equivalents though were not different throughout the exercise (p>0.05. Ratings of thermal sensation and breathing comfort were not different (p>0.05. It was concluded that menthol could alter breathing pattern and increase respiratory responses during strenuous exercise in the heat. There was no favorable effect of menthol on respiratory or perceptual responses under exercise-heat stress.

  19. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF L-MENTHOL IN THE UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPIC PROCEDURE

    OpenAIRE

    KIKUCHI, HITOMI; HIKICHI, TAKUTO; TAKAGI, TADAYUKI; SUZUKI, REI; WATANABE, KO; NAKAMURA, JUN; SUGIMOTO, MITSURU; WARAGAI, YUICHI; KONNO, NAOKI; ASAMA, HIROYUKI; TAKASUMI, MIKA; WATANABE, HIROSHI; OBARA, KATSUTOSHI; OHIRA, HIROMASA

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Peppermint oil, which suppresses gastric peristalsis during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), is effective for determining the margin of a gastric tumor. This study was conducted to evaluate the utility of an L-menthol preparation for suppressing gastric peristalsis and for diagnosing gastric tumors. Methods: The study examined 124 patients who underwent EGD between January and April 2012. After 20 mL of 0.8% L-menthol was sprayed directly onto the mucosal surface of the gastric antrum, ...

  20. How the industry is marketing menthol cigarettes: the audience, the message and the medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Amanda; Ganz, Ollie; Pearson, Jennifer; Celcis, Nathalie; Vallone, Donna; Villanti, Andrea C

    2015-11-01

    Despite declines in overall US cigarette consumption, the menthol cigarette market share has increased in recent years. Advertising contributes to menthol initiation and use, but little has been done to characterise menthol cigarette advertising outside of the point of sale. Two full-service advertising firms were used to develop a library of menthol cigarette advertisements (ads) over a 9-month period (June 2012-February 2013) in the USA. The volume of ads, media channel (direct mail, print, online, email), estimated spend and households reached was summarised overall and by brand in 2013. Direct mail, email and print ads were coded for content and the target audience of print publications was examined. Over the study period, 205 menthol cigarette ads were identified with estimated expenditures exceeding US$31 million, with 70% spent on direct mail ads. Over 90% of ads promoted Camel, Marlboro and Newport menthol cigarettes. A majority (87%) of direct mail ads contained coupons or other incentives known to appeal to price-sensitive customers. Only two brands' print ads appeared during this period: Newport ads focused on themes of sociability and sexuality, and were placed in magazines targeting African-Americans and younger consumers; American Spirit print ads were placed in general interest magazines and predominantly stressed the 'natural' aspects of their brand. The tobacco industry continues to spend millions of dollars promoting menthol cigarettes through channels that preferentially target vulnerable subgroups, such as African-Americans and younger consumers. Public health campaigns to educate and combat the influence of menthol advertising are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. 77 FR 54570 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board AGENCY... the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review.... The PRB shall review and evaluate the initial summary rating of the senior executive's performance...

  2. The marketing of menthol cigarettes in the United States: populations, messages, and channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Charyn D; Robinson, Robert G

    2004-02-01

    This commentary looks at the marketing menthol cigarettes to various targeted populations--women, middle school youth and Asian/Pacific Islander immigrants as well as African Americans. The authors take the position that "ethnic awareness" as evidenced in the advertising of menthol cigarette brands to African Americans is just one of four distinct messages that tobacco marketers have used for what they have termed the "coolness" category. The other messages are: healthy/medicinal; fresh/refreshing/cool/clean/crisp; and youthfulness/silliness and fun. The commentary poses three questions: (a) Are new population segments being steered toward menthol cigarettes using marketing approaches that are similar to what has occurred with African Americans and women? (b) What exactly is the relationship between the marketing of menthol cigarettes and subsequent use of menthol tobacco products by specific population subgroups? (c) Are there lessons to be learned from the marketing of menthol cigarettes that can be used to improve the public health and medical communities' smoking cessation and tobacco use prevention communications efforts?

  3. Field application of menthol for Japanese honey bees, Apis cerana japonica (Hymenoptera: Apidae), to control tracheal mites, Acarapis woodi (Acari: Tarsonemidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Taro; Sakamoto, Yoshiko

    2016-11-01

    The first record of tracheal mites, Acarapis woodi, in Japan was made in 2010. These mites have since caused serious damage to the colonies of Japanese honey bees, Apis cerana japonica. In the present study, to control the mites on Japanese honey bees with l-menthol, an agent used for European honey bees, Apis mellifera, we investigated (1) the seasonality of menthol efficacy, (2) the overwintering mortality of menthol-treated colonies, and (3) the menthol residue in honey under field conditions in cooperation with private beekeepers of Japanese honey bees. Seasonal menthol efficacy was tested by applying 30 g of l-menthol for 1 month in different seasons. Mite prevalence was measured by dissecting the honey bee thorax. Overwintering mortality was monitored during winter after checking the mite prevalence in autumn, and was compared with that of untreated colonies reported in our previous study. The residual level of menthol in honey was measured by GC-MS. The results showed that the menthol-treated colonies had a smaller rate of increase in mite prevalence than the untreated colonies. The effects of menthol were highest in March and April. The winter mortality was depressed by menthol treatment. Honey samples extracted from the menthol-treated colonies included 0.4 ppm of menthol residue on average. Our findings suggest that menthol treatment is effective for controlling the tracheal mites on Japanese honey bees.

  4. Summary of proceedings of the first meeting of the executive committee on building and community systems. Electricity council Research Centre, Capenhurst, United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) meeting on Building and Community Systems was conducted in three phases. First, participants toured the Electricity Council Research Centre (ECRC) research facilities to observe the ECRC's building research activities and to receive information on their ongoing research into energy usage in buildings. The final meeting of the Experts Group on Building and Community Systems was then held on May 4. During this meeting, analysts discussed the progress of their analysis of office buildings that has been conducted since the October, 1976, Experts Group meeting in Stockholm. In accordance with IEA rules, this Experts Group was then abolished and an Executive Committee on Buildings and Community Systems created to direct further work in this project area. This action reflects the signing in March of the Implementing Agreement on Building and Community Systems and Annex I on Thermal Characteristics by the United States, Canada, and Italy. The discussion of study activities, begun by the Experts Group, was continued at this Executive Committee meeting. Sections I and II describe the meetings of the Experts Group and Executive Committee. Section III describes the field trip at the ECRC.

  5. Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Peter N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background US mentholated cigarette sales have increased considerably over 50 years. Preference for mentholated cigarettes is markedly higher in Black people. While menthol itself is not genotoxic or carcinogenic, its acute respiratory effects might affect inhalation of cigarette smoke. This possibility seems consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in Black men, despite Black people smoking less and starting smoking later than White people. Despite experimental data suggesting similar carcinogenicity of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes, the lack of convincing evidence that mentholation increases puffing, inhalation or smoke uptake, and the similarity of lung cancer rates in Black and White females, a review of cigarette mentholation and lung cancer is timely given current regulatory interest in the topic. Methods Epidemiological studies comparing lung cancer risk in mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smokers were identified from MedLine and other sources. Study details were extracted and strengths and weaknesses assessed. Relative risk estimates were extracted, or derived, for ever mentholated use and for long-term use, overall and by gender, race, and current/ever smoking, and meta-analyses conducted. Results Eight generally good quality studies were identified, with valid cases and controls, and appropriate adjustment for age, gender, race and smoking. The studies afforded good power to detect possible effects. However, only one study presented results by histological type, none adjusted for occupation or diet, and some provided no results by length of mentholated cigarette use. The data do not suggest any effect of mentholation on lung cancer risk. Adjusted relative risk estimates for ever use vary from 0.81 to 1.12, giving a combined estimate of 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.02, n = 8, with no increase in males (1.01, 0.84-1.22, n = 5, females (0.80, 0.67-0.95, n = 5, White people (0.87, 0.75-1.03, n = 4

  6. Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background US mentholated cigarette sales have increased considerably over 50 years. Preference for mentholated cigarettes is markedly higher in Black people. While menthol itself is not genotoxic or carcinogenic, its acute respiratory effects might affect inhalation of cigarette smoke. This possibility seems consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in Black men, despite Black people smoking less and starting smoking later than White people. Despite experimental data suggesting similar carcinogenicity of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes, the lack of convincing evidence that mentholation increases puffing, inhalation or smoke uptake, and the similarity of lung cancer rates in Black and White females, a review of cigarette mentholation and lung cancer is timely given current regulatory interest in the topic. Methods Epidemiological studies comparing lung cancer risk in mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smokers were identified from MedLine and other sources. Study details were extracted and strengths and weaknesses assessed. Relative risk estimates were extracted, or derived, for ever mentholated use and for long-term use, overall and by gender, race, and current/ever smoking, and meta-analyses conducted. Results Eight generally good quality studies were identified, with valid cases and controls, and appropriate adjustment for age, gender, race and smoking. The studies afforded good power to detect possible effects. However, only one study presented results by histological type, none adjusted for occupation or diet, and some provided no results by length of mentholated cigarette use. The data do not suggest any effect of mentholation on lung cancer risk. Adjusted relative risk estimates for ever use vary from 0.81 to 1.12, giving a combined estimate of 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.02, n = 8), with no increase in males (1.01, 0.84-1.22, n = 5), females (0.80, 0.67-0.95, n = 5), White people (0.87, 0.75-1.03, n = 4) or Black people (0.90, 0

  7. Ingestion of a cold temperature/menthol beverage increases outdoor exercise performance in a hot, humid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Trong, Than; Riera, Florence; Rinaldi, Kévin; Briki, Walid; Hue, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    A recent laboratory study demonstrated that the ingestion of a cold/menthol beverage improved exercise performance in a hot and humid environment during 20 km of all-out cycling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the ingestion of cold water/ice-slurry with menthol would improve performance in hot and humid outdoor conditions. Ten trained males completed three trials of five blocks consisting of 4-km cycling and 1.5-km running. During warm-up, every block and recovery, the athletes drank 190 ml of aromatized (i.e., with 0.05 mL of menthol) beverage at three temperatures: Neutral (ambient temperature) (28.7°C±0. 5°C), Cold (3.1°C±0.6°C) or Ice-slurry (0.17°C±0.07°C). Trial time, core temperature (Tco), heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation (TS) and thermal comfort (TC) were assessed. Ice-slurry/menthol increased performance by 6.2% and 3.3% compared with neutral water/menthol and cold water/menthol, respectively. No between-trial differences were noted for Tco, HR, RPE, TC and TS was lower with ice-slurry/menthol and cold water/menthol compared with neutral water/menthol. A low drink temperature combined with menthol lessens the performance decline in hot/humid outdoor conditions (i.e., compared with cold water alone). Performances were better with no difference in psycho-physiological stress (Tco, HR and RPE) between trials. The changes in perceptual parameters caused by absorbing a cold/menthol beverage reflect the psychological impact. The mechanism leading to these results seems to involve brain integration of signals from physiological and psychological sources.

  8. Ingestion of a cold temperature/menthol beverage increases outdoor exercise performance in a hot, humid environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Than Tran Trong

    Full Text Available A recent laboratory study demonstrated that the ingestion of a cold/menthol beverage improved exercise performance in a hot and humid environment during 20 km of all-out cycling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the ingestion of cold water/ice-slurry with menthol would improve performance in hot and humid outdoor conditions.Ten trained males completed three trials of five blocks consisting of 4-km cycling and 1.5-km running. During warm-up, every block and recovery, the athletes drank 190 ml of aromatized (i.e., with 0.05 mL of menthol beverage at three temperatures: Neutral (ambient temperature (28.7°C±0. 5°C, Cold (3.1°C±0.6°C or Ice-slurry (0.17°C±0.07°C. Trial time, core temperature (Tco, heart rate (HR, rate of perceived exertion (RPE, thermal sensation (TS and thermal comfort (TC were assessed.Ice-slurry/menthol increased performance by 6.2% and 3.3% compared with neutral water/menthol and cold water/menthol, respectively. No between-trial differences were noted for Tco, HR, RPE, TC and TS was lower with ice-slurry/menthol and cold water/menthol compared with neutral water/menthol.A low drink temperature combined with menthol lessens the performance decline in hot/humid outdoor conditions (i.e., compared with cold water alone. Performances were better with no difference in psycho-physiological stress (Tco, HR and RPE between trials. The changes in perceptual parameters caused by absorbing a cold/menthol beverage reflect the psychological impact. The mechanism leading to these results seems to involve brain integration of signals from physiological and psychological sources.

  9. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF STATE DATA RELATED TO ABANDONED CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Seay Nance

    2003-03-01

    This 2003 Spring Semi-Annual Report contains a summary of the Final Technical Report being prepared for the Soil Remediation Requirements at Commercial and Centralized Drilling-Fluid Disposal (CCDD) Sites project funded by the United States Department of Energy under DOE Award No. DE-AC26-99BC15225. The summary describes (1) the objectives of the investigation, (2) a rationale and methodology of the investigation, (3) sources of data, assessment of data quality, and data availability, (4) examples of well documented centralized and commercial drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites and other sites where drilling fluid was disposed of, and (5) examples of abandoned sites and measures undertaken for their assessment and remediation. The report also includes most of the figures, tables, and appendices that will be included in the final report.

  10. Why We Must Continue to Investigate Menthol's Role in the African American Smoking Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Linda A; Trinidad, Dennis R; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Clanton, Mark S; Moolchan, Eric T; Fagan, Pebbles

    2016-04-01

    The disproportionate burden of tobacco use among African Americans is largely unexplained. The unexplained disparities, referred to as the African American smoking paradox, includes several phenomena. Despite their social disadvantage, African American youth have lower smoking prevalence rates, initiate smoking at older ages, and during adulthood, smoking rates are comparable to whites. Smoking frequency and intensity among African American youth and adults are lower compared to whites and American Indian and Alaska Natives, but tobacco-caused morbidity and mortality rates are disproportionately higher. Disease prediction models have not explained disease causal pathways in African Americans. It has been hypothesized that menthol cigarette smoking, which is disproportionately high among African Americans, may help to explain several components of the African American smoking paradox. This article provides an overview of the potential role that menthol plays in the African American smoking paradox. We also discuss the research needed to better understand this unresolved puzzle. We examined prior synthesis reports and reviewed the literature in PubMed on the menthol compound and menthol cigarette smoking in African Americans. The pharmacological and physiological effects of menthol and their interaction with biological and genetic factors may indirectly contribute to the disproportionate burden of cigarette use and diseases among African Americans. Future studies that examine taste sensitivity, the menthol compound, and their effects on smoking and chronic disease would provide valuable information on how to reduce the tobacco burden among African Americans. Our study highlights four counterintuitive observations related to the smoking risk profiles and chronic disease outcomes among African Americans. The extant literature provides strong evidence of their existence and shows that long-standing paradoxes have been largely unaffected by changes in the social

  11. Synthesis of liquid menthol by hydrogenation of dementholized peppermint oil over Ni catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora L. Manuale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogenation of (--menthone and (+-isomenthone was studied at 2.7 MPa and 100 ºC. The objective was to produce a liquid menthol mixture rich in (--menthol from dementholized peppermint oil. Ni-based catalysts were tested and compared for this reaction: a 6 and 12% Ni dispersed into a nonstoichiometric magnesium aluminate (Ni-Mg-Al with spinel structure; b Ni-Raney catalyst. Both types of catalysts were active for (--menthone and (+-isomenthone hydrogenation. Lower conversion but higher selectivity to (--menthol was obtained with Ni-Mg-Al catalysts. However, they rapidly lost their activity. Instead Ni-Raney catalysts kept its original activity even after several hydrogenation runs.

  12. Effects of caffeine and menthol on cognition and mood during simulated firefighting in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Balilionis, Gytis; Casaru, Catalina; Geary, Colleen; Schumacker, Randall E; Neggers, Yasmin H; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D; Richardson, Mark T; Bishop, Phillip A; Green, James M

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the separate effects of caffeine and menthol on cognition and mood during simulated firefighting in the heat. Participants (N = 10) performed three trials in a counterbalanced order, either with 400 mg caffeine, menthol lozenges, or placebo. The simulated firefighting consisted of 2 bouts of 20-min treadmill exercise and one bout of 20-min stepping exercise in the heat with two brief 15-min rest periods between each exercise phase. Exercise induced significant dehydration (>3%) and elevated rectal temperature (>38.9 °C), for all three conditions. Neither caffeine nor menthol reduced perceived exertion compared to placebo (p > 0.05). Mood ratings (i.e., alertness, hedonic tone, tension) significantly deteriorated over time (p benefits in a simulated firefighting paradigm in a hot environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2. Part 6: 90-day OECD 413 rat inhalation study with systems toxicology endpoints demonstrates reduced exposure effects of a mentholated version compared with mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Alberto; Lebrun, Stefan; Kogel, Ulrike; Ho, Jenny; Tan, Wei Teck; Titz, Bjoern; Leroy, Patrice; Vuillaume, Gregory; Bera, Monali; Martin, Florian; Rodrigo, Gregory; Esposito, Marco; Dempsey, Ruth; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick

    2016-11-30

    The toxicity of a mentholated version of the Tobacco Heating System (THS2.2M), a candidate modified risk tobacco product (MRTP), was characterized in a 90-day OECD inhalation study. Differential gene and protein expression analysis of nasal epithelium and lung tissue was also performed to record exposure effects at the molecular level. Rats were exposed to filtered air (sham), to THS2.2M (at 15, 23 and 50 μg nicotine/l), to two mentholated reference cigarettes (MRC) (at 23 μg nicotine/l), or to the 3R4F reference cigarette (at 23 μg nicotine/l). MRCs were designed to meet 3R4F specifications. Test atmosphere analyses demonstrated that aldehydes were reduced by 75%-90% and carbon monoxide by 98% in THS2.2M aerosol compared with MRC smoke; aerosol uptake was confirmed by carboxyhemoglobin and menthol concentrations in blood, and by the quantities of urinary nicotine metabolites. Systemic toxicity and alterations in the respiratory tract were significantly lower in THS2.2M-exposed rats compared with MRC and 3R4F. Pulmonary inflammation and the magnitude of the changes in gene and protein expression were also dramatically lower after THS2.2M exposure compared with MRCs and 3R4F. No menthol-related effects were observed after MRC mainstream smoke-exposure compared with 3R4F. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploring the conformational landscape of menthol, menthone, and isomenthone: A microwave study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eSchmitz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The rotational spectra of the monoterpenoids menthol, menthone, and isomenthone are reportedin the frequency range of 2−8.5GHz, obtained with broadband Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy.For menthol only one conformation was identified under the cold conditions of the molecularjet, whereas three conformations were observed for menthone and one for isomenthone. Theconformational space of the different molecules was extensively studied using quantum chemicalcalculations, and the results were compared with molecular parameters obtained by the measurements.Finally, a computer program is presented, which was developed to automatically identifydifferent species in a dense broadband microwave spectrum using calculated ab initio rotationalconstants as input.

  15. Spent-Fuel Test - Climax: An evaluation of the technical feasibility of geologic storage of spent nuclear fuel in granite: Executive summary of final results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    This summary volume outlines results that are covered in more detail in the final report of the Spent-Fuel Test - Climate project. The project was conducted between 1978 and 1983 in the granitic Climax stock at the Nevada Test Site. Results indicate that spent fuel can be safely stored for periods of years in this host medium and that nuclear waste so emplaced can be safely retrieved. We also evaluated the effects of heat and radiation (alone and in combination) on emplacement canisters and the surrounding rock mass. Storage of the spent-fuel affected the surrounding rock mass in measurable ways, but did not threaten the stability or safety of the facility at any time

  16. Executive summary: evaluation of the evidence to support practice guidelines for nutritional care of preterm infants-the Pre-B Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Steiber, Alison L; Hand, Rosa K

    2016-02-01

    Preterm birth (infants born at clinical and public health challenge in the United States and globally. No universally accepted practice guidelines exist for the nutritional care of preterm infants. To address the current state of knowledge and to support systematic reviews that will be used to develop evidence-informed guidance, a consortium consisting of the American Academy of Pediatrics, the ASN, the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Food and Drug Administration, the CDC, the USDA/Agricultural Research Service (USDA/ARS), and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development/NIH initiated the Pre-B Project. The project included the constitution of 4 thematic working groups charged with the following tasks: 1) develop a series of topics/questions for which there is sufficient evidence to support a systematic review process to be conducted by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' Evidence Analysis Library (EAL), leading to the development of new guidelines for nutritional care of preterm infants, and 2) develop a targeted research agenda to address priority gaps in our understanding of the role of nutrition in the health and development of preterm/neonatal intensive care unit infants. This review consists of a project overview including a summary of a workshop hosted by the USDA/ARS Children's Nutrition Research Center and summary reports of the 4 working groups established to address the following themes: 1) nutrient specifications, 2) clinical/practical issues in enteral feeding, 3) gastrointestinal and surgical issues, and 4) current standards for assessing infant feeding outcomes. These reports will serve as the basis for the ultimate guideline development process to be conducted by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' EAL. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. High Expectations: Creating Success for Every Student. Report of the Task Force on the Education of Students with Disabilities. Executive Summary = Grandes Ilusiones: Pasos para Propiciar el Exito de Cada Estudiante. Informe de la Mesa Directiva para la Educacion de Estudiantes Incapacitados. Sintesis Ejecutiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This executive summary of a report of a Texas task force on the education of students with disabilities has been published in separate English and Spanish versions, both provided here. The report outlines a policy for educating students with disabilities, the foundation for the policy, and recommendations for implementing the policy goals. The…

  18. Proceedings of the eighth annual DOE low-level waste management forum: Executive summary, opening plenary session, closing plenary session, attendees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    The Eighth Annual DOE (Department of Energy) Low-Level Waste Management Forum was held in September 1986, in Denver, Colorado, to provide a forum for exchange of information on low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management activities, requirements, and plans. The one hundred ninety attendees included representatives from the DOE Nuclear Energy and Defense Low-Level Waste Management Programs, DOE Operations Offices and their contractors; representatives from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US Geological Survey, and their contractors; representatives of states and regions responsible for development of new commercial low-level waste disposal facilities; representatives of utilities, private contractors, disposal facility operators, and other parties concerned with low-level waste management issues. Plenary sessions were held at the beginning and conclusion of the meeting, while eight concurrent topical sessions were held during the intervening two days. The meeting was organized by topical areas to allow for information exchange and discussion on current and future low-level radioactive waste management challenges. Session chairmen presented summaries of the discussions and conclusions resulting from their respective sessions. Selected papers in this volume have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  19. Proceedings of the eighth annual DOE low-level waste management forum: Executive summary, opening plenary session, closing plenary session, attendees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    The Eighth Annual DOE (Department of Energy) Low-Level Waste Management Forum was held in September 1986, in Denver, Colorado, to provide a forum for exchange of information on low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management activities, requirements, and plans. The one hundred ninety attendees included representatives from the DOE Nuclear Energy and Defense Low-Level Waste Management Programs, DOE Operations Offices and their contractors; representatives from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US Geological Survey, and their contractors; representatives of states and regions responsible for development of new commercial low-level waste disposal facilities; representatives of utilities, private contractors, disposal facility operators, and other parties concerned with low-level waste management issues. Plenary sessions were held at the beginning and conclusion of the meeting, while eight concurrent topical sessions were held during the intervening two days. The meeting was organized by topical areas to allow for information exchange and discussion on current and future low-level radioactive waste management challenges. Session chairmen presented summaries of the discussions and conclusions resulting from their respective sessions. Selected papers in this volume have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  20. Effects of Menthol Supplementation in Feedlot Cattle Diets on the Fecal Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C C Aperce

    Full Text Available The pool of antimicrobial resistance determinants in the environment and in the gut flora of cattle is a serious public health concern. In addition to being a source of human exposure, these bacteria can transfer antibiotic resistance determinants to pathogenic bacteria and endanger the future of antimicrobial therapy. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance genes on mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, facilitates spread of resistance. Recent work has shown in vitro anti-plasmid activity of menthol, a plant-based compound with the potential to be used as a feed additive to beneficially alter ruminal fermentation. The present study aimed to determine if menthol supplementation in diets of feedlot cattle decreases the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in feces. Menthol was included in diets of steers at 0.3% of diet dry matter. Fecal samples were collected weekly for 4 weeks and analyzed for total coliforms counts, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and the prevalence of tet genes in E. coli isolates. Results revealed no effect of menthol supplementation on total coliforms counts or prevalence of E. coli resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and sulfamethoxazole; however, 30 days of menthol addition to steer diets increased the prevalence of tetracycline-resistant E. coli (P < 0.02. Although the mechanism by which menthol exerts its effects remains unclear, results of our study suggest that menthol may have an impact on antimicrobial resistance in gut bacteria.

  1. Executive summary of imported infectious diseases after returning from foreign travel: Consensus document of the Spanish Society for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Górgolas-Hernández-Mora, Miguel; Salvador, Fernando; Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Ramírez-Olivencia, Germán; Martín-Echeverría, Esteban; Rodríguez-Guardado, Azucena; Norman, Francesca; Velasco-Tirado, Virginia; Zubero-Sulibarría, Zuriñe; Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Muñoz-Gutierrez, José; Ramos-Rincón, José Manuel; Sánchez-Seco-Fariñas, M Paz; Velasco-Arribas, María; Belhassen-García, Moncef; Lago-Nuñez, Mar; Cañas García-Otero, Elías; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2018-03-01

    In a global world, knowledge of imported infectious diseases is essential in daily practice, both for the microbiologist-parasitologist and the clinician who diagnoses and treats infectious diseases in returned travelers. Tropical and subtropical countries where there is a greater risk of contracting an infectious disease are among the most frequently visited tourist destinations. The SEIMC considers it appropriate to produce a consensus document that will be useful to primary care physicians as well as specialists in internal medicine, infectious diseases and tropical medicine who help treat travelers returning from tropical and sub-tropical areas with infections. Preventive aspects of infectious diseases and infections imported by immigrants are explicitly excluded here, since they have been dealt with in other SEIMC documents. Various types of professionals (clinicians, microbiologists, and parasitologists) have helped produce this consensus document by evaluating the available evidence-based data in order to propose a series of key facts about individual aspects of the topic. The first section of the document is a summary of some of the general aspects concerning the general assessment of travelers who return home with potential infections. The main second section contains the key facts (causative agents, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic measures) associated with the major infectious syndromes affecting returned travelers [gastrointestinal syndrome (acute or persistent diarrhea); febrile syndrome with no obvious source of infection; localized cutaneous lesions; and respiratory infections]. Finally, the characteristics of special traveler subtypes, such as pregnant women and immunocompromised travelers, are described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  2. CONVERSION OF (±-CITRONELLAL AND ITS DERIVATIVES TO (--MENTHOL USING BIFUNCTIONAL NICKEL ZEOLITE CATALYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indri Badria Adilina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available (±-Citronellal and its derivatives were converted to (--menthol by a one-pot reaction system using zeolite based nickel catalysts. The catalysts were prepared by immobilization of nickel on natural zeolite (NZ or synthetic zeolite (ZSM-5 by a simple cation exchange method. Calcination and hydrogen treatment procedures were able to significantly increase the surface area and pore volume of NZ based catalysts whereas negligible changes in the properties were observed for that of ZSM-5. Catalytic reactions were carried out at 70ºC by stirring the mixture in the air for cyclization of (±-citronellal to (±-isopulegol followed by hydrogenation towards the desired (--menthol at 2 Mpa of H2 pressure. The Ni/NZ catalyst was able to convert a (±-citronellal derivative yielding 9% (--menthol (36% selectivity with conversion up to 24%, whereas Ni/ZSM5 catalyst directly converted 65% (±-citronellal to give 4% menthol (6% selectivity. These zeolite based catalysts are therefore potential materials for the conversion of biomass feed stock to value-added chemicals.

  3. Disparities and menthol marketing: additional evidence in support of point of sale policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Harris, Jenine; Snider, Doneisha; Walsh, Heidi; Cyr, Julianne; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-09-25

    This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control.

  4. Design, Scale up and Safe Piloting of Thymol Hydrogenation and Menthol Racemisation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudas, J.; Hanika, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2009), s. 83-90 ISSN 0263-8762 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : thymol hydrogenation * menthol racemisation * trickle-bed reactor Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.223, year: 2009

  5. Disparities and Menthol Marketing: Additional Evidence in Support of Point of Sale Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Barnoya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control.

  6. Disparities and Menthol Marketing: Additional Evidence in Support of Point of Sale Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Harris, Jenine; Snider, Doneisha; Walsh, Heidi; Cyr, Julianne; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control. PMID:24071922

  7. Research on choleretic effect of menthol, menthone, pluegone, isomenthone, and limonene in DanShu capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guanying; Yuan, Xing; Zhang, Sanyin; Wang, Ruru; Yang, Miao; Wu, Chunjie; Wu, Zhigang; Ke, Xiao

    2015-02-01

    Danshu capsule (DSC) is a medicinal compound in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is commonly used for the treatment of acute & chronic cholecystitis as well as choleithiasis. To study its choleretic effect, healthy rats were randomly divided into DSC high (DSCH, 900mg/kg), medium (DSCM, 450mg/kg), and low (DSCL, 225mg/kg) group, Xiaoyan Lidan tablet (XYLDT, 750mg/kg), and saline group. The bile was collected for 1h after 20-minute stabilization as the base level, and at 1h, 2h, 3h, and 4h after drug administration, respectively. Bile volume, total cholesterol, and total bile acid were measured at each time point. The results revealed that DSC significantly stimulated bile secretion, decreased total cholesterol level and increased total bile acid level. Therefore, it had choleretic effects. To identify the active components contributing to its choleretic effects, five major constituents which are menthol (39.33mg/kg), menthone (18.02mg/kg), isomenthone (8.18mg/kg), pluegone (3.31mg/kg), and limonene (4.39mg/kg) were tested on our rat model. The results showed that menthol and limonene could promote bile secretion when compared to DSC treatment (p > 0.05); Menthol, menthol and limonene could significantly decrease total cholesterol level (plimonene. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of menthol coated craft paper on corrosion of copper in HCl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    copper corrosion by menthol was studied by weight loss and electrochemical studies. 2. Experimental. 2.1 Materials and apparatus. Copper strips of 99⋅9% purity were used for the gravimetric and electrochemical measurements. For the gravimetric test, specimens of copper were made with dimensions of. 5 × 1 × 0⋅1 cm ...

  9. Solubility of Menthol in Pressurised Carbon Dioxide – Experimental Data and Thermodynamic Modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galushko, A.A.; Sovová, Helena; Stateva, R.P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2006), s. 152-158 ISSN 1451-9372. [outh East European Congress of Chemical Engineering /1./. Belgrade, 25.09.2005-28.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : menthol * carbon dioxide * solubility Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  10. Placental Origins of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: Potential Molecular Targets- An Executive Workshop Summary of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilekis, John V.; Tsilou, Ekaterini; Fisher, Susan; Abrahams, Vikki M.; Soares, Michael J.; Cross, James C.; Zamudio, Stacy; Illsley, Nicholas P.; Myatt, Leslie; Colvis, Christine; Costantine, Maged M.; Haas, David M.; Sadovsky, Yoel; Weiner, Carl; Rytting, Erik; Bidwell, Gene

    2016-01-01

    Although much progress is being made in understanding the molecular pathways in the placenta involved in the pathophysiology of pregnancy related disorders, a significant gap exists in utilizing this information for developing new drug therapies to improve pregnancy outcome. On March 5–6, 2015, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health sponsored a two day workshop titled Placental Origins of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: Potential Molecular Targets to begin to address this gap. Particular emphasis was given in the identification of important molecular pathways that could serve as drug targets and the advantages and disadvantages of targeting these particular pathways. This article is a summary of the proceedings of this workshop. A broad number of topics were covered ranging from basic placental biology to clinical trials. This included research in the basic biology of placentation, such as trophoblast migration and spiral artery remodeling, and trophoblast sensing and response to infectious and non-infectious agents. Research findings in these areas will be critical for formulating developing future treatments and developing therapies for the prevention of a number of pregnancy disorders of placental origin including preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and uterine inflammation. Research was also presented summarizing ongoing clinical efforts in the U.S. and in Europe testing novel interventions for preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction, including agents such as oral arginine supplementation, sildenafil, pravastatin, gene therapy using virally-delivered vascular endothelial growth factor, and oxygen supplementation therapy. Strategies were also proposed to improve fetal growth by enhancing nutrient transport to the fetus by modulating their placental transporters, as well as targeting placental mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress to improve placental health. The roles

  11. NNAL exposure by race and menthol cigarette use among U.S. smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostron, Brian

    2013-05-01

    Researchers have recently suggested that nicotine and carcinogen exposure as measured by biomarkers such as cotinine and NNAL (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol) does not vary with cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) among Black smokers. Researchers have also suggested that nicotine exposure does not differ between menthol and nonmenthol smokers. In this study, we examine NNAL exposure for U.S. smokers by race, CPD, and menthol cigarette use. We analyzed urinary NNAL concentrations for more than 1500 everyday smokers participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007-2010. For purposes of comparison, we also analyzed serum cotinine concentrations for these smokers. We used linear regression analysis to estimate mean biomarker concentrations by CPD and race/ethnicity group and to examine the association between biomarker concentrations and menthol cigarette use by race/ethnicity group, controlling for other demographic and smoking characteristics. Biomarker concentrations increased with CPD for White, Black, and Hispanic smokers although NNAL concentrations leveled off for Black smokers at lower CPD levels compared with other smokers. Mean NNAL concentrations were lower among menthol smokers compared with nonmenthol smokers among smokers overall (β = -0.165, p = .032) and White smokers (β = -0.207, p = .048). We find evidence in national health survey data that nicotine and carcinogen exposure generally increases with CPD across race/ethnicity groups although the pattern of NNAL exposure differs by race/ethnicity group at high CPD levels. We also find evidence of differences in NNAL exposure for menthol smokers compared with nonmenthol smokers among smokers overall and White smokers.

  12. Targeted advertising, promotion, and price for menthol cigarettes in California high school neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Schleicher, Nina C; Dauphinee, Amanda L; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    To describe advertising, promotions, and pack prices for the leading brands of menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes near California high schools and to examine their associations with school and neighborhood demographics. In stores (n = 407) within walking distance (0.8 km [1/2 mile]) of California high schools (n = 91), trained observers counted ads for menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes and collected data about promotions and prices for Newport and Marlboro, the leading brand in each category. Multilevel modeling examined the proportion of all cigarette advertising for any menthol brand, the proportion of stores with sales promotions, and the lowest advertised pack price in relation to store types and school/neighborhood demographics. For each 10 percentage point increase in the proportion of Black students, the proportion of menthol advertising increased by 5.9 percentage points (e.g., from an average of 25.7%-31.6%), the odds of a Newport promotion were 50% higher (95% CI = 1.01, 2.22), and the cost of Newport was 12 cents lower (95% CI = -0.18, -0.06). By comparison, the odds of a promotion and the price for Marlboro, the leading brand of nonmenthol cigarettes, were unrelated to any school or neighborhood demographics. In high school neighborhoods, targeted advertising exposes Blacks to more promotions and lower prices for the leading brand of menthol cigarettes. This evidence contradicts the manufacturer's claims that the availability of its promotions is not based on race/ethnicity. It also highlights the need for tobacco control policies that would limit disparities in exposure to retail marketing for cigarettes.

  13. Targeted Advertising, Promotion, and Price For Menthol Cigarettes in California High School Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Nina C.; Dauphinee, Amanda L.; Fortmann, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe advertising, promotions, and pack prices for the leading brands of menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes near California high schools and to examine their associations with school and neighborhood demographics. Methods: In stores (n = 407) within walking distance (0.8 km [1/2 mile]) of California high schools (n = 91), trained observers counted ads for menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes and collected data about promotions and prices for Newport and Marlboro, the leading brand in each category. Multilevel modeling examined the proportion of all cigarette advertising for any menthol brand, the proportion of stores with sales promotions, and the lowest advertised pack price in relation to store types and school/neighborhood demographics. Results: For each 10 percentage point increase in the proportion of Black students, the proportion of menthol advertising increased by 5.9 percentage points (e.g., from an average of 25.7%–31.6%), the odds of a Newport promotion were 50% higher (95% CI = 1.01, 2.22), and the cost of Newport was 12 cents lower (95% CI = −0.18, −0.06). By comparison, the odds of a promotion and the price for Marlboro, the leading brand of nonmenthol cigarettes, were unrelated to any school or neighborhood demographics. Conclusions: In high school neighborhoods, targeted advertising exposes Blacks to more promotions and lower prices for the leading brand of menthol cigarettes. This evidence contradicts the manufacturer’s claims that the availability of its promotions is not based on race/ethnicity. It also highlights the need for tobacco control policies that would limit disparities in exposure to retail marketing for cigarettes. PMID:21705460

  14. 76 FR 61726 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary Senior Executive Service Performance Review; Correction AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DHS. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The... the appointment of the members of the Senior Executive Performance Review Boards. This correction adds...

  15. Bleeding risk assessment and management in atrial fibrillation patients. Executive Summary of a Position Document from the European Heart Rhythm Association [EHRA], endorsed by the European Society of Cardiology [ESC] Working Group on Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Andreotti, Felicita; Fauchier, Laurent; Huber, Kurt; Hylek, Elaine; Knight, Eve; Lane, Deirdre; Levi, Marcel; Marín, Francisco; Palareti, Gualtiero; Kirchhof, Paulus

    2011-12-01

    In this executive summary of a Consensus Document from the European Heart Rhythm Association, endorsed by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Thrombosis, we comprehensively review the published evidence and propose a consensus on bleeding risk assessments in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. The main aim of the document was to summarise 'best practice' in dealing with bleeding risk in AF patients when approaching antithrombotic therapy, by addressing the epidemiology and size of the problem, and review established bleeding risk factors. We also summarise definitions of bleeding in the published literature. Patient values and preferences balancing the risk of bleeding against thromboembolism as well as the prognostic implications of bleeding are reviewed. We also provide an overview of published bleeding risk stratification and bleeding risk schema. Brief discussion of special situations (e.g. periablation, peri-devices such as implantable cardioverter defibrillators [ICD] or pacemakers, presentation with acute coronary syndromes and/or requiring percutanous coronary interventions/stents and bridging therapy) is made, as well as a discussion of the prevention of bleeds and managing bleeding complications. Finally, this document puts forwards consensus statements that may help to define evidence gaps and assist in everyday clinical practice.

  16. Current Status and Recommendations for the Future of Research, Teaching, and Testing in the Biological Sciences of Radiation Oncology: Report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Paul E., E-mail: pwallner@theabr.org [21st Century Oncology, LLC, and the American Board of Radiology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Barker, Christopher A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bassetti, Michael [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bristow, Robert G. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Cancer Center/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cha, Yong I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Norton Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, New York (United States); Graves, Edward E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiation Research, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Kimmelman, Alec C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan (United States); Marples, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University, Oakland, California (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  17. Current status and recommendations for the future of research, teaching, and testing in the biological sciences of radiation oncology: report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Paul E; Anscher, Mitchell S; Barker, Christopher A; Bassetti, Michael; Bristow, Robert G; Cha, Yong I; Dicker, Adam P; Formenti, Silvia C; Graves, Edward E; Hahn, Stephen M; Hei, Tom K; Kimmelman, Alec C; Kirsch, David G; Kozak, Kevin R; Lawrence, Theodore S; Marples, Brian; McBride, William H; Mikkelsen, Ross B; Park, Catherine C; Weidhaas, Joanne B; Zietman, Anthony L; Steinberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Harm Perceptions of Menthol and Nonmenthol Cigarettes Differ by Brand, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender in US Adult Smokers: Results from PATH Wave 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M; Rose, Shyanika W; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Gray, Tiffany; Curry, Laurel; Villanti, Andrea C; Mays, Darren; Lindblom, Eric; Tercyak, Kenneth; Debnam, Charles; Mayo, Ashley; Perreras, Lexie

    2018-01-27

    Harm perceptions of menthol cigarettes may contribute to their appeal and use. African-Americans, women, and younger smokers disproportionately use menthol cigarettes, and may misperceive harm of menthol cigarettes. Data were from Wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Weighted analyses of current adult smokers (18 and older) were used to estimate the correlates of menthol smoking among all cigarette brands and separately for the top three cigarette brands (Newport, Camel, and Marlboro). Adjusted models examined the main effect of menthol smoking on harm perceptions of one's own brand of cigarette and interactions with race/ethnicity, age, and gender. Menthol cigarettes were used by nearly 40% of current smokers, although the prevalence of menthol smoking differed across the top three brands (94% Newport, 46% Camel, and 18% Marlboro). Among menthol smokers, 80% perceived their cigarette as equally harmful, 14% perceived their brand as more harmful, and 7% perceived their brand as less harmful. In adjusted models, menthol smokers were more likely than nonmenthol smokers to misperceive their own brand as more harmful than other brands (compared to no difference in harm). Race and gender emerged as moderators of the association between menthol brand preference and harm perceptions. In adjusted analyses, menthol smokers were more likely than nonmenthol smokers to perceive their brand as more harmful than other brands, with differences by sub-groups who disproportionately use menthol. Menthol cigarettes have been historically marketed with messages conveying lower harm than other cigarettes. Little is known about how contemporary adult menthol smokers perceive the harm of their usual brand, and potential differences by race, gender, and young adult versus older adult age group. After adjusting for other factors, menthol smokers were more likely than nonmenthol smokers to perceive their cigarette brand as more harmful than other brands

  19. Synergistic anticandidal activity of menthol in combination with itraconazole and nystatin against clinical Candida glabrata and Candida krusei isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifzadeh, Aghil; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Shokri, Hojjatollah; Tari, Paria Samadi

    2017-06-01

    Candida glabrata (C. glabrata) and C. krusei are now emerging as serious hospital acquired infections in immunocompromised patients. Menthol, a terpenic compound, has been reported to have antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of menthol in combination with itraconazole or nystatin against C. glabrata and C. krusei isolates. The effects of menthol along with itraconazole and nystatin, were evaluated by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M44-A and CLSI M27-A3 methods. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was determined for menthol plus itraconazole and nystatin combinations using the checkerboard method. The mean of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of menthol, nystatin and itraconazole were 53.2, 2.30 and 1.50 μg/ml for C. glabrata isolates and 121, 1.08 and 0.38 μg/ml for C. krusei isolates, respectively. Menthol in combination with itraconazole or nystatin exhibited the synergistic effects against all species of Candida tested. FICI values for menthol plus itraconazole and nystatin combinations ranged from 0.250 to 0.561 and 0.139 to 0.623 for C. glabrata isolates, and 0.182 to 0.750 and 0.188 to 0.760 for C. krusei, respectively. These results support the potential use of menthol as an anticandidal agent, and it can be used complementarily with other conventional antifungal agents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Thromboembolism and antithrombotic therapy for heart failure in sinus rhythm: an executive summary of a joint consensus document from the ESC Heart Failure Association and the ESC Working Group on Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Piotrponikowski, Piotr; Andreotti, Felicita; Anker, Stefan D; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Homma, Shunichi; Morais, Joao; Pullicino, Patrick; Rasmussen, Lars H; Marín, Francisco; Lane, Deirdre A

    2012-12-01

    Chronic heart failure (HF) with either reduced or preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction is common and remains an extremely serious disorder with a high mortality and morbidity. Many complications related to heart failure can be related to thrombosis. Epidemiological and pathophysiological data also link HF to an increased risk of thrombosis, leading to the clinical consequences of sudden death, stroke, systemic thromboembolism and/or venous thromboembolism. This executive summary of a joint consensus document of the Heart Failure Association (EHFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the ESC Working Group on Thrombosis reviews the published evidence, summarises 'best practice', and puts forward consensus statements that may help to define evidence gaps and assist management decisions in everyday clinical practice. In HF patients with atrial fibrillation, oral anticoagulation is clearly recommended, and the CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores should be used to determine the likely risk-benefit ratio (thromboembolism prevention versus risk of bleeding) of oral anticoagulation. In HF patients with reduced LV ejection fraction who are in sinus rhythm there is no evidence of an overall benefit of vitamin K antagonists (e.g. warfarin) on mortality, with risk of major bleeding. Whilst there is the potential for a reduction in ischaemic stroke, there is currently no compelling reason to routinely use warfarin for these patients. Risk factors associated with increased risk of thromboembolic events should be identified and decisions regarding use of anticoagulation individualised. Patient values and preferences are important determinants when balancing the risk of thromboembolism against bleeding risk. Novel oral anticoagulants that offer a different risk-benefit profile compared with warfarin may appear as an attractive therapeutic option, but this would need to be confirmed in clinical trials.

  1. Clinical practice guideline: Bell's Palsy executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Reginald F; Basura, Gregory J; Ishii, Lisa E; Schwartz, Seth R; Drumheller, Caitlin Murray; Burkholder, Rebecca; Deckard, Nathan A; Dawson, Cindy; Driscoll, Colin; Gillespie, M Boyd; Gurgel, Richard K; Halperin, John; Khalid, Ayesha N; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Micco, Alan; Munsell, Debra; Rosenbaum, Steven; Vaughan, William

    2013-11-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Bell's Palsy. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 11 recommendations developed encourage accurate and efficient diagnosis and treatment and, when applicable, facilitate patient follow-up to address the management of long-term sequelae or evaluation of new or worsening symptoms not indicative of Bell's palsy. There are myriad treatment options for Bell's palsy; some controversy exists regarding the effectiveness of several of these options, and there are consequent variations in care. In addition, there are numerous diagnostic tests available that are used in the evaluation of patients with Bell's palsy. Many of these tests are of questionable benefit in Bell's palsy. Furthermore, while patients with Bell's palsy enter the health care system with facial paresis/paralysis as a primary complaint, not all patients with facial paresis/paralysis have Bell's palsy. It is a concern that patients with alternative underlying etiologies may be misdiagnosed or have an unnecessary delay in diagnosis. All of these quality concerns provide an important opportunity for improvement in the diagnosis and management of patients with Bell's palsy.

  2. Mapping of the carbon transition. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Teno, Helene

    2013-01-01

    The carbon transition is an ambitious collective project aimed at changing models of production and consumption. The transition is already underway, and will call for substantial investment over the coming decade. All the actors in the field must be mobilized, and indeed, the transition is itself a major lever for driving the development of territorial entities. The Shift Project has decided to map out the carbon transition, as a way of informing political decision-makers of the main outcomes at stake and the anticipated impacts of a transition plan, in terms of job creation, purchasing power and lower energy bills. This mapping also gives them a toolbox, with ideas for action and a set of tools for financing the transition. This research project aims both to convince decision-makers that a transition plan is worthwhile, and to illustrate the means that can be deployed to achieve this transition. These include experimentation, innovation, suitable financing plans, dynamic cooperation between local actors, and positive communication to present this project as 'desirable'

  3. Rock Slope Design Criteria : Executive Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, and siltstones that...

  4. Renewable Electricity Futures Study Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schneider, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures Study (RE Futures) provides an analysis of the grid integration opportunities, challenges, and implications of high levels of renewable electricity generation for the U.S. electric system. The study is not a market or policy assessment. Rather, RE Futures examines renewable energy resources and many technical issues related to the operability of the U.S. electricity grid, and provides initial answers to important questions about the integration of high penetrations of renewable electricity technologies from a national perspective. RE Futures results indicate that a future U.S. electricity system that is largely powered by renewable sources is possible and that further work is warranted to investigate this clean generation pathway.

  5. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.; Sandor, D.; Wiser, R.; Schneider, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  6. Software Development Cost Estimation Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihn, Jairus M.; Menzies, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Identify simple fully validated cost models that provide estimation uncertainty with cost estimate. Based on COCOMO variable set. Use machine learning techniques to determine: a) Minimum number of cost drivers required for NASA domain based cost models; b) Minimum number of data records required and c) Estimation Uncertainty. Build a repository of software cost estimation information. Coordinating tool development and data collection with: a) Tasks funded by PA&E Cost Analysis; b) IV&V Effort Estimation Task and c) NASA SEPG activities.

  7. Investigate plow blade optimization : executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Snow and ice management is the single largest expenditure in the maintenance budget for the Ohio : Department of Transportation (ODOT), with an annual cost including labor, equipment, and materials : reaching approximately $86 million. Given the curr...

  8. Texting Parents: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sarah; Davison, Jenny; Yohanis, Jamie; Sloan, Seaneen; Gildea, Aideen; Thurston, Allen

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the findings from an efficacy trial and process evaluation of the Parent Engagement Programme (PEP). The PEP was a school-level intervention designed to improve pupil outcomes by engaging parents in their children's learning. The programme was developed collaboratively by research teams from the University of Bristol and…

  9. Accelerated Reader: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen; Siddiqui, Nadia; See, Beng Huat

    2015-01-01

    Accelerated Reader (AR) is a whole-group reading management and monitoring program that aims to foster the habit of independent reading among primary and early secondary age pupils. The internet-based software initially screens pupils according to their reading levels, and suggests books that match their reading age and reading interest. Pupils…

  10. REACH: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibieta, Luke

    2016-01-01

    REACH is a targeted reading support programme designed to improve reading accuracy and comprehension in pupils with reading difficulties in Years 7 and 8. It is based on research by the Centre for Reading and Language at York and is delivered by specially trained teaching assistants (TAs). This evaluation tested two REACH interventions, one based…

  11. LIT Programme: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Claire; Skipp, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The Literacy Intervention Toolkit (LIT) programme aims to improve the reading ability of children in Year 7 who scored below Level 4 at the end of primary school using a method known as reciprocal teaching. Reciprocal teaching methods encourage children to 'become the teacher'. They are taught how to apply four comprehension strategies:…

  12. Rapid Phonics: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Bernardine; Kasim, Adetayo

    2015-01-01

    Rapid Phonics is a synthetic phonics intervention intended to improve decoding skills and reading fluency. It teaches the relationship of word sounds to their corresponding letter groups in a structured way. In this evaluation, the intervention was delivered across the transition between primary and secondary school to Year 6/7 pupils who had not…

  13. Lesson Study: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Richard; Weinhardt, Felix; Wyness, Gill; Rolfe, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Lesson Study is a popular approach to teacher professional development used widely in Japan. It involves a small group of teachers co-planning a series of lessons based on a shared learning goal for the pupils, with one teacher leading the co-constructed lesson and their colleagues invited to observe pupil learning in the lesson. The team then…

  14. Teacher Observation: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Jack; Sizmur, Juliet; Walker, Matthew; Bradshaw, Sally; Styles, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The Teacher Observation intervention aimed to improve teacher effectiveness through structured peer observation. Teachers observe and are observed by their peers a number of times over the course of two years. It was delivered by the Centre for Market and Public Organisation (CMPO) at the University of Bristol. CMPO researchers trained lead…

  15. Travtek Global Evaluation And Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    TRAVTEK WAS AN OPERATIONAL FIELD TEST OF AN ADVANCED TRAVELER INFORMATION SYSTEMS (ATIS) AND ADVANCED TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (ATMS) TECHNOLOGIES. THIS PAPER SUMMARIZESS THE FINDINGS FROM THE SERIES OF STUDIES THAT CONSTITUTED THE TRAVTEK EVALUATI...

  16. Future Foundations: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen; Siddiqui, Nadia; See, Beng Huat

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the results of an evaluation of the Future Foundations Society CIC (Future Foundations) academic summer school which took place in August 2013. The Future Foundations summer school programme is a literacy and numeracy catch-up intervention which provided extra schooling in the summer holidays. Pupils attending the four-week…

  17. SPOKES: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Louise; Chambers, Bette; Bywater, Tracey; Elliott, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The SPOKES (Supporting Parents on Kids Education in Schools) programme is a ten-week intervention for parents designed to help struggling readers in Year 1. The programme teaches parents strategies to support their children's reading such as listening to children read, pausing to let them work out words, and praising them when they concentrate and…

  18. Parent Academy: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Fatima; Jabin, Nico; Haywood, Sarah; Kasim, Adetayo; Paylor, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The Parent Academy was a series of classes for pupils' parents, designed to improve the English and mathematics attainment of pupils in Years 3 to 6 in English primary schools. Parents were offered the opportunity to participate in 12 Parent Academy classes, 6 on English and 6 on mathematics, delivered fortnightly by tutors with teaching…

  19. Dialogic Teaching: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Tim; Willis, Ben; Thomas, Peter; Taylor, Roberta; Moore, Nick; Burnett, Cathy; Merchant, Guy; Stevens, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the intervention was to raise levels of engagement and attainment across English, maths, and science in primary schools by improving the quality of teacher and pupil talk in the classroom. The approach, termed "dialogic teaching", emphasises dialogue through which pupils learn to reason, discuss, argue, and explain in order to…

  20. Chatterbooks: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, Ben; Clarkson, Rebecca; Fowler, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) report has been produced for the Education Endowment Foundation and its evaluation of the Chatterbooks reading scheme. Chatterbooks is an extracurricular reading initiative, developed by the Reading Agency, that aims to increase a child's motivation to read by providing tools and resources…

  1. Achieve Together: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Ellen; Sianesi, Barbara; Sibieta, Luke; Amin-Smith, Neil; Callanan, Meg; Hudson, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Achieve Together aims to improve pupil outcomes by supporting leadership development and collaboration within schools in disadvantaged areas. The programme was devised and delivered by three education charities: Teach First, Teaching Leaders, and The Future Leaders Trust. Participants on these individual programmes also collaborate on a school…

  2. Changing Mindsets: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzo, Cinzia; Rolfe, Heather; Wilkinson, David

    2015-01-01

    The Changing Mindsets project sought to improve academic attainment by supporting pupils to develop a growth mindset: the belief that intelligence is not a fixed characteristic and can be increased through effort. Previous research (Good et al., 2003; Blackwell et al., 2007) has suggested that holding this belief enables pupils to work harder and…

  3. Twin Cities ramp meter evaluation : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    This report details the results of a study on the traffic flow and safety impacts of ramp metering. The study served two important public purposes. 1. It thoroughly documented the benefits resulting from ramp metering to traffic operations and relate...

  4. Butterfly Phonics: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, Christine; Kasim, Adetayo

    2015-01-01

    Butterfly Phonics aims to improve the reading of struggling pupils through phonics instruction and a formal teaching style where pupils sit at desks in rows facing the teacher. It is based on a course book created by Irina Tyk, and was delivered in this evaluation by Real Action, a charity based in London. Real Action staff recruited and trained…

  5. Quest: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggart, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Quest is a whole-year group approach to teaching English in Key Stage 3. Pupils are grouped according to their current level of reading comprehension, typically with smaller classes for the lowest attaining groups. Key components of the programme include: an emphasis on collaborative (or 'co-operative') learning; a requirement that participating…

  6. Fresh Start: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen; Siddiqui, Nadia; See, Beng Huat

    2015-01-01

    Fresh Start (FS) is a catch-up literacy intervention for pupils at risk of falling behind their peers in early secondary schooling. It provides systematic and rigorous practice in phonics so that pupils are at an appropriate level to join the mainstream group after completion of the intervention. Pupils are assessed and then grouped according to…

  7. Hampshire Hundreds: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The Hampshire Hundreds project was a local authority-led intervention which brought together lead teachers from Hampshire primary schools to provide them with evidence and support for effective teaching strategies to decrease the attainment gap between disadvantaged pupils (aged 9-11) and their peers. The intervention involved a facilitator…

  8. Mediterranean energy transition: 2040 scenario. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Jannet Allal, Houda; Guarrera, Lisa; Karbuz, Sohbet; Menichetti, Emanuela; Lescoeur, Bruno; El Agrebi, Hassen; Harrouch, Hamdi; Campana, Dominique; Greaume, Francois; Bedes, Christelle; Bolinches, Christine; Meraud, Thierry; Tappero, Denis; Bosseboeuf, Didier; Lechevin, Bruno; Abaach, Hassan; Damasiotis, Markos; Darras, Marc; Hajjaji, Mourad; Keramane, Abdenour; Khalfallah, Ezzedine; Mourtada, Adel; Osman, Nejib

    2016-06-01

    The stakes of embarking upon a Mediterranean Energy Transition is essential for countries from both shores of the Mediterranean, especially taking into account the increasing demographics (+105 million by 2040) and the fast growing energy demand in an increasingly constrained context both in terms of energy availability and environmental impacts of conventional energy sources uses. There is a huge, but yet untapped, potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, especially in the South Mediterranean region. By improving energy efficiency and deploying renewables on a large scale, the Mediterranean region would reduce tensions on energy security for importing countries, improve opportunities for exporting ones and reduce energy costs and environmental damages for the whole region. Embarking on an energy transition path will also help improve social welfare in the region and contribute to job creation, among other positive externalities. OME regularly conducts prospective works to 2040, assessing the impact of prolonging current energy trends. Under this Business-As-Usual or so-called 'Conservative' Scenario the situation would evolve critically on all counts over the next 25 years: doubling of energy demand and tripling of electricity consumption, soaring infrastructure and import bills (+443 GW to be installed and doubling of the fossil-fuel imports) and a critical rise in carbon emissions (+45%). Such a scenario, based essentially on fossil fuels, would put further strain on the environment and exacerbate geopolitical tensions in the region. A change of energy trajectory is therefore necessary for all Mediterranean countries to help change current trends and to increase efforts promoting energy efficiency and renewable energies. In this context, MEDENER and OME, based on the 2030-2050 visions of ADEME and the prospective tools of OME, have decided to jointly investigate a Mediterranean Energy Transition Scenario, an ambitious scenario that goes beyond the plans and targets announced by governments and policy makers. The Energy Transition Scenario assumes the implementation of those measures that are currently the most technically, economically, and politically mature for large-scale roll-out of energy efficiency and renewable energies. This Scenario assumes no major technology breakthrough, but the deployment of existing technologies and sound energy efficiency policies and measures across all Mediterranean countries. (authors)

  9. Executive Summary Geotechnical Siting Investigations FY 81.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-30

    0 U)(1 N)-. 91 lz r )U 0% tar 0%4 , 020 a)0 0 0 0’ .1> 0 as 4%. fta 0,4 4,0 ix- 02u 04 qv,.4 0 04 A J04 Aj4 .0 404 016 d) U-q u 0% .> I W- ivu 04...P2 0 0 0 00 0 0U 0 4 0 C 𔃾.040) 04 a... U- 443 3Jjol EQ ~ IVU ) >C 441 U (a O c 4 ..-)) 43> Ai to $4 c0 LaQ Co *4j 0 01 cJ M 41 C40 ~ V U) i U)E-4

  10. Benchmarking of refinery emissions performance : Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    This study was undertaken to collect emissions performance data for Canadian and comparable American refineries. The objective was to examine parameters that affect refinery air emissions performance and develop methods or correlations to normalize emissions performance. Another objective was to correlate and compare the performance of Canadian refineries to comparable American refineries. For the purpose of this study, benchmarking involved the determination of levels of emission performance that are being achieved for generic groups of facilities. A total of 20 facilities were included in the benchmarking analysis, and 74 American refinery emission correlations were developed. The recommended benchmarks, and the application of those correlations for comparison between Canadian and American refinery performance, were discussed. The benchmarks were: sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, particulate, volatile organic compounds, ammonia and benzene. For each refinery in Canada, benchmark emissions were developed. Several factors can explain differences in Canadian and American refinery emission performance. 4 tabs., 7 figs

  11. Communications platform payload definition study, executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopp, H. W.; Hawkes, T. A.; Bertles, C. R.; Pontano, B. A.; Kao, T.

    1986-01-01

    Large geostationary communications platforms have been investigated in a number of studies since 1974 as a possible means to more effectively utilize the geostationary orbital arc and electromagnetic spectrum and to reduce overall satellite communications system costs. This NASA Lewis sponsored study addresses the commercial feasibility of various communications platform payload concepts circa 1998. It defines promising payload concepts, estimates recurring costs and identifies critical technologies needed to permit eventual commercialization. Ten communications service aggregation scenarios describing potential groupings of services were developed for a range of conditions. Payload concepts were defined for four of these scenarios: (1) Land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS), meet 100% of CONUS plus Canada demand with a single platform; (2) Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) (Trunking + Customer Premises Service (CPS), meet 20% of CONUS demands; (3) FSS (Trunking + video distribution), 10 to 13% of CONUS demand; and (4) FSS (20% of demand) + Inter Satellite Links (ISL) + TDRSS/TDAS Data Distribution.

  12. COMANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES: Executive Summary

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-10-06

    Oct 6, 2011 ... This case study shows the power of documenting traditional natural resource use practices and management as a way to get the attention of ... A key challenge is to ensure secure collective tenure for the common pool resources that are essential to the livelihoods of poor rural people but hard to manage.

  13. Management decisions for cogeneration: executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radcliffe, R.R.; Tabors, R.D.

    1982-07-01

    This report summarizes two interdependent studies which explore the underlying factors in the decision by private, private non-profit, and public sector facility owners to invest in cogeneration technology. They employ factor analysis techniques to explain the decision to invest and discriminant analysis to group the survey respondents into non-cogenerators and potential cogenerators. Data for both studies come from a survey of commercial, industrial, and institutional electric energy consumers who used more than 750 kW demand in any one month of 1981 for a selected electric utility in the Boston area. There were 129 usable responses to the survey of 32.2% of the population. The studies reported here confirm that a number of factors other than purely economic considerations may prevent use of cogeneration technology at the present time. These factors include: uncertainty caused by regulatory action; desire for energy self sufficiency by the organization; financial flexibility; experience with electricity cogeneration or self generation; and capital budget planning methods. These studies provide a ranking of the factors involved in the cogeneration decision explaining most variance to least variance. However, the ranking of factors provides no measure of the importance of these factors in the decision to adopt or not adopt cogeneration technology. The results of these studies can be used to provide a rough estimate of capacity (kW) and energy (kWh) available from potential cogenerators in this electric utility service territory and the probability that a facility can be a cogenerator. These studies project a maximum potential of 106 MW and 559,000 MWH of cogenerated electrical energy in the utility service territory between 1982 and 2002.

  14. 2014 AFCI Glovebox Event Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Joseph Lenard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    One of the primary INL missions is to support development of advanced fuels with the goal of creating reactor fuels that produce less waste and are easier to store. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Glovebox in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF) is used for several fuel fabrication steps that involve transuranic elements, including americium. The AFCI glove box contains equipment used for fuel fabrication, including an arc melter – a small, laboratory-scale version of an electric arc furnace used to make new metal alloys for research – and an americium distillation apparatus. This overview summarizes key findings related to the investigation into the releases of airborne radioactivity that occurred in the AFCI glovebox room in late August and early September 2014. The full report (AFCI Glovebox Radiological Release – Evaluation, Corrective Actions and Testing, INL/INL-15-36996) provides details of the identified issues, corrective actions taken as well as lessons learned

  15. The Global Technology Revolution 2020: Executive Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silberglitt, Richard S; Anton, Philip S; Howell, David R; Wong, Anny; Bohandy, S. R; Gassman, Natalie; Jackson, Brian A; Landree, Eric; Lawrence Pfleeger, Shari; Newton, Elaine M; Wu, Felicia

    2006-01-01

    .... A sample of 29 countries across the spectrum of scientific advancement (low to high) was assessed with respect to the countries' ability to acquire and implement 16 key technology applications (e.g...

  16. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY / Health: An Ecosystem Approach | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-20

    Dec 20, 2010 ... This failure now poses a challenge to scientists, governments, international organizations, and donors, who must revise their programs and policies to look ... From this list of concerns, researchers at the Tata Energy Research Institute developed indices for measuring well-being and quality of life, which ...

  17. GROWING BETTER CITIES: Executive Summary | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-10-06

    Oct 6, 2011 ... But farming in the city — urban agriculture (UA) — is too often seen by municipalities as a problem to be eradicated rather than as a part of the solution to making ... These recommendations may also prove useful to researchers, NGOs, community activists, and others involved in the study or practice of UA.

  18. Integrated Safeguards Information System (ISIS). Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    A need was identified for initiating development of a comprehensive Integrated Safeguards Information System (ISIS) which will satisfy the requirements of NRC and integrate the collection, processing, and dissemination of safeguards-related information. To initiate this development, a competitive contract was awarded to the Boeing Computer Services Company (BCS), in March 1977, to perform the first three phases of ISIS development. In Phase I, BCS defined the current and projected safeguards information needs of NRC. In Phase II, BCS examined the capabilities of relevant existing and planned safeguards information systems within both the government and the licensed nuclear industry. In Phase III, BCS has developed a general design for ISIS

  19. Advanced Automotive Diesel Assessment Program, executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of this analytical study were: to select one advanced automotive diesel engine (AAD) concept which would increase the tank mileage of a 3,000 pound passenger car from the present 35 mpg to at least 52 mpg; to identify long term component research and development work required to bring the selected concept to fruition; and to prepare a development strategy that will bring the selected concept to a prototype testing phase. Cummins Engine Company has completed this study. The selected concept is a 4 stroke cycle, direct injection, spark assisted, advanced adiabatic diesel engine with positive displacement compounding plus expander and part load air preheating. The engine does not use a liquid coolant nor liquid lubricants. It is a 4 cylinder, in-line, 77 mm bore x 77 mm stroke, 1.434 liters displacement engine weighing 300 lb, and rated at 70 BHP at 3000 rpm. Installation dimensions are 621 mm length x 589 mm width x 479 mm height (24.4 inch x 22 inch x 18.9 inch).

  20. CleanFleet. Final report: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    CleanFleet, formally known as the South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration, was a comprehensive demonstration of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in daily commercial service. Between April 1992 and September 1994, five alternative fuels were tested in 84 panel vans: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, methanol as M-85, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), and electricity. The AFVs were used in normal FedEx package delivery service in the Los Angeles basin alongside 27 {open_quotes}control{close_quotes} vans operating on regular gasoline. The liquid and gaseous fuel vans were model year 1992 vans from Ford, Chevrolet, and Dodge. The two electric vehicles (EVs) were on loan to FedEx from Southern California Edison. The AFVs represented a snapshot in time of 1992 technologies that (1) could be used reliably in daily FedEx operations and (2) were supported by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). A typical van is shown in Figure 2. The objective of the project was to demonstrate and document the operational, emissions, and economic status of alternative fuel, commercial fleet delivery vans in the early 1990s for meeting air quality regulations in the mid to late 1990s. During the two-year demonstration, CleanFleet`s 111 vehicles travelled more than three million miles and provided comprehensive data on three major topics: fleet operations, emissions, and fleet economics. Fleet operations were examined in detail to uncover and resolve problems with the use of the fuels and vehicles in daily delivery service. Exhaust and evaporative emissions were measured on a subset of vans as they accumulated mileage. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) measured emissions to document the environmental benefits of these AFVs. At the same time, CleanFleet experience was used to estimate the costs to a fleet operator using AFVs to achieve the environmental benefits of reduced emissions.

  1. Improving concrete overlay construction : executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    As the US highway system ages and available funding diminishes, transportation agencies : are looking for effective methods for preserving and extending the life of existing : pavements. These agencies are also being encouraged to minimize constructi...

  2. Magic Breakfast: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Claire; Edwards, Amy; Farquharson, Christine; Greaves, Ellen; Trevelyan, Grace; Wallace, Emma; White, Clarissa

    2016-01-01

    The Magic Breakfast project provided 106 schools with support and resources to offer a free, universal, before-school breakfast club, including to all Year 2 and Year 6 pupils. The aim of the project was to improve attainment outcomes by increasing the number of children who ate a healthy breakfast. The schools in the project were schools in…

  3. French strategy for green finance. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmet, Sylvie; Ducret, Pierre; Berthaud, Cecilia; Evain, Julie; Scolan, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The authors present their report on the French Strategy for Green Finance. Green finance has expanded rapidly since 2015 but much remains to be done to make capital flows consistent with the goals of the Paris Agreement. France can continue to play a pioneering role to promote the energy and ecological transition, and to support Paris's role as a financial centre. The task force is putting forward recommendations along four axes for a French strategy to foster green finance

  4. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives, Egypt - Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Egypt is a significant oil producer and a rapidly growing natural gas producer. Its strategic location makes it an important transit corridor for world energy markets. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives - Egypt provides insights into the country's energy situation today and over the next two decades. It presents detailed data and analysis of interest to those who have a stake in both the supply and demand side of the energy equation. It is the first in-depth country review in OME's Mediterranean Energy Perspectives (MEP) series. The publication draws upon the extensive expertise of the Observatoire Mediterraneen de l'Energie (OME) and its members. MEP-Egypt is a unique and comprehensive analysis of the energy sector in Egypt. It contains data from the early days of its energy industry up to today as well as a view on its evolution to 2030 based on the supply and demand model developed by OME (Mediterranean Energy Model). Current efforts related to renewable energy sources are carefully considered as they are key issues for the Egyptian energy sector and for the whole economic and environment future of the country. MEP-Egypt presents: - Historical and forecast data on the supply and demand balance for each segment of the Egyptian energy sector. - Past, present and future of oil and gas exploration and discoveries. - Oil and gas fields: production and development. - Oil and gas production profiles and prospects to 2030. - Detailed information on refineries, pipelines, LNG terminals and storage facilities. - Evolution of electricity generation and installed capacity. - Developments of innovative and renewable energy sources. - Prospects for CO 2 emissions and sustainable development. - Fiscal regime of the energy industry. - Alternative energy scenarios: a Conservative scenario, a Proactive scenario and two High Economic Growth variants. MEP-Egypt has been prepared by a joint-team of Egyptian industry experts and OME staff, supported by related companies, institutions and independent experts. Bringing this expertise together provides an important reference for industry analysts and investors who wish to get a complete picture and a full understanding of the energy industry and market in Egypt, the way they operate and their long-term perspectives

  5. Energy and Climate Change (Executive Summary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World Energy Council

    2007-01-01

    The world needs urgently to develop a coherent and practical approach to reducing greenhouse gas (ghg) emissions. Energy professionals from across the world have been examining climate change policies to see what works in promoting sustainable development. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has recently confirmed that the evidence for global warming is unequivocal and the Stern Report has argued that early action to combat climate change makes economic sense. However, existing efforts are clearly insufficient - most countries with targets under Kyoto Protocol are not on track to meeting them and many countries do not have Kyoto targets. As a result, ghg emissions are still rising and are forecast to go on doing so for decades to come. The problem is not a lack of policies to deal with climate change - some thousands of policies have been introduced, both by countries within the Kyoto system and those outside, and the effort is under way to develop a successor to the Kyoto Protocol. Yet so far those policies are not proving adequate to the scale of the problem. There is a pressing need to understand why they are failing and to implement measures that are more effective in reducing emissions, particularly from the energy sector, which accounts for around two thirds of total ghg emissions. The WEC has therefore undertaken a Study of Energy and Climate Change, drawing on the collective experience and resources of energy professionals worldwide. It has looked in detail at the impact of existing climate change measures and how effective they have been in promoting sustainable development, using the criteria of the three A's - accessibility (to affordable energy); acceptability (of the energy sources used, particularly in environmental terms); and availability (how secure and reliable are those sources?). It is important to remember that sustainable development is not only about the environment - policies which fail to contribute to economic and social development will themselves prove unsustainable.(author)

  6. Paired Reading: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Cheryl; Edovald, Triin; Kiss, Zsolt; Morris, Stephen; Skipp, Amy; Ahmed, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Paired Reading is a peer tutoring programme in secondary schools which trains teachers to support and encourage the regular tutoring of Year 7 pupils (aged 11-12 years) by Year 9 pupils (aged 13-14 years). The Paired Reading programme aims to improve pupils' general literacy in addition to speaking and listening skills. This is achieved by pupils…

  7. International Development Assistance Executive Summary Reports

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    pwust

    for development, while the fourth section examines India's approach to international collaboration. Finally, the fifth section explores the emerging trends and future of India's development assistance (click here for full report). 4. SOUTH AFRICA. In keeping with its surging economic growth and regional influence, South Africa ...

  8. National brownfield redevelopment strategy: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    Brownfields refer to contaminated land which lies unused and unproductive. The potential for rejuvenation of such lands exist, which would bring health and economic benefits to local communities, as numerous sites are located in urban areas. The National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE) agreed, upon request from the government of Canada. to develop a redevelopment strategy designed specifically for brownfields. It is estimated that there are some 30,000 brownfield sites in Canada, such as former railway yards, decommissioned refineries, old waterfronts and riverbanks, crumbling warehouses, abandoned gas stations, former dry cleaners and other commercial properties where toxic substances were either used or stored. The rejuvenation of such sites results in economic, social, and environmental benefits through the creation of numerous jobs, millions of dollars in additional property taxes, as well as thousands of new housing units. There are several challenges in cleaning up those sites: lack of access to capital, regulatory liability risk, civil liability risk, limited access to insurance protection, regulatory delays, stigma and risk perception, and lack or awareness among many key public and private sector groups. This document presents the national strategy developed to address those issues. Three strategic directions have been identified for action: (1) applying strategic public investments to address up front costs, (2) establishing an effective public policy regime for environmental liability and risk management, and (3) building capacity for and community awareness of brownfield redevelopment. Recommendations and the rationale were presented under each proposal.

  9. Wind Energy. The Facts. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    Considered to be the most important wind energy reference in the world. It presents a detailed overview of the wind energy sector, with the most up-to-date and in-depth information on the essential issues concerning wind power today. The new edition includes chapters on: Technology; Grid integration; The economics of wind; Industry and markets; Environmental issues; and Scenarios and targets

  10. Wind energy mission analysis. Executive summary. [USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-18

    The principal objectives of this study were (1) to assess the potential for wind energy conversion systems on a national scale, (2) identify high-potential applications for WECS, (3) define functional, performance, operational, and cost goals for WECS, (4) evaluate the impact of the wide-scale deployment of WECS on energy users, and (5) identify the institutional and non-technical problems associated with the acceptance of wind energy systems. The study concentrated on broad applications of WECS over large geographic areas encompassing the entire United States. Emphasis was placed on identifying and exploring high-aggregate energy users who have significant potential to utilize wind energy in place of other alternatives.

  11. FIXING HEALTH SYSTEMS / Executive Summary (2008 update ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-14

    Dec 14, 2010 ... THE ISSUEA profound health crisis — major components of which include malaria, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malnutrition, and anemia — has gripped ... A unique collaboration between Canada's International Development Research Centre ( IDRC ) and the Tanzanian Ministry of Health and Social Work, ...

  12. Magnetosphere imager science definition team: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. P.; Gallagher, D. L.; Johnson, C. L.

    1995-01-01

    For three decades, magnetospheric field and plasma measurements have been made by diverse instruments flown on spacecraft in many different orbits, widely separated in space and time, and under various solar and magnetospheric conditions. Scientists have used this information to piece together an intricate, yet incomplete view of the magnetosphere. A simultaneous global view, using various light wavelengths and energetic neutral atoms, could reveal exciting new data and help explain complex magnetospheric processes, thus providing a clear picture of this region of space. This report summarizes the scientific rationale for such a magnetospheric imaging mission and outlines a mission concept for its implementation.

  13. Mediterranean energy perspectives - Turkey. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    This in-depth study provides insight into Turkey's energy profile from the early 1960's to the present and an outlook to 2030. MEP-Turkey presents detailed analysis and data on the supply and demand balance for the major components of the energy sector with particular emphasis on sectoral analysis. It is based on OME's proprietary Mediterranean Energy Econometric Model for Turkey developed for this publication. The outlook to 2030 presents two possible pathways for energy demand based on different assumptions. The conservative scenario considers past trends, policies in force and on-going projects, but takes a cautious approach regarding the implementation and timing of policy measures and planned projects. The proactive scenario assumes effective achievements to lessen dependence on imported fuels by giving emphasis to production of domestic resources, stronger efficiency programmes and a more diversified energy supply mix including more renewable energy. To achieve ambitious energy efficiency levels and implement as much renewable energy sources as foreseen in the Proactive Scenario will require unwavering political will, strong policies and measures, as well as sizeable investments, especially by the private sector. Both scenarios, built from the same assumption for population, economic growth, and international fossil-fuel prices, are based on the premise that energy demand will be met. Turkey's future, stimulated by a booming economy and population, an export-oriented industry and a blossoming domestic market, looks bright. The energy needed to fuel this growth will depend greatly on the paths chosen. In this context, the country finds itself at a historical crossroads in its development, as the energy policy choices it makes today will shape Turkey's energy future and its ability to attract the considerable investments required in the energy industry

  14. The climate report 2001. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    The Climate Report 2001 present all policies and measures adopted in the energy sector in order to fulfill the commitment in United Nations Framework convention on Climate Change. Sweden's energy and carbon dioxide taxation policy is the most effective measure for reducing carbon dioxide emissions, although other measures intended to encourage the efficiency of energy use and the use of renewable energy also contributes. It is expected that, as a result of the various incentive programmes, carbon dioxide emissions will have been reduced by 3-4 million tonnes by 2000/2005, of which a significant part will have been reduced in other countries. Taxation policy has decreased emissions with approximately 5 million tonnes in 2000. Until 2010, it is expected that carbon dioxide emissions will be essentially unchanged at the 1990 level. Until 2020 emissions will rise depending on nuclear power phaseout.

  15. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives 2011 - Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean Energy Perspectives 2011 provides insights into the energy situation today and over the next two decades in the Mediterranean region. Its detailed data and analyses are of interest to stakeholders on both the supply and demand sides of the energy equation. This is the third edition in the MEP series, which highlights the extensive work of OME (Observatoire Mediterraneen de l'Energie). This outlook draws upon the expertise of OME and its members. MEP 2011 provides a unique and comprehensive analysis of the energy sector in the Mediterranean. It presents data ranging from the early days of the region's energy industry to the situation today and an outlook to 2030, based on OME's supply and demand model, the Mediterranean Energy Model. Current efforts related to renewable energy sources and energy efficiency are carefully considered as they are key issues for the Mediterranean energy sector and for the whole economic and environment future of the region. MEP 2011 presents: - A description of the Mediterranean countries in a global context. - Historical and forecast data on the supply and demand balance for each segment of the Mediterranean energy sector. - Energy demand to 2030, including two cases: the Conservative and Proactive Scenarios. - Trends in past, present and future oil and natural gas production and development. - Existing and planned oil and gas infrastructure. - Evolution of electricity generation and installed capacity. - Developments in innovative and renewable energy sources. - In-depth analysis of energy efficiency measures and policies. - Prospects for CO 2 emissions and sustainable development. MEP 2011 has been prepared by a joint-team of OME experts supported by related companies and independent expertise. Bringing this expertise together provides an important reference for industry analysts and investors who wish to get a complete picture of the energy industry and markets in the Mediterranean, the way they operate and their long-term perspectives. Because its forecasts can be easily compared with outlooks available elsewhere, MEP is an indispensable source for policy-makers, researchers and members of the business community

  16. 2014 Zero Waste Strategic Plan Executive Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrons, Ralph J.

    2016-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico is located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, primarily on Department of Energy (DOE) permitted land on approximately 2,800 acres of Kirtland Air Force Base. There are approximately 5.5 million square feet of buildings, with a workforce of approximately 9200 personnel. Sandia National Laboratories Materials Sustainability and Pollution Prevention (MSP2) program adopted in 2008 an internal team goal for New Mexico site operations for Zero Waste to Landfill by 2025. Sandia solicited a consultant to assist in the development of a Zero Waste Strategic Plan. The Zero Waste Consultant Team selected is a partnership of SBM Management Services and Gary Liss & Associates. The scope of this Plan is non-hazardous solid waste and covers the life cycle of material purchases to the use and final disposal of the items at the end of their life cycle.

  17. Executive Summary-Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R. R.

    2004-02-18

    The primary goal since inception of this DOE grant award in 1991 to Wellman Laboratories of Photomedicine, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, has been to support competitive research fellowships aimed at solving important medical problems, contributing significant new knowledge and/or technology. This approach was taken according to the original intent of the DOE program, to foster excellent centers for research and development of lasers and optics in medicine. Laser photomedicine broadly encompasses optical therapy and optical diagnostics, within any organ system. The research supported clearly reflects this breadth and depth.

  18. Hidden Heroes: America's Military Caregivers - Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchand, Rajeev; Tanielian, Terri; Fisher, Michael P; Vaughan, Christine Anne; Trail, Thomas E; Epley, Caroline; Voorhies, Phoenix; Robbins, Michael; Robinson, Eric; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written about the role of caregiving for the elderly and chronically ill and for children with special needs, little is known about "military caregivers"-the population of those who care for wounded, ill, and injured military personnel and veterans. These caregivers play an essential role in caring for injured or wounded service members and veterans. This enables those for whom they are caring to live better quality lives, and can result in faster and improved rehabilitation and recovery. Yet playing this role can impose a substantial physical, emotional, and financial toll on caregivers. This article distills a longer report, Hidden Heroes: America's Military Caregivers , which describes the results of a study designed to describe the magnitude of military caregiving in the United States today, as well as to identify gaps in the array of programs, policies, and initiatives designed to support military caregivers. Improving military caregivers' well-being and ensuring their continued ability to provide care will require multifaceted approaches to reducing the current burdens caregiving may impose, and bolstering their ability to serve as caregivers more effectively. Given the systematic differences among military caregiver groups, it is also important that tailored approaches meet the unique needs and characteristics of post-9/11 caregivers.

  19. CVISN model deployment initiative summary evaluation plan : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of the Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Networks Model Deployment Initiative (CVISN MDI) is to demonstrate the technical and institutional feasibility, costs, and benefits of the primary Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) ...

  20. Relieving thermal discomfort: Effects of sprayed L-menthol on perception, performance, and time trial cycling in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwood, M J; Corbett, J; Thomas, K; Twentyman, P

    2015-06-01

    L-menthol stimulates cutaneous thermoreceptors and induces cool sensations improving thermal comfort, but has been linked to heat storage responses; this could increase risk of heat illness during self-paced exercise in the heat. Therefore, L-menthol application could lead to a discrepancy between behavioral and autonomic thermoregulatory drivers. Eight male participants volunteered. They were familiarized and then completed two trials in hot conditions (33.5 °C, 33% relative humidity) where their t-shirt was sprayed with CONTROL-SPRAY or MENTHOL-SPRAY after 10 km (i.e., when they were hot and uncomfortable) of a 16.1-km cycling time trial (TT). Thermal perception [thermal sensation (TS) and comfort (TC)], thermal responses [rectal temperature (Trec ), skin temperature (Tskin )], perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate, pacing (power output), and TT completion time were measured. MENTHOL-SPRAY made participants feel cooler and more comfortable and resulted in lower RPE (i.e., less exertion) yet performance was unchanged [TT completion: CONTROL-SPRAY 32.4 (2.9) and MENTHOL-SPRAY 32.7 (3.0) min]. Trec rate of increase was 1.40 (0.60) and 1.45 (0.40) °C/h after CONTROL-SPRAY and MENTHOL-SPRAY application, which were not different. Spraying L-menthol toward the end of self-paced exercise in the heat improved perception, but did not alter performance and did not increase heat illness risk. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. 2008 Munitions Executive Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-21

    2008 Munitions Executive Summit SUMMARY Join us next year! The 2009 MES will be held February 3 - 5 in New Orleans at the Ritz - Carlton hotel Rosen...arms room ” concept via compatibility with M2, Mk19, M240 and M249 • Readily adaptable to other weapons (e.g., Javelin) and capabilities (e.g., Non...HOTEL INFORMATION The Rosen Centre Hotel 9840 International Drive Orlando, FL 32819-8122 Tel: (407) 996-9840 Fax: (407) 996-2659 A limited number of rooms

  2. Desensitization of menthol-activated cold receptors in lower extremities during local cooling in young women with a cold constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Sone, Ryoko

    2017-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that topical menthol-induced reactivity of cold sensation and cutaneous vasoconstriction to local cooling is augmented in individuals with a cold constitution, we examined thermal sensation and cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses at menthol-treated and untreated sites in the legs during local skin cooling in young women complaining of chilliness (C group) and young women with no complaint as a normal control group (N group). During local skin cooling, the sensitivity to cold sensation was greater in the C group than in the N group. The application of menthol enhanced the cold sensation at a low temperature in the N group, but not in the C group. Cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses to local skin cooling were not altered by menthol treatment in either of the two groups. These findings suggest the desensitization of menthol-activated cold receptors in the legs of C group subjects, and a minor role of cold receptor activity in cutaneous vasoconstrictor response to local cooling.

  3. Acute effect of topical menthol on chronic pain in slaughterhouse workers with carpal tunnel syndrome: triple-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Brandt, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    participants with CTS and chronic pain of the arm/hand who were randomly distributed into two groups to receive topical menthol (Biofreeze) or placebo (gel with a menthol scent) during the working day and 48 hours later the other treatment (crossover design). Participants rated arm/hand pain intensity during...... the last hour of work (scale 0-10) immediately before 1, 2, and 3 hours after application. Furthermore, global rating of change (GROC) in arm/hand pain was assessed 3 hours after application. Compared with placebo, pain intensity and GROC improved more following application of topical menthol (P = 0.......026 and P = 0.044, resp.). Pain intensity of the arm/hand decreased by -1.2 (CI 95%: -1.7 to -0.6) following topical menthol compared with placebo, corresponding to a moderate effect size of 0.63. In conclusion, topical menthol acutely reduces pain intensity during the working day in slaughterhouse workers...

  4. Multicenter phase II randomized study evaluating dose-response of antiperistaltic effect of L-menthol sprayed onto the gastric mucosa for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiki, Naoki; Kaminishi, Michio; Yasuda, Kenjiro; Uedo, Noriya; Kobari, Masumi; Sakai, Terufumi; Hiratsuka, Takashi; Ohno, Kyota; Honjo, Hajime; Nomura, Sachiyo; Yahagi, Naohisa; Tajiri, Hisao; Suzuki, Hiroaki

    2012-03-01

    Peppermint oil solution was found to be effective for reducing gastric spasm during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the gastric peristalsis-suppressing effect is dose-dependently induced by L-menthol, the major constituent of peppermint oil, and to determine the recommended dose of an L-menthol preparation. In this phase II, multicenter, double-blind, dose-response study, 131 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive 20 mL of 0.4% L-menthol (n = 32), 0.8% L-menthol (n = 35), 1.6% L-menthol (n = 30), or placebo (n = 34). The primary efficacy measure was the proportion of subjects with no peristalsis in two time periods, 75 to 105 s after treatment and immediately before the completion of endoscopy. The peristalsis-suppressing effect of L-menthol increased dose dependently (5.6%, 32.0%, 47.4% and 52.9% in the 0%, 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.6% groups, respectively: P peristalsis after administration was significantly higher in the 0.8% group (P = 0.015) and 1.6% group (P = 0.009). Adverse events in the L-menthol dose groups occurred with similar frequencies in the placebo group. L-menthol suppresses peristalsis in a dose-dependent manner, and the dose-response reaches a plateau at 0.8% L-menthol. Further Phase III studies are needed to establish the superiority of 0.8% L-menthol over placebo. © 2011 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2011 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  5. Effects of crystalline menthol on blood metabolites in Holstein steers and in vitro volatile fatty acid and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Miller, K A; Aperce, C C; Alvarado-Gilis, C A; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S

    2016-03-01

    Fifty-two Holstein steers (573 ± 9.92 kg BW) were used to determine if oral administration of crystalline menthol would induce changes in endogenous secretions of IGF-1 and circulating concentrations of glucose, lactate, and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN). Steers were blocked by BW and assigned within block to treatment. Treatments consisted of 0, 0.003, 0.03, or 0.3% crystalline menthol (DM basis) added to the diet. Animals were housed in individual, partially covered pens equipped with feed bunks and automatic water fountains. On d 1 of the experiment, blood samples were obtained via jugular venipuncture at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after feeding. Treatment administration commenced on d 2, and blood samples were again drawn at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after feeding. This blood-sampling schedule was repeated on d 9, 16, 23, and 30. Plasma was analyzed for PUN, glucose, and lactate concentrations. Serum was used to analyze IGF-1 concentration. Body weights were measured on d 1, 9, 16, 23, and 30. To accompany the live animal phase, in vitro fermentations were performed using ruminal fluid cultures. Measurements included VFA concentrations and fermentative gas production for cultures containing crystalline menthol at 0, 0.003, 0.03, or 0.3% of substrate DM. Addition of menthol to the diet of steers resulted in a treatment × day interaction ( lightest BW until d 30. A menthol × day interaction was observed for daily feed deliveries ( 0.21). In conclusion, menthol supplementation minimally affected blood parameters associated with growth or ruminal fermentative activity.

  6. Mergeable summaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Graham, Graham; Huang, Zengfeng

    2013-01-01

    We study the mergeability of data summaries. Informally speaking, mergeability requires that, given two summaries on two datasets, there is a way to merge the two summaries into a single summary on the two datasets combined together, while preserving the error and size guarantees. This property m...

  7. Effects of menthol essence and breast milk on the improvement of nipple fissures in breastfeeding women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Amir Ali Akbari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nipple fissure is a common disorder during breastfeeding. With high prevalence of nipple fissures and its impacts on breastfeeding, as well as the existence of evidence in favor of the application of peppermint as an antiinflammatory and antiinfection herb, the purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Menthol essence on improving nipple fissures in the primiparous breastfeeding women. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted using a clinical trial method. Samples were divided randomly into two groups of 55 women. The women in the peppermint group applied four drops of Menthol essence on their nipple and areola after each feeding. The control group applied four drops of their own milk on the nipple and areola after each feeding. Then, the two groups were studied on days 10 and 14 postpartum. For intensity of pain, the visual analog scale (0-10 cm and to measure the severity of damage, Amir scale (1-10 cm were applied and the existence or lack of nipple discharge was also recorded. The data were analyzed using SPSS 17 software. Results: The mean intensity of pain and nipple fissure before treatment (8.55 ± 1.74 and day 10 after delivery (4.26 ± 1.57 and before treatment and day 14 after delivery in the case group (1.32 ± 1.02 had a significant difference (P < 0.001. Nipple discharge between the two groups, before treatment (%75.2 and day 10 after delivery (%31.6 and before treatment and day 14 after delivery (%15.7, the case group had a significant difference (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Menthol essence can improve nipple fissures in the primiparous breastfeeding women.

  8. Puerarin transport across rat nasal epithelial cells and the influence of compatibility with paeoniflorin and menthol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lin Zhang, Shou-Ying Du, Yang Lu, Chang Liu, Hui-Chao Wu, Zhi-Hao Tian, Min Wang, Chang Yang School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Chaoyang District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nose-to-brain transport can provide an excellent pathway for drugs of the central nervous system. Consequently, how to make full use of this pathway in practical applications has become a focus of drug design. However, many aspects affecting drug delivery from the nose to the brain remain unclear. This study aimed to more deeply investigate the transport of puerarin and to explore the mechanism underlying the influence of compatible drugs on puerarin permeability in a primary cell model simulating the nasal mucosa. In this research, based on rat nasal epithelial cells (RNECs cultured in vitro and cytotoxicity assays, the bidirectional transport of puerarin across RNEC monolayers and the effect of its compatibility with peoniflorin and menthol were analyzed. The apparent permeability coefficient was <1.5×10–6 cm/s, and the efflux ratio of puerarin was <2, indicating that puerarin had poor absorption and that menthol but not peoniflorin significantly improved puerarin transport. Simultaneously, through experiments, such as immunofluorescence staining, transepithelial electrical resistance measurement, rhodamine 123 efflux evaluation, the cell membrane fluorescence recovery after photobleaching test, and ATPase activity determination, the permeability promoting mechanism of menthol was confirmed to be closely related to disruption of the tight junction protein structure, to the P-glycoprotein inhibitory effect, to increased membrane fluidity, and to the promotion of enzyme activity. These results provide reliable data on nasal administration of the studied drugs and lay the foundation for a deeper investigation of the nose–brain pathway and nasal administration. Keywords: Chinese herbal compound

  9. Danubian lowland - ground water model. Final Report. Vol. 1. Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The summary report contains the next parts: (0) Executive summary; (1) Introduction; (2) Project staffing; (3) Project management issues; (4) Establishment of the integrated modelling system; (5) Summary of model application; (6) Conclusions and recommendations; and List of references

  10. Acute Effect of Topical Menthol on Chronic Pain in Slaughterhouse Workers with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Triple-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Sundstrup

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical menthol gels are classified “topical analgesics” and are claimed to relieve minor aches and pains of the musculoskeletal system. In this study we investigate the acute effect of topical menthol on carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS. We screened 645 slaughterhouse workers and recruited 10 participants with CTS and chronic pain of the arm/hand who were randomly distributed into two groups to receive topical menthol (Biofreeze or placebo (gel with a menthol scent during the working day and 48 hours later the other treatment (crossover design. Participants rated arm/hand pain intensity during the last hour of work (scale 0–10 immediately before 1, 2, and 3 hours after application. Furthermore, global rating of change (GROC in arm/hand pain was assessed 3 hours after application. Compared with placebo, pain intensity and GROC improved more following application of topical menthol (P=0.026 and P=0.044, resp.. Pain intensity of the arm/hand decreased by −1.2 (CI 95%: −1.7 to −0.6 following topical menthol compared with placebo, corresponding to a moderate effect size of 0.63. In conclusion, topical menthol acutely reduces pain intensity during the working day in slaughterhouse workers with CTS and should be considered as an effective nonsystemic alternative to regular analgesics in the workplace management of chronic and neuropathic pain.

  11. Finished with Menthol: An Evidence-Based Policy Option That Will Save Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Joelle M; Gagosian, Stacey Younger

    2017-03-01

    Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, killing approximately 480,000 people each year. This crushing health burden falls disproportionately, and recent CDC data shows that large disparities in adult cigarette smoking remain. One factor in these disparities is the use of flavors. Menthol cigarettes and other flavored tobacco products are used at higher rates by vulnerable populations including youth and young adults, African Americans, women, Hispanics and Asian Americans. This is no accident; the tobacco industry has long targeted these same groups. Given FDA's failure to act to ban flavored tobacco products, states and municipalities are considering taking matters into their own hands to protect their communities from these dangerous products. The authors will explore state and local authority to restrict the sales of these products and review the evidence base indicating that removing flavored tobacco products - and menthol combustible products in particular - from the market would significantly reduce the toll of illness and death caused by these products.

  12. Cool and menthol receptor TRPM8 in human urinary bladder disorders and clinical correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benham Christopher D

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent identification of the cold-menthol sensory receptor (TRPM8; CMR1, provides us with an opportunity to advance our understanding of its role in the pathophysiology of bladder dysfunction, and its potential mediation of the bladder cooling reflex. In this study, we report the distribution of the cool and menthol receptor TRPM8 in the urinary bladder in patients with overactive and painful bladder syndromes, and its relationship with clinical symptoms. Methods Bladder specimens obtained from patients with painful bladder syndrome (PBS, n = 16, idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO, n = 14, and asymptomatic microscopic hematuria (controls, n = 17, were immunostained using specific antibodies to TRPM8; nerve fibre and urothelial immunostaining were analysed using fibre counts and computerized image analysis respectively. The results of immunohistochemistry were compared between the groups and correlated with the Pain, Frequency and Urgency scores. Results TRPM8-immunoreactive staining was observed in the urothelium and nerve fibres scattered in the suburothelium. The nerve fibre staining was seen in fine-calibre axons and thick (myelinated fibres. There was marked increase of TRPM8-immunoreactive nerve fibres in IDO (P = 0.0249 and PBS (P Conclusion This study demonstrates increased TRPM8 in nerve fibres of overactive and painful bladders, and its relationship with clinical symptoms. TRPM8 may play a role in the symptomatology and pathophysiology of these disorders, and may provide an additional target for future overactive and painful bladder pharmacotherapy.

  13. Evaluation of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2. Part 7: Systems toxicological assessment of a mentholated version revealed reduced cellular and molecular exposure effects compared with mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogel, Ulrike; Titz, Bjoern; Schlage, Walter K; Nury, Catherine; Martin, Florian; Oviedo, Alberto; Lebrun, Stefan; Elamin, Ashraf; Guedj, Emmanuel; Trivedi, Keyur; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2016-11-30

    Modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) are being developed with the aim of reducing smoking-related health risks. The Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2) is a candidate MRTP that uses the heat-not-burn principle. Here, systems toxicology approaches were engaged to assess the respiratory effects of mentholated THS2.2 (THS2.2M) in a 90-day rat inhalation study (OECD test guideline 413). The standard endpoints were complemented by transcriptomics and quantitative proteomics analyses of respiratory nasal epithelium and lung tissue and by lipidomics analysis of lung tissue. The adaptive response of the respiratory nasal epithelium to conventional cigarette smoke (CS) included squamous cell metaplasia and an inflammatory response, with high correspondence between the molecular and histopathological results. In contrast to CS exposure, the adaptive tissue and molecular changes to THS2.2M aerosol exposure were much weaker and were limited mostly to the highest THS2.2M concentration in female rats. In the lung, CS exposure induced an inflammatory response, triggered cellular stress responses, and affected sphingolipid metabolism. These responses were not observed or were much lower after THS2.2M aerosol exposure. Overall, this system toxicology analysis complements and reconfirms the results from classical toxicological endpoints and further suggests potentially reduced health risks of THS2.2M. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Determination of Dyclonine Hydrochloride by a HPLC Method and Camphor and Menthol by a GC Method in Compound Lotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suying Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method with UV detector for the determination of dyclonine hydrochloride and a gas chromatography (GC method with flame ionization detector (FID for the determination of camphor and menthol in lotion were developed. The developed HPLC method involved using a SinoChoom ODS-BP C18 reversed-phase column (5 μm, 4.6 mm × 200 mm and mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile : water : triethylamine in a ratio of 45 : 55 : 1.0; pH was adjusted to 3.5 with glacial acetic acid. The developed GC method for determination of camphor and menthol involved using an Agilent 19091J-413 capillary chromatographic column (30 m × 320 μm × 0.25 μm. The two methods were validated according to official compendia guidelines. The calibration of dyclonine hydrochloride for HPLC method was linear over the range of 20–200 μg/mL. The retention time was found at 6.0 min for dyclonine hydrochloride. The calibration of camphor and menthol of GC method was linear over the range of 10–2000 μg/mL. The retention time was found at 2.9 min for camphor and 3.05 min for menthol. The proposed HPLC and GC methods were proved to be suitable for the determination of dyclonine hydrochloride, camphor, and menthol in lotion.

  15. A comparison of topical menthol to ice on pain, evoked tetanic and voluntary force during delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Pramod; Grover, Varun; Topp, Robert; Behm, David G

    2012-06-01

    Pain can adversely affect muscle functioning by inhibiting muscle contractions. Delayed onset muscle soreness was used as a tool to ascertain whether a topical menthol-based analgesic or ice was more effective at reducing pain and permitting greater muscular voluntary and evoked force. Sixteen subjects were randomized to receive either a topical gel containing 3.5% menthol or topical application of ice to the non-dominant elbow flexors two days following the performance of an exercise designed to induce muscle soreness. Two days later, DOMS discomfort was treated with a menthol based analgesic or ice. Maximum voluntary contractions and evoked tetanic contractions of the non-dominant elbow flexors were measured at baseline prior to inducing muscle soreness (T1), two days following inducing DOMS after 20 (T2), 25 (T3) and 35 (T4) minutes of either menthol gel or ice therapy. Pain perception using a 10-point visual analog scale was also measured at these four data collection points. Treatment analysis included a 2 way repeated measures ANOVA (2 × 4). Delayed onset muscle soreness decreased (p = 0.04) voluntary force 17.1% at T2 with no treatment effect. Tetanic force was 116.9% higher (p<0.05) with the topical analgesic than ice. Pain perception at T2 was significantly (p=0.02) less with the topical analgesic versus ice. Compared to ice, the topical menthol-based analgesic decreased perceived discomfort to a greater extent and permitted greater tetanic forces to be produced. Level 2b.

  16. 76 FR 17658 - National Forum for State and Territorial Chief Executives (National Forum) Program Cooperative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Forum for State and Territorial Chief Executives (National Forum) Program Cooperative Agreement AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... Forum for State and Territorial Chief Executives (National Forum) Program Cooperative Agreement. SUMMARY...

  17. Chiral pyrrolidinium salts derived from menthol as precursor – synthesis and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus Ewa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Six new chiral pyrolidinium salts with chiral substituent at quaternary nitrogen atom were synthesized with high overall yields from (--menthol as cheap chiral precursor and were identified by NMR and HRMS spectroscopy. It was shown that anion type had the effect on chemical shift of protons adjacent to quaternary nitrogen atom and physical properties of these salts. Salts with NTf2 or NPf2 were in a liquid state at room temperature and characterized with the highest thermal stability among others. Furthermore, chiral ionic liquid with NTf2 anion was used as solvent in Diels-Alder reaction and gave higher yield and stereoselectivity than in ionic liquids with achiral cations. Synthesized chiral salts have the potential as chiral solvents in synthesis and auxiliaries in analytical methods to improve chiral recognition.

  18. Diastereoselective anodic hetero- and homo-coupling of menthol-, 8-methylmenthol- and 8-phenylmenthol-2-alkylmalonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias C. Letzel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diastereoselective radical coupling was achieved with chiral auxiliaries. The radicals were generated by anodic decarboxylation of five malonic acid derivatives. These were prepared from benzyl malonates and four menthol auxiliaries. Coelectrolyses with 3,3-dimethylbutanoic acid in methanol at platinum electrodes in an undivided cell afforded hetero-coupling products in 22–69% yield with a diastereoselectivity ranging from 5 to 65% de. Electrolyses without a coacid led to diastereomeric homo-coupling products in 21–50% yield with ratios of diastereomers being 1.17:2.00:0.81 to 7.03:2.00. The stereochemistry of the new stereogenic centers was confirmed by X-ray structure analysis and 13C NMR data.

  19. Immersion with menthol improves recovery between two cycling exercises in hot and humid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Kévin; Tran Trong, Than; Riera, Florence; Appel, Katharina; Hue, Olivier

    2018-03-13

    Endurance exercise performance is impaired in a hot and humid environment. This study compared the effects of cold water immersion, with (CMWI) and without (CWI) menthol, on the recovery of cycling performance. Eight heat-acclimatized cyclists (24.1 ± 4.4 years; 65.3 ± 5.2 kg) performed two randomized sessions, each consisting of a 20-min cycling trial (T1) followed by 10 min of immersion during recovery and then a second 20-min cycling trial (T2). Mean power output (PO) and perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded for both trials. Rectal and skin temperatures (Trec and Tskin) were measured before and immediately after T1, immersion, and T2. Perceived thermal sensation (TS) and comfort (TC) were measured immediately after T1 and T2. Power output was significantly improved in T2 compared with T1 in the CMWI condition (+15.6%). Performance did not change in the CWI condition. After immersion, Trec was lower in CWI (-1.17°C) than in CMWI (-0.6°C). TS decreased significantly after immersion in both conditions. This decline was significantly more pronounced in CMWI (5.9 ± 1 to 3.6 ± 0.5) than in CWI (5.6 ± 0.9 to 4.4 ± 1.2). In CMWI, RPE was significantly higher in T1 (6.57 ± 0.9) than in T2 (5.14 ± 1.25). However there was no difference in TC. This study suggests that menthol immersion probably (1) improves the performance of a repeated 20-min cycling bout, (2) decreases TS, and (3) impairs thermoregulation processes.

  20. African-American smokers and cancers of the lung and of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts. Is menthol part of the puzzle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, T L

    1997-03-01

    The prevalence of cigarette smoking is higher among African Americans than among whites. African Americans have higher rates of lung cancer than whites, although they smoke fewer cigarettes. To explore this black-white difference in lung cancer rates, I examine various aspects of tobacco use in African-American smokers, including the age of initiation of smoking, quantity of cigarettes smoked, quit rates, level of nicotine dependence, biochemical differences, and brand preferences, specifically menthol brand cigarettes. I also review briefly the sequelae of patterns of tobacco use, including rates of lung and other tobacco-related cancers. A preference for mentholated cigarettes by African Americans is well documented and is one of the most striking differences between African-American and white smokers. Menthol brand preference has been investigated in an attempt to explain the black-white differences in rates of cancers of the lungs and the upper respiratory and digestive tracts. Also, studies have evaluated smoking behavior both with and without menthol and have explicitly examined the question of whether menthol use helps explain the black-white difference in lung cancer rates. The results of these studies are so far inconclusive with regard to the use of menthol and the risk of lung cancer developing. I provide practical suggestions for clinicians in counseling African-American smokers to quit smoking and to maintain a nonsmoking status.

  1. Environmental Impact Statement for the Modernization and Enhancement of Ranges, Airspace, and Training Areas in the Joint Pacific Alaska Range Complex in Alaska. Volume 1 - Executive Summary, Chapters 1 through 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Whistler Creek Training Area; Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson North Post, South Post and other small parcels Final EIS for the Construction and the...Policy Act. Memorandum for the Heads of all Federal Agencies from James L. Connaughton, Chairman. 30 January. CEQ (Council on Environmental...Quality). 2005. Guidance on the Consideration of Past Actions in Cumulative Effects Analysis. Memorandum from James L. Connaughton, Chairman. Executive

  2. Annual report and summary financial statement 1990-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 1990-1991 Annual Report for Scottish Hydro-Electric PLC includes their rotating territory in Scotland, details of the Board of Directors, the Chairman's Statement, the chief Executive's Review of Operations, a summary profit and loss account, a summary balance sheet and a summary financial statement. (UK)

  3. Annual report and summary financial statement 1991-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The 1991-92 Annual Report for Scottish Hydro-Electric PLC is presented. It includes key financial statistics, the financial calendar, details of the Board of Directors, the Chairman's Statement, the Chief Executives' review of operations, operational statistics, a summary financial statement, a summary group profit and loss account, summary balance sheets, the Auditors' Report and a customer map. (UK)

  4. 76 FR 81998 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. ACTION: Annual notice. SUMMARY: Notice... established a Senior Executive Service PRB. The PRB reviews and evaluates the initial appraisal of a senior...

  5. 75 FR 56999 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board AGENCY... the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review... performance review boards. The PRB shall review and evaluate the initial summary rating of the senior...

  6. 75 FR 14214 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. ACTION: Annual notice. SUMMARY: Notice... established a Senior Executive Service PRB. The PRB reviews and evaluates the initial appraisal of a senior...

  7. 78 FR 5516 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. ACTION: Annual notice. SUMMARY: Notice... established a Senior Executive Service PRB. The PRB reviews and evaluates the initial appraisal of a senior...

  8. 76 FR 61346 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board AGENCY: Department of Defense Office of Inspector General, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the appointment of the members of the Senior Executive Service (SES...

  9. 75 FR 62509 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board AGENCY: Department of Defense Office of Inspector General. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the appointment of the members of the Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review Board (PRB...

  10. Ethanol inhibits cold-menthol receptor TRPM8 by modulating its interaction with membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benedikt, Jan; Teisinger, Jan; Vyklický st., Ladislav; Vlachová, Viktorie

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 1 (2007), s. 211-224 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/06/0319; GA ČR GA309/04/0496; GA MŠk 1M0517; GA MŠk LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Cold /menthol receptor * ethanol * phosphatidylinositol Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.451, year: 2007

  11. Optimization of Microencapsulation Composition of Menthol, Vanillin, and Benzyl Acetate inside Polyvinyl Alcohol with Coacervation Method for Application in Perfumery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlan, Muhamad; Raihani Rahman, Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    One of many applications of essential oils is as fragrance in perfumery. Menthol, benzyl acetate, and vanillin, each represents olfactive characteristic of peppermint leaves, jasmine flowers, and vanilla beans, are commonly used in perfumery. These components are highly volatile, hence the fragrance components will quickly evaporate resulting in short-lasting scent and low shelf life. In this research, said components have been successfully encapsulated simultaneously inside Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) using simple coacervation method to increase its shelf life. Optimization has been done using Central Composite Diagram with 4 independent variables, i.e. composition of menthol, benzyl acetate, vanillin, and tergitol 15-S-9 (as emulsifier). Encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, and microcapsule size have been measured. In optimized composition of menthol (13.98 %w/w), benzyl acetate (14.75 %w/w), vanillin (17.84 %w/w), and tergitol 15-S-9 (13.4 %w/w) encapsulation efficiency of 97,34% and loading capacity of 46,46% have been achieved. Mean diameter of microcapsule is 20,24 μm and within range of 2,011-36,24 μm. Final product was achieved in the form of cross linked polyvinyl alcohol with hydrogel consistency and orange to yellow in color.

  12. Warhead Monitoring Planning and Execution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakae, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-12-05

    The Warhead Measurement Campaign is a multi-laboratory project lead by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The project will measure several items of the US nuclear weapons stockpile with a wide range of radiation detection systems. This report provides a brief summary of those LLNL executed activities for the Warhead Measurement Campaign from FY11 through FY16. A more detailed description of all of LLNL’s activiites for the WMC will be presented in the final report of a follow-on project, , LA17-V-Wx.

  13. Meteorological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multi-year summaries of one or more meteorological elements at a station or in a state. Primarily includes Form 1078, a United States Weather Bureau form designed...

  14. Survey Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nursing home summary information for the Health and Fire Safety Inspections currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including dates of the three most recent...

  15. Split-dose menthol-enhanced PEG vs PEG-ascorbic acid for colonoscopy preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharara, Ala I; Harb, Ali H; Sarkis, Fayez S; Chalhoub, Jean M; Badreddine, Rami; Mourad, Fadi H; Othman, Mahmoud; Masri, Omar

    2015-02-14

    To compare the efficacy and palatability of 4 L polyethylene glycol electrolyte (PEG) plus sugar-free menthol candy (PEG + M) vs reduced-volume 2 L ascorbic acid-supplemented PEG (AscPEG). In a randomized controlled trial setting, ambulatory patients scheduled for elective colonoscopy were prospectively enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either PEG + M or AscPEG, both split-dosed with minimal dietary restriction. Palatability was assessed on a linear scale of 1 to 5 (1 = disgusting; 5 = tasty). Quality of preparation was scored by assignment-blinded endoscopists using the modified Aronchick and Ottawa scales. The main outcomes were the palatability and efficacy of the preparation. Secondary outcomes included patient willingness to retake the same preparation again in the future and completion of the prescribed preparation. Overall, 200 patients were enrolled (100 patients per arm). PEG + M was more palatable than AscPEG (76% vs 62%, P = 0.03). Completing the preparation was not different between study groups (91% PEG + M vs 86% AscPEG, P = 0.38) but more patients were willing to retake PEG + M (54% vs 40% respectively, P = 0.047). There was no significant difference between PEG + M vs AscPEG in adequate cleansing on both the modified Aronchick (82% vs 77%, P = 0.31) and the Ottawa scale (85% vs 74%, P = 0.054). However, PEG + M was superior in the left colon on the Ottawa subsegmental score (score 0-2: 94% for PEG + M vs 81% for AscPEG, P = 0.005) and received significantly more excellent ratings than AscPEG on the modified Aronchick scale (61% vs 43%, P = 0.009). Both preparations performed less well in afternoon vs morning examinations (inadequate: 29% vs 15.2%, P = 0.02). 4 L PEG plus menthol has better palatability and acceptability than 2 L ascorbic acid- PEG and is associated with a higher rate of excellent preparations; Clinicaltrial.gov identifier: NCT01788709.

  16. Efficacy of spraying l-menthol solution during endoscopic treatment of early gastric cancer: a phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Kaminishi, Michio; Hiki, Naoki; Oda, Ichiro; Fujisaki, Junko; Uedo, Noriya; Kaise, Mitsuru; Tanabe, Satoshi; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Nomura, Sachiyo; Tajiri, Hisao; Yahagi, Naohisa; Suzuki, Hiroaki

    2014-03-01

    The topical antispasmodic agent l-menthol is useful for inhibiting gastric peristalsis during diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. However, it remains unclear whether l-menthol is similarly effective during therapeutic endoscopy, thereby improving treatment outcomes in a clinical setting. A total of 83 patients scheduled to undergo endoscopic treatment at 8 Japanese referral centers were randomly assigned to receive l-menthol or placebo. The degree of gastric peristalsis (peristaltic score: grade 1-5) was assessed by an independent committee. The primary outcome was the proportion of subjects in whom no or mild peristalsis (grade 1 or 2) was maintained throughout endoscopic treatment. Secondary outcomes were the duration of sustained response and the incidence of adverse drug reactions. The proportion of patients with no or mild peristalsis was significantly higher in the l-menthol group (85.4 %, 95 % confidence intervals 70.8-94.4: 35/41 subjects) than in the placebo group (39.0 %, 24.2-55: 16/41; P peristalsis, with minimal adverse drug reactions as compared with placebo. l-menthol solution might be useful for therapeutic endoscopy.

  17. Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Mentha Longifolia L. and its main constituent, menthol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaili, Peyman; Mojaverrostami, Sina; Moloudizargari, Milad; Aghajanshakeri, Shahin

    2013-10-01

    Mentha longifolia (wild mint) is a popular folk remedy. Some parts of this plant have been used in traditional medicine of Iran and other countries. Many studies have shown various pharmacological and therapeutic effects of the plant. Our aim in preparing this study was to review the traditional uses of M. longifolia together with the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of its entire extract and major compounds. Mentha longifolia is an herb with a wide range of pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, gastrointestinal, and nervous system effects. Pulegone is the main compound of the plant responsible for most of its pharmacological effects followed by menthone, isomenthone, menthol, 1, 8-cineole, borneol, and piperitenone. Moreover, the plant may dose-dependently exert toxic effects in different systems of the body. Based on the review of various studies, it can be concluded that M. longifolia is a potential natural source for the development of new drugs. However, further studies are required to determine the precise quality and safety of the plant to be used by clinicians.

  18. Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Mentha Longifolia L. and its main constituent, menthol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Mikaili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mentha longifolia (wild mint is a popular folk remedy. Some parts of this plant have been used in traditional medicine of Iran and other countries. Many studies have shown various pharmacological and therapeutic effects of the plant. Our aim in preparing this study was to review the traditional uses of M. longifolia together with the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of its entire extract and major compounds. Mentha longifolia is an herb with a wide range of pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, gastrointestinal, and nervous system effects. Pulegone is the main compound of the plant responsible for most of its pharmacological effects followed by menthone, isomenthone, menthol, 1, 8-cineole, borneol, and piperitenone. Moreover, the plant may dose-dependently exert toxic effects in different systems of the body. Based on the review of various studies, it can be concluded that M. longifolia is a potential natural source for the development of new drugs. However, further studies are required to determine the precise quality and safety of the plant to be used by clinicians.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Menthol and Menthone in Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaia, Mauricio G.; Cagnazzo, Túlio di Orlando; Feitosa, Karina A.; Soares, Edson G.; Faccioli, Lúcia H.; Allegretti, Silmara M.; Afonso, Ana; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by several species of trematode worms and it is believed that more than 261 million people are affected worldwide. New drug development has become essential because there is a risk of the parasite becoming resistant to Praziquantel, the only drug available for this infection. This study evaluated parasitological, immunological and histological parameters in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni and treated with an herbal commercial medicine. This drug consists of menthol (30–55%) and menthone (14–32%). A 60 day treatment regimen with the herbal medicine decreased the number of S. mansoni eggs in the feces, liver, and intestine and reduced the number of hepatic granulomas. We observed a reduction of 84% in blood eosinophilia and a decrease in the IL-4 and IL-10 blood levels after treatment. Therefore, we propose that schistosomiasis treatment with this herbal medicine for 60 days has an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory action in this animal model for schistosomiasis thus contributing to the decrease in physio pathological effects caused by S. mansoni infection. PMID:27378927

  20. Validation of a method for simultaneous determination of menthol and methyl salicylate in pharmaceuticals by capillary gas chromatography with cool on-column injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzek, Jan; Czekaj, Janusz Sławomir; Rzeszutko, Włodzimierz

    2003-01-01

    The conditions for the identification and quantitative determination of menthol and methyl salicylate in ointment Balsamum Mentholi Compositum on a hydrocarbon-ester base (vaseline-lanolin), have been established by using capillary gas chromatography with cool on-column injection and flame ionization detection (FID). The good separation of menthol (tR = 7.2 min), methyl salicylate (tR = 8.7 min) and thymol (tR = 12.3 min) and camphor (tR = 6.0 min), used as alternative internal standards, beside vehiculum constituents (peak of tR = 15.8 min) was obtained. The method features a high sensitivity - detection limit for menthol and methyl salicylate was 0.1 ng and 5.0 ng, respectively, high accuracy, precision and recovery for active substances: 100.0% +/- 2.2%, when camphor was used as an internal standard.

  1. Executive summary: a guide to utilization of the microbiology laboratory for diagnosis of infectious diseases: 2013 recommendations by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Society for Microbiology (ASM)(a).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ellen Jo; Miller, J Michael; Weinstein, Melvin P; Richter, Sandra S; Gilligan, Peter H; Thomson, Richard B; Bourbeau, Paul; Carroll, Karen C; Kehl, Sue C; Dunne, W Michael; Robinson-Dunn, Barbara; Schwartzman, Joseph D; Chapin, Kimberle C; Snyder, James W; Forbes, Betty A; Patel, Robin; Rosenblatt, Jon E; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2013-08-01

    The critical role of the microbiology laboratory in infectious disease diagnosis calls for a close, positive working relationship between the physician and the microbiologists who provide enormous value to the health care team. This document, developed by both laboratory and clinical experts, provides information on which tests are valuable and in which contexts, and on tests that add little or no value for diagnostic decisions. Sections are divided into anatomic systems, including Bloodstream Infections and Infections of the Cardiovascular System, Central Nervous System Infections, Ocular Infections, Soft Tissue Infections of the Head and Neck, Upper Respiratory Infections, Lower Respiratory Tract infections, Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Intraabdominal Infections, Bone and Joint Infections, Urinary Tract Infections, Genital Infections, and Skin and Soft Tissue Infections; or into etiologic agent groups, including Tickborne Infections, Viral Syndromes, and Blood and Tissue Parasite Infections. Each section contains introductory concepts, a summary of key points, and detailed tables that list suspected agents; the most reliable tests to order; the samples (and volumes) to collect in order of preference; specimen transport devices, procedures, times, and temperatures; and detailed notes on specific issues regarding the test methods, such as when tests are likely to require a specialized laboratory or have prolonged turnaround times. There is redundancy among the tables and sections, as many agents and assay choices overlap. The document is intended to serve as a reference to guide physicians in choosing tests that will aid them to diagnose infectious diseases in their patients.

  2. Effects of antagonists and heat on TRPM8 channel currents in dorsal root ganglion neuron activated by nociceptive cold stress and menthol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Ozgül, Cemil

    2012-02-01

    Transient receptor potential ion channel melastatin subtype 8 (TRPM8) is activated by cold temperature and cooling agents, such as menthol and icilin. Compounds containing peppermint are reported to reduce symptoms of environmental cold stress such as cold allodynia in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron; however, the underlying mechanisms of action are unclear. We tested the effects of physiological heat (37°C), anthralic acid (ACA and 0.025 mM), 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB and 0.05) on noxious cold (10°C) and menthol (0.1 mM)-induced TRPM8 cation channel currents in the DRG neurons of rats. DRG neurons were freshly isolated from rats. In whole-cell patch clamp experiments, TRPM8 currents were consistently induced by noxious cold or menthol. TRPM8 channels current densities of the neurons were higher in cold and menthol groups than in control. When the physiological heat is introduced by chamber TRPM8 channel currents were inhibited by the heat. Noxious cold-induced Ca(2+) gates were blocked by the ACA although menthol-induced TRPM8 currents were not blocked by ACA and 2-APB. In conclusion, the results suggested that activation of TRPM8 either by menthol or nociceptive cold can activate TRPM8 channels although we observed the protective role of heat, ACA and 2-APB through a TRPM8 channel in nociceptive cold-activated DRG neurons. Since cold allodynia is a common feature of neuropathic pain and diseases of sensory neuron, our findings are relevant to the etiology of neuropathology in DRG neurons.

  3. Summary Lecture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... This summary lecture makes no attempt to summarize what was actually said at the meeting, since this is well covered by the other contributors. Instead I have structured my presentation in three parts: First I try to demonstrate why the Sun is unique by comparing it with laboratory plasmas. This is followed ...

  4. Conference summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains conference summaries of the international conference on radioactive waste management of the Canadian Nuclear Society. Topics of discussion include: storage and disposal; hydrogeology and geochemistry; transportation; buffers and backfill; public attitudes; tailings; site investigations and geomechanics; concrete; economics; licensing; matrix materials and container design; durability of fuel; biosphere modelling; radioactive waste processing; and, future options

  5. Research Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This column features summaries of research articles from 3 recent crisis management publications. The first, "School Shootings and Counselor Leadership: Four Lessons from the Field" summarized by Kristi Fenning, was conducted as the result of the increased demand for trained crisis personnel on school campuses. Survey participants were…

  6. Executive summary--nutritional care of HIV-infected adolescents and adults, including pregnant and lactating women: what do we know, what can we do, and where do we go from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Mulligan, Kathleen; Papathakis, Peggy; Wanke, Christine

    2011-12-01

    The HIV pandemic continues to place an unbearable burden on the international community, with disease prevalence remaining highest in resource-limited settings in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. HIV is most often imposed on conditions of food insecurity and consequent malnutrition, poor sanitation, and chronic exposure to a myriad of infectious (eg, malaria, tuberculosis, and diarrheal) and noncommunicable (eg, obesity, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular) diseases. Women and children continue to bear the greatest burden. Two essential tenets underpin our approach to HIV: 1) antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) are essential to prolong lives and to halt the spread of HIV and AIDS and 2) food and sound nutrition are essential to human health. The challenge is to apply sound principles of clinical care and nutrition science to the safe and efficacious implementation of ARVs and for long-term care for people living with HIV and AIDS. The WHO has played a leading role in developing guidelines to support this goal with the generation of general recommendations regarding nutritional needs of people living with HIV and AIDS and specific guidelines for the nutritional care of HIV-infected infants and children (y of age). These proceedings represent a summary of the work accomplished at a workshop sponsored by the NIH to review the existing evidence to support changes in the recommendations regarding nutrient requirements for people living with HIV and AIDS; to support development of new WHO guidelines for adolescents and adults, including for pregnant and lactating women; and to identify a research agenda to address outstanding knowledge gaps.

  7. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  8. Conference summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This volume contains summaries of 28 papers presented at the 27. conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association. These papers discuss the general situation of the Canadian nuclear industry and the CANDU reactor; dialogue with the public; the International Atomic Energy Agency; and economic goals and operating lessons. It also contains summaries of 70 papers presented at the 8. conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society, which discuss plant life extension; safety and the environment; reactor physics; thermalhydraulics; risk assessment; the CANDU spacer location and repositioning project; CANDU operations; safety research after Chernobyl; fuel channels; and nuclear technology developments. The individual papers are also available in INIS-mf--13673 (CNA), and INIS-mf--12909 (CNS). (L.L.)

  9. Conference Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinkham, M.

    1991-01-01

    This summary will begin with short remarks, trying to recall some of the spirit of the presentations of each of the speakers during the first day, with no attempt at detail or completeness, given the need for a 20:1 compression relative to the original talk. The author hopes these idiosyncratic recollections do not infuriate the speakers too much. Since the speakers on the second day presented such interlocking topics, he simply tries to present some sort of consensus report, to which he adds some comments of his own. The two talks preceding this Summary on the final day dealt with the prospects for applications; since he had no chance to attempt to prepare a proper report on these, he says only a few words about those presentations

  10. Conference summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains conference summaries for the 31. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association and the 12. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society. Topics of discussion include: reactor physics; thermalhydraulics; industrial irradiation; computer applications; fuel channel analysis; small reactors; severe accidents; fuel behaviour under accident conditions; reactor components, safety related computer software; nuclear fuel management; fuel behaviour and performance; reactor safety; reactor engineering; nuclear waste management; and, uranium mining and processing

  11. Tutoring Executives Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bignoux, Stephane; Sund, Kristian J.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of learning and student satisfaction in the context of online university programs have largely neglected programs catering specifically to business executives. Such executives have typically been away from higher education for a number of years, and have collected substantial practical...... experience in the subject matters they are taught. Their expectations in terms of both content and delivery may therefore be different from non-executive students. We explore perceptions of the quality of tutoring in the context of an online executive MBA program through participant interviews. We find...... that in addition to some of the tutor behaviors already discussed in the literature, executive students look specifically for practical industry knowledge and experience in tutors, when judging how effective a tutor is. This has implications for both the recruitment and training of online executive MBA tutors....

  12. Nicotine, aerosol particles, carbonyls and volatile organic compounds in tobacco- and menthol-flavored e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Sun; LeBouf, Ryan F; Son, Youn-Suk; Koutrakis, Petros; Christiani, David C

    2017-04-27

    We aimed to assess the content of electronic cigarette (EC) emissions for five groups of potentially toxic compounds that are known to be present in tobacco smoke: nicotine, particles, carbonyls, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and trace elements by flavor and puffing time. We used ECs containing a common nicotine strength (1.8%) and the most popular flavors, tobacco and menthol. An automatic multiple smoking machine was used to generate EC aerosols under controlled conditions. Using a dilution chamber, we targeted nicotine concentrations similar to that of exposure in a general indoor environment. The selected toxic compounds were extracted from EC aerosols into a solid or liquid phase and analyzed with chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. We found that EC aerosols contained toxic compounds including nicotine, fine and nanoparticles, carbonyls, and some toxic VOCs such as benzene and toluene. Higher mass and number concentrations of aerosol particles were generated from tobacco-flavored ECs than from menthol-flavored ECs. We found that diluted machine-generated EC aerosols contain some pollutants. These findings are limited by the small number of ECs tested and the conditions of testing. More comprehensive research on EC exposure extending to more brands and flavor compounds is warranted.

  13. Labelled Execution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    This work was supported in part by the Center for Hybrid and Embedded Software Systems (CHESS) at UC Berkeley, which receives support from the...part by the Center for Hybrid and Embedded Software Systems (CHESS) at UC Berkeley, which receives support from the National Science Foundation (NSF...executions are all the executions of the first except the single infinite execution stuttering around s0. And because of this exception, s0 is not bisimilar

  14. Summary of main points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In conjunction with its 6. annual meeting, the WPDD in close co-operation with the FSC held a Topical session on 'Stakeholder Involvement in Decommissioning' on November 14, 2005. The session was attended by 36 participants totally representing 14 NEA member countries and 2 international organisations. Two keynote addresses were given at the Topical Session. The first one treated of what is needed for robust decisions and how to bring all stakeholders into the debate. In the second keynote address a summary was made on what have been said on stakeholder involvement in decommissioning during earlier meetings of the WPDD. The main part of the session was then devoted to views from different stakeholders regarding their role and their involvement. This part contained viewpoints from local communities (Kaevlinge in Sweden and Port Hope in Canada), authorities (Scottish Executive and CSNC) and operators (EDF from France and EWN from Germany). Case studies from the decommissioning of Dounrey in the UK and from Trojan and Main Yankee in the USA were presented in the end part of the Topical session followed by a summary and lessons learnt report by the Rapporteur. A detailed programme of the Topical session can be seen in Appendix 1

  15. Association between menthol-flavoured cigarette smoking and flavoured little cigar and cigarillo use among African-American, Hispanic, and white young and middle-aged adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, K; Fryer, C; Pagano, I; Jones, D; Fagan, P

    2016-11-01

    Flavour additives in cigarettes and little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs), which influence smokers' risk perceptions, may reinforce dual flavoured tobacco use. We examined the association among mentholated cigarette use, risk perceptions for flavour additives in LCCs and flavoured LCC smoking behaviour. Data from a national probability sample of 964 young and middle-aged adult current cigarette smokers were analysed. Multinomial logistic regression models examined the relationship among mentholated cigarette smoking, risk perceptions and current flavoured LCC use for the analytic sample and gender and race/ethnicity. Daily menthol cigarette smokers, compared to occasional, non-menthol smokers, had increased odds of flavoured LCC smoking (OR=1.75, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.98). This relationship was found for males, blacks/African-Americans and Hispanics/Latinos (psmokers, specifically those from vulnerable populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Coordination of Decision Making in Spain. The 'COWAM Spain' Initiative and the Current Project Under Consideration for a National Interim Storage Facility for Spent Fuel and High Level Waste. The Sixth Workshop of the Forum on Stakeholder Confidence. Executive Summary and International Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    speakers introduced the COWAM Spain initiative and expounded its three main themes: (i) democracy and participatory systems for the local level; (ii) the interplay between the national and local level; and (iii) long-term governance. Presentations provided a background to subsequent round table discussions that included both local stakeholders and international delegates. Day 3 afternoon was devoted to the feedback by two thematic rapporteurs. They evaluated the meeting from two distinct perspectives: that of the policy making approach, and of participatory decision making. The present Summary gives an overview of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop and the community visit. The structure of the Executive Summary follows the structure of the workshop itself. Complementary to this Executive Summary, and also provided with this document, is the NEA Secretariat's reflection highlighting from an international perspective some of the lessons to be learnt

  17. Summary guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Painuly, J.P.; Turkson, J.; Meyer, H.J.; Markandya, A.

    1999-09-01

    This document is a summary version of the methodological guidelines for climate change mitigation assessment developed as part of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) project Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations; Methodological Guidelines. The objectives of this project have been to develop a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can use in the construction of national climate change mitigation policies and in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC. The methodological framework developed in the Methodological Guidelines covers key economic concepts, scenario building, modelling tools and common assumptions. It was used by several country studies included in the project. (au) 13 refs.

  18. Conference summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains conference summaries of the 28. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association, and the 9. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society. Topics of discussion include: power reactors; fuel cycles; nuclear power and public understanding; future trends; applications of nuclear technology; CANDU reactors; operational enhancements; design of small reactors; accident behaviour in fuel channels; fuel storage and waste management; reactor commissioning/decommissioning; nuclear safety experiments and modelling; the next generation reactors; advances in nuclear engineering education in Canada; safety of small reactors; current position and improvements of fuel channels; current issues in nuclear safety; and radiation applications - medical and industrial

  19. Prospective associations between bilingualism and executive function in Latino children: sustained effects while controlling for biculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Nathaniel R; Shin, Hee-Sung; Unger, Jennifer B; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2014-10-01

    The study purpose was to test 1-year prospective associations between English-Spanish bilingualism and executive function in 5th to 6th grade students while controlling for biculturalism. Participants included 182 US Latino students (50 % female). Self-report surveys assessed biculturalism, bilingualism, and executive function (i.e., working memory, organizational skills, inhibitory control, and emotional control, as well as a summary executive function score). General linear model regressions demonstrated that bilingualism significantly predicted the summary executive function score as well as working memory such that bilingual proficiency was positively related to executive function. Results are the first to demonstrate (a) prospective associations between bilingualism to executive function while controlling for the potential third variable of biculturalism, and (b) a principal role for working memory in this relationship. Since executive function is associated with a host of health outcomes, one implication of study findings is that bilingualism may have an indirect protective influence on youth development.

  20. Oral L-menthol reduces thermal sensation, increases work-rate and extends time to exhaustion, in the heat at a fixed rating of perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, T R; Waldron, M; Jeffries, O

    2017-07-01

    The study investigated the effect of a non-thermal cooling agent, L-menthol, on exercise at a fixed subjective rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in a hot environment. Eight male participants completed two trials at an exercise intensity between 'hard' and 'very hard', equating to 16 on the RPE scale at ~35 °C. Participants were instructed to continually adjust their power output to maintain an RPE of 16 throughout the exercise trial, stopping once power output had fallen by 30%. In a randomized crossover design, either L-menthol or placebo mouthwash was administered prior to exercise and at 10 min intervals. Power output, [Formula: see text]O 2 , heart rate, core and skin temperature was monitored, alongside thermal sensation and thermal comfort. Isokinetic peak power sprints were conducted prior to and immediately after the fixed RPE trial. Exercise time was greater (23:23 ± 3:36 vs. 21:44 ± 2:32 min; P = 0.049) and average power output increased (173 ± 24 vs. 167 ± 24 W; P = 0.044) in the L-menthol condition. Peak isokinetic sprint power declined from pre-post trial in the L-menthol l (9.0%; P = 0.015) but not in the placebo condition (3.4%; P = 0.275). Thermal sensation was lower in the L-menthol condition (P = 0.036), despite no changes in skin or core temperature (P > 0.05). These results indicate that a non-thermal cooling mouth rinse lowered thermal sensation, resulting in an elevated work rate, which extended exercise time in the heat at a fixed RPE.

  1. Antimicrobial potency of single and combined mupirocin and monoterpenes, thymol, menthol and 1,8-cineole against Staphylococcus aureus planktonic and biofilm growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifer, Domagoj; Mužinić, Vedran; Klarić, Maja Šegvić

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most commonly isolated microbes in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) that can be complicated due to the formation of a staphylococcal biofilm. In this study, we investigated antimicrobial efficacy of single mupirocin and three types of monoterpenes (thymol, menthol and 1,8-cineole) as well as mupirocin-monoterpene combinations against S. aureus ATCC 29213 and 5 methicilin-resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) grown in planktonic and biofilm form. MIC against planktonic bacteria as well as minimum biofilm-eliminating concentrations (MBECs) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs) were determined by TTC and MTT reduction assay, respectively. The MICs of mupirocin (0.125-0.156 μg ml(-1)) were three orders of magnitude lower than the MICs of monoterpenes, which were as follows: thymol (0.250-0.375 mg ml(-1)) > menthol (1 mg ml(-1)) > 1,8-cineole (4-8 mg ml(-1)). Mupirocin-monoterpene combinations showed indifferent effect as compared with MICs of single substances. Mupirocin (0.016-2 mg ml(-1)) failed to destroy the biofilm. The MBECs of thymol and menthol were two- to sixfold higher than their MICs, while 1,8-cineole exerted a weak antibiofilm effect with MBECs 16- to 64-fold higher than MICs. Mixture of mupirocin and 1,8 cineole exerted a potentiated biofilm-eliminating effect, mupirocin-menthol showed antagonism, while effect of thymol-mupirocin mixture was inconclusive. MBICs of antimicrobials were close to their MICs, except 1,8-cineole, MBIC was about three- to fivefold higher. Dominant synergy was observed for mixtures of mupirocin and menthol or thymol, whereas mupirocin-1,8-cineol exerted an indifferent or additive biofilm inhibitory effect. Particular combinations of mupirocin and the monoterpenes could be applied in CRS therapy in order to eliminate or prevent bacterial biofilm growth.

  2. Indexing Executive Compensation Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Dittmann (Ingolf); E.G. Maug (Ernst); O.G. Spalt (Oliver)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the efficiency of indexing executive pay by calibrating the standard model of executive compensation to a large sample of US CEOs. The benefits from linking the strike price of stock options to an index are small and fully indexing all options would increase compensation costs

  3. Hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias: executive summary of a consensus document from the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and ESC Council on Hypertension, endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulación Cardíaca y Electrofisiología (SOLEACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Coca, Antonio; Kahan, Thomas; Boriani, Giuseppe; Manolis, Antonis S; Olsen, Michael Hecht; Oto, Ali; Potpara, Tatjana S; Steffel, Jan; Marín, Francisco; de Oliveira Figueiredo, Márcio Jansen; de Simone, Giovanni; Tzou, Wendy S; En Chiang, Chern; Williams, Bryan

    2017-10-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is a common cardiovascular risk factor leading to heart failure (HF), coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, peripheral artery disease and chronic renal failure. Hypertensive heart disease can manifest as many types of cardiac arrhythmias, most commonly being atrial fibrillation (AF). Both supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias may occur in HTN patients, especially in those with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), CAD, or HF. In addition, high doses of thiazide diuretics commonly used to treat HTN, may result in electrolyte abnormalities (e.g. hypokalaemia, hypomagnesaemia), contributing further to arrhythmias, while effective blood pressure control may prevent the development of the arrhythmias such as AF. In recognizing this close relationship between HTN and arrhythmias, the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Council on Hypertension convened a Task Force, with representation from the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulación Cardíaca y Electrofisiología (SOLEACE), with the remit of comprehensively reviewing the available evidence and publishing a joint consensus document on HTN and cardiac arrhythmias, and providing up-to-date consensus recommendations for use in clinical practice. The ultimate judgment on the care of a specific patient must be made by the healthcare provider and the patient in light of all individual factors presented. This is an executive summary of the full document co-published by EHRA in EP-Europace. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The relationships between menthol cigarette preference and state tobacco control policies on smoking behaviors of young adult smokers in the 2006-07 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Surveys (TUS CPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahijevych, Karen; Ford, Jodi

    2010-12-01

    To examine relationships between the preference for menthol cigarettes and young adult smoking behaviors, including the extent to which state tobacco control policies moderate these relationships. Cross-sectional design using secondary data from the 2006-07 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Surveys (TUS CPS) surveys appended with 2006 state-policy data. United States nationally representative survey. A total of 2241 young adult daily smokers and 688 young adult non-daily smokers. The two dependent variables of smoking behaviors were smoking first cigarette within 30 minutes of waking (TTF) and number of cigarettes smoked per day (cpd). Primary independent variables included menthol brand preference and state tobacco control policies (youth access laws, clean indoor air laws and cigarette excise taxes), adjusting for controls. Among daily smokers, there were no significant associations between menthol brand preference and TTF or cpd. However, lower educational attainment, not being in the labor force and the lack of home smoking rules were associated positively with shorter TTF, being white and the lack of home smoking rules were associated positively with cpd. Among daily smokers, state excise taxes were associated negatively with higher cpd. Among non-daily smokers, menthol brand preference was associated positively with shorter TTF, but associations did not vary with state tobacco control policies. Menthol brand preference was not associated significantly with cpd, but male gender, unmarried status and the lack of home smoking rules were associated positively with greater cpd among non-daily smokers. Young adult non-daily smokers who preferred menthol cigarettes were significantly more dependent than those who preferred non-menthol cigarettes, as shown through the shorter TTF. Associations between menthol brand preference and smoking behaviors did not vary with state tobacco control policies. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the

  5. Comparison of serum cotinine concentration within and across smokers of menthol and nonmenthol cigarette brands among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white U.S. adult smokers, 2001-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Ralph S; Holiday, David B; Stellman, Steven D; Mowery, Paul D; Giovino, Gary A; Muscat, Joshua E; Eriksen, Michael P; Bernert, John T; Richter, Patricia A; Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2011-07-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is examining options for regulating menthol content in cigarettes. There are many pharmacologic properties of menthol that may facilitate exposure to tobacco smoke, and it has been suggested that the preference for menthol cigarettes in black smokers accounts for their higher cotinine levels. To assess cigarettes smoked per day-adjusted cotinine levels in relation to smoking a menthol or nonmenthol cigarette brand among non-Hispanic black and white U.S. adult smokers under natural smoking conditions. Serum cotinine concentrations were measured in 1,943 smokers participating in the 2001 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The effect of smoking a menthol brand on cigarettes smoked per day-adjusted serum cotinine levels in these two populations was modeled by adjusting for sex, age, number of smokers living in the home, body weight, time since last smoked, and FTC (Federal Trade Commission)-measured nicotine levels. The 8- or 12-digit Universal Product Code (UPC) on the cigarette label was used to determine the cigarette brand and whether it was menthol. Smoking a menthol cigarette brand versus smoking a nonmenthol cigarette brand was not associated (P ≥ 0.05) with mean serum cotinine concentration in either black or white smokers. The higher levels of cotinine observed in black smokers compared with white smokers are not explained by their higher preference for menthol cigarette brands. Further studies like ours are needed to improve our ability to understand health consequences of future changes in tobacco product design. ©2011 AACR

  6. 77 FR 60177 - Senior Executive Service; Financial Management Service Performance Review Board (PRB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Senior Executive Service; Financial Management Service Performance Review Board (PRB) AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the appointment of members to the Financial Management Service (FMS) Performance Review Board (PRB...

  7. 76 FR 63351 - Senior Executive Service; Financial Management Service Performance Review Board (PRB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Senior Executive Service; Financial Management Service Performance Review Board (PRB) AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the appointment of members to the Financial Management Service (FMS) Performance Review Board (PRB...

  8. 75 FR 54445 - Senior Executive Service; Financial Management Service Performance Review Board (PRB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Senior Executive Service; Financial Management Service Performance Review Board (PRB) AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the appointment of members to the Financial Management Service (FMS...

  9. A Framework for Global Electronic Commerce: An Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of the Press Secretary of the White House

    1997-01-01

    An abbreviated version of a longer policy document on electronic commerce released by the Clinton Administration, this article examines principles and recommendations on tariffs, taxes, electronic payment systems, uniform commercial code for electronic commerce, intellectual property protection, privacy, security, telecommunications infrastructure…

  10. Crossing the Line: Sexual Harassment at School. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Women, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Sexual harassment has long been an unfortunate part of the climate in middle and high schools in the United States. Often considered a kind of bullying, sexual harassment by definition involves sex and gender and therefore warrants separate attention. The legal definition of sexual harassment also differentiates it from bullying. Based on a…

  11. Basewide Energy Systems Plan, Fort Benning, Georgia. Executive Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    ... Âpplication of solar energy to reduce fossil fuel consumption Ŝavings utilizing central energy monitoring and control systems (EMCS) ̂ Use of solid waste as an alternate energy source ̂ Analysis of Total Energy/Selective Energy (TE/SE) systems.

  12. Basewide Energy Systems Plan, Fort Gordon, Georgia. Executive Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    .... (The results for Increments F and G are summarized on pages 5 through 7.) The plan includes analyses and recommendations of energy conservation projects for reduction of the installation's present energy consumption...

  13. Dutch Wholesale Power Market Review 2002. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebregt, T.; Rusch, H.

    2002-01-01

    Chapter 1 provides a background to the Dutch power market, covering generation, transmission, distribution, supply, and laws and regulations. Chapter 2 reviews the key market events during 2001 and early 2002, providing analysis and background on an important and tumultuous period in the Dutch market. Chapter 3 explains the structure and timing of the key market mechanisms (Amsterdam Power Exchange, interconnector capacity auctions, TenneT 15-minute balancing market). Chapter 4 briefly reviews fuel price developments and discusses their impact on the costs of generation. Chapter 5 contains a detailed review of the traded Dutch power markets (APX, OTC, interconnection), including the linkages between these markets and an analysis of arbitrage opportunities

  14. Workshop on power conditioning for alternative energy technologies. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    As various alternative energy technologies such as photovoltaics, wind, fuel cells, and batteries are emerging as potential sources of energy for the future, the need arises for development of suitable power-conditioning systems to interface these sources to their respective loads. Since most of these sources produce dc electricity and most electrical loads require ac, an important component of the required power-conditioning units is a dc-to-ac inverter. The discussions deal with the development of power conditioners for each alternative energy technology. Discussion topics include assessments of current technology, identification of operational requirements with a comparison of requirements for each source technology, the identification of future technology trends, the determination of mass production and marketing requirements, and recommendations for program direction. Specifically, one working group dealt with source technology: photovoltaics, fuel cells and batteries, and wind followed by sessions discussing system size and application: large grid-connected systems, small grid-connected systems, and stand alone and dc applications. A combined group session provided an opportunity to discuss problems common to power conditioning development.

  15. RE study - RE at IDRC - Executive summary - French.pub

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    KFerguson

    service du développement, d'analyser des outils et des démarches d'évaluation de l'excellence en recherche et ... La définition et l'évaluation de l'excellence en recherche dans le milieu de la recherche au service du dévelop- pement sont rendues plus difficiles encore par les opinions très arrêtées sur les objectifs, enga-.

  16. Transport Technologies and Policy Scenarios to 2050 (Executive Summary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World Energy Council

    2007-01-01

    Transport is one of the major global consumers of energy, currently representing between 20 and 25 percent of aggregate energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. Strong growth in energy consumption to 2050 in all sectors, with the transport proportion projected to remain stable up to 2050. Transport therefore has an important role to lay in contributing to the primary objective of the World Energy Council: sustainable energy for all. Passenger vehicle technology is expected to remain dependent on petroleum fuels and internal combustion engines (ICE) for the foreseeable future, since these elements remain the most convenient and affordable for mass personal mobility. Enhancement of ICEs through clean diesels, hybrids and new combustion techniques will ensure increased efficiency, continuing the consistent historical annual improvement in vehicle efficiency. Policy makers must first agree on the overall objective, whether it be a reduction in energy consumption or greenhouse gas emissions. Technological development must be complemented by rational policy that will encourage and enable the technologies to emerge

  17. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS): executive summary and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.; Perkins, L.J.; Gordon, J.D.

    1984-07-01

    Two self-consistent MARS configurations are discussed - a 1200-MWe commercial electricity-generating plant and a synguels-generating plant that produces hydrogen with an energy equivalent to 26,000 barrels of oil per day. The MARS machine emphasizes the attractive features of the tandem mirror concept, including steady-state operation, a small-diameter high-beta plasma, a linear central cell with simple low-maintenance blankets, low first-wall heat fluxes ( 2 ), no driven plasma currents or associated disruptions, natural halo impurity diversion, and direct conversion of end-loss charged-particle power. The MARS electric plant produces 2600 MW of fusion power in a 130-m-long central cell. Advanced tandem-mirror plasma-engineering concepts, a high-efficiency liquid lithium-lead (Li 17 Pb 83 ) blanket, and efficient direct electrical conversion of end loss power combine to produce a high net plant efficiency of 36%. With a total capital cost of $2.9 billion (constant 1983 dollars), the MARS electric plant produces busbar electricity at approx. 7 cents/kW-hour. The MARS synfuels plant produces 3500 MW of fusion power in a 150-m-long central cell. A helium-gas-cooled silicon carbide pebble-bed blanket provides high-temperature (1000 0 C) heat to a thermochemical water-splitting cycle and the resulting hydrogen is catalytically converted to methanol for distribution. With a total capital cost of $3.6 billion (constant 1983 dollars), the synfuels plant produces methanol fuel at about $1.7/gal. The major features of the MARS reactor include sloshing-ion thermal barrier plugs for efficient plasma confinement, a high efficiency blanket, high-field (24-T) choke cells, drift pumping for trapped plasma species, quasi-optical electron-cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) systems, and a component gridless direct converter

  18. Biological monitoring of environmental contaminants (plants). Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, M.A.S.

    1986-01-01

    Knowledge of contaminant concentrations does not necessarily indicate their significance to plant populations and communities within ecosystems. Accumulation within plants facilitates analysis of contaminants which may be present at very low levels in the environment and may show the spatial distribution and changes in the level of contamination with time. Effects on species distribution within plant communities and visible injury to foliage may also be related to contamination. Species can be selected appropriate to the area and the contaminant to be monitored. Species used to investigate the input of contaminants from atmospheric deposition, for example, may differ from those used to assess transfer through food webs. Mosses and lichens have been particularly widely used in many countries to show distribution of metals and radionuclides on local and regional scales and of pesticide contamination. Visible injury to foliage of higher plant species may reflect atmospheric concentrations of gaseous pollutants and monitoring networks of transplanted sensitive species can provide information on contaminant levels on a regional scale. Changes in species composition, especially of lichens, have also been related to the degree of contamination.

  19. South Dakota ITS/CVO business plan : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-19

    This report defines an ITS/CVO program for the State of South Dakota. It is a Business Plan to guide the deployment of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) technology for improving commercial vehicle operations (CVO) in South Dakota. This ITS/CVO...

  20. The Multispectral Imaging Science Working Group. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Results of the deliberations of the six multispectral imaging science working groups (Botany, Geography, Geology, Hydrology, Imaging Science and Information Science) are summarized. Consideration was given to documenting the current state of knowledge in terrestrial remote sensing without the constraints of preconceived concepts such as possible band widths, number of bands, and radiometric or spatial resolutions of present or future systems. The findings of each working group included a discussion of desired capabilities and critical developmental issues.

  1. Multispectral Imaging Science Working Group for Hydrologic Science: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The following working objectives were adopted: (1) define the current state of knowledge concerning the role of multispectral imaging science in hydrology; (2) identify critical areas where gaps in our knowledge limit opportunities for significant improvements in our understanding of the hydrologic processes; (3) evaluate the potential of multispectral imaging sciences as tools to close these gaps in knowledge; and (4) develop guidelines for a series of remote-sensing-based experiments that would help close these gaps in knowledge and, thereby, provide man with the improved scientific base necessary for better utilization of the world's water resource. The resulting documentation is intended to provide guidance for multispectral imaging programs in the hydrologic sciences with special emphasis on the visible and infrared (IR) wavelengths.

  2. Accident-resistant container: safety for warhead transport. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.E.

    1975-11-01

    Development testing of model and full-scale hardware to the abnormal environments created during a cargo aircraft crash has demonstrated that the accident-resistant container (ARC) can protect an enclosed warhead from these abnormal environments. This protection reduces the probability of initiation of the warhead HE. Transfer of the plutonium limit to the ARC may permit transporting increased numbers of warheads on a single transport vehicle. Testing of one warhead configuration has been completed. Production can be initiated for transporting that system in the ARC. Other systems need test evaluation and certification before being transported in the ARC

  3. The Visible Classroom: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipp, Amy; Tanner, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The Visible Classroom project aimed to use lesson transcripts to promote effective teaching practice and improve the attainment of pupils in primary school. The approach used "real-time captioning" technology to generate a live transcript of teachers' speech in lessons and was developed by the University of Melbourne and technology…

  4. The Role of Leadership in Navy Program Offices. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-05-01

    PROGRAM MANAGEMENT COURSE- SSTUDENT STUDY PROGRAM Fort Beivoir, Virginia, 22060 THE ROLE OF LEADERSHIP IN NAVY PROGRAM OFFICES STUDY REPORT PMC 73-1...jLa I1 • 1. Men at the Top. Osborne kLliott 1 2. "Understanding Leadership ". W. 0. H. Prentice, HBR Sep- Oct 1966 j 3. "A Theory of Human Motivation...Drucker, IMI reprint 9. Technical Management Institute Thifnkpiece, " Leadership " 1 • 0. "The Effective Manager ". Peter Drucker, LMI r~print 11. Sur-ival In

  5. Energy Technology Perspectives 2012: Executive Summary [Spanish version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) is the International Energy Agency’s most ambitious publication on new developments in energy technology. It demonstrates how technologies – from electric vehicles to smart grids – can make a decisive difference in achieving the objective of limiting the global temperature rise to 2°C and enhancing energy security. ETP 2012 presents scenarios and strategies to 2050, with the aim of guiding decision makers on energy trends and what needs to be done to build a clean, secure and competitive energy future.

  6. Energy Technology Perspectives 2012: Executive Summary [Portuguese version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) is the International Energy Agency’s most ambitious publication on new developments in energy technology. It demonstrates how technologies – from electric vehicles to smart grids – can make a decisive difference in achieving the objective of limiting the global temperature rise to 2°C and enhancing energy security. ETP 2012 presents scenarios and strategies to 2050, with the aim of guiding decision makers on energy trends and what needs to be done to build a clean, secure and competitive energy future.

  7. Technological Improvements to Automobile Fuel Consumption : Volume 1. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    This report is a priliminary survey of the technological feasibility of reducing the fuel consumption of automobiles. The study uses as a reference information derived from literature, automobile industry contacts, and testing conducted as part of th...

  8. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Liu, Shu [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower, Albany, NY (United States); Reed, Gregory [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  9. Chess in Schools: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrim, John; Macmillan, Lindsey; Micklewright, John; Sawtell, Mary; Wiggins, Meg

    2016-01-01

    Chess in Primary Schools is a whole-school approach to teaching primary school children how to play chess. Children take 30 hours of chess lessons delivered by a tutor who is an experienced chess player, and the school is given the option to set up a chess club as a lunchtime or after-school activity. Chess classes are delivered during the school…

  10. Nuffield Early Language Intervention: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibieta, Luke; Kotecha, Mehul; Skipp, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The Nuffield Early Language Intervention is designed to improve the spoken language ability of children during the transition from nursery to primary school. It is targeted at children with relatively poor spoken language skills. Three sessions per week are delivered to groups of two to four children starting in the final term of nursery and…

  11. Achieve Together Bournemouth Partnership: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callanan, Meg; Farias, Javiera Cartagena; Hudson, Ruth; Greaves, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The Achieve Together Bournemouth Partnership ("the Partnership") was a pilot collaboration between Teach First, Teaching Leaders, and The Future Leaders Trust. It was a new initiative that aimed to work with primary and secondary schools and the wider community in two socially deprived areas of Bournemouth (Boscombe and West Howe) to…

  12. Increasing Pupil Motivation: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibieta, Luke; Greaves, Ellen; Sianesi, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    'Increasing Pupil Motivation' was designed to improve attainment of the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) by providing incentives to increase pupil effort in Year 11. Two schemes for incentivising pupil effort were implemented. The first provided a financial incentive, where pupils were told they had £80 ($110.66) at the beginning…

  13. Challenge the Gap: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Mel; Ainscow, Mel; Wigelsworth, Michael; Troncoso, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    Challenge the Gap (CtG) is a school collaboration programme designed by Challenge Partners that aims to break the link between disadvantage and attainment. The main components of CtG are: (1) after-school workshops drawing on published research and evidenced practice; (2) focused in-school interventions with a selected cohort of disadvantaged…

  14. Learner Response System: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Meg; Sawtell, Mary; Jerrim, John

    2017-01-01

    This Learner Response System (LRS) intervention involves the use of electronic handheld devices that allow teachers and pupils to provide immediate feedback during lessons. For example, pupils can respond to a question using the device and responses are immediately visible to the teacher, or they can work through problems on the device at their…

  15. Talk for Writing: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockrell, Julie; Marshall, Chloë; Wyse, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    "Talk for Writing" is an approach to teaching writing that emphasizes three teaching methods: (1) 'imitation' (where pupils learn texts by heart, so they can discuss and dissect them); (2) 'innovation' (where pupils adapt stories to create their own versions); and (3) 'invention' (where teachers help pupils to create original stories).…

  16. Vocabulary Enrichment Intervention Programme: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, Ben; Stevens, Eleanor; Bradshaw, Sally; Clarkson, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The Vocabulary Enrichment Full Programme combined three existing programmes--the Vocabulary Enrichment Intervention Programme (VEIP), Sounds-Write and Literacy Plus--and aimed to improve the reading abilities of pupils in Year 7. VEIP is a structured scheme that teaches children new words and encourages them to use these words in speaking and…

  17. Catch Up® Literacy: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutt, Simon; Kettlewell, Kelly; Bernardinelli, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Catch Up® Literacy is a structured one-to-one literacy intervention for pupils between the ages of 6 and 14 who are struggling to learn to read. It teaches pupils to blend phonemes (combine letter sounds into words), segment phonemes (separate words into letter sounds), and memorise particular words so they can be understood without needing to use…

  18. Word and World Reading: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Beng Huat; Gorard, Stephen; Siddiqui, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    The Word and World Reading programme aimed to improve the reading comprehension and wider literacy skills of children aged 7-9 from low income families. The programme focused on improving the vocabulary and background knowledge (sometimes labelled "core knowledge") of pupils, through the use of specially designed "knowledge…

  19. Talk of the Town: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Allen

    2016-01-01

    "Talk of the Town" is a community led approach to supporting the speech, language and communication (SLC) skills of children and young people, aged 0-19, living in areas of social disadvantage. It is delivered by the Communication Trust. This evaluation reports on a randomised controlled trial undertaken with 2696 pupils in 64 primary…

  20. Affordable Online Maths Tuition: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Carole; Ainsworth, Hannah; Buckley, Hannah; Hampden-Thompson, Gillen; Hewitt, Catherine; Humphry, Deborah; Jefferson, Laura; Mitchell, Natasha; Torgerson, David

    2016-01-01

    "Affordable Online Maths Tuition" is a one-to-one tutoring programme where pupils receive maths tuition over the internet from trained maths graduates in India and Sri Lanka. It is delivered by the organisation Third Space Learning (TSL). Tutors and pupils communicate using video calling and a secure virtual classroom. Before each…

  1. Evidence for the Frontline: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Pippa; Sims, David; White, Richard; Roy, Palak

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for the Frontline (E4F) is an online brokerage service designed to provide teachers and school leaders with timely access to relevant evidence on supporting young people's learning. It was developed by Sandringham School and the Institute for Effective Education (IEE) at The University of York, with support from the Coalition for Evidence…

  2. ABRA: Online Reading Support. Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Sandra; Ruiz-Valenzuela, Jenifer; Rolfe, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Abracadabra (ABRA) is a 20-week online literacy program composed of phonic fluency and comprehension activities based around a series of age-appropriate texts. Four 15-minute sessions per week are delivered by a teaching assistant (TA) to groups of three to five pupils. This report summarizes the findings of a randomized controlled trial assessing…

  3. Physically Active Lessons: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sarah; Gildea, Aideen Gildea; Sloan, Seaneen; Thurston, Allen

    2015-01-01

    This is a report of a pilot study of the Physically Active Lessons (PAL) programme, which was piloted in five primary schools in Hertfordshire between February and July 2014. PAL involves adapting lesson plans to combine short bursts of physical activity with academic content. The study had two aims: (1) to explore the feasibility of adapting a…

  4. Shuttle systems evaluation and selection. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The major issues affecting the selection of a space shuttle system were considered. These included the HO orbiter/ballistic recoverable booster series-burn configuration; the HO orbiter/ballistic recoverable booster parallel-burn (rocket-assisted orbiter-RAO) configuration; and the HO orbiter/flyback LOX/RP booster configuration. The booster studies emphasized the series-burn ballistic design, but the differences required for RAO application were identified and evaluated. Definition of the RAO configuration parameters and technical problem areas, establishing approaches to possible solutions, and developing program costs are discussed.

  5. ThinkForward: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demack, Sean; McCaig, Colin; Wolstenholme, Claire; Stevens, Anna; Fumagalli, Laura

    2016-01-01

    ThinkForward is a coaching programme, developed by Impetus Private Equity Foundation, which is designed to support secondary school pupils. ThinkForward is targeted at pupils who have been identified as being at high risk of not being in education, employment or training (NEET) following the completion of compulsory education. Coaches are assigned…

  6. Switch-On Reading: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen; See, Beng Huat; Siddiqui, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Switch-on Reading is an intensive 10-week literacy intervention. It is delivered on a one to one basis by staff, most commonly teaching assistants, who have been trained in the approach. The purpose of Switch-on is to achieve functional literacy for as many pupils as possible, and so to close the reading achievement gap for vulnerable children…

  7. Teacher Effectiveness Enhancement Programme: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Endowment Foundation, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Teacher Effectiveness Enhancement Programme (TEEP) is a CPD programme that aims to improve teachers' classroom practice. TEEP training is offered as a whole-school approach by the Schools, Students and Teachers Network (SSAT). All staff in a school received three days of training over a period of two terms. A smaller cohort of teachers, chosen…

  8. Oregon Green Light CVO evaluation : final report : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings of all of the Detailed Test Plans conducted for the evaluation of the Oregon Green Light Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) project. This project was responsible for the installation of 21 systems containing weigh...

  9. Talk for Literacy: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, Ben; Bradshaw, Sally

    2015-01-01

    This NFER report has been produced for the Education Endowment Foundation and its evaluation of a speaking and listening intervention combining two programmes: the Vocabulary Enrichment Intervention Programme (VEIP) and the narrative Intervention Programme (NIP). The intervention was used with pupils who needed extra support to improve their…

  10. Catch Up® Numeracy: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Endowment Foundation, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Catch Up® Numeracy is a one to one intervention for learners who are struggling with numeracy. It consists of two 15-minute sessions per week, delivered by teaching assistants (TAs). The approach is based on research indicating that numeracy is not a single skill, but a composite of several component skills that are relatively discrete. The…

  11. Philosophy for Children: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen; Siddiqui, Nadia; See, Beng Huat

    2015-01-01

    Philosophy for Children (P4C) is an approach to teaching in which students participate in group dialogues focused on philosophical issues. Dialogues are prompted by a stimulus (for example, a story or a video) and are based around a concept such as 'truth,' 'fairness' or 'bullying.' The aim of P4C is to help children become more willing and able…

  12. Evaluation of rubblization project in Ohio : executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Concrete pavements are highly susceptible to variations in temperature. During summer months, the concrete pavements expand and, contract during winter months. Such movements, particularly at the joints in concrete pavements during winter months, exe...

  13. Creative Futures: Act, Sing, Play. Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Sarah; Griggs, Julia; Lloyd, Cheryl; Morris, Stephen; Kiss, Zsolt; Skipp, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Act, Sing, Play (ASP) offered music and drama tuition to Year 2 pupils. The aim of the programme was to evaluate whether music workshops had a bigger impact than drama workshops in terms of pupils' maths and literacy attainment. The evaluation was based on the hypothesis that participation in high-quality music instruction promotes educational…

  14. Thinking, Doing, Talking Science: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Pam; Slavin, Robert; Elliott, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Thinking, Doing, Talking Science (TDTS) is a programme that aims to make science lessons in primary schools more practical, creative and challenging. Teachers are trained in a repertoire of strategies that aim to encourage pupils to use higher order thinking skills. For example, pupils are posed 'Big Questions,' such as 'How do you know that the…

  15. Summer Active Reading Programme: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Bronwen; Connolly, Paul; Demack, Sean; O'Hare, Liam; Stevens, Anna; Clague, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The Summer Active Reading Programme aimed to improve reading skills and particularly comprehension by raising children's engagement in, and enjoyment of, reading at the transition from primary school to secondary school. The programme was delivered by Booktrust, an independent charity that aims to change lives through engaging people with reading.…

  16. Children's University: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen; Siddiqui, Nadia; See, Beng Huat; Smith, Emma; White, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Children's University (CU) aims to improve the aspirations, attainment, and skills of pupils aged 5-14 by providing learning activities beyond the normal school day. This trial focused on pupils in Years 5 and 6 (aged 9-11), and activities included after-school clubs, visits to universities, museums, and libraries, and 'social action'…

  17. Ashford Teaching Alliance Research Champion: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Julia; Speight, Svetlana; Farias, Javiera Cartagena

    2016-01-01

    The Ashford Teaching Alliance (ATA) Research Champion project ("the programme") was a pilot intervention aimed at developing teaching expertise and practice by promoting the use of educational research in decision-making and teacher practice. The programme ran for one academic year (2014/2015) in five schools within the ATA. Delivery was…

  18. Success for All: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sarah; Biggart, Andy; Sloan, Seaneen; O'Hare, Liam

    2017-01-01

    Success for All (SfA) is a whole-school approach to improving literacy in primary schools. Teachers receive training in areas including group learning strategies, phonics, and assessment, and are provided with structured daily lesson plans and teaching materials. There is also support for school leadership in areas such as data management, ability…

  19. Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS): Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Neil; Barlow, Alexandra; Wigelsworth, Michael; Lendrum, Ann; Pert, Kirsty; Joyce, Craig; Stephens, Emma; Wo, Lawrence; Squires, Garry; Woods, Kevin; Calam, Rachel; Harrison, Mark; Turner, Alex; Humphrey, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) is a school-based social and emotional learning (SEL) curriculum that aims to help children in primary school manage their behaviour, understand their emotions, and work well with others. PATHS consists of a series of lessons that cover topics such as identifying and labelling feelings, controlling…

  20. Project Based Learning: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Victoria; Hewitt, Catherine; Kokotsaki, Dimitra; Collyer, Clare; Wiggins, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Project Based Learning (PBL) is a pedagogical approach that seeks to provide Year 7 pupils with independent and group learning skills to meet both the needs of the Year 7 curriculum as well as support their learning in future stages of their education. It particularly aims to improve their engagement in learning as well as practical literacy…

  1. Rochdale Research into Practice: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, Sveltlana; Callanan, Meg; Griggs, Julia; Farias, Javiera Cartagena; Fry, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Research into Practice--Evidence-informed Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in Rochdale (UK) was a pilot intervention aimed at supporting teachers to use evidence-based teaching and learning strategies to improve pupil progress. The project ran for one year (2014/2015) in ten primary schools in the Rochdale area, all of which are members…

  2. Research Learning Communities: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jo; Thomas, Sally; Zhang, Lei; Edwards, Anna; Augero, Andres; Roney, Pooneh

    2017-01-01

    Research Learning Communities (RLC) was an intervention that aimed to improve teaching quality and learning outcomes by raising teachers' awareness, understanding, and use of educational research in their teaching practice. Two Evidence Champion teachers from each school attended four RLC workshops with peers from up to four other schools.…

  3. Response to Intervention: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen; Siddiqui, Nadia; See, Beng Huat

    2014-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RTI) is a targeted programme that uses a tiered approach to identify the needs of low achieving pupils. The approach begins with whole class teaching (Tier 1), followed by small group tuition (Tier 2) for those who need more attention, and one to one tutoring (Tier 3) for those who do not respond to the small group…

  4. Discover Summer School: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, David; Torgerson, Carole; Jefferson, Laura; Buckley, Hannah; Ainsworth, Hannah; Heaps, Clare; Mitchell, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    The Discover Summer School was a four-week programme which aimed to improve the reading and writing skills of children during the summer between Year 6 and Year 7. The programme was targeted at pupils who had been predicted to achieve below Level 4b in English by the end of Key Stage 2. Pupils meeting the eligibility criteria for the study, and…

  5. Statewide ITS earmark evaluation, Part B : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    As the recipient of ITS Integration Program funds, WisDOT is required to perform a self-evaluation on each program supported : by the funds. The report includes the results of that evaluation for five projects. Specific projects include: 1) Statewide...

  6. Rhythm for Reading: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, Ben; Clarkson, Rebecca; Fowler, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Rhythm for Reading is a programme which aims to improve children's reading ability by taking part in rhythm-based exercises such as stamping, clapping and chanting, while reading musical notation. The intervention builds on the evidence of a link between the natural rhythm and phrasing of prose and intuitive reading comprehension. Rhythm for…

  7. Improving Writing Quality: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, David; Torgerson, Carole; Ainsworth, Hannah; Buckley, Hannah; Heaps, Clare; Hewitt, Catherine; Mitchell, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) is a writing process model in which students are encouraged to plan, draft, edit, and revise their writing. In this evaluation 23 primary schools and their Year 6 teachers in the Calderdale area of West Yorkshire were randomly allocated to receive training in the SRSD approach from an external consultant.…

  8. Units of Sound: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, Mary; Chambers, Bette; Elliott, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Units of Sound (UofS) is a computer-based program designed to help struggling readers with their reading and spelling skills. It is a structured, multisensory program that covers reading and spelling from simple phonics skills through to adult reading levels. It involves a high level of independent work by the student, with small groups of…

  9. MathsFlip: Flipped Learning. Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Peter; Aguilera, Alaidde Berenice Villaneuva; Elliott, Louise; Chambers, Bette

    2017-01-01

    The MathsFlip intervention aimed to improve the attainment of pupils in Years 5 and 6. The programme, developed by Shireland Collegiate Academy, used a 'flipped learning' approach involving pupils learning core content online, outside of class time, and then participating in activities in class to reinforce their learning. The programme used an…

  10. ReflectED: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motteram, Gary; Choudry, Sophina; Kalambouka, Afroditi; Hutcheson, Graeme; Barton, Hutcheson

    2016-01-01

    The ReflectED programme was developed by Rosendale Primary School to improve pupils' metacognition--their ability to think about and manage their own learning. This includes the skills of setting and monitoring goals, assessing progress, and identifying personal strengths and challenges. ReflectED consists of 28, weekly, half-hour lessons, which…

  11. Switch-On Effectiveness Trial: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rakhee; Jabin, Nico; Bussard, Loraine; Cartagena, Javiera; Haywood, Sarah; Lumpkin, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Switch-on is an intensive, targeted literacy intervention that aims to improve the reading skills of pupils who are struggling with literacy. There are two versions of the intervention: Switch-on Reading and Switch-on Reading and Writing. Both involve specially trained Teaching Assistants (TAs) delivering a tailored programme of literacy support…

  12. SHINE in Secondaries: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Victoria; Collyer, Clare; Kokotsaki, Dimitra; Hewitt, Catherine; Younger, Kirsty; Wiggins, Andy; Torgerson, Carole

    2015-01-01

    This is a report of a pilot programme of the SHINE in Secondaries Saturday school transition intervention. The programme aims to improve attainment by focusing on literacy and numeracy and revisiting areas where pupils are struggling through a creative curriculum approach and enrichment opportunities. The Saturday programme is run by teachers from…

  13. Perry Beeches Coaching Programme: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Pippa; Bradshaw, Sally; Stevens, Eleanor; Styles, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The Perry Beeches Coaching Programme aimed to improve the reading and writing skills of Year 7 pupils with low levels of attainment in four English secondary schools. Across the project, 16 coaches were employed to provide academic support to pupils who had not reached level 4c in English at the end of Key Stage 2. Originally it had been intended…

  14. Powerful Learning Conversations: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzo, Cinzia; Rolfe, Heather; Wilkinson, David

    2016-01-01

    Powerful Learning Conversations (PLC) sought to improve the feedback that teachers give to pupils in Year 9, by training them to apply techniques used in sports coaching. It is based on the idea that feedback in sports coaching is often provided immediately after a task is performed, and delivered in a way that children are more likely to respond…

  15. Anglican Schools Partnership: Effective Feedback. Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen; See, Beng Huat; Siddiqui, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    This pilot project focused on improving teachers' understanding and use of effective feedback. Participating teachers tried to incorporate feedback into their lessons to help pupils understand their learning goals and become able to develop strategies to reach them. The project employed a cyclical action research design, through which teachers…

  16. Improving Numeracy and Literacy: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Jack; Sizmur, Juliet; Ager, Rob; Styles, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The project, "Oxford Improving Numeracy and Literacy Programme," was delivered by Oxford University Department of Education. This evaluation tested two different initiatives with Year 2 children: "Mathematics and Reasoning" and "Literacy and Morphemes." The "Mathematics and Reasoning" programme aimed to…

  17. Grammar for Writing: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, David; Torgerson, Carole; Mitchell, Natasha; Buckley, Hannah; Ainsworth, Hannah; Heaps, Clare; Jefferson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The Grammar for Writing intervention is a curriculum intervention aimed at improving writing skills by providing contextualised grammar teaching. This evaluation was set up as an effectiveness trial to test the impact of a four-week version of Grammar for Writing, delivered with the developer leading the recruitment and retention of the schools…

  18. Tutoring with Alphie: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggart, Andy; O'Hare, Liam; Miller, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Tutoring with Alphie is a computer-assisted programme that aims to improve the literacy skills of struggling readers. The programme combines elements of collaborative (or 'cooperative') learning, computer-assisted instruction and small group support. Participating pupils are grouped in pairs and follow a series of activities that seek to improve…

  19. Evaluation of Guidelines for Subgrade Treatments : Executive Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Wet, unstable subgrade soil conditions are often encountered during new or reconstruction projects. The problems are often unidentified during plan development stage. Once the existing pavement is removed, the unstable subgrade must be modified or re...

  20. Maternal nutrition and optimal infant feeding practices: executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Kalhan, Satish C; Hay, William W

    2007-02-01

    Much recent attention has been paid to the effect of the fetal environment on not only healthy birth outcomes but also long-term health outcomes, including a role as an antecedent to adult diseases. A major gap in our understanding of these relations, however, is the effect of maternal nutrition and nutrient transport on healthy fetal growth and development. In addition, this gap precludes evidence-based recommendations about how to best feed preterm infants. The biological role of the mother and the effect of her nutritional status on infant feeding extend to postnatal infant feeding practices. Currently, evidence is incomplete about not only the composition of human milk, but also the maternal nutritional needs to support extended lactation and the appropriate nutrient composition of foods that will be used to complement breastfeeding at least through the first year of life. Consequently, a conference, organized by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements, and the US Department of Agriculture Children's Nutrition Research Center was held to explore current knowledge and develop a research agenda to address maternal nutrition and infant feeding practices. These proceedings contain presentations about the effect of maternal nutrition and the placental environment on fetal growth and birth outcomes, as well as issues pertaining to feeding preterm and full-term infants.

  1. Ecosystem stressors in southern Nevada [Chapter 2] (Executive Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton K. Pendleton; Jeanne C. Chambers; Matthew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada ecosystems are subject to a number of stressors that range in scope from local to regional to global. At the regional scale, human population growth and related activities constitute a major stressor. Nevada has undergone significant change due to unprecedented population growth and ongoing global change processes. Nevada’s growth rate has been the...

  2. Safe use of mine winding rope, volume 1: executive summary.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hecker, GFK

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available economical winding operations. Investigation in this regard was undertaken by the CSIR on behalf of the Chamber of mines. These studies were guided by steering committee on factor of safety of winder ropes and were completed just before SIMRAC system...

  3. Site Annual Environmental Report for 1997 - Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, A.H.; Althouse, P.E; Brandstetter, E.R.; Christofferson, E.C.; Fields, B.C.; Gallegos, G.M.; Garcia, L.M.; Harrach, R.J.; Larson, J.M.; Tate, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Environmental Report 1997 is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as required by DOE Order 5400.1 and DOE Order 231.1, by the Environmental Protection Department (EPD) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The results of LLNL's environmental monitoring and compliance effort and an assessment of the impact of LLNL operations on the environment and the public are presented in this publication

  4. Intelligent transportation systems national investment and market analysis : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The United States transportation system is unparalleled. Yet, today, the system is straining to meet the growing demand for transportation. Planners are faced with increasing congestion, limited funds, equally limited rights-of-way, and concern fo...

  5. [Fibrates therapy: Rational use fenofibrate 2016. Executive summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brea, Angel; Millán, Jesús; Ascaso, Juan F; Blasco, Mariano; Díaz, Angel; González-Santos, Pedro; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Mantilla, Teresa; Pedro-Botet, Juan C; Pintó, Xavier

    To control lipid factors risk, beyond proper management of LDL cholesterol according to individual risk, detection and treatment of atherogenic dyslipidemia and abnormal levels of triglycerides or HDL cholesterol it should be considered for address a global cardiovascular protection, both in primary and secondary prevention. In this sense, these recommendations collect data on efficacy and safety about the combination statin with fibrates, often necessary for total control of dyslipidemia, particularly in patients with metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome or visceral obesity. Reference to control and monitoring of treatment is also done, as well as benefits of fenofibrate not linked directly to their lipid-lowering effect. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. 10161 Executive Summary -- Decision Procedures in Software, Hardware and Bioware

    OpenAIRE

    Bjorner, Nikolaj; Nieuwenhuis, Robert; Veith, Helmut; Voronkov, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of the seminar Decision Procedures in Soft, Hard and Bio-ware was to bring together renowned as well as young aspiring researchers from two groups. The first group formed by researchers who develop both theory and efficient implementations of decision procedures. The second group comprising of researchers from application areas such as program analysis and testing, crypto-analysis, hardware verification, industrial planning and scheduling, and bio-inform...

  7. Clinical Practice Guideline: Otitis Media with Effusion Executive Summary (Update).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Richard M; Shin, Jennifer J; Schwartz, Seth R; Coggins, Robyn; Gagnon, Lisa; Hackell, Jesse M; Hoelting, David; Hunter, Lisa L; Kummer, Ann W; Payne, Spencer C; Poe, Dennis S; Veling, Maria; Vila, Peter M; Walsh, Sandra A; Corrigan, Maureen D

    2016-02-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation has published a supplement to this issue of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery featuring the updated "Clinical Practice Guideline: Otitis Media with Effusion." To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 18 recommendations developed emphasize diagnostic accuracy, identification of children who are most susceptible to developmental sequelae from otitis media with effusion, and education of clinicians and patients regarding the favorable natural history of most otitis media with effusion and the lack of efficacy for medical therapy (eg, steroids, antihistamines, decongestants). An updated guideline is needed due to new clinical trials, new systematic reviews, and the lack of consumer participation in the initial guideline development group. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  8. Vulnerability of the Nordic power system. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Kjoeelle, Gerd; Uhlen, Kjetil; Huse, Einar Staale; Flataboe, Nils

    2004-05-01

    The objective of the analysis is to identify the vulnerability of the Nordic power system, identify barriers to reduce vulnerability in a Nordic context and to propose possible actions. The study focuses on vulnerability with respect to energy shortage, capacity shortage and power system failures. Vulnerability is defined with respect to the unwanted situations ''High prices'', ''Curtailment'' and ''Blackouts''. The main tool of the study is risk analysis, where risk is a result of the probability of an event and its consequences. With respect to energy shortage, the system is in a medium risk state. For the present system the probability of a situation like the 2002/03 winter or considerably worse is once every ten years. Under the assumption that power production increases with increasing demand, the situation will be similar towards 2010. In the opposite case, the risk of extremely high prices increases. With respect to capacity shortage, the system is in a low risk state. This is partly due to actions already taken by the TSOs. The risk state will slightly deteriorate towards 2010. With respect to blackouts, the system is in a medium risk state. This is due to the fact that large blackouts in Southern Scandinavia cannot be completely ruled out. Such blackouts involve many consumers resulting in major or potentially even critical consequences. However this is not different from the situation before deregulation. There are no indications that the situation will become worse towards 2010, but there is uncertainty with regard to the effect of changed maintenance routines. Reductions in qualified technical personnel also gives reason for concern. The study identifies significant differences between the Nordic countries with respect to the framework for transmission system investment, system balancing, rules and price setting in the case of curtailment, congestion management and the handling of import and export. Recommended actions include reduction of regulatory uncertainty with respect to generation investment, improving demand elasticity, reducing the impact of high prices on specially exposed consumer groups, improving the framework for grid expansion, improve system monitoring and protection and operator training and increased research and development within power systems. (author)

  9. Energy Technology Perspectives 2012: Executive Summary [French version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) is the International Energy Agency’s most ambitious publication on new developments in energy technology. It demonstrates how technologies – from electric vehicles to smart grids – can make a decisive difference in achieving the objective of limiting the global temperature rise to 2°C and enhancing energy security. ETP 2012 presents scenarios and strategies to 2050, with the aim of guiding decision makers on energy trends and what needs to be done to build a clean, secure and competitive energy future.

  10. ARIA 2016 Executive Summary Integrated care pathways for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An App (Android and iOS) is available in 20 countries and 15 languages. It uses a visual analogue scale to assess symptom control and work productivity as well as a clinical decision support system. It is associated with an inter-operable tablet for physicians and other health care professionals. The scaling up strategy uses ...

  11. Green technological foresight on environmental friendly agriculture: Executive summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, K.; Christensen, S.; Jørgensen, U.

    2005-01-01

    manifested. The foresight makes the decision-makers more aware of those challenges and possibilities that exist in the long-term. The foresight is in this case carried out in dialogue with a widely combined panel ofexperts and agricultural players, where one has placed the environmental challenges......Risø and the co-operators have on behalf of the Forest and Nature Agency completed a technological foresight on environmentally friendly agriculture based on green technologies. A technological foresight is a systematic dialogue on how one prepares forfuture challenges, which have not yet......, and The Co-operative Retail and Wholesale Society of Denmark. The purpose has been to thoroughly examinethose environmental challenges which agriculture is up against in the future - and point towards technological and structural solutions as to how agriculture will develop from 2004 to 2024 with dialogue...

  12. Small modular biopower initiative Phase 1 feasibility studies executive summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, R.

    2000-03-06

    The Phase 1 objective is a feasibility study that includes a market assessment, resource assessment, preliminary system design, and assessment of relevant environmental and safety considerations, and evaluation of financial and cost issues, and a preliminary business plan and commercialization strategy. Each participating company will share at least 20% of the cost of the first phase.

  13. Summer ecology of Indiana bats in Ohio : executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) is a small, tree roosting species found throughout the eastern United States that is federally listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Although their major hibernacula are protected, information on...

  14. Wind energy applications in agriculture: executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, M.L.; Buzenberg, R.J.; Glynn, E.F.; Johnson, G.L.; Shultis, J.K.; Wagner, J.P.

    1979-08-01

    This report presents an assessment of the potential use of wind turbine generator systems (WTGS) in US agriculture. In particular, this report presents the number of WTGS's economically feasible for use in US agriculture and the conditions which yielded economic feasibility of WTGS's for certain agricultural applications. In addition, for each case, i.e., set of assumed conditions, under which WTGS's were found to be economically feasible, this report identifies (1) the agricultural WTGS applications in terms of location, type and size (complete farm and dedicated-use applications); (2) the number of WTGS's by wind machine and generator size category; (3) aggregate energy conversion potential; and (4) other technical and economic WTGS performance data for particular applications. This report also describes the methodology, data and assumptions used for the analysis. A major part of the study was the development and use of a rigorous analytical system to assess an application's wind power generation and use potential.

  15. NEXT-100 Technical Design Report (TDR). Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, V; Cárcel, S; Cervera, A; Díaz, J; Ferrario, P; Borges, F I G M; Conde, C A N; Dias, T H V T; Fernandes, L M P; Carmona, J M; Castel, J; Cebrián, S; Dafni, T; Catalá, J M; Esteve, R; Chan, D; Egorov, M; Evtoukhovitch, P; Ferreira, A L; Ferrer-Ribas, E

    2012-01-01

    In this Technical Design Report (TDR) we describe the NEXT-100 detector that will search for neutrinoless double beta decay (ββ0ν) in 136 XE at the Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc (LSC), in Spain. The document formalizes the design presented in our Conceptual Design Report (CDR): an electroluminescence time projection chamber, with separate readout planes for calorimetry and tracking, located, respectively, behind cathode and anode. The detector is designed to hold a maximum of about 150 kg of xenon at 15 bar, or 100 kg at 10 bar. This option builds in the capability to increase the total isotope mass by 50% while keeping the operating pressure at a manageable level. The readout plane performing the energy measurement is composed of Hamamatsu R11410-10 photomultipliers, specially designed for operation in low-background, xenon-based detectors. Each individual PMT will be isolated from the gas by an individual, pressure resistant enclosure and will be coupled to the sensitive volume through a sapphire window. The tracking plane consists in an array of Hamamatsu S10362-11-050P MPPCs used as tracking pixels. They will be arranged in square boards holding 64 sensors (8 × 8) with a 1-cm pitch. The inner walls of the TPC, the sapphire windows and the boards holding the MPPCs will be coated with tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB), a wavelength shifter, to improve the light collection.

  16. Long term monitoring of moisture under pavements : executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The research : program consisted of three : distinct : activities. The first activity was a continuation of : the monitoring of environmental instrumentation : under select pavement sections constructed by the : Ohio Department of Transportation (ODO...

  17. Long term striping alternatives for bridge decks : executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    ODOT uses a number of pavement marking : materials including waterborne and alkyd traffic paint, : polyester, thermoplastic, preformed tapes, epoxy, and : heat-fused preformed thermoplastic; which are : addressed in ODOT Construction and Material : S...

  18. Proceedings of the Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, C. P.; Whipple, E. C., Jr.; Stevens, N. J.; Minges, M. L.; Lehn, W. L.; Bunn, M. H.

    1977-01-01

    Aerospace environments are reviewed in reference to spacecraft charging. Modelling, a theoretical scheme which can be used to describe the structure of the sheath around the spacecraft and to calculate the charging currents within, is discussed. Materials characterization is considered for experimental determination of the behavior of typical spacecraft materials when exposed to simulated geomagnetic substorm conditions. Materials development is also examined for controlling and minimizing spacecraft charging or at least for distributing the charge in an equipotential manner, using electrical conductive surfaces for materials exposed to space environment.

  19. Studies on Monitoring and Tracking Genetic Resources: An Executive Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrity, GM; Thompson, LM; Ussery, David

    2009-01-01

    such resources are located and to mutually agreed terms regarding the sharing of benefits that could be derived from such access. One issue of particular concern for pro-vider countries is how to monitor and track genetic resources once they have left the provider country and enter into use in a variety of forms...

  20. On the Path to SunShot - Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-05-01

    The halfway mark of the SunShot Initiative’s 2020 target date is a good time to take stock: How much progress has been made? What have we learned? What barriers and opportunities must still be addressed to ensure that solar technologies achieve cost parity in 2020 and realize their full potential in the decades beyond? To answer these questions, the Solar Energy Technology Office launched the On the Path to SunShot series in early 2015 in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and with contributions from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The reports focus on the areas of technology development, systems integration, and market enablers.