Finney, Glen R; Minagar, Alireza; Heilman, Kenneth M
Assessing the mental status of patients with a neurobehavioral disorder is a critical element in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. This assessment should always be performed after the patient's history it taken and a general physical as well as a neurologic examination is completed. The mental status examination commences with observing the patient's appearance and level of consciousness. The examiner should also pay attention to patient's social behavior, emotional state and mood. There are 3 major means of assessing a patient's mental status. One type attempts to determine if the patient is demented and the severity of the dementia as it pertains to their ability to perform activities of daily living as well as instrumental activities. A second type of assessment utilizes what may be termed as "screening tests" or "omnibus tests". These brief tests are performed independent of the patient's history and examination. The two most frequently used screening tests are the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The third means of assessing a patient's mental status is by using specific neuropsychological tests that focus on specific domains of cognition, such as frontal executive functions, attention, episodic verbal and visuospatial memory, declarative knowledge such as language (speech, reading and writing) and arithmetical, as well as visuospatial and perceptual abilities. These neurobehavioral, neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological assessments of patients with a cognitive decline and behavioral abnormalities should often be accompanied by laboratory tests, and neuroimaging that can help determine the underlying pathologic process so that effective therapeutic and management approaches can be provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rowcliffe, A.F.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Robertson, J.P.
The current status of reactor irradiation experiments is presented in tables summarizing the experimental objectives, conditions, and schedule. Currently, the program has four irradiation experiments in reactor, and five experiments in the design or construction stages. Postirradiation examination and testing is in progress on ten experiments
Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling
Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with heal...
The integrated program for completing the integrity assessments of the dangerous waste tank systems managed by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Division of Westinghouse Hanford Company is presented in the Tank Waste Remediation System Tank System Integrity Assessments Program Plan, WHC-SD-AP017, Rev. 1. The program plan identified the assessment requirements and the general scope to which these requirements applied. Some of these assessment requirements have been met and others are either in process of completion or scheduled to be worked. To define the boundary of the double-shell tank (DST) system and the boundaries of the DST system components (or system parts) for the purpose of performing integrity assessment activities; To identify the planned activities to meet the assessment requirements for each component; Provide the status of the assessment activities; and Project a five year assessment activity schedule
Panigrahi, Ansuman; Padhy, Aditya Prasad; Panigrahi, Madhulita
Mental health is a major public health concern worldwide. This study aimed to assess the mental health status and its correlates among married working women residing in Bhubaneswar city of Odisha, India. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 240 households involving 240 married working women following a multistage cluster random sampling design. Using the predesigned, pretested interview schedule and self-reporting questionnaire, all relevant information was collected. Our study revealed ...
Norder-Kuper, Giny; van der Ben, Claartje A; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Heymans, Martijn W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Bultmann, Ute
Background: Mental disorders are increasing and account for one-third of all disability benefits in OECD countries. This study investigated the work status after mental sickness absence (SA). Methods: Five-year longitudinal cohort study of 6678 male production workers. Work status, work schedule and
Mayer, Gregory Lee
It was the goal of this study to examine the ecological validity of a number of measures of mental status for geriatric individuals. Subjects were 40 alert, ambulatory male VA patients. Mental status instruments included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) and the Vocabulary subtest of the WAIS-R. Measures of functional behavior included the Woodcock-Johnson Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB) and the Parachek Geriatric Behavior Rating Scale (PGBRS). Sig...
BERTHELSEN, Mona; PALLESEN, Ståle; BJORVATN, Bjørn; KNARDAHL, Stein
The purpose of the present study was to answer the following research questions: (1) Do workers in different shift schedules differ in mental distress? (2) Do workers in different shift schedules differ in neuroticism? (3) Do shift schedules differ in psychosocial work exposures? (4) Do psychosocial work exposures contribute to mental distress among onshore- and offshore workers? (5) Does neuroticism confound the association between work exposures and mental distress? Workers on six shift-schedules answered a questionnaire (1,471 of 2,628 employees). Psychological and social work factors were measured by QPSNordic, mental distress was measured by HADS and neuroticism was measured by EPQ. The results showed 1) No differences in mental distress between workers in different shift schedules, 2) Revolving-shift workers reported higher neuroticism compared to day workers, 3) Swing-shift workers and revolving-shift workers reported lower job control compared to permanent-night and -day workers, 4) Job demands and role conflict were associated with more mental distress. Job control, role clarity, support, and leadership were associated with lower mental distress, 5) Neuroticism influenced the relationship between psychosocial work factors and mental distress. The present study did not find differences in mental distress between shift schedules. Job characteristics may be contributing factors when determining health effects of shift work. PMID:25740007
Full Text Available Mental health is a major public health concern worldwide. This study aimed to assess the mental health status and its correlates among married working women residing in Bhubaneswar city of Odisha, India. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 240 households involving 240 married working women following a multistage cluster random sampling design. Using the predesigned, pretested interview schedule and self-reporting questionnaire, all relevant information was collected. Our study revealed that 32.9% of study respondents had poor mental health and only about 10% of these women had sought any kind of mental health services. Logistic regression analysis showed that 3 predictors such as favourable attitude of colleagues, sharing their own problems with husband, and spending time for yoga/meditation/exercise had significant positive impact on the mental health status of married working women. A preventive program regarding various aspects of mental health for married working women at workplace as well as community level could be a useful strategy in reducing this public health problem.
Panigrahi, Ansuman; Padhy, Aditya Prasad; Panigrahi, Madhulita
Mental health is a major public health concern worldwide. This study aimed to assess the mental health status and its correlates among married working women residing in Bhubaneswar city of Odisha, India. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 240 households involving 240 married working women following a multistage cluster random sampling design. Using the predesigned, pretested interview schedule and self-reporting questionnaire, all relevant information was collected. Our study revealed that 32.9% of study respondents had poor mental health and only about 10% of these women had sought any kind of mental health services. Logistic regression analysis showed that 3 predictors such as favourable attitude of colleagues, sharing their own problems with husband, and spending time for yoga/meditation/exercise had significant positive impact on the mental health status of married working women. A preventive program regarding various aspects of mental health for married working women at workplace as well as community level could be a useful strategy in reducing this public health problem.
McCauley, Claire-Odile; McKenna, Hugh; Keeney, Sinead; McLaughlin, Derek
The aim of this study was to co-create of an interview schedule exploring mental health recovery in collaboration with young adult service users. Service user involvement in research has been increasingly recognized as providing a vital authentic insight into mental health recovery. Engagement and collaboration with service users have facilitated the exploration of inaccessible or under-investigated aspects of the lived experience of mental health recovery, not only directing the trajectory of research, but making it relevant to their own contextual experience. A qualitative content analysis framework was employed in the co-creation of a semi-structured interview schedule through an engagement process with service users. Two separate engagement groups took place at the premises of the service user organizations, between January - February 2014. Miles and Huberman's analysis framework was chosen for this phase as it enabled the visual presentation of factors, concepts or variables and the established relationship between them. The lived experience of mental ill health in young adulthood and how this was understood by others was a particularly relevant theme for participants. Further themes were identified between the impact of painful experiences at this developmental life stage leading to a deeper understanding of others through finding meaning in their own mental health recovery journey. Our findings identified that suffering painful experiences is an integral aspect in the process of mental health recovery. This understanding has particular relevance to mental health nursing practice, ensuring the care delivered is cognizant of the suffering or painful experiences that young adults are encountering. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Fukuda, Sanae; Hayakawa, Kazuo
The relations between salivary variables, lifestyle and mental health status were investigated for 61 healthy female university students. The salivary secretion rates were significantly higher in the good lifestyle groups compared with the poor lifestyle groups. Among the 8 lifestyle items tested. “eating breakfast” and “mental stress” were significantly related to the salivary secretion rates. The present findings suggest that the acquisition of a good lifestyle is also very important from t...
Ezoe, S; Morimoto, K
Lifestyle factors, sometimes associated with physical health and mortality, have also been known to be associated with mental health status. This study seeks to correlate behavioral lifestyles with major components of mental health among Japanese factory workers. We administered the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and a questionnaire concerning eight personal health practices to 2,132 male and 668 female factory workers at a camera-manufacturing company in Japan. There were strong negative relationships of a higher total number of favorable lifestyles as indicated by the Health Practice Index (HPI) to psychological distress and its components: somatic symptoms, anxiety-insomnia, and social dysfunction. After controlling for the effects of confounding factors that included age, marital status, and somatic condition, multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that five of the eight health factors among male workers--mental stress, nutritional balance, eating breakfast regularly, physical exercise, and working hours--were significantly related to the grade of psychological distress or its three components. Among female workers, five health practices, i.e., mental stress, physical exercise, sleeping hours, working hours, and cigarette smoking, were significantly associated with the grade of psychological distress or its three components. Good health practices might be individually and as a whole associated with better mental health status in factory workers.
Full Text Available Thalassemia major is a genetic blood disorder that is detected by the symptoms of chronic and severe anemia, enlarged liver and spleen, failure to thrive and bone deformities in particular deformed face and bulging forehead. Due to changes in physical appearance, the disease can influence on other aspects of the patient's life, so the disease can have a strong impact on the mental health of these patients and their families. Previous studies showed that 80% of patients with thalassemia major have at least one psychiatric disorder. The aim of this paper was to review the mental health status of patients with Beta-thalassemia major in Iran.
Sokolovic, Sekib; Dervisevic, Vedina; Fisekovic, Saida
A significant number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) link the start of illness with psychological trauma or severe stress. Impaired mental health (IMH), defined as depression and anxiety with psychoneuroimmunological factors, can play a significant role in RA. The main objective of this research was to investigate the mutual correlation of IMH and RA activity, estimated by the laboratory and clinical parameters in RA patients. An open clinical prospective study that lasted for 6 months was designed. There were 72 patients included, 58 women and 14 men, aged 34 to 80 years and screened for mental health status. The study population was randomized following the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI) scale, comprised of 53 questions with a range from 0 (no symptoms) to 4 (severe). This mental test was done only once during the study. Following the results from the BSI scale, RA patients were divided into mentally stable and mentally unstable patients to investigate the influence of RA activity on mental health. The following laboratory and clinical parameters were analyzed: sex, age, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), rheumatoid factor (RF), C-reactive protein (CRP), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody, and disease activity score (DAS28). All RA patients did not express extra-articular manifestations or Sjögren's syndrome. The chi-square test, ANOVA, Pearson's coefficient, and IBM Statistics - SPSS v19 were used. From a total of 72 RA patients, there were 44 mentally stable and 28 mentally unstable patients. All patients had either moderate or severe active disease. The only significant correlation of IMH and activity of RA was found in CRP and DAS28, but no significance was observed in ESR, RF, and anti-CCP. The DAS28 showed high disease activity with an average of 5.3 and CRP of 20.9 mg/L in patients with unstable mental health compared to stable mental health patients, where RA was associated with a moderate DAS average value of 4.35 and
Weir, Charlene; Gibson, Bryan; Taft, Teresa; Slager, Stacey; Lewis, Lacey; Staggers, Nancy
Delirium is a fluctuating disturbance of cognition and/or consciousness associated with poor outcomes. Caring for patients with delirium requires integration of disparate information across clinicians, settings and time. The goal of this project was to characterize the information processes involved in nurses' assessment, documentation, decisionmaking and communication regarding patients' mental status in the inpatient setting. VA nurse managers of medical wards (n=18) were systematically selected across the US. A semi-structured telephone interview focused on current assessment, documentation, and communication processes, as well as clinical and administrative decision-making was conducted, audio-recorded and transcribed. A thematic analytic approach was used. Five themes emerged: 1) Fuzzy Concepts, 2) Grey Data, 3) Process Variability 4) Context is Critical and 5) Goal Conflict. This project describes the vague and variable information processes related to delirium and mental status that undermine effective risk, prevention, identification, communication and mitigation of harm.
Dickerson, Faith B.; Brown, Clayton H.; Daumit, Gail L.; LiJuan, Fang; Goldberg, Richard W.; Wohlheiter, Karen; Dixon, Lisa B.
We examined indices of the health of persons with serious mental illness. A sample of 100 adults with schizophrenia and 100 with major mood disorder were recruited from randomly selected outpatients who were receiving community-based psychiatric treatment. Participants were surveyed about health indicators using items from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study III and the National Health Interview Survey. Their responses were compared with those of matched samples from the general population surveys. A total of 1% of persons with serious mental illness, compared with 10% from the general population sample, met criteria for all 5 of selected health indicators: nonsmoker, exercise that meets recommended standards, good dentition, absence of obesity, and absence of serious medical co-occurring illness. Within the mentally ill group, educational level, but not a diagnosis of schizophrenia versus mood disorder, was independently associated with a composite measure of health behaviors. We conclude that an examination of multiple health indicators may be used to measure overall health status in persons with serious mental illness. PMID:16469943
Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Fukuda, Sanae; Hayakawa, Kazuo
The relations between salivary variables, lifestyle and mental health status were investigated for 61 healthy female university students. The salivary secretion rates were significantly higher in the good lifestyle groups compared with the poor lifestyle groups. Among the 8 lifestyle items tested. "eating breakfast" and "mental stress" were significantly related to the salivary secretion rates. The present findings suggest that the acquisition of a good lifestyle is also very important from the viewpoint of the prevention of oral disease.A highly significant correlation (r=0.97; p<0.01) between the salivary cortisol levels and the cortisol secretion rates when controlled for the salivary secretion rates was also observed. This suggests that there is a high correlation between the intact salivary cortisol levels and the total cortisol quantity per unit time. Therefore, both these values can be used as a good index for the salivary cortisol determination.
Full Text Available The paper examines the issue of inconstancy and academic exclusion of the term mentality, which occur despite a long history of its being studied by several scholarly disciplines and a broad usage in various public spheres. Being of the opinion that, in the academic sense, the term mentality is like a sinking river - intermittently present and absent - the authoress reminds us of dominant paradigms of mentality studies, both the ones that use the term and those that rejected it, but nevertheless addressing it from the perspective of contemporary theoretical concepts and under different names. Apart from the academic exclusion, the necessity for developing a more adequate analytical approach lies in the instrumental-associative potentials of mentality-related contents in their political and propagandist usage, as well as in their adaptability to different forms and means of communication. In the opposite case, by avoiding themes and phenomena that are not in academic fashion, we deprive ourselves of the knowledge of the academic community that creates that fashion and the apparent status quo. Similarly, in case of ceasing to question narratives on mentality properties, we deprive ourselves of the knowledge of communities that create such narratives and their interest derived from the placement of such narratives.
Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zielasek, Jürgen; Reed, Geoffrey M
This review provides an overview of the concepts, methods and current status of the development of the Eleventh Revision of the Mental and Behavioural Disorders chapter of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11) by the World Health Organization (WHO). Given the global use of the current version (ICD-10) for a wide range of applications in clinical practice and health statistics, a major aim of the development process for ICD-11 has been to increase the utility of the classification system. Expert working groups with responsibility for specific disorder groupings first suggested a set of revised diagnostic guidelines. Then surveys were performed to obtain suggestions for revisions from practicing health professionals. A completely revised structure for the classification of mental and behavioural disorders was developed and major revisions were suggested, for example, for schizophrenia and other primary psychotic disorders, substance use disorders, affective disorders and personality disorders. A new category of "gaming disorder" has been proposed and conditions related to sexual health and gender identity will be classified separately from mental disorders. An ICD-11 beta draft is freely available on the internet and public comments are invited. Field studies of the revised diagnostic guidelines are in process to obtain additional information about necessary improvements. A tabulated crosswalk from previous ICD-10 to then ICD-11 criteria will be necessary to ascertain the continuity of diagnoses for epidemiological and other statistical purposes. The final version of ICD-11 is currently scheduled for release by the World Health Assembly in 2018.
Yampolskaya, Svetlana; Sharrock, Patty J; Clark, Colleen; Hanson, Ardis
This longitudinal study examined the parallel trajectories of mental health service use and mental health status among children placed in Florida out-of-home care. The results of growth curve modeling suggested that children with greater mental health problems initially received more mental health services. Initial child mental health status, however, had no effect on subsequent service provision when all outpatient mental health services were included. When specific types of mental health services, such as basic outpatient, targeted case management, and intensive mental health services were examined, results suggested that children with compromised functioning during the baseline period received more intensive mental health services over time. However, this increased provision of intensive mental health services did not improve mental health status, rather it was significantly associated with progressively worse mental health functioning. These findings underscore the need for regular comprehensive mental health assessments focusing on specific needs of the child.
Puerto Conesa, Pablo; Domingo Miguel, Rafael; Torres Sánchez, Roque; Pérez Pastor, Alejandro
In the Mediterranean area water is the main factor limiting crop production and therefore irrigation is essential to achieve economically viable yields. One of the fundamental techniques to ensure that irrigation water is managed efficiently with maximum productivity and minimum environmental impact is irrigation scheduling. The fact that the plant water status integrates atmospheric demand and soil water content conditions encourages the use of plant-based water status indicators. Some researchers have successfully scheduled irrigation in certain fruit trees by maintaining the maximum daily trunk diameter shrinkage (MDS) signal intensity at threshold values to generate (or not) water stress. However MDS not only depends on the climate and soil water content, but may be affected by tree factors such as age, size, phenological stage and fruit load. There is therefore a need to quantify the influence of these factors on MDS. The main objective of this work was to study the effects of crop load on tree water relations for scheduling purposes. We particularly focused on MDS vs VPD10-15 (mean air vapor pressure deficit during the period 10.00-15.00 h solar time) for different loads and phenological phases under non-limiting soil water conditions. The experiment was carried out in 2011 in a 1 ha plot in SE Spain with almond trees (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb cv. 'Marta'). Three crop load treatments were studied according to three crop load levels, i) T100, high crop load, characteristic crop load, ii) T50, medium crop load, in which 50% of the fruits were removed and iii) T0, practically without fruits. Fruits were manually thinned. Each treatment, randomly distributed in blocks, was run in triplicate. Plant water status was assessed from midday stem water potential (Ψs), MDS, daily trunk growth rate (TGR), leaf turgor potential Ψp, fruit water potential (Ψf), stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthesis (Pn) and transpiration rates (E). Yield, pruning weights and
Ahmadi Forooshany, Seyed Habiballah; Yazdkhasti, Fariba; Safari Hajataghaie, Saiede; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein
This study examined the causal model of relation between marital relation- ship status, happiness, and mental health in infertile individuals. In this descriptive study, 155 subjects (men: 52 and women: 78), who had been visited in one of the infertility Centers, voluntarily participated in a self-evaluation. Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital Status, Oxford Happiness Ques- tionnaire, and General Health Questionnaire were used as instruments of the study. Data was analyzed by SPSS17 and Amos 5 software using descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, and path analysis. Disregarding the gender factor, marital relationship status was directly related to happiness (phappiness was directly related to mental health, (phappiness and mental health was significant (phappiness had a mediator role in relation between marital relationship status and mental health in infertile individu- als disregarding the gender factor. Also, considering the gender factor, only in infertile women, marital relationship status can directly and indirectly affect happiness and mental health.
Andrey Mikhaylovich Bronnikov
Full Text Available In this article the authors consider the problem of simulating the process of a maintenance-free between scheduled maintenance aircraft system operational status changes, which failure during the flight leads to the disaster. On-board equipment with automatic self-repair between routine maintenance in the event the components fail is called maintenance-free. During operation, onboard equipment accumulates failures maintaining its functions with a safety level not lower than the required minimum. Trouble shooting is carried out either at the end of between-maintenance period (as a rule, or after the failure, which led to the functions disorder or to the decrease below the target level of flight safety (as an exception. The system contains both redundant and nonredundant units and elements with the known failure rates. The system can be in one of the three states: operable, extreme, failed. The excessive redundant elements allow the system to accumulate failures which are repaired during the routine maintenance. The process of system operational status changes is described with the discrete-continuous model in the flight time. Basing on the information about the probabilities of the on-board equipment being in an operable, extreme or failed state, it is possible to calculate such complex efficiency indicators as the average loss of sorties, the average operating costs, the expected number of emergency recovery operations and others. Numerical studies have been conducted to validate the proposed model. It is believed that maintenance work completely updates the system. The analysis of these indicators will allow to evaluate the maintenance-free aircraft equipment operation efficiency, as well as to make an effectiveness comparison with other methods of technical operation. The model can be also used to assess the technical operation systems performance. The model can be used to optimize the period between maintenance.
Oshio, Takashi; Inagaki, Seiichi
This article examines how initial job status following graduation affects the midlife outcomes and mental health of Japanese workers, using micro data from a nationwide online survey of 3,117 men and 2,818 women aged 30-60. The focus was the impact of initial job status on socioeconomic/marital status and mental health during the person's midlife period. It was found that failure to obtain regular employment at the time of graduation raised the probabilities of unstable job status throughout ...
Thornicroft, Graham; Deb, Tanya; Henderson, Claire
This paper aims to give an overview of the key issues facing those who are in a position to influence the planning and provision of mental health systems, and who need to address questions of which staff, services and sectors to invest in, and for which patients. The paper considers in turn: a) definitions of community mental health care; b) a conceptual framework to use when evaluating the need for hospital and community mental health care; c) the potential for wider platforms, outside the health service, for mental health improvement, including schools and the workplace; d) data on how far community mental health services have been developed across different regions of the world; e) the need to develop in more detail models of community mental health services for low‐ and middle‐income countries which are directly based upon evidence for those countries; f) how to incorporate mental health practice within integrated models to identify and treat people with comorbid long‐term conditions; g) possible adverse effects of deinstitutionalization. We then present a series of ten recommendations for the future strengthening of health systems to support and treat people with mental illness. PMID:27717265
6.89%). In 70.68% children no clinical syndrome was associated with mental retardation. 60.35% children were offspring of consanguineous marriages. In 63.8% children the causes for mental retardation were idiopathic, and genetic causes ...
Marx, John H.; Spray, S. Lee
Concludes that personal relations, professional experiences and occupational success form a network of relationships which integrate the occupational and nonoccupational roles of highly specialized practitioners. Part of a Study of Careers in the Mental Health Field, supported by National Institute of Mental Health Grant MH-09192 and directed by…
Page, Andrew; Taylor, Richard; Hall, Wayne; Carter, Gregory
The population attributable risk (PAR) of mental disorders compared to indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) for attempted suicide was estimated for Australia. For mental disorders, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide was for anxiety disorders (males 28%; females 36%). For SES, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide in males was for…
Lee, Hedwig; Turney, Kristin
A growing body of evidence suggests that experiences with discrimination have implications for mental health and that these associations may vary by social status. We use data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS) to examine how two types of perceived discrimination, chronic everyday discrimination and major lifetime discrimination, are linked to mental health, and how this association varies by race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Results indicate that everyday d...
van den Briel, T; West, C E; Bleichrodt, N; van de Vijver, F J; Ategbo, E A; Hautvast, J G
An adequate iodine supply in utero and shortly after birth is known to be crucial to an individual's physical and mental development. The question of whether iodine supplementation later in life can exert a favorable influence on the mental performance of iodine-deficient populations was addressed in various studies, but with contradictory results. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an improvement in iodine status on mental and psychomotor performance of schoolchildren (7-11 y) who were moderately to severely iodine deficient. The study, which was originally planned as a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention, was carried out in an iodine-deficient population of schoolchildren (n = 196) in northern Benin. As the population began to have access to iodized salt during the 1-y intervention period, the study population was split post hoc-on the basis of urinary iodine concentrations-into a group with improved iodine status and a group with unchanged iodine status. Changes in mental and psychomotor performance over the intervention period were compared. Children with increased urinary iodine concentrations had a significantly greater increase in performance on the combination of mental tests than did the group with no change in urinary iodine concentrations. An improvement in iodine status, rather than iodine status itself, determined mental performance in this population, which was initially iodine deficient. These findings suggest a "catch-up" effect in terms of mental performance.
Seyed Habiballah Ahmadi Forooshany
Full Text Available Background: This study examined the causal model of relation between marital relationship status, happiness, and mental health in infertile individuals. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 155 subjects (men: 52 and women: 78, who had been visited in one of the infertility Centers, voluntarily participated in a self-evaluation. Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital Status, Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and General Health Questionnaire were used as instruments of the study. Data was analyzed by SPSS17 and Amos 5 software using descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, and path analysis. Results: Disregarding the gender factor, marital relationship status was directly related to happiness (p<0.05 and happiness was directly related to mental health, (p<0.05. Also, indirect relation between marital relationship status and mental health was significant (p<0.05. These results were confirmed in women participants but in men participants only the direct relation between happiness and mental health was significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: Based on goodness of model fit in fitness indexes, happiness had a mediator role in relation between marital relationship status and mental health in infertile individuals disregarding the gender factor. Also, considering the gender factor, only in infertile women, marital relationship status can directly and indirectly affect happiness and mental health.
Ji, F L; Liu, Z M; Liu, Z S; Zou, J F; Yu, W L; Li, H M; Li, J; Kong, L M; Jiang, Q
Objective: To investigate the mental health status of railway female workers and related influencing factors, and to provide a scientific strategy for labor protection regulations in railway female workers. Methods: Cluster sampling was used to select 5033 female workers from Jinan, Nanning, Qinghai-Tibet, and Wuhan railway systems in China from January to August, 2016. A uniform reproductive health questionnaire, as well as the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) , was used to investigate their general information (age, marital status, education level, and family income) , work type (day shift, night shift, or work on shift) , work position, and the presence or absence of exposure to occupational hazardous factors. The score on each factor of SCL-90 and the positive rate of mental health status were calculated. Results: The positive rate of mental health status was 10.6% in railway female workers. The workers exposed to occupational hazardous factors had a significantly higher positive rate of mental health status than those not exposed to occupational hazardous factors (14.20% vs 8.02%, P mental health status between workers with different ages, marital status, education levels, histories of abortion, or annual family income levels ( P mental health problems ( OR =1.797, 95% CI : 1.393-2.318; OR =0.641, 95% CI : 0.498-0.827; OR =0.586, 95% CI : 0.439-0.783; OR =0.580, 95% CI : 0.378-0.890) . Conclusion: Railway female workers have lower levels of mental health than the general population and are under significant occupational stress. Exposure to occupational hazardous factors, night shift, overwork, and carrying heavy objects are associated with the development of mental health problems in railway female workers.
Arias-de la Torre, Jorge; Molina, Antonio J; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Artazcoz, Lucía; Martín, Vicente
To document the prevalence of poor mental health by gender and social class, and to analyze if poor mental health is associated with the family roles or the employment status inside and outside the household. A cross-sectional study based on a representative sample of the Spanish population was carried out (n = 14,247). Mental health was evaluated using GHQ-12. Employment status, marital status, family roles (main breadwinner and the person who mainly carries out the household work) and educational level were considered as explanatory variables. Multiple logistic regression models stratified by gender and social class were fitted and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were obtained. Gender and social class differences in the prevalence of poor mental health were observed. Unemployment was associated with higher prevalence. Among men the main breadwinner role was related to poor mental health mainly in those that belong to manual classes (aOR = 1.2). Among women, mainly among nonmanual classes, these problems were associated to marital status: widowed, separated or divorced (aOR = 1.9) and to dealing with the household work by themselves (aOR = 1.9). In Spain, gender and social class differences in mental health still exist. In addition, family roles and working situation, both inside and outside the household, could constitute a source of inequalities in mental health. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Erginer, Derya Kayar; Günüşen, Neslihan Partlak
The aim of this study is to determine the physical health status and healthy lifestyle behaviors of individuals with mental illness. A descriptive research design was used. The sample of the study consisted of 115 individuals with mental illness. The Health Lifestyle Behaviors Scale II was used to assess the healthy lifestyle behaviors of the participants. Of the individuals, 49.6% were found to have metabolic syndrome. Individuals with mental illness obtained the lowest score from the physical activity dimension of the scale. Individuals with mental illness need to receive education and support, especially in terms of nutrition and exercise. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Batista, Luciana Rodrigues Vieira; Moreira, Emilia Addison Machado; Rauen, Michelle Soares; Corso, Arlete Catarina Tittoni; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck
Association between oral health status and nutritional status was investigated in 200 semi-institutionalized persons with mental retardation aged 5-53 years, 45.5% female, in the cities of Florianopolis and Sao Jose, province of Santa Catarina, Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, clinical-odontological examination revealed a high percentage of…
Lee, Min-Ah; Kawachi, Ichiro
Socialising with higher-status individuals can be hypothesised to exert opposing influences on the mental health of the ego. On the one hand, socialising with higher-status alters might enable individuals to access valuable resources. On the other hand, status-discrepant friendships could be detrimental to mental health by engendering feelings of unfairness. We sought to examine the impact of status-discrepant social relationships on depressive symptoms in the 2012 Korean General Social Survey (KGSS), a nationally representative sample. We show that socialising with higher-status people is positively associated with depressive symptoms. There is no significant difference between those socialising with equivalent-status or with lower-status alters. Perceived unfairness also increase depressive symptoms. Respondents socialising with higher-status alters tend to report greater depressive symptoms as their perceived unfairness increases. Gender-stratified analyses reveal that the detrimental impact of status-discrepant relationships are observed for men only, not for women. These findings suggest that socialising with higher-status people can be a net detriment for mental wellbeing by increasing stress/frustration or decreasing psychological resources such as self-esteem, and that these effects are more pronounced for individuals who perceive that society is unfair. This pattern appears stronger for men, which might be associated with gender roles internalised through gender socialisation processes. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Maharlouei, Najmeh; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Ghaedsharaf, Esmaeil; Zolfi, Hosein; Arab, Parisa; Farahmand, Zahra; Hallaj, Mahbanoo; Fazilat, Shiva; Heidari, Sayed Taghi; Joulaei, Hassan; Karbalaie, Fatemeh; Lankarani, Kamran B
The prevalence of mental disorders in Iran approximates to that of other countries. This study evaluates mental health status and its related factors among underprivileged women in Shiraz, Iran. This research was conducted between June, 2010 and November, 2012, and comprised 2108 women who participated in the Shiraz Women's Health Cohort Study. The questionnaire used in the study was completed by trained general practitioner and included demographic information and the 28-item version of the General Health. The t-test, chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression model were used for statistical analysis. A P-value Health Questionnaire, the most prevalent mental disorder was social dysfunction observed in 1643 (77.9%) participants followed by somatic symptoms found in 1308 (62%) subjects. Mental disorders were most prevalent among married women (63.8%, P=0.004). Participants holding high school diploma or university degree (141; 52.4%) comprised the smallest proportion of subjects with mental disorders (P=0.01). Of a total 265 participants whose husband were in prison, 171 (64.5%) exhibited mental disorders, presenting the greatest proportion of women with mental disorders. Logistic regression analysis showed an association between mental health status and participants' level of education, number of children and marital status, based on the General Health Questionnaire total score. The results of this study showed a considerably higher prevalence of mental disorders among Iranian women in comparison with the general population. Therefore policymakers should pay greater attention to the mental health status of underprivileged Iranian women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lee, Hedwig; Turney, Kristin
A growing body of evidence suggests that experiences with discrimination have implications for mental health and that these associations may vary by social status. We use data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS) to examine how two types of perceived discrimination, chronic everyday discrimination and major lifetime discrimination, are linked to mental health, and how this association varies by race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Results indicate that everyday discrimination is generally independently linked to greater depressive symptoms, loneliness, and hostility across all social status groups. Major discrimination is not associated with depressive symptoms or loneliness after adjusting for a host of covariates, but is associated with hostility, especially for certain groups. These findings highlight the need to examine multiple indicators of discrimination and mental health, and to pay attention to both differences and similarities in these associations by social status.
The most survivors of disaster usually recover with few or no lasting effects on their mental health. However, in some portions of survivors, distress lasts long. The atomic bomb detonated to Nagasaki in August 1945 instantaneously destroyed almost all areas of the city, resulting in a total of ca. 73,884 deaths by the end of 1945 and about 74,909 injured people. Since the A-bomb survivors reached over 60 years of age, their mental health as well as physical health has become of great concern. Some studies on their mental health conditions have been carried out in Japan. I give an outline about a precedent study on mental health of the A-bomb survivors in this report. The mental health studies of the A-bomb survivors who paid attention to a being bombed experience, stigmatization, long-term outcome, recovery are necessary. The improvement of wide appropriate support system for the A-bomb survivors is expected in future. (author)
Scott, Kate M; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Andrade, Laura H; Borges, Guilherme; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Fiestas, Fabian; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Lim, Carmen C W; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Torres, Yolanda; Williams, David R; Zakhozha, Victoria; Kessler, Ronald C
The inverse social gradient in mental disorders is a well-established research finding with important implications for causal models and policy. This research has used traditional objective social status (OSS) measures, such as educational level, income, and occupation. Recently, subjective social status (SSS) measurement has been advocated to capture the perception of relative social status, but to our knowledge, there have been no studies of associations between SSS and mental disorders. To estimate associations of SSS with DSM-IV mental disorders in multiple countries and to investigate whether the associations persist after comprehensive adjustment of OSS. Face-to-face cross-sectional household surveys of community-dwelling adults in 18 countries in Asia, South Pacific, the Americas, Europe, and the Middle East (N=56,085). Subjective social status was assessed with a self-anchoring scale reflecting respondent evaluations of their place in the social hierarchies of their countries in terms of income, educational level, and occupation. Scores on the 1 to 10 SSS scale were categorized into 4 categories: low (scores 1-3), low-mid (scores 4-5), high-mid (scores 6-7), and high (scores 8-10). Objective social status was assessed with a wide range of fine-grained objective indicators of income, educational level, and occupation. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed the 12-month prevalence of 16 DSM-IV mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. The weighted mean survey response rate was 75.2% (range, 55.1%-97.2%). Graded inverse associations were found between SSS and all 16 mental disorders. Gross odds ratios (lowest vs highest SSS categories) in the range of 1.8 to 9.0 were attenuated but remained significant for all 16 disorders (odds ratio, 1.4-4.9) after adjusting for OSS indicators. This pattern of inverse association between SSS and mental disorders was significant in 14 of 18 individual countries, and in low-, middle-, and high
Conclusion: Cardiovascular and lipid profile and fitness, important indicators of cardiovascular disease risk, worsened as weight status increased, whereas quality of life appears to be independent of weight status. Exercise and nutritional programs focus on weight management may be advisable in this under studied ...
Buist-Bouwman, M. A.; Ormel, J.; De Graaf, R.; Vilagut, G.; Alonso, J.; Van Sonderen, E.; Vollebergh, W. A. M.
This study assessed the factor structure, internal consistency, and discriminatory validity of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) version used in the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD). In total 8796 adults were assessed using the
Ahmadi Forooshany, Seyed Habiballah; Yazdkhasti, Fariba; Safari Hajataghaie, Saiede; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein
Background This study examined the causal model of relation between marital relation- ship status, happiness, and mental health in infertile individuals. Materials and Methods In this descriptive study, 155 subjects (men: 52 and women: 78), who had been visited in one of the infertility Centers, voluntarily participated in a self-evaluation. Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital Status, Oxford Happiness Ques- tionnaire, and General Health Questionnaire were used as instruments of the study. Data was analyzed by SPSS17 and Amos 5 software using descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, and path analysis. Results Disregarding the gender factor, marital relationship status was directly related to happiness (phappiness was directly related to mental health, (phappiness and mental health was significant (phappiness had a mediator role in relation between marital relationship status and mental health in infertile individu- als disregarding the gender factor. Also, considering the gender factor, only in infertile women, marital relationship status can directly and indirectly affect happiness and mental health. PMID:25379161
Bruna Kulik Hassan
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if maternal mental health is associated with infant nutritional status at six month of age. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 228 six-month-old infants who used primary health care units of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Mean weight-for-length and mean weight-for-age were expressed in z-scores considering the 2006 World Health Organization reference curves. Maternal mental health was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The following cutoff points were used: ≥ 3 for common mental disorders, ≥ 5 for more severe mental disorders, and ≥ 9 for depression. The statistical analysis employed adjusted linear regression models. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders, more severe mental disorders and depression was 39.9%, 23.7%, and 8.3%, respectively. Children of women with more severe mental disorders had, on average, a weight-for-length 0.37 z-scores lower than children of women without this health harm (p = 0.026. We also observed that the weight-for-length indicator of children of depressed mothers was, on average, 0.67 z-scores lower than that of children of nondepressed women (p = 0.010. Maternal depression was associated with lower mean values of weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.041. CONCLUSIONS Maternal mental health is positively related to the inadequacy of the nutritional status of infants at six months.
Alvarez-del Arco, Debora; del Amo, Julia; Garcia-Pina, Rocio; Garcia-Fulgueiras, Ana Maria; Rodriguez-Arenas, M Angeles; Ibañez-Rojo, Vicente; Díaz-del Peral, Domingo; Jarrin, Inma; Fernandez-Liria, Alberto; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Garcia-Ortuzar, Visitación; Mazarrasa, Lucia; Llacer, Alicia
The aim of this study was to describe perceived abuse in adult Spanish and Ecuadorian women and men and to assess its association with mental health. A population-based survey was conducted in Spain in 2006. Data were taken from a probabilistic sample allowing for an equal number of men and women, Spaniards and Ecuadorians. Mental disorder was measured with the General Health Questionnaire-28. The nine questions on exposure to physical, sexual, and psychological abuse during the previous year were self-administered. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between exposure to abuse and poor mental health, adjusting for potential confounders. The sample was composed of 1,059 individuals aged 18 to 54, 104 of whom reported physical, psychological, or sexual abuse. Some 6% refused to answer the questions on abuse. Overall, reported abuse ranged from 13% in Ecuadorian women to 5% in Spanish men. Psychological abuse was the most frequent. Half the abused women, both Spanish and Ecuadorian, reported intimate partner violence (IPV), as did 22% of abused men. Poor mental health was found in 61% of abused Spanish women (adjusted Odds Ratio [ORa] = 5.1; 95% CI: 1.8-14.4), and 62% abused Ecuadorian women (ORa = 4; 95% CI: 2-7.9), in 36% of abused Spanish men (ORa = 3; 95% CI: 0.9-10.7) and in 30% abused Ecuadorian men (ORa = 2.8; 95% CI: 1-7.7). Interpersonal violence is frequent in relations with the partner, the family, and outside the family, and it seriously affects the mental health. Ecuadorian women stand out as the most vulnerable group.
Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kokaze, Akatsuki; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Nanri, Hinako; Ohida, Takashi
The purposes of this study were to evaluate the mental health status of Japanese medical students and to examine differences based on gender, as well as on university type and location, using the results of a nationwide survey. Between December 2006 and March 2007, we conducted a questionnaire survey among fourth-year medical students at 20 randomly selected medical schools in Japan. The data from 1,619 students (response rate: 90.6%; male: 1,074; female: 545) were analyzed. We used the Japanese version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to measure mental health status. Poor mental health status (GHQ-12 score of 4 points or higher) was observed in 36.6% and 48.8% of the male and female medical students, respectively. The ratio of the age-adjusted prevalence of poor mental health status in female versus male medical students was 1.33 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.62). The universities were categorized into two groups based on the university type (national/public: 15 vs. private: 5) or location (in a large city: 7 vs. in a local city: 13 cities). The prevalence of poor mental health status in both men and women differed between these groups, although not significantly. The GHQ-12 scores in men significantly differed between the categorized groups of universities. These results suggest that adequate attention must be paid to the mental health of medical students, especially females, and that a system for providing mental health care for medical students must be established in the context of actual conditions at each university.
Varambally, Shivarama; Gangadhar, B N
Yoga (derived from 'yuj' which means to yoke together or unite) has been used for millennia as a tool for self-improvement, with the ultimate goal of uniting the individual consciousness with the universal. The physical elements of yoga, although seen as necessary in the path to achieve the goal, they were not considered as the endpoint for a practitioner. Sage Patanjali, who codified the practices into an eight-limbed model (Ashtanga yoga) in the Patanjali Yoga Sutras, makes it clear that the target of yoga is primarily the mind. However, in the modern world, yoga practices have become immensely popular as aids to improve health. Yoga-based practices are being extensively used as therapeutic ingredients, alone or as adjuncts to other therapies in a variety of disorders, both physical and mental. There is now strong evidence to suggest that yoga-based interventions are beneficial in several lifestyle disorders. Recent research has also shown significant benefits in mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, and psychosis. This paper discusses the place of yoga as one of the therapeutic strategies in the holistic approach to mental disorders, and the challenges inherent to research in this area.
Stienen, Martin N; Smoll, Nicolas R; Joswig, Holger; Snagowski, Jan; Corniola, Marco V; Schaller, Karl; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Gautschi, Oliver P
The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test has recently been proposed as a simple and standardized measure for objective functional impairment (OFI) in patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD). The study aimed to explore the relationship between a patient's mental health status and both patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and TUG test results. This is a prospective institutional review board-approved two-center study. The sample was composed of 375 consecutive patients scheduled for lumbar spine surgery and a healthy cohort of 110 control subjects. Patients and control subjects were assessed with the TUG test and a comprehensive panel of subjective PROMs of pain intensity (visual analog scale [VAS]), functional impairment (Roland-Morris Disability Index [RMDI]), Oswestry Disability Index [ODI]), as well as health-related quality of life (hrQoL; Euro-Qol [EQ]-5D). Standardized age- and sex-adjusted TUG test T-scores were calculated. The dependent variable was the short-form (SF)-12 mental component summary (MCS) quartiles, and the independent variables were the TUG T-scores and PROMs. Direct and adjusted analyses of covariance were performed to estimate the interaction between the SF-12 MCS quartiles and the independent variables. In patients, there was a significant decrease in the subjective PROMs, notably the VAS back pain (p=.001) and VAS leg pain (p=.035), as well as significant increase in the RMDI (pmental hrQoL on subjective measures of pain, functional impairment, and hrQoL that might lead to bias when evaluating patients with lumbar DDD who suffer from reduced mental hrQoL. The TUG test appears to be a stable instrument and especially helpful in the evaluation of patients with lumbar DDD and mental health problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Germain, Shawn St. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thomas, Kenneth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Farris, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
optimally deployed with the least amount of delay and unproductive use of resources. The remaining sections of this report describe in more detail the scheduling challenges that occur during outages, how a Micro-Scheduling capability helps address those challenges, and provides a status update on work accomplished to date and the path forward.
Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Bagheri Yazdi, Seyed Abbas; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Kamali, Koorosh; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Hajebi, Ahmad; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Esalatmanesh, Sophia; Bagheri Yazdi, HanihalSadat; Abbasinejad, Maryam; Asadi, Ali
The main objective of this study was to compare the results of mental health surveys on adult populations of all provinces in Iran, between 1999 and 2015. This study was an overview of two cross-sectional, descriptive studies that were performed in 1999 and 2015. The study population of these two studies consisted of urban and rural residents of all provinces in Iran. Samples were recruited by systematic random cluster sampling. In both studies, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) was used to assess mental health status of respondents. Trained psychologists completed questionnaires, and data were analyzed using SPSS software-18. The results showed that in the survey of 1999, 21% of participants suffered from mental disorders (25.9% of females and 14.9% of males). In the survey of 2015, 23.4% of samples were suspected of having mental disorders (27.6% of females and 19.3% of males). The prevalence of mental disorders increased from 1999 to 2014 by about 1.12 fold (1.06 fold in females and 1.3 fold in males). In the survey of 1999, rural residents were more at risk of mental disorders, while in the survey of 2015, urban residents were more prone to mental disorders. In both studies, the risk of suspicion for mental disorders increased with increasing age, and was higher in people aged 65 and above, as well as widowed, divorced and illiterate individuals. The results of this study showed an increase in suspected cases of mental disorders in Iran from 1999 to 2015. Therefore, it is vital for policymakers and health officials to take action in order to improve and maintain mental health status of the people who are at risk in the country.
Interrelationship between autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic (ADOS-G), autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R), and the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR) classification in children and adolescents with mental retardation
de Bildt, A; Sytema, S; Ketelaars, C; Kraijer, D; Mulder, E; Volkmar, F; Minderaa, R
The interrelationship between the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) and clinical classification was studied in 184 children and adolescents with Mental Retardation (MR). The agreement between the ADI-R and ADOS-G was fair, with a
Interrelationship between Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) Classification in Children and Adolescents with Mental Retardation
de Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Ketelaars, Cees; Kraijer, Dirk; Mulder, Erik; Volkmar, Fred; Minderaa, Ruud
The interrelationship between the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) and clinical classification was studied in 184 children and adolescents with Mental Retardation (MR). The agreement between the ADI-R and ADOS-G was fair, with a substantial difference between younger and older…
Devin Hassan Fahim
Full Text Available Quality of Work Life (QWL is a multi-dimensional concept that covers employees’ feelings about various dimensions of work. The current study focused on QWL that can contribute to the mental health status and Organisation-Based Self-Esteem (OBSE of employees in context of sport organisation in Iran. In this descriptive–correlative study, data was collected using three standard questionnaires: Goldberg’s (1978 General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, Pierce, Gardner, Cummings and Dunham's (1989 OBSE scale, and Walton’s (1975 QWL questionnaire. The statistical sample of the study consisted of 67 (53 male, 14 female employees of sport and youth organisations of the Northern Khorasan Province of Iran. The alpha value for mental health, OBSE and QWL questionnaires were, respectively, 0.82, 0.80, 0.79. QWL was significantly correlated with mental health status and self-esteem of employees. Thus, it can be concluded that mental health and self-esteem of employees depend on how these employees perceive QWL in organisations. Among QWL subscales, fair and adequate pay along with growth opportunities were the strongest predictors of mental health; growth opportunities along with development of human capabilities were the strongest predictors of self-esteem of employees. Our study adds to the growing body of research on mental health status in relation to factors such as QWL. In view of our findings, we hope that improving work environment as a means of improving one’s mental health status will be more emphasized by organisation managers.
Oogoe, Takao; Yoshioka, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Takeuchi, Yasunori; Shirakata, Masashi; Shirakabe, Yoshihisa; Kuniyasu, Yuu; Oki, Hiroshi; Takiyama, Youichi
Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) is the research complex based on three high intensity proton Accelerators: a linac, a 3 GeV synchrotron (RCS), and a 50 GeV synchrotron (MR). The construction of the MR started in 2002, and its beam commissioning is scheduled in January of 2008. The accelerator tunnel of the J-PARC 50 GeV Synchrotron is still under construction, and will be completed at the end of 2006. Installation of accelerator-components is scheduled to start in July 2005 in parallel with civil and utility construction. This document describes how to install accelerator components in the tunnel and civil engineering of the tunnel. (author)
Tânia R Bertoldo Benedetti
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre nível de atividade física e o estado de saúde mental de pessoas idosas. MÉTODOS: Inquérito de base populacional com amostragem probabilística, incluindo 875 idosos da cidade de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, em 2002. Foram aplicados os questionários: Internacional de Atividades Físicas e Brazil Old Age Schedule. Os problemas de saúde mental avaliados foram depressão e demência, além da prática de atividade física total (lazer, ocupação, deslocamentos e serviços domésticos. Após análises descritivas e bivariadas, realizou-se análise ajustada por meio de regressão logística, com ajuste para os fatores de atividade física total, atividade de lazer, escores de depressão e demência. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se associação estatisticamente significativa e inversa de demência e depressão com atividade física total e atividade física no lazer. A odds ratio ajustada para demência entre os sujeitos sedentários para atividade física total comparada à dos ativos foi de 2,74 (IC 95%: 1,85; 4,08, enquanto o respectivo valor para depressão foi de 2,38 (IC 95%: 1,70; 3,33. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados reforçam a importância de estilo de vida ativo para prevenção de problemas de saúde mental de idosos. Infere-se que a atividade física tem conseguido reduzir e/ou atrasar os riscos de demência, embora não se possa afirmar que a atividade física evita a demência.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between physical activity level and mental health status among elderly people. METHODS: This was a population-based survey with a probabilistic sample of 875 elderly people from a city of Southern Brazil, in 2002. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Brazil Old Age Schedule questionnaire were applied. The mental health problems evaluated were depressions and dementia. Total physical activity (leisure-time, occupation, transportation and housework. After descriptive and
Deb, Sibnath; Sathyanarayanan, Pooja; Machiraju, Ravali; Thomas, Shinto; McGirr, Kevin
The present study assessed the mental health of adolescents in Puducherry, India. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 291 students (121 male and 170 female) in the 14-17year old age group, grades IX and XI. The students were recruited from private, public, co-ed and single sex schools. Along with a Structured Questionnaire, the Mental Health Inventory was administered. We sought to investigate as to whether there would be differences in mental health status of adolescents based on age, class, gender and other demographic variables. There were significant age differences with respect to global mental health, psychological distress, anxiety and loss of behavioural/emotional control. Family type-wise significant differences in global mental health, life satisfaction and loss of behavioural/emotional control were also found. Significant differences were observed with respect to global mental health, psychological well-being, positive effects, psychological distress and depression across socio-economic groups. Number of siblings also accounted for differences in anxiety and emotional ties. However, no significant gender differences were observed across mental health sub-scales. Results suggest the need for promotion of mental health awareness and intervention programs for adolescents, their parents and teachers. There is also a need for advocacy in children and adolescent rights regarding welfare, well-being and protection from violence. The objective is to enhance psychological well-being and reduce psychological distress in students across different social strata. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tam, C L; Foo, Y C; Lee, T H
To examine gender differences in mental health and perceived social support, relationship between parents' income and mental health, and differences in mental health across education levels. A total of 303 students aged 16 to 26 years were recruited from Selangor, Malaysia. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and General Health Questionnaire were used to measure the level of perceived social support and the mental health status. Demographic data, including education level and parents' income, were also obtained. Females perceived significantly higher levels of overall social support than males (t = -2.7; p mental health status between males and females (t = -1.8; p > 0.05), as well as mental health status among different parental income groups (chi2 = 5.0; p > 0.05) and the education levels of the subjects (chi2 = 0.7; p > 0.05). A more favourable mental health status of the subjects was associated with higher parental incomes (r = -0.1; p mental health status in older adolescents and young adults. There was also a relationship between parental income and an individual's mental health status, but mental health was not related to their education level.
Chivon A. Mingo
Full Text Available To examine the impact of individual and community socioeconomic status (SES measures on mental health outcomes in individuals with arthritis, participants with self-reported arthritis completed a telephone survey assessing health status, health attitudes and beliefs, and sociodemographic variables. Regression analyses adjusting for race, gender, BMI, comorbidities, and age were performed to determine the impact of individual and community level SES on mental health outcomes (i.e., Medical Outcomes Study SF-12v2 mental health component, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health-Related Quality of Life Healthy Days Measure, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression [CES-D] scale. When entered singly, lower education and income, nonmanagerial occupation, non-homeownership, and medium and high community poverty were all significantly associated with poorer mental health outcomes. Income, however, was more strongly associated with the outcomes in comparison to the other SES variables. In a model including all SES measures simultaneously, income was significantly associated with each outcome variable. Lower levels of individual and community SES showed most consistent statistical significance in association with CES-D scores. Results suggest that both individual and community level SES are associated with mental health status in people with arthritis. It is imperative to consider how interventions focused on multilevel SES factors may influence existing disparities.
Full Text Available Under the Japan – Indonesia Economic Partnership Agreement, more than 1,000 of Indonesian health care workers have migrated to Japan. Social adjustment during the process of migration is linked to mental health changes. This study aimed to figure out the strongest predictor that influences the change in mental health status as a result of migration. Baseline data were collected in Jakarta in 2013 during pre-departure orientation. Follow-up study was conducted one year after the study participants migrated to Japan in 2014. Using longitudinal design, this study employed 92 participants consisting of nurse and certified care worker candidates. The multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to figure out the predictors that influence the change in mental health status. The prediction model expected to explain 39.9% of the change in mental health status, p value < 0.01, while sex (b = 0.201, p value < 0.05, economic conditions in pre-migration (b = -0.200, p value < 0.05, and the socio cultural adaptation competency (b = -0.238, p value < 0.05. This finding assumed that female candidates and those who have economic constraint in pre-migration stage, and those who have declining in socio-cultural adaptation competency tend to have lower mental health one year after the migration.
Grace, Sherry L; Tan, Yongyao; Cribbie, Robert A; Nguyen, Han; Ritvo, Paul; Irvine, Jane
Mental disorders are a leading cause of disability and early mortality. The objective of this study was to describe and compare psychosocial indicators and mental health service use among ethnoculturally-diverse Ontarians. This is a cross-sectional analysis of the Ontario Health Study pilot investigation. Residents were mailed an invitation to one of 3 assessment centres (urban, rural and northern sites) from March 2009 to July 2010. Participants had an interview with a nurse and completed a questionnaire on a touchscreen kiosk. The questionnaire included sociodemographic items, and scales assessing symptoms of depressive symptoms (CES-D) and anxiety (GAD-7), social support (Lubben Social Network Scale), stressful life events, and mental health service use. Eight thousand two hundred thirty-five residents participated, among whom 6652 (82.4 %) self-reported their ethnocultural background as White, 225 (2.8 %) as South Asian, 222 (2.8 %) East Asian, 214 (2.7 %) Southeast Asian, 197 (2.4 %) Black, and 28 (0.3 %) as Aboriginal. Based on their sociodemographic characteristics, participants from these ethnocultural minority groups were matched to White participants. Black participants reported significantly greater stressful life events than White participants (p = .04), particularly death (p divorce (p = .002) and financial difficulties (p < .001). East Asian participants reported significantly less social support than their White counterparts (p < .001), and this was not confounded by measurement variance. Mental health service use was significantly lower in all ethnocultural minorities except Aboriginals, when compared to White participants (p = .001). There is a high burden of psychosocial distress in several preponderant ethnocultural minorities in Ontario; many of whom are not accessing available mental health services.
Nadler, J D; Relkin, N R; Cohen, M S; Hodder, R A; Reingold, J; Plum, F
The clinical utility of selected brief cognitive screening instruments in detecting dementia in an elderly nursing home population was examined. One hundred twenty nursing home residents (mean age 87.9) were administered the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) and the Modified Mini-Mental State Exam (3MS). The majority of the subjects (75%) were also administered the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS). Both clinically diagnosed demented (n = 57) and non-demented (n = 63) subjects participated in the study. Dementia was diagnosed in accordance with DSM-III-R criteria by physicians specializing in geriatric medicine. Using standard cutoffs for impairment, the 3MS, MMSE, and DRS achieved high sensitivity (82% to 100%) but low specificity (33% to 52%) in the detection of dementia among nursing home residents. Positive predictive values ranged from 52% to 61%, and negative predictive values from 77% to 100%. Higher age, lower education, and history of depression were significantly associated with misclassification of non-demented elderly subjects. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analyses revealed optimal classification of dementia with cutoff values of 74 for the 3MS, 22 for the MMSE, and 110 for the DRS. The results suggest that the 3MS, MMSE, and DRS do not differ significantly with respect to classification accuracy of dementia in a nursing home population. Elderly individuals of advanced age (i.e., the oldest-old) with lower education and a history of depression appear at particular risk for dementia misclassification with these instruments. Revised cutoff values for impairment should be employed when these instruments are applied to elderly residents of nursing homes and the oldest-old.
Duplessis, C. A.; Cullum, M. E.; Crepeau, L. J.
Submarine watch-standers adhere to a 6 hour-on, 12 hour-off (6/12) watch-standing schedule, yoking them to an 18-hr day, engendering circadian desynchronization and chronic sleep deprivation. Moreover, the chronic social crowding, shift work, and confinement of submarine life provide additional stressors known to correlate with elevated secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and cortisol levels, reduced performance, immunologic dysfunction, malignancies, infections, gastrointestinal illness, coronary disease, anxiety, and depression. We evaluated an alternative, compressed, fixed work schedule designed to enhance circadian rhythm entrainment, sleep hygiene, performance, and health on 10 underway submariners, who followed the alternative and 6/12 schedules for approximately 2 weeks each. We measured subjects" sleep, cognitive performance, and salivary biomarker levels. Pilot analysis of the salivary data on one subject utilizing ELISA suggests elevated biomarker levels of stress. Average PM cortisol levels were 0.2 μg/L (normal range: nondetectable - 0.15 μg/L), and mean sIgA levels were 562 μg/ml (normal range: 100-500 μg/ml). Future research exploiting real-time salivary bioassays, via fluorescent polarimetry technology, identified by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) as a future Naval requirement, allows researchers to address correlations between stress-induced elaboration of salivary biomarkers with physiological and performance decrements, thereby fostering insight into the underway submariner"s psychoimmunological status. This may help identify strategies that enhance resilience to stressors. Specifically, empirically-based modeling can identify optimal watch-standing schedules and stress-mitigating procedures -- within the operational constraints of the submarine milieu and the mission --that foster improved circadian entrainment and reduced stress reactivity, enhancing physiological health, operational performance, safety, and job satisfaction.
Chiang, Szu-Ying; Fleming, Theresa; Lucassen, Mathijs; Fenaughty, John; Clark, Terryann; Denny, Simon
Little population-based work has been published about the mental health of adolescents with both sexual/gender (SG) and ethnic minority (i.e. double minority) status. This study aimed to provide an overview on their mental health. Analysis of data from a total of 17,607 high school students from New Zealand's 2007 and 2012 cross-sectional nationally representative Adolescent Health Surveys, including a total of 1306 (7.4%) SG minority participants, of whom 581 (3.3%) were also an ethnic minority. SG minority status, minority ethnicity, and female sex were associated with higher mental distress and poorer well-being. Generally speaking, double minority students reported poorer mental health than SG majority students of the same ethnicity, but reported better mental health than SG minority New Zealand European students. Explanations and future directions for research were suggested to further explore how double minority students negotiate mental health in the context of their communities/cultures in New Zealand.
Haut, Sheryl R.; Katz, Mindy; Masur, Jonathan; Lipton, Richard B.
Co-morbidities of epilepsy have not been well explored in the elderly. Herein, we examined mental status, mood, and sleep in elderly patients with epilepsy, compared to age and gender matched community controls without epilepsy from the Einstein Aging Study. Testing included a mental status test, the Blessed Information Memory and Concentration (BIMC) test; Prime-MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) Depression and Anxiety Modules; and Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale. Persons with epilepsy (n=31) had higher mean BIMC scores than controls (n=31, BIMC 6.3 vs.1.2; p<0.0001). Mean PHQ Depression scores were higher for cases than controls indicating more depressive symptoms (4.2 vs. 0.8; p=0.006); six cases (18%) and no controls met screening criteria for depression. Mean PHQ Anxiety scores were also higher for cases than controls (3.7 vs. 0.0; p=0.001). Cases demonstrated poorer sleep scores in the categories of somnolence (p=0.009) and shortness of breath/headache (p=0.021). Thus, co-morbidities of epilepsy in this elderly population included decreased mental status, a higher prevalence of depression and anxiety, and poorer sleep health when compared to age mates without epilepsy. Mental status impairment was not related to anti-epileptic medication or mood disturbance. Further investigation will explore these associations prospectively. PMID:19189862
Grodberg, David; Weinger, Paige M.; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha; Buxbaum, Joseph D.
The Autism Mental Status Examination (AMSE) described here is an eight-item observational assessment that prompts the observation and recording of signs and symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The AMSE is intended to take place seamlessly in the context of a clinical exam and produces a total score. Subjects were independently…
Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.; Duku, Eric
Data from a nationally representative sample of 13,470 children aged 4-11 years were used to study contextual influences on children's mental health and school performance, the moderating effects of family immigrant status and underlying family processes that might explain these relationships. Despite greater socioeconomic disadvantage, children…
Reed, Bruce R.; And Others
Compared Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE) scores and activities of daily living (ADL) scores from 59 patients with progressive dementias. MMSE scores explained approximately one-third of variance in both instrumental and physical ADLs. Findings suggest that cognitive losses and functional impairments are 2 distinct aspects of dementia severity which…
Full Text Available We present a case report of a patient who initially presented with altered mental status andsignificant urinary frequency. Over the course of her emergency department stay, she thendeveloped tachycardia out of proportion to a new fever along with a respiratory alkalosis. Althougheach objective finding has a broad differential diagnosis, thyroid storm was the only unifyingdiagnosis when all findings were present.
Tan, L; Yang, Q H; Chen, J L; Zou, H X; Xia, T S; Liu, Y
The objective of this study was to investigate the contributions of mental health status and attitudes towards suicide on suicidal ideation in a sample of 6568 Chinese children and adolescents in China. Attitudes towards suicide were investigated as a possible moderator and mediator of the influence of mental health status on suicidal ideation. Descriptive statistical analyses, Pearson correlation analyses and hierarchical regression analyses were adopted as methods of data analyses. Approximately 35.38% of children and adolescents in our study reported having suicidal ideation. Mental health status and attitudes towards suicide both had an independent effect on the severity of suicidal ideation. Results indicated that mental health status was positively associated with suicidal ideation, while attitudes towards suicide were negatively associated with suicidal ideation. Moderation analysis showed that the impact of mental health status on suicidal ideation was significantly greater among children and adolescents who reported favourable attitudes towards suicide. Attitudes towards suicide partially mediated the link between mental health status and the severity of suicidal ideation. Specifically, students who experienced poorer mental health status might be more likely to report significantly more favourable attitudes towards suicide, which in turn promote greater suicidal ideation. These results have implications for the prevention of youth suicide, suggesting that mental health status and attitudes towards suicide could be important targets for prevention and intervention for children and adolescents at risk of suicidal ideation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sadamori, Shinsuke; Hayashi, Syouji; Hamada, Taizo
To suggest methods for maintaining an adequate nutritional status for elderly patients with dementia by evaluating the relationships between oral status, physical and mental health, and feeding conditions. Feeding difficulties in dementia patients are related to food intake, and failure to eat may be associated with weight loss in long-term care facilities. The relationship between compromised oral function and diet is still unclear. A cross-sectional study of 94 elderly women with dementia (mean age 89.6 +/- 5.6 years) from a nursing home was undertaken to investigate their oral, physical and mental and nutritional status. There were significant differences in serum albumin (p = 0.0284), N-ADL (p = 0.0005), NM scale (p = 0.0004) and HDS-R (p = 0.0004) between denture wearers and non-denture wearers. However, there were no significant differences in body mass index between denture wearers and non-denture wearers. A suitable type of diet and assistance with feeding could maintain the nutritional status of elderly patients with dementia if they are still feeding themselves. The nutritional support team will benefit from the participation of a dentist.
Sharifi, Vandad; Mojtabai, Ramin; Shahrivar, Zahra; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Zarafshan, Hadi; Wissow, Lawrence
The need for mental health care among children and adolescents in Iran, as in other low and middle income countries (LAMIC) remains mostly unmet. In this paper, we sought to provide an overview of the extent of unmet need and mental health services in Iran. We also aimed to propose approaches to address this gap. We reviewed the published epidemiologic studies of child and adolescent mental and behavioral health problems in Iran. We also examined the current status of child mental health services and the gaps between current needs and available services based on published literature that included papers published in scientific journals, as well as governmental and other administrative reports. The contextual issues relevant to child mental health care were also explored, as well as the possibilities to introduce new or scale up promising services. Child and adolescent mental and behavioral health problems are highly prevalent in Iran. Different studies have estimated that 16.7% to 36.4% of children and adolescents suffer from one or more mental health problems. However, there is a serious scarcity of resources to meet this need. Available services are delivered by independent public organizations (e.g., Ministry of Health, Welfare Organization, and Ministry of Education) or private sector with inefficient communication and collaboration among them and no mandatory national mental health policy. Available specialized child and adolescent services are mostly confined to small inpatient units and university outpatient facilities in larger cities, and there is a scarce evidence for the effectiveness of the available services. Expansion of primary care's role in timely detection and management of child and adolescent mental health problems, implementation of task-shifting and -sharing initiatives, as well as improved collaboration among responsible governmental and non-governmental sectors are some of the most promising future venues to improve mental health care for
A. A. Volynkin
Full Text Available Objective: to investigate emotional disturbances in pregnant women with sequels of brain injury (BI.Patients and methods. A total of 47 pregnant women with a history of BI, who had been admitted to the Department of Obstetric Physiology, Moscow Regional Research Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, in 2013-2015, were examined. All the patients underwent a comprehensive neurological and neuropsychological examination using the Miltidimensional Fatigue Inventory-20 (MFI-20, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and the Spielberg-Hanin Situational and Personal Anxiety Scale.Results. The pregnant women with BI sequels were found to have emotional changes involving asthenic, anxiety, and depressive components. In these women, anxiety symptoms were most common (53.3%; psychoemotional disturbance and asthenic and depressive manifestations were identified in 23.4 and 14.9% of cases. This investigation first verified the structural (situational and personal components of post-traumatic anxiety syndrome in the pregnant women. It revealed that an increased level of situational anxiety and physical symptoms of fatigue was observed in brain concussion sequels; and after brain contusion (BC, alarm acquired personality traits, asthenia was of a mental nature. In the pregnant women with BI sequels, depression was diagnosed only at the subclinical level and more often noted after BC (p=0.0473.
Whitley, Rob; Wang, JiaWei; Fleury, Marie-Josee; Liu, Aihua; Caron, Jean
To examine variations between immigrants and nonimmigrants in 1) prevalence of common mental disorders and other mental health variables; 2) health service utilisation for emotional problems, mental disorders, and addictions, and 3) health service satisfaction. This article is based on a longitudinal cohort study conducted from May 2007 to the present: the Epidemiological Catchment Area Study of Montreal South-West (ZEPSOM). Participants were followed up at 4 time points (T1, n = 2433; T4, n = 1095). Core exposure variables include immigrant status (immigrant vs. nonimmigrant), duration of residence, and region of origin. Key outcome variables included mental health status, health service utilisation, and health service satisfaction. Data were analysed both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Immigrants had been in Canada for 20 years on average. Immigrants had significantly lower rates of high psychological distress (32.6% vs. 39.1%, P = 0.016), alcohol dependence (1.4% vs. 3.9%, P =0.010), depression (5.2% vs. 9.2%, P = 0.008), and various other mental disorders. They had significantly higher scores of mental well-being (48.9 vs. 47.1 score, P = 0.014) and satisfaction with social (34.0 vs. 33.4 score, P = 0.021) and personal relationships (16.7 vs. 15.6 score, P Immigrants had significantly lower rates of health service utilisation for emotional problems, mental disorders, and addictions and significantly higher rates of health service satisfaction at all time points. Asian and African immigrants had particularly low rates of utilisation and high rates of satisfaction. Immigrants had better overall mental health than nonimmigrants.
Full Text Available Objectives: The current study was performed to investigate the relationship between mental impairment and each component of activity of daily living (ADL in elderly residents of the Kahrizak Charity Foundation. Methods & Materials: Standardized Iranian Mini Mental examination and Barthel index were used to assest cognitive status and ADL in 184 elderly residents of Kahrizak, respectively. Results: Data showed that 31.7% of participants had normal cognitive status and 63.3% had cognitive impairment. There was significant relationship between cognitive status and ADL after adjustment for confounding factors (P=0.01, r=0.2. By using multiple logistic regression analysis, the relation between cognitive impairment and functional status was examined (P=0.05. Odd ratio of functional disability showed an increasing trend with increasing severity of cognitive impairment [Odd Ratio (OR mild cognitive impairment: 1.13, Confidence Interval (CI: 0.54-2.37 OR moderate to severe cognitive impairment: 3.67, CI: 0.39-34.35]. Regarding the relation between Barthel components and cognitive status it was showed that there was a significant association between independent bathing and cognitive status (OR: 2.33, CI: 1.14-4.72 as well as movementability with cognitive impairment (OR: 2.96, CI: 1.30-6.75. Conclusion: Cognitive status can be a predictive factor of ADL inelderly subjects.
Felipe Q. da Luz
Full Text Available Dysfunctional cognitions may be associated with unhealthy eating behaviors seen in individuals with obesity. However, dysfunctional cognitions commonly occur in individuals with poor mental health independently of weight. We examined whether individuals with morbid obesity differed with regard to dysfunctional cognitions when compared to individuals of normal weight, when mental health status was controlled for. 111 participants—53 with morbid obesity and 58 of normal weight—were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination, Young Schema Questionnaire, Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and a Demographic and Clinical Questionnaire. Participants with morbid obesity showed higher scores in one (insufficient self-control/self-discipline of 15 early maladaptive schemas and in one (labeling of 15 cognitive distortions compared to participants of normal weight. The difference between groups for insufficient self-control/self-discipline was not significant when mental health status was controlled for. Participants with morbid obesity showed more severe anxiety than participants of normal weight. Our findings did not show clinically meaningful differences in dysfunctional cognitions between participants with morbid obesity or of normal weight. Dysfunctional cognitions presented by individuals with morbid obesity are likely related to their individual mental health and not to their weight.
da Luz, Felipe Q.; Sainsbury, Amanda; Hay, Phillipa; Roekenes, Jessica A.; Swinbourne, Jessica; da Silva, Dhiordan C.; da S. Oliveira, Margareth
Dysfunctional cognitions may be associated with unhealthy eating behaviors seen in individuals with obesity. However, dysfunctional cognitions commonly occur in individuals with poor mental health independently of weight. We examined whether individuals with morbid obesity differed with regard to dysfunctional cognitions when compared to individuals of normal weight, when mental health status was controlled for. 111 participants—53 with morbid obesity and 58 of normal weight—were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination, Young Schema Questionnaire, Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and a Demographic and Clinical Questionnaire. Participants with morbid obesity showed higher scores in one (insufficient self-control/self-discipline) of 15 early maladaptive schemas and in one (labeling) of 15 cognitive distortions compared to participants of normal weight. The difference between groups for insufficient self-control/self-discipline was not significant when mental health status was controlled for. Participants with morbid obesity showed more severe anxiety than participants of normal weight. Our findings did not show clinically meaningful differences in dysfunctional cognitions between participants with morbid obesity or of normal weight. Dysfunctional cognitions presented by individuals with morbid obesity are likely related to their individual mental health and not to their weight. PMID:28264484
Akram, B.; Ilyas, M.
To understand suicidal behaviour among people who inject drugs. Methods: This correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in two Pakistani cities of Gujrat and Jhelum from October 2015 to March 2016, and comprised male injecting-drug users aged18-60 years. Multistage systematic random sampling method was used. Urdu-translated versions of the brief cope inventory, mental health status scale and suicidal behaviour questionnaire (revised) were administered. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis. Results: Of the 200 participants, 83(41.5%) were aged 26-32 years. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus was in 94(47%) cases. Suicidal behaviour was positively associated with psychological distress and human immunodeficiency virus status (p<0.05), whereas it was negatively associated with mental health, psychological well-being and coping strategies (p<0.05). Regression analysis showed mental health index and psychological well-being were negative predictors, whereas psychological distress and human immunodeficiency virus status were positive predictors of suicidal behaviour among the participants (p<0.05). Conclusion: The level of stress led people who inject drugs towards suicidal behaviour. However, the level of stress varied according to the severity of human immunodeficiency virus and poor mental health. (author)
Adams, Richard E; Boscarino, Joseph A
A number of studies have assessed the association between acculturation and psychological outcomes following a traumatic event. Some suggest that low acculturation is associated with poorer health outcomes, while others show no differences or that low acculturation is associated with better outcomes. One year after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, we surveyed a multi-ethnic population of New York City adults (N= 2,368). We assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression, panic attack, anxiety symptoms, and general physical and mental health status. We classified study respondents into "low," "moderate," or "high" acculturation, based on survey responses. Bivariate results indicated that low acculturation individuals were more likely to experience negative life events, have low social support, and less likely to have pre-disaster mental health disorders. Those in the low acculturation group were also more likely to experience post-disaster perievent panic attacks, have higher anxiety, and have poorer mental health status. However, using logistic regression to control for confounding, and adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found that none of these outcomes were associated with acculturation status. Thus, our study suggests that acculturation was not associated with mental health outcomes following a major traumatic event.
Adrian, Molly; Charlesworth-Attie, Sarah; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth; Becker, Linda
The purpose of this study is to estimate the proportion of adolescents meeting Healthy People 2020 health behavior recommendations for the prevention of chronic disease and to determine the association between mental health status (depression and/or conduct problems) and the likelihood of meeting these recommendations. The data used for this study are from the 2010 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey. Descriptive statistics and linear regression were utilized to estimate the proportion of adolescents meeting recommendations and associations between youth mental health status indicators and health-promoting behaviors. A small minority (5.8 %) of youth met all six recommendations in domains of tobacco abstinence, substance use abstinence, daily physical activity, breakfast consumption, weight below obese levels, and adequate sleep, though most (84.3 %) met at least three. At the aggregate level, the proportion of Washington State youth who met Healthy People 2020 guidelines exceeded targets, with the exception of substance use abstinence. A minority of youth reported guideline levels of daily physical activity (23.3 %) and sleep (39.8 %). Mental health status was strongly associated with the number of health-promoting behaviors adolescents endorsed. Interventions to increase the adoption of sleep hygiene and exercise habits should be added to an integrative positive youth development framework within school-, community-, and primary care-based adolescent health initiatives. Attention to adolescent mental health and shared risk factors may be critical for reducing barriers to healthy behavior.
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Hsu, Chia-Chuang; Liu, Shu-Chun; Huang, Chi-Fen; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping
The purposes of this study were to examine the relationships among mental health status, demographic characteristics, and social contexts, including family conflict and support, connectedness to school, and affiliation with peers who exhibit delinquent behavior and who use substances, among Taiwanese aboriginal adolescents. A total of 251 aboriginal junior high school students in an isolated mountainous area of southern Taiwan were recruited, and the relationships among mental health status, demographic characteristics, and social contexts among them were examined using a structural equation model (SEM). The SEM revealed that family conflict and support had direct influences on mental health status and connectedness to school. Family conflict had a direct relationship with affiliation with peers who use substances, and family conflict and support were both indirectly linked with affiliation with peers who exhibit delinquent behavior and who used substances; these were mediated by a poor mental health status. Female and older age were directly linked with a poor mental health status and were indirectly linked with a greater number of peers who exhibit delinquent behavior and who use substances via the poor mental health status. Disruptive parenting was directly linked with affiliation with peers who use substances. The authors suggest that those who devise strategies to improve aboriginal adolescents' mental health and discourage substance use should take these relationships among mental health, demographic characteristics, and social contexts into account.
Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Yokoyama, Eise; Harano, Satoru; Tamaki, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Munezawa, Takeshi; Nakajima, Hiromi; Asai, Takami; Ohida, Takashi
A limited number of longitudinal studies have addressed the association between sleep disturbance and mental health status among adolescents. To examine whether each of these is a risk factor for the onset of the other, we conducted a prospective longitudinal study of Japanese adolescents. In 2004, we performed a baseline study of students attending three private junior high schools in Tokyo, and in 2006, a follow-up study was performed on the same population. The mean age of the subjects was 13 years. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to evaluate sleep disturbance, and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire was used to evaluate mental health status. The subjects were 698 students, of whom 516 were suitable for analysis. The incidence of newly developed poor mental health status during the 2 years leading to the follow-up study was 35.1%. New onset of poor mental health status was significantly associated with new onset of sleep disturbance and lasting sleep disturbance. The incidence of sleep disturbance during the 2 years leading to the follow-up study was 33.3%. New onset of sleep disturbance was significantly associated with new onset of poor mental health status and lasting poor mental health status. Sleep disturbance and poor mental health status increase each other's onset risk.
Nakayama, K; Yamaguchi, K; Maruyama, S; Morimoto, K
To examine the relationship lifestyle factors, personal character, mental health status, and job strain a self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among employees of a leading electrical manufacturing company in Japan. A total of 2,327 workers (Male=1,668, Female=659) responded to the survey. We analyzed the relationships of health practices based on such factors as: Free child (FC) from the Egogram, the Working-life satisfaction, and the General Health Questionnaire-28 through Path-analysis techniques.The following results were obtained: The mental health status was significantly affected by such factors as health practices, Working-life satisfaction, personal character (FC), life satisfaction, and age. Health practices and personal character (FC) showed a direct relationship to the mental health status and an indirect relationship to the Working-life satisfaction and life satisfaction. The variances accounting for mental health status were 41.8% in male workers and 43.8% in female workers.Path-analysis data suggested that mental health status was affected about 40% by lifestyle, personal character, Working-life satisfaction, and life satisfaction. It was suggested that there might be important factors affecting mental health status but which are unknown to us by as much as 60% in the present day. These findings suggested the necessity of further investigation of the relationship among lifestyle factors, mental health status, and job strain among employees of a reputable company in the present day.
Tophoven, S; Tisch, A; Rauch, A; Burghardt, A
The baby boomers are the first to be available to the German labour market up to the age of 67. A crucial premise for a long working life is good health. However, there is evidence that psychosocial working conditions are related to health. More and more employees report psychosocial stress at work. In addition, mental illness has become one of the main reasons for the entry into disability pension. Against this background this study considers the relationship between psychosocial work conditions and mental health exemplarily for two birth cohorts of the German baby boomers. For the analysis of the assumed relationships data of the lidA study "lidA - leben in der Arbeit - German Cohort Study on Work, Age and Health" is used (N=6 057). Mental health is assessed by the mental health scale of the SF-12. In addition, the items and the scales quantitative job requirements, work pace and support from colleagues from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) are used. As further control variables cohort affiliation, level of education, occupational status and partnership are considered. Multivariate analyses of the relations between quantitative job requirements, work pace and the experienced support from colleagues show significant relationship to mental health. The increasing frequency of the requirement to work quickly and increasing quantitative job demands are negatively associated to mental health. However, support of colleagues shows a positive relationship to mental health. These results are similarly observed for women and men. For the regarded group of the German babyboomers, employees at the threshold to higher working age, it is clearly shown that psychosocial working conditions are related to mental health. Since this group still has to work up to 18 years given a statutory retirement age of 67, psychosocial working conditions should rather be in the focus of occupational safety. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available Xuelu Liu,1 Xueming Lou,1 Xianliang Cheng,2 Yong Meng1 1Department of Cardiology, 2Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan, People’s Republic of China Background: Metoprolol treatment is well established for chronic heart failure (CHF patients, but the central nervous system side effects are often a potential drawback.Objective: To investigate the impact of metoprolol treatment on change in mental status of CHF patients with clinical psychological disorders (such as depression, anxiety, and burnout syndrome.Methods: From February 2013 to April 2016, CHF patients with clinical mental disorders received metoprolol (23.75 or 47.5 mg, qd PO, dose escalated with 23.75 mg each time until target heart rate [HR] <70 bpm was achieved at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University. Mental status was assessed by means of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI scale. The primary outcome assessed was change in mental status of patients post-metoprolol treatment and the association with reduction in HR achieved by metoprolol.Results: A total of 154 patients (median age: 66.39 years; males: n=101 were divided into eight groups on the basis of their mental status. HR decreased significantly from baseline values in all the groups to <70 bpm in the 12th month, P≤0.0001. The HADS depression and CBI scores significantly increased from baseline throughout the study frame (P≤0.0001 for all groups, but a significant decrease in the HADS anxiety score was observed in patients with anxiety (P≤0.0001 for all groups. Regression analysis revealed no significant correlation in any of the groups between the HR reduction and the change in the HADS/CBI scores, except for a change in the CBI scores of CHF patients with depression (P=0.01, which was HR dependent.Conclusion: Metoprolol treatment worsens the depressive and high burnout
Arimura, Mayumi; Imai, Makoto; Okawa, Masako; Fujimura, Toshimasa; Yamada, Naoto
Medical error involving nurses is a critical issue since nurses' actions will have a direct and often significant effect on the prognosis of their patients. To investigate the significance of nurse health in Japan and its potential impact on patient services, a questionnaire-based survey amongst nurses working in hospitals was conducted, with the specific purpose of examining the relationship between shift work, mental health and self-reported medical errors. Multivariate analysis revealed significant associations between the shift work system, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) scores and nurse errors: the odds ratios for shift system and GHQ were 2.1 and 1.1, respectively. It was confirmed that both sleep and mental health status among hospital nurses were relatively poor, and that shift work and poor mental health were significant factors contributing to medical errors.
Margaret J. Penning
Full Text Available There is a well-established link between marital status and mental health, but previous research has produced mixed results about the reasons for this relationship. Some studies propose that marriage provides protection from stressors and increases personal coping abilities (the causation perspective, whereas other studies argue that marriage markets “weed out” individuals predisposed to illness (the selection perspective. This article addresses the causation-versus-selection debate by examining the effect of marital status on duration of treatment for mental illness. The empirical analysis uses longitudinal data and GEE models to estimate group-level differences in duration of treatment. The results suggest that marriage does not appear to confer a health advantage in terms of duration of treatment. However, the study demonstrates that the never-married experience longer treatment time than the married, divorced, and widowed.
Full Text Available There is a well-established link between marital status and mental health, but previous research has produced mixed results about the reasons for this relationship. Some studies propose that marriage provides protection from stressors and increases personal coping abilities (the causation perspective, whereas other studies argue that marriage markets “weed out” individuals predisposed to illness (the selection perspective. This article addresses the causation-versus-selection debate by examining the effect of marital status on duration of treatment for mental illness. The empirical analysis uses longitudinal data and GEE models to estimate group-level differences in duration of treatment. The results suggest that marriage does not appear to confer a health advantage in terms of duration of treatment. However, the study demonstrates that the never-married experience longer treatment time than the married, divorced, and widowed.
Perceptions of Recidivism Among Incarcerated Youth: The Relationship Between Exposure to Childhood Trauma, Mental Health Status, and the Protective Effect of Mental Health Services in Juvenile Justice Settings
Jamie R. Yoder
Full Text Available Research suggests that youth involved the juvenile justice system have trauma histories that are two times higher than the general youth population. Juvenile justice-involved youth also have high rates of mental health symptoms. Fewer studies have examined how trauma links to mental health symptoms among youth offenders, and even less research focuses on how mental health status and service delivery can impact their perceived likelihood for success. This study examines the effects of mental health screening and service delivery on perceived future criminal justice interactions— arrest and incarceration—among adjudicated youth (n=7,073 housed in correctional facilities. Secondary data were used to examine trauma histories, mental health needs, and mental health screening and service delivery. Significant relationships between traumatic events and mental health problems were found, along with relationships between mental health problems and mental health screening and service delivery. Most interestingly, results pointed to the strong inverse relationship between mental health service delivery and youth’s perceived likelihood for recidivism. These findings show the promise of juvenile justice systems appropriately responding to the mental health concerns of youth.
Full Text Available Background: Mental health of medical students who will be responsible for community health has great importance. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of probable mental disorders during the internship period of medical students. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study evaluated 404 medical students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, in Tehran, the capital of Iran. The data collecting instrument was a self-rated questionnaire including standard mental health questionnaire SCL-90-R, demographic and socio-economic data. The score 0.7 and above were designated as possible cases of mental disorders. Analysis performed by SPSS software, version 14 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Il, USA. p-value<0.05 was considered significant. Results: 53.8% of participants were female, and 79.4% were single. From all participants, 14.1% had Global Severity Index (GSI score more than 0.7. Mean and standard deviation of GSI score was 0.32 (0.27. The frequency of probable mental disorder in medical students was 16.3% in somatization; 24.5% in obsessive-compulsive; 15.6% in interpersonal sensitivity; 16.8% in depression; 18.8% in anxiety; 14.6% in hostility; 11.4% in phobic anxiety; 16.8% in paranoid ideation and 13.9% in psychoticism. Students who had no children, lived in dormitory, had good economic status and were satisfied with their private life and studying course had significantly lower GSI scores. Conclusion: Between 11 to 24% of the students had mental disorders in different dimensions and economic status, living place and number of children were related to the disorders.
Richard D Hayes
Full Text Available Serious mental illness can affect many aspects of an individual's ability to function in daily life. The aim of this investigation was to determine if the environmental and functional status of people with serious mental illness contribute to the high mortality risk observed in this patient group.We identified cases of schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorder aged ≥ 15 years in a large secondary mental healthcare case register linked to national mortality tracing. We modelled the effect of activities of daily living (ADLs, living conditions, occupational and recreational activities and relationship factors (Health of the Nation Outcome Scale [HoNOS] subscales on all-cause mortality over a 4-year observation period (2007-10 using Cox regression.We identified 6,880 SMI cases (242 deaths in the observation period. ADL impairment was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3-2.8; p = 0.001, p for trend across ADL categories = 0.001 after controlling for a broad range of covariates (including demographic factors, physical health, mental health symptoms and behaviours, socio-economic status and mental health service contact. No associations were found for the other three exposures. Stratification by age indicated that ADLs were most strongly associated with mortality in the youngest (15 to <35 years and oldest (≥ 55 years groups.Functional impairment in people with serious mental illness diagnoses is a marker of increased mortality risk, possibly in younger age groups as a marker of negative symptomatology.
Sporer, KA; Solares, M; Edward, JD; Wang, W; Alan, HBW; Robert, MR
Objectives: The objectives of this prospective observational study were to: (1) determine the accuracy of physician diagnosis in patients with an acutely altered mental status (AMS) within the first 20 min of emergency department (ED) presentation; and (2) access if physician confidence in early diagnosis correlates with accuracy of diagnosis. Methods: A prospective observational convenience study was conducted of 112 adult patients who presented to an urban county ED with AMS (Glasgow Coma S...
Devin Hassan Fahim; Farbod Davood
Quality of Work Life (QWL) is a multi-dimensional concept that covers employees’ feelings about various dimensions of work. The current study focused on QWL that can contribute to the mental health status and Organisation-Based Self-Esteem (OBSE) of employees in context of sport organisation in Iran. In this descriptive–correlative study, data was collected using three standard questionnaires: Goldberg’s (1978) General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Pierce, Gardner, Cummings and Dunham's (198...
Salmerón, Sergio; Huedo, Isabel; López-Utiel, Melisa; Soler-Moratalla, Isabel; Flores-Ruano, Teresa; Fernández-Sánchez, Miguel; Noguerón, Alicia; Doody, Rachelle S; Abizanda, Pedro
There are no short valid instruments to evaluate cognitive status in severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients in the Spanish language. To validate the Spanish version of the Baylor Profound Mental Status Examination (BPMSE-Sp). The Baylor Profound Mental Status Examination (BPMSE) was translated to Spanish and back translated. Validation was conducted in 100 patients with severe probable AD with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) reliability. The mean age of patients was 84.9; 74% were female; 64% were institutionalized. The mean MMSE was 5.6; the mean BPMSE-Sp was 13.6; the mean BPMSE-Sp behavior was 1.2; the mean SIB was 42.2; and the mean NPI-Q was 4.7. BPMSE-Sp presented good internal consistency (Cronbach α= 0.84). There were significant correlations between the BPMSE-Sp and MMSE (r = 0.86, p reliability were in both cases excellent, ranging between 0.96 and 0.99 (p < 0.001). BPMSE-Sp had fewer floor and ceiling effects than the MMSE. The BPMSE-Sp is a valid tool for use in daily practice and research in the evaluation of cognitive function of patients with severe AD.
Duran, L.; Yardan, T.; Kati, C.; Akdemir, H. U.; Altuntas, M.; Balci, K.; Karadas, S.
Objective: To evaluate the value of electroencephalography in patients with altered mental status in emergency departments. Methods: Demographical characteristics, types and aetiologies of seizures, and clinical outcomes of the patients were recorded. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to the complaints of admission: findings and symptoms of seizure; stroke and symptoms of stroke-related seizures; syncope; and metabolic abnormalities and other causes of altered mental status. The electroencephalography findings were classified into 3 groups: epileptiform discharges; paroxysmal electroencephalography abnormalities; and background slowing. Electroencephalography abnormalities in each subgroup were evaluated. SPSS 21 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total 190 patients in the study, 117(61.6%) had pathological electroencephalography findings. The main reason for electroencephalography in the emergency department was the presence of seizure findings and symptoms in 98(51.6%) patients. The ratio of electroencephalography abnormality was higher in patients who were admitted with complaints of metabolic abnormality-related consciousness disturbances (p<0.001). A total of 124(65.3%) patients had neuroimagings. Electroencephalography abnormalities were found to be significantly higher in patients with neuroimagings compared to those without neuroimagings (p<0.003). Conclusion: Despite advanced neuroimaging techniques, electroencephalography is still an important tool in the differential diagnosis of altered mental status such as epileptic seizures, metabolic abnormalities, pseudo-seizures and syncope. (author)
Morimoto, K; Takeshita, T; Inoue-Sakurai, C; Maruyama, S
We investigated the association of lifestyle and mental health status with natural killer (NK) cell and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell activities in healthy males. NK cell activity was determined in 105 male workers and LAK cell activity was determined in 54 male workers. Peripheral blood was obtained from each subject and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from the blood. These PBMC were used as effector cells. LAK cells were generated by incubation of PBMC with interleukin-2 for 72 h. NK cell activity against NK-sensitive K562 cells and LAK cell activity against NK-resistant Raji cells were examined by 51Cr release assay. Overall lifestyles were evaluated according to the answers on a questionnaire regarding eight health practices (cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, eating breakfast, hours of sleep, hours of work, physical exercise, nutritional balance, mental stress). Subjects with a good overall lifestyle showed significantly higher NK cell (P mental status had significantly lower NK cell activity than those who reported stable mental status. When subjects were divided into four groups by lifestyle and mental health status, subjects who had poor or moderate lifestyle and reported unstable mental status showed the lowest NK cell activity and subjects who had good lifestyle and reported stable mental status showed the highest NK cell activity among four groups.
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Many Iranian families manage to keep pets at home. Examining psychological consequences and personality traits of pet owners is important. The aim of this study was to examine mental health status and personality traits of pet owners. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive study, 612 pet owners (143 cat owners, 162 dog owners, 155 bird owners and 152 other pet owners were asked to complete General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and IPIP Personality Scale from January to December 2006. Results: Bird owners had the highest (234 cases (38.3% and other pet owners had the lowest (129 cases (42.3% mental health problems. In general, 188 cases (30.7% of all groups had mental health problems. 122 cases (20% of them had somatic compliance, 182 cases (29.7% had anxiety, 149 cases (24.3% had social dysfunction and 84 cases (13.7% had depression. Bird owners had significant high level of social dysfunction than other pet owners. With respect to personality traits, dog owners had low level of agreeableness and openness to experience than other groups. Other pet owners had high level of emotional stability than other groups. Conclusion: Contrary to other countries, it seems that having a pet in home enhances the probability of mental disorders in Iran. It is possible that lower mental health persons were keeping pets in Iran. In personality perspectives, dog owners are more disagreeable people and other pet owners are more emotionally stable ones.
Full Text Available Background: Mental health problems are more commonly seen in youth, more so in medical students. Physical activity though known to improve mental health is difficult to follow among medical students. Aims & Objectives: This study aimed to investigate self-reported levels of anxiety and depression and compare these with self-reported physical activity among medical students in an institution of India. Material & Methods: A Cross sectional study was done among 430 medical students and interns of a medical college of rural Karnataka, India. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ were administered to assess mental health status and physical activity levels respectively. Results: The prevalence of anxiety (65.1%, depression (39.5% and anxiety with depression (34.4% was high among medical students. Only 18.1% of students were highly active while 35.9% were inactive when physical activity levels were measured. Students who were highly active and minimally active in physical activity showed lower levels of depression and anxiety compared to low physical activity group. Conclusion: Mental health problems are high and physical activity levels are low among medical undergraduate students. Engagement in physical activity can be an important contributory factor in positive mental health of future doctors.
Eussen, S.J.P.M.; Ferry, M.; Haller, J.; Matthys, C.; Dirren, H.
OBJECTIVE: To describe 5-year changes of mental health in SENECA participants, and to examine whether mental health is associated with the status of vitamin B12 and folate. DESIGN: A longitudinal, multicentre study including a Baseline study, a Follow-up study, and a Finale study. SUBJECTS:
Mock, Steven E.; Arai, Susan M.
Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typ...
Cruz-Oliver, D M; Malmstrom, T K; Allen, C M; Tumosa, N; Morley, J E
To evaluate predictive validity of cognitive dysfunction of the Saint Louis University mental status (SLUMS) exam or mini-mental state exam (MMSE) for institutionalization and mortality after 7.5-years. Longitudinal study. Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center Veterans Affairs Hospital St. Louis, MO. Patients (N=705) were screened for cognitive dysfunction in 2003 using the SLUMS exam and MMSE, and mortality and institutionalization up to 7.5-years later were evaluated as outcome measures. The associations between outcome measures and MMSE and SLUMS exam total scores, and cognitive status were examined using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional-hazards regression. Five hundred thirty-three charts were reviewed, 176/533(33%) patients had died and 31/526 (6%) were institutionalized during 7.5-year follow-up period. All subjects were male with a mean age of 75 years and most had high school education or greater (71%). MMSE dementia, SLUMS dementia (ps<.001) and MCI (p<.05) groups had significantly lower survival rates than normal cognition group in the Kaplan-Meier curves. Scores classified as dementia on SLUMS (HR=2.4, 95% CI 1.6-3.7; p <.001) or MMSE (HR=2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.6; p <.001) both predicted mortality and, also, institutionalization (SLUMS: HR=3.5, 95% CI 1.3-9.1; p <.01; MMSE: HR=3.8, 95% CI 1.6-9.0; p <.001) after adjustment for covariates. Unadjusted SLUMS exam MCI predicted morality (HR=1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.2; p <.019) but not institutionalization. The SLUMS exam and MMSE both predict mortality and institutionalization for male patients screened as positive for dementia.
Wand, Anne; Wand, Timothy
Most postgraduate training for clinicians in Australia and New Zealand regarding mental health legislation focuses on the relevant Mental Health Acts (MHAs) rather than the broader principles of mental health law. Key concepts include treatment in the least restrictive environment, voluntary access to mental health services, treatability, reciprocity and due process. Lack of awareness of these principles may result in a more risk-averse interpretation of MHAs, which is inconsistent with the spirit of mental health law and the promotion of human rights. The aim of this paper is to present some fundamental principles of mental health law, which are essential to proper clinical application of MHAs, and to demonstrate why they should form part of the curriculum for psychiatry training and continuing professional development for psychiatrists. A sound understanding of the principles of mental health law is essential for all clinicians who may be enacting aspects of MHAs. This provides the necessary platform to safeguard human rights and optimise the care of people with a mental illness.
Full Text Available There is growing interest in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES, poverty, and mental health in low and middle-income countries (LMIC. However, it is not clear whether a gradient approach focused on a wider SES distribution or a binary poverty approach is more salient for mental health in LMIC. Yet this distinction has implications for interventions aimed at improving population health. We contribute to the literature by examining how multiple indicators of socioeconomic status, including gradient SES and binary poverty indicators, contribute to prenatal depression symptoms in a LMIC context. Prenatal depression is an important public health concern with negative sequela for the mother and her children. We use data on assets, education, food insecurity, debt, and depression symptoms from a sample of 1154 pregnant women residing in rural Pakistan. Women who screened positive for depression participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial of a perinatal depression intervention; all women were interviewed October 2015-February 2016, prior to the start of the intervention. Cluster-specific sampling weights were used to approximate a random sample of pregnant women in the area. Findings indicate that fewer assets, experiencing food insecurity, and having household debt are independently associated with worse depression symptoms. The association with assets is linear with no evidence of a threshold effect, supporting the idea of a gradient in the association between levels of SES and depression symptoms. A gradient was also initially observed with woman’s educational attainment, but this association was attenuated once other SES variables were included in the model. Together, the asset, food insecurity, and debt indicators explain 14% of the variance in depression symptoms, more than has been reported in high income country studies. These findings support the use of multiple SES indicators to better elucidate the complex
Jones, Andrew D
This study sought to determine the association of individual-level food insecurity (FI) with mental health status across all global regions. Cross-sectional data were analyzed in 2016 from the 2014 Gallup World Poll, a series of globally implemented, nationally representative surveys. FI was assessed using the Food Insecurity Experience Scale Survey Module for Individuals, an eight-question psychometric scale reporting individuals' experiences of FI. Individual-level composite indices of mental health, the Negative Experience Index and Positive Experience Index (0-100 scale), were calculated based on responses to five questions of respondents' recent negative and positive experiences, respectively, associated with depression and mental distress. The prevalence of any FI ranged from 18.3% in East Asia to 76.1% in Sub-Saharan Africa. In global analyses (149 countries) using adjusted multiple regression analyses, FI was associated in a dose-response fashion with poorer scores on the mental health indices (coefficient [95% CI]: Negative Experience Index: mild FI, 10.4 [9.5, 11.2]; moderate FI, 17.7 [16.4, 19.0]; severe FI, 24.5 [22.7, 26.3]; Positive Experience Index: mild FI, -8.3 [-9.3, -7.4]; moderate FI, -12.6 [-13.8, -11.3]; severe FI, -16.2 [-17.9, -14.5]). Within-region analyses (11 regions) consistently demonstrated the same trends. FI is associated with poorer mental health and specific psychosocial stressors across global regions independent of SES. The numerous pathways via which FI may contribute to common mental disorders, and the broad social implications of FI linked to cultural norms and self-efficacy, may contribute to the cross-cultural consistency of the findings. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wangel, Anne-Marie; Schei, Berit; Ryding, Elsa Lena
OBJECTIVES: To describe mental health status in native and non-native Swedish-speaking pregnant women and explore risk factors of depression and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted at midwife-based antenatal clinics in South......OBJECTIVES: To describe mental health status in native and non-native Swedish-speaking pregnant women and explore risk factors of depression and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted at midwife-based antenatal clinics...... in Southern Sweden. SAMPLE: A non-selected group of women in mid-pregnancy. METHODS: Participants completed a questionnaire covering background characteristics, social support, life events, mental health variables and the short Edinburgh Depression Scale. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Depressive symptoms during...... the past week and PTS symptoms during the past year. RESULTS: Out of 1003 women, 21.4% reported another language than Swedish as their mother tongue and were defined as non-native. These women were more likely to be younger, have fewer years of education, potential financial problems, and lack of social...
Yoon, Hyun-Suk; Cho, Young-Chae
The present study was intended to assess the mental health of nurses working for university hospitals and to establish which factors determine their mental health. Self-administered questionnaires were given to 1,486 nurses employed in six participating hospitals located in Daejeon City and Chungnam Province between July 1st and August 31st, 2006. The questionnaire items included sociodemographic, job-related, and psychosocial factors, with job stress factors (JCQ) as independent variables and indices of mental health status (PWI, SDS and MFS) as dependent variables. For statistical analysis, the Chi-square test was used for categorical variables, with hierarchical multiple regression used for determining the factors effecting mental health. The influence of psychosocial and job-related factors on mental health status was assessed by covariance structure analysis. The statistical significance was set at pnurses included sociodemographic characteristics such as age, number of hours of sleep, number of hours of leisure, and subjective health status; job-related characteristics such as status, job satisfaction, job suitability, stresses such as demands of the job, autonomy, and coworker support; and psychosocial factors such as self-esteem, locus of control and type A behavior patterns. Psychosocial factors had the greatest impact on mental health. Covariance structure analysis determined that psychosocial factors affected job stress levels and mental health status, and that the lower job stress levels were associated with better mental health. Based on the study results, improvement of mental health status among nurses requires the development and application of programs to manage job stress factors and/or psychosocial factors as well as sociodemographic and job-related characteristics.
Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition is one of major public health problem in Indonesia. Prevalence of malnutrition in Indonesia in 2005 was 23.8% and in the Province of Yogyakarta Special Territory in 2002 was 15%. District of Sleman had prevalence of malnutrition as much as 11.39% and Cangkringan as one of heavy iodine deficiency disorder endemic areas at district level had 12.5% of malnutrition prevalence. Children at iodine deficiency disorder endemic areas might likely have growth and development disorder. Objective: To identify relationship between nutritional status and mental psychomotoric development of children of 12 to 24 months old at iodine deficiency disorder endemic areas. Method: The study was observational with cross sectional design carried out at Subdistrict of Cangkringan, District of Sleman. Subjects of the study were 75 children aged 12–24 months chosen by using consecutive sampling technique. Dependent variables of the study were mental and psychomotoric development, independent variable was nutritional status of children based on anthropometry with length/age indicator. Confounding variables were birth weight, mothers’ iodine status, level of education, job and family economic status. Other independent variable affecting nutritional status of children was mothers’ height. Data were analysed using chi square, Fisher’s exact test, and independent t-test. Results: Prevalence of low nutritional status was 13.33%. Children with normal nutritional status had average mental development index (MDI 2.49 points and psychomotoric development index (PDI 5.37 points higher than those with low nutritional status. However, relationship between nutritional status and mental and psychomotoric development was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Relationship between nutritional status and mental and psychomotoric development of children of 12–24 months old was not statistically significant. Children with normal nutritional status tended
Hakime Nogay, Nalan
To assess the nutritional status of mentally disabled children in Turkey on the basis of anthropometric indicators and dietary intake. The sample of the study consisted of 77 mentally disabled children with ages between 10 and 18 years. The body mass index and body fat ratios of the children were calculated by measuring their body weight, height, and the skinfold thickness of their triceps and subscapular. Their three-day nutrition consumption was recorded in order to determine their nutrient intake. When the body weights of the children were evaluated according to their ages, 14.3% of the children were found to be thin. The shortness rate among the participants was 28.6%. The shortness ratio was found to increase with age and girls had a higher inclination for shortness than boys. The ratios of those with ≤5(th) percentile upper middle arm circumference were 32.7% in the 10-13 age group, and 36.0% in the 14-18 age group. The folic acid and calcium intakes of girls in the 10-13 age group, and the calcium intakes of boys in the 10-13 age group were under the suggested values. In the 14-18 age group the vit C and calcium intakes of girls and the calcium intakes of boys were under the recommended values. The prevalence of malnutrition is high among mentally disabled children. In order to raise their quality of life, mentally disabled children must be provided with sufficient nutritional support.
James M Nonnemaker
Full Text Available Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1 assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2 determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation behavior across subgroups. We used data from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey (NY-ATS, a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in New York State conducted quarterly from 2003 through 2011 (N = 53,706. The sample for this study consists of 9,408 current smokers from the total NY-ATS sample. Regression methods were used to examine the effect of New York State's antismoking advertising, overall and by advertisement type (graphic and/or emotional, on making a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Exposure to antismoking advertising was measured in two ways: gross rating points (a measure of potential exposure and self-reported confirmed recall of advertisements. This study yields three important findings. First, antismoking advertising promotes quit attempts among racial/ethnic minority smokers and smokers of lower education and income. Second, advertising effectiveness is attributable in part to advertisements with strong graphic imagery or negative emotion. Third, smokers with poor mental health do not appear to benefit from exposure to antismoking advertising of any type. This study contributes to the evidence about how cessation media campaigns can be used most effectively to increase quit attempts within vulnerable subgroups. In particular, it suggests that a general campaign can promote cessation among a range of sociodemographic groups. More research is needed to understand what message strategies might work for
Nonnemaker, James M.; Allen, Jane A.; Davis, Kevin C.; Kamyab, Kian; Duke, Jennifer C.; Farrelly, Matthew C.
Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation behavior across subgroups. We used data from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey (NY-ATS), a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in New York State conducted quarterly from 2003 through 2011 (N = 53,706). The sample for this study consists of 9,408 current smokers from the total NY-ATS sample. Regression methods were used to examine the effect of New York State’s antismoking advertising, overall and by advertisement type (graphic and/or emotional), on making a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Exposure to antismoking advertising was measured in two ways: gross rating points (a measure of potential exposure) and self-reported confirmed recall of advertisements. This study yields three important findings. First, antismoking advertising promotes quit attempts among racial/ethnic minority smokers and smokers of lower education and income. Second, advertising effectiveness is attributable in part to advertisements with strong graphic imagery or negative emotion. Third, smokers with poor mental health do not appear to benefit from exposure to antismoking advertising of any type. This study contributes to the evidence about how cessation media campaigns can be used most effectively to increase quit attempts within vulnerable subgroups. In particular, it suggests that a general campaign can promote cessation among a range of sociodemographic groups. More research is needed to understand what message strategies might work for those with
Nonnemaker, James M; Allen, Jane A; Davis, Kevin C; Kamyab, Kian; Duke, Jennifer C; Farrelly, Matthew C
Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation behavior across subgroups. We used data from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey (NY-ATS), a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in New York State conducted quarterly from 2003 through 2011 (N = 53,706). The sample for this study consists of 9,408 current smokers from the total NY-ATS sample. Regression methods were used to examine the effect of New York State's antismoking advertising, overall and by advertisement type (graphic and/or emotional), on making a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Exposure to antismoking advertising was measured in two ways: gross rating points (a measure of potential exposure) and self-reported confirmed recall of advertisements. This study yields three important findings. First, antismoking advertising promotes quit attempts among racial/ethnic minority smokers and smokers of lower education and income. Second, advertising effectiveness is attributable in part to advertisements with strong graphic imagery or negative emotion. Third, smokers with poor mental health do not appear to benefit from exposure to antismoking advertising of any type. This study contributes to the evidence about how cessation media campaigns can be used most effectively to increase quit attempts within vulnerable subgroups. In particular, it suggests that a general campaign can promote cessation among a range of sociodemographic groups. More research is needed to understand what message strategies might work for those with poor
Vukojević, Mladenka; Zovko, Ana; Talić, Ivana; Tanović, Merima; Rešić, Biserka; Vrdoljak, Ivana; Splavski, Bruno
Parental socioeconomic status is a multidimensional concept of special importance for the growth, development, health outcomes and education of children. Its definition generally refers to the amount of parents' income, their employment status and level of education. Hence, lack of economic resources and poverty of parents affect all aspects of the child's life, health outcomes and education, as well as his/her social inclusion. Accordingly, the consequences of a reduced parental socioeconomic status leave long-term effects on their children. Therefore, in order to create interventional programs for children of parents with low income and lower socioeconomic status, as well as with lower level of education, it is important to address the direct aspects of poverty. This review contributes to the evidence indicating that the parental socioeconomic status is highly influential in determining the child's physical and mental health and future outcomes including his/her academic achievements and education, as well as the parameters of his/her physical abilities, cognitive function and fundamental neurobiology affecting brain development.
Yang, Tingzhong; Xu, Xiaochao; Li, Mu; Rockett, Ian R H; Zhu, Waner; Ellison-Barnes, Alejandra
To explore mental health status and related characteristics in a sample of Chinese male rural-urban migrants. Subjects were 1,595 male rural-urban migrant workers selected though a multi-stage sample survey conducted in two cities (Hangzhou and Guangzhou). Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Both life and work stressors were examined. Stress and mental health status were measured by the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS) and the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ), respectively. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with probable mental disorders. There are approximately 120 million rural-urban migrants in China. The prevalence of probable mental disorders in the sample population was 24.4% (95% CI: 23.3-25.5%), which was higher than among urban residents (20.2%, 95% CI: 18.8-21.7%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that five characteristics were positively associated with risk for probable mental disorders: originating in the South (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.02, 4.00), higher life stress (OR = 7.63; 95% CI = 5.88, 10.00), staying in the city for 5-9 months each year (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.67, 3.85), higher work stress (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.96, 3.33), and separation from wife (OR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.61, 3.57). Employment in machinery and transportation (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.36, 0.81) and higher self-worth (OR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.28, 0.62) were negatively associated. Findings support an urgent need to develop specific policies and programs to address mental health problems among Chinese rural-urban migrants.
Akiyama, Takeshi; Win, Thar; Maung, Cynthia; Ray, Paw; Sakisaka, Kayako; Tanabe, Aya; Kobayashi, Jun; Jimba, Masamine
In Tak province of Thailand, a number of adolescent students who migrated from Burma have resided in the boarding houses of migrant schools. This study investigated mental health status and its relationship with perceived social support among such students. This cross-sectional study surveyed 428 students, aged 12-18 years, who lived in boarding houses. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL)-37 A, Stressful Life Events (SLE) and Reactions of Adolescents to Traumatic Stress (RATS) questionnaires were used to assess participants' mental health status and experience of traumatic events. The Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Social Support Survey Scale was used to measure their perceived level of social support. Descriptive analysis was conducted to examine the distribution of sociodemographic characteristics, trauma experiences, and mental health status. Further, multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between such characteristics and participants' mental health status. In total, 771 students were invited to participate in the study and 428 students chose to take part. Of these students, 304 completed the questionnaire. A large proportion (62.8%) indicated that both of their parents lived in Myanmar, while only 11.8% answered that both of their parents lived in Thailand. The mean total number of traumatic events experienced was 5.7 (standard deviation [SD] 2.9), mean total score on the HSCL-37A was 63.1 (SD 11.4), and mean total score on the RATS was 41.4 (SD 9.9). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that higher number of traumatic events was associated with more mental health problems. Many students residing in boarding houses suffered from poor mental health in Thailand's Tak province. The number of traumatic experiences reported was higher than expected. Furthermore, these traumatic experiences were associated with poorer mental health status. Rather than making a generalized assumption on the mental health status of
Klanšček, Helena Jeriček; Ziberna, Janina; Korošec, Aleš; Zurc, Joca; Albreht, Tit
Mental health inequalities are an increasingly important global problem. This study examined the association between mental health status and certain socioeconomic indicators (personal social position and the socioeconomic status of the family) in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents. Data originate from the WHO-Collaborative cross-national 'Health Behavior in School-aged Children' study conducted in Slovenia in 2010 (1,815 secondary school pupils, aged 15). Mental health status was measured by: KIDSCREEN-10, the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), a life satisfaction scale, and one question about feelings of depression. Socioeconomic position was measured by the socioeconomic status of the family (Family Affluence Scale, perceived material welfare, family type, occupational status of parents) and personal social position (number of friends and the type of school). Logistic regression and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed. Girls had 2.5-times higher odds of suffering feelings of depression (p mental health than those with a higher socioeconomic position. Because of the financial crisis, we can expect an increase in social inequalities and a greater impact on adolescents' mental health status in Slovenia in the future.
Full Text Available Nasrin Abdoli,1,2 Vahid Farnia,3 Ali Delavar,4 Alirez Esmaeili,5 Fariborz Dortaj,4 Noorali Farrokhi,4 Majid Karami,6 Jalal Shakeri,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,7 Serge Brand7,8 1International University of Imam Reza, Mashhad, 2Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 3Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Psychiatry Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 4Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, 5Police University, Tehran, 6Baharestan Research Center, Kermanshah Transportation Terminal, Kermanshah, Iran, 7Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Basel, 8Department of Sport and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally driver behavior rather than either technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In the present study, we explored the extent to which aggressive traits, health status, and sociodemographic variables explain driving behavior among Iranian male traffic offenders. Method: A total of 443 male driving offenders (mean age: M =31.40 years, standard deviation =9.56 from Kermanshah (Iran took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering sociodemographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results: Poor health status, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction, and also higher levels of trait aggression explained poor driving behavior. Multiple regressions indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion: Results suggest that health status concerns are associated with poor driving behavior. Prevention and intervention might therefore focus on drivers reporting poor mental health status
Kobau, Rosemarie; Zack, Matthew M
We examined how attitudes toward mental illness treatment and its course differ by serious psychological distress, mental illness treatment, chronic disease, and sociodemographic factors using representative state-based data. Using data from jurisdictions supporting the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System's Mental Illness and Stigma Module (35 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico), we compared adjusted proportions of adults agreeing that "Treatment can help people with mental illness lead normal lives" (treatment effectiveness) and that "People are generally caring and sympathetic to people with mental illness" (supportive environment), by demographic characteristics, serious psychological distress, chronic disease status, and mental illness treatment. Attitudes regarding treatment effectiveness and a supportive environment for people with mental illness varied within and between groups. Most adults receiving mental illness treatment agreed that treatment is effective. Fewer adults with serious psychological distress than those without such distress agreed that treatment is effective. Fewer of those receiving treatment, those with psychological distress, and those with chronic disease perceived the environment as supportive. These data can be used to target interventions for population subgroups with less favorable attitudes and for surveillance.
Arruda, Marco A; Querido, Cícero Nardini; Bigal, Marcelo E; Polanczyk, Guilherme V
To assess the prevalence of ADHD, mental health status, and risk factors in a sample of Brazilian children. Target sample consisted of all children from 5 to 13 years registered in the public elementary school. Children with ADHD were compared with those without ADHD for sociodemographic, risk factors, and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) symptom dimensions. Multivariate models estimated determinants of ADHD diagnosis. Of the target sample, consents and complete information were obtained from 1,830 children (91.8%). The prevalence rate of ADHD was 5.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = [4.2, 6.2]). In contrast to controls, children with ADHD presented higher levels of symptoms in the CBCL dimensions. In multivariate analyses, the diagnosis of ADHD was significantly influenced by maternal educational status (p = .019), income class (p = .012), and prenatal exposure to tobacco (p = .032). Prevalence and demographic features of ADHD in Brazil are similar to what has been reported worldwide. © 2012 SAGE Publications.
Hawley, Lisa D.; MacDonald, Michael G.; Wallace, Erica H.; Smith, Julia; Wummel, Brian; Wren, Patricia A.
Objective: A campus-wide assessment examined the physical and mental health status of a midsize midwestern public university. Participants: Two thousand and forty-nine students, faculty, and staff on a single college campus were assessed in March-April 2013. Methods: Participants completed an online survey with sections devoted to demographics,…
Odin van der Stelt
Full Text Available Markedly raised incidence rates of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders have been observed in several migrant and ethnic minority groups. To contribute to a better understanding of the elevated risk for psychotic disorders that is conferred by migration status, the present study examined effects associated with migration risk status on schizotypal personality traits, which are thought to reflect an underlying vulnerability to psychotic disorder. Effects of migration status were also compared to effects associated with a family history of psychopathology, which represents a robust nonspecific risk factor. We assessed schizotypal traits, using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, in a community-based sample of 62 Moroccan migrants and 41 Dutch nonmigrants, who were classified by the presence or absence of a family history of psychopathology. Overall, Moroccan migrants obtained higher SPQ scores than Dutch nonmigrants. However, migrants who had been classified as having a familial load of psychopathology displayed higher SPQ scores than migrants without such a family history, who in turn did not differ from Dutch nonmigrants. Furthermore, migrants with a familial load, relative to migrants without such a family history, reported higher levels of substance use and feelings of anxiety or depression, and perceived more often ethnic discrimination, which closely paralleled their SPQ scores. These findings indicate that primarily those migrants who are both intrinsically vulnerable and chronically exposed to social adversity, particularly ethnic discrimination, are at elevated risk for psychotic and other disorders. The results add to the evidence that migration status and perceived discrimination are associated with mental health.
Emerson, E; Brigham, P
The authors sought to: (1) estimate the prevalence of health behaviours, mental health and exposure to social determinants of poorer health among parents with and without intellectual disability; and (2) determine the extent to which between-group differences in health behaviours/status may be attributable to differential exposure to social determinants of poorer health. Cross sectional survey. Secondary analysis of confidentialized needs analysis data collected in three Primary Care Trusts in England on 46,023 households with young children. Households containing a parent with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk of: (1) poorer parental mental health, parental drug and alcohol abuse and smoking; (2) exposure to a range of environmental adversities. Controlling for the latter eliminated the increased risk of poorer health for single parent households headed by a person with intellectual disabilities. For two parent headed households, risk of poorer parental mental health remained elevated. The poorer health of parents with intellectual disability may be accounted for by their markedly greater risk of exposure to common social determinants of poorer health rather than being directly attributable to their intellectual disability. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sinha, Atreyee; Ram, Faujdar
In South Asian countries like India, family system lays a strong foundation in societies and therefore, the context and consequences of single parent family structures are markedly different from that of the West. In these societies single parenthood is mainly an outcome of untimely death of any one of the parents. This study tried to examine the influence of parents' survival status on the mental health of youth in India. "Youth in India: situation and Needs (2006-2007)" survey data was used in the present study. We compared two groups of unmarried young population aged 15-24 y (n = 28 637): one having both parents alive and another having only one parent alive. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were applied to analyze the data. Results revealed that around 11% of the unmarried youth belonged to single parent families. Findings underscored a significant association between parent's survival and mental health of youth; respondents from single parent families were more likely to report metal health problems Moreover, effects of parents' survival were significant on females' mental health rather than males'. Policies must focus on reducing stress of young people growing up in single parent families through enhanced educational and employment opportunities.
Full Text Available Background: Sufficient level of physical activity may promote overall and mental health of old people. This study was carried out to investigate the practicability of a physical activity promotion initiative amongst institutionalized older people in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: Purposive sampling method was used in this semi-experimental study to recruit 31 older people living in a selected residential care in Tabriz. Moderate-intensity aerobic and muscle-strengthening activity was planned for those who had not severe baseline cognitive impairment or were not too frail to undertake the survey. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 was used to measure mental health status before and after intervention through a face-to-face interview. Descriptive statistics, Wilkcoxon rank-sum, Mann–Whitney U and Chi-Square tests were employed to analyses the data. Results: The applied intervention was significantly improved status of physical health, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression. Conclusion: Incorporation of physical activity promotion programs into routines of older people residential care homes in Iran is feasible but may need training of physical activity specialists to work with older people based on their physical endurance and limitations.
Rueda, Sergio; Raboud, Janet; Mustard, Cameron; Bayoumi, Ahmed; Lavis, John N; Rourke, Sean B
To evaluate the relationship between employment status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in HIV/AIDS. A total of 361 participants provided baseline data in the context of an ongoing cohort study examining the natural history of neurobehavioral functioning and its effects on HRQOL. We administered tests and collected laboratory data to determine demographic status, HIV disease markers, psychosocial symptom burden, neurocognitive function and HRQOL (MOS-HIV). We performed regression analyses to evaluate the contribution of employment status to the physical and mental health components of quality of life (QOL). Multivariate analyses showed that employment status was strongly related to better physical and mental health QOL after controlling for potential confounders. We found, however, that employment status had a greater impact on physical health than mental health QOL [physical health (β = 6.8, 95% CI 4.6 to 9.1) and mental health QOL (β = 3.3, 95% CI 0.93 to 5.7)]. The effect of employment for physical health QOL was stronger than that observed for ethnicity, social support, or having an AIDS diagnosis and was comparable to that observed with having many HIV-related symptoms. This cross-sectional study suggests that there may be physical and mental health benefits associated with obtaining or keeping employment, or more likely that both selection and causation mechanisms comprise an interactional and reinforcing process.
Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Zamorski, Mark A; Colman, Ian
We examined the overlap between mood and anxiety disorders and psychological distress and their associations with functional status in Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel. Data on Regular Forces personnel ( N = 6700) were derived from the 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey, a nationally representative survey of the CAF personnel. Current psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler K10 scale. Past-month mood and anxiety disorders were assessed using the World Health Organization World Mental Health Composite Diagnostic Interview. The prevalence of psychological distress was the same as that of any past-month mood or anxiety disorder (7.1% for each). A total of 3.8% had both distress and past-month mood or anxiety disorder, 3.3% had past-month disorder without psychological distress, while another 3.3% had psychological distress in the absence of a past-month mood or anxiety disorder. After adjusting for age, sex, marital, education, income, language, element, rank, and alcohol use disorder, individuals with both psychological distress and past-month mood and anxiety disorders exhibited the highest levels of disability, days out of role, and work absenteeism relative to those with neither mental disorders nor psychological distress. Relative to individuals with both disorder and distress, those who endured distress in the absence of mental disorder exhibited lower, but meaningful, levels of disability compared with those with neither disorder nor distress. Disability is most severe among CAF personnel with both distress and past-month mood and anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, distress in the absence of disorder is prevalent and is associated with meaningful levels of disability.
Full Text Available Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in south-east Asia and is still emerging from the events of the Khmer Rouge reign. It has been suggested that the atrocities experienced by the Cambodian population can explain why Cambodia continues to lag behind its neighbours in economic outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is an association between exposure to past trauma and/or current poor mental health and current economic status in Cambodia.A newly conducted survey performed in two regions (north-west and south-east Cambodia collected information on trauma exposure, psychiatric symptoms, self-rated health outcomes and socio-economic information for 3200 persons aged 18-60. Economic outcomes were measured as household debt and poverty status and whether the respondent was economically inactive. All models were analysed using logistic regression.No association was found between high exposure to conflict-related or civilian trauma and any economic outcomes save for a negative association between civilian trauma and poverty in the south-east. Current post-traumatic stress was related solely to poverty status. All other measures of current mental health status, however, were found to be strongly negatively associated with all measures of economic status. Thus, mental health interventions could potentially be utilised in poverty reduction strategies, but greater efficacy is likely to be achieved by targeting current mental health status rather than previous trauma exposure.
Jarl, Johan; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Chak, Thida; Sunbaunat, Ka; Larsson, Charlotte A
Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in south-east Asia and is still emerging from the events of the Khmer Rouge reign. It has been suggested that the atrocities experienced by the Cambodian population can explain why Cambodia continues to lag behind its neighbours in economic outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is an association between exposure to past trauma and/or current poor mental health and current economic status in Cambodia. A newly conducted survey performed in two regions (north-west and south-east Cambodia) collected information on trauma exposure, psychiatric symptoms, self-rated health outcomes and socio-economic information for 3200 persons aged 18-60. Economic outcomes were measured as household debt and poverty status and whether the respondent was economically inactive. All models were analysed using logistic regression. No association was found between high exposure to conflict-related or civilian trauma and any economic outcomes save for a negative association between civilian trauma and poverty in the south-east. Current post-traumatic stress was related solely to poverty status. All other measures of current mental health status, however, were found to be strongly negatively associated with all measures of economic status. Thus, mental health interventions could potentially be utilised in poverty reduction strategies, but greater efficacy is likely to be achieved by targeting current mental health status rather than previous trauma exposure.
SummaryBackground and purpose: Major changes occur in an individuals life after his acceptance in the university which cloud be considered as every important period of his life. This new condition is stressful and can affect the newly admitted student’s mental health. In this article we analyze the mental health status of newly admitted students to Mazandaran university of medical sciences in the academic year 1999-2000.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study all the newl...
Krattenmacher, Thomas; Kühne, Franziska; Führer, Daniel; Beierlein, Volker; Brähler, Elmar; Resch, Franz; Klitzing, Kai v; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Bergelt, Corinna; Romer, Georg; Möller, Birgit
Parental cancer increases the risk of psychosocial problems in adolescents. We investigated the frequency and efficacy of adolescents' coping strategies and relationships between those strategies and mental health status. Age and gender differences regarding coping and mental health were also investigated. In total, 214 adolescents from 167 families participated in a cross-sectional, multicenter study. All participants were recruited from standard oncological care. Among the participants, 52% utilized a child-centered intervention program. Adolescents' coping skills were measured using KIDCOPE. Mental health status was rated by adolescents and parents by the SDQ for symptomatology and the KIDSCREEN for well-being. We found that 29% of the adolescents showed emotional and behavioral problems. We found gender differences in mental health status but not in coping. Adolescents used a broad spectrum of coping strategies. Active problem-solving, distraction, acceptance, wishful thinking and seeking social support were the most frequently used coping strategies. The utilization of certain coping skills was mediated by their perceived efficacy. Problem-focused or approach-oriented coping strategies generally are associated with better mental health, while avoidance-oriented coping are associated with worse mental health. Emotion-focused coping was associated with both lower and higher mental health. The strategies used by adolescents to cope with parental cancer are associated with their mental health. Problem-solving and approach-oriented coping strategies should be facilitated by psychological interventions regardless of age and gender. Age and gender differences in adolescents' mental health should be further investigated because these differences are not explained by differences in coping strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ABSTRACT: Background: Economic recessions pose significant risks to individuals’ mental health and well-being. Common mental disorders are already highly prevalent in Europe, and more so in Portugal. Thus, changes in macroeconomic conditions are likely to aggravate this scenario. The exponential and rapid increase of unemployment is a particular consequence of the economic recession that has been proven to have a detrimental effect on mental health and well-being at both individual and popula...
Finno-Velasquez, Megan; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Dettlaff, Alan J; Hurlburt, Michael S
Latino families may be at risk of experiencing stressors resulting from the immigration process, such as those related to documentation status and acculturation, that may increase their need for mental health services. However, little research exists on the mental health needs and service use of Latino children. This study examined how parental nativity and legal status influence mental health needs and service utilization among children in Latino families investigated by child welfare. Data from the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a nationally representative, prospective study of families investigated by child welfare agencies for maltreatment, were used to examine mental health need and service use in a subset of Latino children who remained in the home following a maltreatment investigation (N=390). Although children of immigrants did not differ from children of U.S.-born parents in levels of clinical need, they had lower rates of mental health service receipt. After the analyses accounted for other relevant variables, the odds of receiving services were significantly lower (odds ratio=.09) for children whose parents were undocumented compared with children whose parents were U.S. citizens. This study contributes to growing discourse on Latino family needs within the child welfare system. Analyses support earlier research regarding the effects of parent nativity on mental health service use and advance the literature by identifying parent legal status as a unique barrier to child service receipt.
Morad Ali Zareipour
Full Text Available Background: The mental health of female prisoners as a high-risk group is very important. Evaluating their health needs has been neglected in most societies. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the relation between the type of crime committed and the mental health status of the female prisoners in Urmia province, Iran. Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 150 female prisoners in 2016. The standard questionnaire of general health with 28 questions and also a questionnaire including demographic information, the type of crime, and the conviction period were used in order to evaluate the mental health status. The collected information was analysed through SPSS16 and by using chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test and one-way ANOVA. Results: The results showed that 74% of the female prisoners were suspected to have mental disorder and the least of it was depression with 20.4 per cent being affected by it and the most severe mental disorder pertaining to social function with 78% being affected. Also, the prisoner who had committed murder or had been accomplices for murder, and those sentenced to death had the worst mental health. The statistical relation between mental health and the type of crime and the length of the sentence was significant and the odds ratio of mental disorders among women who were sentenced for murder and for being accomplices to murder was 2.4 times that of women who were convicted for crimes related to drugs. Conclusion: Considering the poor mental health of female prisoners and its relationship with the severity of the crime and the conviction period, it is necessary to make policies to promote mental health in prisoners in order to promote the other aspects of prisoners’ health and also to prevent the recurrence of crime after the discharge from prison.
Dolan, Matthew; Ngaruiya, Christine
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a rare but particularly malignant form of acute leukemia that is characterized by a rapid progression to fatal hemorrhage. Survival rates of patients with APL have increased with the introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), but early deaths caused by hemorrhage still persist. A man with undiagnosed APL presenting with focal neurologic findings and deteriorating altered mental status caused by an intracranial hemorrhage is discussed. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: It is important to consider APL when diagnosing etiologies for intracranial hemorrhage. In addition to standard care, early administration of ATRA is recommended upon clinical suspicion of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aparicio, Virginia A; Ortega, Francisco B; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Camiletti, Daniel; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel
To analyze the association of weight status with anxiety, depression, quality of life and physical fitness in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. The sample comprised 175 Spanish female FM patients (51.2 ± 7 years). We assessed quality of life by means of the Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF36) and anxiety and depression by means of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). We used standardized fieldbased fitness tests to assess cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, flexibility, agility, and static and dynamic balance. BMI was calculated and categorized using the international criteria. 33% of the sample was normal-weight, 35% overweight and 33% obese. HADS-anxiety and HADS-depression levels increased across the weight status categories. Obese patients had higher anxiety and depression levels compared to normal-weight patients (p < 0.05) whereas no differences were observed between overweight and obese patients. Physical functioning, bodily pain, general health (all p < 0.01) and mental health (p < 0.05) subscales from the SF36 were worse across the weight status categories. Likewise, levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, dynamic balance/motor agility (both p < 0.05) and upper-body flexibility (p < 0.001) decreased as the weight status increased. Pairwise comparisons showed significant differences mainly between the normal-weight versus obese groups. Obese female FM patients displayed higher levels of anxiety and depression and worse quality of life, cardiorespiratory fitness, dynamic balance/motor agility and upper-body flexibility than their normal-weight peers. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Niedhammer, Isabelle; David, Simone; Degioanni, Stéphanie; Drummond, Anne; Philip, Pierre; Acquarone, D; Aicardi, F; André-Mazeaud, P; Arsento, M; Astier, R; Baille, H; Bajon-Thery, F; Barre, E; Basire, C; Battu, J L; Baudry, S; Beatini, C; Beaud'huin, N; Becker, C; Bellezza, D; Beque, C; Bernstein, O; Beyssier, C; Blanc-Cascio, F; Blanchet, N; Blondel, C; Boisselot, R; Bordes-Dupuy, G; Borrelly, N; Bouhnik, D; Boulanger, M F; Boulard, J; Bourreau, P; Bourret, D; Boustière, A M; Breton, C; Bugeon, G; Buono-Michel, M; Canonne, J F; Capella, D; Cavin-Rey, M; Cervoni, C; Charreton, D; Charrier, D; Chauvin, M A; Chazal, B; Cougnot, C; Cuvelier, G; Dalivoust, G; Daumas, R; Debaille, A; De Bretteville, L; Delaforge, G; Delchambre, A; Domeny, L; Donati, Y; Ducord-Chapelet, J; Duran, C; Durand-Bruguerolle, D; Fabre, D; Faivre, A; Falleri, R; Ferrando, G; Ferrari-Galano, J; Flutet, M; Fouché, J P; Fournier, F; Freyder, E; Galy, M; Garcia, A; Gazazian, G; Gérard, C; Girard, F; Giuge, M; Goyer, C; Gravier, C; Guyomard, A; Hacquin, M C; Halimi, E; Ibagnes, T; Icart, P; Jacquin, M C; Jaubert, B; Joret, J P; Julien, J P; Kacel, M; Kesmedjian, E; Lacroix, P; Lafon-Borelli, M; Lallai, S; Laudicina, J; Leclercq, X; Ledieu, S; Leroy, J; Leroyer, L; Loesche, F; Londi, D; Longueville, J M; Lotte, M C; Louvain, S; Lozé, M; Maculet-Simon, M; Magallon, G; Marcelot, V; Mareel, M C; Martin, P; Masse, A M; Méric, M; Milliet, C; Mokhtari, R; Monville, A M; Muller, B; Obadia, G; Pelser, M; Peres, L; Perez, E; Peyron, M; Peyronnin, F; Postel, S; Presseq, P; Pyronnet, E; Quinsat, C; Raulot-Lapointe, H; Rigaud, P; Robert, F; Robert, O; Roger, K; Roussel, A; Roux, J P; Rubini-Remigy, D; Sabaté, N; Saccomano-Pertus, C; Salengro, B; Salengro-Trouillez, P; Samsom, E; Sendra-Gille, L; Seyrig, C; Stoll, G; Tarpinian, N; Tavernier, M; Tempesta, S; Terracol, H; Torresani, F; Triglia, M F; Vandomme, V; Vieillard, F; Vilmot, K; Vital, N
The association between workplace bullying and psychotropic drug use is not well established. This study was aimed at exploring the association between workplace bullying, and its characteristics, and psychotropic drug use and studying the mediating role of physical and mental health. The study population consisted of a random sample of 3132 men and 4562 women of the working population in the south-east of France. Workplace bullying, evaluated using the validated instrument elaborated by Leymann, and psychotropic drug use, as well as covariates, were measured using a self-administered questionnaire. Covariates included age, marital status, presence of children, education, occupation, working hours, night work, physico-chemical exposures at work, self-reported health, and depressive symptoms. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis and was carried out separately for men and women. Workplace bullying was strongly associated with psychotropic drug use. Past exposure to bullying increased the risk for this use. The more frequent and the longer the exposure to bullying, the stronger the association with psychotropic drug use. Observing bullying on someone else at the workplace was associated with psychotropic drug use. Adjustment for covariates did not modify the results. Additional adjustment for self-reported health and depressive symptoms reduced the magnitude of the associations, especially for men. The association between bullying and psychotropic drug use was found to be significant and strong and was partially mediated by physical and mental health.
Sleep deprivation is a critical public health problem, especially in Korean adolescents. This study aimed to identify the association between sleep duration and dietary behaviors, physical activity, mental status, and nutritional status among high school students in South Korea. Based on the data collected from the 2014 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, 31,407 high school students who met the inclusion criteria were selected and the association between sleep duration and selected health risk factors was identified using multivariable logistic regression models. The average daily sleep duration was 5.7 hours, and the mean BMI was 21.3 kg/m2. Participants with shorter durations of sleep (=7 hours of sleep) were more likely to feel sad or hopeless (adjusted OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.00-1.18), have suicidal ideation (adjusted OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.27), and feel much or very much stressed (adjusted OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.66-2.00). Moreover, shorter sleep was associated with less frequent muscle-strengthening exercises, >=3 times per week (adjusted OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.94), and more frequent cracker consumption, >=3 times per week (adjusted OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.13-1.35). High school students in South Korea suffer from extreme sleep deprivation; only 16% of the students were found to have >=7 hours of sleep during weekdays. Sleep education should be provided to students to improve their physical and mental health.
Hamden, Khalief; Agresti, Darin; Jeanmonod, Rebecca; Woods, Dexter; Reiter, Mark; Jeanmonod, Donald
Falls are a major cause of morbidity in the elderly. We describe the low-acuity elderly fall population and study which historical and clinical features predict traumatic intracranial injuries (ICIs). This is a prospective observational study of patients at least 65 years old presenting with fall to a tertiary care facility. Patients were eligible if they were at baseline mental status and were not triaged to the trauma bay. At presentation, a data form was completed by treating physicians regarding mechanism and position of fall, history of head strike, headache, loss of consciousness (LOC), and signs of head trauma. Radiographic imaging was obtained at the discretion of treating physicians. Medical records were subsequently reviewed to determine imaging results. All patients were called in follow-up at 30 days to determine outcome in those not imaged. The study was institutional review board approved. A total of 799 patients were enrolled; 79.5% of patients underwent imaging. Twenty-seven had ICIs (3.4%). Fourteen had subdural hematoma, 7 had subarachnoid hemorrhage, 3 had cerebral contusion, and 3 had a combination of injuries. Logistic regression demonstrated 2 study variables that were associated with ICIs: LOC (odds ratio, 2.8; confidence interval, 1.2-6.3) and signs of head trauma (odds ratio, 13.2; confidence interval, 2.7-64.1). History of head strike, mechanism and position, headache, and anticoagulant and antiplatelet use were not associated with ICIs. Elderly fall patients who are at their baseline mental status have a low incidence of ICIs. The best predictors of ICIs are physical findings of trauma to the head and history of LOC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lange, S; Quere, M; Shield, K; Rehm, J; Popova, S
To estimate the prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and while breastfeeding in Canada from 2003 to 2010, and to test the relation between self-perceived mental health status and alcohol consumption during pregnancy and while breastfeeding. Secondary analysis of four cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey, a population-based cross-sectional survey. Canada. A total of 18 612 pregnant and 15 836 breastfeeding women. The prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and while breastfeeding and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by province and territory, and cycle. The relation between self-perceived mental health status and alcohol consumption during pregnancy and while breastfeeding was explored using quasi-Poisson regression models. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and while breastfeeding, and self-perceived mental health status. In Canada, between 2003 and 2010, approximately one in every ten pregnant women (9.9%; 95%CI 9.2-10.5%) and two in every ten breastfeeding women (20.3%; 95%CI 19.4-21.2%) women consumed alcohol. Women with a lower self-perceived mental health status (i.e. 'good') were 1.40 (95%CI 1.18-1.67, P women with an 'excellent' self-perceived mental health. There were no notable differences between the categories of mental health status in regard to alcohol consumption while breastfeeding. Despite public health efforts in Canada, a significant proportion of pregnant and breastfeeding women consume alcohol. It is imperative that a standard screening protocol be initiated among pregnant and breastfeeding women, especially in high-risk populations (e.g. women utilising substance abuse treatment programs). In Canada in 2003-2010, approximately 10% of pregnant and 20% of breastfeeding women consumed alcohol. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Full Text Available During economic recession people with mental health problems have higher risk of losing their job. This paper analyses the issue by considering the Italian rates of unemployment amongst individuals with and without mental health problems in 2005 and 2013, that is prior and during the economic crisis.We used data from the National surveys on "Health conditions and use of health services" carried out by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT for the years 2005 and 2013. The surveys collected information on the health status and socioeconomic conditions of the Italian population. Self-reported unemployment status was analysed amongst individuals with and without reported mental health problems. In addition, descriptive statistics were performed in order to detect possible differences in the risk of unemployment within different regional contexts characterised by different socio-economic conditions.The recession determined increased disparities in unemployment rates between people with and without mental health problems. Regardless to the presence of mental health problems, young people were more likely to be unemployed. Among people who reported mental health problems, males were more likely to be unemployed than females. People with low education level were more likely to be unemployed, particularly during the recession and in presence of mental health problems. Changes in unemployment rates due to the crisis showed different patterns across different regions of the Country.These analyses confirm that in periods of economic crisis people with mental health problems are at risk of experiencing exclusion from labour market. In addition, the impact is even worse within the group with low education and younger age. These findings emphasise the importance of specific interventions aimed at promoting labour market participation and reintegration for people with mental health problems.
Starace, Fabrizio; Mungai, Francesco; Sarti, Elena; Addabbo, Tindara
Purpose During economic recession people with mental health problems have higher risk of losing their job. This paper analyses the issue by considering the Italian rates of unemployment amongst individuals with and without mental health problems in 2005 and 2013, that is prior and during the economic crisis. Methods We used data from the National surveys on “Health conditions and use of health services” carried out by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) for the years 2005 and 2013. The surveys collected information on the health status and socioeconomic conditions of the Italian population. Self-reported unemployment status was analysed amongst individuals with and without reported mental health problems. In addition, descriptive statistics were performed in order to detect possible differences in the risk of unemployment within different regional contexts characterised by different socio-economic conditions. Results The recession determined increased disparities in unemployment rates between people with and without mental health problems. Regardless to the presence of mental health problems, young people were more likely to be unemployed. Among people who reported mental health problems, males were more likely to be unemployed than females. People with low education level were more likely to be unemployed, particularly during the recession and in presence of mental health problems. Changes in unemployment rates due to the crisis showed different patterns across different regions of the Country. Conclusions These analyses confirm that in periods of economic crisis people with mental health problems are at risk of experiencing exclusion from labour market. In addition, the impact is even worse within the group with low education and younger age. These findings emphasise the importance of specific interventions aimed at promoting labour market participation and reintegration for people with mental health problems. PMID:28376098
Sánchez-Lastres, J; Eirís-Puñal, J; Otero-Cepeda, J L; Pavón-Belinchón, P; Castro-Gago, M
To evaluate the nutritional status of mentally retarded children in the region of Galicia in north-west Spain, on the basis of anthropometric variables. The following variables were determined in a sample of 128 mentally retarded children (81 M, 47 F): birthweight, bodyweight, height/length, head circumference, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, subscapular skinfold thickness, arm area, arm muscle area, arm fat area, arm lean-to-fat ratio, Shukla's nutrition index and Quetelet's body mass index (BMI). A preliminary statistical analysis indicated that most information content could be maintained considering only eight of these variables. A factor analysis of the resulting 8 x 128 (variables by subjects) data matrix was performed, identifying two factors (FA1 and FA2) that together explained 82% of total variance. Taking these factors as indicators of nutritional status, the data were analysed for possible effects of age, gender, socioeconomic and family environment, intelligence quotient (IQ), presence/absence of cerebral palsy, quality of diet, appetite and antiepileptic use. The analysis suggested that most subjects were in the normal nutrition range, but about 33% showed either borderline or definite malnutrition. Mean score on FA2 showed a significant negative correlation with age. Children with cerebral palsy had lower mean scores on both factors, and scores on both factors varied with IQ. Children with definite malnutrition had a significantly lower IQ than those in the normal nutrition range. Mean score on both factors varied with appetite and quality of diet. The mean FAI score of children from inland-rural areas was significantly lower than that of children from coastal or urban areas. Mean FA1 score increased with increasing age of the parents. The prevalence of obesity was 13% when obesity was defined on the basis of Shukla's nutrition index, and 19% when defined on the basis of FA1 score. Malnutrition as
Ladlow, Peter; Phillip, Rhodri; Etherington, John; Coppack, Russell; Bilzon, James; McGuigan, M Polly; Bennett, Alexander N
To evaluate the functional and mental health status of severely injured traumatic amputees from the United Kingdom military at the completion of their rehabilitation pathway and to compare these data with the published normative data. Retrospective independent group comparison of descriptive rehabilitation data recorded postrehabilitation. A military complex trauma rehabilitation center. Amputees (N=65; mean age, 29±6 y) were evaluated at the completion of their rehabilitation pathway; of these, 54 were operationally (combat) injured (23 unilateral, 23 bilateral, 8 triple) and 11 nonoperationally injured (all unilateral). Continuous ∼4-week inpatient, physician-led, interdisciplinary rehabilitation followed by ∼4-weeks of patient-led, home-based rehabilitation. The New Injury Severity Score at the point of injury was used as the baseline reference. The 6-minute walk test, Amputee Mobility Predictor with Prosthesis, Special Interest Group in Amputee Medicine, Defence Medical Rehabilitation Centre mobility and activity of daily living scores as well as depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder Scale-7), mental health support, and pain scores were recorded at discharge and compared with the published normative data. The mean New Injury Severity Score was 40±15. After 34±14 months of rehabilitation, amputees achieved a mean 6-minute walk distance of 489±117 m compared with age-matched normative distances of 459 to 738 m. The 2 unilateral groups walked (544 m) significantly further (P>.05) than did the bilateral amputee (445±104 m) and triple amputee (387±99 m) groups. All groups demonstrated mean functional mobility scores consistent with scores of either active adults or community ambulators with limb loss. In total, 85% could walk/run independently and 95% could walk and perform activities of daily living independently with an aid/adaptation. No significant difference in mental health outcome was reported between the
Cortès-Franch, Imma; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Benach, Joan; Artazcoz, Lucía
The growing demand for labour flexibility has resulted in decreasing employment stability that could be associated with poor mental health status. Few studies have analysed the whole of the work force in considering this association since research on flexible forms of employment traditionally analyses employed and unemployed people separately. The gender division of work, and family characteristics related to employment situation, could modify its association with mental wellbeing. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between a continuum of employment stability and mental health taking into account gender and partner/marital status. We selected 6859 men and 5106 women currently salaried or unemployed from the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey. Employment stability was measured through a continuum from the highest stability among employed to lowest probability of finding a stable job among the long-term unemployed. Mental health was measured with the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Logistic regression models were fitted for each combination of partner/marital status and gender. In all groups except among married women employment stability was related to poor mental health and a gradient between a continuum of employment stability and mental health status was found. For example, compared with permanent civil servants, married men with temporary contract showed an aOR = 1.58 (95%CI = 1.06-2.35), those working without a contract aOR = 2.15 (95%CI = 1.01-4.57) and aOR = 3.73 (95%CI = 2.43-5.74) and aOR = 5.35 (95%CI = 2.71-10.56) among unemployed of up to two years and more than two years, respectively. Among married and cohabiting people, the associations were stronger among men. Poor mental health status was related to poor employment stability among cohabiting women but not among married ones. The strongest association was observed among separated or divorced people. There is a rise in poor
Mock, Steven E; Arai, Susan M
Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typically adverse consequences of childhood trauma. The results suggest mental health and socioeconomic status partially explain the association of childhood trauma with chronic illness in adulthood, with mental health showing a stronger effect. In addition, an analysis of the interactions suggested higher socioeconomic status is a potential protective factor for those with a history of trauma. Results also suggest cumulative disadvantage following trauma may lead to chronic illness and suggest the need for public health expenditures on resources such as counseling and income supports to prevent or reduce psychological harm and chronic illness resulting from traumatic events.
Steven E Mock
Full Text Available Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typically adverse consequences of childhood trauma. The results suggest mental health and socioeconomic status partially explain the association of childhood trauma with chronic illness in adulthood, with mental health showing a stronger effect. In addition, an analysis of the interactions suggested higher socioeconomic status is a potential protective factor for those with a history of trauma. Results also suggest cumulative disadvantage following trauma may lead to chronic illness and suggest the need for public health expenditures on resources such as counseling and income supports to prevent or reduce psychological harm and chronic illness resulting from traumatic events.
Conclusion: It is recommended that yoga should be a part of health-care facilities for elderly as it can enhance the quality of life by improving their overall mental health status. It could provide a healthy and positive alternative from depressing negative thoughts, and give them a sense of purpose and hope.
Liman, T G; Heuschmann, P U; Endres, M; Flöel, A; Schwab, S; Kolominsky-Rabas, P L
Cognitive deficits are frequent stroke sequelae. Data from population-based stroke cohorts on the impact of cognitive deficits on long-term outcome are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of low mini-mental status on health outcome up to 5 years after first-ever stroke. Data were collected from the Erlangen Stroke Project, a population-based stroke registry covering a source population of 103,000 inhabitants. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to assess global cognitive function. Health outcome included limitations in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL, Frenchay Activities Index), low independence in activities of daily living (ADL, Barthel Index), depressive symptoms (Zung Self Rating Depression Scale), and institutionalization. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, association of an education-adjusted MMSE score ≤ 24 with these health outcomes was investigated within distinct models at 12, 36, and 60 months after stroke as well as predictors at 3 months for low IADL. A total of 705 patients with first-ever stroke were included. Institutionalization, low levels of ADL and IADL (p mini-mental status up to 3 years after stroke (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.2-5.8) as well as older age (p mini-mental status has an independent impact on long-term health outcome after stroke. Our results emphasize the importance of cognitive status screening to identify stroke survivors at risk and manage and treat these patients more efficiently.
Grodberg, David; Weinger, Paige M.; Halpern, Danielle; Parides, Michael; Kolevzon, Alexander; Buxbaum, Joseph D.
The phenotypic heterogeneity of adults suspected of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) requires a standardized diagnostic approach that is feasible in all clinical settings. The autism mental status exam (AMSE) is an eight-item observational assessment that structures the observation and documentation of social, communicative and behavioral signs and…
Burk, Linnea R.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Park, Jong-Hyo; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Klein, Marjorie H.; Essex, Marilyn J.
Aggressive victims--children who are both perpetrators and victims of peer aggression--experience greater concurrent mental health problems and impairments than children who are only aggressive or only victimized. The stability of early identified aggressive victim status has not been evaluated due to the fact that most studies of aggressor/victim…
McClain, Shannon; Beasley, Samuel T.; Jones, Bianca; Awosogba, Olufunke; Jackson, Stacey; Cokley, Kevin
This study examined ethnic identity, racial centrality, minority status stress, and impostor feelings as predictors of mental health in a sample of 218 Black college students. Ethnic identity was found to be a significant positive predictor of mental health, whereas minority status stress and impostor feelings were significant negative predictors.…
U, Harikrishnan; Arif, Ali; H, Sobhana
Adolescent emotional responses and behaviors are often passed off as growth pangs and academic stress, thereby missing those that need deeper understanding and mental health interventions. The aim of the study is to understand mental health status among the school adolescents in Tezpur, Assam. The present study was a cross sectional study that used convenience sampling in selection of the schools. A total of 10 schools were selected for the purpose of the study. 1403 Adolescents were selected for data analysis. Socio-Demographic Performa and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [SDQ] were administered to the participants. The results indicated that five predictors (gender, education, family type, academic performance, socio economic status in the family) explained 9.79% of the variance (F=5.040, Pconcern. Schools should have standing operation procedures in place to periodically screen adolescents for mental health related issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Perreault, Michel; Touré, El Hadj; Perreault, Nicole; Caron, Jean
Although it has been established that unemployment and underemployment increase distress and depression, the psychological mechanisms involved are not very clear. This study examines the roles of social support and coping strategies as mediators of the association between employment status and mental health, as well as gender and age differences as moderators. Residents from the epidemiological catchment area of south-west Montreal responded to a randomized household survey for adults in 2009. A follow-up was conducted based on participants' employment status 2 and 4 years later. ANOVAs tests were computed with SPSS to evaluate group differences, and structural equation modeling was performed with AMOS to test mediation effects. At baseline, among participants between 18 and 64 years old (n = 2325), 14.3 % were unemployed/not studying, 14.4 % worked part-time, and 56.5 % worked full-time. Employment status was found to significantly affect depression among those under 45 years old (chi-square = 23.4, p employment with depression, which was fully mediated by social support, less coping with drugs/medication, and less distress. A negative association with full-time employment was also noted with distress, which was partially mediated by increased social support, coping with alcohol, and less coping with drugs/medication. The total indirect effect suggests that full-time employees generally have more resources and do not tend to use avoidance strategies like coping with drugs/medication, resulting in less distress (β = -0.05; p employment, namely full-time employment, in communities.
Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Abdin, Edimansyah; Zhang, YunJue; Chang, Sherilyn; Shafie, Saleha; Rahman, Restria Fauziana Abdul; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily
This study aimed to explore the psychological status and quality of life among primary caregivers of individuals suffering from various mental illnesses including early psychosis, chronic schizophrenia, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and dementia. A total of 350 primary caregivers with relatives seeking treatment at a tertiary psychiatric hospital were recruited for this study. Socio-demographic data was obtained and the brief version of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life instrument was used to assess caregiver's quality of life (QOL). Psychological status among primary caregivers was assessed using the General Anxiety Disorder - 7 item (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire - 9 item (PHQ-9) scales. Family Interview Schedule (FIS) was used to assess the impact of caregiving relating to social problems, interpersonal strain among family members, work related problems and financial difficulties as a result of their relative's illness. The socio-demographic and clinical correlates of QOL, PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were examined using multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. Associations between QOL domains and psychological status was examined using multiple linear regression analyses. The mean age of the primary caregivers was 49.7 years (SD = 13.2), ranging from 21 to 82 years, with a preponderance of females (67.6%), aged 50-64 years old (45.7%). Majority were of Chinese ethnicity (57.5%), had secondary level education (43.1%), were married (65.2%), and employed (64.9%). 18.3% of primary caregivers had symptoms of depression (based on PHQ-9 cut-off point of 10 or greater) while 12.7% had symptoms of anxiety (based on GAD-7 cut-off point of 10 or greater). Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that primary caregivers aged between 35-49 years and 50-64 years, unemployed, living with others, providing care to those diagnosed with dementia and who had higher FIS scores were significantly more likely to report symptoms
Qiaoyu Sun; R. Kasten Dumroese; Yong Liu
Container volume and irrigation management affect seedling growth in the nursery and field. We evaluated the effects of container volumes (D40, 656 ml; D60, 983 ml) and subirrigation schedules (85%, 75%, 65%, and 55% of 100% total substrate moisture content, TSMC) on seedling growth in a greenhouse and outplanting performance of Chinese cork oak (Quercus variabilis...
Full Text Available Introduction: In the United States emergency medical services (EMS protocols vary widely across jurisdictions. We sought to develop evidence-based recommendations for the prehospital evaluation and treatment of a patient with an acute change in mental status and to compare these recommendations against the current protocols used by the 33 EMS agencies in the State of California. Methods: We performed a literature review of the current evidence in the prehospital treatment of a patient with altered mental status (AMS and augmented this review with guidelines from various national and international societies to create our evidence-based recommendations. We then compared the AMS protocols of each of the 33 EMS agencies for consistency with these recommendations. The specific protocol components that we analyzed were patient assessment, point-of-care tests, supplemental oxygen, use of standardized scoring, evaluating for causes of AMS, blood glucose evaluation, toxicological treatment, and pediatric evaluation and management. Results: Protocols across 33 EMS agencies in California varied widely. All protocols call for a blood glucose check, 21 (64% suggest treating adults at <60mg/dL, and half allow for the use of dextrose 10%. All the protocols recommend naloxone for signs of opioid overdose, but only 13 (39% give specific parameters. Half the agencies (52% recommend considering other toxicological causes of AMS, often by using the mnemonic AEIOU TIPS. Eight (24% recommend a 12-lead electrocardiogram; others simply suggest cardiac monitoring. Fourteen (42% advise supplemental oxygen as needed; only seven (21% give specific parameters. In terms of considering various etiologies of AMS, 25 (76% give instructions to consider trauma, 20 (61% to consider stroke, and 18 (55% to consider seizure. Twenty-three (70% of the agencies have separate pediatric AMS protocols; others include pediatric considerations within the adult protocol. Conclusion: Protocols
Deb, Sibnath; McGirr, Kevin; Sun, Jiandong
The present study aimed to understand spirituality and its relationships with socioeconomic status (SES), religious background, social support, and mental health among Indian university students. It was hypothesized that (1) female university students will be more spiritual than male university students, (2) four domains of spirituality will differ significantly across socioeconomic and religious background of the university students in addition to social support, and (3) there will be a positive relationship between spirituality and mental health of university students, irrespective of gender. A group of 475 postgraduate students aged 20-27 years, 241 males and 234 females, from various disciplines of Pondicherry University, India, participated in the study. Students' background was collected using a structured questionnaire. Overall spirituality and its four dimensions were measured using the Spirituality Attitude Inventory, while mental health status was estimated based on scores of the psychological subscale of the WHO Quality of Life Questionnaire. Female students were significantly more spiritual than male students, particularly in spiritual practice and sense of purpose/connection. Hindu religion and lower family income were associated with lower spirituality. Higher spirituality was associated with congenial family environment and more support from teachers and classmates. There was a strong association between overall spirituality and two spirituality domains (spiritual belief and sense of purpose/connection) with better mental health. Findings suggest an opportunity for open dialogue on spirituality for university students as part of their mental health and support services that fosters a positive mind set and enhancement of resilience.
Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Bagheri Yazdi, Seyed Abbas; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Kamali, Koorosh; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Hajebi, Ahmad; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Shakiba, Alia; Hashemi Nasab, Seyedeh Maryam
This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Golestan in 2015. The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Golestan province in Iran. An estimated sample size of 1200 people was chosen using systematic random cluster sampling. The access was provided by the contribution of Geographical Post Office of Gorgan, Gonbad-e-Qabus, and Aqqala cities. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used as the screening tool for mental disorders. The analysis of data in the current study was carried out using the SPSS-18 computer software. Using GHQ traditional scoring method, the results showed that 12.8% of the subjects showed to be at risk of mental disorders (13.3% of females and 12.3% of males). Urban areas (13%) were more at risk of mental disorders compared with rural residents (12.3%). Anxiety and somatization symptoms were more frequent than depression and social dysfunction among respondents. The obtained data revealed that the prevalence of mental disorders increased with age. The results also indicated that mental disorders were more common in certain subgroups, in particular women, those aged 65 years and above, the divorced and widowed, illiterate and retired adults. Our findings suggest that one eighth of the participants were at risk of developing mental disorders. Although the prevalence of these disorders has decreased from 39.1% to 12.8% between 1999 and 2015, it is still of great importance to further promote mental health policies and advocate psychological welfare of those suffering from mental disorders along with their re-empowerment.
Nishida, Atsushi; Tanii, Hisashi; Nishimura, Yukika; Kajiki, Naomi; Inoue, Ken; Okada, Motohiro; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Okazaki, Yuji
Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are considered predictive of mental health problems later in life. However, little has been known about the mental health status and psychopathological distress in adolescents with PLEs in the general population. To investigate the associations between PLEs and mental health status or psychopathologies in a community sample of adolescents in a school-based cross-sectional fashion, PLEs were studied using a self-rating questionnaire in 5073 Japanese junior-high school students aged 12-15 years. Mental health status was evaluated using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Psychopathologies, lifestyle, victimization, and interpersonal and help-seeking attitudes were also studied using a self-rating questionnaire. Fifteen percent of the students reported definitely having experienced at least one PLE. A dose-response relationship between the severity of PLEs and the prevalence of poor mental health status was observed. PLEs were also significantly associated with psychopathologies (strong anxiety in the classroom: OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.6; suicidal ideation: OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.8-2.4; self-harm behaviors: OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.9; difficulty falling asleep due to hypersensitivity to environmental noise: OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.0; difficulty concentrating due to hypersensitivity to environmental noise: OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.8; physically assaulting others: OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.5; bullying others, OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5; irritability when exchanging e-mails: OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6). Adolescents with PLEs in the community suffer from a wide range of psychopathological problems during crucial developmental periods [corrected
Lee, Chung Nam; Koh, Young-Cho; Moon, Chang Taek; Park, Dong Sun; Song, Sang Woo
This study was aimed at finding out the changes in cognitive dysfunction in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and investigating the factors limiting their cognitive improvement. Between January 2010 and March 2014, 33 patients with TBI participated in serial mini-mental status examination (MMSE). Their cognitive functions were statistically analyzed to clarify their relationship with different TBI status. Patients who developed hydrocephalus were separately analyzed in regards to their cognitive function depending on the placement of ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS). Bi-frontal lobe injury (β=-10.441, p<0.001), contre-coup injury (β=-6.592, p=0.007), severe parenchymal injury (β=-7.210, p=0.012), temporal lobe injury (β=-5.524, p=0.027), and dominant hemisphere injury (β=-5.388, p=0.037) significantly lowered the final MMSE scores. The risk of down-grade in the prognosis was higher in severe parenchymal injury [odds ratio (OR)=13.41, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.31-136.78], temporal lobe injury (OR=12.3, 95% CI=2.07-73.08), dominant hemisphere injury (OR=8.19, 95% CI=1.43-46.78), and bi-frontal lobe injury (OR=7.52, 95% CI=1.31-43.11). In the 11 post-traumatic hydrocephalus patients who underwent VPS, the final MMSE scores (17.7±6.8) substantially increased from the initial MMSE scores (11.2±8.6). Presence of bi-frontal lobe injury, temporal lobe injury, dominant hemisphere injury, and contre-coup injury and severe parenchymal injury adversely influenced the final MMSE scores. They can be concluded to be poor prognostic factors in terms of cognitive function in TBI patients. Development of hydrocephalus aggravates cognitive impairment with unpredictable time of onset. Thus, close observation and routine image follow-up are mandatory for early detection and surgical intervention for hydrocephalus.
Tinghög, Petter; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Lundberg, Ingvar
Immigrants in Sweden have a higher rate of mental illness than the native Swedes. This study investigated to what extent the association between immigrant status and mental illness can be explained by a different distribution of known risk factors for impaired mental health between groups of immigrants and persons born in Sweden. The study is based on data from the Swedish PART-study, designed to identify risk factors for, and social consequences of, mental illness. The study population consists of a random sample of 10,423 Swedish citizens, whereof 1,109 were immigrants. The data was collected in the year 2000. The immigrants were divided into three groups based on country of origin (Scandinavians born outside Sweden, Europeans born outside Scandinavia, non-Europeans). The occurrence of mental illness among immigrants and native Swedes were compared not adjusting and adjusting for indicators of socioeconomic advantage/disadvantage (education, income, labour market position, etc). Mental illness was approximated with the WHO (ten) wellbeing index scale and depressive symptoms were measured with the major depression inventory scale (MDI). Immigrants' excess risk for low subjective wellbeing was completely accounted for by adjustment for known risk factors in all the immigrant groups. However, social-economic disadvantages could not account for the non-European immigrants' higher prevalence of depression (MDI), although the increased relative risk found in univariate analyses was substantially reduced. The findings in this study suggest that the association between immigrant status and mental illness appears above all to be an effect of a higher prevalence of social and economic disadvantage.
Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Bagheri Yazdi, Seyed Abbas; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Kamali, Koorosh; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Hajebi, Ahmad; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Nejatisafa, Ali-Akbar; Haghighian, Reza Morad
This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Kermanshah in 2015. The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Kermanshah in Iran. An estimated sample size of 1200 people was chosen in three clusters: Kermanshah, Islamabad-e-Gharb, and Sonqor by using the systematic random sampling method. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used as the screening tool for evaluation of status for mental disorders. The traditional method for scoring of GHQ-28 was used in this study. Data analysis was carried out using the SPSS-18 software. Response rate for the study was 97.83%. The results showed that 26.2% of individuals (29.4% of females and 23% of males) were suspected to suffer from mental disorder, in total. The prevalence of being suspected of mental disorders was 28.9% in urban and 19.7% in the rural areas. Somatization and anxiety symptoms were more prevalent than social dysfunction and depression symptoms and were more common in women than men. The results of this research also showed that the prevalence of being suspected of mental disorders increased with aging. Suspicion for these disorders was more common in females, those aged ≥65, people living in urban areas, divorced and widowed, illiterate, housewives and unemployed individuals compared with the other groups. This study showed that more than a quarter of the people in Kermanshah province were suspected to have mental disorders. These findings mandate further attention in the province health policy and program planning for prevention and promotion of mental health.
Heywood, Wendy; Lyons, Anthony
This study investigates the impact of HIV diagnosis on subjective social status and if changes are linked to health outcomes. Two measures of subjective social status, socio-economic and standing in the community were examined in 342 Australian HIV-positive gay men in 2014. Participants recalled ratings at diagnosis were compared with current ratings. Self-reported mental (psychological distress, self-esteem, positive mental health and satisfaction with life) and physical health (self-rated health, CD4 count, viral load). Half of the participants reported improvements in subjective socio-economic status (59%) or standing in the community (52%) since diagnosis, yet one quarter reported socio-economic status (25%) or standing in the community had decreased (23%). Increases in either measure of subjective social status were linked to higher self-esteem, positive mental health, satisfaction with life and better self-rated health. Decreases in subjective social status, however, were strongly linked to poorer outcomes on all mental health measures. Decreases in standing in the community were also associated with poorer physical self-rated health. Most participants reported their subjective social status were the same or better since diagnosis. Changes in subjective social status following diagnosis were strongly linked to mental health outcomes. Those who reported a decrease in subjective social status were particularly vulnerable to mental health problems.
Myllymaa, Sami; Lepola, Pasi; Hukkanen, Taina; Oun, Andre; Mervaala, Esa; Toyras, Juha; Lappalainen, Reijo; Myllymaa, Katja
There is a growing need for an easy to use screening tool for the assessment of brain's electrical function in patients with altered mental status (AMS). The purpose of this study is to give a brief overview of the state-of-the-art in electrode technology, and to present a novel sub-hairline electrode set developed in our research group. Screen-printing technology was utilized to construct the electrode set consisting of ten electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes, two electrooculography (EOG) electrodes, two ground electrodes and two reference electrodes. Electrical characteristics of hydrogel-coated silver ink electrodes were found adequate for clinical EEG recordings as assessed by electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The skin-electrode impedances remain stable and low enough at least two days enabling high-quality long-term recordings. Due to the proper material selection, thin ink layers and detachable zero insertion force (ZIF) - connector, electrode was observed to be CT- and MRI-compatible allowing imaging without removing the electrodes. Pilot EEG recordings gave very promising results and an on-going clinical trial with larger number of patients will show the true feasibility of this approach.
Rahmandar, Maria H; Bawcom, Amanda; Romano, Mary E; Hamid, Rizwan
Although cobalamin (cbl) C deficiency is the most common inherited disorder of vitamin B12 metabolism, the late-onset form of the disease can be difficult to recognize because it has a broad phenotypic spectrum. In this report, we describe an adolescent female exposed to unknown illicit substances and sexual abuse who presented with psychosis, anorexia, seizures, and ataxia. The patient's diagnosis was delayed until a metabolic workup was initiated, revealing hyperhomocysteinemia, low normal plasma methionine, and methylmalonic aciduria. Ultimately, cblC deficiency was confirmed when molecular testing showed compound heterozygosity for mutations (c.271dupA and c.482G>A) in the MMACHC gene. This diagnosis led to appropriate treatment with hydroxocobalamin, betaine, and folate, which resulted in improvement of her clinical symptoms and laboratory values. This patient demonstrates a previously unrecognized presentation of late-onset cblC deficiency. Although neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in late-onset disease, seizures and cerebellar involvement are not. Furthermore, anorexia has not been previously described in these patients. This case emphasizes that inborn errors of metabolism should be part of the differential diagnosis for a teenager presenting with altered mental status, especially when the diagnosis is challenging or neurologic symptoms are unexplained. Correct diagnosis of this condition is important because treatment is available and can result in clinical improvement.(1.) Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Dias, Andre; Franco, Emiliana; Martinez, Jasmine; Figueredo, Vincent M
A 38-year-old African American male patient with a past medical history of human immunodeficiency virus and schizophrenia who was noncompliant with medications presented to the emergency department (ED) after activation of the local crisis response center for altered mental status. Upon arrival he was lethargic and uncooperative, unable to provide any significant details apart from pleuritic chest pain. His blood pressure was 133/88 mmHg, heart rate 43 beats per minute and initial body temperature 36.1 °C which prompted an electrocardiogram (EKG). This initial EKG was compared to a prior one obtained six months earlier during an ER visit for an acute psychotic episode. Three hours of being admitted he started shivering. Patient was found to be hypothermic with a rectal temperature of 28.9 °C. He was also hypoglycemic, pancytopenic and had positive urine cultures with >100,000 CFU/ml coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. There was no evidence of medication overdose. His CT scan of the brain did not show evidence of intracranial bleeding and his serum calcium was normal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Periodontal disease is a chronic multifactor pathology, characterized by the progressive destruction of the dental structures support tissues. Patients with some type of disability have a higher predisposition to develop periodontal disease, due to bad hygiene, product of their motor and psychological deficiencies, and to their systemic alterations that difficult the defense against periodontopathogenic microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the periodontal status of a group of children with special needs, and a control group. 47 patients with mental retardation and Down syndrome from three special education centers, and 31 healthy patients of ages ranging from 6 to 15 years, were dentally evaluated, to determine their plaque index, gingival index, and the presence of calculus. After gathering the data and tabulating the results, a 1.08 plaque index was determined, and a gingival index of 1.03, corresponding to a mild gingivitis in the study group. On the other hand, on the group of regular patients, there was a 1.08 PI and a 0.96 GI. Calculus percentage was similar on both groups. However, a large percentage of children with mild gingival inflammation was observed in the group of special patients (53.19%, compared to the control group (29%.
Fong, Tamara G.; Fearing, Michael A.; Jones, Richard N.; Shi, Peilin; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Rudolph, James L.; Yang, Frances M.; Kiely, Dan K.; Inouye, Sharon K.
Background Brief cognitive screening measures are valuable tools for both research and clinical applications. The most widely used instrument, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is limited in that it must be administered face-to-face, cannot be used in participants with visual or motor impairments, and is protected by copyright. Alternative screening instruments, such as the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS) have been developed and may provide a valid alternative with comparable cut point scores to rate global cognitive function. Methods MMSE, TICS-30, and TICS-40 scores from 746 community dwelling elders who participated in the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS) were analyzed with equipercentile equating, a statistical process of determining comparable scores based on percentile equivalents on different forms of an examination. Results Scores from the MMSE and the TICS-30 and TICS-40 corresponded well and clinically relevant cut point scores were determined; for example, an MMSE score of 23 is equivalent to 17 and 20 on the TICS-30 and TICS-40, respectively. Conclusions These findings provide scores that can be used to link TICS and MMSE scores directly. Clinically relevant and important MMSE cut points and the respective ADAMS TICS-30 and TICS-40 cut point scores have been included to identify the degree of cognitive impairment among respondents with any type of cognitive disorder. These results will help with the widespread application of the TICS in both research and clinical practice. PMID:19647495
Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Bagheri Yazdi, Seyed Abbas; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Kamali, Koorosh; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Hajebi, Ahmad; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Abbasinejad, Maryam; Zarkesh, Alieh; Amirloo, Farnaz; Ghafarzadeh, MohammadReza
This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Tehran in 2015. This cross-sectional survey was performed on 1,200 individuals aged fifteen years and older, living in urban, and rural areas of the three main districts of Tehran, Shahriar, and Nasimshahr of Tehran Province. Individuals were enrolled in the study by clustered and systematic randomization. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used for screening for common mental disorders. Those scoring above the cut-off point of the GHQ-28 were considered to be suffering from at least one mental disorder. All data was analyzed using the SPSS-18 software. According to our data, 30.2% of the subjects (34.2% of females and 26.4% of males) were suspected of having mental disorders. The prevalence of suspected psychiatric disorders in urban areas (35.1%) was higher than the prevalence of these disorders in rural areas (18.2%). Scoring above the cut-off point of the GHQ-28 also had a positive correlation with age, especially among those aged 65 years old and above. Somatization and also symptoms of anxiety were more prevalent than social dysfunction and depressive symptoms, and also more prevalent among females compared to males. Being suspected of a mental disorder was also more prevalent among those who had been divorced, widowed, unemployed, and having post-graduate university education. The results of this study show that about one third of our sample population were suspected of suffering from a mental disorder. The prevalence of common mental disorders has increased from 21.2% in 1999 to 31.7% in 2015. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that public health authorities put more effort to ensure necessary requirements encompassing prevention and promotion of mental health of the Iranian population residing in Tehran province.
Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Bagheri Yazdi, Seyed Abbas; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Kamali, Koorosh; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Hajebi, Ahmad; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Ghazizadeh Hashemi, Fatemah; Okhravi, Neda
This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Razavi Khorasan in 2015. The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Razavi Khorasan in Iran. An estimated sample size of 1200 people was chosen using systematic random cluster sampling. The access was provided by the contribution of Geographical Post Office of Mashhad, Torbate Jam and Sabzavar cities. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used as the screening tool for mental disorders. Data analysis in the current study was carried out using the SPSS-18 software. Using GHQ traditional scoring method, the results showed that 23.7% of individuals (26.9% of females and 20.6% of males) were suspected of mental disorders. The prevalence of suspected cases of mental disorders was 23.6% in urban and 23.8% in rural areas. It was also shown that somatization and anxiety symptoms were more prevalent than social dysfunction and depression symptoms, and were more common in women than men. The results of this research also showed that the prevalence of suspected cases of mental disorders increased with aging. Such disorders were more common in females, people living in rural areas, divorced and widowed, illiterate, housewives and retired individuals compared with the other groups. The results of this study showed that about a fourth of the people in the province were suspected to have mental disorders and the prevalence rate of mental disorders increased from 7.7% in 1999 to 23.7% in 2015. Therefore, it is mandatory for the provincial public health authorities to take the needed steps to ensure that necessary requirements encompassing prevention and promotion of mental health are implemented.
Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Enciso, Alicia; Martinez, Mercedes
This study examined differences in minority status stress, impostor feelings, and mental health in a sample of 240 ethnic minority college students. African Americans reported higher minority status stress than Asian Americans and Latino/a Americans, whereas Asian Americans reported higher impostor feelings. Minority status stress and impostor…
This paper describes the Project Scheduling system being employed by the Decommissioning Operations Contractor at the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP). Results from the planning system show that the project continues to achieve its cost and schedule goals. An integrated cost and schedule control system (C/SCS) which uses the concept of earned value for measurement of performance was instituted in accordance with DOE orders. The schedule and cost variances generated by the C/SCS system are used to confirm management's assessment of project status. This paper describes the types of schedules and tools used on the SSDP project to plan and monitor the work, and identifies factors that are unique to a decommissioning project that make scheduling critical to the achievement of the project's goals. 1 fig
Yi, Yingying; Liang, Ying
This article sought to explore the impacts of socioeconomic status and social inclusion on intra-provincial and interprovincial migrants' mental health by constructing the Bayesian structural equation model. A total of 14,584 migrants aged 15-59 years living in eight cities of China were selected. It was found that the impacts of socioeconomic status and social inclusion on mental health were converse for these two groups. And the manifest variables coefficients of socioeconomic status and social inclusion were also converse. Therefore, governments should make some policies to further improve the mental health of migrants, including strengthening the community cohesion, social atmosphere, and governmental support.
López, Nancy; Vargas, Edward D; Juarez, Melina; Cacari-Stone, Lisa; Bettez, Sonia
Using the 2015 Latino National Health and Immigration Survey (N= 1,197) we examine the relationship between physical and mental health status and three multidimensional measures of race: 1) "street race," or how you believe other "Americans" perceive your race at the level of the street; 2) socially assigned race or what we call "ascribed race," which refers to how you believe others usually classify your race in the U.S.; and 3) "self-perceived race," or how you usually self-classify your race on questionnaires. We engage in intersectional inquiry by combining street race and gender. We find that only self-perceived race correlates with physical health and that street race is associated with mental health. We also find that men reporting their street race as Latinx 1 or Arab were associated with higher odds of reporting worse mental health outcomes. One surprising finding was that, for physical health, men reporting their street race as Latinx were associated with higher odds of reporting optimal physical health. Among women, those reporting their street race as Mexican were associated with lower odds of reporting optimal physical health when compared to all other women; for mental health status, however, we found no differences among women. We argue that "street race" is a promising multidimensional measure of race for exploring inequality among Latinxs.
Strand, Tor A; Taneja, Sunita; Ueland, Per M; Refsum, Helga; Bahl, Rajiv; Schneede, Joern; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Bhandari, Nita
Micronutrient deficiencies can affect cognitive function. Many young children in low- and middle-income countries have inadequate cobalamin (vitamin B-12) status. The objective was to measure the association of plasma concentrations of folate, cobalamin, total homocysteine, and methylmalonic acid with cognitive performance at 2 occasions, 4 mo apart, in North Indian children aged 12-18 mo. Bayley Scales of Infant Development II were used to assess cognition. In multiple regression models adjusted for several potential confounders, we measured the association between biomarkers for folate and cobalamin status and psychomotor or mental development scores on the day of blood sampling and 4 mo thereafter. Each 2-fold increment in plasma cobalamin concentration was associated with a significant increment in the mental development index score of 1.3 (95% CI: 0.2, 2.4; P = 0.021). Furthermore, each 2-fold increment in homocysteine or methylmalonic acid concentration was associated with a decrement in mental development index score of 2.0 (95% CI: 0.5, 3.4; P = 0.007) or 1.1 (95% CI: 0.3, 1.8; P = 0.004) points, respectively. Plasma folate concentration was significantly and independently associated with mental development index scores only when children with poor cobalamin status were excluded, ie, in those who had cobalamin concentrations below the 25th percentile. None of these markers was associated with psychomotor scores in the multiple regression models. Cobalamin and folate status showed a statistically significant association with cognitive performance. Given the high prevalence of deficiencies in these nutrients, folate and cobalamin supplementation trials are required to measure any beneficial effect on cognition.
Thompson, Michael D; Henry, Rohan K
Myxedema coma (MC), a medical emergency defined as severe hypothyroidism leading to altered mental status, is more common in older women with hypothyroidism. A 7-year-old Caucasian male with chromosome 1q deletion presented with altered mental status preceded by milestone regression. His presenting labs results were: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.501 μIU/ml and free thyroxine (T4) <0.5 ng/dl. His morning cortisol level was 8.1 μg/dl with repeat testing, while TSH was 1.119 μIU/ml and free T4 was 0.5 ng/dl. Low-dose cosyntropin test showed baseline and peak cortisol levels of 1.9 and 16 μg/dl, respectively. Aside from altered mental status, heart block was present in addition to hypothermia and hypercarbia. Diffuse cerebral cortical and corpus callosum atrophy were seen on MRI. An intravenous (i.v.) stress dose of hydrocortisone was administered for 24 h prior to an i.v. loading dose of levothyroxine. His activity level subsequently returned to baseline within 48 h after treatment had been initiated. Though MC is rare, occurring mainly with noncompliance in primary hypothyroidism, it may occur at the diagnosis of secondary hypothyroidism. Based on features like hypothermia, hypoventilation, and cardiovascular instability occurring in the setting of central hypothyroidism, it should be suspected and managed urgently in order to avert the associated high mortality resulting from treatment delays. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Dahlke, Allison R; Curtis, Laura M; Federman, Alex D; Wolf, Michael S
Studies have documented strong associations between cognitive function, health literacy skills, and health outcomes, such that outcome performance may be partially explained by cognitive ability. Common cognitive assessments such as the Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE) therefore may be measuring the same latent construct as existing health literacy tools. We evaluated the potential of the MMSE as a surrogate measure of health literacy by comparing its convergent and predictive validity to the three most commonly used health literacy assessments and education. 827 older adults recruited from an academic general internal medicine ambulatory care clinic or one of five federally qualified health centers in Chicago, IL. Non-English speakers and those with severe cognitive impairment were excluded. Pearson correlations were completed to test the convergent validity of the MMSE with assessments of health literacy and education. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and the d statistic were calculated to determine the optimal cut point on the MMSE for classifying participants with limited health literacy. Multivariate logistic regression models were completed to measure the predictive validity of the new MMSE cut point. The MMSE was found to have moderate to high convergent validity with the existing health literacy measures. The ROC and d statistic analyses suggested an optimal cut point of ≤ 27 on the MMSE. The new threshold score was found to predict health outcomes at least as well as, or better than, existing health literacy measures or education alone. The MMSE has considerable face validity as a health literacy measure that could be easily administered in the healthcare setting. Further research should aim to validate this cut point and examine the constructs being measured by the MMSE and other literacy assessments.
Kim, Tae Hui; Jhoo, Jin Hyeong; Park, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Jeong Lan; Ryu, Seung Ho; Moon, Seok Woo; Choo, Il Han; Lee, Dong Woo; Yoon, Jong Chul; Do, Yeon Ja; Lee, Seok Bum; Kim, Moon Doo; Kim, Ki Woong
We developed a Korean version of Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) optimized for screening dementia (MMSE-DS) and its' short form (SMMSE-DS). We constructed the MMSE-DS using the items of the two current Korean versions of MMSE and then construct the SMMSE-DS consisted of 13 items from the MMSE-DS based on the diagnostic accuracy of individual items for dementia. We investigated reliability and validity of MMSE-DS and SMMSE-DS on 1,555 subjects (1,222 nondemented controls, 333 dementia patients). We compared the diagnostic accuracy of the SMMSE-DS with that of the three full Korean versions of MMSE, and examined its' age- and education-specific optimal cutoff scores for dementia. The internal consistency obtained by Cronbach's coefficient alpha was 0.826. The inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability were 0.968 (p<0.001) and 0.825 (p<0.001), respectively. It showed significant correlation with the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) (r=-0.698, p<0.05) and the three full Korean versions of MMSE (r=0.839-0.938, p<0.001). The area under the receiver operator curve for dementia of the SMMSE-DS was larger than those of the three full Korean versions of MMSE (p<0.001). Age, education and gender explained 19.4% of the total variance of SMMSE-DS scores. The optimal cutoff scores for dementia of the SMMSE-DS were estimated differently by age and educational attainment of the subjects. The SMMSE-DS was found to be accurate, brief and portable instrument for screening dementia in Korean elders, and may be particularly useful for screening dementia in elderly populations with wide variation in educational levels.
Selen Ozakar Akca
Full Text Available Summary Objective: The most important determinant of suicide ideation, tendency and initiative is the presence of mental disorders. Since the number of those who lost their lives due to suicide in the world rose rapidly among the young population, the World Health Organization emphasizes the importance of assessing young people in the high-risk age group to prevent suicidal behavior. This study aimed to determine psychological symptom levels and suicide probability in young people. Method: The cross-sectional research consisted of 15-24 year-old individuals (N=348, who have sought a psychiatric clinic between February and June, 2015. The Research Data was collected by applying Data Collection Form, Suicide Probability Scale (SPS and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI. SPSS 22.0 statistical package program was used for data analysis. Results: There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 between the mean SPS scores according to education, psychiatric treatment, self-harm, smoking and drinking status of the participants in the study. Apart from this, there was also a statistically significant correlation between anxiety, depression, negative self and hostility according to the SPS and BSI subscales (p<0.001, r=0.739; p<0.001, r=0.729; p<0.001, r=0.747; p<0.001, r=0.715; respectively. Conclusion: The results of our study show that suicide risk is significantly higher in young people with depression, anxiety, negative self-perception and hostility symptoms. In this regard, we suggest the relevance of assessing the suicide risk of young people seeking a psychiatric clinic, with thorough attention to those who have high potential for suicide.
Rivers, I; Poteat, V P; Noret, N; Ashurst, N
This study explores the impact of bullying on the mental health of students who witness it. A representative sample of 2,002 students aged 12 to 16 years attending 14 schools in the United Kingdom were surveyed using a questionnaire that included measures of bullying at school, substance abuse, and mental health risk. The results suggest that observing bullying at school predicted risks to mental health over and above that predicted for those students who were directly involved in bullying...
Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Bagheri Yazdi, Seyed Abbas; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Kamali, Koorosh; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Hajebi, Ahmad; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Sedighnia, Azadeh; Azimi, Ahmad
The main objective of this study was to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Ardebil in 2015. The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Ardebil province in Iran. An estimated sample size of 1200 people were chosen using systematic random cluster sampling. Access was provided by the contribution of Geographical Post Office of Ardebil, Pars abad and Germi cities. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used as the screening tool for mental disorders. Data analysis in the current study was carried out using the SPSS-18 software. Using GHQ traditional scoring method, the results showed that 21.4% of individuals (26.3% of females and 16.5% of males) were suspected of mental disorders. The prevalence of suspected cases of mental disorders was 20.8% in urban and 22.8% in rural areas. The results also showed that somatization and anxiety symptoms were more prevalent than social dysfunction and depression symptoms, and were more common in women than men. The results of this research also showed that the prevalence of suspected cases of mental disorders increased with aging. Such disorders were more common in females, age group of 65 and above, people living in rural areas, divorced and widowed, illiterate and unemployed individuals compared with other groups. The results of this study showed that about one fifth of people in the province were suspected of mental disorders. Therefore, it is mandatory for the provincial public health authorities to take the needed steps to ensure that necessary requirements encompassing prevention and promotion of mental health are implemented.
Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Bagheri Yazdi, Seyed Abbas; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Kamali, Koorosh; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Hajebi, Ahmad; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Jafarinia, Morteza; Mohammadizadeh, Lalah
This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Qazvin in 2015. The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Qazvin in Iran. An estimated sample size of 1200 people was chosen using systematic random cluster sampling. The access was provided by the contribution of Geographical Post Office of Qazvin, Alvand, Mohammadieh and Abhar cities. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used as the screening tool for mental disorders. Data analysis in the current study was carried out using the SPSS-18 software. Using GHQ traditional scoring method, 25.8% of the subjects were shown to be at risk of mental disorders (29.5% of females and 22.1% of males). Urban areas (27%) were more at risk of mental disorders compared with rural residents (23.3%). Anxiety and somatization symptoms were more frequent than depression and social dysfunction among respondents. The obtained data revealed that the prevalence of mental disorders increased with age. These disorders were more common in females, age group of 65 and above, people living in rural areas, divorced and widowed, illiterate and unemployed individuals compared with the other groups. The results of this study showed that about a fourth of the people in the province were suspected to have mental disorders. Therefore, it is mandatory for the provincial public health authorities to take the needed steps to ensure that necessary requirements encompassing prevention and promotion of mental health are implemented.
Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the association between visual impairment (VI and mental health or social engagement in older adults living in rural Thailand. METHODS: Data for this cross-sectional study were drawn from a community survey conducted in 2015 in Saraburi Province, Thailand. Participants were 327 adults aged ≥50y. VI was assessed using presenting distance visual acuity. Mental health and social engagement were evaluated in face-to-face interviews using validated questionnaires. After determining the prevalence of VI and relevant sociodemographic characteristics, multivariate regression analysis was used to evaluate the impact of VI on mental health and social engagement. RESULTS: The prevalence of VI was 18.3%. Major causes were refractive error (58.3% and cataract (35%. Factors associated with VI in the crude analysis were: older age [odds ratio (OR 8.08], unemployment (OR 2.72, widowhood (OR 2.47, being divorced/separated (OR 3.27, smoking (OR 2.09 and disability in activities of daily living (OR 2.35. Protective factors were undergoing eye screening at least once a year (P=0.029 and obesity (P=0.005. VI was significantly associated with low social engagement (adjusted OR 4.13 but not with poor mental health (P>0.05. CONCLUSION: Although VI older adults reported less participation in social activities, there is no significant association between VI and poor mental health. Annual eye examinations may prevent VI in older adults. Information about employment and anti-smoking should be targeted to older adults with VI.
Joharatnam, Nalinie; McWilliams, Daniel F; Wilson, Deborah; Wheeler, Maggie; Pande, Ira; Walsh, David A
Pain remains the most important problem for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Active inflammatory disease contributes to pain, but pain due to non-inflammatory mechanisms can confound the assessment of disease activity. We hypothesize that augmented pain processing, fibromyalgic features, poorer mental health, and patient-reported 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28) components are associated in RA. In total, 50 people with stable, long-standing RA recruited from a rheumatology outpatient clinic were assessed for pain-pressure thresholds (PPTs) at three separate sites (knee, tibia, and sternum), DAS28, fibromyalgia, and mental health status. Multivariable analysis was performed to assess the association between PPT and DAS28 components, DAS28-P (the proportion of DAS28 derived from the patient-reported components of visual analogue score and tender joint count), or fibromyalgia status. More-sensitive PPTs at sites over or distant from joints were each associated with greater reported pain, higher patient-reported DAS28 components, and poorer mental health. A high proportion of participants (48%) satisfied classification criteria for fibromyalgia, and fibromyalgia classification or characteristics were each associated with more sensitive PPTs, higher patient-reported DAS28 components, and poorer mental health. Widespread sensitivity to pressure-induced pain, a high prevalence of fibromyalgic features, higher patient-reported DAS28 components, and poorer mental health are all linked in established RA. The increased sensitivity at nonjoint sites (sternum and anterior tibia), as well as over joints, indicates that central mechanisms may contribute to pain sensitivity in RA. The contribution of patient-reported components to high DAS28 should inform decisions on disease-modifying or pain-management approaches in the treatment of RA when inflammation may be well controlled.
Milner, A; Krnjacki, L; Butterworth, P; Kavanagh, A; LaMontagne, Anthony D
People with disabilities have difficulties in obtaining work. However, evidence suggests that those with disabilities derive substantial mental health benefits from employment. This paper assesses how the relationship between work and mental health is influenced by psychosocial job quality for people working with a disability. The study design was a longitudinal cohort with 13 annual waves of data collection, yielding a sample of 122,883 observations from 21,848 people. Fixed-effects within-person regression was used to control for time invariant confounding. The Mental Component Summary (MCS) of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) measure was used as the primary outcome measure. The main exposure was a six-category measure of psychosocial job quality and employment status (including 'not in the labour force' [NILF] and unemployment). Disability status ('no waves of disability reported' and 'all contributed waves with reported disability') was assessed as an effect modifier. We also conducted a secondary analysis on respondents contributing both disability and non-disability waves. For those with no disability, the greatest difference in mental health (compared to optimal employment) occurs when people have the poorest quality jobs (-2.12, 95% CI -2.48, -1.75, p job was similar between the poorest quality jobs (-2.25, 95% CI -3.84, -0.65, p = 0.006), NILF (-2.84, 95% CI -4.49, -1.20, p = 0.001) or unemployment (-2.56, 95% CI -4.32, -0.80, p = 0.004). These results were confirmed by the secondary analysis. Efforts to improve psychosocial job quality may have significant mental health benefits for people with disabilities. This will contribute to the economic viability of disability employment insurance schemes in Australia and other high-income countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wu, Heng; Zhao, Xudong; Fritzsche, Kurt; Salm, Florian; Leonhart, Rainer; Jing, Wei; Yang, Jianzhong; Schaefert, Rainer
In western countries, negative illness perceptions are associated with poor health status and affect health outcomes in primary care populations. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between illness perception and mental and physical health status in general hospital outpatients in China. This multicentre, cross-sectional study analysed a total of 281 consecutive patients from four general hospital outpatient departments of internal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine in Beijing and Kunming. The patients answered questionnaires concerning illness perception (Brief-IPQ), somatic symptom severity (Patient Health Questionnaire-15), illness behaviour (Scale for the Assessment of Illness Behaviour), emotional distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and health-related quality of life (Twelve-Item Short Form Health Survey). Negative illness perception, especially negative emotional reactions, perceived illness consequences, encumbering illness concerns, and strong illness identity were significantly associated with high emotional distress, impairing illness consequences, and a low mental and physical quality of life. Using a multiple linear regression model, five strongest correlates of negative illness perception were high anxiety, seeking diagnosis verification, low mental and physical quality of life and high somatic symptom severity. The variance explained by this model was 35%. Chinese general hospital outpatients showed associations between negative illness perceptions and poor mental and physical health status that were similar to those of primary care patients in western countries. The main difference was that no association with perceived illness control was found in Chinese patients. Chinese physicians should be sensitised to their patients' negative illness perceptions and should focus on helping patients cope with uncertainty and anxiety by providing an understandable illness model and increasing control beliefs.
Anagnostopoulos, F.; Demerouti, E.; Sykioti, P.; Niakas, D.; Zis, P.
Residency is a stressful period in a physician’s development, characterized by long work hours, time pressure, and excessive work load, that can exert negative effects on residents’ mental health. Job burnout and negative work–home interference may play a major role in residents’ mental health
Data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews and observations of survivor sessions with counsellors, nurses and doctors. ... (i.e. clinical care, including forensic management), the inadequate capacity of service providers to provide mental healthcare, including mental health illiteracy, the lack of continuity of ...
Rivers, Ian; Poteat, V. Paul; Noret, Nathalie; Ashurst, Nigel
This study explores the impact of bullying on the mental health of students who witness it. A representative sample of 2,002 students aged 12 to 16 years attending 14 schools in the United Kingdom were surveyed using a questionnaire that included measures of bullying at school, substance abuse, and mental health risk. The results suggest that…
El-Baz, Noha; Ondusova, Daniela; Studencan, Martin; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P; Middel, Berrie
Differences in health-related quality of life in coronary artery disease patients and associated factors between patients of central and western European descent are rarely investigated. We aim to test differences between Dutch and Slovak health-related quality of life, whether nationality predicted health-related quality of life and if standardised beta weights of health-related quality of life determinants differ across countries. An observational multicentre study at university cardiac centres in the Netherlands and Slovakia. In 226 coronary artery disease patients, health-related quality of life was measured by the Short Form Health Survey 36, anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and type D personality was assessed with the 14-item Type D Scale. Multivariate analysis was used to explore the effect of patient characteristics on the physical and mental component summaries. Estimates of each predictor's beta value of the physical and mental component summaries in the Slovak and Dutch patient sample were separately calculated using the Cummings criterion for comparison of two independent betas. Stronger predictors of physical health-related quality of life in Slovak patients were educational level, current smoking, poor functional status, history of diabetes and amount of social support. In Dutch patients, only more symptoms of depression was a stronger predictor ( Pquality of life, stronger predictors were educational level, current smoking and amount of social support. Female gender, history of myocardial infarction and more symptoms of depression were stronger predictors in Dutch patients ( Pquality of life should be considered while planning care, follow-up, health education and rehabilitation.
Kono, Kumi; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Obayashi, Yoshihide; Arai, Asuna; Tamashiro, Hiko
We attempted to identify the risk factors that may affect mental health status of the international students and we conducted the survey using a self-administered questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The students were divided into two groups; (1) those who received scholarships and (2) those who didn't since we thought the division represented practical patterns of their financial status. The associations of socio-demographic characteristics with depressive symptoms were examined. Of the 726 students, 480 (66.1%) responded and 207 (43.1%) had depressive symptoms. The logistic regression analysis indicated that quality of sleep, amount of exercise, and housing conditions--but not financial status--were statistically associated with the risk of developing depressive symptoms. Although the inversion of the cause and effect is yet to be ascertained, the students who are unsatisfied with their housing conditions, quality of sleep and less exercise need more attention.
Maher, Erin J; Kroska, Amy
We examine the determinants of patients' accounts of their own mental illness. In particular, we examine the factors that affect the likelihood of attributing one's own mental illness to controllable factors rather than non-controllable factors. Our quantitative measure of attributional control is derived from the coding of in-depth interviews with people with severe mental illness seeking treatment for the first time (N = 144). We find that those who occupy positions of social disadvantage (particularly African-American males and those who receive public assistance) are less likely to attribute their illness to controllable sources, suggesting that personal mental illness attributions are systematically related to a person's social location. We outline the significance of these findings for research on the psychological consequences of mental illness attributions.
Shenoy, Divya P; Lee, Christine; Trieu, Sang Leng
Single-parenting students face unique challenges that may adversely affect their mental health, which have not been explored in community college settings. The authors conducted secondary analysis of Spring 2013 data from the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment to examine difficulties facing single-parent community college students and the association between single parenting and negative mental health (depression, self-injury, suicide attempt). Participants were 6,832 California community college students, of whom 309 were single parents. Demographic and mental health data were characterized using univariate descriptive analyses. Bivariate analyses determined whether single parents differed from other students regarding negative mental health or traumatic/difficult events. Finances, family, and relationship difficulties disproportionally affected single parents, who reported nearly twice as many suicide attempts as their counterparts (5.3% vs. 2.7%; p students face a higher prevalence of mental health stressors than other community college students.
Brooker, Charlie; Tocque, Karen; Paul, Sheila
A one year audit was undertaken of the mental health (MH) status of adult attendees to the Thames Valley Sexual Assault Centres (SARC). There were 301 relevant referrals over the twelve month period of whom 126 (42%) either fully or partially completed the mental health assessments. 38% (n = 66) of the population did not consent to the research. Participation in the study was felt inappropriate by the case clinician in the rest of the cases. To summarise the findings: 36% were moderately or severely depressed; 30% experienced moderate to severe anxiety; 28% were drinking at hazardous/harmful levels; and 12% had a drug problem that was moderate to severe. Self harm affected 45% of the sample with the greater majority cutting themselves and self-harming before the age of 17. Admission to a psychiatric in-patient unit was not uncommon and 19% had been admitted an average of three times each. The figure of 19% admitted to a psychiatric hospital is 90 times higher than for the general female population. 42% of the total sample were being prescribed medication for their mental health problem. The paper concludes that: there should be agreement nationally on the use of a standardised set of mental health outcome measures which are used in all assessments; there should be a move towards the commissioning of expert psychological support that is offered in a SARC and the pathways for specialist mental health care out of the SARCs. Finally, forensic physicians and general practitioners needs a greater awareness of the mental health sequalae of sexual assault and they then need to make prompt referrals to the appropriate services. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Johns, Michelle Marie; Lowry, Richard; Demissie, Zewditu; Robin, Leah
Sexual minority girls (lesbian/bisexual) and girls with overweight/obesity experience high rates of discrimination and mental distress. This study explored whether BMI or perceived weight status might compound sexual minority girls' risk for harassment and mental distress. Data on female students from the national 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 7,006) were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine differences in bullying, harassment, and mental distress across sexual identity/BMI groups: heterosexual/normal-weight, heterosexual/overweight, sexual minority/normal-weight, and sexual minority/overweight. Procedures were repeated with four analogous groups created from sexual identity and perceived weight. Across sexual identity/BMI groups, being overweight increased heterosexual females' odds of being bullied or experiencing suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Regardless of weight status, sexual minority females had greater odds for each outcome than heterosexual females. Sexual minority females who perceived themselves as overweight had greater odds of suicidality than all other sexual minority/perceived weight groups. Double jeopardy may exist for sexual minority female students who perceive themselves as overweight. Professional development with school staff on how to create a positive climate for sexual minorities and those with overweight/obesity and addressing positive identity and body image within school-based suicide prevention efforts may be important to the well-being of adolescent girls. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
Jeremy D. Sperling
Full Text Available Introduction: Simulation-based medical education (SBME is increasingly being utilized for teaching clinical skills in undergraduate medical education. Studies have evaluated the impact of adding SBME to third- and fourth-year curriculum; however, very little research has assessed its efficacy for teaching clinical skills in pre-clerkship coursework. To measure the impact of a simulation exercise during a pre-clinical curriculum, a simulation session was added to a pre-clerkship course at our medical school where the clinical approach to altered mental status (AMS is traditionally taught using a lecture and an interactive case-based session in a small group format. The objective was to measure simulation's impact on students’ knowledge acquisition, comfort, and perceived competence with regards to the AMS patient. Methods: AMS simulation exercises were added to the lecture and small group case sessions in June 2010 and 2011. Simulation sessions consisted of two clinical cases using a high-fidelity full-body simulator followed by a faculty debriefing after each case. Student participation in a simulation session was voluntary. Students who did and did not participate in a simulation session completed a post-test to assess knowledge and a survey to understand comfort and perceived competence in their approach to AMS. Results: A total of 154 students completed the post-test and survey and 65 (42% attended a simulation session. Post-test scores were higher in students who attended a simulation session compared to those who did not (p<0.001. Students who participated in a simulation session were more comfortable in their overall approach to treating AMS patients (p=0.05. They were also more likely to state that they could articulate a differential diagnosis (p=0.03, know what initial diagnostic tests are needed (p=0.01, and understand what interventions are useful in the first few minutes (p=0.003. Students who participated in a simulation session
Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S
Recent Mexican immigrant women on average have an unexpectedly low incidence of low birth weight (LBW). Birth weights decline and LBW incidence increases in post-immigrant generations. This pilot project tested the hypothesis that subjective social status (SSS) of pregnant women predicts variation in birth weight between Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women. 300 low-income pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women in South Texas were surveyed for SSS, depression, pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress and self-esteem and subsequent birth weight. No significant difference in SSS levels between pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women were found. However, SSS better predicted variation in birth weight across both groups than mental and psychosocial health variables. Results suggest distinct relationships among SSS, mental and psychosocial health that could impact birth weight. They underscore the relevance of a multilevel, biopsychosocial analytical framework to studying LBW.
Leong, Frederick; Park, Yong S; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa
This study aimed to disentangle the psychological mechanisms underlying immigrant status by testing a model of psychological protective and risk factors to predict the mental health prevalence rates among Latino and Asian American immigrants based on secondary analysis of the National Latino and Asian American Study. The first research question examined differences on the set of protective and risk factors between immigrants and their U.S.-born counterparts and found that immigrants reported higher levels of ethnic identity, family cohesion, native language proficiency, and limited English proficiency than their U.S.-born counterparts. The second research question examined the effect of the protective and risk factors on prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety, and substance-related disorders and found that social networking served as a protective factor. Discrimination, acculturative stress, and family conflict were risk factors on the mental health for both ethnic groups. Clinical implications and directions for future research are provided. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Engel Charles C
Full Text Available Abstract Background: The US military is currently involved in large, lengthy, and complex combat operations around the world. Effective military operations require optimal health of deployed service members, and both mental and physical health can be affected by military operations. Methods: Baseline data were collected from 77,047 US service members during 2001–2003 as part of a large, longitudinal, population-based military health study (the Millennium Cohort Study. The authors calculated unadjusted, adjusted, and weighted means for the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-item Survey for Veterans physical (PCS and mental component summary (MCS scores over a variety of demographic and military characteristics at baseline. Results: The unadjusted mean PCS and MCS scores for this study were 53.4 (95% confidence interval: 53.3–53.4 and 52.8 (95% confidence interval: 52.7–52.9. Average PCS and MCS scores were slightly more favorable in this military sample compared to those of the US general population of the same age and sex. Factors independently associated with more favorable health status included male gender, being married, higher educational attainment, higher military rank, and Air Force service. Combat specialists had similar health status compared to other military occupations. Having been deployed to Southwest Asia, Bosnia, or Kosovo between 1998 and 2000 was not associated with diminished health status. Conclusion: The baseline health status of this large population-based military cohort is better than that of the US general population of the same age and sex distribution over the same time period, especially in older age groups. Deployment experiences during the period of 1998–2001 were not associated with decreased health status. These data will serve as a useful reference for other military health studies and for future longitudinal analyses.
Magalhaes, Marcus V.; Fraga, Eder T. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Shah, Nilay [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)
This work addresses the refinery scheduling problem using mathematical programming techniques. The solution adopted was to decompose the entire refinery model into a crude oil scheduling and a product scheduling problem. The envelope for the crude oil scheduling problem is composed of a terminal, a pipeline and the crude area of a refinery, including the crude distillation units. The solution method adopted includes a decomposition technique based on the topology of the system. The envelope for the product scheduling comprises all tanks, process units and products found in a refinery. Once crude scheduling decisions are Also available the product scheduling is solved using a rolling horizon algorithm. All models were tested with real data from PETROBRAS' REFAP refinery, located in Canoas, Southern Brazil. (author)
Emma T. Callegari
Full Text Available Background. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both poor bone health and mental ill-health. More recently, a number of studies have found individuals with depressive symptoms tend to have reduced bone mineral density. To explore the interrelationships between vitamin D status, bone mineral density and mental-ill health we are assessing a range of clinical, behavioural and lifestyle factors in young women (Part A of the Safe-D study. Design and methods. Part A of the Safe-D study is a cross-sectional study aiming to recruit 468 young females aged 16-25 years living in Victoria, Australia, through Facebook advertising. Participants are required to complete an extensive, online questionnaire, wear an ultra-violet dosimeter for 14 consecutive days and attend a study site visit. Outcome measures include areal bone mineral measures at the lumbar spine, total hip and whole body, as well as soft tissue composition using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Trabecular and cortical volumetric bone density at the tibia is measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Other tests include serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, serum biochemistry and a range of health markers. Details of mood disorder/s and depressive and anxiety symptoms are obtained by self-report. Cutaneous melanin density is measured by spectrophotometry. Expected impact. The findings of this cross-sectional study will have implications for health promotion in young women and for clinical care of those with vitamin D deficiency and/or mental ill-health. Optimising both vitamin D status and mental health may protect against poor bone health and fractures in later life.
Chang, Janet; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Chen, Chih-Nan
The present study utilized data from the National Latino and Asian American Study to examine ethnic and generational differences in family cultural conflict and family cohesion and how the effects of such family conflict and cohesion on lifetime service use vary by generation status for Latino Americans (n = 2,554) and Asian Americans (n = 2,095). Findings revealed that first-generation Asian Americans reported greater family cultural conflict than their Latino counterparts, but third-generation Latino Americans had higher family conflict than their Asian American counterparts. First-generation Latino and Asian Americans had the highest levels of family cohesion. Results from logistic regression analyses indicated that Latino Americans who reported higher family cultural conflict and lower family cohesion were more likely to use mental health services. For Asian Americans, family cultural conflict, but not family cohesion, was associated with service use. Relative to third-generation Asian Americans, second-generation Asian Americans with higher family cultural conflict were more likely to use mental health services. Given that cohesive familial bonds appear to discourage service use on the part of Latino Americans irrespective of generation status, further research is needed to ascertain the extent to which this tendency stems from greater reliance on family support as opposed to the stigma associated with mental health treatment. Mental health providers and treatment programs need to address the role of family cultural conflict in the lives of Asian Americans, particularly second generation, and Latino Americans across generations, because conflictual family ties may motivate help-seeking behaviors and reveal substantial underlying distress. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Lin, Li-Wei; Weng, Shu-Chuan; Wu, Hua-Shan; Tsai, Lu-Jen; Lin, Ya-Ling; Yeh, Shu-Hui
The aging of society is a global trend, and care of older adults with dementia is an urgent challenge. As dementia progresses, patients exhibit negative emotions, memory disorders, sleep disorders, and agitated behavior. Agitated behavior is one of the most difficult problems for family caregivers and healthcare providers to handle when caring for older adults with dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of white noise in improving agitated behavior, mental status, and activities of daily living in older adults with dementia. An experimental research design was used to study elderly participants two times (pretest and posttest). Six dementia care centers in central and southern Taiwan were targeted to recruit participants. There were 63 participants: 28 were in the experimental group, and 35 were in the comparison group. Experimental group participants received 20 minutes of white noise consisting of ocean, rain, wind, and running water sounds between 4 and 5 P.M. daily over a period of 4 weeks. The comparison group received routine care. Questionnaires were completed, and observations of agitated behaviors were collected before and after the intervention. Agitated behavior in the experimental group improved significantly between pretest and posttest. Furthermore, posttest scores on the Mini-Mental Status Examination and Barthel Index were slightly better for this group than at pretest. However, the experimental group registered no significant difference in mental status or activities of daily living at posttest. For the comparison group, agitated behavior was unchanged between pretest and posttest. The results of this study support white noise as a simple, convenient, and noninvasive intervention that improves agitated behavior in older adults with dementia. These results may provide a reference for related healthcare providers, educators, and administrators who care for older adults with dementia.
Kaya, Derya; Isik, Ahmet Turan; Usarel, Cansu; Soysal, Pinar; Ellidokuz, Hulya; Grossberg, George T
Presence of detailed screening instruments to detect cognitive impairment in the older adults' culture and language is very essential. The Saint Louis University Mental Status Examination (SLUMS) is one of cognitive screening scales used. The aim of the study was to establish the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of SLUMS (SLUMS-T). Two hundred seventy-four participants aged 60 years and older admitted to our geriatric clinic were screened for cognitive impairment using SLUMS-T and Mini-Mental State Examination. Internal consistency was analyzed with Cronbach α test. Area under curves of receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to test the predictive accuracy of the SLUMS-T for detecting amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) to set an appropriate cut-off point. The SLUMS-T scores were positively correlated with the Mini-Mental State Examination scores of the patients with aMCI and patients with AD and controls (r = 0.687, P < .001; r = 0.880, P < .001; respectively). Internal consistency of the SLUMS-T was Cronbach α = 0.85. It was found that SLUMS-T with a cut-off point of 23 had a sensitivity of 66.6% and a specificity of 72.3% for the diagnosis of aMCI, and with a cut-off point of 20 had a sensitivity of 83.8% and a specificity of 87.3% for the diagnosis of AD. SLUMS-T was demonstrated to have sufficient validity and reliability to evaluate cognitive impairment including MCI among Turkish elderly people. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. All rights reserved.
Vijayalakshmi, Poreddi; Ramachandra; Reddemma, Konduru; Math, Suresh Bada
The present descriptive study investigated the impact of socio-economic status in meeting the human rights needs among randomly selected recovered psychiatric patients (n = 100) at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face to face interview, using structured Needs Assessment Questionnaire. The findings revealed that the participants from below poverty line were deprived of physical needs such as 'electricity facilities' (χ (2) = 6.821, p physical appearance (χ (2) = 8.337, p employment, disability pension, free housing, free treatment and free transportation service for people with mental illness to attend hospital or rehabilitation centres.
Schmand, B.; Deelman, B. G.; Hooijer, C.; Jonker, C.; Lindeboom, J.
The items of the ¿mini-mental state examination' (MMSE) and a Dutch dementia screening instrument, the ¿cognitive screening test' (CST), as well as the ¿geriatric mental status schedule' (GMS) and the ¿Dutch adult reading test' (DART), were administered to 4051 elderly people aged 65 to 84 years.
Tsai, Alan C; Chou, Yuan-Ti; Chang, Tsui-Lan
The study was to evaluate the ability of the Mini Nutritional Assessment in predicting malnutrition in people with three subtypes of mental disorder (schizophrenia, major depression and bipolar disorder) in Taiwan. The study involved a convenience sample of 120 residents of psychiatric wards managed by a hospital in central Taiwan (52 with schizophrenia, 36 with major depression and 32 with bipolar disorder) classified according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria. A structured questionnaire elicited subjects' personal data, disease history and answers to questions in the Mini Nutritional Assessment. Serum and anthropometrical parameters were measured. Nutritional status was evaluated with a content-equivalent version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (Taiwan version-1, T1). The Mini Nutritional Assessment-Taiwan version-1 was effective in assessing the nutritional status of people of all three subtypes of disorder. Nutritional statuses predicted with the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Taiwan version-1 agreed well with other nutritional indicators such as BMI, waist circumference and appetite status. According to the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Taiwan version-1, people with major depression were more likely to be at risk of undernutrition, whereas people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder were more likely to be at risk of overnutrition. The Mini Nutritional Assessment-Taiwan version-1 can effectively grade both undernutrition and overnutrition of people with schizophrenia, major depression or bipolar disorder. The Mini Nutritional Assessment enables nurses to monitor emerging nutritional problems in people with psychiatric disorder without relying on subjective judgement. With proper intervention, it can help reduce nutrition-related chronic conditions in these individuals and save on healthcare cost. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Vameghi, Roshanak; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Sajjadi, Homeira
Given the significant health effects of domestic violence against women, the present study was conducted in 2016, in Tehran, Iran in order to compare the socioeconomic status, perceived social support and mental status in women of reproductive age experiencing and not experiencing domestic violence. This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 women. The data collection tools used included questionnaires: demographic information, Socioeconomic, Beck's Depression, Spielberger's Anxiety, Cohen's Perceived Stress, Sarason's Perceived Social Support and WHO's Domestic Violence Inventory. The results showed that 43.2% of women said they had experienced at least one case of domestic violence, among which 16.4%, 15% and 36.6% of women had experienced physical, sexual and emotional-verbal types of violence, respectively. The mean age (p less than 0.001) and educational level (p=0/018) of violated women and their spouses (p less than 0.001) were lower than those of non-violated women. Furthermore, violated women experienced lower socioeconomic status (p less than 0.05), higher perceived stress (p less than 0.008), higher depression (p less than 0.001), and higher overt anxiety (0.002. They also perceived lower levels of social support (p less than 0.001). The issue of domestic violence was rather prevalent in the participants of the present study, particularly the younger, less educated and more socioeconomically deprived communities and families.
Hilton, Michael F; Scuffham, Paul A; Vecchio, Nerina; Whiteford, Harvey A
In Australia it has been estimated that mental health symptoms result in a loss of $ AU2.7 billion in employee productivity. To date, however, there has been only one study quantifying employee productivity decrements due to mental disorders when treatment-seeking behaviours are considered. The aim of the current paper was to estimate employee work productivity by mental health symptoms while considering different treatment-seeking behaviours. A total of 60 556 full-time employees responded to the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire. This questionnaire is designed to monitor the work productivity of employees for chronic and acute physical and mental health conditions. Contained within the questionnaire is the Kessler 6, a scale measuring psychological distress along with an evaluation of employee treatment-seeking behaviours for depression, anxiety and any other emotional problems. A univariate analysis of variance was performed for employee productivity using the interaction between Kessler 6 severity categories and treatment-seeking behaviours. A total of 9.6% of employees have moderate psychological distress and a further 4.5% have high psychological distress. Increasing psychological distress from low to moderate then to high levels is associated with increasing productivity decrements (6.4%, 9.4% and 20.9% decrements, respectively) for employees in current treatment. Combining the prevalence of Kessler 6 categories with treatment-seeking behaviours, mean 2009 salaries and number of Australian employees in 2009, it is estimated that psychological distress produces an $ AU5.9 billion reduction in Australian employee productivity per annum. The estimated loss of $ AU5.9 billion in employee productivity due to mental health problems is substantially higher than previous estimates. This finding is especially pertinent given the global economic crisis, when psychological distress among employees is likely to be increasing. Effective
Callegari, Emma T; Reavley, Nicola; Garland, Suzanne M; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John D
Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both poor bone health and mental ill-health. More recently, a number of studies have found individuals with depressive symptoms tend to have reduced bone mineral density. To explore the interrelationships between vitamin D status, bone mineral density and mental-ill health we are assessing a range of clinical, behavioural and lifestyle factors in young women (Part A of the Safe-D study). Part A of the Safe-D study is a cross-sectional study aiming to recruit 468 young females aged 16-25 years living in Victoria, Australia, through Facebook advertising. Participants are required to complete an extensive, online questionnaire, wear an ultra-violet dosimeter for 14 consecutive days and attend a study site visit. Outcome measures include areal bone mineral measures at the lumbar spine, total hip and whole body, as well as soft tissue composition using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Trabecular and cortical volumetric bone density at the tibia is measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Other tests include serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, serum biochemistry and a range of health markers. Details of mood disorder/s and depressive and anxiety symptoms are obtained by self-report. Cutaneous melanin density is measured by spectrophotometry. The findings of this cross-sectional study will have implications for health promotion in young women and for clinical care of those with vitamin D deficiency and/or mental ill-health. Optimising both vitamin D status and mental health may protect against poor bone health and fractures in later life. Significance for public healthVitamin D deficiency, depression and osteoporosis are all major public health issues. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both reduced bone mineral density and depressive symptoms. Moreover, cohort studies have found that subjects with depression have lower bone mineral density when compared to healthy controls. Early adulthood is a critical
Yajima, Ken; Matsushita, Takaya; Sumitomo, Hidetaka; Sakurai, Hirofumi; Katayama, Takashi; Kanno, Kazuo; Sakai, Masashi; Shigeta, Masayuki; Shirabe, Shinichiro; Nakano, Tadasumi; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Ueki, Akio; Kitaoka, Masafumi
Abstract Aims/Introduction We investigated the factors associated with the reliability of insulin self‐injection in elderly diabetic patients receiving insulin therapy. Materials and Methods We enrolled diabetic patients aged ≥65 years and receiving insulin therapy, and assessed their cognitive function by the mini‐mental state examination and 1‐min mental status examination for category fluency. We also observed their technique of insulin self‐injection, and evaluated whether or not patients...
Bøe, Tormod; Sivertsen, Børge; Heiervang, Einar; Goodman, Robert; Lundervold, Astri J; Hysing, Mari
This study examined the role of parental emotional well-being and parenting practices as mediators of the association between familial socioeconomic status (SES) and child mental health problems. The sample included 2,043 5th-7th graders (50.7 % female) participating in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study. Children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, parents reported family economy and education level, emotional well-being (measured with the Everyday Feelings Questionnaire), and the use of negative disciplinary and affirmative parenting practices (measured using the Family Life Questionnaire). Path analyses were conducted to examine the associations between SES and externalizing and internalizing problems. Results supported a model where family economy was associated with externalizing problems through parental emotional well-being and parenting practices, whereas maternal education level was associated with externalizing problems through negative discipline. The direct association between paternal education level and externalizing problems was not mediated by parenting. For internalizing problems, we found both direct associations with family economy and indirect associations with family economy through parental emotional well-being and parenting. The results suggest that parental emotional well-being and parenting practices are two potential mechanisms through which low socioeconomic status is associated with child mental health problems.
DeSena, Allen D; Greenberg, Benjamin M; Graves, Donna
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate antibody encephalitis is becoming increasingly recognized as a cause of acute and subacute encephalopathy in both adults and children. The typical features of this disorder include some degree of encephalopathy, seizures, and often a movement disorder component. However, there is wide variability in its presentation, and diagnosis based on clinical features alone is often delayed. We report a series of four of 12 patients observed at our children's hospital between 2011 and 2013 that we chose as particularly representative examples of two distinct clinical features. In these individuals with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody encephalitis, we note a very rapid on-off state between responsiveness and nonresponsiveness and/or insomnia accompanied by extreme irritability. We describe the abrupt mental status shift as "light switch" because the patients can awaken in seconds from a completely nonresponsive state. The insomnia noted in our patients was also impressive and often present early in the patients' courses. Light switch mental status changes and irritable insomnia are important early features of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody encephalitis that can signal the presence of this disorder. The exact pathophysiology of these two symptoms has not been fully elucidated, and we feel that presence of one or both of these symptoms early in the disease course should prompt immediate concern for this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sandfort, T.G.M.; Bakker, F.; Schellevis, F.G.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether sexual orientation is related to mental and physical health and health behaviors in the general population. METHODS: Data was derived from a health interview survey that was part of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, carried out in 2001
Newman, J P
We describe a new brief neurocognitive assessment instrument, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination, which is built around the shell of the Mini-Mental State Examination but which assesses a wider range of cognitive functions specific to various dementing diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. A Hebrew-language adaptation of the instrument is also provided.
Leung, Sharron S. K.; Mak, Yim Wah; Chui, Ying Yu; Chiang, Vico C. L.; Lee, Angel C. K.
Objective: This study aimed to examine occupational stress and mental health among secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and to identify the differences between those actively engaged in stress management behaviors and those who were not. Design: Survey design was adopted using validated instruments including Occupational Stress Inventory…
Carlson, Daniel L.
Although several factors condition mental health differences between married and never-married adults, given recent increases in marriage delay and permanent singlehood, one modifying factor--deviation from desired age at marriage--has yet to be examined. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N = 7,277), the author tested…
Gee, Gilbert C; Ryan, Andrew; Laflamme, David J; Holt, Jeanie
We examined whether self-reported racial discrimination was associated with mental health status and whether this association varied with race/ethnicity or immigration status. We performed secondary analysis of a community intervention conducted in 2002 and 2003 for the New Hampshire Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health 2010 Initiative, surveying African descendants, Mexican Americans, and other Latinos. We assessed mental health status with the Mental Component Summary (MCS12) of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 12, and measured discrimination with questions related to respondents' ability to achieve goals, discomfort/anger at treatment by others, and access to quality health care. Self-reported discrimination was associated with a lower MCS12 score. Additionally, the strength of the association between self-reported health care discrimination and lower MCS12 score was strongest for African descendants, then Mexican Americans, then other Latinos. These patterns may be explained by differences in how long a respondent has lived in the United States. Furthermore, the association of health care discrimination with lower MCS12 was weaker for recent immigrants. Discrimination may be an important predictor of poor mental health status among Black and Latino immigrants. Previous findings of decreasing mental health status as immigrants acculturate might partly be related to experiences with racial discrimination.
Jardí, Cristina; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Canals, Josefa; Arija, Victoria; Bedmar, Cristina; Voltas, Núria; Aranda, Núria
Breastfeeding (BF) confers numerous benefits on the developing infant in both the short and the long term including psychological development, but there are multiple other factors that must be taken into account when these relationships are studied. To analyse how breastfeeding during the first 4 months of life affects infant mental and psychomotor development (MPD) at 6 and 12 months in a group of healthy infants from a Mediterranean Spanish city considering many important potential confounds. This is a longitudinal study conducted on infants from birth until the age of 12 months. A total of 154 healthy infants were evaluated by Paediatric Unit of Sant Joan University Hospital in Reus, Spain. Type of feeding, clinical history, anthropometry, iron status and mental and psychomotor development were assessed and analysed. At 4 months, 24% of infants received BF and 26% received mixed feeding (MF). Multiple Linear Regression models were applied adjusting for potential prenatal, perinatal and postnatal confounds showing that infants who received BF for at least four months presented higher psychomotor development index (PDI) at 6 and at 12 months of age. Also, gestational age and BMI at 6m were associated positively with PDI at 6 m, and haemoglobin levels at 12m and birth height were associated with PDI and MDI at 12m (respectively). In conclusion, after the adjustment of important potential confounds, BF during at least four months and adequate infant iron status are related to better psychomotor development during the first year. No associations were found between BF and mental development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ali Jafari Nodoushan
Full Text Available Introduction: ADHD is one of the most common disorders among school children throughout the world. Parents of these children are faced with more conflicts than normal children's parents. The Purpose of his study was to evaluate and compare the mental health status of mothers having children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder versus mental health of mothers having normal primary school children, Yazd, Iran. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 160 mothers of primary-school children who were selected through random cluster sampling; 80 of them had children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder and the remaining half had normal children. Also, for the diagnosis of children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder, the Conners test as well as test of General Mental Health (GHQ were used to measure mothers' mental health. The data were then analyzed in two levels of descriptive and inferential statistics (T-test and analysis of variance Results: Comparison of mental health and its subscales indicated that mothers of children with ADHD disorder were lower in all aspects of mental health than mothers of normal children. Conclution: According to the research results, mothers of children with attention deficit/hyperactive disorder have lower levels of mental health than mothers of normal children. So, it is recommended that education and health officials provide training courses for these parents to promote their mental health status and consequently their quality of family life.
Boban, Marko; Persic, Viktor; Petricevic, Mate; Biocina, Bojan; Sipic, Tomislav; Pehar-Pejcnovic, Vesna; Balen, Sanja; Zulj, Marinko; Vcev, Aleksandar
Multiple and yet uncertain connections exist between cardiovascular diseases and the nutritional status of patients, particularly in relation to cardiovascular treatments. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are among the most commonly used group of drugs. To analyse utilisation of PPI in association with nutritional risk of patients scheduled for rehabilitation after treatment for ischaemic and valvular heart disease. Retrospective analyses on a consecutive sample of patients, which included drug utilisation of PPI and nutritional risk screening, using a standardised NRS-2002 tool. The patients (n = 536) were divided into groups based on previous cardiovascular treatments and use of PPI. Nearly half of the patients (244, 46.1%) had PPI in their chronic therapy despite the clinically negligible prevalence of conditions that are their fundamental indications. The odds for using PPI in patients with increased nutritional risk, estimated by logistic regression, were 3.34 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.26-4.94), p 3: positive likelihood-ratio (LR) 2.35 (95% CI 2.10-2.60); negative LR 0.46 (95% CI 0.4-0.6); area under the curve (AUC) 0.720; p 6.36% (positive LR 2.22 [95% CI 2.00-2.50]; negative LR 0.41 [95% CI 0.30-0.50]; AUC 0.707; p < 0.001). Utilisation of PPI was found to be of relatively high prevalence and significantly associated with parameters of nutritional risk screening. Furthermore, it was in correlation with the age of patients and the existence of chronic kidney disease, which are well-established predispositions for poor nutritional status. Nutritional risk seems to be additionally negatively challenged by utilisation of PPI due to gastric malabsorption and anaemia.
Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to evaluate the nutritional status with clinical, antropometric and laboratory methods in patients who were scheduled for elective surgery. Methods: Retrospective evaluation of 90 patients in a period of 4 years was performed. Patients with tumors (group 1 were compared with controls (group 2 in regard to nutritional status. Student t-test, Mann-Whitney U test and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean age of patients in group 1 (3 males, 8 females and group 2 (35 males, 44 females was 62.8±11.0 and 47.7±16.2 years, respectively. The mean body mass index (BMI was 30.1±6.6. Triceps thickness and circumference of the upper mid-arm were 2.2±0.8 and 28.6±4.2 cm, respectively. All patients had a Subjective Global Assessment (SGA score A, but two patients were classified as having moderate nutritional risk according to Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS 2002. The mean length of hospital stay was 2.6±2.4 days. Complications were observed in four patients of group 2 and in two patients of group 1. Gender, SGA score, albumin, prealbumin, BMI, triceps thickness, circumference of the upper mid-arm and complication rates were statistically similar between the groups. There was a statistically significant difference in age, NRS 2002, gastrointestinal system findings, length of hospital stay, sedimentation and fasting blood glucose levels between the groups. Conclusion: Patients with nutritional risk can be detected using the NRS 2002. Nutritional support was necessary in 2% of all cases and in 18% of group 1 patients. However, advantages of antropometric measurements, biochemical tests, BMI and SGA could not be shown.
Warfare, Naval Sea Systems Command Acquisition Cycle Time : Defining the Problem David Tate, Institute for Defense Analyses Schedule Analytics Jennifer...research was comprised of the following high- level steps : Identify and review primary data sources 1...research. However, detailed reviews of the OMB IT Dashboard data revealed that schedule data is highly aggregated. Program start date and program end date
Di Napoli, Anteo; Gatta, Rosaria; Rossi, Alessandra; Perez, Monica; Costanzo, Gianfranco; Mirisola, Concetta; Petrelli, Alessio
exposure to discrimination is widely understood as a social determinant of psychophysical health and a contributing factor to health inequities among social groups. Few studies exist, particularly in Italy, about the effects of discrimination among immigrants at workplace. to analyse the association between perceived discrimination at work for being an immigrant and mental health status among immigrants in Italy. a sub-sample of 12,408 immigrants residing in Italy was analysed. data came from the survey "Social conditions and integration of foreign citizens in Italy", carried out in 2011-2012 by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat). Self-perceived mental health status was measured through mental component summary (MCS) of SF-12 questionnaire, assuming as worse health status MCS score distribution ≤1st quartile. In order to evaluate the probability of poor health status, a multivariate log-binomial model was performed assuming: discrimination at work for being an immigrant as determinant variable; age, gender, educational level, employment status, area of origin, residence in Italy, length of stay in Italy, self-perceived loneliness and satisfaction about life as potential confounding variables. among immigrants, 15.8% referred discrimination at his/her workplace in Italy for being an immigrant. Higher probability of poor mental health status was observed for immigrants who referred discrimination at workplace (Prevalence Rate Ratio - PRR: 1.16) who arrived in Italy since at least 5 years (PRR: 1.14), for not employed subjects (PRR: 1.31), and for people from the Americas (PRR: 1.14). Lower probability of poor mental health status was found in immigrants from Western- Central Asia (PRR: 0.83) and Eastern-Pacific Asia (PRR: 0.79). Compared to immigrants residing in North-Eastern Italy, higher probability of worse mental health status was observed in people who resided in Northern-Western (PRR: 1.30), Central (PRR: 1.26), and Southern (PRR: 1
Stewart, Robert; Davis, Katrina
'Big data' are accumulating in a multitude of domains and offer novel opportunities for research. The role of these resources in mental health investigations remains relatively unexplored, although a number of datasets are in use and supporting a range of projects. We sought to review big data resources and their use in mental health research to characterise applications to date and consider directions for innovation in future. A narrative review. Clear disparities were evident in geographic regions covered and in the disorders and interventions receiving most attention. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the use of different types of data and the challenges of big data in general. Current research output from big data is still predominantly determined by the information and resources available and there is a need to reverse the situation so that big data platforms are more driven by the needs of clinical services and service users.
Fleming, Theresa M.; Bavin, Lynda; Stasiak, Karolina; Hermansson-Webb, Eve; Merry, Sally N.; Cheek, Colleen; Lucassen, Mathijs; Lau, Ho Ming; Pollmuller, Britta; Hetrick, Sarah
Computer games are ubiquitous and can be utilized for serious purposes such as health and education. ?Applied games? including serious games (in brief, computerized games for serious purposes) and gamification (gaming elements used outside of games) have the potential to increase the impact of mental health internet interventions via three processes. First, by extending the reach of online programs to those who might not otherwise use them. Second, by improving engagement through both game-ba...
Izutsu, T; Tsutsumi, A; Sato, T; Naqibullah, Z; Wakai, S; Kurita, H
The study sought to ascertain and describe the physical and mental health states of Afghan refugee children after the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001 in the US and the aerial bombing of Afghanistan that followed. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in four refugee camps in Peshawar, Pakistan from February to March 2002, and comparisons among camps were made. A total of 70 males (mean age SD = 9.81 +/- 1.98 years old) and 30 females (7.94 +/- 2.07) answered a self-developed questionnaire on demographic data, traumatic events experience, living environment in the camps, and physical and mental health, through interviews. Anthropometric measures were measured and physical symptoms including anaemia and edema were assessed. Severe malnutrition was not shown and there were no significant differences in most nutritional and physical states among the camps. Nevertheless, in the newer camps more children experienced war related traumatic events. Mental symptoms were prevalent in all camps, though the characteristics of the symptoms differed among the camps.
Andrykowski, Michael A
Identify the current physical and mental health status and health behaviors of male breast cancer survivors. Using data from the national, population-based, 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey, 66 cases of male breast cancer were identified (mean age = 66.2 years, mean time since diagnosis = 12.0 years). Male breast cancer cases were matched with 198 male BRFSS respondents with no history of cancer (control group) on age, education, and minority status. The male breast cancer and control groups were compared on physical and mental health status and health behaviors, using t-test and logistic regression analyses. The male breast cancer group reported poorer physical and mental health than controls. Male breast cancer survivors were significantly (p mental health (Effect Size = 0.49), and physical health (Effect Size = 0.29) were not good. In contrast, the male breast cancer and control groups were similar with regard to current health behaviors, including tobacco and alcohol use, diet, exercise, and health care. The diagnosis and treatment of male breast cancer may be associated with clinically important and long-term deficits in physical and mental health status, deficits which may exceed those evidenced by long-term female breast cancer survivors. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Vameghi, Roshanak; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Sajjadi, Homeira
Abstract: Background: Given the significant health effects of domestic violence against women, the present study was conducted in 2016, in Tehran, Iran in order to compare the socioeconomic status, perceived social support and mental status in women of reproductive age experiencing and not experiencing domestic violence. Methods: This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 women. The data collection tools used included questionnaires: demographic information, Socioeconomic, Beck’s Depression, Spielberger’s Anxiety, Cohen’s Perceived Stress, Sarason’s Perceived Social Support and WHO’s Domestic Violence Inventory. Results: The results showed that 43.2% of women said they had experienced at least one case of domestic violence, among which 16.4%, 15% and 36.6% of women had experienced physical, sexual and emotional-verbal types of violence, respectively. The mean age (p less than 0.001) and educational level (p=0/018) of violated women and their spouses (p less than 0.001) were lower than those of non-violated women. Furthermore, violated women experienced lower socioeconomic status (p less than 0.05), higher perceived stress (p less than 0.008), higher depression (p less than 0.001), and higher overt anxiety (0.002. They also perceived lower levels of social support (p less than 0.001). Conclusions: The issue of domestic violence was rather prevalent in the participants of the present study, particularly the younger, less educated and more socioeconomically deprived communities and families. PMID:29376514
Yajima, Ken; Matsushita, Takaya; Sumitomo, Hidetaka; Sakurai, Hirofumi; Katayama, Takashi; Kanno, Kazuo; Sakai, Masashi; Shigeta, Masayuki; Shirabe, Shinichiro; Nakano, Tadasumi; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Ueki, Akio; Kitaoka, Masafumi
We investigated the factors associated with the reliability of insulin self-injection in elderly diabetic patients receiving insulin therapy. We enrolled diabetic patients aged ≥65 years and receiving insulin therapy, and assessed their cognitive function by the mini-mental state examination and 1-min mental status examination for category fluency. We also observed their technique of insulin self-injection, and evaluated whether or not patients were able to inject insulin by themselves according to nine defined details in terms of insulin self-injection. The predictive factors for the reliability of insulin self-injection were determined by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. There were 278 participants (135 males, 143 females) enrolled in the present study. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, only the 1-min mental status examination score was found to be a significant independent predictor of the reliability of insulin self-injection (odds ratio 0.75; 95% confidence interval 0.62-0.90; P = 0.002). The 1-min mental status examination for category fluency can be considered more useful than mini-mental state examination to evaluate the reliability of insulin self-injection in elderly diabetic patients receiving insulin therapy.
Fleming, Theresa M; Bavin, Lynda; Stasiak, Karolina; Hermansson-Webb, Eve; Merry, Sally N; Cheek, Colleen; Lucassen, Mathijs; Lau, Ho Ming; Pollmuller, Britta; Hetrick, Sarah
Computer games are ubiquitous and can be utilized for serious purposes such as health and education. "Applied games" including serious games (in brief, computerized games for serious purposes) and gamification (gaming elements used outside of games) have the potential to increase the impact of mental health internet interventions via three processes. First, by extending the reach of online programs to those who might not otherwise use them. Second, by improving engagement through both game-based and "serious" motivational dynamics. Third, by utilizing varied mechanisms for change, including therapeutic processes and gaming features. In this scoping review, we aim to advance the field by exploring the potential and opportunities available in this area. We review engagement factors which may be exploited and demonstrate that there is promising evidence of effectiveness for serious games for depression from contemporary systematic reviews. We illustrate six major categories of tested applied games for mental health (exergames, virtual reality, cognitive behavior therapy-based games, entertainment games, biofeedback, and cognitive training games) and demonstrate that it is feasible to translate traditional evidence-based interventions into computer gaming formats and to exploit features of computer games for therapeutic change. Applied games have considerable potential for increasing the impact of online interventions for mental health. However, there are few independent trials, and direct comparisons of game-based and non-game-based interventions are lacking. Further research, faster iterations, rapid testing, non-traditional collaborations, and user-centered approaches are needed to respond to diverse user needs and preferences in rapidly changing environments.
Mueser, K T; McGurk, S R
The individual placement and supported (IPS) model of supported employment is the most empirically validated model of vocational rehabilitation for persons with schizophrenia or another serious mental illness. Over 18 randomized controlled trials have been conducted throughout the world demonstrating the effectiveness of supported employment at improving competitive work compared to other vocational programs: IPS supported employment is defined by the following principles: 1) inclusion of all clients who want to work; 2) integration of vocational and clinical services; 3) focus on competitive employment; 4) rapid job search and no required prevocational skills training; 5) job development by the employment specialist; 6) attention to client preferences about desired work and disclosure of mental illness to prospective employers; 7) benefits counseling; and 8) follow-along supports after a job is obtained. Supported employment has been successfully implemented in a wide range of cultural and clinical populations, although challenges to implementation are also encountered. Common challenges are related to problems such as the failure to access technical assistance, system issues, negative beliefs and attitudes of providers, funding restrictions, and poor leadership. These challenges can be overcome by tapping expertise in IPS supported employment, including standardized and tested models of training and consultation. Efforts are underway to increase the efficiency of training methods for supported employment and the overall program, and to improve its effectiveness for those clients who do not benefit. Progress in IPS supported employment offers people with a serious mental illness realistic hope for achieving their work goals, and taking greater control over their lives. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Fleming, Theresa M.; Bavin, Lynda; Stasiak, Karolina; Hermansson-Webb, Eve; Merry, Sally N.; Cheek, Colleen; Lucassen, Mathijs; Lau, Ho Ming; Pollmuller, Britta; Hetrick, Sarah
Computer games are ubiquitous and can be utilized for serious purposes such as health and education. “Applied games” including serious games (in brief, computerized games for serious purposes) and gamification (gaming elements used outside of games) have the potential to increase the impact of mental health internet interventions via three processes. First, by extending the reach of online programs to those who might not otherwise use them. Second, by improving engagement through both game-based and “serious” motivational dynamics. Third, by utilizing varied mechanisms for change, including therapeutic processes and gaming features. In this scoping review, we aim to advance the field by exploring the potential and opportunities available in this area. We review engagement factors which may be exploited and demonstrate that there is promising evidence of effectiveness for serious games for depression from contemporary systematic reviews. We illustrate six major categories of tested applied games for mental health (exergames, virtual reality, cognitive behavior therapy-based games, entertainment games, biofeedback, and cognitive training games) and demonstrate that it is feasible to translate traditional evidence-based interventions into computer gaming formats and to exploit features of computer games for therapeutic change. Applied games have considerable potential for increasing the impact of online interventions for mental health. However, there are few independent trials, and direct comparisons of game-based and non-game-based interventions are lacking. Further research, faster iterations, rapid testing, non-traditional collaborations, and user-centered approaches are needed to respond to diverse user needs and preferences in rapidly changing environments. PMID:28119636
Husemoen, L L N; Ebstrup, J F; Mortensen, E L
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D receptors and vitamin D-metabolising enzymes are present in the brain and in the central nervous system at sites responsible for the regulation of emotions and behaviour. This raises the hypothesis that low vitamin D is related to poor mental health. Our aim...... was to examine the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and the self-reported symptoms and diagnosis of depression and anxiety in the adult general population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Serum 25(OH)D was measured in three Danish population-based studies, including 5308 adults aged 18-64 years. After 5...
Hee Jung Yang; Hae Kwan Cheong; Bo Youl Choi; Min-Ho Shin; Hyeon Woo Yim; Dong-Hyun Kim; Gawon Kim; Soon Young Lee
OBJECTIVES: The disaster of the Sewol ferry that sank at sea off Korea?s southern coast of the Yellow Sea on April 16, 2014 was a tragedy that brought grief and despair to the whole country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mental health effects of this disaster on the community of Ansan, where most victims and survivors resided. METHODS: The self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted 4 to 6 months after the accident using the Korean Community Health Survey system, an annua...
Duff, Kevin; Tometich, Danielle; Dennett, Kathryn
Although not as popular as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) has some distinct advantages when screening cognitive functioning in older adults. The current study compared these 2 cognitive screening measures in their ability to predict performance on a memory composite (ie, delayed recall of verbal and visual information) in a cohort of 121 community-dwelling older adults, both at baseline and after 1 year. Both the MMSE and the mTICS significantly correlated with the memory composite at baseline (r's of .41 and .62, respectively) and at 1 year (r's of .36 and .50, respectively). At baseline, stepwise linear regression indicated that the mTICS and gender best predicted the memory composite score (R (2) = .45, P similar. Despite its lesser popularity, the mTICS may be a more attractive option when screening for cognitive abilities in this age range. © The Author(s) 2015.
Palsetia, Delnaz; Rao, G. Prasad; Tiwari, Sarvada C.; Lodha, Pragya; De Sousa, Avinash
There is a growing incidence of dementia patients in the community, and with this growth, there is need for rapid, valid, and easily administrable tests for the screening of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in the community. This review looks at the two most commonly used tests in dementia screening, namely, the clock drawing test (CDT) and the mini-mental status examination (MMSE). Both these tests have been used in dementia screening over the past three decades and have been the subject of scrutiny of various studies, reviews, and meta-analysis. Both these tests are analyzed on their ability to assess dementia and screen for it in the community, general practice and general hospital settings. The methods of administration and scoring of each test are discussed, and their advantages and disadvantages are explained. There is also a direct comparison made between the MMSE and CDT in dementia screening. Future research needs with these tests are also elucidated. PMID:29403122
Palsetia, Delnaz; Rao, G Prasad; Tiwari, Sarvada C; Lodha, Pragya; De Sousa, Avinash
There is a growing incidence of dementia patients in the community, and with this growth, there is need for rapid, valid, and easily administrable tests for the screening of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in the community. This review looks at the two most commonly used tests in dementia screening, namely, the clock drawing test (CDT) and the mini-mental status examination (MMSE). Both these tests have been used in dementia screening over the past three decades and have been the subject of scrutiny of various studies, reviews, and meta-analysis. Both these tests are analyzed on their ability to assess dementia and screen for it in the community, general practice and general hospital settings. The methods of administration and scoring of each test are discussed, and their advantages and disadvantages are explained. There is also a direct comparison made between the MMSE and CDT in dementia screening. Future research needs with these tests are also elucidated.
Roh, Taehwan; Song, Kiseok; Cho, Hyunwoo; Shin, Dongjoo; Yoo, Hoi-Jun
A wearable neuro-feedback system is proposed with a low-power neuro-feedback SoC (NFS), which supports mental status monitoring with encephalography (EEG) and transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) for neuro-modulation. Self-configured independent component analysis (ICA) is implemented to accelerate source separation at low power. Moreover, an embedded support vector machine (SVM) enables online source classification, configuring the ICA accelerator adaptively depending on the types of the decomposed components. Owing to the hardwired accelerating functions, the NFS dissipates only 4.45 mW to yield 16 independent components. For non-invasive neuro-modulation, tES stimulation up to 2 mA is implemented on the SoC. The NFS is fabricated in 130-nm CMOS technology.
Gharaeipour, Manouchehr; Andrew, Melissa K
The Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) is an expanded and modified version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Research demonstrates that the reliability, validity, specificity, and sensitivity of the 3MS are superior to that of the MMSE in detecting cognitive impairment. The Farsi version of the 3MS (F-3MS) was examined as a screening tool for dementia among elderly Iranians. The F-3MS and the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) were administered to 58 patients with dementia and 145 control subjects with normal cognition, aged 60 to 85 years. The difference between groups on the mean total scores of the F-3MS was statistically significant (dementia = 60.65 ± 9.89, control = 80.73 ± 8.26; df = 201, t = 14.75, p validity of the F-3MS. The F-3MS can be used as a valid and reliable measure for dementia screening among elderly Iranians.
Full Text Available Objective: As long-term results of conservative treatment for obesity are discouraging, bariatric surgery is becoming a treatment option for extremely obese adolescents. However, mental and behavioral problems need to be respected when treating this vulnerable target group. Methods: A detailed systematic literature review on pre- and post-operative depressive, anxiety and eating disorder symptoms of adolescent patients was performed in PsychINFO, PubMed and Medline electronic databases. Results: Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Although strength of evidence was limited, results suggested that pre-operatively a third of adolescents suffered from moderate to severe depressive disorder symptoms and a quarter from anxiety disorder symptoms, while a substantial number showed eating disorder symptoms. Post-operatively, levels of depressive disorder symptoms significantly improved. Original articles on outcomes of eating and anxiety disorder symptoms after weight loss surgery were not found. Conclusions: Further attention is needed on consistent clinical assessment of mental health disturbances and their consecutive treatment in adolescents. Future research should also focus on psychological and psychosocial predictors of weight loss after bariatric surgery.
Herget, Sabine; Rudolph, Almut; Hilbert, Anja; Blüher, Susann
Objective As long-term results of conservative treatment for obesity are discouraging, bariatric surgery is becoming a treatment option for extremely obese adolescents. However, mental and behavioral problems need to be respected when treating this vulnerable target group. Methods A detailed systematic literature review on pre- and post-operative depressive, anxiety and eating disorder symptoms of adolescent patients was performed in PsychINFO, PubMed and Medline electronic databases. Results Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Although strength of evidence was limited, results suggested that pre-operatively a third of adolescents suffered from moderate to severe depressive disorder symptoms and a quarter from anxiety disorder symptoms, while a substantial number showed eating disorder symptoms. Post-operatively, levels of depressive disorder symptoms significantly improved. Original articles on outcomes of eating and anxiety disorder symptoms after weight loss surgery were not found. Conclusions Further attention is needed on consistent clinical assessment of mental health disturbances and their consecutive treatment in adolescents. Future research should also focus on psychological and psychosocial predictors of weight loss after bariatric surgery. PMID:25059420
Güngörmüş, Zeynep; Tanrıverdi, Derya; Gündoğan, Tuğba
It is known that violence against women is an important health problem both in the world and in Turkey (World Health Organization 2005; General Directorate on the Status of Women 2008). Religion is an important factor in preventing suicide and mental disorders by increasing one's ability to cope with events, channeling his/her perspective on life and the future toward a more positive path satisfying people about topics such as the need to be safe, the need for meaning and the reason for creation (Altuntop 2005). Hence, the objective of our study was to determine the effects of religious belief on the mental health status and suicide probabilities of women exposed to violence in Turkey. The study used a descriptive design. The study sample consisted of 135 women who have suffered violence who were consecutively admitted to the Department of Emergency of a State Hospital due to exposed to violence. They entered the study based on their acceptance to the questionnaire. The belief levels of women are based on their own statements and they are all Muslims. The data were collected using a questionnaire form, the Suicide Probability Scale and Brief Symptom Inventory. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 18.0. Statistical analyses were used percentage calculation, chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis test. In conclusion, a negative relationship was determined between the religious belief levels of women exposed to violence in Turkey and their moods and suicide probabilities. Hence, nurses who can stay alone with women for long periods of time can provide advancement in the determination and prevention of suicides decreasing depression via specific methods and overcoming hopelessness.
Terebessy, András; Czeglédi, Edit; Balla, Bettina Claudia; Horváth, Ferenc; Balázs, Péter
Numerous previous studies have investigated the lifestyle and self-perceived health status of medical students. This study examined whether students' country of origin contributed to their mental health and health risk behaviour. We conducted our cross-sectional questionnaire survey over four consecutive years (2009-2012). The target population was fourth-year English- and Hungarian-language course medical students at Semmelweis University, Hungary. We gathered data on medical students' health behaviour (tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, dietary habits and exercise) and mental health status and used analysis of variance (ANOVA) to examine the association between country of origin and mental health. The response rate was 76.1 % for the Hungarian and 63.4 % for the English course students. The mean age of our sample was 24.1 years (SD = 2.42). Only 15.3 % of students reported following dietary recommendations, but 75.0 % reported engaging in vigorous and regular physical exercise. The prevalence of tobacco smoking was 18.6 % and 13.8 % overconsumed alcoholic beverages. Hungarian and Iranian students reported lower mental well-being than Mediterranean, Israeli and Scandinavian students (F(4) = 18.943, p mental health: vigorous exercise was associated with better mental health status (F(1) = 5.505, p = 0.019). Medical students' mental health and health behaviour are associated with multiple factors. One of these is country of origin but exercise may also influence mental health. Health promotion programmes organised for medical students should take their country of origin into consideration and should include physical activity.
Villani, M; Kovess-Masféty, V
Recovery is a process through which people experiencing mental illness learn to live with their disorder and reach social insertion and citizenship. This positive approach focuses on a person's competencies and strengths rather than on the symptoms. Within this philosophy, peer support has been unevenly developing in mental health services worldwide with roots in the South-American social programs for homeless people and in the American recovery circles in the field of addiction. Therapeutic efficiency of peer support has been proven by several studies including a control group, as being at least as good as traditional services and even better in some specific areas such as reduction of need for emergency services and ability to reach "difficult" patients. The integration of former psychiatric services users in mental health services can take several forms, from the participation to scientific research studies to the direct involvement in a professional team at mental health facilities. In this context, our research aims to sum up the situation in France in comparison with other countries. We conducted a worldwide literature review in English and in French on peer support experiences and policies in mental health services, using medical and psychological databases (PsycInfo, PsycArticles, SantéPsy, Cairn, Medline, Wiley Interscience and PubPsych) on a recent period: 2005-2016. In total, 32 relevant scientific papers have been included in our research. In some cases, we have also used official reports, blogs, Internet sites, and mass media articles when they were relevant. Our results show that this movement has been long to develop in France, with controversies having been raised since the beginning on the role that peers should play and confusion with existing social integration programs in the associative sector. Drawing inspiration from the Canadian model, a recent "peer mentor" initiative has been analyzed after 2 years of existence: many benefits for services
Muller, M; Jochemsen, H M; Visseren, F L J; Grool, A M; Launer, L J; van der Graaf, Y; Geerlings, M I
To investigate the independent effects of antihypertensive treatment and blood pressure (BP) levels on physical and mental health status in patients with arterial disease. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted within the single-centre Secondary Manifestations of ARTerial disease (SMART) study, in a hospital care setting. A total of 5877 patients (mean age 57 years) with symptomatic and asymptomatic arterial disease underwent standardized vascular screening. The primary outcome was self-rated physical and mental health assessed using the 36-item short-form health survey. In the total population, antihypertensive drug use and increased intensity of antihypertensive treatment were associated with poorer health status independent of important confounders including BP levels; adjusted mean differences [95% confidence interval (CI)] in physical and mental health between n = 0 and n ≥ 3 antihypertensives were -1.2 (-2.1; -0.3) and -3.5 (-4.4; -2.6), respectively. Furthermore, both lower systolic and lower diastolic BP levels were related to poorer physical and mental health status independent of antihypertensive treatment. Mean differences (95% CI) in physical and mental health status per SD decrease in systolic BP were -0.56 (-0.84; -0.27) and -0.32 (-0.61; -0.03) and per SD decrease in diastolic BP were -0.50 (-0.78; -0.23) and -0.08 (-0.36; 0.20), respectively. The association between low BP and poor health status was particularly present in patients with coronary artery disease. In a population of patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic arterial disease, antihypertensive treatment and lower BP levels are independently associated with poorer self-rated physical and mental health. These findings suggest that different underlying mechanisms may explain these independent associations. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.
Tsuno, Kanami; Kawakami, Norito
Background: Work-related physical assaults or violence has severely impacted on the safety of the work environment and employees’ mental health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of physical assaults, the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on it and depression associated with it in employees working at large companies. Methods: A total of 22,770 Japanese employees responded to a self-administered questionnaire including SES (educational status and occupational s...
Dumont, Ian P; Olson, Ardis L
A growing body of research points to regular, comprehensive mental health screening in primary care practices as an effective tool, but a thorough and efficient approach is not yet widely used. The purpose of this report is to describe the pattern of mental health-related concerns, protective and social risk factors reported by adolescents during routine well-child visits in primary care settings, and their occurrence among teens that screen positive for either depression or anxiety with brief validated measures. A personal digital assistant-based questionnaire was administered as part of clinical care to adolescents 11 to 18 years old (N = 2184) attending preventive well-child visits in 13 pediatric and family medicine primary care practices in a northern New England practice-based research network over 18 months (2008 to 2009). Depressive and anxiety-related symptoms were assessed using the 2-question versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, respectively. Analyses determined the role that the protective and social risk factors played in determining who screens positive for depression and anxiety. In the fully adjusted model, risk factors that were significant (P stress (AOR, 3.59); anger (AOR, 1.94); and worries about family alcohol and drug use (AOR, 2.69). Among protective factors, that is, those that reduce the risk of depression, age (AOR, 0.87 for younger patients); having parents who listen (AOR, 0.34); and having more assets (AOR, 0.65) were significant. Significant predictors of screening positive for anxiety included substance use (AOR, 1.97); stress (AOR, 6.10); anger (AOR, 2.31); trouble sleeping (AOR, 1.75), and the sex of the adolescent (AOR, 1.87 for girls). Although having parents who listen was still a significant protective factor for anxiety (AOR, 2.26), other assets were not significant. Comprehensive primary care mental health screening that considers both anxiety and depression while including
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Godaert, Lidvine; Godard-Sebillotte, Claire; Bousquet, Lionel; Devouche, Emmanuel; Hugonot-Diener, Laurence; Nuissier, Joëlle; Triboulet, Frank; Fanon, Jean-Luc
The mini mental state examination (MMSE) has become a benchmark for the screening and follow-up of cognitive impairment. The numerous translations of the MMS into other languages attest to its popularity. Clinical practice suggests that the consensual French version from the Greco (Groupe de réflexion sur les évaluations cognitives - Research working group for cognitive assessment) is not adapted to the West-Indies population because of the low socio-economic level and the widespread use of the Creole language among the elderly population. Modification of certain items by a multidisciplinary committee made it possible to adapt the instrument to the Creole culture. This procedure increases comprehension of the instrument, and should lead to improved detection of cognitive impairment in the West-Indies.
Dang, Hoang-Minh; Weiss, Bahr; Nguyen, Cao Minh; Tran, Nam; Pollack, Amie
The purposes of this study were to (a) assess the efficacy of a universal classroom-based mental health and social skills program for primary school students in Vietnam, and (b) given the universal nature of the intervention, assess outcomes as a function of risk status (high versus low). RECAP-VN is a semi-structured program that provides…
Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rhodes, Scott D.
Purpose: To explore employment as a social determinant of health through examining the relationship between employment status and mental health. Method: The authors conducted a systematic review of 48 longitudinal studies conducted in Australia, Canada, Croatia, Germany, Ireland, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, United Kingdom, and United States…
Martinez, Haley S; Klanecky, Alicia K; McChargue, Dennis E
Scarce research has examined the combined effect of mental health difficulties and demographic risk factors such as freshman status and Greek affiliation in understanding college problem drinking. The current study is interested in looking at the interaction among freshman status, Greek affiliation, and mental health difficulties. Undergraduate students (N = 413) from a private and public Midwestern university completed a large online survey battery between January 2009 and April 2013. Data from both schools were aggregated for the analyses. After accounting for gender, age, and school type, the three-way interaction indicated that the highest drinking levels were reported in freshman students who reported a history of mental health problems although were not involved in Greek life. Findings are discussed in the context of perceived social norms, as well as alcohol-related screenings and intervention opportunities on college campuses.
Matheson, Flora I; Smith, Katherine L W; Moineddin, Rahim; Dunn, James R; Glazier, Richard H
There is a growing interest in understanding the connection between mental illness (MI) and the onset of new physical illnesses among previously physically healthy individuals. Yet the role of gender is often forgotten in research focused on comorbidity of health problems. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in the onset of physical illness in a cohort of respondents who met criteria for MI compared with a control cohort without mental health problems. This cohort study, conducted in Ontario, Canada, used a unique linked dataset with information from the 2000-2001 Canadian Community Health Survey and medical records (n=15,902). We used adjusted Cox proportional survival analysis to examine risk of onset of four physical health problems (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, asthma, hypertension and diabetes) for those with and without baseline MI across a 10-year period (2002-2011) among respondents aged 18-74 years. We controlled for socioeconomic and health indicators associated with health. The incidence of physical illness in the MI cohort was 28.5% among women and 29.9% among men (p=0.85) relative to controls (23.8% and 24%, respectively; p=0.48). Women in the MI cohort developed secondary physical health problems a year earlier than their male counterparts (p=0.002). Findings from the Cox proportional survival regression showed that women were at 14% reduced risk of developing physical illness, meaning that men were more disadvantaged (HR=0.89, CI 0.80 to 0.98). Those in the MI cohort were at 10 times greater risk of developing a secondary physical illness over the 10-year period (HR=1.10, CI 0.98 to 1.21). There was no significant interaction between gender and MI cohort (HR=1.05, CI 0.85 to 1.27). Policy and clinical practice have to be sensitive to these complex-needs patients. Gender-specific treatment and prevention practices can be developed to target those at higher risk of multiple health conditions.
Nagatomo, I; Takigawa, M
One hundred and ninety elderly people receiving home health service were investigated. The intellectual levels, depressive state evaluated by the Cornell scale for depression in dementia (CSDD) scale, abnormal behaviors evaluated by the dementia behavior disturbance (DBD) scale, and activities of daily living (ADL) were examined. These assessments were performed by 72 skilled home helpers who also assessed the severity of their own level of stress using the Burnout scale. The intellectual level and mood-related signs, based on the CSDD scale, of the elderly living with families or with a spouse were diminished significantly as compared to the elderly living alone. The elderly living with families also performed worse on all ADL categories except for visual acuity as compared to the elderly living with a spouse or living alone. There was no significant correlation between the Burnout scale score and age or frequency of working as a home helper. These results suggest that elderly people living with families as compared to the elderly living with a spouse or living alone have greater mental health needs as well as more profound physical limitations.
Vazir, Shahnaz; Nagalla, Balakrishna; Thangiah, Vijayapushpam; Kamasamudram, Vijayaraghavan; Bhattiprolu, Sivakumar
We evaluated the effect of a micronutrient-fortified beverage on mental function in schoolchildren. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, matched-pair, cluster, randomized feeding trial assessed baseline before supplementation and after 14 mo in a cohort of 608 children aged 6 to 15 y who received a micronutrient-fortified beverage or placebo. Children in two classes (clusters) in each of nine grades were assessed for intelligence, attention and concentration, memory, and school achievement. Mean intelligence quotient scores of the micronutrient-fortified beverage group and the placebo group at baseline and final follow-up were not significantly different. Mean verbal and performance scores and increments were also not different. After supplementation, attention-concentration increment scores of the micronutrient group were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the placebo group. Mean and incremental scores of the supplemented group on the memory scale were not significantly different from those of the placebo group. Supplementation with a beverage fortified with a range of micronutrients significantly improved attention-concentration over 14 mo, but not intelligence quotient, memory, or school achievement among middle-income schoolchildren.
Adriana Toledo de Paffer
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Compromised maternal mental health (MMH is considered to be a risk factor for child malnutrition in low income areas. Psychosocial variables associated with MMH are potentially different between urban and rural environments. The aim here was to investigate whether associations existed between MMH and selected sociodemographic risk factors and whether specific to urban or rural settings. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study on a representative population sample of mothers from the semiarid region of Alagoas. METHODS: Multistage sampling was used. The subjects were mothers of children aged up to 60 months. MMH was evaluated through the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20. Mothers' nutritional status was assessed using the body mass index and waist circumference. Univariate analysis used odds ratios (OR and chi-square. Logistic regression was performed separately for urban and rural subsamples using MMH as the dependent variable. RESULTS: The sample comprised 288 mothers. The prevalences of common mental disorders (CMD in rural and urban areas were 56.2% and 43.8%, respectively (OR = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.64-1.63. In univariate analysis and logistic regression, the variable of education remained associated with MMH (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.03-4.6 in urban areas. In rural areas, the variable of lack of partner remained associated (OR = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.01-6.7. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of CMD is high among mothers of children aged up to two years in the semiarid region of Alagoas. This seems to be associated with lower educational level in urban settings and lack of partner in rural settings.
Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to assess the mental health status of the Navy Special Forces and regular forces three and a half years after the end of combat operations in mid 2009, and compare it with the findings in 2009. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Sri Lanka Navy (SLN, three and a half years after the end of combat operations. Representative samples of SLN Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas were selected using simple random sampling. Only personnel who had served continuously in combat areas during the one year period prior to the end of combat operations were included in the study. The sample consisted of 220 Special Forces and 275 regular forces personnel. Compared to regular forces a significantly higher number of Special Forces personnel had experienced potentially traumatic events. Compared to the period immediately after end of combat operations, in the Special Forces, prevalence of psychological distress and fatigue showed a marginal increase while hazardous drinking and multiple physical symptoms showed a marginal decrease. In the regular forces, the prevalence of psychological distress, fatigue and multiple somatic symptoms declined and prevalence of hazardous drinking increased from 16.5% to 25.7%. During the same period prevalence of smoking doubled in both Special Forces and regular forces. Prevalence of PTSD reduced from 1.9% in Special Forces to 0.9% and in the regular forces from 2.07% to 1.1%. Three and a half years after the end of combat operations mental health problems have declined among SLN regular forces while there was no significant change among Special Forces. Hazardous drinking among regular forces and smoking among both Special Forces and regular forces have increased.
Hanwella, Raveen; Jayasekera, Nicholas E L W; de Silva, Varuni A
The main aim of this study was to assess the mental health status of the Navy Special Forces and regular forces three and a half years after the end of combat operations in mid 2009, and compare it with the findings in 2009. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Sri Lanka Navy (SLN), three and a half years after the end of combat operations. Representative samples of SLN Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas were selected using simple random sampling. Only personnel who had served continuously in combat areas during the one year period prior to the end of combat operations were included in the study. The sample consisted of 220 Special Forces and 275 regular forces personnel. Compared to regular forces a significantly higher number of Special Forces personnel had experienced potentially traumatic events. Compared to the period immediately after end of combat operations, in the Special Forces, prevalence of psychological distress and fatigue showed a marginal increase while hazardous drinking and multiple physical symptoms showed a marginal decrease. In the regular forces, the prevalence of psychological distress, fatigue and multiple somatic symptoms declined and prevalence of hazardous drinking increased from 16.5% to 25.7%. During the same period prevalence of smoking doubled in both Special Forces and regular forces. Prevalence of PTSD reduced from 1.9% in Special Forces to 0.9% and in the regular forces from 2.07% to 1.1%. Three and a half years after the end of combat operations mental health problems have declined among SLN regular forces while there was no significant change among Special Forces. Hazardous drinking among regular forces and smoking among both Special Forces and regular forces have increased.
Kohrt, Brandon A; Yang, Minyoung; Rai, Sauharda; Bhardwaj, Anvita; Tol, Wietse A; Jordans, Mark J D
Preventing involuntary conscription and voluntary recruitment of youth into armed groups are global human rights priorities. Pathways for self-reported voluntary recruitment and the impact of voluntary recruitment on mental health have received limited attention. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for voluntarily joining armed groups, as well as the association of conscription status and mental health. In Nepal, interviews were conducted with 258 former child soldiers who participated in a communist (Maoist) revolution. Eighty percent of child soldiers joined 'voluntarily'. Girls were 2.07 times as likely to join voluntarily (95% CI, 1.03-4.16, p =0.04). Among girls, 51% reported joining voluntarily because of personal connections to people who were members of the armed group, compared to 22% of boys. Other reasons included escaping difficult life situations (36%), inability to achieve other goals in life (28%), and an appealing philosophy of the armed group (32%). Poor economic conditions were more frequently endorsed among boys (22%) than girls (10%). Voluntary conscription was associated with decreased risk for PTSD among boys but not for girls. Interventions to prevent voluntary association with armed groups could benefit from attending to difficulties in daily life, identifying non-violent paths to achieve life goals, and challenging the political philosophy of armed groups. Among boys, addressing economic risk factors may prevent recruitment, and prevention efforts for girls will need to address personal connections to armed groups, as it has important implications for preventing recruitment through new methods, such as social media.
Yang, Hee Jung; Cheong, Hae Kwan; Choi, Bo Youl; Shin, Min-Ho; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Gawon; Lee, Soon Young
The disaster of the Sewol ferry that sank at sea off Korea's southern coast of the Yellow Sea on April 16, 2014 was a tragedy that brought grief and despair to the whole country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mental health effects of this disaster on the community of Ansan, where most victims and survivors resided. The self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted 4 to 6 months after the accident using the Korean Community Health Survey system, an annual nationwide cross-sectional survey. Subjects were 7,076 adults (≥19 years) living in two victimized communities in Ansan, four control communities from Gyeonggi-do, Jindo and Haenam near the accident site. Depression, stress, somatic symptoms, anxiety, and suicidal ideation were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument, Patient Health Questionnaire-15, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale, respectively. The depression rate among the respondents from Ansan was 11.8%, and 18.4% reported suicidal ideation. Prevalence of other psychiatric disturbances was also higher compared with the other areas. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed significantly higher odds ratios (ORs) in depression (1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36 to 2.04), stress (1.37; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.71), somatic symptoms (1.31; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.58), anxiety (1.82; 95% CI, 1.39 to 2.39), and suicidal ideation (1.33; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.56) compared with Gyeonggi-do. In contrast, the accident areas of Jindo and Haenam showed the lowest prevalence and ORs. Residents in the victimized area of Ansan had a significantly higher prevalence of psychiatric disturbances than in the control communities.
Hee Jung Yang
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The disaster of the Sewol ferry that sank at sea off Korea’s southern coast of the Yellow Sea on April 16, 2014 was a tragedy that brought grief and despair to the whole country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mental health effects of this disaster on the community of Ansan, where most victims and survivors resided. METHODS: The self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted 4 to 6 months after the accident using the Korean Community Health Survey system, an annual nationwide cross-sectional survey. Subjects were 7,076 adults (≥19 years living in two victimized communities in Ansan, four control communities from Gyeonggi-do, Jindo and Haenam near the accident site. Depression, stress, somatic symptoms, anxiety, and suicidal ideation were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument, Patient Health Questionnaire-15, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale, respectively. RESULTS: The depression rate among the respondents from Ansan was 11.8%, and 18.4% reported suicidal ideation. Prevalence of other psychiatric disturbances was also higher compared with the other areas. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed significantly higher odds ratios (ORs in depression (1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36 to 2.04, stress (1.37; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.71, somatic symptoms (1.31; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.58, anxiety (1.82; 95% CI, 1.39 to 2.39, and suicidal ideation (1.33; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.56 compared with Gyeonggi-do. In contrast, the accident areas of Jindo and Haenam showed the lowest prevalence and ORs. CONCLUSIONS: Residents in the victimized area of Ansan had a significantly higher prevalence of psychiatric disturbances than in the control communities.
Weaver, Addie; Greeno, Catherine G; Goughler, Donald H; Yarzebinski, Kathleen; Zimmerman, Tina; Anderson, Carol
This study examined the effect of using the Toyota Production System (TPS) to change intake procedures on treatment timeliness within a semi-rural community mental health clinic. One hundred randomly selected cases opened the year before the change and 100 randomly selected cases opened the year after the change were reviewed. An analysis of covariance demonstrated that changing intake procedures significantly decreased the number of days consumers waited for appointments (F(1,160) = 4.9; p = .03) from an average of 11 to 8 days. The pattern of difference on treatment timeliness was significantly different between adult and child programs (F(1,160) = 4.2; p = .04), with children waiting an average of 4 days longer than adults for appointments. Findings suggest that small system level changes may elicit important changes and that TPS offers a valuable model to improve processes within community mental health settings. Results also indicate that different factors drive adult and children's treatment timeliness.
Sjonnesen, Kirsten; Bulloch, Andrew G M; Williams, Jeanne; Lavorato, Dina; B Patten, Scott
The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) is a disability scale included in Section 3 of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a possible replacement for the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF). To assist Canadian psychiatrists with interpretation of the scale, we have conducted a descriptive analysis using data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health component (CCHS-MH). The 2012 CCHS-MH was a cross-sectional survey of the Canadian community (n = 23,757). The survey included an abbreviated 12-item version of the WHODAS 2.0. Mental disorder diagnoses were assessed for schizophrenia, other psychosis, major depressive episode (MDE), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), bipolar I disorder, substance abuse/dependence, and alcohol abuse/dependence. Mean scores ranged from 14.2 (95% CI, 14.1 to 14.3) for the overall community population to 23.1 (95% CI, 19.5 to 26.7) for those with schizophrenia, with higher scores indicating greater disability. Furthermore, the difference in scores between those with lifetime and past-month episodes suggests that the scale is sensitive to changes occurring during the course of these disorders; for example, scores varied from 23.6 (95% CI, 22.2 to 25.1) for past-month MDE to 14.4 (95% CI, 14.2 to 14.7) in the lifetime MDE group without a past-year episode. This analysis suggests that the WHODAS 2.0 may be a suitable replacement for the GAF. As a disability measure, even though it is not a mental health-specific instrument, the 12-item WHODAS 2.0 appears to be sensitive to the impact of mental disorders and to changes over the time course of a mental disorder. However, the clinical utility of this measure requires additional assessment. © The Author(s) 2016.
Elham Baghban Baghestan
Full Text Available Background and objectives : This study aimed to compare mental health status between students of two faculties of Alzahra University: physical education vs. educational sciences and psychology. Material and Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted in physical educations and educational sciences and psychology faculties. A total number of 242 and 265 students were surveyed in these faculties respectively by GHQ-28 general health questionnaire. Data were extracted and analyzed using SPSS-17. Results : Results indicated that among 265 students, 135 participants (55.8% in physical education faculty and 170 participants in educational sciences and psychology faculty (60.3% were suspected to suffer from mental disorders. Results showed that prevalence of mental disorders in physical education faculty and faculty of educational sciences and psychology was 9.4% and 30.2% respectively (p Conclusion : The results demonstrated that students of physical education faculty significantly scored lower than students of educational sciences and psychology faculty in all four scales of mental health. They had fewer problems in terms of anxiety, depression, physical disorders and social function. Generally, they had better mental health status.
Hu, S Q; Zhang, Q; Zhu, X H; Sun, K; Chen, S Z; Liu, A G; Luo, G L; Huang, W
Objective: To investigate the mental status, level of occupational health knowledge, health behaviors, and occupational health knowledge demand in operating and maintenance personnel in wind power plants, and to provide a basis for formulating protective measures of occupational health for operating and maintenance personnel in wind power plants. Methods: A cluster sampling was performed in regionally representative wind power plants in the wind power industry from May 2014 to June 2015, and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) and a self-made evaluation questionnaire were used to investigate the general status, mental health, and occupational health knowledge demand in 160 operating and maintenance workers. Results: Of all respondents, 26.9% had mental health issues. The awareness rate of infectious disease knowledge and preventive measures was 11.9%. Of all workers, 96.5% wanted to know the occupational hazard factors in the workplace, and 96.3% wanted to get the knowledge of the prevention of related diseases. Conclusion: Mental health issues in operating and maintenance personnel in wind power plants cannot be neglected and there is a high demand for occupational health services and related knowledge. Comprehensive intervention measures for health promotion in the workplace should be adopted to improve working environment, enhance individual mental health education, increase the level of occupational health management, and protect the health of workers.
Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the association between mental health status and bone mineral density (BMD using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2008-2010. We enrolled 15,876 South Korean participants (4,010 postmenopausal females, 4,836 premenopausal females, and 7,016 males, all aged 20 years or older. BMD was measured using dual-energy radiography absorptiometry at the femoral neck (NK, lumbar spine (LSP, and total femur (TFM. Mental health status data were obtained from a self-report questionnaire that assessed psychological stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation. Psychological stress was negatively correlated with BMD in the LSP, NK, and TFM for the male group. Depressed mood was associated with lower BMD in the LSP, NK and TFM for the premenopausal female group, and in the LSP for the male group. Suicidal ideation was associated with lower BMD in the NK and TFM for the male group. Mental health problems were associated with lower BMD, especially in premenopausal females and males. Future investigations should focus on the shared pathophysiology between mental health problems and BMD, and the interrelationship between increased BMD and recovery from mental health problems.
Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Bagheri Yazdi, Seyed Abbas; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Kamali, Koorosh; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Hajebi, Ahmad; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Hormozpour, Mehdi; Aranpour, Hamdad
This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Kohghilouyeh and Bouyerahmad in 2015. The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Kohghilouyeh and Bouyerahmad in Iran. An estimated sample size of 1200 people was chosen using systematic random cluster sampling. The access was provided by the contribution of Geographical Post Office of Yasuj, Dogonbadan, and Dehdasht cities. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used as a screening tool for mental disorders. Data analysis in the current study was carried out using the SPSS-18 software. Using GHQ traditional scoring method, the results showed that 16.9% of the subjects showed to be at risk of mental disorders (20.1% of females and 13.4% of males). Urban areas (18.3%) were more at risk of mental disorders compared with rural residents (13.9%). Anxiety and somatization symptoms were more frequent than depression and social dysfunction among respondents. The obtained data revealed that the prevalence of mental disorders increased with age. The results also indicated that mental disorders were more common in certain subgroups; in particular women, those aged 65 years and above, the divorced and widowed, illiterate and retired adults. Our findings suggest that one sixth of the participants are at risk of developing mental disorders. Although the prevalence of these disorders has decreased from 26.2% to 16.9% between 1999 and 2015, it is still of great importance to further promote mental health policies and advocate psychological welfare of those suffering from mental disorders along with their re-empowerment.
Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Bagheri Yazdi, Seyed Abbas; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Kamali, Koorosh; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Hajebi, Ahmad; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Shahmansouri, Nazila; Shakeri, Mostafa
This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari in 2015. The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari in Iran. An estimated sample size of 1200 people was chosen using systematic random cluster sampling. The access was provided by the contribution of Geographical Post Office of Shahre Kord, Farsan and Farrokhshar cities. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used as the screening tool for mental disorders. The analysis of data in the current study was carried out using the SPSS-18 software. Using GHQ traditional scoring method, the results showed that 24.9% of the subjects were at risk of mental disorders (26.8% of females and 23% of males). Urban areas (27.1%) were more at risk of mental disorders compared with rural residents (19.1%). Anxiety and somatization symptoms were more frequent than depression and social dysfunction among respondents. The obtained data revealed that the prevalence of mental disorders increased with age. The results also indicated that mental disorders were more common in certain subgroups, in particular females, people aged 65 years and above, the divorced and widowed, illiterate and unemployed adults. Our findings suggest that one fourth of the participants are at risk of developing mental disorders. Although the prevalence of these disorders has decreased from 39.1% to 24.9% between 1999 and 2015, it is still of great importance to further promote mental health policies and advocate psychological welfare of those suffering from mental disorders along with their re-empowerment.
Buffel, Veerle; van de Straat, Vera; Bracke, Piet
Framed within the recent economic crisis, in this study we investigate the medical mental health care use of the unemployed compared with that of the employed in Europe, and whether the relationship between employment status and mental health care use varies across macro-economic conditions. We examine whether the macro-economic context and changes therein are related to mental health care use, via their impact on mental health, or more directly, irrespective of mental health. We use data from three waves of the Eurobarometer (2002, 2005/2006, and 2010), which has a repeated cross-sectional and cross-national design. Linear and logistic multilevel regression analyses are performed with mental health, contacting a general practitioner, and contacting a psychiatrist for mental health problems as dependent variables. The multilevel design has three levels (the individual, the period-country, and the country), which allows us to estimate both longitudinal and cross-sectional macro-effects. The macro-economic context and changes therein are assessed using national unemployment rates and growth rates in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The mean unemployment rate is negatively related to mental health, although for women, this effect only applies to the employed. Among women, no relationship is found between changes in the macro-economic context and mental health. The unemployment rate, and changes in both the unemployment rate and the real GDP growth rate, are associated with men's care use, regardless of their mental health, whereas this does not hold for women. In countries with an increase in the unemployment rate, both unemployed and employed men tend to medicalize their problems more by contacting a general practitioner, irrespective of their mental health, while the likelihood of contacting a psychiatrist is lower among employed men. Our findings stress the importance of taking the macro-economic context and changes therein into account when studying the mental health
Weaver, A.; Greeno, C.G.; Goughler, D.H.; Yarzebinski, K.; Zimmerman, T.; Anderson, C.
This study examined the effect of using the Toyota Production System (TPS) to change intake procedures on treatment timeliness within a semi-rural community mental health clinic. One hundred randomly selected cases opened the year before the change and one hundred randomly selected cases opened the year after the change were reviewed. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated that changing intake procedures significantly decreased the number of days consumers waited for appointments (F(1,160)=4.9; p=.03) from an average of 11 days to 8 days. The pattern of difference on treatment timeliness was significantly different between adult and child programs (F(1,160)=4.2; p=.04), with children waiting an average of 4 days longer than adults for appointments. Findings suggest that small system level changes may elicit important changes and that TPS offers a valuable model to improve processes within community mental health settings. Results also indicate that different factors drive adult and children’s treatment timeliness. PMID:23576137
Zhou, Ting; Yi, Chunli; Zhang, Xuxia; Wang, Yuyin
Caregiver mental health is widely considered to be an important factor influencing children's asthma symptoms. The present study aimed to examine key factors that contribute to caregiver mental health in pediatric asthma with a Chinese sample. Two hundred participants reported their family socioeconomic status (SES), proneness to shame, asthma symptoms control of their child, family functioning, and their depression and anxiety symptoms. Results suggested that low family SES, low family functioning, and a high level of shame proneness were associated with high levels of anxiety and depression for caregivers. Family functioning mediated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver mental health and also moderated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver depression. This study highlights the importance of reducing experience of shame and enhancing family functioning in families affected by pediatric asthma. © 2014 Family Process Institute.
Larco Martinelli, J.A.; Wiers, V.C.S.; Fransoo, J.C.
Time is the most critical resource at the disposal of schedulers. Hence, an adequate management of time from the schedulers may impact positively on the scheduler’s productivity and responsiveness to uncertain scheduling environments. This paper presents a field study of how schedulers make use of
Full Text Available Background: While colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most preventable causes of cancer mortality, it is one of the leading causes of cancer death in Canada where CRC screening uptake is suboptimal. Given the increased rate of mortality and morbidity among mental health patients, their condition could be a potential barrier to CRC screening due to greater difficulties in adhering to behaviours related to long-term health goals. Using a population-based study among Canadians, we hypothesize that self-perceived mental health (SPMH status and fecal occult blood test (FOBT uptake for the screening of CRC are associated. Methods: The current study is cross-sectional and utilised data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2011-2012. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was undertaken to assess whether SPMH is independently associated with FOBT uptake among a representative sample of 11386 respondents aged 50-74 years. Results: Nearly half of the respondents reported having ever had FOBT for CRC screening, including 37.28% who have been screened within two years of the survey and 12.41% who had been screened more than two years preceding the survey. Respondents who reported excellent mental health were more likely to have ever been screened two years or more before the survey (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.08; 95% CI, 1.00-4.43 and to have been screened in the last two years preceding the survey (AOR = 1.53; 95% CI, 0.86-2.71 than those reported poor mental health status. Conclusion: This study supports the association between SPMH status and FOBT uptake for CRC screening. While the efforts to maximize CRC screening uptake should be deployed to all eligible people, those with poor mental health may need more attention.
López, Nancy; Vargas, Edward D.; Juarez, Melina; Cacari-Stone, Lisa; Bettez, Sonia
Using the 2015 Latino National Health and Immigration Survey (N= 1,197) we examine the relationship between physical and mental health status and three multidimensional measures of race: 1) “street race,” or how you believe other “Americans” perceive your race at the level of the street; 2) socially assigned race or what we call “ascribed race,” which refers to how you believe others usually classify your race in the U.S.; and 3) “self-perceived race,” or how you usually self-classify your race on questionnaires. We engage in intersectional inquiry by combining street race and gender. We find that only self-perceived race correlates with physical health and that street race is associated with mental health. We also find that men reporting their street race as Latinx1 or Arab were associated with higher odds of reporting worse mental health outcomes. One surprising finding was that, for physical health, men reporting their street race as Latinx were associated with higher odds of reporting optimal physical health. Among women, those reporting their street race as Mexican were associated with lower odds of reporting optimal physical health when compared to all other women; for mental health status, however, we found no differences among women. We argue that “street race” is a promising multidimensional measure of race for exploring inequality among Latinxs. PMID:29423428
Roos, Annerine; Calata, Dorothy; Jonkers, Liesl; Maritz, Stephan J; Kidd, Martin; Daniels, Willie M U; Hugo, Frans J
Normative data for the Tygerberg Cognitive Battery (TCB) and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) (in South Africa) have not been formally examined before. The TCB was developed for the bedside pen-and-paper screening of cognitive impairment in each of the 6 main cognitive domains, including attention and concentration, speech, memory, praxis, gnosis, and executive functioning. The test is also used to diagnose different neuropsychiatric conditions. The MMSE is an established screen of cognitive status, which is often used as a comparative standard for novel screening tests such as the TCB. The TCB was initially developed in English and Afrikaans, and a Xhosa version was also initiated with this study so that the 3 most common languages of the region could be accommodated. The first aim of the study was to estimate normative test performance on the TCB and MMSE among controls, and the second aim was to develop a Xhosa version of the TCB. Assessments of the TCB and MMSE were carried out in a population of healthy individuals (n = 157). In addition, healthy Xhosa-speaking participants (n = 14) were screened using a Xhosa version of the TCB. Reliability scores for all forms of the TCB were satisfactory. Age and education correlated significantly with TCB scores (r = -0.26, P < .01; r = 0.64, P < .01, respectively), whereas only education significantly correlated with MMSE scores (r = 0.32, P < .05). Normative values were calculated accordingly, that is, controlled for the effects of age and education. The TCB scores also correlated significantly with MMSE scores (r = 0.49, P < .05), demonstrating the potential of the TCB to serve as an alternate cognitive assessment tool, along with the MMSE, to focus neuropsychiatric investigations. Scores on the Xhosa version differed significantly on speech, praxis, and gnosis between the Afrikaans and English participant scores. These normative data can be used to increase precision and to provide an impartial evaluation when
Knopp Katarzyna A.
Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between EI and the state of mental health of unemployed persons. Gender differences were also identified in terms of mental health and its correlation with EI. A sample of 160 Polish unemployed persons aged 35 to 45 years filled in self-descriptive measures of EI and mental health. Significant gender differences were found - unemployed women were characterised by a greater intensity of mental health disorders than unemployed men. EI was negatively correlated with mental health disorders, but the correlations were few and weaker than expected. However, when unemployed persons with a low, average and high EI were compared, it turned out that participants with a low EI were characterised by a significantly worse condition of mental health than participants with a average or high EI.
Zeidner, Moshe; Zevulun, Attara
This study examined the effects of dual-identity conflict, religious identity (religious/spiritual vs. sexual), and partnership status on the coping strategies and mental health of gay Jewish men in modern Israeli society. Participants were 73 religious and 71 secular gay men recruited via e-mail, social networking sites, and online resources targeting sexual minority men. Participants were assessed via measures of identity conflict, mental health, and coping strategies. Jewish gay men who reported more severe identity conflict also reported using less problem-focused and avoidance coping and more emotion-focused coping strategies and reported poorer mental health than their less identity-conflicted counterparts. Furthermore, gay men who self-identified as religious reported poorer mental health as well as less problem-focused coping and more emotion-focused coping compared to secular men. Religious gay men in romantic relationships reported lower intensities of dual-identity conflict and better mental health compared to their nonpartnered counterparts.
Kang, In-Woong; Beom, In-Gyu; Cho, Ji-Yeon; Son, Hyo-Rim
The Korean-Mini-Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE) is a dementia-screening test that can be easily applied in both community and clinical settings. However, in 20% to 30% of cases, the K-MMSE produces a false negative response. This suggests that it is necessary to evaluate the accuracy of K-MMSE as a screening test for dementia, which can be achieved through comparison of K-MMSE and Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB)-II results. The study included 713 subjects (male 534, female 179; mean age, 69.3±6.9 years). All subjects were assessed using K-MMSE and SNSB-II tests, the results of which were divided into normal and abnormal in 15 percentile standards. The sensitivity of the K-MMSE was 48.7%, with a specificity of 89.9%. The incidence of false positive and negative results totaled 10.1% and 51.2%, respectively. In addition, the positive predictive value of the K-MMSE was 87.1%, while the negative predictive value was 55.6%. The false-negative group showed cognitive impairments in regions of memory and executive function. Subsequently, in the false-positive group, subjects demonstrated reduced performance in memory recall, time orientation, attention, and calculation of K-MMSE items. The results obtained in the study suggest that cognitive function might still be impaired even if an individual obtained a normal score on the K-MMSE. If the K-MMSE is combined with tests of memory or executive function, the accuracy of dementia diagnosis could be greatly improved.
Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Bagheri Yazdi, Seyed Abbas; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Kamali, Koorosh; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Hajebi, Ahmad; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Shakiba, Mansour; Sargazi, Fatemah; Shahriari, Shirin
This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Sistan and Baluchestan in 2015. The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Sistan and Baluchestan province in Iran. An estimated sample size of 1200 people was chosen using systematic random cluster sampling. The access was provided by the contribution of Geographical Post Office of Zahedan, Zabol, and Saravan cities. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used as the screening tool for mental disorders. Data analysis in the current study was carried out using the SPSS-18 software. Using GHQ traditional scoring method, the results showed that 15.1% of individuals (17.2% of females and 13% of males) were suspected of mental disorders. The prevalence of suspected cases of mental disorders was 19% in urban and 13.5% in rural areas. It also showed that somatization and anxiety symptoms were more prevalent than social dysfunction and depression symptoms, and were more common in women than men. The results of this research also showed that the prevalence of suspected cases of mental disorders increased with aging. Such disorders were more common in females, age group of 65 and above, people living in urban areas, divorced and widowed, illiterate and retired individuals compared with the other groups. The results of this study showed that about a sixth of the people in the province were suspected to have mental disorders. Therefore, it is mandatory for the provincial public health authorities to take the needed steps to ensure that necessary requirements encompassing prevention and promotion of mental health are implemented.
Morgan, Z; Brugha, T; Fryers, T; Stewart-Brown, S
Abusive and neglectful parenting is an established determinant of adult mental illness, but longitudinal studies of the impact of less severe problems with parenting have yielded inconsistent findings. In the face of growing interest in mental health promotion, it is important to establish the impact of this potentially remediable risk factor. 8,405 participants in the 1958 UK birth cohort study, and 5,058 in the 1970 birth cohort study questionnaires relating to the quality of relationships with parents completed at age 16 years. 12-item General Health Questionnaire and the Malaise Inventory collected at age 42 years (1958 cohort) and 30 years (1970 cohort). Statistical methodology: logistic regression analyses adjusting for sex, social class and teenage mental health problems. 1958 cohort: relationships with both mother and father predicted mental health problems in adulthood; increasingly poor relationships were associated with increasing mental health problems at age 42 years. 1970 cohort: positive items derived from the Parental Bonding Instrument predicted reduced risk of mental health problems; negative aspects predicted increased risk at age 30 years. Odds of mental health problems were increased between 20 and 80% in fully adjusted models. Results support the hypothesis that problems with parent-child relationships that fall short of abuse and neglect play a part in determining adult mental health and suggest that interventions to support parenting now being implemented in many parts of the Western world may reduce the prevalence of mental illness in adulthood.
Full Text Available Background: Despite the well-known impact of rape on mental health and the widespread problem of rape in South Africa, mental health services for rape victims are scant and not a priority for acute-phase services. Survivors encounter multiple mental health struggles in this period including adherence to the post-exposure prophylaxis drugs to prevent HIV and finding support from important others. We have little information on what mental health is provided, by whom and how it is integrated into the post-rape package of care. Aim: The aim of the study was to do a rapid appraisal of mental health services for rape survivors to gain a better understanding of the current acute and long-term (secondary mental health services. Method: We conducted a qualitative study using a rapid assessment with a purposive sample of 14 rape survivors and 43 service providers recruited from post-rape sexual assault services in urban and rural Western Cape Province. Data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews and observations of survivor sessions with counsellors, nurses and doctors. The data were coded thematically for analysis. Results: Survivors of rape experienced a range of emotional difficulties and presented varying levels of distress and various levels of coping. Receiving support and care from others assisted them, but the poor integration of mental health within post-rape services meant few received formal mental health support or effective referrals. Multiple factors contributed to the poor integration: mental health was not given the same level of priority as other rape services (i.e. clinical care, including forensic management, the inadequate capacity of service providers to provide mental healthcare, including mental health illiteracy, the lack of continuity of care, the poor linkages to ongoing mental healthcare, and the mental health challenges caused by vicarious trauma and compassion fatigue. Conclusion: Providing effective
Chiu, Maria; Amartey, Abigail; Wang, Xuesong; Kurdyak, Paul
The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported mental health factors, mental health service use, and unmet needs across the 4 largest ethnic groups in Ontario, Canada: white, South Asian, Chinese, and black groups. The study population was derived from the Canadian Community Health Survey, using a cross-sectional sample of 254,951 white, South Asian, Chinese, and black residents living in Ontario, Canada, between 2001 and 2014. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence estimates for mental health factors, mental health service use, and unmet needs were calculated for each of the 4 ethnic groups overall and by sociodemographic characteristics. We found that self-reported physician-diagnosed mood and anxiety disorders and mental health service use were generally lower among South Asian, Chinese, and black respondents compared to white respondents. Chinese individuals reported the weakest sense of belonging to their local community and the poorest self-rated mental health and were nearly as likely to report suicidal thoughts in the past year as white respondents. Among those self-reporting fair or poor mental health, less than half sought help from a mental health professional, ranging from only 19.8% in the Chinese group to 50.8% in the white group. The prevalence of mental health factors and mental health service use varied widely across ethnic groups. Efforts are needed to better understand and address cultural and system-level barriers surrounding high unmet needs and to identify ethnically tailored and culturally appropriate clinical supports and practices to ensure equitable and timely mental health care.
Lorem, Geir Fagerjord; Schirmer, Henrik; Wang, Catharina E A; Emaus, Nina
It is known that self-reported health (SRH) declines with increasing age and that comorbidity increases with age. We wished to examine how age transfers its effect to SRH through comorbid disease and mental illness and whether these processes remained stable from 1994 until 2008. The hypothesis is that ageing and/or the increased age-related burden of pathology explains the declining SRH. The Tromsø Study (TS) is a cohort study using a survey approach with repeated physical examinations. It was conducted in the municipality of Tromsø, Norway, from 1974 to 2008. A total of 21 199 women and 19 229 men participated. SRH is the outcome of interest. We calculated and compared the effect sizes of age, comorbidity and mental health symptoms using multimediator analysis based on OLS regression. Ageing had a negative impact on SRH, but the total effect of age decreased from 1994 to 2007. We assessed the direct effect of age and then the proportion of indirect age-related effects through physical illness and mental health symptoms on the total effect. The direct effect of age represented 79.3% of the total effect in 1994 and decreased to 58.8% in 2007. Physical illness emerged as an increasingly important factor and increased its influence from 15.7% to 41.2% of the total effect. Age alone had a protective effect on mental health symptoms and this increased (2.5% to 17.3%), but we found a stronger association between mental health symptoms and physical disease in the later waves of the study (increasing from 3.7% to 14.8%). The results suggest that the effect on SRH of mental health symptoms caused by physical illness is an increasing public health problem. Treatment and care for specific medical conditions must therefore focus more strongly on how these conditions affect the patient's mental health and address these concerns accordingly. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
... Gender Grooming Height/weight Expression Posture Eye contact ATTITUDE Friendly or hostile Cooperative or ambivalent (uncertain) ORIENTATION ... 5 numbers in reverse order. RECENT AND PAST MEMORY The provider will ask questions related to recent ...
Vigod, Simone N; Bagadia, Ashlesha J; Hussain-Shamsy, Neesha; Fung, Kinwah; Sultana, Anjum; Dennis, Cindy-Lee E
Immigrant women are at high risk for postpartum mental disorders. The purpose of this study was to understand how rates of postpartum mental health contact differ among immigrant women by region of origin, time since immigration, and refugee status. We conducted a population-based cohort study of immigrant mothers in Ontario, Canada, with children born from 2008 to 2012 (N = 123,231). We compared risk for mental health contact (outpatient, emergency department, inpatient hospitalization) in the first postpartum year by region of origin, time since immigration, and refugee status, generating adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Immigrants from North Africa and the Middle East were more likely to have outpatient mental health contact than a referent group of immigrants from North America or Europe (aOR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.14); those from East Asia and the Pacific, Southern Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa were less likely (0.64, 0.61-0.68; 0.78, 0.74-0.83; 0.88, 0.81-0.94). Refugees were more likely to have contact than non-refugees (1.10, 1.04-1.15); those in Canada Refugees were more likely to have an emergency department visit (1.81, 1.50-2.17) and a psychiatric hospitalization than non-refugees (1.78, 1.31-2.42). These findings have implications for targeted postpartum mental health service delivery targeting certain immigrant groups and particularly refugees.
Veldman, Karin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Ortiz, Josue Almansa; Verhulst, Frank C; Bültmann, Ute
Young adults at work without basic educational level (BEL), and young adults in Neither Employment, Education nor Training (NEET) are at high risk of adverse employment outcomes. Evidence lacks on the impact of mental health problems during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood on employment outcomes of young adults. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (1) identify trajectories of mental health problems from childhood to young adulthood and (2) investigate the relation between these trajectories and the educational or employment status of young adults. Data were used from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a Dutch prospective cohort study with 9-year follow-up. Trajectories of mental health problems measured at ages 11, 13.5, 16 and 19 years were identified in 1711 young adults with latent class growth models. Young adults with high-stable trajectories of total problems, from childhood to young adulthood, were more likely to work without BEL or be in NEET at age 19, than to be at school or to work with BEL (28.0% vs 16.0%, p=0.01). The same was found for externalising problems (35.3% vs 23.2%, p=0.02). For internalising and attention problems, no statistically significant differences were found. Young adults with high-stable trajectories of mental health problems from age 11 to 19, were at risk of adverse employment outcomes. Interventions reducing mental health problems in childhood may improve the educational or employment status of young adults and their chances for successfully entering the labour market. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Reddy, Linda A.
Provides overview of sociocultural and political factors in the United States that have influenced recent interest in school-based health and mental health programs. Describes four well-known programs and presents a new framework, the Tripartite Model of School-Based Mental Health Interventions, to stimulate thinking on future programs. Addresses…
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Prieto-Welch, Susan L.
This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.
Hay, Bianca; Henderson, Charles; Maltby, John; Canales, Juan J
Alleviating the personal and social burden associated with substance use disorders requires the implementation of a comprehensive strategy, including outreach, education, community interventions, psychiatric treatment, and access to needle exchange programs (NEP), where peer support may be available. Given that substantial research underscores the potential benefits of peer support in psychiatric interventions, we aimed to conduct a national survey to examine key domains of mental health status in people who inject drugs (PWID) in New Zealand. PWID were recruited from 24 pharmacies and 16 dedicated peer-based needle exchanges (PBNEs) across the country. We focused on two mental health outcomes: (1) affective dysregulation, across the three emotional domains of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, due to its role in the maintenance of continued drug use, and (2) positive cognition and effective health- and drug-related information exchange with the provider, using the Satisfaction with Life Scale and an ad hoc questionnaire, respectively, in view of their association with improved mental health outcomes. We hypothesized that access to peer support would be associated with mental health benefits for PWIDs. Remarkably, the results of a multistep regression analysis revealed that irrespective of sex, age, ethnicity, main drug used, length of drug use, and frequency of visits to the NEP, the exclusive or preferential use of PBNEs predicted significantly lower depression and anxiety scores, greater satisfaction with life, and increased health-related information exchange with the service provider. These findings demonstrate for the first time an association between access to peer support at PBNEs and positive indices of mental health, lending strong support to the effective integration of such peer-delivered NEP services into the network of mental health services for PWID worldwide.
Hannighofer, Jasmin; Foran, Heather; Hahlweg, Kurt; Zimmermann, Tanja
Mothers and children of single or unstable relationships have higher rates of mental health problems than those in stable two-parent families. Despite results that mothers and children of conflictual two-parent families also show impairments, most studies do not consider relationship quality. Therefore, the present study combines relationship status and relationship quality to a "family type." The present study compares German mothers and children of two-parent families with high relationship quality to those from two-parent families with a low quality, single mothers, and unstable families. Data of n = 249 families from a 10-year follow-up longitudinal study show that mothers with a high relationship quality show the highest levels of mental health whereas all other groups show at least a 3.2 times higher probability of mental health symptoms. Children of mothers in unstable relationships show a 8.2 times higher probability to emotional or behavioral problems than children of mothers with high relationship quality. Therefore, not only relationship status but also relationship quality should be combined and this "family type" should be considered in future research.
Full Text Available Mothers and children of single or unstable relationships have higher rates of mental health problems than those in stable two-parent families. Despite results that mothers and children of conflictual two-parent families also show impairments, most studies do not consider relationship quality. Therefore, the present study combines relationship status and relationship quality to a “family type.” The present study compares German mothers and children of two-parent families with high relationship quality to those from two-parent families with a low quality, single mothers, and unstable families. Data of n = 249 families from a 10-year follow-up longitudinal study show that mothers with a high relationship quality show the highest levels of mental health whereas all other groups show at least a 3.2 times higher probability of mental health symptoms. Children of mothers in unstable relationships show a 8.2 times higher probability to emotional or behavioral problems than children of mothers with high relationship quality. Therefore, not only relationship status but also relationship quality should be combined and this “family type” should be considered in future research.
The Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrated Schedule Plan establishes the organizational responsibilities, rules for developing, maintain and status of the SNF integrated schedule, and an implementation plan for the integrated schedule. The mission of the SNFP on the Hanford site is to provide safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Hanford SNF in a manner which stages it to final disposition. This particularly involves K Basin fuel
The Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrated Schedule Plan establishes the organizational responsibilities, rules for developing, maintain and status of the SNF integrated schedule, and an implementation plan for the integrated schedule. The mission of the SNFP on the Hanford site is to provide safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Hanford SNF in a manner which stages it to final disposition. This particularly involves K Basin fuel.
Schmidt, J.W.; Markes, B.M.; McKinney, S.M.
This document provides Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) a schedule of monitoring and sampling routines for the Operational Environmental Monitoring (OEM) program during calendar year (CY) 1995. Every attempt will be made to consistently follow this schedule; any deviation from this schedule will be documented by an internal memorandum (DSI) explaining the reason for the deviation. The DSI will be issued by the scheduled performing organization and directed to Near-Field Monitoring. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of Near-Field Monitoring and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive wastes sites are scheduled to be surveyed at least annually. Any newly discovered wastes sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1995
Duan, Wenjie; Mu, Wenlong
Although stress emerges when environmental demands exceed personal resources, existing measurement methods for stress focus only on one aspect. The newly-developed Short Stress Overload Scale (SOS-S) assesses the extent of stress by assessing both event load (i.e., environmental demands) and personal vulnerability (i.e., personal resources). The present study was designed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Stress Overload Scale-Short (SOS-SC), and further examine its roles in screening mental health status. A total of 1364 participants were recruited from communities and colleges for scale validation. Reliabilities were good throughout the subsamples (ω > 0.80). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the acceptable goodness-of-fit for the two-factor correlated model (Sample 1: 560 community residents). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis confirmed measurement invariance across community residents (Sample 1) and college students (Sample 2 and Sample 3). Criterion validity and convergent validity were established (Sample 2: 554 college students). Latent moderated structural equations demonstrated that the relationship between SOS-SC and depression is moderated by social support (Sample 2), further validating the SOS-SC. In addition, the SOS-SC effectively screened individuals in a population at different levels of mental health status (i.e., "at risk" vs. "at low risk" for depression symptoms and/or wellbeing). The SOS-SC exhibits acceptable psychometric properties in the Chinese context. That said, the two aspects of stress can be differentiated by the Chinese context, therefore, the SOS-SC can be used to measure stress and screen mental health status among the Chinese population, and monitor and evaluate health-promoting interventions.
Tuinman, Marrit A; Hoekstra, Harald J; Fleer, Joke; Sleijfer, Dirk Th; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E H M
Testicular cancer is the most frequent malignancy in men between 20 and 40 years of age. This is a period in life in which important life events take place, such as starting a career and establishing a relationship. The goal of the study was to explore self-esteem, social support, and mental health in 3 groups of survivors of testicular cancer: singles, those with the same partner as at diagnosis (relationship during testicular cancer), and those with a partner they met after completion of treatment (relationship after testicular cancer). A total of 129 survivors completed the Social Support List, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and the subscale mental health of the RAND-36. Mean time since diagnosis for single survivors was 8.3 years (range 1-23), for survivors with a relationship during testicular cancer 9.3 years (range 1-24), and for survivors with a relationship after testicular cancer 13.6 years (range 1-24). Levels of social support were equal in groups, but satisfaction with support was not. Survivors with a relationship during testicular cancer were most satisfied with support, and had the highest self-esteem and mental health. Survivors with a relationship after testicular cancer reported the next best levels of functioning but had the same mental health as singles. Singles and survivors with a relationship established after testicular cancer had a lower mental health than a reference group of men. The difference in self-esteem between singles and survivors of testicular cancer with a relationship during testicular cancer appeared most distinct and was clinically relevant. Mental health was predicted by different factors for the 3 groups. Being single at diagnosis seems to cause a vulnerability that remains when survivors do develop a relationship after treatment is completed because these groups are at risk for a lower mental health.
Tajvar, Maryam; Grundy, Emily; Fletcher, Astrid
To investigate direct and stress-buffering associations between social support from family and the mental health of older people in Iran, a country which has recently undergone an exceptionally fast fertility transition and is consequently experiencing rapid population ageing. A cross-sectional stratified random survey of 800 people aged 60+ years resident in Tehran was conducted. In total, 644 people responded. The Social Provisions Scale and the General Health Questionnaire were used to measure perceived social support and mental health, respectively. Multilevel mixed-effects models were used to examine the hypotheses. The findings supported the hypothesis of a direct association between perceived and received social support and mental health. However, we did not find strong evidence to suggest that social support buffered the effects of stress arising from limitations of physical functioning. Lack of help doing paperwork was associated with worse mental health for women but not men. Source of support did not seem to be important. Our results indicated that in Tehran, as in Western settings, social support is important for the mental well-being of older people. Recommendations for policy and further research priorities based on the study findings were provided.
Grundberg, Åke; Hansson, Anna; Religa, Dorota; Hillerås, Pernilla
Introduction Elderly people with multiple chronic conditions, or multimorbidity, are at risk of developing poor mental health. These seniors often remain in their homes with support from home care assistants (HCAs). Mental health promotion by HCAs needs to be studied further because they may be among the first to observe changes in clients’ mental health status. Aim To describe HCAs’ perspectives on detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health among homebound seniors with multimorbidity. Methods We applied a descriptive qualitative study design using semi-structured interviews. Content analyses were performed on five focus group interviews conducted in 2014 with 26 HCAs. Results Most HCAs stated that they were experienced in caring for clients with mental health problems such as anxiety, depression, sleep problems, and high alcohol consumption. The HCAs mentioned as causes, or risk factors, multiple chronic conditions, feelings of loneliness, and social isolation. The findings reveal that continuity of care and seniors’ own thoughts and perceptions were essential to detecting mental health problems. Observation, collaboration, and social support emerged as important means of detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health. Conclusion The HCAs had knowledge of risk factors, but they seemed insecure about which health professionals had the primary responsibility for mental health. They also seemed to have detected early signs of mental health problems, even though good personal knowledge of the client and continuity in home visits were crucial to do so. When it came to mental health promotion, the suggestions related to the aim of ending social isolation, decreasing feelings of loneliness, and increasing physical activity. The results indicate that the HCAs seemed dependent on supervision by district nurses and on care managers’ decisions to support the needed care, to schedule assignments related to the detection of mental health
Zeng, Zhi; Guo, Yan; Lu, Liming; Han, Lu; Chen, Wen; Ling, Li
Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) generate nearly 80% of the jobs in China, but the dangerous work environment often found in these enterprises poses a major concern for public health. Psychosocial pressure and mental health problems among the workers are also common in SMEs. However, mental health of workers in SMEs is largely neglected in occupational health research and practice in China. The purpose of this study is to assess mental health of the workers and to explore the associations between physical and psychosocial work environment and workers' mental health in SMEs in South China. Data were collected in 2012 through a cross-sectional survey among 1200 workers working in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Guangdong, China. Mental health was measured by psychological well-being in the current study. Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) model was used as a theoretical framework to examine the psychosocial factors associated with workers' psychological well-being. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 and analysis was performed using bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression. About three in ten workers (35.3%) in the sample had poor psychological well-being. Those who were men, younger in age, or migrant workers had worse psychological outcome in bivariate analyses. After controlling for individual variables (gender, age, marital status, and household registration), we found that longer weekly work hours (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.13 ~ 1.50), more exposure to hazardous work environment (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.10 ~ 1.44), higher job demands (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.12 ~ 1.49), and lower job autonomy (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.60 ~ 0.81) were significant associated with worse psychological well-being. The results were consistent with predictions of the JDCS model. The results indicate that the JDCS model is a useful framework in predicting psychological well-being among Chinese workers in SMEs. Future mental health promotion should focus on young
Jaradat, Y M; Nielsen, M B; Kristensen, P; Bast-Pettersen, R
Associations between shift work (SW) schedules, mental distress and job satisfaction have never been completely described. To examine gender-specific associations of SW with mental distress and job satisfaction in nurses in Hebron District, Palestine, in 2012. Detailed information on work schedules (day versus shift), socio-demographic status, mental distress (General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-30) and job satisfaction (Generic Job Satisfaction Scale) in nurses employed in Hebron District, Palestine, was obtained through a questionnaire survey. Associations of SW and outcomes were examined by linear regression analysis. Of 372 nurses eligible for the study, 309 and 338 completed surveys regarding mental distress and job satisfaction, respectively. The sample comprised 62% women and 38% men. After adjusting for covariates, women working shifts reported significantly higher levels of mean mental distress [β coefficient 3.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3-7.0] compared with women working regular day shifts. Men working shifts reported significantly lower levels of job satisfaction (-3.3; 95% CI -6.2 to -0.5) than men working regular day shifts. Women reported higher levels of mental distress than men, but this was unrelated to work schedule. In this study, nurses working shifts reported higher levels of mental distress and lower levels of job satisfaction, although these associations were weaker when adjusted for potential covariates. There was no evidence of a gender differential in the association between SW and mental distress and job satisfaction. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.
Stordeur, R.T.; Flyckt, D.L.
A review is presented of the approach that established the Phase I and II priorities. This review was necessitated by changes in the key assumptions, including the recent decision to place N Reactor in cold standby. A revised priority listing, based on current information, identified 19 Phase I streams. This list is compared to the original with its 16 Phase I streams. The net increase in three Phase I streams results from five upgrades (II to I) plus one new stream (which is a Phase I), minus three downgrades (I to II). The estimated cost for providing alternative treatment systems for the 19 Phase I projects is currently $110 million. In the March 1987 Plan and Schedule, the total Phase I costs were between $75 and $143 million. The original cost estimate for final disposal of the secondary wastes was between $54 and $65 million. The latest cost estimate is $22 million. Capital funding for the majority of these projects will be provided by the Hanford Environmental Compliance (HEC) line item. 14 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs
Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Perry, Brea L
With increasing rates of obesity in the United States, attention to life chances and psychological consequences associated with weight stigma and weight-based discrimination has also intensified. While research has demonstrated the negative effects of weight-based discrimination on mental health, little is known about whether different social groups are disproportionately vulnerable to these experiences. Drawing on the modified labelling theory, the focus of this paper is to investigate the psychological correlates of body weight and self-perceived weight-based discrimination among American women at the intersection of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). Analyses use data from the National Health Measurement Study (NHMS), a national multi-stage probability sample of non-institutional, English-speaking adults, ages 35 to 89 in 2005-2006. Our findings demonstrate that the effect of weight-based discrimination on psychological well-being is highly contingent on social status. Specifically, the psychological consequences of discrimination on Hispanic women and women in the lowest household income group is significantly greater relative to White women and women with higher household income, controlling for obesity status and self-rated health. These results suggest that higher social status has a buffering effect of weight stigma on psychological well-being. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Sajjadi, H; Jorjoran Shushtari, Z; Mahboubi, S; Rafiey, H; Salimi, Y
Understanding pathways that influence substance use potential (SUP) can help with effective substance use prevention interventions among adolescents. The aim of the present study is to contribute to a better understanding of the SUP of adolescents by examining the mediating role of social network quality in the SUP of Iranian adolescents. A cross-sectional study. Structural equation modeling was conducted to assess the hypothesized model that social network quality would mediate the association of family socio-economic status, a mental health disorder, and family smoking with addiction potential. The model shows a good fit to the data. Social network quality mediated the effect of family smoking on the SUP for boys. A mental health disorder had a positive significant direct effect on addiction potential for both girls and boys. Social network quality mediates the effect of family smoking on boys' addiction potential in the context of Iran. Educational programs based on local societal ways and cultural norms are recommended to change tobacco smoking behavior among family members. In addition, to prevent subsequent substance use among adolescents, more effort is needed to improve their mental health. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tuinman, Marrit A.; Hoekstra, Harald J.; Fleer, Joke; Sleijfer, Dirk Th.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.
Testicular cancer is the most frequent malignancy to men between 20 and 40 years of age. This is a period in life in which important life events take place, such as starting a career and establishing a relationship. The goal of the study was to explore self-esteem. social support. and mental health
Deák, Magdolna; Szvetnik, Attila; Balog, Attila; Sohár, Nicolette; Varga, Renáta; Pokorny, Gyula; Tóth, Gábor; Kiss, Mária; Kovács, László
Antimuscarinic acetylcholine receptor-3 (m3AChR) autoantibodies have been described in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). The aim of this study was to compare various methods for their detection and to assess the contributions of anti-m3AChR and other immunological and psychosocial factors to the pathomechanism of secondary SS (sSS). Sixty-five rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, 103 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, 76 pSS patients and 50 controls were compared. Three immunodominant epitopes of m3AChR were synthesized and used in ELISA. Two extracellular epitopes were also prepared in fusion with glutathione-S-transferase and one in conjugation with bovine serum albumin. Mental health status was assessed with the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy fatigue scale. Correlations were evaluated between glandular function and anti-m3AChR positivities and specificities, features of SLE and RA, and mental health parameters. Fourteen RA and 27 SLE patients had sSS. The autoantibody levels to all epitopes of m3AChR were significantly higher in pSS and SLE patients than in the controls. The fusion protein forms discriminated RA from pSS and SLE; furthermore, the YNIP fusion protein also distinguished pSS from SLE. The prevalence and the mean levels of all autoantibodies did not differ statistically between sicca and non-sicca SLE or RA patients. Glandular dysfunction correlated with higher age in SLE and RA and an impaired health-related quality of life in SLE. The second and third extracellular loops of m3AChR are antigenic in pSS. Immunoassays with antigens as fusion peptides demonstrate the best performance. Sicca SLE patients have worse mental health status. Anti-m3AChR antibodies represent a peculiar example of neuroimmune interactions. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available One of the most fragile stratums of every society is the people with certain disabilities, especially educable mentally retarded children. Some of the most tangible difficulties of these people are seen in their perceptual and motional abilities (coordination, balance, atmospheric awareness, time awareness, physical awareness and sense of direction. Overcoming these inabilities requires the integration of environmental information and decision making for performance of a special function. The objective of the present research is to investigate the effects of eight weeks of Tai-Chi exercises on status parameters of Kyphosis and balance among educable mentally retarded children. The research sample is consisted of 30 educable mentally retarded children suffering from Kyphosis abnormality. The sample individuals were selected from welfare centers of Tehran. After selection of samples, prior and post to execution of the protocol, the individuals were measured in terms of Kyphosis angle, chest expansion, coefficient of Delmas, spine extension and static and dynamic balances respectively through flexible rulers, tape measure, stoke test and Y test. The educable mentally retarded children were assigned to two 15 individual groups of experimental (age average of 11.6 years; average height of 142.30; average weight of 39.26kg and control (age average of 11.06; height average of 139.83 and weight average of 35.86kg. The subjects of the experimental group were participated in an 8 week course of Tai-Chi exercises in three weekly 45 minute sessions. These exercises included a 10 minute warm-up, 30 minutes of Tai-Chi movements and 5 minutes of cool-down. During this time, the subjects of the control group were not incorporated into any exercise. By the use of the Shapiro-Wilk test, the normality of data distribution was investigated and approved. Also the Leon test was used for investigation of equality of the variances. Afterwards, descriptive statistics
Full Text Available Background: Work-related physical assaults or violence has severely impacted on the safety of the work environment and employees’ mental health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of physical assaults, the effect of socioeconomic status (SES on it and depression associated with it in employees working at large companies. Methods: A total of 22,770 Japanese employees responded to a self-administered questionnaire including SES (educational status and occupational status, violence victimization, worksite social support and depression (response rate, 85%. The 12-month prevalence of physical assaults and depression was examined using a single question and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, respectively. Results: The prevalence of physical assaults was 1.8% both in males and females. Although the risk of exposure to physical assaults was 2–3 times higher in the blue-collar group than in the manager group, the association of exposure to physical assaults with depression was stronger in the manager and white-collar worker group (Prevalence ratio [PR]=2.1 in males; 1.8 in females than in the blue-collar worker group (PR=1.7 in males; 1.5 in females after adjusting demographic and occupational covariates. A similar pattern was observed for education in males; the association was stronger than in the lower education group (PR=2.1 and 1.8. Conclusions: Low SES is a risk factor of exposure to physical assaults, however, the association of physical assaults with depression was significantly greater among company employees of higher SES than those of lower SES. Keywords: Depression, Employment, Japan, Mental health, Social class, Worker, Violence, Workplace
Dales, Robert E; Cakmak, Sabit
Both air pollution exposure and the presence of mental illness are associated with an increased risk of physical illness. To determine whether or not children with less favourable mental health are more susceptible to pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of ambient air pollution, compared to those who are mentally healthy. We carried out a cross-sectional study of 1,883 children between the ages of 6 and 17 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures population survey between 2007 and 2009. Subjects were assigned the air pollution values obtained from the National Air Pollution monitor closest to their neighborhood. Lung function, heart rate and blood pressure were stratified by indicators of mental health. The latter were ascertained by questions about feelings of happiness, a diagnosed mood disorder, and the emotional symptom subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Among those who reported a mood disorder, an interquartile increase in ozone was associated with increases in systolic and diastolic pressures of 3.8 mmHg (95% CI 1.6, 5.9) and 3.0mmHg (95%CI 0.9, 5.2) respectively, and a decreases in FVC of 7.6% (95% CI 2.9, 12.3). No significant changes in these variables were observed in those who did not report a mood disorder. Among those with unfavourable emotional symptoms, ozone was associated with a 6.4% (95% CI 1.7, 11.3) increase in heart rate, a 4.1% (95%CI 1.2, 7.1) increase in systolic blood pressure, and a 6.0% (95% CI 1.4, 10.6) decrease in FEVl. No significant effect was seen in these variables among those with no emotional symptoms. In the Canadian population, children who report mood disorders or unfavourable emotional symptoms appear to be more vulnerable to the adverse physiologic effects of air pollution.
Cagney, Kathleen A.; Skarupski, Kimberly A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.
Abstract Objectives. Despite a well-established association between relative social position and health, stratification at smaller levels of social organization has received scant attention. Neighborhood is a localized context that has increasing relevance for adults as they age, thus one’s relative position within this type of mesolevel group may have an effect on mental health, independent of absolute level of social and economic resources. We examine the relationship between an older adult’s relative rank within their neighborhoods on two criteria and depressive symptoms. Method. Using data from the Chicago Health and Aging Project, neighborhood relative social position was ascertained for two social domains: income and social reputation (number of neighbors one knows well enough to visit). Using multilevel models, we estimated the effect of relative position within the neighborhood on depressive symptoms, net of absolute level for each domain and average neighborhood level. Results. Higher neighborhood relative rankings on both income and visiting neighbors were associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Although both were modest in effect, the gradient in depressive symptoms was three times steeper for the relative rank of visiting neighbors than for income. Men had steeper gradients than women in both domains, but no race differences were observed. Discussion. These findings suggest that an older adult’s relative position in a local social hierarchy is associated with his/her mental health, net of absolute position. PMID:26333821
Kelley-Moore, Jessica A; Cagney, Kathleen A; Skarupski, Kimberly A; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F
Despite a well-established association between relative social position and health, stratification at smaller levels of social organization has received scant attention. Neighborhood is a localized context that has increasing relevance for adults as they age, thus one's relative position within this type of mesolevel group may have an effect on mental health, independent of absolute level of social and economic resources. We examine the relationship between an older adult's relative rank within their neighborhoods on two criteria and depressive symptoms. Using data from the Chicago Health and Aging Project, neighborhood relative social position was ascertained for two social domains: income and social reputation (number of neighbors one knows well enough to visit). Using multilevel models, we estimated the effect of relative position within the neighborhood on depressive symptoms, net of absolute level for each domain and average neighborhood level. Higher neighborhood relative rankings on both income and visiting neighbors were associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Although both were modest in effect, the gradient in depressive symptoms was three times steeper for the relative rank of visiting neighbors than for income. Men had steeper gradients than women in both domains, but no race differences were observed. These findings suggest that an older adult's relative position in a local social hierarchy is associated with his/her mental health, net of absolute position. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Nakao, M; Yano, E
Traditional lifelong employment systems have been changing rapidly in Japan. The aim of this study was to assess the health impacts of term-limited employment systems that have recently been introduced into Japanese academic institutes. Cross-sectional. A total of 514 male researchers (275 term limited and 239 tenure track) were compared in terms of behavioural, physical and mental status at annual health examinations. At these examinations, working hours and health-related lifestyles were examined using a self-completed questionnaire. Clinical structured interviews of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) were used to detect major depression. The term-limited researchers tended to work longer hours (Pbreakfast less regularly (P0.05) between the two groups, fatigue was more prevalent (P=0.027) in the term-limited researchers than in the tenure-track researchers, adjusting for the effects of age. Compared with colleagues working in the same laboratories, the term-limited researchers worked longer hours, irrespective of fatigue, whereas only the fatigued tenure-track researchers worked longer hours. In the total sample, the fatigued researchers tended to belong to laboratories where their colleagues, on average, worked longer hours, compared with the non-fatigued researchers. These results imply that the term-limited researchers suffered more from fatigue, due to longer working hours, than their colleagues, and that organized, rather than personal, interventions with respect to the working environment may be effective in reducing overload in such workplaces.
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Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Lomholt, Rikke Kirstine; Kreiner, Svend
.4%), and positive predictive value (71.0%) but equal area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Cross-validation on follow-up data confirmed the results. CONCLUSION: A short, valid MMSE, which is as sensitive and specific as the original MMSE for the screening of cognitive impairments and dementia......OBJECTIVES: This study assesses the properties of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) with the purpose of improving the efficiencies of the methods of screening for cognitive impairment and dementia. A specific purpose was to determine whether an abbreviated version would be as accurate...... is attractive for research and clinical practice, particularly if predictive power can be enhanced by combining the short MMSE with neuropsychological tests or informant reports....
Marković Milan M.
Full Text Available Adoption of the UN Convention on the Right of Persons with Disabilities (2006 brought about a core shift to how the international community and human rights law see and treat human disability in general. This paradigm shift materilizes itself in a number of provisions ranging from those which catalogue the proclaimed human rights as they are in the context of special implementation and protection of people with disabilities, to those that introduce a level of specificity in light of their holders' particular needs. But the strongest presence of the shift to this regard can be found in the Article 12 CRPD that sheds new light on the concept of (legal capacity of people with (mental disabilites. According to this norm and put quite simply - there should be no difference in observing and treating capacity of a person with disabilities to that of any other person. This is not only the matter of prohibiting discrimination on grounds of mental impairments, but furthermore preventing the system from establishing a classification in which a person with psychosocial or intellectual impairment would be a second-rate citizen, an object of law or a victim of legal, social and family abuse, someone who is a burden to his entire environment, someone who does not have a say in any case concerning his own life and wellbeing. Legal capacity should not be a goal to be fighting for, but a universal human right. Of course and unfortunatelly, such a shift is purely a formal one, when not causing due reform within the national systems and without proper implementation in the member states. What is thought urgently needed and directly required by the given provision is removing the system features that allow deprivation of legal capacity on the bases of mental impairments and introducing a humane and human rights oriented model in which the decision making of these people would be autonomous and supported, and with only very restricted exceptions, done by them and not
Section 207(f)(2) of the E-Gov Act requires federal agencies to develop an inventory and establish a schedule of information to be published on their Web sites, make those schedules available for public comment. To post the schedules on the web site.
Hoogeveen, H.; Skutella, M.; Woeginger, Gerhard
We consider the problem of preemptively scheduling a set of n jobs on m (identical, uniformly related, or unrelated) parallel machines. The scheduler may reject a subset of the jobs and thereby incur job-dependent penalties for each rejected job, and he must construct a schedule for the remaining
Hoogeveen, J.A.; Skutella, M.; Woeginger, G.J.; Paterson, M.
We consider the problem of preemptively scheduling a set of n jobs on m (identical, uniformly related, or unrelated) parallel machines. The scheduler may reject a subset of the jobs and thereby incur job-dependent penalties for each rejected job, and he must construct a schedule for the remaining
Allison, J.E.; Segall, P.; Smith, R.R.
Successful preparation and implementation of an outage schedule and completion of scheduled and emergent work within an identified critical path time frame is a result of careful coordination by Operations, Work Control, Maintenance, Engineering, Planning and Administration and others. At the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) careful planning has been responsible for meeting all scheduled outage critical paths
X. Zhang (Xiandong)
textabstractScheduling is essential when activities need to be allocated to scarce resources over time. Motivated by the problem of scheduling barges along container terminals in the Port of Rotterdam, this thesis designs and analyzes algorithms for various on-line and off-line scheduling problems
Akyüz Özdemir, Aydan; Sayın, Cihat Burak; Erdal, Rengin; Özcan, Cihangir; Haberal, Mehmet
End-stage renal disease is a disease with a long duration, requiring patients to live with the limitations imposed by their condition. Stressors associated with this disease are demanding, with patients dependent on support from their social environment. Here, we aimed to show the influences of familial, social, economic, and marital status on quality of life in patients with end-stage renal disease. Patients (190 women/188 men) who were under hemodialysis treatment and on transplant wait lists were included in the study. To evaluate the quality of life, patients completed the Short Form 36 health survey questionnaire voluntarily while undergoing hemodialysis treatment. All Short Form 36 questionnaire components were analyzed separately, and all social, economic, and business life dimensions were examined with another questionnaire. Significant differences were observed between single and married patients regarding physical and mental health dimensions (P work showed better Short Form 36 scores in working patients (P marital statuses, in addition to the influence of disease adaptation, independently affected the well-being of patients with end-stage renal disease.
Anderson, Kelly K; McKenzie, Kwame J; Kurdyak, Paul
Some ethnic groups have more negative contacts with health services for first-episode psychosis, likely arising from a complex interaction between ethnicity, socio-economic factors, and immigration status. Using population-based health administrative data, we sought to examine the effects of ethnic group and migrant status on patterns of health service use preceding a first diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder among people aged 14-35 over a 10-year period. We compared access to care and intensity of service use for first-generation ethnic minority groups to the general population of Ontario. To control for migrant status, we restricted the sample to first-generation migrants and compared service use indicators for ethnic minority groups to the European migrant group. Our cohort included 18,080 people with a first diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, of whom 14.4% (n = 2607) were the first-generation migrants. Our findings suggest that the magnitude of ethnic differences in health service use is reduced and no longer statistically significant when the sample is restricted to first-generation migrants. Of exception, nearly, all migrant groups have lower intensity of primary care use, and Caribbean migrants are consistently less likely to use psychiatric services. We observed fewer ethnic differences in health service use preceding the first diagnosis of psychosis when patterns are compared among first-generation migrants, rather than to the general population, suggesting that the choice of reference group influences ethnic patterning of health service use. We need a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms behind observed differences for minority groups to adequately address disparities in access to care.
Jelić, Božena; Vukić, Vivian Andrea; Peco, Mirna; Vojnović, Daniela; Zoričić, Zoran
There is not much research about the impact of oral health status on self-esteem. The purpose of this descriptive study was to identify if there was any difference between experimental and control group in self-esteem, impact of oral health on social life and living quality, satisfaction with appearance of teeth and oral hygiene. There were 30 participants of experimental group, aged between 25–65 which were without acute symptoms and they were treated from alcoholism and depression at Dep...
Tsuno, Kanami; Kawakami, Norito
Work-related physical assaults or violence has severely impacted on the safety of the work environment and employees' mental health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of physical assaults, the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on it and depression associated with it in employees working at large companies. A total of 22,770 Japanese employees responded to a self-administered questionnaire including SES (educational status and occupational status), violence victimization, worksite social support and depression (response rate, 85%). The 12-month prevalence of physical assaults and depression was examined using a single question and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, respectively. The prevalence of physical assaults was 1.8% both in males and females. Although the risk of exposure to physical assaults was 2-3 times higher in the blue-collar group than in the manager group, the association of exposure to physical assaults with depression was stronger in the manager and white-collar worker group (Prevalence ratio [PR]=2.1 in males; 1.8 in females) than in the blue-collar worker group (PR=1.7 in males; 1.5 in females) after adjusting demographic and occupational covariates. A similar pattern was observed for education in males; the association was stronger than in the lower education group (PR=2.1 and 1.8). Low SES is a risk factor of exposure to physical assaults, however, the association of physical assaults with depression was significantly greater among company employees of higher SES than those of lower SES.
Adair, Jerry R.
This paper is a consolidated report on ten major planning and scheduling systems that have been developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A description of each system, its components, and how it could be potentially used in private industry is provided in this paper. The planning and scheduling technology represented by the systems ranges from activity based scheduling employing artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to constraint based, iterative repair scheduling. The space related application domains in which the systems have been deployed vary from Space Shuttle monitoring during launch countdown to long term Hubble Space Telescope (HST) scheduling. This paper also describes any correlation that may exist between the work done on different planning and scheduling systems. Finally, this paper documents the lessons learned from the work and research performed in planning and scheduling technology and describes the areas where future work will be conducted.
Copeland, Laurel A; Sako, Edward Y; Zeber, John E; Pugh, Mary Jo; Wang, Chen-Pin; MacCarthy, Andrea A; Restrepo, Marcos I; Mortensen, Eric M; Lawrence, Valerie A
To estimate 1-year mortality risk associated with preoperative serious mental illness (SMI) as defined by the Veterans Health Administration (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], major depression) following nonambulatory cardiac or vascular surgical procedures compared to patients without SMI. Cardiac/vascular operations were selected because patients with SMI are known to be at elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. Retrospective analysis of system-wide data from electronic medical records of patients undergoing nonambulatory surgery (inpatient or day-of-surgery admission) October 2005-September 2009 with 1-year follow-up (N=55,864; 99% male; operations (64%; 23% died), coronary artery bypass graft (26%; 10% died) or other cardiac operations (11%; 15%-18% died). Fourteen percent of patients with PTSD died, 20% without SMI and 24% with schizophrenia, with other groups intermediate. In multivariable stratified models, SMI was associated with increased mortality only for patients with bipolar disorder following cardiac operations. Bipolar disorder and PTSD were negatively associated with death following vascular operations. SMI is not consistently associated with postoperative mortality in covariate-adjusted analyses. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hamdullahpur, Kevin; Jacobs, Kahá Wi J; Gill, Kathryn J
Aboriginal women in urban areas have been reported to experience high rates of poverty, homelessness, interpersonal violence, and health problems. However, there are few prior ethnocultural comparisons of urban women from similar socioeconomic backgrounds. The current study explored the mental and physical health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women accessing social services agencies and shelters. Half of the sample (n=172) was Aboriginal (48.3%). The lifetime rate of physical abuse was significantly higher in Aboriginal women, and they were more likely to have been victims of violence or crime in the past year (A=50.6%, NA=35.6%, pwomen were also more likely to have previously received treatment for a drug or alcohol problem. There were no differences in self-reported physical health, medication use, hospitalisations, and current substance misuse. Irrespective of ethnicity, lifetime rates of anxiety, depression and suicide attempts were extremely high. Future research should explore the effects of individual resources (e.g. social support, family relations) and cultural beliefs on women's ability to cope with the stress of living with adverse events, particularly among low SES women with children.
Ben Farhat, Jihane; Blanchet, Karl; Juul Bjertrup, Pia; Veizis, Apostolos; Perrin, Clément; Coulborn, Rebecca M; Mayaud, Philippe; Cohuet, Sandra
Since 2015, Europe has been facing an unprecedented arrival of refugees and migrants: more than one million people entered via land and sea routes. During their travels, refugees and migrants often face harsh conditions, forced detention, and violence in transit countries. However, there is a lack of epidemiological quantitative evidence on their experiences and the mental health problems they face during their displacement. We aimed to document the types of violence experienced by migrants and refugees during their journey and while settled in Greece, and to measure the prevalence of anxiety disorders and access to legal information and procedures. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based quantitative survey combined with an explanatory qualitative study in eight sites (representing the range of settlements) in Greece during winter 2016/17. The survey consisted of a structured questionnaire on experience of violence and an interviewer-administered anxiety disorder screening tool (Refugee Health Screener). In total, 1293 refugees were included, of whom 728 were Syrians (41.3% females) of median age 18 years (interquartile range 7-30). Depending on the site, between 31% and 77.5% reported having experienced at least one violent event in Syria, 24.8-57.5% during the journey to Greece, and 5-8% in their Greek settlement. Over 75% (up to 92%) of respondents ≥15 years screened positive for anxiety disorder, which warranted referral for mental health evaluation, which was only accepted by 69-82% of participants. Access to legal information and assistance about asylum procedures were considered poor to non-existent for the majority, and the uncertainty of their status exacerbated their anxiety. This survey, conducted during a mass refugee crisis in a European Community country, provides important data on experiences in different refugee settings and reports the high levels of violence experienced by Syrian refugees during their journeys, the high prevalence of
Full Text Available Context: Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy for their recurrent disease often report the presence of anxiety and depression. Aims: In the study, we intended to find out the mental health status and overall quality of life (QOL of such patients and to identify the effect of supportive psychotherapy. Subjects and Methods: Forty cancer patients undergoing second or subsequent line chemotherapy(CCT were selected for psychotherapy session. Pre- and post-psychotherapy evaluation of anxiety and depression was determined by hospital anxiety depression scale. The QOL was measured before and after psychotherapy sessions by using WHO QOL-BREF scale. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done by paired t-test, using SPSS V.20. Results: Among 40 patients, 17 patients had breast cancer, and the remaining had ovarian cancer. All breast cancer and 19 ovarian cancer patients were receiving 2nd line CCT. Four ovarian cancer patients were undergoing 3rd line CCT. Results indicated that mean scores (± standard deviation of anxiety 13.95 (±4 and depression 15.5 (±4.4 both exceeded the cut-off score of 11 and mean score of QOL physical health 29.77 (±10.1, psychological health 31.3 (±10.1, social relationship 35.1 (±9.6, and environmental condition 25.9 (±9.9 was below cut-off score of 60. After psychotherapy, there was significant reduction in anxiety (P < 0.01, depression (P < 0.01 and improvement on QOL physical heath (P = 0.02, psychological health (P < 0.01, environmental condition (P < 0.01, and social relationship (P < 0.01. Conclusions: Supportive psychotherapy helps to reduce the level of anxiety, depression, and increase the QOL. Therefore, psychotherapeutic intervention should be encouraged along with chemotherapy to promote positive mental health and to obtain full benefit of their physical treatment.
Albanna, Mohammad; Yehya, Arij; Khairi, Abdalla; Dafeeah, Elnour; Elhadi, Abdelsalam; Rezgui, Lamia; Al Kahlout, Shahada; Yousif, Adil; Uthman, Basim; Al-Amin, Hassen
Introduction The elderly population is increasing around the world, and the prevalence of dementia increases with age. Hence, it is expected that the number of people with dementia will increase significantly in the coming years. The Mini–Mental Status Examination – 2 (MMSE-2) and Mini-Cog are widely used tests to screen for dementia. These scales have good reliability and validity and are easy to administer in clinical and research settings. Aim The purpose of this study was to validate the Arabic versions of MMSE-2 and Mini-Cog. These scales were assessed against the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for dementia, as the gold standard. Methods The standard versions of the MMSE-2 and Mini-Cog were translated to Arabic following the back-translation method. Then, a trained rater administered these tests to 134 Arab elderly aged >60 years. A physician, blind to the results of these two tests, assessed the participants for vascular dementia or probable Alzheimer’s disease, based on the DSM-IV-TR criteria. Results The sample included 67.2% Qataris. The mean age was 74.86 years (standard deviation =7.71), and 61.9% did not attend school. The mean of the adjusted scores of MMSE-2 based on age and education level was 19.60 (standard deviation =6.58). According to DSM-IV-TR, 17.2% of the participants had dementia. Sensitivity and specificity of the MMSE-2 and the Mini-Cog together were 71.4% and 61.6%, respectively, which were better than those of each test alone. Conclusion Together, the Arabic versions of MMSE-2 and Mini-Cog are good screening tools for cognitive impairment in Arabs. PMID:28352179
Albanna, Mohammad; Yehya, Arij; Khairi, Abdalla; Dafeeah, Elnour; Elhadi, Abdelsalam; Rezgui, Lamia; Al Kahlout, Shahada; Yousif, Adil; Uthman, Basim; Al-Amin, Hassen
The elderly population is increasing around the world, and the prevalence of dementia increases with age. Hence, it is expected that the number of people with dementia will increase significantly in the coming years. The Mini-Mental Status Examination - 2 (MMSE-2) and Mini-Cog are widely used tests to screen for dementia. These scales have good reliability and validity and are easy to administer in clinical and research settings. The purpose of this study was to validate the Arabic versions of MMSE-2 and Mini-Cog. These scales were assessed against the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision ( DSM-IV-TR ) criteria for dementia, as the gold standard. The standard versions of the MMSE-2 and Mini-Cog were translated to Arabic following the back-translation method. Then, a trained rater administered these tests to 134 Arab elderly aged >60 years. A physician, blind to the results of these two tests, assessed the participants for vascular dementia or probable Alzheimer's disease, based on the DSM-IV-TR criteria. The sample included 67.2% Qataris. The mean age was 74.86 years (standard deviation =7.71), and 61.9% did not attend school. The mean of the adjusted scores of MMSE-2 based on age and education level was 19.60 (standard deviation =6.58). According to DSM-IV-TR , 17.2% of the participants had dementia. Sensitivity and specificity of the MMSE-2 and the Mini-Cog together were 71.4% and 61.6%, respectively, which were better than those of each test alone. Together, the Arabic versions of MMSE-2 and Mini-Cog are good screening tools for cognitive impairment in Arabs.
Dukakis, Michael S
Former Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis knows about the damage that disability can cause--even its mere mention. In this keynote address given to the symposium on Presidential Disability and Succession held at Northeastern University in Boston last spring, Dukakis reflected on his famous 1988 presidential campaign that, largely at his expense, redefined negativity in presidential politics, in particular the fictitious allegation that he had a history of mental illness. A distinguish professor of Political Science and Public Policy at Northeastern University, Dukakis also spends each winter quarter at UCLA as a visiting professor in the Luskin School of Public Affairs. He remains active in both politics and public policy, canvassing for Democratic candidates such as Elizabeth Warren during her 2012 Senate campaign and promoting policy initiatives through the Dukakis Center for Urban and Regional Policy at Northeastern, which he affectionately calls a "think and do tank." The three-term governor (1975-1979 and 1983-1991) was voted Most Effective Governor by the National Governor's Association in 1986. After his first term in the late 1970s he lost a nasty primary election to Ed King, whom he would later defeat to reclaim office. Though it wasn't apparent at the time, for Dukakis, that 1978 campaign would serve as a precursor for the attack politics that were unloosed during the 1988 presidential campaign. In the remarks that follow, he offers a candid assessment of how not going negative may have cost him the presidency, and how an offhand remark by President Reagan (quickly retracted) caused the press to obsess over Dukakis' health record for the better part of a week--enough to slow his momentum during a crucial stage of campaigning.
刘志霞; 郭克峰; 郎红娟
Objective:To study mental health status and personality of patients with cirrhosis, for examining the role of psychological factors in the genesis and development of the illness.Methods: Mental health status and personality of patients with cirrhosis were assessed by Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90)and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Results: Except for Interpersonal Sensitivity (IS) and Psychosis (P), factor scores of SCL were found to be significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis when compared to controls (P<0.01), especially for Somatization (S), Obsessive-Compulsion (OC), Anxiety (A) and Depression (D). Neuroticism score of EPQ in patients with cirrhosis were also significantly higher than that in controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Mental health status of patients with cirrhosis was shown to be poor, as characterized by greater emotional distress and poorer regulatory control over environmental stress. The higher Neuroticism score of EPQ indicated higher levels of emotional instability and mental irritability among patients with cirrhosis, which should be addressed by appropriate psychological interventions for better clinical outcomes.
Pham, Phuong N; Vinck, Patrick; Stover, Eric
are multiple, ranging from witnessing to being forced to commit violent acts, and compounded by prolonged exposure to violence, often for months or years. Community-based mental health care services and reintegration programs are needed to facilitate the reintegration of former abductees back into their communities. PMID:19445689
psychological trauma are multiple, ranging from witnessing to being forced to commit violent acts, and compounded by prolonged exposure to violence, often for months or years. Community-based mental health care services and reintegration programs are needed to facilitate the reintegration of former abductees back into their communities.
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan
The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence rates and multilevel correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators among male adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were also examined. The experiences of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration in 251 male adolescents with ADHD were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were examined using multiple regression analysis. A total of 48 (19.1%) and 36 (14.3%) participants reported that they were cyberbullying victims or perpetrators, respectively. Those who had increased age and a higher parental occupational socioeconomic status, and reported more severe traditional passive bullying victimization were more likely to be cyberbullying victims. Those who had increased age and combined-type ADHD, and reported lower BAS reward responsiveness, more severe Internet addiction and more severe traditional passive bullying perpetration were more likely to be cyberbullying perpetrators. Cyberbullying victims reported more severe depression and suicidality than those who were not cyberbullying victims. A high proportion of male adolescents with ADHD are involved in cyberbullying. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents should monitor the possibility of cyberbullying involvement among male adolescents with ADHD who exhibit the cyberbullying correlates identified in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To explore the association among HIV status; negative psychological symptoms (anxiety, depression, and hostility; and risky sexual behaviors (multiple sexual partners and unprotected sexual intercourse in a Chilean sample of men who have sex with men (MSM. Methods This study had a cross-sectional design and a sample of 325 MSM whose ages ranged from 18 to 64 years (mean: 30.8; standard deviation: 9.8. Association tests (chi-squared and group mean comparisons (Student’s t-tests and F-tests were performed. Results No statistically significant differences were found for condom use or for the number of sexual partners between HIV-positive men and those who are not infected. In both groups, about 50% reported sexual encounters without condom use in the past six months. There were statistically significant differences in symptoms associated with depression between the two groups. Conclusions These results reveal the need to strengthen messages about the importance of condom use, as the only way to prevent HIV, and as a means of preventing HIV infection and reinfection, in national prevention and self-care programs for sexually active subjects. More studies are needed in Latin America to advance HIV prevention efforts for the MSM population. The data generated by this study can be used to inform the development of HIV prevention programming strategies and interventions targeting the MSM population in Latin America.
This Program Reference Schedule Baseline (PRSB) provides the baseline Program-level milestones and associated schedules for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. It integrates all Program-level schedule-related activities. This schedule baseline will be used by the Director, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and his staff to monitor compliance with Program objectives. Chapter 1 includes brief discussions concerning the relationship of the PRSB to the Program Reference Cost Baseline (PRCB), the Mission Plan, the Project Decision Schedule, the Total System Life Cycle Cost report, the Program Management Information System report, the Program Milestone Review, annual budget preparation, and system element plans. Chapter 2 includes the identification of all Level 0, or Program-level, milestones, while Chapter 3 presents and discusses the critical path schedules that correspond to those Level 0 milestones
Megow Nicole; Vredeveld Tjark
We present constant approximative policies for preemptive stochastic scheduling. We derive policies with a guaranteed performance ratio of 2 for scheduling jobs with release dates on identical parallel machines subject to minimizing the sum of weighted completion times. Our policies as well as their analysis apply also to the recently introduced more general model of stochastic online scheduling. The performance guarantee we give matches the best result known for the corresponding determinist...
Eyerman , Stijn; Michaud , Pierre; Rogiest , Wouter
International audience; —Symbiotic job scheduling exploits the fact that in a system with shared resources, the performance of jobs is impacted by the behavior of other co-running jobs. By coscheduling combinations of jobs that have low interference, the performance of a system can be increased. In this paper, we investigate the impact of using symbiotic job scheduling for increasing throughput. We find that even for a theoretically optimal scheduler, this impact is very low, despite the subs...
Sexton, Eithne; Bennett, Kathleen; Fahey, Tom; Cahir, Caitriona
To examine the extent to which EQ-5D utility scores capture the effect of mental and physical health status on life satisfaction (LS) in older adults. Retrospective cohort study of 884 patients aged ≥70 years from 15 general practices in Ireland, including medical records, pharmacy claims, and self-completion questionnaire. Path analysis was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of: (1) chronic disease burden (based on medications data); (2) activity limitation (basic and instrumental activities of daily living); (3) anxiety symptoms and; (4) depressive symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) on LS (Life Satisfaction Index Z), via a utility score based on responses to the EQ-5D scale. Utility scores were calculated using UK time trade-off utility weights. Covariates included age and socioeconomic status. The final path model fitted the data well (goodness of fit χ 2 = 7.5, df (7), p = 0.37). The direct effects of chronic disease burden and disability on LS were not statistically significant and were excluded from the final model, indicating that EQ-5D score mediated 100% of the total effect on LS. The direct and indirect effects of anxiety and depression on LS were statistically significant, but the size of the indirect effect was small (4% of the total effect for anxiety and 6% of the total effect for depression). The EQ-5D does not adequately capture the effects of anxiety and depression on LS among older adults, suggesting that it may lead to inaccurate assessments of the effectiveness of interventions in this cohort.
[The effect of age, gender and socioeconomic status on the use of services for psychological distress symptoms in the general medical sector: Results from the ESA research program on mental health and aging].
Préville, Michel; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Mechakra-Tahiri, Samia-Djemaâ; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Berbiche, Djamal
The objective of this study was, first, to document the psychometric characteristics of a measure of the older adults' socioeconomic status and, secondly, to test the effect of the socioeconomic status on the association between the older adults perceived need to improve their mental health and their use of services in the general medical sector for psychological distress symptoms taking into account the effect of age and gender. Data used in this study come from the ESA study (Enquête sur la santé des ainés) on mental health and aging, conducted in 2005-2008 using a probabilistic sample (n=2811) of the older adult population aged 65 years and over living at home in Quebec. Our results showed that a measurement model of the older adults' socioeconomic status including an individual-level (SES_I) and an area/contextual-level dimension of socioeconomic deprivation (SES_C) was plausible. The reliability of the SES index used in the ESA research program was .92. Our results showed that women (b=-.43) and older people (b=-.16) were more at risk to have a disadvantaged socioeconomic status. However, our results did not show evidence of a significant association between the older adults' socioeconomic status, their perception of a need to improve their mental health and the use of medical services for psychological distress symptoms in the general medical sector in the older adult population in Quebec. Our results do not support the idea suggested in other studies that socioeconomic status has an effect on the older adults use of services for psychological distress symptoms in the general medical sector and suggest that in a context where medical health services are provided under a public insurance programme context, the socioeconomic status does not influence access to services in the general medical sector in the older adult population.
The Association Between Physical Activity, Mental Status, and Social and Family Support with Five Major Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases Among Elderly People: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Rural Population in Southern China.
Huang, Xiang; Yang, Huajie; Wang, Harry H X; Qiu, Yongjun; Lai, Xiujuan; Zhou, Zhiheng; Li, Fangjian; Zhang, Liwei; Wang, Jiaji; Lei, Jimin
Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) have become the top threat in China. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of major NCDs among the elderly population in rural areas in southern China and explore its associated social determinants. A multistage cluster random sampling methodology was adopted to select a total of 9245 rural elderly people from 3860 rural households in Guangdong Province. Interviews and physical examinations were performed to collect patient information. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore factors associated with the presence of major NCDs. Over one-third (38.5%) of the study population suffered from five major NCDs. The grade of activities of daily living (ADL), mental status, and social relationship of elderly people without NCDs were better than those with NCDs. The major factors associated with the presence of NCDs among the elderly people included age (70-79 years group and 80-89 years group), education level (senior high/technical secondary school and junior college and above), mental status (concentration, enrichment and happy life and memory), relationship with neighbours, activities of daily living (ADL) (being able to climb three floors and bend over), physical activity, marital status (bereft), and living conditions (with offspring and family members). The study identified several social determinants associated with the presence of major NCDs. A higher level of family support and physical exercise might contribute to improved physical condition, mental status, and ADL among the elderly people in rural areas in southern China.
Markes, B.M., Westinghouse Hanford
This document provides the Environmental Restorations Contractor (ERC) and the Project Hanford Management Contractor.(PHMC) a schedule in accordance with the WHC-CM-7-5, Environmental Compliance` and BHI- EE-02, Environmental Requirements, of monitoring and sampling routines for the Near-Field Monitoring (NFM) program during calendar year (CY) 1997. Every attempt will be made to consistently follow this schedule; any deviation from this schedule will be documented by an internal memorandum (DSI) explaining the reason for the deviation. The DSI will be issued by the scheduled performing organization and directed to Near-Field Monitoring. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of Near- Field Monitoring and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use, and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive wastes sites are scheduled to be surveyed at least annually. Any newly discovered wastes sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1998. The outside perimeter road surveys of 200 East and West Area and the rail survey from the 300 Area to Columbia Center will be performed in the year 2000 per agreement with Department of Energy. Richland Field Office. This schedule does not discuss staffing needs, nor does it list the monitoring equipment to be used in completing specific routines. Personnel performing routines to meet this schedule shall communicate any need for assistance in completing these routines to Radiological Control management and Near-Field Monitoring. After each routine survey is completed, a copy of the survey record, maps, and data sheets will be forwarded to Near-Field Monitoring. These routine surveys will not be considered complete until this documentation is received. At the end of each month, the ERC and PHMC radiological control organizations shall forward a copy of the Routine
目的 了解监狱警察的心理健康状况.方法 采用症状自评量表SCL-90评定聊城195名监狱警察的心理状况.结果 监狱警察SCL-90各因子得分均高于常模(P＜0.001),工作岗位不同的监狱警察在躯体化、强迫、抑郁、焦虑、偏执因子分上有差异.年龄不同的监狱警察在躯体化、强迫、人际关系、焦虑、敌对、偏执因子上得分不同.结论 监狱警察的心理健康状况值得关注,不同岗位、不同年龄监狱警察的心理状况是不同的,年轻监狱警察的心理问题较为突出,呼吁社会各界及主管部门予以关注.%Objective To evaluate psychological status of the prison police. Methods 195 prison police of Liaocheng Prison were assessed with Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) and then were compared with the national norm. Results Each factor score of SCL-90 of prison police was higher than the norm (P < 0. 001). There were significant differences in factor scores of somatization, compulsion, depression, anxiety and paranoia when compared according to prison police's work position. Factor scores of somatization, compulsion, interpersonal relation, anxiety, hostility and paranoia differed significantly in police at different age stages. Conclusion The mental health status of prison police vary with their work position and age stage. The psychological problems may be more obvious in young prison police. Much attention should be paid to the psychological status of prison police.
This report is intended to provide a summary of the cost and schedule performance for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. Performance data are presented for each of the major program elements. Also included in this report is the status of the Nuclear Waste Fund revenues and disbursements. This report includes project performance data reported through March 1989
Journal of the College and University Personnel Association, 1977
The term "alternative work schedules" encompasses any variation of the requirement that all permanent employees in an organization or one shift of employees adhere to the same five-day, seven-to-eight-hour schedule. This article defines staggered hours, flexible working hours (flexitour and gliding time), compressed work week, the task system, and…
Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.
Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.
Dürr, Christoph; Hanzálek, Zdeněk; Konrad, Christian; Seddik, Yasmina; Sitters, R.A.; Vásquez, Óscar C.; Woeginger, Gerhard
This paper introduces a novel scheduling problem, where jobs occupy a triangular shape on the time line. This problem is motivated by scheduling jobs with different criticality levels. A measure is introduced, namely the binary tree ratio. It is shown that the Greedy algorithm solves the problem to
Full Text Available Åke Grundberg,1,2 Anna Hansson,2 Dorota Religa,1 Pernilla Hillerås1,2 1Division of Neurogeriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, 2Sophiahemmet University, Stockholm, Sweden Introduction: Elderly people with multiple chronic conditions, or multimorbidity, are at risk of developing poor mental health. These seniors often remain in their homes with support from home care assistants (HCAs. Mental health promotion by HCAs needs to be studied further because they may be among the first to observe changes in clients’ mental health status. Aim: To describe HCAs’ perspectives on detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health among homebound seniors with multimorbidity. Methods: We applied a descriptive qualitative study design using semi-structured interviews. Content analyses were performed on five focus group interviews conducted in 2014 with 26 HCAs. Results: Most HCAs stated that they were experienced in caring for clients with mental health problems such as anxiety, depression, sleep problems, and high alcohol consumption. The HCAs mentioned as causes, or risk factors, multiple chronic conditions, feelings of loneliness, and social isolation. The findings reveal that continuity of care and seniors’ own thoughts and perceptions were essential to detecting mental health problems. Observation, collaboration, and social support emerged as important means of detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health. Conclusion: The HCAs had knowledge of risk factors, but they seemed insecure about which health professionals had the primary responsibility for mental health. They also seemed to have detected early signs of mental health problems, even though good personal knowledge of the client and continuity in home visits were crucial to do so. When it came to mental health promotion, the suggestions related to the aim of ending social isolation, decreasing feelings of
Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.
Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…
Lund, Crick; Myer, Landon; Stein, Dan J; Williams, David R; Flisher, Alan J
Little is known regarding the links between mental disorder and lost income in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between mental disorder and lost income in the first nationally representative psychiatric epidemiology survey in South Africa. A probability sample of South African adults was administered the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview schedule to assess the presence of mental disorders as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, version IV. The presence of severe depression or anxiety disorders was associated with a significant reduction in earnings in the previous 12 months among both employed and unemployed South African adults (p = 0.0043). In simulations of costs to individuals, the mean estimated lost income associated with severe depression and anxiety disorders was $4,798 per adult per year, after adjustment for age, gender, substance abuse, education, marital status, and household size. Projections of total annual cost to South Africans living with these disorders in lost earnings, extrapolated from the sample, were $3.6 billion. These data indicate either that mental illness has a major economic impact, through the effect of disability and stigma on earnings, or that people in lower income groups are at increased risk of mental illness. The indirect costs of severe depression and anxiety disorders stand in stark contrast with the direct costs of treatment in South Africa, as illustrated by annual government spending on mental health services, amounting to an estimated $59 million for adults. The findings of this study support the economic argument for investing in mental health care as a means of mitigating indirect costs of mental illness.
Full Text Available Mohammad Albanna,1,* Arij Yehya,2,* Abdalla Khairi,1 Elnour Dafeeah,1 Abdelsalam Elhadi,3 Lamia Rezgui,4 Shahada Al Kahlout,4 Adil Yousif,5 Basim Uthman,6 Hassen Al-Amin2 1Psychiatry Department, Hamad Medical Corporation, 2Psychiatry Department, Weill Cornell Medicine – Qatar, 3Primary Health Care Corporation, 4Geriatrics Department, Rumailah Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, 5Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, 6Neurology Department, Weill Cornell Medicine – Qatar, Doha, Qatar *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: The elderly population is increasing around the world, and the prevalence of dementia increases with age. Hence, it is expected that the number of people with dementia will increase significantly in the coming years. The Mini–Mental Status Examination – 2 (MMSE-2 and Mini-Cog are widely used tests to screen for dementia. These scales have good reliability and validity and are easy to administer in clinical and research settings. Aim: The purpose of this study was to validate the Arabic versions of MMSE-2 and Mini-Cog. These scales were assessed against the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR criteria for dementia, as the gold standard.Methods: The standard versions of the MMSE-2 and Mini-Cog were translated to Arabic following the back-translation method. Then, a trained rater administered these tests to 134 Arab elderly aged >60 years. A physician, blind to the results of these two tests, assessed the participants for vascular dementia or probable Alzheimer’s disease, based on the DSM-IV-TR criteria.Results: The sample included 67.2% Qataris. The mean age was 74.86 years (standard deviation =7.71, and 61.9% did not attend school. The mean of the adjusted scores of MMSE-2 based on age and education level was 19.60 (standard deviation =6.58. According to DSM-IV-TR, 17.2% of
Saltik, M.B.; van Gameren, S.; Özkan, L.; Weiland, S.
This paper considers a class of scheduling problems cast for processes that consist of several interconnected subprocesses. We model the temporal constraints (On-Off status) on each subprocess using labeled directed graphs to form the admissible set of schedules. Furthermore, we consider physical
Gunn, Anthony; Menzies, Ross G; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Lowe, Robyn; Iverach, Lisa; Heard, Robert; Block, Susan
The purpose of this study was to evaluate anxiety and psychological functioning among adolescents seeking speech therapy for stuttering using a structured, diagnostic interview and psychological questionnaires. This study also sought to determine whether any differences in psychological status were evident between younger and older adolescents. Participants were 37 stuttering adolescents seeking stuttering treatment. We administered the Computerized Voice Version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, and five psychometric tests. Participants were classified into younger (12-14 years; n=20) and older adolescents (15-17 years; n=17). Thirty-eight percent of participants attained at least one diagnosis of a mental disorder, according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; APA, 2000), with the majority of these diagnoses involving anxiety. This figure is double current estimates for general adolescent populations, and is consistent with our finding of moderate and moderate-severe quality of life impairment. Although many of the scores on psychological measures fell within the normal range, older adolescents (15-17 years) reported significantly higher anxiety, depression, reactions to stuttering, and emotional/behavioral problems, than younger adolescents (12-14 years). There was scant evidence that self-reported stuttering severity is correlated with mental health issues. There are good reasons to believe these results are conservative because many participants gave socially desirable responses about their mental health status. These results reveal a need for large-scale, statistically powerful assessments of anxiety and other mental disorders among stuttering adolescents with reference to control populations. The reader will be able to: (a) explain the clinical importance of assessing for mental health with stuttering adolescents, (b) state the superior method for adolescent mental
The purpose of schedule management is to provide the framework for time-phasing, resource planning, coordination, and communicating the necessary tasks within a work effort. The intent is to improve schedule management by providing recommended concepts, processes, and techniques used within the Agency and private industry. The intended function of this handbook is two-fold: first, to provide guidance for meeting the scheduling requirements contained in NPR 7120.5, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements, NPR 7120.7, NASA Information Technology and Institutional Infrastructure Program and Project Requirements, NPR 7120.8, NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements, and NPD 1000.5, Policy for NASA Acquisition. The second function is to describe the schedule management approach and the recommended best practices for carrying out this project control function. With regards to the above project management requirements documents, it should be noted that those space flight projects previously established and approved under the guidance of prior versions of NPR 7120.5 will continue to comply with those requirements until project completion has been achieved. This handbook will be updated as needed, to enhance efficient and effective schedule management across the Agency. It is acknowledged that most, if not all, external organizations participating in NASA programs/projects will have their own internal schedule management documents. Issues that arise from conflicting schedule guidance will be resolved on a case by case basis as contracts and partnering relationships are established. It is also acknowledged and understood that all projects are not the same and may require different levels of schedule visibility, scrutiny and control. Project type, value, and complexity are factors that typically dictate which schedule management practices should be employed.
... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.125 Diagnosis of mental disorders. (a) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder does not conform to DSM-IV or is not supported by the... substantiate the diagnosis. (b) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder is changed, the rating agency shall...
... AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.127 Mental retardation and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... from them may not be service-connected. However, disability resulting from a mental disorder that is...
Full Text Available The aim was to study the characteristics of mental status of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, combined with a chronic pathology of the hepatobiliary system of non-viral genesis. We observed 165 patients with CAP in the age of 25-57 years. All patients were divided into two representative groups: I group (68 patients – CAP was comorbid with hepatic steatosis (HS, II group (96 patients with absence of chronic liver disease. To evaluate the psychological profile of patients’ personality we used a standardized multivariate method of personality research and to evaluate the level of anxiety and depression the scale of Spielberger-Hanin test and Beck’s questionnaire were used. Results of the study revealed that 66.2% of patients with CAP, comorbid with HS, declared the formation of psycho-emotional disorders in the form of neurotic reactions to the disease with prevalence of hypochondria, depression, hysterical manifestations with high psychasthenia, trait anxiety and somatic reactions with prevalence of anxiety and emotional instability, lots of somatic complaints, fixation on their own condition with formation of distinctive thinking mode and behavior by the type of "flight into disease". After completion of the standard treatment of patients with CAP, combined with HS, 42,7% of patients had psycho-emotional disorders, which were moderately expressed. Thus, in the complex of treatment and rehabilitative measures in patients with CAP, combined with HS some characteristics of the psychological profile, in the form of psycho-neurotic reaction to the disease should be considered to take optimal corrective actions.
Rajkumar, Anto P; Petit, Cheryl P; Rachana, Arun; Deinde, Funmi; Shyamsundar, G; Thangadurai, P; Jacob, Kuruthukulangara S
Cognitive deficits, self-reported or found following electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and their correlates are diverse. Despite the characteristics of people receiving ECT in Asia differ widely from the west, pertinent research from Asia remains sparse. We investigated the correlates of self-reported, mini-mental status examination (MMSE) defined, and autobiographical memory deficits in a cohort that received ECT in a south Indian tertiary-care setting. 76 consecutive consenting people were recruited within seven days of completing their ECT course. Memory was assessed by a subjective Likert scale, MMSE, and an autobiographical memory scale (AMS). Psychopathology was assessed by brief psychiatric rating scale, and serum cortisol levels were estimated by chemi-luminescence immunoassays. Relevant sociodemographic and clinical data were collected from the participants, and their medical records. The correlates were analysed using generalised linear models after adjusting for the effects of potential confounders. Self-reported, MMSE-defined, and autobiographical memory deficits were present in 27.6% (95%CI 17.6-37.7%), 42.1% (95%CI 31.0-53.2%), and 36.8% (95%CI 26.0-47.7%) of participants, respectively. Agreement between the memory deficits was poor. Age, less education, duration of illness, hypothyroidism, and past history of another ECT course were significantly associated with MMSE-defined deficits. Age, anaemia, past ECT course, and pre-ECT blood pressure were significantly associated with autobiographical memory deficits, while residual psychopathology and cortisol levels were significantly associated with self-reported memory deficits. Self-reported, MMSE-defined, and autobiographical memory deficits are common at the completion of ECT course, and their correlates differ. All service users receiving ECT need periodic cognitive assessments evaluating multiple cognitive domains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Prevalence study of cognitive impairment and its associated sociodemographic variables using mini-mental status examination among elderly population residing in field practice areas of a medical college
Rakesh M Patel
Full Text Available Context: The world is aging rapidly through “demographic transition.” The aging leads to CI Refers as Cognitive Impairment (CI – a risk factor for dementia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among the elderly aged ≥50 years. Objectives: The objective of the study is to estimate the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction among the elderly and to identify the associated sociodemographic variables. Settings and Design: This was a community-based cross-sectional study in rural and urban field areas of a medical college. Subjects and Methods: Participants aged ≥50 years were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and screened for cognitive dysfunction using Gujarati version of Mini-Mental Status Examination. A score of 23 out of 30 was taken as the cutoff. Written informed consent was obtained from participants. Statistical Analysis Used: Univariate and multivariate analyses were done using SPSS version 17 and Epi Info version 6 to identify significant variables. Results: Of 560 participants, 140 (25% had CI. Rural (27.6% and female (29.8% prevalence was higher than urban (18.5% and male (19.1% prevalence. On multivariate analysis, age ≥60 years (odds ratio [OR]: 2.98 and illiteracy (OR: 39.8 had significant positive association with outcome; being employed (OR: 0.18, living with spouse (OR: 0.07, and living with spouse and children (OR: 0.08 had significant negative association with outcome. Conclusions: CI – a precursor of dementia – has serious clinical and public health consequences. Awareness generation and capacity building of primary health-care workers and family caregivers are core control strategies.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website is designed to provide information on services covered by the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule (MPFS). It provides more than 10,000 physician services,...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Outpatient clinical laboratory services are paid based on a fee schedule in accordance with Section 1833(h) of the Social Security Act. The clinical laboratory fee...
The CERN Council held its 125th session on 20 June. Highlights of the meeting included confirmation that the LHC is on schedule for a 2007 start-up, and the announcement of a new organizational structure in 2004.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The list contains the fee schedule amounts, floors, and ceilings for all procedure codes and payment category, jurisdication, and short description assigned to each...
Mizouni, Rabeb; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja
overrun both their budget and time. To improve the quality of initial project plans, we show in this paper the importance of (1) reflecting features’ priorities/risk in task schedules and (2) considering uncertainties related to human factors in plan schedules. To make simulation tasks reflect features......’ priority as well as multimodal team allocation, enhanced project schedules (EPS), where remedial actions scenarios (RAS) are added, were introduced. They reflect potential schedule modifications in case of uncertainties and promote a dynamic sequencing of involved tasks rather than the static conventional...... this document as an instruction set. The electronic file of your paper will be formatted further at Journal of Software. Define all symbols used in the abstract. Do not cite references in the abstract. Do not delete the blank line immediately above the abstract; it sets the footnote at the bottom of this column....
Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens
scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the staff scheduling is planned decentralized for each zone. The advantage of this approach is that the staff...... work in a smaller area of the terminal and thus spends less time walking between stands. When planning decentralized the allocation of stands to flights influences the staff scheduling since the workload in a zone depends on which flights are allocated to stands in the zone. Hence solving the problem...... depends on the actual stand allocation but also on the number of zones and the layout of these. A mathematical model of the problem is proposed, which integrates the stand allocation and the staff scheduling. A heuristic solution method is developed and applied on a real case from British Airways, London...
This single page document is the November 1, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the production reactor.
This single page document is the October 1, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production Reactor.
This single page document is the October 15, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production Reactor.
This single page document is the September 15, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production Reactor.
This single page document is the December 16, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production reactor.
This single page document is the December 1, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production reactor.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A fee schedule is a complete listing of fees used by Medicare to pay doctors or other providers-suppliers. This comprehensive listing of fee maximums is used to...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Records Schedule provides disposition authorizations approved by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) for CMS program-related records...
Aynkran Jothy R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Community care of the chronic mentally ill has always been prevalent in India, largely due to family involvement and unavailability of institutions. In the 80s, a few mental health clinics became operational in some parts of the country. The Schizophrenia Research Foundation (SCARF, an NGO in Chennai had established a community clinic in 1989 in Thiruporur, which was functional till 1999. During this period various programmes such as training of the primary health center staff, setting up a referral system, setting up of a Citizen's Group, and self-employment schemes were initiated. It was decided to begin a follow up in 2005 to determine the present status of the schemes as well as the current status of the patients registered at the clinic. This we believed would lead to pointers to help evolve future community based programmes. Methods One hundred and eighty five patients with chronic mental illness were followed up and their present treatment status determined using a modified version of the Psychiatric and Personal History Schedule (PPHS. The resources created earlier were assessed and qualitative information was gathered during interviews with patient and families and other stakeholders to identify the reasons behind the sustenance or failure of these initiatives. Results Of the 185 patients followed up, 15% had continued treatment, 35% had stopped treatment, 21% had died, 12% had wandered away from home and 17% were untraceable. Of the patients who had discontinued treatment 25% were asymptomatic while 75% were acutely psychotic. The referral service was used by only 15% of the patients and mental health services provided by the PHC stopped within a year. The Citizen's group was functional for only a year and apart from chicken rearing, all other self-employment schemes were discontinued within a period of 6 months to 3 years. There were multiple factors contributing to the failure, the primary reasons being the
The goal during the last few months has been to freeze and baseline as much as possible the schedules of various ATLAS systems and activities. The main motivations for the re-baselining of the schedules have been the new LHC schedule aiming at first collisions in early 2006 and the encountered delays in civil engineering as well as in the production of some of the detectors. The process was started by first preparing a new installation schedule that takes into account all the new external constraints and the new ATLAS staging scenario. The installation schedule version 3 was approved in the March EB and it provides the Ready For Installation (RFI) milestones for each system, i.e. the date when the system should be available for the start of the installation. TCn is now interacting with the systems aiming at a more realistic and resource loaded version 4 before the end of the year. Using the new RFI milestones as driving dates a new summary schedule has been prepared, or is under preparation, for each system....
Nuijten, W.P.M.; Le Pape, C.
We introduce constraint-based scheduling and discuss its main principles. An approximation algorithm based on tree search is developed for the job shop scheduling problem using ILOG SCHEDULER. A new way of calculating lower bounds on the makespan of the job shop scheduling problem is presented and
Planning and scheduling is a process whose time has come to PSI Energy. With an awareness of the challenges ahead, individuals must look for ways to enhance the corporate competitiveness. Working toward this goal means that each individual has to dedicate themselves to this more competitive corporate environment. Being competitive may be defined as the ability of each employee to add value to the corporation's economic well being. The timely and successful implementation of projects greatly enhances competitiveness. Those projects that do not do well often suffer from lack of proper execution - not for lack of talent or strategic vision. Projects are consumers of resources such as cash and people. They produce a return when completed and will generate a better return when properly completed utilizing proven project management techniques. Completing projects on time, within budget and meeting customer expectations is the way a corporation builds it's future. This paper offers suggestions on implementing planning and scheduling and provides a review of results in the form of management reports
Al-Modallal, Hanan; Hamaideh, Shaher; Mudallal, Rula
This study aimed at investigating differences in mental health problems between attendees of governmental and United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees health care centers in Jordan. Further, predictors of mental health problems based on women's demographic profile were investigated. A convenience sample of 620 women attending governmental and United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees health care centers in Jordan was recruited for this purpose. Independent samples t-tests were used to identify differences in mental health, and multiple linear regression was implemented to identify significant predictors of women's mental health problems. Results indicated an absence of significant differences in mental health problems between attendees of the two types of health care centers. Further, among the demographic indicators that were tested, income, spousal violence, and general health were the predictors of at least three different mental health problems in women. This study highlights opportunities for health professionals to decrease women's propensity for mental health problems by addressing these factors when treating women attending primary care centers in different Jordanian towns, villages, and refugee camps.
The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.
Freund, Richard F.; Braun, Tracy D.; Kussow, Matthew; Godfrey, Michael; Koyama, Terry
SPANR (Schedule, Plan, Assess Networked Resources) is (i) a pre-run, off-line planning and (ii) a runtime, just-in-time scheduling mechanism. It is designed to support primarily commercial applications in that it optimizes throughput rather than individual jobs (unless they have highest priority). Thus it is a tool for a commercial production manager to maximize total work. First the SPANR Planner is presented showing the ability to do predictive 'what-if' planning. It can answer such questions as, (i) what is the overall effect of acquiring new hardware or (ii) what would be the effect of a different scheduler. The ability of the SPANR Planner to formulate in advance tree-trimming strategies is useful in several commercial applications, such as electronic design or pharmaceutical simulations. The SPANR Planner is demonstrated using a variety of benchmarks. The SPANR Runtime Scheduler (RS) is briefly presented. The SPANR RS can provide benefit for several commercial applications, such as airframe design and financial applications. Finally a design is shown whereby SPANR can provide scheduling advice to most resource management systems.
Full Text Available Regarding the scheduling problems of steel enterprises, this research designs the gas scheduling optimization model according to the rules and priorities. Considering different features and the process changes of the gas unit in the process of actual production, the calculation model of process state and gas consumption soft measurement together with the rules of scheduling optimization is proposed to provide the dispatchers with real-time gas using status of each process, then help them to timely schedule and reduce the gas volume fluctuations. In the meantime, operation forewarning and alarm functions are provided to avoid the abnormal situation in the scheduling, which has brought about very good application effect in the actual scheduling and ensures the safety of the gas pipe network system and the production stability.
Wang, Xiao; Sun, Zhenghai; Xiong, Lingchuan; Semrau, Maya; He, Jianhua; Li, Yang; Zhu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Aimin; Jiang, Qinpu; Mu, Nan; Zhao, Yuping; Chen, Wei; Wu, Donghui; Zheng, Zhanjie; Sun, Yongan; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Jun; Meng, Xue; Zhao, Mei; Zhang, Haifeng; Lv, Xiaozhen; Sartorius, Norman; Li, Tao; Yu, Xin; Wang, Huali
Clinical and social services both are important for dementia care. The International Dementia Alliance (IDEAL) Schedule for the Assessment and Staging of Care was developed to guide clinical and social care for dementia. Our study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the IDEAL schedule in China. Two hundred eighty-two dementia patients and their caregivers were recruited from 15 hospitals in China. Each patient-caregiver dyad was assessed with the IDEAL schedule by a rater and an observer simultaneously. The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI) were assessed for criterion validity. IDEAL repeated assessment was conducted 7-10 days after the initial interview for 62 dyads. Two hundred seventy-seven patient-caregiver dyads completed the IDEAL assessment. Inter-rater reliability for the total score of the IDEAL schedule was 0.93 (95%CI = 0.92-0.95). The inter-class coefficient for the total score of IDEAL was 0.95 for the interviewers and 0.93 for the silent raters. The IDEAL total score correlated with the global CDR score (ρ = 0.72, p valid and reliable tool for the staging of care for dementia in the Chinese population.
Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid
of car drivers' route and mode choice under uncertain travel times. Our analysis exposes some important methodological issues related to complex non-linear scheduling models: One issue is identifying the point in time where the marginal utility of being at the destination becomes larger than the marginal......Different assumptions about travelers' scheduling preferences yield different measures of the cost of travel time variability. Only few forms of scheduling preferences provide non-trivial measures which are additive over links in transport networks where link travel times are arbitrarily...... utility of being at the origin. Another issue is that models with the exponential marginal utility formulation suffer from empirical identification problems. Though our results are not decisive, they partly support the constant-affine specification, in which the value of travel time variability...
The scheduling limits for a typical long year taking into account technical stops, machine development, spe- cial physics runs are presented. An attempt is then made to outline a ten year post LS1 schedule taking into account the disparate requirements outlined in the previous talks in this session. The demands on the planned long shutdowns and the impact of these demands on their proposed length will be discussed. The option of using ion running as a pre-shutdown cool-down period will be addressed.
Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.
Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.
Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon
Objective Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organizations, countries, and regions: WHO, OECD, EU, United States, Australia, UK, and Scotland. Using Delphi method, we conducted two surveys of mental health indicators for experts in the field of mental health. The survey questionnaire included 5 domains: mental health status, mental health factor, mental health system, mental health service, and quality of mental health services. We considered 124 potential mental health indicators out of more than 600 from indicators of international organizations and foreign countries. Results We obtained the top 30 mental health indicators from the surveys. Among them, 10 indicators belong to the mental health system. The most important five mental health indicators are suicide rate, rate of increase in mental disorder treatment, burden caused by mental disorders, adequacy of identifying problems of mental health projects and deriving solutions, and annual prevalence of mental disorders. Conclusion Our study provides information about the process for indicator development and the use of survey results to measure the mental health status of the Korean population. The aim of mental health indicator development is to improve the mental health system by better grasping the current situation. We suggest these mental health indicators can monitor progress in efforts to implement reform policies, provide community services, and involve users, families and other stakeholders in mental health promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation. PMID:23251193
Yzquierdo, Antonio Pérez-Calero; Hernández, Jose; Holzman, Burt; Majewski, Krista; McCrea, Alison
In the next years, processor architectures based on much larger numbers of cores will be most likely the model to continue 'Moore's Law' style throughput gains. This not only results in many more jobs in parallel running the LHC Run 1 era monolithic applications, but also the memory requirements of these processes push the workernode architectures to the limit. One solution is parallelizing the application itself, through forking and memory sharing or through threaded frameworks. CMS is following all of these approaches and has a comprehensive strategy to schedule multicore jobs on the GRID based on the glideinWMS submission infrastructure. The main component of the scheduling strategy, a pilot-based model with dynamic partitioning of resources that allows the transition to multicore or whole-node scheduling without disallowing the use of single-core jobs, is described. This contribution also presents the experiences made with the proposed multicore scheduling schema and gives an outlook of further developments working towards the restart of the LHC in 2015.
Fijn van Draat, Laurens; Post, Gerhard F.; Veltman, Bart; Winkelhuijzen, Wessel
The area of personnel scheduling is very broad. Here we focus on the ‘shift assignment problem’. Our aim is to discuss how ORTEC HARMONY handles this planning problem. In particular we go into the structure of the optimization engine in ORTEC HARMONY, which uses techniques from genetic algorithms,
Schutten, Johannes M.J.
We consider the problem of scheduling jobs in a hybrid job shop. We use the term 'hybrid' to indicate that we consider a lot of extensions of the classic job shop, such as transportation times, multiple resources, and setup times. The Shifting Bottleneck procedure can be generalized to deal with
Schutten, Johannes M.J.
The Shifting Bottleneck procedure is an intuitive and reasonably good approximation algorithm for the notoriously difficult classical job shop scheduling problem. The principle of decomposing a classical job shop problem into a series of single-machine problems can also easily be applied to job shop
Many creative or flexible work scheduling options are becoming available to the many working parents, students, handicapped persons, elderly individuals, and others who are either unable or unwilling to work a customary 40-hour work week. These options may be broadly categorized as either restructured or reduced work time options. The three main…
The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of and investigate the association between mental health problems, asthma, allergy and eczema in Norwegian and immigrant youths. A cross-sectional study was performed of all 10th-grade students in Oslo, Norway, in two school years; 1999-2000 and 2000-2001. Of the 8316 eligible students, 7345 (88.3%) participated. Internalized mental problems were measured using the Hopkins Symptom Check List 10-version, and two subscales of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire were used to study externalizing mental health problems. All questions are based on self-report, and 25% of the sample had an immigrant background. Immigrant boys had higher scores on internalizing problems than Norwegian boys. First-generation immigrants reported less asthma and eczema than Norwegians. The strongest association between mental health problems and inflammatory conditions was for allergy and internalizing problems for boys (odds ratio (OR)=2.5 for immigrants and OR=1.8 for Norwegians). For girls, it was allergy in Norwegians (OR=1.6) and asthma for immigrants (OR=2.2). For externalizing problems, the association was strongest for asthma in boys and eczema in girls. Immigrant boys had stronger associations between number of inflammatory conditions and internalizing mental health problems than Norwegians (OR=3.2 vs. OR=2.4). Among girls, the figures were 1.7 for Norwegians and 1.8 for immigrants. There is a strong association between number of inflammatory conditions and internalizing mental health problems, especially among boys with an immigrant background. The association with externalizing mental health problems was less prominent.
Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lund, Henrik; Ajslev, Jeppe Z; Hansen, Åse Marie; Albertsen, Karen; Hvid, Helge; Garde, Anne Helene
We investigated how employees prioritised when they scheduled their own shifts and whether priorities depended on age, gender, educational level, cohabitation and health status. We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from the follow-up survey of an intervention study investigating the effect of self-scheduling (n = 317). Intervention group participants were asked about their priorities when scheduling their own shifts succeeded by 17 items covering family/private life, economy, job content, health and sleep. At least half of the participants reported that they were giving high priority to their family life, having consecutive time off, leisure-time activities, rest between shifts, sleep, regularity of their everyday life, health and that the work schedule balanced. Thus, employees consider both their own and the workplace's needs when they have the opportunity to schedule their own shifts. Age, gender, cohabitation and health status were all significantly associated with at least one of these priorities. Intervention studies report limited health effects of self-scheduling. Therefore, we investigated to what extent employees prioritise their health and recuperation when scheduling their own shifts. We found that employees not only consider both their health and family but also the workplace's needs when they schedule their own shifts.
Dixon, Decia Nicole
Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…
Murray, Kevin J.; Scott, Charles; Zachariah, Babu; Michalski, Jeff M.; Demas, William; Vora, Nayana L.; Whitton, Anthony; Movsas, Benjamin
Purpose: Little information is available on the importance of pretreatment Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) on long-term survival and neurologic function following treatment for unresectable brain metastases. This study examines the importance of the MMSE in predicting outcome in a group of patients treated with an accelerated fractionation regimen of 30 Gy in 10 daily fractions in 2 weeks. Materials and Methods: The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) accrued 445 patients to a Phase III comparison of accelerated hyperfractionated (AH) radiotherapy (1.6 Gy b.i.d.) to a total dose of 54.4 Gy vs. an accelerated fractionation (AF) of 30 Gy in 10 daily fractions from 1991 through 1995. All patients had histologic proof of malignancy at the primary site. Brain metastases were measurable by CT or MRI scan and all patients had a Karnofsky performance score (KPS) of at least 70 and a neurologic function classification of 1 or 2. Two hundred twenty-four patients were entered on the accelerated fractionated arm, and 182 were eligible for analysis (7 patients were judged ineligible, no MMSE information in 29, no survival data in 1, no forms submitted in 1). Results: Average age was 60 years; 58% were male and 25% had a single intracranial lesion on their pretherapy evaluation. KPS was 70 in 32%, 80 in 31%, 90 in 29%, and 100 in 14%. The average MMSE was 26.5, which is the lower quartile for normal in the U.S. population. The range of the MMSE scores was 11-30 with 30 being the maximum. A score of less than 23 indicates possible dementia, which occurred in 16% of the patients prior to treatment. The median time from diagnosis to treatment was 5 days (range, 0-158 days). The median survival was 4.2 months with a 95% confidence interval of 3.7-5.1 months. Thirty-seven percent of the patients were alive at 6 months, and 17% were alive at 1 year. The following variables were examined in a Cox proportional-hazards model to determine their prognostic value for overall survival
Shah, Drishti; Vaidya, Varun; Patel, Amit; Borovicka, Mary; Goodman, Monica-Holiday
Effectiveness of antidepressants is generally comparable between and within classes. However, real-world studies on antidepressant treatment and its consequences on the overall quality of life and mental health of individuals are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of specific class of antidepressants with the health-related quality of life, psychological distress and self-reported mental health of individuals suffering from depression who are on monotherapy. This retrospective, longitudinal study included individuals with depression who were on antidepressant monotherapy, using data from 2008 to 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Changes in health-related quality of life, self-reported mental health and psychological distress over a year's time were observed. A multinomial logistic regression model was built to examine the association between the class of antidepressant medications and the dependent variables. A total of 688 adults met the study inclusion criteria. No significant difference was observed in the change in Physical Component Summary (PCS), self-reported mental health and psychological distress based on the class of antidepressants. However, individuals on serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (OR 0.337, 95 % CI 0.155-0.730) were significantly less likely to show improvement on Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores as compared to those on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The study findings suggest that practitioners should be aware of the differences in the health-related quality of life of those taking SSRIs versus other classes of antidepressants. Further research needs to be done to determine the reason for SSRIs to show greater improvement on mental health as compared to SNRIs.
Zoch, David R.
Scheduling techniques in the ROSE are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: agenda; ROSE summary and history; NCC-ROSE task goals; accomplishments; ROSE timeline manager; scheduling concerns; current and ROSE approaches; initial scheduling; BFSSE overview and example; and summary.
Andersson, Niclas; Christensen, Knud
on the market. However, CPM is primarily an activity based method that takes the activity as the unit of focus and there is criticism raised, specifically in the case of construction projects, on the method for deficient management of construction work and continuous flow of resources. To seek solutions...... to the identified limitations of the CPM method, an alternative planning and scheduling methodology that includes locations is tested. Location-based Scheduling (LBS) implies a shift in focus, from primarily the activities to the flow of work through the various locations of the project, i.e. the building. LBS uses...... the graphical presentation technique of Line-of-balance, which is adapted for planning and management of work-flows that facilitates resources to perform their work without interruptions caused by other resources working with other activities in the same location. As such, LBS and Lean Construction share...
The author discusses the conflicting requirements of hyperfractionation and accelerated fractionation used in radiotherapy, and the development of computer modelling to predict how to obtain an optimum of tumour cell kill without exceeding normal-tissue tolerance. The present trend is to shorten hyperfractionated schedules from 6 or 7 weeks to give overall times of 4 or 5 weeks as in new schedules by Herskovic et al (1992) and Harari (1992). Very high doses are given, much higher than can be given when ultrashort schedules such as CHART (12 days) are used. Computer modelling has suggested that optimum overall times, to yield maximum cell kill in tumours ((α/β = 10 Gy) for a constant level of late complications (α/β = 3 Gy) would be X or X-1 weeks, where X is the doubling time of the tumour cells in days (Fowler 1990). For median doubling times of about 5 days, overall times of 4 or 5 weeks should be ideal. (U.K.)
Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid
Extended abstract Choice of departure time is a travel choice dimension that transportation planners often need to forecast in appraisal. A traveller may shift departure time in response to changes in expected travel time or travel time variability (TTV) or in response to time-differentiated cong......Extended abstract Choice of departure time is a travel choice dimension that transportation planners often need to forecast in appraisal. A traveller may shift departure time in response to changes in expected travel time or travel time variability (TTV) or in response to time...... from the underlying scheduling preferences (Noland and Small, 1995, Bates et al., 2001, Fosgerau and Karlström, 2010). The scheduling preferences can be formally represented as time-dependent rates of utility derived at different locations. Assuming that the travellers are rational and choose departure......’ departure time choice. The assumption underlying the scheduling approach is that the traveller rationally maximises her total utility obtained during a period of time. The total utility depends on time of departure from the origin and time of arrival to the destination. The total utility is usually assumed...
Marcio M. Vasconcelos
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esta revisão aborda as recentes descobertas da neurobiologia do retardo mental, enfatizando os novos recursos da citogenética, das técnicas moleculares e da neurorradiologia para esclarecer o diagnóstico. FONTES DE DADOS: O autor pesquisou o banco de dados MEDLINE da National Library of Medicine utilizando as palavras-chave "mental retardation", "developmental disability", "child" e "adolescent" em diferentes combinações, abrangendo o período de janeiro de 2000 a outubro de 2003. Também foram utilizados os bancos de dados das revistas científicas Pediatrics e New England Journal of Medicine através da palavra-chave "mental retardation". No total, o autor consultou cerca de 1.500 títulos de artigos e 500 resumos, e teve acesso direto a 150 artigos completos pertinentes. Quando oportuno, algumas referências dos artigos consultados também foram consideradas. O site Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man foi utilizado como fonte de informações em genética clínica. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Em outubro de 2003, o total de síndromes genéticas associadas a retardo mental chegou a 1.149. Considerando-se o conjunto das causas genéticas ou ambientais e congênitas ou adquiridas de retardo mental, a avaliação diagnóstica atual é capaz de esclarecer a etiologia em 50 a 70% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: O autor sugere uma avaliação diagnóstica do retardo mental em etapas lógicas, visando ao uso racional dos dispendiosos recursos da citogenética, biologia molecular e neuroimagem.OBJECTIVE: This paper describes recent advances in the neurobiology of mental retardation, emphasizing new diagnostic resources provided by cytogenetics, molecular testing, and neuroimaging. SOURCES OF DATA: MEDLINE (January 2000 through October 2003, using the following key words: mental retardation, developmental disability, child, and adolescent. Search of the Pediatrics and New England Journal of Medicine websites using the key word mental retardation. The
Nasiri Kh. MSc,
Full Text Available Abstract Aims: As a talented and educated groups, university students have a critical role in country, thus, their mental health has an especial importance in learning. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between internet addiction disorder and mental health among University students of Medical Sciences in Khalkhal. Instrument & Methods: As a descriptive-analytical research, this study conducted on 428 university students in Khalkhal who were studying the Medical Sciences in 2015. The instrument used in this study was a three-part questionnaire; the first part included the demographic characteristics of the participants; the second part was Young Internet Addiction Test and the third part consisted of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28. Sampling was done randomly. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software. Descriptive statistics, Pierson correlation, and multiple linear regression were used to analysis the data. Findings: 77.3% of the participants had no internet addiction, 21.7% were at the risk of internet addiction and 0.9% suffered from internet addiction. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between the mental health and internet addiction disorder (p<0.05. Conclusion: There is a relationship between the internet addiction and mental health of students.
Lin, Jin-Ding; Lee, Tzong-Nan; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yen, Chia-Feng; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Wu, Jia-Ling; Tang, Chi-Chieh; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Sheng-Ru
Little explicit attention has been given to the generic health profile of staff working for people with intellectual disability in institutions. This study aimed to provide a profile of physical and mental health of staff working in disability welfare institutions, and to examine the possible demographic and organizational factors that explain an…
Violence against women has been recognized as both a major public health problem and a human rights violation worldwide. Research has documented the association between physical/sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health, measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) among women in reproductive age. This study…
Veldman, Karin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Almansa, Josue; Verhulst, Frank C.; Bultmann, Ute
Background Young adults at work without basic educational level (BEL), and young adults in Neither Employment, Education nor Training (NEET) are at high risk of adverse employment outcomes. Evidence lacks on the impact of mental health problems during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood on
Mahdavi, M.H.; Modarres, M.
There are huge numbers of components scheduled for maintenance when a nuclear power plant is shut down. Among these components, a number of them are safety related which their operability as well as reliability when plant becomes up is main concerns. Not performing proper maintenance on this class of components/system would impose substantial risk on operating the NPP. In this paper a new approach based on genetic algorithms is presented to optimize the NPP maintenance schedule during shutdown. following this approach the cost incurred by maintenance activities for each schedule is balanced with the risk imposed by the maintenance scheduling plan to the plant operation status when it is up. The risk model implemented in the GA scheduler as its evaluation function is developed on the basis of the probabilistic risk assessment methodology. the Ga optimizers itself is shown to be superior compared to other optimization methods such as the monte carlo technique
Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lund, Henrik; Hansen, Åse Marie
to their family life, having consecutive time off, leisure-time activities, rest between shifts, sleep, regularity of their everyday life, health and that the work schedule balanced. Thus, employees consider both their own and the workplace's needs when they have the opportunity to schedule their own shifts. Age......We investigated how employees prioritised when they scheduled their own shifts and whether priorities depended on age, gender, educational level, cohabitation and health status. We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from the follow-up survey of an intervention study investigating the effect...... of self-scheduling (n = 317). Intervention group participants were asked about their priorities when scheduling their own shifts succeeded by 17 items covering family/private life, economy, job content, health and sleep. At least half of the participants reported that they were giving high priority...
Laker, Caroline; Callard, Felicity; Flach, Clare; Williams, Paul; Sayer, Jane; Wykes, Til
Health services are subject to frequent changes, yet there has been insufficient research to address how staff working within these services perceive the climate for implementation. Staff perceptions, particularly of barriers to change, may affect successful implementation and the resultant quality of care. This study measures staff perceptions of barriers to change in acute mental healthcare. We identify whether occupational status and job satisfaction are related to these perceptions, as this might indicate a target for intervention that could aid successful implementation. As there were no available instruments capturing staff perceptions of barriers to change, we created a new measure (VOCALISE) to assess this construct. All nursing staff from acute in-patient settings in one large London mental health trust were eligible. Using a participatory method, a nurse researcher interviewed 32 staff to explore perceptions of barriers to change. This generated a measure through thematic analyses and staff feedback (N = 6). Psychometric testing was undertaken according to standard guidelines for measure development (N = 40, 42, 275). Random effects models were used to explore the associations between VOCALISE, occupational status, and job satisfaction (N = 125). VOCALISE was easy to understand and complete, and showed acceptable reliability and validity. The factor analysis revealed three underlying constructs: 'confidence,' 'de-motivation' and 'powerlessness.' Staff with negative perceptions of barriers to change held more junior positions, and had poorer job satisfaction. Qualitatively, nursing assistants expressed a greater sense of organisational unfairness in response to change. VOCALISE can be used to explore staff perceptions of implementation climate and to assess how staff attitudes shape the successful outcomes of planned changes. Negative perceptions were linked with poor job satisfaction and to those occupying more junior roles, indicating a
Masunaga, Tomoko; Takamura, Noboru; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kozlovsky, A.; Lyzikov, A.
Mental health situation of residents who were born after the Accident around the Area in the title was evaluated by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 and Additional Questions (AQ) in Sep-Oct, 2010, for the possible reference of future mental deal of such people as had experienced nuclear accidents. The Area still had a region of prohibited entrance. The evaluation of GHQ-12/AQ replies from 697 university students (138 men, average age of 20.48 y and 559 women, 20.24 y), was performed in Gomel State Medical University, Gomel, The Republic of Belarus. AQ contained questions about demographic, social and mental items like birthplace, marriage, living/economical states, history of illness, parents' experience of the Accident, concern/knowledge of radiation, etc. GHQ-12 total score data were defined to be High (score 4 or more, bad mental health situation) and Low (score<4, good situation) based on reply score 1 (worse than usual) and 0 (as or better than usual), respectively. GHQ-12 score data of High/Low were related to AQ items and analyzed with Chi-square, where items of significance between scores were made predictor variables for binominal logistic regression analysis. The scores were significantly high in students replying items of economical state, history of circulatory diseases, and association of the exposure and health. Logistic analysis based on these, revealed that the respective odds ratios (0.31, 1.78) of the first and third items above were significant, suggesting the direct concern of the people about exposure and health. This investigation was conducted in the limited location and on the limited group of people without comparison with those in other areas, but resolving the mental health situation was thought to be an important task in future. (T.T.)
Ochodo, Charles; Ndetei, D M; Moturi, W N; Otieno, J O
External built residential environment characteristics include aspects of building design such as types of walls, doors and windows, green spaces, density of houses per unit area, and waste disposal facilities. Neighborhoods that are characterized by poor quality external built environment can contribute to psychosocial stress and increase the likelihood of mental health disorders. This study investigated the relationship between characteristics of external built residential environment and mental health disorders in selected residences of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. External built residential environment characteristics were investigated for 544 residents living in different residential areas that were categorized by their socioeconomic status. Medically validated interview schedules were used to determine mental health of residents in the respective neighborhoods. The relationship between characteristics of the external built residential environment and mental health of residents was determined by multivariable logistic regression analyses and chi-square tests. The results show that walling materials used on buildings, density of dwelling units, state of street lighting, types of doors, states of roofs, and states of windows are some built external residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adult males and females. Urban residential areas that are characterized by poor quality external built environment substantially expose the population to daily stressors and inconveniences that increase the likelihood of developing mental health disorders.
The Standards Development Status Summary Report is designed for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling the process by which Regulatory Standards, Guides, Reports, Petitions, and Environmental Statements are written. It is a summary of the current schedule plans for development of the above products
Effective January 1, 1982, NRC will institute records retention and disposal practices in accordance with the approved Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule (CRDS). CRDS is comprised of NRC Schedules (NRCS) 1 to 4 which apply to the agency's program or substantive records and General Records Schedules (GRS) 1 to 22 which apply to housekeeping or facilitative records. The schedules are assembled functionally/organizationally to facilitate their use. Preceding the records descriptions and disposition instructions for both NRCS and GRS, there are brief statements on the organizational units which accumulate the records in each functional area, and other information regarding the schedules' applicability
Sano, Akane; Taylor, Sara; McHill, Andrew W; Phillips, Andrew Jk; Barger, Laura K; Klerman, Elizabeth; Picard, Rosalind
Wearable and mobile devices that capture multimodal data have the potential to identify risk factors for high stress and poor mental health and to provide information to improve health and well-being. We developed new tools that provide objective physiological and behavioral measures using wearable sensors and mobile phones, together with methods that improve their data integrity. The aim of this study was to examine, using machine learning, how accurately these measures could identify conditions of self-reported high stress and poor mental health and which of the underlying modalities and measures were most accurate in identifying those conditions. We designed and conducted the 1-month SNAPSHOT study that investigated how daily behaviors and social networks influence self-reported stress, mood, and other health or well-being-related factors. We collected over 145,000 hours of data from 201 college students (age: 18-25 years, male:female=1.8:1) at one university, all recruited within self-identified social groups. Each student filled out standardized pre- and postquestionnaires on stress and mental health; during the month, each student completed twice-daily electronic diaries (e-diaries), wore two wrist-based sensors that recorded continuous physical activity and autonomic physiology, and installed an app on their mobile phone that recorded phone usage and geolocation patterns. We developed tools to make data collection more efficient, including data-check systems for sensor and mobile phone data and an e-diary administrative module for study investigators to locate possible errors in the e-diaries and communicate with participants to correct their entries promptly, which reduced the time taken to clean e-diary data by 69%. We constructed features and applied machine learning to the multimodal data to identify factors associated with self-reported poststudy stress and mental health, including behaviors that can be possibly modified by the individual to improve
Touchette, Dave; Lovitz, Benjamin; Lütkenhaus, Norbert
We propose a protocol based on coherent states and linear optics operations for solving the appointment-scheduling problem. Our main protocol leaks strictly less information about each party's input than the optimal classical protocol, even when considering experimental errors. Along with the ability to generate constant-amplitude coherent states over two modes, this protocol requires the ability to transfer these modes back-and-forth between the two parties multiple times with very low losses. The implementation requirements are thus still challenging. Along the way, we develop tools to study quantum information cost of interactive protocols in the finite regime.
Chen, Chun-Min; Lee, I-Chen; Su, Yung-Yu; Mullan, Judy; Chiu, Herng-Chia
Although mental health disorders in older adults are common, their relationship with chronic disease and the influence of chronic disease on the development of mental health disorders over time is not well understood. This longitudinal study investigated the change in status of mental health disorders and chronic disease, as well as their interrelationships, over time. Participants included community-dwelling older adults living in Taiwan, aged 65 years or older, who completed six waves of survey interviews. Mental health disorders were scored using the Short Psychiatric Evaluation Schedule, and chronic disease(s) status was recorded during consecutive biennial data collection waves. The autoregressive latent trajectory model and parallel latent growth curve model were used for data analysis. The study findings suggest that in older people pre-existing mental health disorders and/or chronic disease(s) will predispose them to developing significantly more mental health disorders and/or chronic diseases respectively. The study findings also suggest that pre-existing mental health disorders can significantly contribute to the development of chronic disease over time, and that pre-existing chronic disease(s) significantly can contribute to the development of mental health disorders over time, indicating a reciprocal interrelationship. Our study findings suggest that it in addition to monitoring and treating chronic disease(s) in older people, it is also important to monitor and treat their mental health disorders. Doing so will result in overall better health outcomes and will facilitate a better quality of life as they age. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pinedo, Michael L
This new edition of the well-established text Scheduling: Theory, Algorithms, and Systems provides an up-to-date coverage of important theoretical models in the scheduling literature as well as important scheduling problems that appear in the real world. The accompanying website includes supplementary material in the form of slide-shows from industry as well as movies that show actual implementations of scheduling systems. The main structure of the book, as per previous editions, consists of three parts. The first part focuses on deterministic scheduling and the related combinatorial problems. The second part covers probabilistic scheduling models; in this part it is assumed that processing times and other problem data are random and not known in advance. The third part deals with scheduling in practice; it covers heuristics that are popular with practitioners and discusses system design and implementation issues. All three parts of this new edition have been revamped, streamlined, and extended. The reference...
This report provides the status of the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Integrated Safety Analysis (EA) by identifying the initial work scope scheduled for completion during the ISA development period, the schedules associated with the tasks identified, safety analysis issues encountered, and a summary of accomplishments during the reporting period. This status covers the period from October 1, 2000 through March 30, 2001
Dixon, Kelly D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Ganni, Venkatarao [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Knudsen, Peter N. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Casagranda, Fabio [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
After practical changes were approved to the initial conceptual design of the cryogenic system for MSU FRIB and an agreement was made with JLab in 2012 to lead the design effort of the cryogenic plant, many activities are in place leading toward a cool-down of the linacs prior to 2018. This is mostly due to using similar equipment used at CHLII for the 12 GeV upgrade at JLab and an aggressive schedule maintained by the MSU Conventional Facilities department. Reported here is an updated status of the cryogenic plant, including the equipment procurement status, plant layout, facility equipment and project schedule.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK Equality Act 2010 makes it unlawful for employers to ask health questions before making an offer of employment except in certain circumstances. While the majority of employers would prefer applicants to disclose a mental illness at the application stage, many people either wait until they have accepted the job and then disclose to an occupational health professional, or do not do so at all due to the anticipation of discrimination or a wish for privacy. However, non disclosure precludes the ability to request reasonable adjustments in the workplace or to make a claim of direct discrimination. Disclosure to employers is therefore a difficult decision. A recent pilot study by our group of the CORAL decision aid showed that it helped mental health service users clarify their needs and values regarding disclosure and led to reduction in decisional conflict. The present proof of concept trial aims to determine whether a full scale randomised controlled trial (RCT is justifiable and feasible, and to optimise its design. Methods In this single blind exploratory RCT in London, a total of 80 participants (inclusion criteria: age ≥18 years, on the caseload of a specialist employment adviser working with people with mental illness; referred to the adviser either from primary care via Improving Access to Psychological Therapies or secondary mental health service; currently seeking or interested in either paid or voluntary employment, and a Decisional Conflict Scale score of 37.5 or greater and stage of decision score 1–5 will be recruited from vocational advice services. After completing a baseline assessment, participants will be randomly assigned to one of two conditions (1 Use of the CORAL Decision Aid (DA in addition to treatment as usual or (2 Treatment as usual. Those allocated to the DA condition will be given it to read and complete, and the researcher will be present to record the time taken and any content that
Scurich, Nicholas; John, Richard S
Security of infrastructure is a major concern. Traditional security schedules are unable to provide omnipresent coverage; consequently, adversaries can exploit predictable vulnerabilities to their advantage. Randomized security schedules, which randomly deploy security measures, overcome these limitations, but public perceptions of such schedules have not been examined. In this experiment, participants were asked to make a choice between attending a venue that employed a traditional (i.e., search everyone) or a random (i.e., a probability of being searched) security schedule. The absolute probability of detecting contraband was manipulated (i.e., 1/10, 1/4, 1/2) but equivalent between the two schedule types. In general, participants were indifferent to either security schedule, regardless of the probability of detection. The randomized schedule was deemed more convenient, but the traditional schedule was considered fairer and safer. There were no differences between traditional and random schedule in terms of perceived effectiveness or deterrence. Policy implications for the implementation and utilization of randomized schedules are discussed. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.
United States. Bonneville Power Administration.
This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mental disorders due to... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.129 Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event is...
... from mental disorders. 4.126 Section 4.126 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.126 Evaluation of disability from mental disorders. (a) When evaluating a mental disorder, the rating agency shall consider the...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Only one previous study had examined the epidemiology of mental health in Guatemalan refugees. The objective of this new study was to estimate the prevalence of mental illness and to assess factors associated with poor mental health among Guatemalan Mayan refugees who had been repatriated to Guatemala after spending 12-18 years in refugee camps in Mexico, and to compare the results for the repatriated Guatemalans with those for Guatemalan refugees who were continuing to live in Mexico. METHODS: In 2001 a cross-sectional survey of adults (> 16 years was conducted with random household sampling proportional to the population size in each of the five repatriation villages surveyed. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, anxiety, and depression were measured by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. RESULTS: Together, the five repatriation villages had 565 households. Of the 565 households, 203 of them were approached to solicit study participation. A total of 179 households (one adult per household agreed to participate, representing an overall participation rate of 88%, and one-third of all the households in the five communities. The respondents had personally experienced a mean of 5.5 trauma events and had witnessed a mean of 7.3 other trauma events. Of the respondents, 8.9% met the symptom criteria for PTSD, 17.3% for anxiety, and 47.8% for depression. PTSD was associated with being seriously wounded and with having relatives or friends mutilated. Logistic regression analyses indicated that anxiety was associated with being sexually assaulted, being female, having friends or family mutilated, being seriously wounded, and having 6-12 children (vs. having 1-5 children. Depression was associated with having 6-12 children. Anxiety was significantly more prevalent among the refugees remaining in Mexico (54.4% than it was among the repatriated refugees (17.3%. The difference in the prevalence rates was not
Full Text Available Employment, i.e. the right of people with disabilities to work, is the last phase of an extended and complex process of their rehabilitation. The employment is the last phase of the integration of these people in the social environment. In all developed counties, the right to work presents one of the fundamental human rights. The question regarding employment of people with mental retardation is a current issue at present, especially because a lot of people with disability who are able to work have met resistance by the employers.
Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play ...
Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...
Colomé, Josep; Colomer, Pau; Campreciós, Jordi; Coiffard, Thierry; de Oña, Emma; Pedaletti, Giovanna; Torres, Diego F.; Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro
The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project will be the next generation ground-based very high energy gamma-ray instrument. The success of the precursor projects (i.e., HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) motivated the construction of this large infrastructure that is included in the roadmap of the ESFRI projects since 2008. CTA is planned to start the construction phase in 2015 and will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov telescopes operated as a proposal-driven open observatory. Two sites are foreseen at the southern and northern hemispheres. The CTA observatory will handle several observation modes and will have to operate tens of telescopes with a highly efficient and reliable control. Thus, the CTA planning tool is a key element in the control layer for the optimization of the observatory time. The main purpose of the scheduler for CTA is the allocation of multiple tasks to one single array or to multiple sub-arrays of telescopes, while maximizing the scientific return of the facility and minimizing the operational costs. The scheduler considers long- and short-term varying conditions to optimize the prioritization of tasks. A short-term scheduler provides the system with the capability to adapt, in almost real-time, the selected task to the varying execution constraints (i.e., Targets of Opportunity, health or status of the system components, environment conditions). The scheduling procedure ensures that long-term planning decisions are correctly transferred to the short-term prioritization process for a suitable selection of the next task to execute on the array. In this contribution we present the constraints to CTA task scheduling that helped classifying it as a Flexible Job-Shop Problem case and finding its optimal solution based on Artificial Intelligence techniques. We describe the scheduler prototype that uses a Guarded Discrete Stochastic Neural Network (GDSN), for an easy representation of the possible long- and short-term planning solutions, and Constraint
Dohn, Anders Høeg
. The rostering process is non-trivial and especially when service is required around the clock, rostering may involve considerable effort from a designated planner. Therefore, in order to minimize costs and overstaffing, to maximize the utilization of available staff, and to ensure a high level of satisfaction...... as possible to the available staff, while respecting various requirements and rules and while including possible transportation time between tasks. This thesis presents a number of industrial applications in rostering and task scheduling. The applications exist within various contexts in health care....... Mathematical and logic-based models are presented for the problems considered. Novel components are added to existing models and the modeling decisions are justified. In one case, the model is solved by a simple, but efficient greedy construction heuristic. In the remaining cases, column generation is applied...
Barbero-Soto, E; Casas-Lino, M P; Fernandez-Robles, C; Foraz, K; Pojer, M; Saban, R; Schmidt, R; Solfaroli-Camillocci, M; Vergara-Fernandez, A
The Large Hadron Collider is now entering in its final phase before receiving beam, and the activities at CERN between 2007 and 2008 have shifted from installation work to the commissioning of the technical systems ("hardware commissioning"). Due to the unprecedented complexity of this machine, all the systems are or will be tested as far as possible before the cool-down starts. Systems are firstly tested individually before being globally tested together. The architecture of LHC, which is partitioned into eight cryogenically and electrically independent sectors, allows the commissioning on a sector by sector basis. When a sector reaches nominal cryogenic conditions, commissioning of the magnet powering system to nominal current for all magnets can be performed. This paper briefly describes the different activities to be performed during the powering tests of the superconducting magnet system and presents the scheduling issues raised by co-activities as well as the management of resources.
This paper introduces the definition of mental poverty and the status quo of mental poverty in China's rural areas. Mental poverty in China's rural areas embodies the following aspects: the sense of parochialism is serious; the small farmer consciousness is strong; there is misgiving about identity. This paper analyses the reason of Mental poverty influencing farmers' behavior model and rural economic development. Mental poverty influences the farmers' changing current situation; Mental pover...
Disparities in Mental Health Quality of Life Between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White LGB Midlife and Older Adults and the Influence of Lifetime Discrimination, Social Connectedness, Socioeconomic Status, and Perceived Stress.
Kim, Hyun-Jun; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I
We assessed factors contributing to ethnic and racial disparities in mental health quality of life (MHQOL) among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) midlife and older adults. We utilized cross-sectional survey data from a sample of non-Hispanic White and Hispanic LGB adults aged 50 and older. Structural equation modeling was used to test the indirect effect of ethnicity/race on MHQOL via explanatory factors including social connectedness, lifetime discrimination, socioeconomic status (SES), and perceived stress. Hispanics reported significantly lower levels of MHQOL, compared to non-Hispanic Whites. In the final model, the association between ethnicity/race and MHQOL was explained by higher levels of perceived stress related to lower SES, higher frequency of lifetime discrimination, and lack of social connectedness among Hispanic LGB adults. This study suggests that perceived stress related to social disadvantage and marginalization plays an important role in MHQOL disparities among Hispanic LGB midlife and older adults.
Describes a German experiment whereby fulltime employees can work fewer hours without losing status and parttime employees have more options on allocations of working hours. The process ensures that management can count on enough staff for peak periods and more easily plan ahead. (JOW)
Raof R. A. A; Sudin S.; Mahrom N.; Rosli A. N. C
The organizer of sport events often facing problems such as wrong calculations of marks and scores, as well as difficult to create a good and reliable schedule. Most of the time, the issues about the level of integrity of committee members and also issues about errors made by human came into the picture. Therefore, the development of sport tournament automated scheduling system is proposed. The system will be able to automatically generate the tournament schedule as well as automatically calc...
... the same time. For example, you may have depression and a substance use disorder. Complications Mental illness is a leading cause of disability. Untreated mental illness can cause severe emotional, behavioral and physical health problems. Complications sometimes linked to mental illness include: ...
Title 44 United States Code, ''Public Printing and Documents,'' regulations cited in the General Services Administration's (GSA) ''Federal Information Resources Management Regulations'' (FIRMR), Part 201-9, ''Creation, Maintenance, and Use of Records,'' and regulation issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter XII, Subchapter B, ''Records Management,'' require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA's General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 2, contains ''NRC's Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,'' and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 2 totally reorganizes the records schedules from a functional arrangement to an arrangement by the host office. A subject index and a conversion table have also been developed for the NRC schedules to allow staff to identify the new schedule numbers easily and to improve their ability to locate applicable schedules
The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this temporary scheduling order to schedule the synthetic opioid, N-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)isobutyramide (4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl or para-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl), and its isomers, esters, ethers, salts and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers, into schedule I pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions of the Controlled Substances Act. This action is based on a finding by the Administrator that the placement of 4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl into schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act is necessary to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety. As a result of this order, the regulatory controls and administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions applicable to schedule I controlled substances will be imposed on persons who handle (manufacture, distribute, reverse distribute, import, export, engage in research, conduct instructional activities or chemical analysis, or possess), or propose to handle, 4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl.
van Dongen, E
In medical settings, emotion-provoking work creates a hierarchy among health care professionals. "Lower" emotions like disgust, contempt or aversion that are evoked by "body work" with elderly patients often remain invisible, but they play an important role in morality and shape the social relations between the patients and the professionals. With the help of ethnographic data from the nursing wards of a mental hospital, the author shows how feelings about excrement are determined not only by their nature, but also by the nature of the relationships among the nurses and the relationships between the nurses and the elderly patients. Body care and the emotions that are evoked are connected to morality and moral care. Dealing with bodily and moral "dirt" gives nurses a special position within the hospital as a whole, which will have effects on the care for elderly.
Baygin, Ozgul; Tuzuner, Tamer; Kusgoz, Adem; Yahyaoglu, Gorkem; Yilmaz, Nagehan; Aksoy, Simge
This study evaluated the differences in dental conditions and treatment modalities between disabled and non-cooperative healthy children under general anaesthesia. The data were collected from paediatric patients between 3 and 15 years of age who received dental treatment under general anaesthesia. Patients with at least one mental/physical disturbance (group 1) and other healthy non-cooperative patients (group 2) were compared with regard to gender, age, weight, and treatment time-type. The statistical analyses were performed using Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests. No significant differences were observed between the groups with regard to gender, weight and treatment-time (p>0.05). The numbers of treated teeth (pgeneral condition of the patients may alter the type of treatment provided and confirms the necessity of performing preventive procedures.
Choi, Y H; Kim, M S; Byon, Y S; Won, J S
This Study was done to design and test an instrument to measure the health status of the elderly including physical, psychological and social dimensions. Data collection was done from July 18 to August 17, 1990. Subjects were 412 older persons in Korea. A convenience sample was used but the place of residence was stratified into large, medium and small city and rural areas. Participants located in Sudaemun-Gu, Mapo-Gu, and Kangnam-Gu, Seoul were interviewed by brained nursing students, and those in Chungju, Jonju, Chuncheon, and Jinju by professors of nursing colleges. Rural residents were interviewed by community health practitioners working in Kungsang-Buk-Do, Kyngsang-Nam-Do, Jonla Buk-Do, and Kyung Ki-Do. The tool developed for this study was a structured questionnaire based on previous literature and then tested for reliability and validity. This tool contained 20 physical health status items, 17 mental-emotional health status items and 38 social health status items. Physical health status items clustered in to six factors such as personal hygiene, activity, home management, digestive, sexual, sensory, and climatization functions. Mental-emotional health status items clustered into two factors, mental health and emotional health. Social health status items clustered into seven factors, grandparent, parent, spouse, friend, kinships, group member and religious role functions. Data analysis included percentage, average, S.D., t-test and ANOVA. The results of the analysis were as follows: 1. The tool measuring the health status of the elderly and developed for this research had a relatively high reliability indicated by a Cronbach = 0.97793. 2. Average score of the subjects physical health status was 4,054 in a 5 point likert scale, mental-emotional health status was 3.803, social health status was 2.939 and the total average was 3.521. The social status of the subjects was the lowest and the next was mental-emotional health status; physical health status was the
Kuiper, A.; Mandjes, M.
Appointment schedules aim at achieving a proper balance between the conflicting interests of the service provider and her clients: a primary objective of the service provider is to fully utilize her available time, whereas clients want to avoid excessive waiting times. Setting up schedules that
Mahaney, Lynnae; Sanborn, Michael; Alexander, Emily
Nontraditional work schedules for pharmacists at three institutions are described. The demand for pharmacists and health care in general continues to increase, yet significant material changes are occurring in the pharmacy work force. These changing demographics, coupled with historical vacancy rates and turnover trends for pharmacy staff, require an increased emphasis on workplace changes that can improve staff recruitment and retention. At William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Affairs Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin, creative pharmacist work schedules and roles are now mainstays to the recruitment and retention of staff. The major challenge that such scheduling presents is the 8 hours needed to prepare a six-week schedule. Baylor Medical Center at Grapevine in Dallas, Texas, has a total of 45 pharmacy employees, and slightly less than half of the 24.5 full-time-equivalent staff work full-time, with most preferring to work one, two, or three days per week. As long as the coverage needs of the facility are met, Envision Telepharmacy in Alpine, Texas, allows almost any scheduling arrangement preferred by individual pharmacists or the pharmacist group covering the facility. Staffing involves a great variety of shift lengths and intervals, with shifts ranging from 2 to 10 hours. Pharmacy leaders must be increasingly aware of opportunities to provide staff with unique scheduling and operational enhancements that can provide for a better work-life balance. Compressed workweeks, job-sharing, and team scheduling were the most common types of alternative work schedules implemented at three different institutions.
Wickham, K.L.; Litteer, G.L.
This report documents the results of a project to evaluate low cost modeling and simulation tools when applied to modeling the Cray memory scheduler. The specific tool used is described and the basics of the memory scheduler are covered. Results of simulations using the model are discussed and a favorable recommendation is made to make more use of this inexpensive technology.
Flexible work schedules are one response to changes in the composition of the work force, new life-styles, and changes in work attitudes. Types of alternative work schedules are part-time and temporary employment, job sharing, and flextime. Part-time workers are a diverse group--women, the very young, and older near-retirees. Although part-time…
Westinghouse performed this study as part of EPRI interest in advancing the use of computer aided processes to reduce the cost of nuclear power plants. EPRI believed that if one could relate appropriate portions of an advanced light water reactor plant model to activities in its construction sequence, and this relationship could be portrayed visually, then optimization of the construction sequence could be developed as never before. By seeing a 3-D representation of the plant at any point in its construction sequence, more informed decisions can be made on the feasibility or attractiveness of follow on or parallel steps in the sequence. The 3-D representation of construction as a function of time (4-D) could also increase the confidence of potential investors concerning the viability of the schedule and the plant ultimate cost. This study performed by Westinghouse confirmed that it is useful to be able to visualize a plant construction in 3-D as a function of time in order to optimize the sequence of construction activities. (author)
Introduction The endgame of CMS installation in the underground cavern is in full swing, with several major milestones having been passed since the last CMS week. The Tracker was installed inside the Vactank just before the CERN end-of-year shutdown. Shortly after the reopening in 2008, the two remaining endcap disks, YE-2 and YE-1, were lowered, marking the completion of eight years of assembly in the surface building SX5. The remaining tasks, before the detector can be closed for the Cosmic Run At Four Tesla (CRAFT), are the installation of the thermal shields, the cabling of the negative endcap, the cabling of the tracker and the beam pipe installation. In addition to these installation tasks, a test closure of the positive endcap is planned just before the installation of the central beam pipe. The schedule is tight and complicated but the goal to close CMS by the end of May for a cosmic test with magnetic field remains feasible. Safety With all large components now being underground, the shortage...
Effects of a nurse-led transitional care program on clinical outcomes, health-related knowledge, physical and mental health status among Chinese patients with coronary artery disease: A randomized controlled trial.
Zhang, Pan; Hu, Yu-Ding; Xing, Feng-Mei; Li, Chang-Zai; Lan, Wang-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Li
Coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among adults worldwide, including China. After a hospital stay, transitional care could help to ensure improved patient care and outcomes, and reduce Medicare costs. Nevertheless, the results of the existing transitional care are not always satisfactory and our knowledge of how to perform effective transitional care for patients with coronary artery disease is limited in mainland China. To examine the effectiveness of a nurse-led transitional care program on clinical outcomes, health-related knowledge, and physical and mental health status among Chinese patients with coronary artery disease. Randomized controlled trial. The Omaha system and Pender's health promoting model were employed in planning and implementing this nurse-led transitional care program. The sample was comprised of 199 Chinese patients with coronary artery disease. The experimental group (n=100) received nurse-led transitional care intervention in addition to routine care. The nurse-led transitional care intervention included a structured assessment and health education, followed by 7 months of individual teaching and coaching (home visits, telephone follow-up and group activity). The control group (n=99) received a comparable length routine care and follow-up contacts. Evaluations were conducted at baseline and completion of the interventions using the perceived knowledge scale for coronary heart disease, the medical outcomes study 36-item short-form health survey and clinical measures (blood pressure, blood glucose, lipids, body mass index). Data were collected between March and October 2014. Compared with the control group, participants in the experimental group showed significant better clinical outcomes (systolic blood pressure, t=5.762, P=0.000; diastolic blood pressure, t=4.250, P=0.000; fasting blood glucose, t=2.249, P=0.027; total cholesterol, t=4.362, P=0.000; triglyceride, t=3.147, P=0.002; low density lipoprotein
Ljoså, Cathrine Haugene; Tyssen, Reidar; Lau, Bjørn
This study aimed to investigate the association between individual and psychosocial work factors and mental distress among offshore shift workers in the Norwegian petroleum industry. All 2406 employees of a large Norwegian oil and gas company, who worked offshore during a two-week period in August 2006, were invited to participate in the web-based survey. Completed questionnaires were received from 1336 employees (56% response rate). The outcome variable was mental distress, assessed with a shortened version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-5). The following individual factors were adjusted for: age, gender, marital status, and shift work locus of control. Psychosocial work factors included: night work, demands, control and support, and shift work-home interference. The level of mental distress was higher among men than women. In the adjusted regression model, the following were associated with mental distress: (i) high scores on quantitative demands, (ii) low level of support, and (iii) high level of shift work-home interference. Psychosocial work factors explained 76% of the total explained variance (adjusted R (²)=0.21) in the final adjusted model. Psychosocial work factors, such as quantitative demands, support, and shift work-home interference were independently associated with mental distress. Shift schedules were only univariately associated with mental distress.
Full Text Available Evidence is accumulating about the association between strong family ties and the emotional and physical welfare of older adults, and researchers have identified negative consequences of being unmarried, being childless, and/or living alone. These associations have been recognized in multiple contexts, including in Asia where living with a spouse and/or grown children has been shown in some studies to improve elderly well-being. Social support, especially family support, is expected to continue to be important where populations are aging and social safety nets are weak. Using longitudinal data from the 2010 and 2012 waves of the China Family Panel Studies, we focus on the effects of marital status at times 1 and 2, changes in marital status between the two surveys, and other family-related indicators of social connectedness on ratings of depression, levels of life satisfaction, and self-reported physical health among those aged 50 and over. Our sample includes 9831 respondents who have valid data on wellbeing indicators for Wave 1 and Wave 2, as well as complete information on the other covariates controlled in our analysis. In analyses of the full sample, those who were married at both points in time reported lower depression scores than those who were never-married, divorced, or widowed at both time points, and those whose unions dissolved in the interval. Those who were married at both times also generally reported greater levels of life satisfaction than those who were never married at both time points and those who became divorced during the interval. Important underlying gender differences are observed both for life satisfaction and depression. In addition, those who were married at both time points reported being in better physical health than those who became widowed during the interval (significant primarily for women, and those who had never been married (significant primarily for men. Our study contributes to the literature on social
Williams, Lindy; Zhang, Renling; Packard, Kevin C
Evidence is accumulating about the association between strong family ties and the emotional and physical welfare of older adults, and researchers have identified negative consequences of being unmarried, being childless, and/or living alone. These associations have been recognized in multiple contexts, including in Asia where living with a spouse and/or grown children has been shown in some studies to improve elderly well-being. Social support, especially family support, is expected to continue to be important where populations are aging and social safety nets are weak. Using longitudinal data from the 2010 and 2012 waves of the China Family Panel Studies, we focus on the effects of marital status at times 1 and 2, changes in marital status between the two surveys, and other family-related indicators of social connectedness on ratings of depression, levels of life satisfaction, and self-reported physical health among those aged 50 and over. Our sample includes 9831 respondents who have valid data on wellbeing indicators for Wave 1 and Wave 2, as well as complete information on the other covariates controlled in our analysis. In analyses of the full sample, those who were married at both points in time reported lower depression scores than those who were never-married, divorced, or widowed at both time points, and those whose unions dissolved in the interval. Those who were married at both times also generally reported greater levels of life satisfaction than those who were never married at both time points and those who became divorced during the interval. Important underlying gender differences are observed both for life satisfaction and depression. In addition, those who were married at both time points reported being in better physical health than those who became widowed during the interval (significant primarily for women), and those who had never been married (significant primarily for men). Our study contributes to the literature on social ties and the
Visser, Willem Edward; de Rijke, Yolanda B; van Toor, Hans; Visser, Theo J
Abnormalities in thyroid state may affect development and function of the brain and result in mental retardation (MR). Thyroid parameters have not been systematically investigated in institutionalized MR subjects. The objective is to measure thyroid parameters in a novel cohort of 946 institutionalized subjects. The TOP-R (Thyroid Origin of Psychomotor Retardation) study is a cross-sectional nation-wide multicentre study. Subjects with unexplained MR. The majority of the MR subjects had thyroid parameters within the reference range used in our laboratory. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) use affected thyroid hormones (T4: 102·1 ± 1·2 vs 83·9 ± 1·2 nmol/l, P hyperthyroidism was 5·2% and 2·8%, respectively. We report thyroid parameters in a cohort of institutionalized subjects with MR. Our findings substantiate the fact that AEDs affect thyroid hormone levels. Future studies will be employed to investigate genetic causes of MR related to abnormalities in thyroid hormone homeostasis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Jang, Soo Jung; Zippay, Allison; Park, Rhokeun
Employer initiatives that address the spillover of work strain onto family life include flexible work schedules. This study explored the mediating role of negative work-family spillover in the relationship between schedule flexibility and employee stress and the moderating roles of gender, family workload, and single-parent status. Data were drawn…
Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob
Gain scheduling controllers are considered in this paper. The gain scheduling problem where the scheduling parameter vector cannot be measured directly, but needs to be estimated is considered. An estimation of the scheduling vector has been derived by using the Youla parameterization. The use...... in connection with H_inf gain scheduling controllers....
... well Feeling guilty, worthless, or helpless Thinking about suicide or hurting yourself Other mental health conditions include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders. For a good description ...
Baptiste, Philippe; Nuijten, Wim
Constraint Programming is a problem-solving paradigm that establishes a clear distinction between two pivotal aspects of a problem: (1) a precise definition of the constraints that define the problem to be solved and (2) the algorithms and heuristics enabling the selection of decisions to solve the problem. It is because of these capabilities that Constraint Programming is increasingly being employed as a problem-solving tool to solve scheduling problems. Hence the development of Constraint-Based Scheduling as a field of study. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the most widely used Constraint-Based Scheduling techniques. Following the principles of Constraint Programming, the book consists of three distinct parts: The first chapter introduces the basic principles of Constraint Programming and provides a model of the constraints that are the most often encountered in scheduling problems. Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 are focused on the propagation of resource constraints, which usually are responsibl...
目的 探讨心理干预对老年期痴呆患者亲属心理健康状况的影响.方法 应用症状自评量表(SCL-90)和自制的老年期痴呆健康知识调查表对80名老年期痴呆患者亲属进行调查,并对其进行为期6周的心理干预.结果 老年期痴呆患者亲属心理干预前SCL-90总分及各因子分均高于常模,差异有显著性(P<0.05或0.01);心理干预后患者亲属的SCL-90总分及各因子分较心理干预前有显著降低(P<0.01);心理干预后亲属对患者疾病相关知识的知晓度明显提高(P<0.01).结论 心理干预可有效改善老年期痴呆患者亲属的心理健康状况.%Objective To explore the effects of psychological intervention on mental healthy status in relatives of patients with senile dementia. Methods Psychological intervention was conducted for 6 weeks in 80 relatives of patients with senile dementia. Symptom checklist 90 (SCL- 90) and self- designed health knowledge questionnaire were used to assess the effects of intervention. Results Total score and factor scores of SCL - 90 in relatives of patients with senile dementia were significantly higher than those of norm ( P ＜ 0.05 or 0. 01 ) before the intervention, and decreased significantly after psychological intervention (P ＜0.01 ). Health knowledge in relatives of patients with senile dementia was improved significantly after intervention ( P ＜ 0.01 ). Conclusion Psychological intervention can improve the mental healthy status of relatives of patients with senile dementia.
... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedule for Infants and Children (Birth through 6 ... any questions please talk to your doctor. 2018 Immunization Schedule Recommended Vaccinations for Infants and Children Schedule ...
Hans, Elias W.; Vanberkel, P.T.; Hall, R.
In this chapter we present a number of approaches to operating theatre planning and scheduling. We organize these approaches hierarchically which serves to illustrate the breadth of problems confronted by researchers. At each hierarchicalplanning level we describe common problems, solution
General Services Administration — Schedule Sales Query presents sales volume figures as reported to GSA by contractors. The reports are generated as quarterly reports for the current year and the...
Agnetis, Alessandro; Gawiejnowicz, Stanisław; Pacciarelli, Dario; Soukhal, Ameur
This book presents multi-agent scheduling models in which subsets of jobs sharing the same resources are evaluated by different criteria. It discusses complexity results, approximation schemes, heuristics and exact algorithms.
Office of Personnel Management — Used to store information on Federal employees in the Senior Executive Service (SES) and appointed employees in the Schedule C System. Every four years, just after...
Kuriyan, Rebecca; Thankachan, Prashanth; Selvam, Sumithra; Pauline, Maria; Srinivasan, K; Kamath-Jha, Shilpa; Vinoy, Sophie; Misra, Situn; Finnegan, Yvonne; Kurpad, Anura V
Multiple micronutrient deficiencies exist in school going children in India and bridging the gap between nutrient intake and requirements is an effective way to combat the deficiencies. This study aimed to test the effect of a multi-micronutrient fortified malt and cocoa based milk beverage on the micronutrient status, cognition, physical performance and nutritional deficiencies of 7-10 years old south Indian children. A randomized, double blind placebo controlled study design was used with normal healthy children from low to middle income families, aged 7-10 years randomly assigned to receive either a multi-micronutrient fortified or an unfortified milk based control drink. The drinks were provided 6 days/week for 5 months. Assessments included anthropometry, blood biochemistry, physical performance and cognition at baseline and endline. The baseline characteristics of the study groups were similar. The changes in body weight and height were similar between the groups at the end of the study. Levels of vitamin B12, red cell folate and vitamin B2 significantly improved in the intervention group, while vitamin D, selenium and body iron showed no difference. The Hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin levels of the control group decreased at endline, while those in the intervention group maintained their levels. The serum transferrin receptor levels increased in both the groups. The prevalence of iron deficiency and Vitamin B2 deficiency were significantly lower in the intervention group at endline. Overall improvement in cognitive and physical performance was seen in both the groups at endline, with no significant differences between the groups. The micronutrient fortified milk based drink was efficacious in improving the micronutrient status of Vitamin B2, Vitamin B12 and red cell folate and in preventing a decline in Hb level compared to an unfortified milk based drink. It also reduced anemia and the risk of deficiencies of iron, and B12, in apparently healthy children
Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents
The article presents two copyright models for minimizing downtime working brigades. Models have been developed for construction schedules performed using the method of work uniform. Application of flow shop models is possible and useful for the implementation of large objects, which can be divided into plots. The article also presents a condition describing gives which model should be used, as well as a brief example of optimization schedule. The optimization results confirm the legitimacy of the work on the newly-developed models.
Doré, Isabelle; Caron, Jean
Objectives This article aims to situate the concept of mental health in a historical perspective. This article presents the most commonly used measurement tools in Canada and elsewhere in the world to assess specific and multiple dimensions of mental health; when available, psychometric properties are discussed. Finally, research findings on quality of life and mental health determinants are presented.Methods A literature review of concepts, measurement and determinants of mental health is presented in this paper. The selection of measurement scales presented is based on the findings of the research reports conducted by the second author, an expert on mental health measures, for Health Canada and Statistics Canada.Results Mental health is more than the absence of mental illness; rather it is a state of complete well-being, which refers to our ability to enjoy life and deal with the challenges we face. Accordingly, mental health and mental illness are not extremes of the same continuum, but distinct yet correlated concepts. The traditional conceptualization suggesting that mental health represents simply the absence of mental illness has been replaced, in the last few decades, by a more holistic characterization, which directly concerns public health. The components of mental health include emotional well-being/quality of life (QOL) and psychological and social well-being. Mental health influences the personal and social functioning of individuals, justifying the importance of intervening upstream to promote mental health. Specific scales are relevant for obtaining a detailed measure of one aspect of well-being in particular (emotional/quality of life, psychological or social well-being); however, to account for the global mental health status, measurement tools that integrate all three forms of well-being (emotional, psychological and social) should be privileged. A diversity of determinants at the individual, social and neighbourhood levels influence quality of
Magyary, S.; Chin, M.; Fahmie, M.; Lancaster, H.; Molinari, P.; Robb, A.; Timossi, C.; Young, J.
This paper is a status report on the ADVANCED LIGHT SOURCE (ALS) control system. The current status, performance data, and future plans will be discussed. Manpower, scheduling, and costs issues are addressed. (author)
Full Text Available Aim. This study compares the usefulness of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA to Standardized Mini-Mental Status Exam (SMMSE for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment (MCI in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM population. Methods. This prospective pilot study enrolled 30 community dwelling adults with Type 2 DM aged 50 years and above. Subjects were assessed using both the SMMSE and MoCA for MCI. In all subjects, depression and dementia were ruled out using the DSM IV criteria, and a functional assessment was done. MCI was diagnosed using the standard test, the European consortium criteria. Sensitivity and specificity analysis, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios and Kappa statistic were calculated. Results. In comparison to consortium criteria, the sensitivity and specificity of MoCA were 67% and 93% in identifying individuals with MCI, and SMMSE were 13% and 93%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values for MoCA were 84% and 56%, and for SMMSE were 66% and 51%, respectively. Kappa statistics showed moderate agreement between MoCA and consortium criteria (kappa = 0.4 and a low agreement between SMMSE and consortium criteria (kappa = 0.07. Conclusion. In this pilot study, MoCA appears to be a better screening tool than SMMSE for MCI in the diabetic population.
Perera, G; Di Gessa, G; Corna, L M; Glaser, K; Stewart, R
Associations between employment status and mental health are well recognised, but evidence is sparse on the relationship between paid employment and mental health in the years running up to statutory retirement ages using robust mental health measures. In addition, there has been no investigation into the stability over time in this relationship: an important consideration if survey findings are used to inform future policy. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between employment status and common mental disorder (CMD) in 50-64-year old residents in England and its stability over time, taking advantage of three national mental health surveys carried out over a 14-year period. Data were analysed from the British National Surveys of Psychiatric Morbidity of 1993, 2000 and 2007. Paid employment status was the primary exposure of interest and CMD the primary outcome - both ascertained identically in all three surveys (CMD from the revised Clinical Interview Schedule). Multivariable logistic regression models were used. The prevalence of CMD was higher in people not in paid employment across all survey years; however, this association was only present for non-employment related to poor health as an outcome and was not apparent in those citing other reasons for non-employment. Odds ratios for the association between non-employment due to ill health and CMD were 3.05 in 1993, 3.56 in 2000, and 2.80 in 2007, after adjustment for age, gender, marital status, education, social class, housing tenure, financial difficulties, smoking status, recent physical health consultation and activities of daily living impairment. The prevalence of CMD was higher in people not in paid employment for health reasons, but was not associated with non-employment for other reasons. Associations had been relatively stable in strength from 1993 to 2007 in those three cross-sectional nationally representative samples.
Full Text Available Many LGBT forced migrants have significant and sometimesincapacitating psychological scars. Mental health providers can assistin documenting the psychological impact of anti-LGBT persecutionand its impact on the ability to secure refugee status.
Saeed, K; Gater, R; Hussain, A; Mubbashar, M
Although native faith healers are found in all parts of Pakistan, where they practice in harmony with the cultural value system, their practice is poorly understood. This study investigated the prevalence, classification and treatment of mental disorders among attenders at faith healers. The work of faith healers with 139 attenders was observed and recorded. The mental status of attenders was assessed using a two-stage design: screening using the General Health Questionnaire followed by diagnostic interview using the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule. The classification used by faith healers is based on the mystic cause of disorders: saya (27%), jinn possession (16%) or churail (14%). Sixty-one percent of attenders were given a research diagnosis of mental disorder: major depressive episode (24%), generalized anxiety disorder (15%) or epilepsy (9%). There was little agreement between the faith healers' classification and DSM-IIIR diagnosis. Faith healers use powerful techniques of suggestion and cultural psychotherapeutic procedures. Faith healers are a major source of care for people with mental health problems in Pakistan, particularly for women and those with little education. Further research should assess methods of collaboration that will permit people with mental health problems to access effective and culturally appropriate treatment.
... Myths and Facts Recovery Is Possible What Is Mental Health? Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social ... mental health problems and where to find help . Mental Health and Wellness Positive mental health allows people to: ...
Effective January 1, 1982, NRC will institute records retention and disposal practives in accordance with the approved Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule (CRDS). CRDS is comprised of NRC Schedules (NRCS) 1 to 4 which apply to the agency's program or substantive records and General Records Schedules (GRS) 1 to 24 which apply to housekeeping or facilitative records. NRCS-I applies to records common to all or most NRC offices; NRCS-II applies to program records as found in the various offices of the Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, and the Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Panel; NRCS-III applies to records accumulated by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; and NRCS-IV applies to records accumulated in the various NRC offices under the Executive Director for Operations. The schedules are assembled functionally/organizationally to facilitate their use. Preceding the records descriptions and disposition instructions for both NRCS and GRS, there are brief statements on the organizational units which accumulate the records in each functional area, and other information regarding the schedules' applicability
Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Alnuweiri, Hussein M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.
Raof R. A. A
Full Text Available The organizer of sport events often facing problems such as wrong calculations of marks and scores, as well as difficult to create a good and reliable schedule. Most of the time, the issues about the level of integrity of committee members and also issues about errors made by human came into the picture. Therefore, the development of sport tournament automated scheduling system is proposed. The system will be able to automatically generate the tournament schedule as well as automatically calculating the scores of each tournament. The problem of scheduling the matches of a round robin and knock-out phase in a sport league are given focus. The problem is defined formally and the computational complexity is being noted. A solution algorithm is presented using a two-step approach. The first step is the creation of a tournament pattern and is based on known graph-theoretic method. The second one is an assignment problem and it is solved using a constraint based depth-first branch and bound procedure that assigns actual teams to numbers in the pattern. As a result, the scheduling process and knock down phase become easy for the tournament organizer and at the same time increasing the level of reliability.
Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.
Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons
Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.
Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua
Ethicists have tended to treat the psychology of attributing mental states to animals as an entirely separate issue from the moral importance of animals’ mental states. In this paper I bring these two issues together. I argue for two theses, one descriptive and one normative. The descriptive thesis...... holds that ordinary human agents use what are generally called phenomenal mental states (e.g., pain and other emotions) to assign moral considerability to animals. I examine recent empirical research on the attribution of phenomenal states and agential states (e.g., memory and intelligence) to argue...... that phenomenal mental states are the primary factor, psychologically, for judging an animal to be morally considerable. I further argue that, given the role of phenomenal states in assigning moral considerability, certain theories in animal ethics will meet significant psychological resistance. The normative...
Bøgholm, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Søndergaard, Hans
Java finalizers perform clean-up and finalisation of objects at garbage collection time. In real-time Java profiles the use of finalizers is either discouraged (RTSJ, Ravenscar Java) or even disallowed (JSR-302), mainly because of the unpredictability of finalizers and in particular their impact...... on the schedulability analysis. In this paper we show that a controlled scoped memory model results in a structured and predictable execution of finalizers, more reminiscent of C++ destructors than Java finalizers. Furthermore, we incorporate finalizers into a (conservative) schedulability analysis for Predictable Java...... programs. Finally, we extend the SARTS tool for automated schedulability analysis of Java bytecode programs to handle finalizers in a fully automated way....
Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington
Sin, Jacqueline; Murrells, Trevor; Spain, Debbie; Norman, Ian; Henderson, Claire
The wellbeing and caregiving experiences of family carers supporting people with psychosis has garnered increasing interest. Evidence indicates that the burden of caregiving can adversely impact on parents' wellbeing, few studies have investigated whether this is also the case for siblings, who often take on caregiving responsibilities. This exploratory study investigated the wellbeing, mental health knowledge, and appraisals of caregiving in siblings of individuals with psychosis. Using a cross-sectional design, 90 siblings completed three validated questionnaires: Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS), Mental Health Knowledge Schedule (MAKS), and Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI). Data obtained were compared to general population norms and parent-carers' scores. Multi-variable regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between questionnaire scores and demographic characteristics including age, sex, birth order, marital status, accommodation and educational level. Siblings, especially sisters, had significantly poorer mental wellbeing, compared to normative scores. Conversely, they had better mental health knowledge. Siblings and parent-carers had comparable high levels of negative appraisals of caregiving experiences, but siblings reported more satisfaction with personal experiences and relationships. Education level was a significant predictor for better mental health knowledge; there were no other relationships between siblings' demographic factors and outcomes. Study findings suggest that siblings have overlapping as well as distinct needs, compared to parent-carers. Further research is required to better understand siblings' experiences so as to inform development of targeted interventions that enhance wellbeing and caregiving capacity.
Jo, Yong Min; Lee, Sung Wook; Han, Sang Young; Baek, Yang Hyun; Ahn, Ji Hye; Choi, Won Jong; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Sang Ho; Yoon, Byeol A
Nonconvulsive status epilepticus has become an important issue in modern neurology and epileptology. This is based on difficulty in definitively elucidating the condition and its various clinical phenomena and on our inadequate insight into the intrinsic pathophysiological processes. Despite nonconvulsive status epilepticus being a situation that requires immediate treatment, this disorder may not be appreciated as the cause of mental status impairment. Although the pathophysiology of nonconvulsive status epilepticus remains unknown, this disorder is thought to lead to neuronal damage, so its identification and treatment are important. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with liver cirrhosis presenting an altered mental status. We report a case of a 52-year-old male with liver cirrhosis presenting an altered mental status. He was initially diagnosed with hepatic encephalopathy but ultimately diagnosed with nonconvulsive status epilepticus by electroencephalogram.
Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth
and leisure, but agglomeration economies at home and at work lead to scheduling preferences forming endogenously. Using bottleneck congestion technology, we obtain an equilibrium queuing pattern consistent with a general version of the Vickrey bottleneck model. However, the policy implications are different....... Compared to the predictions of an analyst observing untolled equilibrium and taking scheduling preferences as exogenous, we find that both the optimal capacity and the marginal external cost of congestion have changed. The benefits of tolling are greater, and the optimal time varying toll is different....
Blumer, P.J.; Houston, J.R.; Eddy, P.A.
The current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site, as conducted by the Environmental Evaluation Section of Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy (DOE), is given. Modifications to the schedule are made during the year and special areas of study, usually of short duration, are not scheduled. The environmental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, and to monitor Hanford operations for compliance with applicable environmental criteria and Washington State Water Quality Standards. Air quality data are obtained in a separate program administered by the Hanford Environmental Health Foundation. The collection schedule for potable water is shown but it is not part of the routine environmental surveillance program. Water quality data for Hanford Site potable water systems are published each year by the Hanford Environmental Health Foundation. The data collected are available in routine reports issued by the Environmental Evaluations staff. Groundwater data and evaluation are reported in the series, ''Radiological Status of the Groundwater Beneath the Hanford Project for...,'' the latest issue being PNL-2624 for CY-1977. Data from locations within the plant boundaries are presented in the annual ''Environmental Status of the Hanford Site for...'' report series, the most recent report being PNL-2677 for 1977. Data from offsite locations are presented in the annual ''Environmental Surveillance at Hanford for...'' series of reports, the latest being PNL-2614 for 1977
Nadeau, Jessica A; Bednarczyk, Robert A; Masawi, Munyaradzi R; Meldrum, Megan D; Santilli, Loretta; Zansky, Shelley M; Blog, Debra S; Birkhead, Guthrie S; McNutt, Louise-Anne
To identify children vaccinated following an alternative vaccine schedule using immunization information system data and determine the impact of alternative schedule use on vaccine coverage. Children born in New York State, outside New York City, between January 1, 2009 and August 14, 2011 were assessed for vaccination patterns consistent with use of an alternative schedule. Children who by 9 months of age had at least 3 vaccination visits recorded in the statewide mandatory immunization information system after 41 days of age were classified as either attempting to conform to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published recommended vaccination schedule or an alternative schedule. The number of vaccination visits and up-to-date status at age 9 months were compared between groups. Of the 222 628 children studied, the proportion of children following an alternative schedule was 25%. These children were significantly less likely to be up-to-date at age 9 months (15%) compared with those conforming to the routine schedule (90%, P Children following an alternative schedule on average had about 2 extra vaccine visits compared with children following a routine schedule (P children in this study appear to be intentionally deviating from the routine schedule. Intentional deviation leads to poor vaccination coverage leaving children vulnerable to infection and increasing the potential for vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn
Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.
Cook, R J; Ortega-Ortiz, A; Romans, S; Ross, L E
Where legal systems allow therapeutic abortion to preserve women's mental health, practitioners often lack access to mental health professionals for making critical diagnoses or prognoses that pregnancy or childcare endangers patients' mental health. Practitioners themselves must then make clinical assessments of the impact on their patients of continued pregnancy or childcare. The law requires only that practitioners make assessments in good faith, and by credible criteria. Mental disorder includes psychological distress or mental suffering due to unwanted pregnancy and responsibility for childcare, or, for instance, anticipated serious fetal impairment. Account should be taken of factors that make patients vulnerable to distress, such as personal or family mental health history, factors that may precipitate mental distress, such as loss of personal relationships, and factors that may maintain distress, such as poor education and marginal social status. Some characteristics of patients may operate as both precipitating and maintaining factors, such as poverty and lack of social support.
A Topical Report Review Status is scheduled to be published semi-annually. The primary purpose of this document is to provide periodic progress reports of on-going topical report reviews, to identify those topical reports for which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review has been completed and, to the extent practicable, to provide NRC management with sufficient information regarding the conduct of the topical report program to permit taking whatever actions deemed necessary or appropriate. This document is also intended to be a source of information to NRC Licensing Project Managers and other NRC personnel regarding the status of topical reports which may be referenced in applications for which they have responsibility. This status report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the topical report program, but is also used by NRC to advise the industry of report review status
A Topical Report Review Status is scheduled to be published semi-annually. The primary purpose of this document is to provide periodic progress reports of on-going topical report reviews, to identify those topical reports for which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review has been completed and, to the extent practicable, to provide NRC management with sufficient information regarding the conduct of the topical report program to permit taking whatever actions deemed necessary or appropriate. This document is also intended to be a source of information to NRC Licensing Project Managers and other NRC personnel regarding the status of topical reports which may be referenced in applications for which they have responsibility. This status report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the topical report program, but is also used by NRC to advise the industry of report review status
Jongerden, M.R.; Schmitt, Jens B.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.
The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of their batteries. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to
Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.
The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of its battery. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the sy