WorldWideScience

Sample records for mental processes

  1. Inhibition: Mental Control Process or Mental Resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im-Bolter, Nancie; Johnson, Janice; Ling, Daphne; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested 2 models of inhibition in 45 children with language impairment and 45 children with normally developing language; children were aged 7 to 12 years. Of interest was whether a model of inhibition as a mental-control process (i.e., executive function) or as a mental resource would more accurately reflect the relations among…

  2. Evolutionary Processes and Mental Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Herman H.

    1973-01-01

    The author hypothesizes that central nervous system damage of deficiency associated with mental retardation affects primarily those cortical processes which developed at a late stage in man's evolutionary history. (Author)

  3. Numerical Processing Efficiency Improved in Experienced Mental Abacus Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunqi; Geng, Fengji; Hu, Yuzheng; Du, Fenglei; Chen, Feiyan

    2013-01-01

    Experienced mental abacus (MA) users are able to perform mental arithmetic calculations with unusual speed and accuracy. However, it remains unclear whether their extraordinary gains in mental arithmetic ability are accompanied by an improvement in numerical processing efficiency. To address this question, the present study, using a numerical…

  4. The role of mental health professionals in political asylum processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffert, Susan M; Musalo, Karen; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2010-01-01

    Applying for asylum in the United States can be a strenuous process for both applicants and immigration attorneys. Mental health professionals with expertise in asylum law and refugee trauma can make important contributions to such cases. Not only can mental health professionals provide diagnostic information that may support applicants' claims, but they can evaluate how culture and mental health symptoms relate to perceived deficits in credibility or delays in asylum application. They can define mental health treatment needs and estimate the possible effects of repatriation on mental health. Mental health professionals can also provide supportive functions for clients as they prepare for testimony. Finally, in a consultative role, mental health experts can help immigration attorneys to improve their ability to elicit trauma narratives from asylum applicants safely and efficiently and to enhance their resilience in response to vicarious trauma and burnout symptoms arising from work with asylum seekers.

  5. Cognitive Processes in Discourse Comprehension: Passive Processes, Reader-Initiated Processes, and Evolving Mental Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne

    2017-01-01

    As readers move through a text, they engage in various types of processes that, if all goes well, result in a mental representation that captures their interpretation of the text. With each new text segment the reader engages in passive and, at times, reader-initiated processes. These processes are strongly influenced by the readers'…

  6. Beyond behaviorism: on the automaticity of higher mental processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargh, J A; Ferguson, M J

    2000-11-01

    The first 100 years of experimental psychology were dominated by 2 major schools of thought: behaviorism and cognitive science. Here the authors consider the common philosophical commitment to determinism by both schools, and how the radical behaviorists' thesis of the determined nature of higher mental processes is being pursued today in social cognition research on automaticity. In harmony with "dual process" models in contemporary cognitive science, which equate determined processes with those that are automatic and which require no intervening conscious choice or guidance, as opposed to "controlled" processes which do, the social cognition research on the automaticity of higher mental processes provides compelling evidence for the determinism of those processes. This research has revealed that social interaction, evaluation and judgment, and the operation of internal goal structures can all proceed without the intervention of conscious acts of will and guidance of the process.

  7. Mental states, processes, and conscious intent in Libet's experiments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The meaning and significance of Benjamin Libet's studies on the timing of conscious will have been widely discussed, especially by those wishing to draw sceptical conclusions about conscious agency and free will. However, certain important correctives for thinking about mental states and processes undermine the ...

  8. Mental Representation in The Thought of Sidney Blatt: Developmental Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, John S; Diamond, Diana

    2017-06-01

    Mental representation was a central construct in Sidney Blatt's contributions to psychology and psychoanalysis. This brief review demonstrates that Blatt's understanding of representation was always informed by basic psychoanalytic concepts like the centrality of early caregiver-infant relationships and of unconscious mental processes. Although Blatt's earlier writings were informed by psychoanalytic ego psychology and Piagetian cognitive developmental psychology, they focused nonetheless on how an individual uses bodily and relational experiences to construct an object world; they also consistently presented object representations as having significant unconscious dimensions. From the mid-1980s onward, Blatt's contributions, in dialogue with his many students, moved in an even more experiential/relational direction and manifested the influence of attachment theory, parent-infant interaction research, and intersubjectivity theory. They also incorporated contemporary cognitive psychology, with its emphasis on implicit or procedural, rather than explicit, dimensions as a means of accounting for aspects of object representations that are not in conscious awareness. Throughout his career, however, Blatt regarded mental representation as the construct that mediates between the child's earliest bodily and relational experiences and the mature adult's symbolic, most emotionally profound capacities.

  9. Analysis of Mental Processes Represented in Models of Artificial Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Folchini da Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Artificial Consciousness concept has been used in the engineering area as being an evolution of the Artificial Intelligence. However, consciousness is a complex subject and often used without formalism. As a main contribution, in this work one proposes an analysis of four recent models of artificial consciousness published in the engineering area. The mental processes represented by these models are highlighted and correlations with the theoretical perspective of cognitive psychology are made. Finally, considerations about consciousness in such models are discussed.

  10. An Assessment of the Mental Health Treatment Process: Eliminating Service Barriers for Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda-Hassell, Sharon

    The mental health intervention process, which entails the 12 essential services to be offered by community mental health centers, is studied as an interactive process involving: (1) the cultural foundations within which mental health and illness are defined; (2) the range of cultural variability of Mexican American service recipients and their…

  11. Life Stories and Mental Health: The Role of Identification Processes in Theory and Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerben J. Westerhof

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to explore the relations between narratives and mental health from a psychological perspective. We argue that a process of identification with personal experiences underlies narrative structures that are known to be related to mental health. Overidentification and underidentification are described as general processes underlying mental health problems. Gerontological insights in reminiscence and life review and cognitive psychological studies on autobiographical memories validate this claim. Practical applications in mental health care provide even further evidence for the role of identification processes in mental health and how they can be targeted in interventions.

  12. Process optimization mental capacity and memory in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminska T.M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — increase the processes of mental capacity, antioxidant and detoxication effects in the schoolchildren of different regions of residence the use of succinic acid. Patients and methods. Studies conducted in 3 groups of 30 children 7–10 years who took the drug succinic acid for 1 month 1 — villages Irpen region; 2 — industrial city; 3 — c. Kyiv. Results. Prior preparation course that includes succinic acid, the number of missed days at school on acute and recurrent respiratory infections during the month rehabilitation was: in group 1 — 7.4±1.5 days; in group 2 — 8.8±1.9 days; in group 3 — 5.6±0.7 days. After taking the drug significantly decreased frequency of morbidity and amounted to: in group 1 (1.4±0.2 days; in group 2 — 1.8±0.2 days; 3 group — 1.2±0.1 days. The drug was well tolerated by children, side effects were not observed. There was a rapid improvement in visual memory and RAM memory content in all groups of children. Under the influence of the drug significantly reduced glutathione system performance decreases level of superoxide dismutase, increases antioxidant activity, detected reduction of level glutathione-S-transferase in serum indicates increasing detoxification function of the liver. Conclusions. Severe detoxification effect of succinic acid and its ability to activate the functional processes and mental efficiency allows to recommen the reception of preparation by annually improvement of progress at school, memory and disability rates.

  13. Neglect Impairs Explicit Processing of the Mental Number Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Marco; Bonato, Mario; Treccani, Barbara; Scalambrin, Giovanni; Marenzi, Roberto; Priftis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that visuospatial attention plays a pivotal role in numerical processing, especially when the task involves the manipulation of numerical magnitudes. Visuospatial neglect impairs contralesional attentional orienting not only in perceptual but also in numerical space. Indeed, patients with left neglect show a bias toward larger numbers when mentally bisecting a numerical interval, as if they were neglecting its leftmost part. In contrast, their performance in parity judgments is unbiased, suggesting a dissociation between explicit and implicit processing of numerical magnitude. Here we further investigate the consequences of these visuospatial attention impairments on numerical processing and their interaction with task demands. Patients with right hemisphere damage, with and without left neglect, were administered both a number comparison and a parity judgment task that had identical stimuli and response requirements. Neglect patients’ performance was normal in the parity task, when processing of numerical magnitude was implicit, whereas they showed characteristic biases in the number comparison task, when access to numerical magnitude was explicit. Compared to patients without neglect, they showed an asymmetric distance effect, with slowing of the number immediately smaller than (i.e., to the left of) the reference and a stronger SNARC effect, particularly for large numbers. The latter might index an exaggerated effect of number-space compatibility after ipsilesional (i.e., rightward) orienting in number space. Thus, the effect of neglect on the explicit processing of numerical magnitude can be understood in terms of both a failure to orient to smaller (i.e., contralesional) magnitudes and a difficulty to disengage from larger (i.e., ipsilesional) magnitudes on the number line, which resembles the disrupted pattern of attention orienting in visual space. PMID:22661935

  14. Gender differences in mental simulation during sentence and word processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.I. Wassenburg (Stephanie); B.B. de Koning (Björn); M.H. de Vries (Meinou); A.M. Boonstra (Marije); M. van der Schoot (Menno)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractText comprehension requires readers to mentally simulate the described situation by reactivating previously acquired sensory and motor information from (episodic) memory. Drawing upon research demonstrating gender differences, favouring girls, in tasks involving episodic memory

  15. Mental health policy process: a comparative study of Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kigozi Fred

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental illnesses are increasingly recognised as a leading cause of disability worldwide, yet many countries lack a mental health policy or have an outdated, inappropriate policy. This paper explores the development of appropriate mental health policies and their effective implementation. It reports comparative findings on the processes for developing and implementing mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia as part of the Mental Health and Poverty Project. Methods The study countries and respondents were purposively selected to represent different levels of mental health policy and system development to allow comparative analysis of the factors underlying the different forms of mental health policy development and implementation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Data analysis was guided by conceptual framework that was developed for this purpose. A framework approach to analysis was used, incorporating themes that emerged from the data and from the conceptual framework. Results Mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia are weak, in draft form or non-existent. Mental health remained low on the policy agenda due to stigma and a lack of information, as well as low prioritisation by donors, low political priority and grassroots demand. Progress with mental health policy development varied and respondents noted a lack of consultation and insufficient evidence to inform policy development. Furthermore, policies were poorly implemented, due to factors including insufficient dissemination and operationalisation of policies and a lack of resources. Conclusions Mental health policy processes in all four countries were inadequate, leading to either weak or non-existent policies, with an impact on mental health services. Recommendations are provided to strengthen mental health policy processes in these and other African countries.

  16. Using research evidence to reframe the policy debate around mental illness and guns: process and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Frattaroli, Shannon; Appelbaum, Paul S; Bonnie, Richard J; Grilley, Anna; Horwitz, Joshua; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Webster, Daniel W

    2014-11-01

    Recent mass shootings have prompted a national dialogue around mental illness and gun policy. To advance an evidence-informed policy agenda on this controversial issue, we formed a consortium of national gun violence prevention and mental health experts. The consortium agreed on a guiding principle for future policy recommendations: restricting firearm access on the basis of certain dangerous behaviors is supported by the evidence; restricting access on the basis of mental illness diagnoses is not. We describe the group's process and recommendations.

  17. Mental health providers confronting organizational change: process, problems, and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, S; Oster, G D

    1998-01-01

    Under the influence of managed care and diminished funding, the mental health field is undergoing a major transformation. Existing mental health programs, departments, and agencies are downsizing and restructuring to develop new types of service delivery systems. Organizations must change to survive; yet necessary and adaptive change may be resisted in numerous ways by providers whose reactions and behaviors may reduce the viability of their own programs and agencies. This paper explores various characteristics and reactions of mental health care professionals as they face great stress, professional devaluation, and necessary organizational change and restructuring. Adaptive and maladaptive patterns in response to potential organizational change are explored. The role of the leader in guiding and implementing programmatic changes and in dealing with denial and resistance is highlighted. Strategies to enhance the prospects for adaptive organizational change are offered.

  18. Sex Differences in Mental Rotation Tasks: Not Just in the Mental Rotation Process!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Alexander P.; Hegarty, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The paper-and-pencil Mental Rotation Test (Vandenberg & Kuse, 1978) consistently produces large sex differences favoring men (Voyer, Voyer, & Bryden, 1995). In this task, participants select 2 of 4 answer choices that are rotations of a probe stimulus. Incorrect choices (i.e., foils) are either mirror reflections of the probe or…

  19. Gender Differences in Mental Simulation during Sentence and Word Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenburg, Stephanie I.; de Koning, Björn B.; de Vries, Meinou H.; Boonstra, A. Marije; van der Schoot, Menno

    2017-01-01

    Text comprehension requires readers to mentally simulate the described situation by reactivating previously acquired sensory and motor information from (episodic) memory. Drawing upon research demonstrating gender differences, favouring girls, in tasks involving episodic memory retrieval, the present study explores whether gender differences exist…

  20. Life Stories and Mental Health: The Role of Identification Processes in Theory and Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this article is to explore the relations between narratives and mental health from a psychological perspective. We argue that a process of identification with personal experiences underlies narrative structures that are known to be related to mental health. Overidentification and

  1. Dynamic Processes of Conceptual Change: Analysis of Constructing Mental Models of Chemical Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mei-Hung; Chou, Chin-Cheng; Liu, Chia-Ju

    2002-01-01

    Investigates students' mental models of chemical equilibrium using dynamic science assessments. Reports that students at various levels have misconceptions about chemical equilibrium. Involves 10th grade students (n=30) in the study doing a series of hands-on chemical experiments. Focuses on the process of constructing mental models, dynamic…

  2. The impact of mental processing and pacing on spine loading: 2002 Volvo Award in biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kermit G; Marras, William S; Heaney, Catherine A; Waters, Thomas R; Gupta, Purnendu

    2002-12-01

    The impact of various levels of mental processing and pacing (during lifting) on spine loading was monitored under laboratory conditions. To explore how mental demands and pacing influence the biomechanical response and subsequent spine loading and, to determine whether individual characteristics have a modifying role in the responses. Modern work often requires rapid physical exertions along with demands of mental processing (both psychosocial stressors). While the effect of physical workplace factors on spine loading has been widely documented, few studies have investigated the impact that interaction of psychosocial factors and individual factors has on spine loads. For this study, 60 subjects lifted boxes while completing two types of mental processing tasks: 1) series tasks with decisions occurring before the act of lifting, and 2) simultaneous tasks with decisions occurring concurrently with the lift. For both of these mental processing conditions, two intensities of mental load were evaluated: simple and complex. Task pacing was also adjusted under slow and fast conditions. Finally, individual characteristics (personality and gender) were evaluated as potential modifiers. An electromyographically assisted model evaluated the three-dimensional spine loads under the experimental conditions. Simultaneous mental processing had the largest impact on the spine loads, with the complex intensity resulting in increases of 160 N with lateral shear, 80 N with anteroposterior shear, and 700 N with compression. Increased task pace produced greater lateral shear (by 20 N), anteroposterior shear (by 60 N), and compression loads (by 410 N). Gender and personality also influenced loadings by as much as 17%. Mental processing stress acted as a catalyst for the biomechanical responses, leading to intensified spine loading. Mental stress appeared to occur as a function of time pressures on task performance and resulted in less controlled movements and increases in trunk muscle

  3. Concepts in context: processing mental state concepts with internal or external focus involves different neural systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, S.; Mackey, S.; Wilson-Mendenhall, C.; Winkielman, P.; Paulus, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    According to embodied cognition theories, concepts are contextually situated and grounded in neural systems that produce experiential states. This view predicts that processing mental state concepts recruits neural regions associated with different aspects of experience depending on the context in

  4. Sequential neural processes in abacus mental addition: an EEG and FMRI case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixuan Ku

    Full Text Available Abacus experts are able to mentally calculate multi-digit numbers rapidly. Some behavioral and neuroimaging studies have suggested a visuospatial and visuomotor strategy during abacus mental calculation. However, no study up to now has attempted to dissociate temporally the visuospatial neural process from the visuomotor neural process during abacus mental calculation. In the present study, an abacus expert performed the mental addition tasks (8-digit and 4-digit addends presented in visual or auditory modes swiftly and accurately. The 100% correct rates in this expert's task performance were significantly higher than those of ordinary subjects performing 1-digit and 2-digit addition tasks. ERPs, EEG source localizations, and fMRI results taken together suggested visuospatial and visuomotor processes were sequentially arranged during the abacus mental addition with visual addends and could be dissociated from each other temporally. The visuospatial transformation of the numbers, in which the superior parietal lobule was most likely involved, might occur first (around 380 ms after the onset of the stimuli. The visuomotor processing, in which the superior/middle frontal gyri were most likely involved, might occur later (around 440 ms. Meanwhile, fMRI results suggested that neural networks involved in the abacus mental addition with auditory stimuli were similar to those in the visual abacus mental addition. The most prominently activated brain areas in both conditions included the bilateral superior parietal lobules (BA 7 and bilateral middle frontal gyri (BA 6. These results suggest a supra-modal brain network in abacus mental addition, which may develop from normal mental calculation networks.

  5. Sequential neural processes in abacus mental addition: an EEG and FMRI case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yixuan; Hong, Bo; Zhou, Wenjing; Bodner, Mark; Zhou, Yong-Di

    2012-01-01

    Abacus experts are able to mentally calculate multi-digit numbers rapidly. Some behavioral and neuroimaging studies have suggested a visuospatial and visuomotor strategy during abacus mental calculation. However, no study up to now has attempted to dissociate temporally the visuospatial neural process from the visuomotor neural process during abacus mental calculation. In the present study, an abacus expert performed the mental addition tasks (8-digit and 4-digit addends presented in visual or auditory modes) swiftly and accurately. The 100% correct rates in this expert's task performance were significantly higher than those of ordinary subjects performing 1-digit and 2-digit addition tasks. ERPs, EEG source localizations, and fMRI results taken together suggested visuospatial and visuomotor processes were sequentially arranged during the abacus mental addition with visual addends and could be dissociated from each other temporally. The visuospatial transformation of the numbers, in which the superior parietal lobule was most likely involved, might occur first (around 380 ms) after the onset of the stimuli. The visuomotor processing, in which the superior/middle frontal gyri were most likely involved, might occur later (around 440 ms). Meanwhile, fMRI results suggested that neural networks involved in the abacus mental addition with auditory stimuli were similar to those in the visual abacus mental addition. The most prominently activated brain areas in both conditions included the bilateral superior parietal lobules (BA 7) and bilateral middle frontal gyri (BA 6). These results suggest a supra-modal brain network in abacus mental addition, which may develop from normal mental calculation networks.

  6. Working process of military police state officers and mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Maurivan Batista da; Vieira, Sarita Brazão

    2008-01-01

    A Polícia Militar está balizada em dois pilares fundamentais: a disciplina e a hierarquia. O que a faz uma organização complexa com feixes de interesses que obstam a capacidade de resistência à mudança. Identificar como essa organização se estrutura e, sobretudo, relacioná-la com a saúde mental é o objetivo deste artigo. Buscamos contextualizar as finalidades dos serviços de segurança pública via breve histórico da polícia estadual, sua divisão e aplicabilidade frente à violência cotidiana. A...

  7. Effect of mental processing on low back load while lifting an object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuhira, Junji; Matsudaira, Ko; Iwakiri, Kazuyuki; Kimura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Tsukasa; Ono, Ryosuke; Sugita, Sho; Fukuda, Keisuke; Abe, Soyoka; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2013-06-01

    Biomechanical study using a 3D motion analysis system conducted in a laboratory setting. To determine the effect of mental processing on low back load during lifting. In addition to ergonomic factors such as frequent lifting, work-related psychosocial factors are significant in the onset of disabling back pain. Although the ergonomic effects on low back load while lifting have been investigated and are widely accepted in the workplace, few studies have investigated the effect of psychosocial factors on low back load while lifting. Thirteen healthy subjects lifted a box from the ground in 4 different lifting tasks in randomized order: (1) squat posture with knees flexed; (2) stoop posture with knees extended; (3) squat posture with mental processing using arithmetic tasks; and (4) stoop posture with mental processing using arithmetic tasks. We used a 3D motion analysis system and 4 force plates to record kinematic and kinetic data. We calculated dynamic triaxial low back joint moments and low back compression force as index parameters of low back load under these experimental conditions. Mental processing significantly increased peak low back compression force and low back extension moment, but not lateral flexion or rotation moment, while lifting in both lifting postures. Also, mental processing increased trunk bending angles in the squat posture. Although a tendency for decreased pelvic forward tilt was observed, mental processing did not significantly decrease forward pelvic tilt in the stoop posture. Mental processing during lifting tasks seems to affect both trunk and pelvis angles in the sagittal plane for squat and stoop postures, resulting in increased low back load. The present findings might help explain the effect of ergonomic demands of lifting tasks as well as psychosocial factors responsible for the onset of disabling back pain. 2.

  8. COGNITIVE ARITHMETIC: Mental Processing of Addition and Multiplication

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyanto, -

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the many studies of languages processing, there have been relatively few studies of arithmetic processing in cognitive psychology. Author of textbooks for university students, such as Solso (1991), do not appear to feel a need to address cognitive arithmetic issues in their books.

  9. Mental Layout Extrapolations Prime Spatial Processing of Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Carmela V.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether scene processing is facilitated by layout representation, including layout that was not perceived but could be predicted based on a previous partial view (boundary extension). In a priming paradigm (after Sanocki, 2003), participants judged objects' distances in photographs. In Experiment 1, full scenes (target),…

  10. [The Psychosocial Adaptation Process of Psychiatric Nurses Working in Community Mental Health Centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, So Young

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to verify psychosocial issues faced by psychiatric and community mental health nurse practitioners (PCMHNP) working in community mental health centers, and to identify the adaptation processes used to resolve the issues. Data were collected through in-depth interviews between December 2013 and August 2014. Participants were 11 PCMHNP working in community mental health centers. Analysis was done using the grounded theory methodology. The first question was "How did you start working at a community mental health center; what were the difficulties you faced during your employment and how did you resolve them?" The core category was 'regulating within relationships.' The adaptation process was categorized into three sequential stages: 'nesting,' 'hanging around the nest,' and 'settling into the nest.' Various action/interaction strategies were employed in these stages. The adaptation results from using these strategies were 'psychiatric nursing within life' and 'a long way to go.' The results of this study are significant as they aid in understanding the psychosocial adaptation processes of PCMHNP working in community mental health centers, and indicate areas to be addressed in the future in order for PCMHNP to fulfill their professional role in the local community.

  11. Mentalizing and Marr: an information processing approach to the study of social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason P

    2006-03-24

    To interact successfully, individuals must not only recognize one another as intentional agents driven primarily by internal mental states, but also possess a system for making reliable and useful inferences about the nature of those beliefs, feelings, goals, and dispositions. The ability to make such mental state inferences (i.e., to mentalize or mindread) is the central accomplishment of human social cognition. The present article suggests that our understanding of how humans go about making mental state inferences will benefit from treating social cognition primarily as an information processing system that comprises a set of mechanisms for elaborating more basic social information into an understanding of another's mind. Following Marr's [Marr, D., 1982. Vision. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco, CA] framework for the study of such information processing systems, I suggest that questions about social cognition might profitably be asked at three levels--computation, algorithm, and implementation--and outline a number of ways in which a description of social cognition at the middle level (i.e., the step-by-step processes that give rise to mental state inferences) can be informed by analysis at the other two.

  12. Psychological Processes Mediate the Impact of Familial Risk, Social Circumstances and Life Events on Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinderman, Peter; Schwannauer, Matthias; Pontin, Eleanor; Tai, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite widespread acceptance of the ‘biopsychosocial model’, the aetiology of mental health problems has provoked debate amongst researchers and practitioners for decades. The role of psychological factors in the development of mental health problems remains particularly contentious, and to date there has not been a large enough dataset to conduct the necessary multivariate analysis of whether psychological factors influence, or are influenced by, mental health. This study reports on the first empirical, multivariate, test of the relationships between the key elements of the biospychosocial model of mental ill-health. Methods and Findings Participants were 32,827 (age 18–85 years) self-selected respondents from the general population who completed an open-access online battery of questionnaires hosted by the BBC. An initial confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the adequacy of the proposed factor structure and the relationships between latent and measured variables. The predictive path model was then tested whereby the latent variables of psychological processes were positioned as mediating between the causal latent variables (biological, social and circumstantial) and the outcome latent variables of mental health problems and well-being. This revealed an excellent fit to the data, S-B χ2 (3199, N = 23,397) = 126654·8, ppsychological processes; specifically lack of adaptive coping, rumination and self-blame. Conclusion These results support a significant revision of the biopsychosocial model, as psychological processes determine the causal impact of biological, social, and circumstantial risk factors on mental health. This has clear implications for policy, education and clinical practice as psychological processes such as rumination and self-blame are amenable to evidence-based psychological therapies. PMID:24146890

  13. The mental health of children affected by armed conflict: protective processes and pathways to resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Khan, Kashif Tanveer

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines the concept of resilience in the context of children affected by armed conflict. Resilience has been frequently viewed as a unique quality of certain 'invulnerable' children. In contrast, this paper argues that a number of protective processes contribute to resilient mental health outcomes in children when considered through the lens of the child's social ecology. While available research has made important contributions to understanding risk factors for negative mental health consequences of war-related violence and loss, the focus on trauma alone has resulted in inadequate attention to factors associated with resilient mental health outcomes. This paper presents key studies in the literature that address the interplay between risk and protective processes in the mental health of war-affected children from an ecological, developmental perspective. It suggests that further research on war-affected children should pay particular attention to coping and meaning making at the individual level; the role of attachment relationships, caregiver health, resources and connection in the family, and social support available in peer and extended social networks. Cultural and community influences such as attitudes towards mental health and healing as well as the meaning given to the experience of war itself are also important aspects of the larger social ecology.

  14. Learning Processes in the Professional Development of Mental Health Counselors: Knowledge Restructuring and Illness Script Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Josef; Gruber, Hans

    2015-01-01

    An important part of learning processes in the professional development of counselors is the integration of declarative knowledge and professional experience. It was investigated in-how-far mental health counselors at different levels of expertise (experts, intermediates, novices) differ in their availability of experience-based knowledge…

  15. Racial and Ethnic Cultural Factors in the Process of Acceptance of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizock, Lauren; Russinova, Zlatka

    2013-01-01

    Acceptance of mental illness is essential to promoting recovery and is uniquely impacted by issues of culture, race, and ethnicity. Qualitative case narrative methodology was used to identify themes related to the cultural facilitators and barriers in the acceptance process. Five participant narratives are presented to assist practitioners in…

  16. Developmental Differentiation and Binding of Mental Processes with g through the Life-Span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Demetriou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Integration/differentiation of mental processes is major mechanism of development. Developmental theories ascribe intellectual development to it. In psychometric theory, Spearman’s law of diminishing returns postulates that increasing g allows increasing differentiation of cognitive abilities, because increased mental power allows variable investment in domain-specific learning. Empirical evidence has been inconsistent so far, with some studies supporting and others contradicting this mechanism. This state of affairs is due to a developmental phenomenon: Both differentiation and strengthening of relations between specific processes and g may happen but these changes are phase-specific and ability-specific, depending upon the developmental priorities in the formation of g in each phase. We present eight studies covering the age span from 4 to 85 years in support of this phenomenon. Using new powerful modeling methods we showed that differentiation and binding of mental processes in g occurs in cycles. Specific processes intertwine with g at the beginning of cycles when they are integrated into it; when well established, these processes may vary with increasing g, reflecting its higher flexibility. Representational knowledge, inductive inference and awareness of it, and grasp of logical constraints framing inference are the major markers of g, first intertwining with in their respective cycles and differentiating later during the periods of 2–6, 7–11, and 11–20 years, respectively. The implications of these findings for an overarching cognitive developmental/differential theory of human mind are discussed.

  17. Who decides? The decision-making process of juvenile judges concerning minors with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappon, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on juvenile judges' decision-making process has neglected the role of the different actors involved in judicial procedures. The decision can be considered as a result of information exchange between the different actors involved. The process of making a decision is equally important as the decision itself, especially when the decision considers minors with mental disorders. The presence and the type of interaction determine the information available to the juvenile judges to make their final decision. The overall aim of this study is to gain insight into the role of all actors, including the juvenile judge, in the juvenile judge's decision-making process in cases relating to minors with mental disorders. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with professional actors (n=32), minors (n=31) and parents (n=17). The findings indicated that the judge's decision is overall the result of an interaction between the juvenile judge, the social services investigator and the youth psychiatrist. The other professional actors, the minors and the parents had only a limited role in the decision-making process. The research concludes that the judge's decision-making process should be based on dialogue, and requires enhanced collaboration between the juvenile court and youth psychiatrists from mental health services. Future decision-making research should pay more attention to the interactions of the actors that guide a juvenile judge's decision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The content and process of self-stigma in people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kevin K S; Mak, Winnie W S

    2017-01-01

    Although many individuals with mental illness may self-concur with the "content" of stigmatizing thoughts at some point in their lives, they may have varying degrees of habitual recurrence of such thoughts, which could exacerbate their experience of self-stigma and perpetuate its damaging effects on their mental health. Although it is important to understand the "process" of how self-stigmatizing thoughts are sustained and perpetuated over time, no research to date has conceptualized and distinguished the habitual process of self-stigma from its cognitive content. Thus, the present study aims to develop and validate a measure of the habitual process of self-stigma-the Self-stigmatizing Thinking's Automaticity and Repetition Scale (STARS). In this study, 189 individuals with mental illness completed the STARS, along with several explicit (self-report) and implicit (response latency) measures of theoretically related constructs. Consistent with theories of mental habit, an exploratory factor analysis of the STARS items identified a 2-factor structure that represents the repetition (4 items) and automaticity (4 items) of self-stigmatization. The reliability of the STARS was supported by a Cronbach's α of .90, and its validity was supported by its significant correlations with theoretical predictors (content of self-stigma, experiential avoidance, and lack of mindfulness), expected outcomes (decreased self-esteem, life satisfaction, and recovery), and the Brief Implicit Association Tests measuring the automatic processing of self-stigmatizing information. With the validation of the STARS, future research can consider both the content and process of self-stigma so that a richer picture of its development, perpetuation, and influence can be captured. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Electronic outlining as a writing strategy: Effects on students' writing products, mental effort and writing process

    OpenAIRE

    De Smet, Milou; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Leijten, Mariëlle; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    This study addresses to what extent and how electronic outlining enhances students' writing performance. To this end, the focus of this study is not only on students' final writing products but also on the organisation of the writing process (i.e., planning, translating, and reviewing) and perceived mental effort during writing. In addition, effects of repeated electronic outlining were examined. A combined within and between subjects design was implemented in which 93 10th-grade students wro...

  20. Right to mental health in prison system: reflections on the process of deinstitutionalization of the HCTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marden Marques; Bueno, Paula Michele Martins Gomes

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to discuss the close relationship between mental health, the criminal justice system and the prison system, whose specific interfaces are the HCTP (Hospital de Custódia e Tratamento Psiquiátrico, or Judicial Psychiatric Hospital) conflict and the person with mental disorder in conflict with the law. There will be presented extensive discussions on the Penal Execution Law and the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform Law, as well as cross-sector actions taken by the judiciary and the federal government (Brazilian National Health System - SUS and National Social Assistance System - SUAS) to bring the criminal justice system and the prison system to the anti-asylum combat. Two successful experiences in the states of Minas Gerais and Goiás will also be presented for they reflect the emergence of a new strategy on public health policy: The Evaluation Service and Monitoring Therapeutic Measures for the Person with Mental Disorder in Conflict with the Law, device connector between systems, willing to operate in the process of deinstitutionalization of people with mental disorders of HCPT.

  1. Studies on the Mental Processes in Translation Memory-assisted Translation – the State of the Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews research on the mental translation processes involved in translation memory-assisted translation. First, based on recent developments in cognitive science the article provides a working definition of mental TM research. Next the article analyses a selection of mental TM studies...... with a view to discovering their aims, data, methods and results. In doing so, the paper attempts to find out what we know by now about the mental aspects of translation memory-assisted translation. The analysis suggests fruitful avenues for future research and concludes that particularly more research...

  2. Dynamic processes of conceptual change: Analysis of constructing mental models of chemical equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mei-Hung; Chou, Chin-Cheng; Liu, Chia-Ju

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate students' mental models of chemical equilibrium using dynamic science assessments. Research in chemical education has shown that students at various levels have misconceptions about chemical equilibrium. According to Chi's theory of conceptual change, the concept of chemical equilibrium has constraint-based features (e.g., random, simultaneous, uniform activities) that might prevent students from deeply understanding the nature of the concept of chemical equilibrium. In this study, we examined how students learned and constructed their mental models of chemical equilibrium in a cognitive apprenticeship context. Thirty 10th-grade students participated in the study: 10 in a control group and 20 in a treatment group. Both groups were presented with a series of hands-on chemical experiments. The students in the treatment group were instructed based on the main features of cognitive apprenticeship (CA), such as coaching, modeling, scaffolding, articulation, reflection, and exploration. However, the students in the control group (non-CA group) learned from the tutor without explicit CA support. The results revealed that the CA group significantly outperformed the non-CA group. The students in the CA group were capable of constructing the mental models of chemical equilibrium - including dynamic, random activities of molecules and interactions between molecules in the microworld - whereas the students in the non-CA group failed to construct similar correct mental models of chemical equilibrium. The study focuses on the process of constructing mental models, on dynamic changes, and on the actions of students (such as self-monitoring/self-correction) who are learning the concept of chemical equilibrium. Also, we discuss the implications for science education.

  3. Advanced technology meets mental health: how smartphones, textile electronics, and signal processing can serve mental health monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Gaetano; Lanatà, Antonio; Paradiso, Rita; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    Mental disorders, characterized by impaired emotional and mood balance, are common in the West. Recent surveys have found that millions of people (age 18?65) have experienced some kind of mental disorder, such as psychotic disorder, major depression, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, and somatoform disorder [1]. Specifically, in 2010, 164.8 million people in Europe were affected by such illnesses [1].

  4. [Engagement as motivational driver. Processes of change in an Italian department of mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuschillo, Carmine; Orazzo, Catello; Orazzo, Gabriele Gennaro; Capriola, Elena; Palumbo, Rocco; Grimaldi, Manlio

    2017-01-01

    The health care reforms of last years have deeply affected the National Health System, resulting in the need for a change in organizational processes and a more efficient and dynamic change management. An effective change management is not possible without a deep involvement (engagement) of professionals, which is itself a key requisite for motivation. This study aims to examine the main instruments of engagement management, as a tool of change according to a modern reorganization approach. We examine the results of this process in the Mental Health Department of the Local Health Company Naples 3 South in recent years, starting with the analysis of its main weaknesses.

  5. Poverty, Family Process, and the Mental Health of Immigrant Children in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiser, Morton; Hou, Feng; Hyman, Ilene; Tousignant, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the differential effects of poverty on the mental health of foreign-born children, Canadian-born children of immigrant parents, and children of nonimmigrant parents. Methods. Secondary analysis of data from a national Canadian study of children between 4 and 11 years of age was conducted. Results. Compared with their receiving-society counterparts, foreign-born children were more than twice as likely to live in poor families, but they had lower levels of emotional and behavioral problems. The effect of poverty on children's mental health among long-term immigrant and receiving-society families was indirect and primarily mediated by single-parent status, ineffective parenting, parental depression, and family dysfunction. In comparison, the mental health effect of poverty among foreign-born children could not be explained by the disadvantages that poor families often suffer. Conclusions. Poverty may represent a transient and inevitable part of the resettlement process for new immigrant families. For long-stay immigrant and receiving-society families, however, poverty probably is not part of an unfolding process; instead, it is the nadir of a cycle of disadvantage. PMID:11818295

  6. Anticipation by multi-modal association through an artificial mental imagery process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaona, Wilmer; Escobar, Esaú; Hermosillo, Jorge; Lara, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Mental imagery has become a central issue in research laboratories seeking to emulate basic cognitive abilities in artificial agents. In this work, we propose a computational model to produce an anticipatory behaviour by means of a multi-modal off-line hebbian association. Unlike the current state of the art, we propose to apply hebbian learning during an internal sensorimotor simulation, emulating a process of mental imagery. We associate visual and tactile stimuli re-enacted by a long-term predictive simulation chain motivated by covert actions. As a result, we obtain a neural network which provides a robot with a mechanism to produce a visually conditioned obstacle avoidance behaviour. We developed our system in a physical Pioneer 3-DX robot and realised two experiments. In the first experiment we test our model on one individual navigating in two different mazes. In the second experiment we assess the robustness of the model by testing in a single environment five individuals trained under different conditions. We believe that our work offers an underpinning mechanism in cognitive robotics for the study of motor control strategies based on internal simulations. These strategies can be seen analogous to the mental imagery process known in humans, opening thus interesting pathways to the construction of upper-level grounded cognitive abilities.

  7. [Development and Process Evaluation of the e-Mental Health Portal www.psychenet.de for the Hamburg Network for Mental Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirmaier, Jörg; Tlach, Lisa; Liebherz, Sarah; Kocalevent, Rüya; Sänger, Sylvia; Thiel, Juliane; Härter, Martin

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a user-centered web-portal for empowerment in mental disorders. The development of the portal included mixed-methods techniques for needs assessment to identify user-relevant content. Exposure and use of the portal was investigated as part of a process evaluation. psychenet.de informs about mental disorders and treatment option. Results of the process evaluation showed a highly accessed website, the portal was assessed as "good" or "very good" by 73 % of the respondents. Using psychenet.de attempts to raise awareness, to inform about mental disorders, and to engage patients in the course of their treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Processes linking cultural ingroup bonds and mental health: The roles of social connection and emotion regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultural and ethnic identities influence the relationships individuals seek out and how they feel and behave in these relationships, which can strongly affect mental and physical health through their impacts on emotions, physiology, and behavior. We proposed and tested a model in which ethnocultural identifications and ingroup affiliations were hypothesized explicitly to enhance social connectedness, which would in turn promote expectancy for effective regulation of negative emotions and reduce self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety. Our sample comprised women aged 18 to 30 currently attending college in the Southwestern US, who self-identified as Hispanic of Mexican descent (n=82; MAs or as non-Hispanic White/European American (EAs; n=234 and who completed an online survey. In the full sample and in each subgroup, stronger ethnocultural group identity and greater comfort with mainstream American culture were associated with higher social connectedness, which in turn was associated with expectancy for more effective regulation of negative emotions, fewer depressive symptoms, and less anxiety. Unexpectedly, preference for ingroup affiliation predicted lower social connectedness in both groups. In addition to indirect effects through social connection, direct paths from mainstream comfort and preference for ingroup affiliation to emotion regulation expectancy were found for EAs. Models of our data underscore that social connection is a central mechanism through which ethnocultural identities—including with one’s own group and the mainstream cultural group—relate to mental health, and that emotion regulation may be a key aspect of this linkage. We use the term ethnocultural social connection to make explicit a process that, we believe, has been implied in the ethnic identity literature for many years, and that may have consequential implications for mental health and conceptualizations of processes underlying mental disorders.

  9. The patient centered medical home: mental models and practice culture driving the transformation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronholm, Peter F; Shea, Judy A; Werner, Rachel M; Miller-Day, Michelle; Tufano, Jim; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Gabbay, Robert

    2013-09-01

    The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) has become a dominant model of primary care re-design. The PCMH model is a departure from more traditional models of healthcare delivery and requires significant transformation to be realized. To describe factors shaping mental models and practice culture driving the PCMH transformation process in a large multi-payer PCMH demonstration project. Individual interviews were conducted at 17 primary care practices in South Eastern Pennsylvania. A total of 118 individual interviews were conducted with clinicians (N = 47), patient educators (N = 4), office administrators (N = 12), medical assistants (N = 26), front office staff (N = 7), nurses (N = 4), care managers (N = 11), social workers (N = 4), and other stakeholders (N = 3). A multi-disciplinary research team used a grounded theory approach to develop the key constructs describing factors shaping successful practice transformation. Three central themes emerged from the data related to changes in practice culture and mental models necessary for PCMH practice transformation: 1) shifting practice perspectives towards proactive, population-oriented care based in practice-patient partnerships; 2) creating a culture of self-examination; and 3) challenges to developing new roles within the practice through distribution of responsibilities and team-based care. The most tension in shifting the required mental models was displayed between clinician and medical assistant participants, revealing significant barriers towards moving away from clinician-centric care. Key factors driving the PCMH transformation process require shifting mental models at the individual level and culture change at the practice level. Transformation is based upon structural and process changes that support orientation of practice mental models towards perceptions of population health, self-assessment, and the development of shared decision-making. Staff buy-in to the new roles

  10. A review of the effects of antihistamines on mental processes related to automobile driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengo, F M; Manning, C

    1990-12-01

    The newer, second-generation H1-receptor antagonists have been shown to have potent antiallergic effects without inducing sleepiness. However, because traditional antihistamines may cause functional or cognitive impairment, the clinician still must consider warning patients about activities that could be hazardous. Because the effects of drugs on driving an automobile are difficult to measure directly, studies must use surrogate activities in a laboratory setting. Effects of antihistamines on the central nervous system are assessed with psychomotor tests, which are selected on the basis of their relativity to real-world activities, to develop a profile of mental processes that may be affected. This article reviews the psychomotor tests and study design used to characterize the intensity and duration of drug effects after single and multiple doses and in combination with other impairing agents such as ethanol. Several studies have been published that assess the effects of cetirizine, an H1-receptor blocker, on mental performance. In the study discussed here, diphenhydramine hydrochloride and hydroxyzine were used as positive controls to demonstrate that the period during which some traditional antihistamines impair performance is different than the period of reported drowsiness they induce. The results of this series of studies show that cetirizine induced minimal changes in mental performance tests and only following the highest (20 mg) dose studied.

  11. From data processing to mental organs: an interdisciplinary path to cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patharkar, Manoj

    2011-01-01

    Human brain is a highly evolved coordinating mechanism in the species Homo sapiens. It is only in the last 100 years that extensive knowledge of the intricate structure and complex functioning of the human brain has been acquired, though a lot is yet to be known. However, from the beginning of civilisation, people have been conscious of a 'mind' which has been considered the origin of all scientific and cultural development. Philosophers have discussed at length the various attributes of consciousness. At the same time, most of the philosophical or scientific frameworks have directly or indirectly implied mind-body duality. It is now imperative that we develop an integrated approach to understand the interconnection between mind and consciousness on one hand and brain on the other. This paper begins with the proposition that the structure of the brain is analogous, at least to certain extent, to that of the computer system. Of course, it is much more sophisticated and complex. The second proposition is that the Chomskyean concept of 'mental organs' is a good working hypothesis that tries to characterise this complexity in terms of an innate cognitive framework. By following this dual approach, brain as a data processing system and brain as a superstructure of intricately linked mental organs, we can move toward a better understanding of 'mind' within the framework of empirical science. The one 'mental organ' studied extensively in Chomskyean terms is 'language faculty' which is unique in its relation to brain, mind and consciousness.

  12. Intentional Modelling: A Process for Clinical Leadership Development in Mental Health Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Gary; Happell, Brenda; Reid-Searl, Kerry

    2016-05-01

    Clinical leadership is becoming more relevant for nurses, as the positive impact that it can have on the quality of care and outcomes for consumers is better understood and more clearly articulated in the literature. As clinical leadership continues to become more relevant, the need to gain an understanding of how clinical leaders in nursing develop will become increasingly important. While the attributes associated with effective clinical leadership are recognized in current literature there remains a paucity of research on how clinical leaders develop these attributes. This study utilized a grounded theory methodology to generate new insights into the experiences of peer identified clinical leaders in mental health nursing and the process of developing clinical leadership skills. Participants in this study were nurses working in a mental health setting who were identified as clinical leaders by their peers as opposed to identifying them by their role or organizational position. A process of intentional modeling emerged as the substantive theory identified in this study. Intentional modeling was described by participants in this study as a process that enabled them to purposefully identify models that assisted them in developing the characteristics of effective clinical leaders as well as allowing them to model these characteristics to others. Reflection on practice is an important contributor to intentional modelling. Intentional modelling could be developed as a framework for promoting knowledge and skill development in the area of clinical leadership.

  13. Interrelationships between trait anxiety, situational stress and mental effort predict phonological processing efficiency, but not effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Elizabeth J; Edwards, Mark S; Lyvers, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) describes the mechanisms associated with the relationship between anxiety and cognitive performance. We investigated the relationship between cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress and mental effort on phonological performance using a simple (forward-) and complex (backward-) word span task. Ninety undergraduate students participated in the study. Predictor variables were cognitive trait anxiety, indexed using questionnaire scores; situational stress, manipulated using ego threat instructions; and perceived level of mental effort, measured using a visual analogue scale. Criterion variables (a) performance effectiveness (accuracy) and (b) processing efficiency (accuracy divided by response time) were analyzed in separate multiple moderated-regression analyses. The results revealed (a) no relationship between the predictors and performance effectiveness, and (b) a significant 3-way interaction on processing efficiency for both the simple and complex tasks, such that at higher effort, trait anxiety and situational stress did not predict processing efficiency, whereas at lower effort, higher trait anxiety was associated with lower efficiency at high situational stress, but not at low situational stress. Our results were in full support of the assumptions of ACT and implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Process evaluation of a community-based mental health promotion intervention for refugee children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash, Rima T.; Alaouie, Hala; Haddad, Pascale; El Hajj, Taghreed; Salem, Heba; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Afifi, Rema A.

    2012-01-01

    Public health interventions are complex in nature and composed of multiple components. Evaluation of process and impact is necessary to build evidence of effectiveness. Process evaluation involves monitoring extent of implementation and comparison against the program plan. This article describes the process evaluation of the ‘Qaderoon’ (We are Capable) intervention; a community-based mental health promotion intervention for children living in a Palestinian refugee camp of Beirut, Lebanon. The manuscript describes the context of Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, the intervention, the process evaluation plan and results. The process evaluation was guided by the literature and by a Community Youth Committee. Findings indicated that attendance was 54 and 38% for summer and fall sessions, respectively. Session objectives and activities were commonly achieved. Over 78.4% of activities were reported to be implemented fully as planned. Over 90% of the children indicated high satisfaction with the sessions. Contextual facilitators and challenges to implementing the intervention are discussed. The most challenging were maintaining attendance and the actual implementation of the process evaluation plan. Findings from process evaluation will strengthen interpretation of impact evaluation results. PMID:21908850

  15. Attentional processes, not implicit mentalizing, mediate performance in a perspective-taking task: Evidence from stimulation of the temporoparietal junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiesteban, Idalmis; Kaur, Simran; Bird, Geoffrey; Catmur, Caroline

    2017-07-15

    Mentalizing is a fundamental process underpinning human social interaction. Claims of the existence of 'implicit mentalizing' represent a fundamental shift in our understanding of this important skill, suggesting that preverbal infants and even animals may be capable of mentalizing. One of the most influential tasks supporting such claims in adults is the dot perspective-taking task, but demonstrations of similar performance on this task for mentalistic and non-mentalistic stimuli have led to the suggestion that this task in fact measures domain-general processes, rather than implicit mentalizing. A mentalizing explanation was supported by fMRI data claiming to show greater activation of brain areas involved in mentalizing, including right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ), when participants made self-perspective judgements in a mentalistic, but not in a non-mentalistic condition, an interpretation subsequently challenged. Here we provide the first causal test of the mentalizing claim using disruptive transcranial magnetic stimulation of rTPJ during self-perspective judgements. We found no evidence for a distinction between mentalistic and non-mentalistic stimuli: stimulation of rTPJ impaired performance on all self-perspective trials, regardless of the mentalistic/non-mentalistic nature of the stimulus. Our data support a domain-general attentional interpretation of performance on the dot perspective-taking task, a role which is subserved by the rTPJ. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Contextualized Technology Adaptation Process (CTAP): Optimizing Health Information Technology to Improve Mental Health Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R.; Wasse, Jessica Knaster; Ludwig, Kristy; Zachry, Mark; Bruns, Eric J.; Unützer, Jürgen; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Health information technologies have become a central fixture in the mental healthcare landscape, but few frameworks exist to guide their adaptation to novel settings. This paper introduces the Contextualized Technology Adaptation Process (CTAP) and presents data collected during Phase 1 of its application to measurement feedback system development in school mental health. The CTAP is built on models of human-centered design and implementation science and incorporates repeated mixed methods assessments to guide the design of technologies to ensure high compatibility with a destination setting. CTAP phases include: (1) Contextual evaluation, (2) Evaluation of the unadapted technology, (3) Trialing and evaluation of the adapted technology, (4) Refinement and larger-scale implementation, and (5) Sustainment through ongoing evaluation and system revision. Qualitative findings from school-based practitioner focus groups are presented, which provided information for CTAP Phase 1, contextual evaluation, surrounding education sector clinicians’ workflows, types of technologies currently available, and influences on technology use. Discussion focuses on how findings will inform subsequent CTAP phases, as well as their implications for future technology adaptation across content domains and service sectors. PMID:25677251

  17. The Contextualized Technology Adaptation Process (CTAP): Optimizing Health Information Technology to Improve Mental Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R; Wasse, Jessica Knaster; Ludwig, Kristy; Zachry, Mark; Bruns, Eric J; Unützer, Jürgen; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Health information technologies have become a central fixture in the mental healthcare landscape, but few frameworks exist to guide their adaptation to novel settings. This paper introduces the contextualized technology adaptation process (CTAP) and presents data collected during Phase 1 of its application to measurement feedback system development in school mental health. The CTAP is built on models of human-centered design and implementation science and incorporates repeated mixed methods assessments to guide the design of technologies to ensure high compatibility with a destination setting. CTAP phases include: (1) Contextual evaluation, (2) Evaluation of the unadapted technology, (3) Trialing and evaluation of the adapted technology, (4) Refinement and larger-scale implementation, and (5) Sustainment through ongoing evaluation and system revision. Qualitative findings from school-based practitioner focus groups are presented, which provided information for CTAP Phase 1, contextual evaluation, surrounding education sector clinicians' workflows, types of technologies currently available, and influences on technology use. Discussion focuses on how findings will inform subsequent CTAP phases, as well as their implications for future technology adaptation across content domains and service sectors.

  18. Processing pathways in mental arithmetic--evidence from probabilistic fiber tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Klein

    Full Text Available Numerical cognition is a case of multi-modular and distributed cerebral processing. So far neither the anatomo-functional connections between the cortex areas involved nor their integration into established frameworks such as the differentiation between dorsal and ventral processing streams have been specified. The current study addressed this issue combining a re-analysis of previously published fMRI data with probabilistic fiber tracking data from an independent sample. We aimed at differentiating neural correlates and connectivity for relatively easy and more difficult addition problems in healthy adults and their association with either rather verbally mediated fact retrieval or magnitude manipulations, respectively. The present data suggest that magnitude- and fact retrieval-related processing seem to be subserved by two largely separate networks, both of them comprising dorsal and ventral connections. Importantly, these networks not only differ in localization of activation but also in the connections between the cortical areas involved. However, it has to be noted that even though seemingly distinct anatomically, these networks operate as a functionally integrated circuit for mental calculation as revealed by a parametric analysis of brain activation.

  19. Processing Pathways in Mental Arithmetic—Evidence from Probabilistic Fiber Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glauche, Volkmar; Weiller, Cornelius; Willmes, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Numerical cognition is a case of multi-modular and distributed cerebral processing. So far neither the anatomo-functional connections between the cortex areas involved nor their integration into established frameworks such as the differentiation between dorsal and ventral processing streams have been specified. The current study addressed this issue combining a re-analysis of previously published fMRI data with probabilistic fiber tracking data from an independent sample. We aimed at differentiating neural correlates and connectivity for relatively easy and more difficult addition problems in healthy adults and their association with either rather verbally mediated fact retrieval or magnitude manipulations, respectively. The present data suggest that magnitude- and fact retrieval-related processing seem to be subserved by two largely separate networks, both of them comprising dorsal and ventral connections. Importantly, these networks not only differ in localization of activation but also in the connections between the cortical areas involved. However, it has to be noted that even though seemingly distinct anatomically, these networks operate as a functionally integrated circuit for mental calculation as revealed by a parametric analysis of brain activation. PMID:23383194

  20. The effects of hearing aid use on listening effort and mental fatigue associated with sustained speech processing demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, Benjamin W Y

    2013-09-01

    To maintain optimal understanding, persons with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) often report a need for increased attention, concentration, and "listening effort" compared with persons without hearing loss. It is generally assumed that this increased effort is related to subjective reports of mental fatigue in persons with hearing loss. Although the benefits of hearing aids for improving intelligibility are well documented, their impact on listening effort and mental fatigue are less clear. This study used subjective and objective measures to examine the effects of hearing aid use and advanced hearing aid features on listening effort and mental fatigue in adults with SNHL. Sixteen adults (aged 47-69 years) with mild to severe sloping SNHL participated. A dual-task paradigm assessed word recognition, word recall, and visual reaction times (RTs) to objectively quantify listening effort and fatigue. Mental fatigue was operationally defined as a decrement in performance over the duration of the experiment (approximately 1 hr). Participants were fitted with study hearing aids and tested unaided and in two aided conditions (omnidirectional and with directional processing and digital noise reduction active). Subjective ratings of listening effort experienced during the day and ratings of fatigue and attentiveness immediately before and after the dual-task were also obtained. Word recall was better and dual-task RTs were significantly faster in the aided compared with unaided conditions, suggesting a decrease in listening effort when listening aided. Word recognition and recall in unaided and aided conditions remained relatively stable over the duration of the dual-task, suggesting these processes were resistant to mental fatigue. In contrast, dual-task RTs systematically increased over the duration of the speech task when listening unaided, consistent with development of mental fatigue. However, dual-task RTs remained stable over time in both aided conditions suggesting

  1. Investigation of mental fatigue through EEG signal processing based on nonlinear analysis: Symbolic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarnoosh, Mahdi; Motie Nasrabadi, Ali; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Firoozabadi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: Mental fatigue indices’ variation discussed during simple long-term attentive task. Symbolic dynamics of reaction time and EEG signal determine mental state variation. Nonlinear quantifiers such as entropy can display chaotic behaviors of the brain. Frontal and central lobes of the brain are effective in attention investigations. Mental fatigue causes a reduction in the complexity of the brain’s activity. Abstract: To investigate nonlinear analysis of attention physiological indices this study used a simple repetitive attentive task in four consecutive trials that resulted in mental fatigue. Traditional performance indices, such as reaction time, error responses, and EEG signals, were simultaneously recorded to evaluate differences between the trials. Performance indices analysis demonstrated that a selected task leads to mental fatigue. In addition, the study aimed to find a method to determine mental fatigue based on nonlinear analysis of EEG signals. Symbolic dynamics was selected as a qualitative method used to extract some quantitative qualifiers such as entropy. This method was executed on the reaction time of responses, and EEG signals to distinguish mental states. The results revealed that nonlinear analysis of reaction time, and EEG signals of the frontal and central lobes of the brain could differentiate between attention, and occurrence of mental fatigue in trials. In addition, the trend of entropy variation displayed a reduction in the complexity of mental activity as fatigue occurred.

  2. Problematizando o processo ensino-aprendizagem em enfermagem em saúde mental Discussing the education-learning process in nursing graduation related to mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Barros

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta um projeto de pesquisa que problematiza a formação de graduandos na área de saúde mental, especialmente os de enfermagem. Reconhecemos que é necessário aprofundar estudos junto às novas tendências pedagógicas, visando a romper com o modelo tradicional de educação que privilegia a transferência de conhecimento como um fim em si mesmo, a pouca flexibilidade dos currículos e a rigidez dos papéis do professor e do aluno, fatores que impedem a formação crítico-reflexiva dos profissionais. Diante desta problemática, fomos buscar na pedagogia das competências amparo teórico para a mudança necessária no sentido de melhorar e atualizar o processo ensino-aprendizagem. Propomos um diálogo entre a prática e o ensino da assistência de enfermagem psiquiátrica e de saúde mental, em que docentes e enfermeiros trabalhadores possam indicar um caminho para a identificação e construção das competências necessárias para que o enfermeiro atue eficazmente em situações reais na saúde mental.The article shows a research project which discusses the graduation program within mental health field, specially the nursing course. We admit that it is necessary to improve studies concerning to new pedagogical tendencies, aiming to overcome the traditional education model which privileges the knowledge transference as a purpose itself, the little flexibility of curriculums and the professors and students stiff performance, factors that prevent the critical-reflexive development of professionals. Before this problem, we searched on competencies pedagogy, a theoretical support for necessary changes in the sense to improve and update the education-learning process. We suggest a dialogue between practice and assistance education on psychiatric and mental health nursing, on which teachers and nurses may indicate a way to identify and build necessary capacities to enable nurses to act with efficacy in real situations present in

  3. Disturbances of mental image processing in post-stroke patients with left and right hemisphere damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachalska, M; Talar, J; Brodziak, A; MacQueen, B D

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to point out significant differences in how mental images are processed by post-stroke patients with left and right hemisphere damage. The issues involved are of theoretical importance because of the light shed on the modularity of cerebral functions, especially the imagination, and of clinical importance due to the better understanding of the underlying pathomechanism. The research involved 82 right-handed patients with a lesion in the left hemisphere (Group L), 82 right-handed patients with a lesion in the right hemisphere (Group R), and, as a control group, 82 patients with musculo-skeletal disorders not affecting the central nervous system (Group C), matched by age and sex. Image processing of complex notions was examined by using selected items from the Simple Neurolinguistic Test. In the control group, the majority of the patients responded to most of the prompts with polymodal associations of various types. In Group L, responses were dominated by isolated elements of the complex situation, while in Group R the associations were mostly verbal (lexical) and highly restricted in scope. The results indicate that the loss of LH functions interferes with the ability to assemble pieces of polymodal image information into sensible strings, while the loss of RH functions leaves strings to which little information is attached.

  4. Counting on the mental number line to make a move: sensorimotor ('pen') control and numerical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Rebecca; van Rooijen, Maaike; Giles, Oscar; Mushtaq, Faisal; Steenbergen, Bert; Mon-Williams, Mark; Waterman, Amanda

    2017-10-01

    Mathematics is often conducted with a writing implement. But is there a relationship between numerical processing and sensorimotor 'pen' control? We asked participants to move a stylus so it crossed an unmarked line at a location specified by a symbolic number (1-9), where number colour indicated whether the line ran left-right ('normal') or vice versa ('reversed'). The task could be simplified through the use of a 'mental number line' (MNL). Many modern societies use number lines in mathematical education and the brain's representation of number appears to follow a culturally determined spatial organisation (so better task performance is associated with this culturally normal orientation-the MNL effect). Participants (counter-balanced) completed two consistent blocks of trials, 'normal' and 'reversed', followed by a mixed block where line direction varied randomly. Experiment 1 established that the MNL effect was robust, and showed that the cognitive load associated with reversing the MNL not only affected response selection but also the actual movement execution (indexed by duration) within the mixed trials. Experiment 2 showed that an individual's motor abilities predicted performance in the difficult (mixed) condition but not the easier blocks. These results suggest that numerical processing is not isolated from motor capabilities-a finding with applied consequences.

  5. Enhancing performance in numerical magnitude processing and mental arithmetic using transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Tobias U; Rotzer, Stephanie; Grabner, Roland H; Mérillat, Susan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    The ability to accurately process numerical magnitudes and solve mental arithmetic is of highest importance for schooling and professional career. Although impairments in these domains in disorders such as developmental dyscalculia (DD) are highly detrimental, remediation is still sparse. In recent years, transcranial brain stimulation methods such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) have been suggested as a treatment for various neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders. The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is known to be crucially involved in numerical magnitude processing and mental arithmetic. In this study, we evaluated whether tDCS has a beneficial effect on numerical magnitude processing and mental arithmetic. Due to the unclear lateralization, we stimulated the left, right as well as both hemispheres simultaneously in two experiments. We found that left anodal tDCS significantly enhanced performance in a number comparison and a subtraction task, while bilateral and right anodal tDCS did not induce any improvements compared to sham. Our findings demonstrate that the left PPC is causally involved in numerical magnitude processing and mental arithmetic. Furthermore, we show that these cognitive functions can be enhanced by means of tDCS. These findings encourage to further investigate the beneficial effect of tDCS in the domain of mathematics in healthy and impaired humans.

  6. Using Mental Imagery Processes for Teaching and Research in Mathematics and Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoux, Pierre; Finkel, Alain

    2010-01-01

    The role of mental representations in mathematics and computer science (for teaching or research) is often downplayed or even completely ignored. Using an ongoing work on the subject, we argue for a more systematic study and use of mental representations, to get an intuition of mathematical concepts, and also to understand and build proofs. We…

  7. Implementing a Mentally Healthy Schools Framework Based on the Population Wide Act-Belong-Commit Mental Health Promotion Campaign: A Process Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar-McHenry, Julia; Donovan, Robert John; Nicholas, Amberlee; Kerrigan, Simone; Francas, Stephanie; Phan, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Mentally Healthy WA developed and implemented the Mentally Healthy Schools Framework in 2010 in response to demand from schools wanting to promote the community-based Act-Belong-Commit mental health promotion message within a school setting. Schools are an important setting for mental health promotion, therefore, the Framework encourages…

  8. Numerical processing efficiency improved in children using mental abacus: ERP evidence utilizing a numerical Stroop task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan eYao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether long-term abacus-based mental calculation (AMC training improved numerical processing efficiency and at what stage of information processing the effect appeard. Thirty-three children participated in the study and were randomly assigned to two groups at primary school entry, matched for age, gender and IQ. All children went through the same curriculum except that the abacus group received a 2-hour/per week AMC training, while the control group did traditional numerical practice for a similar amount of time. After a two-year training, they were tested with a numerical Stroop task. Electroencephalographic (EEG and event related potential (ERP recording techniques were used to monitor the temporal dynamics during the task. Children were required to determine the numerical magnitude (NC task or the physical size (PC task of two numbers presented simultaneously. In the NC task, the AMC group showed faster response times but similar accuracy compared to the control group. In the PC task, the two groups exhibited the same speed and accuracy. The saliency of numerical information relative to physical information was greater in AMC group. With regards to ERP results, the AMC group displayed congruity effects both in the earlier (N1 and later (N2 and LPC (late positive component time domain, while the control group only displayed congruity effects for LPC. In the left parietal region, LPC amplitudes were larger for the AMC than the control group. Individual differences for LPC amplitudes over left parietal area showed a positive correlation with RTs in the NC task in both congruent and neutral conditions. After controlling for the N2 amplitude, this correlation also became significant in the incongruent condition. Our results suggest that AMC training can strengthen the relationship between symbolic representation and numerical magnitude so that numerical information processing becomes quicker and automatic in AMC children.

  9. Numerical processing efficiency improved in children using mental abacus: ERP evidence utilizing a numerical Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Du, Fenglei; Wang, Chunjie; Liu, Yuqiu; Weng, Jian; Chen, Feiyan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether long-term abacus-based mental calculation (AMC) training improved numerical processing efficiency and at what stage of information processing the effect appeard. Thirty-three children participated in the study and were randomly assigned to two groups at primary school entry, matched for age, gender and IQ. All children went through the same curriculum except that the abacus group received a 2-h/per week AMC training, while the control group did traditional numerical practice for a similar amount of time. After a 2-year training, they were tested with a numerical Stroop task. Electroencephalographic (EEG) and event related potential (ERP) recording techniques were used to monitor the temporal dynamics during the task. Children were required to determine the numerical magnitude (NC) (NC task) or the physical size (PC task) of two numbers presented simultaneously. In the NC task, the AMC group showed faster response times but similar accuracy compared to the control group. In the PC task, the two groups exhibited the same speed and accuracy. The saliency of numerical information relative to physical information was greater in AMC group. With regards to ERP results, the AMC group displayed congruity effects both in the earlier (N1) and later (N2 and LPC (late positive component) time domain, while the control group only displayed congruity effects for LPC. In the left parietal region, LPC amplitudes were larger for the AMC than the control group. Individual differences for LPC amplitudes over left parietal area showed a positive correlation with RTs in the NC task in both congruent and neutral conditions. After controlling for the N2 amplitude, this correlation also became significant in the incongruent condition. Our results suggest that AMC training can strengthen the relationship between symbolic representation and numerical magnitude so that numerical information processing becomes quicker and automatic in AMC children.

  10. Drawing as Instrument, Drawings as Evidence: Capturing Mental Processes with Pencil and Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglionesi, Alicia

    2016-07-01

    Researchers in the mind sciences often look to the production and analysis of drawings to reveal the mental processes of their subjects. This essay presents three episodes that trace the emergence of drawing as an instrumental practice in the study of the mind. Between 1880 and 1930, drawings gained currency as a form of scientific evidence - as stable, reproducible signals from a hidden interior. I begin with the use of drawings as data in the child study movement, move to the telepathic transmission of drawings in psychical research and conclude with the development of drawing as an experimental and diagnostic tool for studying neurological impairment. Despite significant shifts in the theoretical and disciplinary organisation of the mind sciences in the early twentieth century, researchers attempted to stabilise the use of subject-generated drawings as evidence by controlling the contexts in which drawings were produced and reproduced, and crafting subjects whose interiority could be effectively circumscribed. While movements such as psychoanalysis and art therapy would embrace the narrative interpretation of patient art, neuropsychology continued to utilise drawings as material traces of cognitive functions.

  11. Drawing as Instrument, Drawings as Evidence: Capturing Mental Processes with Pencil and Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglionesi, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Researchers in the mind sciences often look to the production and analysis of drawings to reveal the mental processes of their subjects. This essay presents three episodes that trace the emergence of drawing as an instrumental practice in the study of the mind. Between 1880 and 1930, drawings gained currency as a form of scientific evidence – as stable, reproducible signals from a hidden interior. I begin with the use of drawings as data in the child study movement, move to the telepathic transmission of drawings in psychical research and conclude with the development of drawing as an experimental and diagnostic tool for studying neurological impairment. Despite significant shifts in the theoretical and disciplinary organisation of the mind sciences in the early twentieth century, researchers attempted to stabilise the use of subject-generated drawings as evidence by controlling the contexts in which drawings were produced and reproduced, and crafting subjects whose interiority could be effectively circumscribed. While movements such as psychoanalysis and art therapy would embrace the narrative interpretation of patient art, neuropsychology continued to utilise drawings as material traces of cognitive functions. PMID:27292325

  12. On the role of mentalizing processes in aesthetic appreciation: An ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan eBeudt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We used event-related brain potentials to explore the impact of mental perspective taking on processes of aesthetic appreciation of visual art. Participants (nonexperts were first presented with information about the life and attitudes of a fictitious artist. Subsequently, they were cued trial-wise to make an aesthetic judgment regarding an image depicting a piece of abstract art either from their own perspective or from the imagined perspective of the fictitious artist (i.e., theory of mind condition. Positive self-referential judgments were made more quickly and negative self-referential judgments were made more slowly than the corresponding judgments from the imagined perspective. Event-related potential analyses revealed significant differences between the two tasks both within the preparation period (i.e., during the cue-stimulus interval and within the stimulus presentation period. For the theory of mind condition we observed a relative centro-parietal negativity during the preparation period (700 – 330 ms preceding picture onset and a relative centro-parietal positivity during the stimulus presentation period (700 – 1100 ms after stimulus onset. These findings suggest that different subprocesses are involved in aesthetic appreciation and judgment of visual abstract art from one’s own vs. from another person’s perspective.

  13. Successful contextual integration of loose mental associations as evidenced by emotional conflict-processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Zimmer

    Full Text Available Often we cannot resist emotional distraction, because emotions capture our attention. For example, in TV-commercials, tempting emotional voices add an emotional expression to a formerly neutral product. Here, we used a Stroop-like conflict paradigm as a tool to investigate whether emotional capture results in contextual integration of loose mental associations. Specifically, we tested whether the associatively connected meaning of an ignored auditory emotion with a non-emotional neutral visual target would yield a modulation of activation sensitive to emotional conflict in the brain. In an fMRI-study, nineteen participants detected the presence or absence of a little worm hidden in the picture of an apple, while ignoring a voice with an emotional sound of taste (delicious/disgusting. Our results indicate a modulation due to emotional conflict, pronounced most strongly when processing conflict in the context of disgust (conflict: disgust/no-worm vs. no conflict: disgust/worm. For conflict in the context of disgust, insula activity was increased, with activity correlating positively with reaction time in the conflict case. Conflict in the context of deliciousness resulted in increased amygdala activation, possibly due to the resulting "negative" emotion in incongruent versus congruent combinations. These results indicate that our associative stimulus-combinations showed a conflict-dependent modulation of activity in emotional brain areas. This shows that the emotional sounds were successfully contextually integrated with the loosely associated neutral pictures.

  14. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  15. Traces of unconscious mental processes in introspective reports and physiological responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Ivonin

    Full Text Available Unconscious mental processes have recently started gaining attention in a number of scientific disciplines. One of the theoretical frameworks for describing unconscious processes was introduced by Jung as a part of his model of the psyche. This framework uses the concept of archetypes that represent prototypical experiences associated with objects, people, and situations. Although the validity of Jungian model remains an open question, this framework is convenient from the practical point of view. Moreover, archetypes found numerous applications in the areas of psychology and marketing. Therefore, observation of both conscious and unconscious traces related to archetypal experiences seems to be an interesting research endeavor. In a study with 36 subjects, we examined the effects of experiencing conglomerations of unconscious emotions associated with various archetypes on the participants' introspective reports and patterns of physiological activations. Our hypothesis for this experiment was that physiological data may predict archetypes more precisely than introspective reports due to the implicit nature of archetypal experiences. Introspective reports were collected using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM technique. Physiological measures included cardiovascular, electrodermal, respiratory responses and skin temperature of the subjects. The subjects were stimulated to feel four archetypal experiences and four explicit emotions by means of film clips. The data related to the explicit emotions served as a reference in analysis of archetypal experiences. Our findings indicated that while prediction models trained on the collected physiological data could recognize the archetypal experiences with accuracy of 55 percent, similar models built based on the SAM data demonstrated performance of only 33 percent. Statistical tests enabled us to confirm that physiological observations are better suited for observation of implicit psychological constructs

  16. Traces of Unconscious Mental Processes in Introspective Reports and Physiological Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivonin, Leonid; Chang, Huang-Ming; Diaz, Marta; Catala, Andreu; Chen, Wei; Rauterberg, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Unconscious mental processes have recently started gaining attention in a number of scientific disciplines. One of the theoretical frameworks for describing unconscious processes was introduced by Jung as a part of his model of the psyche. This framework uses the concept of archetypes that represent prototypical experiences associated with objects, people, and situations. Although the validity of Jungian model remains an open question, this framework is convenient from the practical point of view. Moreover, archetypes found numerous applications in the areas of psychology and marketing. Therefore, observation of both conscious and unconscious traces related to archetypal experiences seems to be an interesting research endeavor. In a study with 36 subjects, we examined the effects of experiencing conglomerations of unconscious emotions associated with various archetypes on the participants’ introspective reports and patterns of physiological activations. Our hypothesis for this experiment was that physiological data may predict archetypes more precisely than introspective reports due to the implicit nature of archetypal experiences. Introspective reports were collected using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) technique. Physiological measures included cardiovascular, electrodermal, respiratory responses and skin temperature of the subjects. The subjects were stimulated to feel four archetypal experiences and four explicit emotions by means of film clips. The data related to the explicit emotions served as a reference in analysis of archetypal experiences. Our findings indicated that while prediction models trained on the collected physiological data could recognize the archetypal experiences with accuracy of 55 percent, similar models built based on the SAM data demonstrated performance of only 33 percent. Statistical tests enabled us to confirm that physiological observations are better suited for observation of implicit psychological constructs like archetypes

  17. Traces of unconscious mental processes in introspective reports and physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivonin, Leonid; Chang, Huang-Ming; Diaz, Marta; Catala, Andreu; Chen, Wei; Rauterberg, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Unconscious mental processes have recently started gaining attention in a number of scientific disciplines. One of the theoretical frameworks for describing unconscious processes was introduced by Jung as a part of his model of the psyche. This framework uses the concept of archetypes that represent prototypical experiences associated with objects, people, and situations. Although the validity of Jungian model remains an open question, this framework is convenient from the practical point of view. Moreover, archetypes found numerous applications in the areas of psychology and marketing. Therefore, observation of both conscious and unconscious traces related to archetypal experiences seems to be an interesting research endeavor. In a study with 36 subjects, we examined the effects of experiencing conglomerations of unconscious emotions associated with various archetypes on the participants' introspective reports and patterns of physiological activations. Our hypothesis for this experiment was that physiological data may predict archetypes more precisely than introspective reports due to the implicit nature of archetypal experiences. Introspective reports were collected using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) technique. Physiological measures included cardiovascular, electrodermal, respiratory responses and skin temperature of the subjects. The subjects were stimulated to feel four archetypal experiences and four explicit emotions by means of film clips. The data related to the explicit emotions served as a reference in analysis of archetypal experiences. Our findings indicated that while prediction models trained on the collected physiological data could recognize the archetypal experiences with accuracy of 55 percent, similar models built based on the SAM data demonstrated performance of only 33 percent. Statistical tests enabled us to confirm that physiological observations are better suited for observation of implicit psychological constructs like archetypes than

  18. Process evaluation of the systematic medical appraisal, referral and treatment (SMART) mental health project in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Abha; Kallakuri, Sudha; Devarapalli, Siddhardha; Jha, Vivekanand; Patel, Anushka; Maulik, Pallab K

    2017-12-04

    Availability of basic mental health services is limited in rural areas of India. Health system and individual level factors such as lack of mental health professionals and infrastructure, poor awareness about mental health, stigma related to help seeking, are responsible for poor awareness and use of mental health services. We implemented a mental health services delivery model that leveraged technology and task sharing to facilitate identification and treatment of common mental disorders (CMDs) such as stress, depression, anxiety and suicide risk in rural areas of the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. The intervention was delivered by lay village health workers (Accredited Social Health Activists - ASHAs) and primary care doctors. An anti-stigma campaign was implemented prior to this activity. This paper reports the process evaluation of the intervention using mixed methods. A mixed methods pre-post evaluation assessed the intervention using quantitative service usage analytics from the server, and qualitative interviews with different stakeholders. Barriers and facilitators in implementing the intervention were identified. Health service use increased significantly at post-intervention, ASHAs could followup 78.6% of those who had screened positive, and 78.6% of the 1243 Interactive Voice Response System calls made, were successful. Most respondents were aware of the intervention. They indicated that knowledge received through the intervention empowered them to approach ASHAs and share their mental health symptoms. ASHAs and doctors opined that EDSS was useful and easy to use. Medical camps organized in villages to increase access to the doctor were received positively by all. However, some aspects or facilitators of the intervention need to be improved, including network connectivity, booster training, anti-stigma campaigns, quality of mental health services provided by doctors, provision of psychotropic medications at primary health centers and frequency of health

  19. Programming and Process in Prisoner Rehabilitation: A Prison Mental Health Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A., III; Faubert, Marie

    1990-01-01

    Reviews literature concerning men in prisons. Describes specific program at a prison mental health center which prepares men for reentry into society. Closes with reflections on one man's struggle to grow and prepare for the outside. (CM)

  20. [Labor and mental hygiene: the process of discourse production in this field in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A M

    1999-01-01

    This investigation of discourse production in Brazil's field of hygienic psychiatry between the years of 1925 and 1934 explores the relations between psychism and human labor, endeavoring to more precisely define the field's boundaries. We have chosen to designate the knowledge and practices which result from the intersection of these two areas as Labor and mental hygiene. My analytical procedure associated elements of Foucault's "archeology of knowledge" and "genealogy of power" (Foucault, 1995; 1990; 1987), while the Brazilian Mental Hygiene Archives served as the resarch source. The latter documents subsidized analysis of the Brazilian Mental Hygiene League's discourses on relations between labor and mental hygiene. Each one of the texts was analyzed with regard to the dimensions of object, concept, enunciation and theory. The study also explores how the authors and agents of this discourse viewed the social reproduction of the industrial labor force and the status quo.

  1. Inclusive and exclusive invironments in the teaching-learning process of mentally disabled people in physical education classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar de Carvalho Cruz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a matter of interest in the world educational scenario to proceed in the established dilemma concerning the implications of the organization of inclusive (that proposes the simultaneous attendance of students with and without disability and exclusive (formed exclusively by students with some kind of disability environments in the development of teaching-learning processes. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to analyze the teaching-learning process in Physical Education classes, with basic movements from Tae-Kwon-Do in exclusive and inclusive environments for attending students who showed mental disability. Six students from a special school, with mental disability, and twenty-six students from a regular school took part in this research. Along the first school semester of 2007, students with mental disability were submitted to alternate classes in exclusive and inclusive environments. Results showed that there was no difference in the motor response of students from the special school, concerning the exclusive and the inclusive environments. More than just discuss if the educational attendance to students with mental disability should occur in inclusive or exclusive environments, it is important to improve the environment organization so that they could be really able to learn.

  2. Processing and Testing the Quality of Life in Families with Mentally Retarded Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Askari Shahed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Mentally retarded children need more care on quality of life, therefore the family plays an important role, but the results indicate low levels of quality of life for these children and their families. The present study aimed to measure the quality of life in mothers of educable mentally retarded daughter motivated provide a model to measure quality of life and understanding of issues affecting the design. An attempt to investigate and describe the factors affecting the quality of family life with a disability and the relationship between these indicators and how to measure them families with children with mental retardation.   Methods: The research method was descriptive-analytic. The sample consisted of 75 mothers with a mentally retarded daughter who were participated in this study through census sampling. By studying literature, the related texts criteria of quality of life were extracted. All study information of participants was obtained by standard questionnaires. Using correlation analysis techniques, univariate regression, logistic regression analysis were analyzed through structural equations.   Results: The results indicated that the performance of family (family interactions, parenting, mental health and physical capabilities mother (resilience and aggression, personal beliefs and quality of life of families with disabled children influenced it. Personal beliefs are an important determinant of quality of life.   Conclusion: The results of structural equation modeling and corresponding indexes indicated that the proposed model based on experimental data fitting was good and desirable product was in compliance with the conceptual model.    

  3. The Process of Homelessness among the Mentally Ill: Rural and Urban Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, John R.; McCleese, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Describes research exploring links between commitment laws and homelessness among mentally ill. Shows treatment differences in rural and metropolitan areas. Suggests narrow urban interpretation of laws leads to homelessness while rural overreaction leads to more unwarranted commitments. Identifies continuum-of-care needs. Suggests topics for…

  4. The facilitation of a team-building process: implications for mental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this article was to explore and describe team members' experience of obstacles in their functioning as an effective team and their views of elements contributing to an effective and productive team. An effective and productive team could be a mentally healthy and emotional intelligent team. A qualitative ...

  5. Maintaining Your Mental Health all the Way through Your PhD Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamma Overgaard

    2017-01-01

    of mental disorders – ranging from the typical diagnosis of modern Western life style, eg. stress, insomnia, and imposture syndrome, to more serious illnesses such as depression. Disorders that the Ph. D. student, being usually young and relatively inexperienced, is particularly predisposed to...

  6. The mental health care model in Brazil: analyses of the funding, governance processes, and mechanisms of assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Lavras Trapé

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE This study aims to analyze the current status of the mental health care model of the Brazilian Unified Health System, according to its funding, governance processes, and mechanisms of assessment. METHODS We have carried out a documentary analysis of the ordinances, technical reports, conference reports, normative resolutions, and decrees from 2009 to 2014. RESULTS This is a time of consolidation of the psychosocial model, with expansion of the health care network and inversion of the funding for community services with a strong emphasis on the area of crack cocaine and other drugs. Mental health is an underfunded area within the chronically underfunded Brazilian Unified Health System. The governance model constrains the progress of essential services, which creates the need for the incorporation of a process of regionalization of the management. The mechanisms of assessment are not incorporated into the health policy in the bureaucratic field. CONCLUSIONS There is a need to expand the global funding of the area of health, specifically mental health, which has been shown to be a successful policy. The current focus of the policy seems to be archaic in relation to the precepts of the psychosocial model. Mechanisms of assessment need to be expanded.

  7. Temporary stages and motivational variables: Two complementary perspectives in the help-seeking process for mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle Del Valle, Gema; Carrió, Carmen; Belloch, Amparo

    2017-10-09

    Help-seeking for mental disorders is a complex process, which includes different temporary stages, and in which the motivational variables play an especially relevant role. However, there is a lack of instruments to evaluate in depth both the temporary and motivational variables involved in the help-seeking process. This study aims to analyse in detail these two sets of variables, using a specific instrument designed for the purpose, to gain a better understanding of the process of treatment seeking. A total of 152 patients seeking treatment in mental health outpatient clinics of the NHS were individually interviewed: 71 had Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, 21 had Agoraphobia, 18 had Major Depressive Disorder), 20 had Anorexia Nervosa, and 22 had Cocaine Dependence. The patients completed a structured interview assessing the help-seeking process. Disorder severity and quality of life was also assessed. The patients with agoraphobia and with major depression took significantly less time in recognising their mental health symptoms. Similarly, patients with major depression were faster in seeking professional help. Motivational variables were grouped in 3 sets: motivators for seeking treatment, related to the negative impact of symptoms on mood and to loss of control over symptoms; motivators for delaying treatment, related to minimisation of the disorder; and stigma-associated variables. The results support the importance of considering the different motivational variables involved in the several stages of the help-seeking process. The interview designed to that end has shown its usefulness in this endeavour. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Processes linking cultural ingroup bonds and mental health: the roles of social connection and emotion regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Nicole A.; Burleson, Mary H.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural and ethnic identities influence the relationships individuals seek out and how they feel and behave in these relationships, which can strongly affect mental and physical health through their impacts on emotions, physiology, and behavior. We proposed and tested a model in which ethnocultural identifications and ingroup affiliations were hypothesized explicitly to enhance social connectedness, which would in turn promote expectancy for effective regulation of negative emotions and redu...

  9. O processo de trabalho do militar estadual e a saúde mental Working process of military police state officers and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurivan Batista da Silva

    2008-12-01

    relate it to mental health. We tried to contextualize the purposes of public safety services through a brief history of the state police, its division and how it has been used against daily violence. Based on labor psychology view, we made use of techniques and concepts based on the Ergonomics of the Activity and on Labor Psychodynamics; observing the work process, document research, individual and collective interviews. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that military officers are in the center of a link of forces coming from work organization, the precariousness of the work and, finally, from the contemporary society. The ways these relationships of forces are joined contribute to harmful implications to the mental health of professionals, favoring the increase in psychological suffering and it can lead to alcoholism, depression, and even suicide. Data from Medical Council of João Pessoa, (2003 to 2005, show an average of 489 military officers who retired from work on medical grounds. These are worrisome figures in an area of public service that is essential to the population. These figures would be higher if the leaves granted in the workplace were also included. Procedures for granting internal leaves occur in an attempt to mediate the possible long period of health treatment.

  10. High-performers use the phonological loop less to process mental arithmetic during working memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yuki; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three working memory components-the central executive, phonological loop, and visuospatial sketchpad-on performance differences in complex mental arithmetic between individuals. Using the dual-task method, we examined how performance during two-digit addition was affected by load on the central executive (random tapping condition), phonological loop (articulatory suppression condition), and visuospatial sketchpad (spatial tapping condition) compared to that under no load (control condition) in high- and low-performers of complex mental arithmetic in Experiment 1. Low-performers showed an increase in errors under the random tapping and articulatory suppression conditions, whereas high-performers showed an increase of errors only under the random tapping condition. In Experiment 2, we conducted similar experiments on only the high-performers but used a shorter presentation time of each number. We found the same pattern for performing complex mental arithmetic as seen in Experiment 1. These results indicate that high-performers might reduce their dependence on the phonological loop, because the central executive enables them to choose a strategy in which they use less working memory capacity.

  11. Job satisfaction among mental healthcare professionals: The respective contributions of professional characteristics, team attributes, team processes, and team emergent states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the respective contribution of professional characteristics, team attributes, team processes, and team emergent states on the job satisfaction of 315 mental health professionals from Quebec (Canada). Job satisfaction was measured with the Job Satisfaction Survey. Independent variables were organized into four categories according to a conceptual framework inspired from the Input-Mediator-Outcomes-Input Model. The contribution of each category of variables was assessed using hierarchical regression analysis. Variations in job satisfaction were mostly explained by team processes, with minimal contribution from the other three categories. Among the six variables significantly associated with job satisfaction in the final model, four were team processes: stronger team support, less team conflict, deeper involvement in the decision-making process, and more team collaboration. Job satisfaction was also associated with nursing and, marginally, male gender (professional characteristics) as well as with a stronger affective commitment toward the team (team emergent states). Results confirm the importance for health managers of offering adequate support to mental health professionals, and creating an environment favorable to collaboration and decision-sharing, and likely to reduce conflicts between team members.

  12. Job satisfaction among mental healthcare professionals: The respective contributions of professional characteristics, team attributes, team processes, and team emergent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the respective contribution of professional characteristics, team attributes, team processes, and team emergent states on the job satisfaction of 315 mental health professionals from Quebec (Canada). Methods: Job satisfaction was measured with the Job Satisfaction Survey. Independent variables were organized into four categories according to a conceptual framework inspired from the Input-Mediator-Outcomes-Input Model. The contribution of each category of variables was assessed using hierarchical regression analysis. Results: Variations in job satisfaction were mostly explained by team processes, with minimal contribution from the other three categories. Among the six variables significantly associated with job satisfaction in the final model, four were team processes: stronger team support, less team conflict, deeper involvement in the decision-making process, and more team collaboration. Job satisfaction was also associated with nursing and, marginally, male gender (professional characteristics) as well as with a stronger affective commitment toward the team (team emergent states). Discussion and Conclusion: Results confirm the importance for health managers of offering adequate support to mental health professionals, and creating an environment favorable to collaboration and decision-sharing, and likely to reduce conflicts between team members. PMID:29276591

  13. Selection of Procedures in Mental Subtraction: Use of Eye Movements as a Window on Arithmetic Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Matthew G; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

    2017-03-23

    Adults who use mental procedures other than direct retrieval to solve simple arithmetic problems typically make more errors and respond more slowly than individuals who rely on retrieval. The present study examined how this extra time was distributed across problem components when adults (n = 40) solved small (e.g., 5 - 2) and large (e.g., 17 - 9) subtraction problems. Two performance groups (i.e., retrievers and procedure users) were created based on a 2-group cluster analysis using statistics derived from the ex-Gaussian model of reaction time (RT) distributions (i.e., μ and τ) for both small and large problems. Cluster results differentiated individuals based on the frequency with which they used retrieval versus procedural strategies, supporting the view that differences in mu and tau reflected differences in choice of strategies used. Patterns of eye movements over time were also dramatically different across clusters, and provide strong support for the view that individuals were using different mental procedures to solve these problems. We conclude that eye-movement patterns can be used to distinguish fluent individuals who readily use retrieval from those who rely more on procedural strategies, even if traditional self-report methods are unavailable. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The impact of the asylum process on mental health: a longitudinal study of unaccompanied refugee minors in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Marianne; Meyer DeMott, Melinda Ashley; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Heir, Trond

    2017-06-21

    To examine the mental health of unaccompanied refugee minors prospectively during the asylum-seeking process, with a focus on specific stages in the asylum process, such as age assessment, placement in a supportive or non-supportive facility and final decision on the asylum applications. This was a2½ year follow-up study of unaccompanied minors (UM) seeking asylum in Norway. Data were collected within three weeks (n=138) and at 4 months (n=101), 15 months (n=84) and 26 months (n=69) after arrival. Initially in an observation and orientation centre for unaccompanied asylum-seeking adolescents, and subsequently wherever the UM were located in other refugee facilities in Norway. Male UM from Afghanistan, Somalia, Algeria and Iran. Mental health symptoms assessed by Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 and Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. At the group level, the young asylum seekers reported high levels of psychological distress on arrival and symptom levels that stayed relatively unchanged over time. According to age-assessment procedures, 56% of the population were not recognised as minors. Subsequent placement in a low-support facility was associated with higher levels of psychological distress in the follow-up period. Those who were placed in a reception centre for adults had higher levels of psychological distress symptoms both after 15 months and 26 months compared with the remaining participants who were placed in reception centres for youth. Refusal of asylum was highly associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Mental health trajectory of young asylum seekers appears to be negatively affected by low support and refusal of asylum. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Rapid progress or lengthy process? electronic personal health records in mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Mike

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A major objective of many healthcare providers is to increase patients' participation in their own care. The introduction of electronic personal health records (ePHRs may help to achieve this. An ePHR is an electronic database of an individual's health information, accessible to and maintained by the patient. ePHRs are very much in vogue, with an increasing number of studies reporting their potential utility as well as cost. However, the vast majority of these studies focus on general healthcare. Little attempt has been made to document the specific problems which might occur throughout the implementation of ePHRs in mental health. This review identifies such concerns through an electronic search of the literature. Several potential difficulties are highlighted and addressed, including access to information technology, identifying relevant populations and the handling of sensitive information. Special attention is paid to the concept of 'empowerment' and what this means in relation to ePHRs.

  16. Processo de trabalho em saúde mental e o campo psicossocial El proceso de trabajo en salud mental y el campo psicosocial Work process in mental health and the psycosocial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Aranha e Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de reflexão teórica sobre os determinantes e os elementos constitutivos do processo de trabalho da enfermagem no campo psiquiátrico e no campo psicossocial no contexto da Reforma Psiquiátrica brasileira. O objetivo é oferecer conteúdo teórico-conceitual para orientar a ação reflexiva de trabalhadores em saúde mental e, em particular, da enfermagem. A finalidade do artigo é preservar a memória da prática da enfermagem no campo psiquiátrico e promover sua necessária superação com vistas à construção do campo psicossocial, subsidiando o ensino nos diversos campos de saber em saúde.Se trata de una reflexión teórica acerca de los determinantes y elementos constitutivos del proceso de trabajo de enfermería en el campo psiquiátrico y psicosocial en el contexto de la Reforma Psiquiátrica brasileña. El objetivo es ofrecer subsidios teórico-conceptuales para orientar la acción reflexiva de enfermeros y demás trabajadores de la salud mental. Este articulo tiene como finalidades preservar la memoria de la práctica de enfermería en el campo psiquiátrico y promover la superación necesaria, con vistas a la construcción del campo psicosocial, ofreciendo subsidios para la enseñanza en los diversos campos del saber en salud.We present a theoretical reflection about determinants and constitutive elements of the nursing work process in the psychiatric and psychosocial areas, in the context of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform. The aim is to offer theoretical and conceptual guidance with a view to mental health workers' reflexive action, particularly in nursing. The purpose of this article is to preserve the memory of nursing practice in psychiatry and to go beyond, with a view to constructing the psychosocial area, supporting teaching in all fields of health knowledge.

  17. [Mental Space Navigation and Mental Time Travel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2017-11-01

    We examined patients with mental space navigation or mental time travel disorder to identify regions in the brain that may play a critical role in mental time travel in terms of clinical neuropsychology. These regions included the precneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, retrosplenial cortex, and hippocampus, as well as the orbitofrontal cortex: the anterior and posterior medial areas were both shown to be important in this process. Further studies are required to define whether these form a network for mental time travel.

  18. The mental health care model in Brazil: analyses of the funding, governance processes, and mechanisms of assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapé, Thiago Lavras; Campos, Rosana Onocko

    2017-03-23

    This study aims to analyze the current status of the mental health care model of the Brazilian Unified Health System, according to its funding, governance processes, and mechanisms of assessment. We have carried out a documentary analysis of the ordinances, technical reports, conference reports, normative resolutions, and decrees from 2009 to 2014. This is a time of consolidation of the psychosocial model, with expansion of the health care network and inversion of the funding for community services with a strong emphasis on the area of crack cocaine and other drugs. Mental health is an underfunded area within the chronically underfunded Brazilian Unified Health System. The governance model constrains the progress of essential services, which creates the need for the incorporation of a process of regionalization of the management. The mechanisms of assessment are not incorporated into the health policy in the bureaucratic field. There is a need to expand the global funding of the area of health, specifically mental health, which has been shown to be a successful policy. The current focus of the policy seems to be archaic in relation to the precepts of the psychosocial model. Mechanisms of assessment need to be expanded. Analisar o estágio atual do modelo de atenção à saúde mental do Sistema Único de Saúde, segundo seu financiamento, processos de governança e mecanismos de avaliação. Foi realizada uma análise documental de portarias, informes técnicos, relatórios de conferência, resoluções e decretos de 2009 a 2014. Trata-se de um momento de consolidação do modelo psicossocial, com ampliação da rede assistencial, inversão de financiamento para serviços comunitários com forte ênfase na área de crack e outras drogas. A saúde mental é uma área subfinanciada dentro do subfinanciamento crônico do Sistema Único de Saúde. O modelo de governança constrange o avanço de serviços essenciais, havendo a necessidade da incorporação de um

  19. Destructive Impacts of Corruption Processes on the Formation of Future Generations’ Mentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Vdovychenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the dangerous aspects of corruption impacts on the formation of future generations’ mentality. It is well­known that higher education institutions are the organizations that are not only foremost in research work in all the activities, but they also train the country’ future elite. Corruption in these institutions has a negative impact on the value, volume and quality of education services, reducing the level of the society’s trust, influencing the results of studies and their potential ef ect on the long­term social and economic development. It is necessary to highlight that this social disease is especially dangerous for the younger generation. The young often feel that corruption influences them since their adolescence and learn from this negative experience, then they bring it into their adult life, and this creates a vicious circle of problems. Therefore, nowadays it is necessary to resist the negative impact and socio­economic consequences of corruption concerning students. Not only is the professional training of young people getting worse, but also their way of thinking, moral precepts and attitude towards the world. It can cause total moral and spiritual degradation of the society in future.

  20. Partnership: The Missing Link in the Process of De-Institutionalization of Mental Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quah, Stella R

    2017-07-01

    This study discusses the main barriers to partnership between family and health services in the context of schizophrenia and de-institutionalization (reduction of the length of hospitalization whenever possible and returning the patient to the community) addressed to deal with the increasing costs and demand for health care services. Thus, in de-institutionalization the burden of care is not resolved but shared with the family, under the assumption that the patient has someone-a family caregiver-who can take up the responsibility of care at home. Despite the high burden of care faced by the family caregiver in mental illness, the necessary systematic partnership between the medical team and the family caregiver is missing. Subjects were 47 family caregivers of persons living with schizophrenia. Data were collected using in-depth interviews, structured questionnaires and attitudinal scales. Data analysis included factor analysis and odds ratios. Two types of barriers to partnership are identified in the literature: health services barriers and barriers attributed to the family. The findings confirm the health services barriers but reject the assumed family barriers.

  1. Using Nature-Based Rehabilitation to Restart a Stalled Process of Rehabilitation in Individuals with Stress-Related Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Sahlin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available After a period of decrease, sick leave in Sweden due to psychiatric diagnoses is on the increase. The lack of established rehabilitation programmes for patients with stress-related mental disorders (SRMD has opened up for the use of garden/nature in a multimodal rehabilitation context (Nature-Based Rehabilitation, NBR. Region Västra Götaland (VGR started an NBR to offer additional rehabilitation for its employees on long-term sick leave due to SRMD, where initial care had not been sufficient. The aim was to explore whether the mental health and well-being of NBR participants had improved at the end of the NBR and at three follow-ups, and to explore the development of sick leave and health care utilization according to the NBR model (n = 57 and an occupational health service (OHS model (n = 45. Self-assessment instruments for measuring burnout, depression, anxiety and wellbeing, and data from regional and national registers were used. Results showed decreased scores on burnout, depression and anxiety, and increased well-being scores and significantly reduced health care utilization in the NBR group. A large movement from ordinary sickness benefit to rehabilitation benefit was observed, which was not observed in the OHS group. The two groups were in different rehabilitation phases, which limited comparisons. The results point to beneficial effects of using NBR for this patient group and for enhancing a stalled rehabilitation process.

  2. Exposing the key functions of a complex intervention for shared care in mental health: case study of a process evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redfern Sally

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex interventions have components which can vary in different contexts. Using the Realistic Evaluation framework, this study investigates how a complex health services intervention led to developments in shared care for people with long-term mental illness. Methods A retrospective qualitative interview study was carried out alongside a randomised controlled trial. The multi-faceted intervention supported by facilitators aimed to develop systems for shared care. The study was set in London. Participants included 46 practitioners and managers from 12 participating primary health care teams and their associated community mental health teams. Interviews focussed on how and why out comes were achieved, and were analysed using a framework incorporating context and intervening mechanisms. Results Thirty-one interviews were completed to create 12 case studies. The enquiry highlighted the importance of the catalysing, doing and reviewing functions of the facilitation process. Other facets of the intervention were less dominant. The intervention catalysed the allocation of link workers and liaison arrangements in nearly all practices. Case discussions between link workers and GPs improved individual care as well as helping link workers become part of the primary care team; but sustained integration into the team depended both on flexibility and experience of the link worker, and upon selection of relevant patients for the case discussions. The doing function of facilitators included advice and, at times, manpower, to help introduce successful systems for reviewing care, however time spent developing IT systems was rarely productive. The reviewing function of the intervention was weak and sometimes failed to solve problems in the development of liaison or recall. Conclusion Case discussions and improved liaison at times of crisis, rather than for proactive recall, were the key functions of shared care contributing to the success of

  3. Proposal of math activities to develop the process of teaching-learning in schoolchildren with severe mental retard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Rosa Fernández-Carela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has as aim to devise a proposal of math activities that they guarantee to increase the development of knowledge, habits and skills that contribute to the development of teaching-learning process of Mathematics in the schoolchildren with severe mental retard. For that, it was selected a sample of schoolchild and teachers, equallythe methodological treatments, the systems of skills and the number of hour’s classes of the subject "Elementary Notions of Mathematics" were analyzed; andthey were conducted interviews to teachers and to the parents of schoolchildren. Analyzing these preliminary results it was elaborated 18 math activities, and they were subjected to valuation using empirical methods, that showed that they contribute to the development of the skills cognitive of the schoolchildren.

  4. 'We don't have to go and see a special person to solve this problem': Trauma, mental health beliefs and processes for addressing 'mental health issues' among Sudanese refugees in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Michael; Chur-Hansen, Anna; Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal; Moore, Vivienne M

    2016-02-01

    The impact of trauma on refugee mental health has been a particular focal point for research and treatment in Western contexts, despite uncertainty about the degree to which this corresponds with refugees' needs, mental health beliefs and healing mechanisms. This study explored the mental health beliefs of resettling Sudanese refugees in Australia. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with Sudanese community representatives and with a range of health and social work professionals who were not necessarily Sudanese. The concept of trauma was not universally considered to be salient for Sudanese refugees. Key informants, especially those in refugee-oriented services, emphasised stoicism and a desire to move forward and questioned the appropriateness of Western psychological therapies. Processes that exist within the family and the Sudanese community to deal with stressors like loss, grief and social isolation were explained. Dialogue between services and community members is needed to ensure responses to refugee mental health are sensitive to the diversity of needs and mental health beliefs of refugees. This will enable workers to ascertain how individual refugees understand their experiences of distress or sadness and to determine whether community strategies and/or professional responses are appropriate. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Enhancing Web-based mindfulness training for mental health promotion with the health action process approach: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Winnie W S; Chan, Amy T Y; Cheung, Eliza Y L; Lin, Cherry L Y; Ngai, Karin C S

    2015-01-19

    With increasing evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of Web-based interventions and mindfulness-based training in improving health, delivering mindfulness training online is an attractive proposition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two Internet-based interventions (basic mindfulness and Health Action Process Approach enhanced mindfulness) with waitlist control. Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) principles were used to enhance participants' efficacy and planning. Participants were recruited online and offline among local universities; 321 university students and staff were randomly assigned to three conditions. The basic and HAPA-enhanced groups completed the 8-week fully automated mindfulness training online. All participants (including control) were asked to complete an online questionnaire pre-program, post-program, and at 3-month follow-up. Significant group by time interaction effect was found. The HAPA-enhanced group showed significantly higher levels of mindfulness from pre-intervention to post-intervention, and such improvement was sustained at follow-up. Both the basic and HAPA-enhanced mindfulness groups showed better mental well-being from pre-intervention to post-intervention, and improvement was sustained at 3-month follow-up. Online mindfulness training can improve mental health. An online platform is a viable medium to implement and disseminate evidence-based interventions and is a highly scalable approach to reach the general public. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR): ChiCTR-TRC-12002954; http://www.chictr.org/en/proj/show.aspx?proj=3904 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6VCdG09pA).

  6. Cognitive Flexibility, Attention and Speed of Mental Processing in Opioid and Methamphetamine Addicts in Comparison with Non-Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Hekmat

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction: Many studies have revealed that drug addicted individuals exhibit impaired performance on executive function tests but a few studies have been conducted on executive functions of drug addicts in Iran. To contribute to this understanding, the present study was designed to assess some domains related to executive functions including cognitive flexibility, attention and speed of mental processing in a sample of drug addicts in comparison with a sample of non-drug addicts. Methods: 155 male addicts between 25 to 35 years of age were selected from outpatient addiction clinics in Karaj, Iran. This group consisted of 3 subgroups of opium (n=40, hydrochloride heroin (n=63, and methamphetamine (n=52 addicts. A control group was selected matching the drug addicts in gender, age, education and scio-economic status and included 130 healthy non-drug taking males. A battery of standardized executive function tests including the Color trail making test, Stroop color word test, and Symbol digit modalities test were administered. Data analysis was conducted by performing Co-variance (MANCOVA in SPSS.v.16.0. Results: The study findings indicated that the group of drug addicted subjects performed significantly worse compared with the controls on all executive measures. There were also significant differences among the 3 subgroups. The hydrochloride group had the worst performance compared the methamphetamine and opium groups respectively. Drug addicted subjects with longer duration of drug addiction were much worse on all measures in comparison with drug addicted subjects with shorter duration of drug addiction. Discussion: The study results confirmed that the functions of specific brain regions underlying cognitive flexibility, attention and speed of mental processing were significantly impaired in the group of drug addicted subjects. These impairments were also significantly related to type of drug used and duration of drug addiction that may

  7. Cognitive Flexibility, Attention and Speed of Mental Processing in Opioid and Methamphetamine Addicts in Comparison with Non-Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Hekmat

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many studies have revealed that drug addicted individuals exhibit impaired performance on executive function tests but a few studies have been conducted on executive functions of drug addicts in Iran. To contribute to this understanding, the present study was designed to assess some domains related to executive functions including cognitive flexibility, attention and speed of mental processing in a sample of drug addicts in comparison with a sample of non-drug addicts. Methods: 155 male addicts between 25 to 35 years of age were selected from outpatient addiction clinics in Karaj, Iran. This group consisted of 3 subgroups of opium (n=40, hydrochloride heroin (n=63, and methamphetamine (n=52 addicts. A control group was selected matching the drug addicts in gender, age, education and scio-economic status and included 130 healthy non-drug taking males. A battery of standardized executive function tests including the Color trail making test, Stroop color word test, and Symbol digit modalities test were administered. Data analysis was conducted by performing Co-variance (MANCOVA in SPSS.v.16.0. Results: The study findings indicated that the group of drug addicted subjects performed significantly worse compared with the controls on all executive measures. There were also significant differences among the 3 subgroups. The hydrochloride group had the worst performance compared the methamphetamine and opium groups respectively. Drug addicted subjects with longer duration of drug addiction were much worse on all measures in comparison with drug addicted subjects with shorter duration of drug addiction. Discussion: The study results confirmed that the functions of specific brain regions underlying cognitive flexibility, attention and speed of mental processing were significantly impaired in the group of drug addicted subjects. These impairments were also significantly related to type of drug used and duration of drug addiction that may

  8. A cluster randomised controlled trial and process evaluation of a training programme for mental health professionals to enhance user involvement in care planning in service users with severe mental health issues (EQUIP): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Peter; Roberts, Chris; O'Leary, Neil; Callaghan, Patrick; Bee, Penny; Fraser, Claire; Gibbons, Chris; Olleveant, Nicola; Rogers, Anne; Davies, Linda; Drake, Richard; Sanders, Caroline; Meade, Oonagh; Grundy, Andrew; Walker, Lauren; Cree, Lindsey; Berzins, Kathryn; Brooks, Helen; Beatty, Susan; Cahoon, Patrick; Rolfe, Anita; Lovell, Karina

    2015-08-13

    Involving service users in planning their care is at the centre of policy initiatives to improve mental health care quality in England. Whilst users value care planning and want to be more involved in their own care, there is substantial empirical evidence that the majority of users are not fully involved in the care planning process. Our aim is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of training for mental health professionals in improving user involvement with the care planning processes. This is a cluster randomised controlled trial of community mental health teams in NHS Trusts in England allocated either to a training intervention to improve user and carer involvement in care planning or control (no training and care planning as usual). We will evaluate the effectiveness of the training intervention using a mixed design, including a 'cluster cohort' sample, a 'cluster cross-sectional' sample and process evaluation. Service users will be recruited from the caseloads of care co-ordinators. The primary outcome will be change in self-reported involvement in care planning as measured by the validated Health Care Climate Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include involvement in care planning, satisfaction with services, medication side-effects, recovery and hope, mental health symptoms, alliance/engagement, well-being and quality of life. Cost- effectiveness will also be measured. A process evaluation informed by implementation theory will be undertaken to assess the extent to which the training was implemented and to gauge sustainability beyond the time-frame of the trial. It is hoped that the trial will generate data to inform mental health care policy and practice on care planning. ISRCTN16488358 (14 May 2014).

  9. Electronic outlining as a writing strategy: Effects on students' writing products, mental effort and writing process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Milou; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Leijten, Mariëlle; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    This study addresses to what extent and how electronic outlining enhances students' writing performance. To this end, the focus of this study is not only on students' final writing products but also on the organisation of the writing process (i.e., planning, translating, and reviewing) and perceived

  10. Counting on the mental number line to make a move: Sensorimotor ('pen') control and numerical processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheridan, R.; Rooijen, M. van; Giles, O.; Mushtaq, F.; Steenbergen, B.; Mon-Williams, M.; Waterman, A.H.

    2017-01-01

    Mathematics is often conducted with a writing implement. But is there a relationship between numerical processing and sensorimotor 'pen' control? We asked participants to move a stylus so it crossed an unmarked line at a location specified by a symbolic number (1-9), where number colour indicated

  11. Accessing the mental space - Spatial working memory processes for language and vision overlap in precuneus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Weed, Ethan; Østergaard, Leif

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The ‘‘overlapping systems'' theory of language function argues that linguistic meaning construction crucially relies on contextual information provided by ‘‘nonlinguistic'' cognitive systems, such as perception and memory. This study examines whether linguistic processing of spatial...... relations established by reading sentences call on the same posterior parietal neural system involved in processing spatial relations set up through visual input. Subjects read simple sentences, which presented two agents in relation to each other, and were subsequently asked to evaluate spatial (e......, strikingly overlapping a network previously shown to be involved in recall of spatial aspects of images depicting similar scenarios. This supports a neurocognitive model of language function, where sentences establish meaning by interacting with the perceptual and working memory networks of the brain....

  12. Accessing the mental space-Spatial working memory processes for language and vision overlap in precuneus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Weed, Ethan; Østergaard, Leif; Mouridsen, Kim; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2008-05-01

    The "overlapping systems" theory of language function argues that linguistic meaning construction crucially relies on contextual information provided by "nonlinguistic" cognitive systems, such as perception and memory. This study examines whether linguistic processing of spatial relations established by reading sentences call on the same posterior parietal neural system involved in processing spatial relations set up through visual input. Subjects read simple sentences, which presented two agents in relation to each other, and were subsequently asked to evaluate spatial (e.g., "Was he turned towards her?") and equally concrete nonspatial content (e.g., "Was he older than her?"). We found that recall of the spatial content relative to the nonspatial content resulted in higher BOLD response in a dorsoposterior network of brain regions, most significantly in precuneus, strikingly overlapping a network previously shown to be involved in recall of spatial aspects of images depicting similar scenarios. This supports a neurocognitive model of language function, where sentences establish meaning by interacting with the perceptual and working memory networks of the brain. (Copyright) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. The Impact of Modified Multi-Component Cognitive Strategy Instruction in the Acquisition of Metacognitive Strategy Knowledge in the Text Comprehension Process of Students with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay Bilgi, Arzu; Ozmen, E. Ruya

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of Modified Multi-component Cognitive Strategy Instruction on the metacognitive strategy knowledge used for the comprehension process of descriptive texts for students with mild mental retardation (MMR). Three students with MMR from inclusive classes participated in the study. The study was…

  14. Exploring Verbal, Visual and Schematic Learners' Static and Dynamic Mental Images of Scientific Species and Processes in Relation to Their Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Coll, Richard Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The current study compared different learners' static and dynamic mental images of unseen scientific species and processes in relation to their spatial ability. Learners were classified into verbal, visual and schematic. Dynamic images were classified into: appearing/disappearing, linear-movement, and rotation. Two types of scientific entities and…

  15. Modality-Dependent or Modality-Independent Processing in Mental Arithmetic: Evidence From Unimpaired Auditory Multiplication for a Patient With Left Frontotemporal Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dazhi; Wu, Haiyan; Yuan, Li; Xu, Rui; Chen, Qian; Zhou, Xinlin

    2017-09-01

    Mental arithmetic is essential to daily life. Researchers have explored the mechanisms that underlie mental arithmetic. Whether mental arithmetic fact retrieval is dependent on surface modality or knowledge format is still highly debated. Chinese individuals typically use a procedure strategy for addition; and they typically use a rote verbal strategy for multiplication. This provides a way to examine the effect of surface modality on different arithmetic operations. We used a series of neuropsychological tests (i.e., general cognitive, language processing, numerical processing, addition, and multiplication in visual and auditory conditions) for a patient who had experienced a left frontotemporal stroke. The patient had language production impairment; but preserved verbal processing concerning basic numerical abilities. Moreover, the patient had preserved multiplication in the auditory presentation rather than in the visual presentation. The patient suffered from impairments in an addition task, regardless of visual or auditory presentation. The findings suggest that mental multiplication could be characterized as a form of modality-dependent processing, which was accessed through auditory input. The learning strategy of multiplication table recitation could shape the verbal memory of multiplication leading to persistence of the auditory module. (JINS, 2017, 23, 692-699).

  16. Cognitive Processes that Account for Mental Addition Fluency Differences between Children Typically Achieving in Arithmetic and Children At-Risk for Failure in Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Derek H.; Hutchinson, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether processing speed, short-term memory, and working memory accounted for the differential mental addition fluency between children typically achieving in arithmetic (TA) and children at-risk for failure in arithmetic (AR). Further, we drew attention to fluency differences in simple (e.g., 5 + 3) and complex (e.g., 16 +…

  17. A Macro-Level Analysis of SRL Processes and Their Relations to the Acquisition of a Sophisticated Mental Model of a Complex System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jeffrey Alan; Azevedo, Roger

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we used think-aloud verbal protocols to examine how various macro-level processes of self-regulated learning (SRL; e.g., planning, monitoring, strategy use, handling of task difficulty and demands) were associated with the acquisition of a sophisticated mental model of a complex biological system. Numerous studies examine how…

  18. Mental disorders in asylum seekers: the role of the refugee determination process and employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Debbie C; Kennedy, Gerard A; Sundram, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    The refugee determination process (RDP) and social factors putatively impact on the psychiatric morbidity of adult asylum seekers (ASs) living in the community. Clinical and sociodemographic data relevant to AS experience in the RDP were collected using self-report measures to assess posttraumatic stress (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-Revised) and depressive and anxiety symptoms (25-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist), and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview 6.0 psychiatric interview was used to establish a cutoff for caseness. The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was 61% and 52%, respectively. Unemployment and greater numbers of both potentially traumatic events and RDP rejections were predictors of symptom severity. Unemployed ASs were more than twice as likely to have MDD (odds ratio, 2.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11- 6.13; p = 0.03), and ASs with at least one RDP rejection were 1.35 times more likely to develop PTSD for each additional rejection (95% CI, 1.00-1.84; p = 0.05). Reducing the asylum claim rejection rate and granting work rights are likely to reduce the rate of PTSD and MDD in community-based ASs.

  19. Optimizing the Presentation of Mental Health Information in Social Media: The Effects of Health Testimonials and Platform on Source Perceptions, Message Processing, and Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero Johnson, Jessie M; Yilmaz, Gamze; Najarian, Kristy

    2017-09-01

    Using social media for the purpose of disseminating mental health information is a critical area of scientific inquiry for health communication professionals. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the presence of a first-person testimonial in educational mental health information placed in Facebook and Twitter messages influenced college students' (N = 257) source perceptions, information processing, cognitive elaboration, health information recall, beliefs, and behavioral intentions. Results show that exposure to social media messages that featured mental health information embedded with a testimonial predicted less source homophily and more critical thoughts about the social media source, less systematic message processing, and less cognitive elaboration. Health information recall was significantly impacted by both the social media platform and message content such that participants in the testimonial condition on Facebook were more likely to recall the health facts in those messages whereas participants who viewed the testimonial in Twitter were less likely to recall the facts in those tweets. Compared to those who read Facebook messages, participants who read Twitter messages reported higher levels of systematic message processing. These findings suggest that the integration of health testimonials into social media messages might inadvertently provoke psychological resistance to mental health information, thereby reducing the persuasive impact of those messages.

  20. The adequacy of the ethics review process in Malaysia: protection of the interests of mentally incapacitated adults who enrol in clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, S.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to answer the question, “does the ethics committee review process in Malaysia provide meaningful protection to mentally incapacitated adults who enrol in clinical research trials?” This question is answered by examining three important aspects of the ethics review process. First, the quality of the deliberations of ethics committees is examined by looking at the underlying principles that are meant to guide ethics decision-making. Second, the ...

  1. Use of a structured functional evaluation process for independent medical evaluations of claimants presenting with disabling mental illness: rationale and design for a multi-center reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Monica; de Boer, Wout; Schandelmaier, Stefan; Leibold, Andrea; Marelli, Renato; Jeger, Joerg; Hoffmann-Richter, Ulrike; Mager, Ralph; Schaad, Heinz; Zumbrunn, Thomas; Vogel, Nicole; Bänziger, Oskar; Busse, Jason W; Fischer, Katrin; Kunz, Regina

    2016-07-29

    Work capacity evaluations by independent medical experts are widely used to inform insurers whether injured or ill workers are capable of engaging in competitive employment. In many countries, evaluation processes lack a clearly structured approach, standardized instruments, and an explicit focus on claimants' functional abilities. Evaluation of subjective complaints, such as mental illness, present additional challenges in the determination of work capacity. We have therefore developed a process for functional evaluation of claimants with mental disorders which complements usual psychiatric evaluation. Here we report the design of a study to measure the reliability of our approach in determining work capacity among patients with mental illness applying for disability benefits. We will conduct a multi-center reliability study, in which 20 psychiatrists trained in our functional evaluation process will assess 30 claimants presenting with mental illness for eligibility to receive disability benefits [Reliability of Functional Evaluation in Psychiatry, RELY-study]. The functional evaluation process entails a five-step structured interview and a reporting instrument (Instrument of Functional Assessment in Psychiatry [IFAP]) to document the severity of work-related functional limitations. We will videotape all evaluations which will be viewed by three psychiatrists who will independently rate claimants' functional limitations. Our primary outcome measure is the evaluation of claimant's work capacity as a percentage (0 to 100 %), and our secondary outcomes are the 12 mental functions and 13 functional capacities assessed by the IFAP-instrument. Inter-rater reliability of four psychiatric experts will be explored using multilevel models to estimate the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Additional analyses include subgroups according to mental disorder, the typicality of claimants, and claimant perceived fairness of the assessment process. We hypothesize that a

  2. Teacher-student co-construction processes in biology: Strategies for developing mental models in large group discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez Oviedo, Maria Cecilia

    The aim of this study was to describe co-construction processes in large group discussions. Co-construction, as used here, is a process by which the teacher and the students work together to construct and evaluate mental models of a target concept. Data were collected for an in-depth case study of a single teacher instructing middle school students with an innovative curriculum on human respiration. Data came from transcripts of video taped lessons, drawings, and pre- and post-test scores. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted. In the quantitative analysis, differences in gains between one and two standard deviations in size were found between the pre- and post-test scores indicating that the students increased their understanding about human respiration. In the qualitative analysis, a generative exploratory method followed by a convergent coded method was conducted to examine teacher-student interaction patterns. The aim of this part was to determine how learning occurred by attempting to connect dialogue patterns with underlying cognitive processes. The main outcome of the study is a hypothesized model containing four layers of nested teaching strategies. Listed from large to small time scales these are: the Macro Cycle, the Co-construction Modes, the Micro Cycle, and the Teaching Tactics. The most intensive analysis focused on identifying and articulating the Co-construction Modes---Accretion Mode, Disconfirmation Mode, Modification Mode, Evolution Mode, and Competition Mode---and their relations to the other levels of the model. These modes can either describe the construction and evaluation of individual model elements or of entire models giving a total of ten modes. The frequency of these co-construction modes was then determined by coding, twenty-six hours of transcripts. The most frequent modes were the Accretion Mode and the Disconfirmation Mode. The teacher's and the students' contributions to the co-construction process were also examined

  3. Challenges to Effective Primary Care-Specialty Communication and Coordination in the Mental Health Referral and Care Process for Publicly Insured Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras-Javier, Lorena; Bromley, Elizabeth; Lopez, Maria; Coker, Tumaini R

    2018-03-26

    Publicly insured children needing referral to mental health (MH) services often do not access or receive services. The objective of this study was to identify gaps in communication and coordination between primary care providers (PCPs) and MH providers during the MH referral and care process for publicly insured children. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 PCPs and staff from a federally qualified health center (FQHC) and 6 MH providers and staff from two local MH clinics. Interview participants identified multiple gaps in communication throughout the care process and different phases as priorities for improvement. PCPs described primary care-MH communication challenges during early phases, while MH providers described coordination challenges in transferring patients back to primary care for ongoing mental health management. Strategies are needed to improve primary care-specialty MH communication and coordination throughout all phases of the referral and care process, particularly at initial referral and transfer back to primary care.

  4. People, processes, and systems: An observational study of the role of technology in rural youth mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, Simone; Lawn, Sharon; Matthews, Ben; Venning, Anthony; Jones, Gabrielle; Winsall, Megan; Antezana, Gaston; Bidargaddi, Niranjan; Musiat, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The merits of technology-based mental health service reform have been widely debated among academics, practitioners, and policy makers. The design of new technologies must first be predicated on a detailed appreciation of how the mental health system works before it can be improved or changed through the introduction of new products and services. Further work is required to better understand the nature of face-to-face mental health work and to translate this knowledge to computer scientists and system designers responsible for creating technology-based solutions. Intensive observation of day-to-day work within two rural youth mental health services in South Australia, Australia, was undertaken to understand how technology could be designed and implemented to enhance young people's engagement with services and improve their experience of help seeking. Data were analysed through a lens of complexity theory. Results highlight the variety of professional roles and services that can comprise the mental health system. The level of interconnectedness evident in the system contrasted with high levels of service self-organization and disjointed information flow. A mental health professional's work was guided by two main constructs: risk and engagement. Most clients presented with a profile of disability, disadvantage, and isolation, so complex client presentations and decision-making were core practices. Clients (and frequently, their families) engaged with services in a crisis-dependent manner, characterized by multiple disengagements and re-engagements over time. While significant opportunities exist to integrate technology into existing youth mental health services, technologies for this space must be usable for a broad range of medical, psychological and cognitive disability, social disadvantage, and accommodate repeat cycles of engagement/disengagement over time. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  5. Quality indicators for the referral process from primary to specialised mental health care: an explorative study in accordance with the RAND appropriateness method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartveit, Miriam; Vanhaecht, Kris; Thorsen, Olav; Biringer, Eva; Haug, Kjell; Aslaksen, Aslak

    2017-01-03

    Communication between involved parties is essential to ensure coordinated and safe health care delivery. However, existing literature reveals that the information relayed in the referral process is seen as insufficient by the receivers. It is unknown how this insufficiency affects the quality of care, and valid performance measures to explore it are lacking. The aim of the present study was to develop quality indicators to detect the impact that the quality of referral letters from primary care to specialised mental health care has on the quality of mental health services. Using a modified version of the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method, a systematic literature review and focus group interviews were conducted to define quality indicators for mental health care expected to be affected by the quality of referral information. Focus group participants included psychiatrists, psychologists, general practitioners, patient representatives and managers. The existing evidence and suggested indicators were presented to expert panels, who assessed the indicators by their validity, reliability, sensitivity and feasibility. Sixteen preliminary indicators emerged during the focus group interviews and literature review. The expert panels recommended four of the 16 indicators. The recommended indicators measure a) timely access, b) delay in the process of assessing the referral, c) delay in the onset of care and d) the appropriateness of the referral. Adjustment was necessary for five other indicators, and seven indicators were rejected because of expected confounding factors reducing their validity and sensitivity. The quality of information relayed in the referral process from primary care to specialised mental health care is expected to affect a wide range of dimensions defining high quality care. The expected importance of the referral process for ensuring 'timely access'-one of the six aims of high-quality health care defined by the Institute of Medicine-is highlighted

  6. Computer-Assisted Face Processing Instruction Improves Emotion Recognition, Mentalizing, and Social Skills in Students with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Linda Marie; Wall, Carla Anne; Fogel, Adam; Shic, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a computer-based social skills intervention called "FaceSay"™ was associated with improvements in affect recognition, mentalizing, and social skills of school-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). "FaceSay"™ offers students simulated practice with eye gaze, joint attention,…

  7. Retardo mental Mental retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio M. Vasconcelos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esta revisão aborda as recentes descobertas da neurobiologia do retardo mental, enfatizando os novos recursos da citogenética, das técnicas moleculares e da neurorradiologia para esclarecer o diagnóstico. FONTES DE DADOS: O autor pesquisou o banco de dados MEDLINE da National Library of Medicine utilizando as palavras-chave "mental retardation", "developmental disability", "child" e "adolescent" em diferentes combinações, abrangendo o período de janeiro de 2000 a outubro de 2003. Também foram utilizados os bancos de dados das revistas científicas Pediatrics e New England Journal of Medicine através da palavra-chave "mental retardation". No total, o autor consultou cerca de 1.500 títulos de artigos e 500 resumos, e teve acesso direto a 150 artigos completos pertinentes. Quando oportuno, algumas referências dos artigos consultados também foram consideradas. O site Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man foi utilizado como fonte de informações em genética clínica. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Em outubro de 2003, o total de síndromes genéticas associadas a retardo mental chegou a 1.149. Considerando-se o conjunto das causas genéticas ou ambientais e congênitas ou adquiridas de retardo mental, a avaliação diagnóstica atual é capaz de esclarecer a etiologia em 50 a 70% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: O autor sugere uma avaliação diagnóstica do retardo mental em etapas lógicas, visando ao uso racional dos dispendiosos recursos da citogenética, biologia molecular e neuroimagem.OBJECTIVE: This paper describes recent advances in the neurobiology of mental retardation, emphasizing new diagnostic resources provided by cytogenetics, molecular testing, and neuroimaging. SOURCES OF DATA: MEDLINE (January 2000 through October 2003, using the following key words: mental retardation, developmental disability, child, and adolescent. Search of the Pediatrics and New England Journal of Medicine websites using the key word mental retardation. The

  8. Exploring Verbal, Visual and Schematic Learners' Static and Dynamic Mental Images of Scientific Species and Processes in Relation to Their Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Coll, Richard Kevin

    2013-02-01

    The current study compared different learners' static and dynamic mental images of unseen scientific species and processes in relation to their spatial ability. Learners were classified into verbal, visual and schematic. Dynamic images were classified into: appearing/disappearing, linear-movement, and rotation. Two types of scientific entities and their related processes were investigated: astronomical and microscopic. The sample included 79 female students from Grades 9 and 10. For the purpose of the study, three instruments were used. The Mental Images by Guided Imagery instrument was designed to investigate participants' visualization of static and dynamic mental images. The Water-Level Task was adopted to estimate participants' spatial ability. The Learning Styles Inventory was used to classify participants into verbal, visual and schematic learners. The research findings suggest that schematic learners outperformed verbal and visual learners in their spatial ability. They also outperformed them in their vividness of microscopic images; both micro-static and micro-dynamic images; especially in the case of appearing/disappearing images. The differences were not significant in the case of astronomical images. The results also indicate that appearing/disappearing images received the least vividness scores for all three types of learners.

  9. Processo de trabalho em saúde mental e o campo psicossocial El proceso de trabajo en salud mental y el campo psicosocial Work process in mental health and the psycosocial area

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Luisa Aranha e Silva; Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa da Fonseca

    2005-01-01

    Trata-se de reflexão teórica sobre os determinantes e os elementos constitutivos do processo de trabalho da enfermagem no campo psiquiátrico e no campo psicossocial no contexto da Reforma Psiquiátrica brasileira. O objetivo é oferecer conteúdo teórico-conceitual para orientar a ação reflexiva de trabalhadores em saúde mental e, em particular, da enfermagem. A finalidade do artigo é preservar a memória da prática da enfermagem no campo psiquiátrico e promover sua necessária superação com vista...

  10. Implementation of internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy within community mental health clinics: a process evaluation using the consolidated framework for implementation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjistavropoulos, H D; Nugent, M M; Dirkse, D; Pugh, N

    2017-09-12

    Depression and anxiety are prevalent and under treated conditions that create enormous burden for the patient and the health system. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) improves patient access to treatment by providing therapeutic information via the Internet, presented in sequential lessons, accompanied by brief weekly therapist support. While there is growing research supporting ICBT, use of ICBT within community mental health clinics is limited. In a recent trial, an external unit specializing in ICBT facilitated use of ICBT in community mental health clinics in one Canadian province (ISRCTN42729166; registered November 5, 2013). Patient outcomes were very promising and uptake was encouraging. This paper reports on a parallel process evaluation designed to understand facilitators and barriers impacting the uptake and implementation of ICBT. Therapists (n = 22) and managers (n = 11) from seven community mental health clinics dispersed across one Canadian province who were involved in implementing ICBT over ~2 years completed an online survey (including open and closed-ended questions) about ICBT experiences. The questions were based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), which outlines diverse constructs that have the potential to impact program implementation. Analyses suggested ICBT implementation was perceived to be most prominently facilitated by intervention characteristics (namely the relative advantages of ICBT compared to face-to-face therapy, the quality of the ICBT program that was delivered, and evidence supporting ICBT) and implementation processes (namely the use of an external facilitation unit that aided with engaging patients, therapists, and managers and ICBT implementation). The inner setting was identified as the most significant barrier to implementation as a result of limited resources for ICBT combined with greater priority given to face-to-face care. The results contribute to understanding

  11. Effects of yoga on patients in an adolescent mental health hospital and the relationship between those effects and the patients' sensory-processing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Pamela; McConnell, John W; Reidinger, Gloria; Schweit, Ronnie; Hendron, Angela

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of yoga as a sensory regulation tool in reducing adolescent distress in an acute care psychiatric hospital. This was a descriptive, correlational pre-intervention/post-intervention design conducted in a mental health hospital over 5 months from mid-January to mid-June 2012. The population consisted of a convenience sample of 75 adolescent mental health unit inpatients and partial-hospitalization patients 12-18 years of age who participated in two or more yoga sessions. Patient charts provided Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV Axes I-V diagnosis, gender, and age. Dependent variables were pulse and Subjective Units of Disturbance Scale scores, which were recorded before and after each yoga class. The Adult/Adolescent Sensory Profile provided a measure of patient sensory-processing preference levels that were related to the pulse and Subjective Units of Disturbance Scale results. Yoga sessions significantly improved patient pulse and self-reported distress ratings regardless of gender or sensory profile levels. This article contributes to research on the therapeutic effects of yoga as a sensory regulation intervention in the treatment of psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Yoga has the potential to help adolescents in an acute care psychiatric hospital learn to soothe themselves, to regulate their emotions, and to find relief from emotional distress while hospitalized. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effects of minority stress processes on the mental health of Latino men who have sex with men and women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W; Padilla, Mark B; Willner, Lauren; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    Emerging literature on minority stress among sexual minority populations has described the negative consequences that multiple minority statuses may exert on mental health and well-being. This literature has tended to focus on individuals whose self-identifications reflect sexual minority sexual categories, such as gay or bisexual, and has explored the intersection of these definitions with ethnic, racial, and class statuses. Few such studies have explored mental health among men who actively deny a sexual minority sexual identity label while engaging in same-sex sexual behaviors. The present study used ethnographic interview data from 20 non-gay-identified bisexually behaving Dominican and Puerto Rican men in New York City. Participants described discovery of same sex sexual behavior as a threat to their intimate relationships, community affiliation, and counter to expectations of Latino masculinity. Recounting a wide range of information management strategies used to avoid open disclosure about their sexual lives, participants experienced the potential consequences of disclosure as extreme and even life threatening. Men anticipated social isolation, depression, self-injury, and suicidality as possible outcomes from disclosing sexual behavior with other men to their female romantic partners. This analysis provides direction for future research on minority stress processes and mental health service delivery among Latino men who have sex with men and women.

  13. Diffusion of innovation in mental health policy adoption: what should we ask about the quality of policy and the role of stakeholders in this process? Comment on "Cross-national diffusion of mental health policy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lucy

    2015-03-10

    In his recent study, Gordon Shen analyses a pertinent question facing the global mental health research and practice community today; that of how and why mental health policy is or is not adopted by national governments. This study identifies becoming a World Health Organization (WHO) member nation, and being in regional proximity to countries which have adopted a mental health policy as supportive of mental health policy adoption, but no support for its hypothesis that country recipients of higher levels of aid would have adopted a mental health policy due to conditionalities imposed on aid recipients by donors. Asking further questions of each may help to understand more not only about how and why mental health policies may be adopted, but also about the relevance and quality of implementation of these policies and the role of specific actors in achieving adoption and implementation of high quality mental health policies. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  14. Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play ...

  15. Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  16. Mapa Mental

    OpenAIRE

    do Couto, Hildo Honório

    2017-01-01

    O objetivo principal deste artigo é mostrar que no interior do ecossistema mental da língua, e do nosso ecossistema cognitivo geral, existe uma parte que se pode chamar de mapa mental, intimamente associado ao mapa cognitivo. Após caracterizar o conceito de mapa mental e de associá-lo a conceitos assemelhados, comento o mapa mental que eu tinha de Brasília, por ter vivido lá por mais de 30 anos. Como me mudei para Goiânia, comecei a perder partes do mapa mental de Brasília. Por outro lado, es...

  17. Mentalization based treatment for borderline personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    BATEMAN, ANTHONY; FONAGY, PETER

    2010-01-01

    Mentalizing is the process by which we make sense of each other and ourselves, implicitly and explicitly, in terms of subjective states and mental processes. It is a profoundly social construct in the sense that we are attentive to the mental states of those we are with, physically or psychologically. Given the generality of this definition, most mental disorders will inevitably involve some difficulties with mentalization, but it is the application of the concept to the tre...

  18. Os nexos entre concepção do processo saúde/doença mental e as tecnologias de cuidados Los nexos entre la concepción del proceso salud/enfermedad mental y las tecnologías de cuidado Connections between health/mental illness process comprehension and care technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Aranha e Silva

    2003-12-01

    proposes a connection between health/mental illness process comprehension and treatments, referring to the historical contexts in which they were/are registered and searches for the meaning of practices and their current social meaning.

  19. Development of Mental Health Indicators in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Objective Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organizations, countries, and regions: WHO, OECD, EU, United States, Australia, UK, and Scotland. Using Delphi method, we conducted two surveys of mental health indicators for experts in the field of mental health. The survey questionnaire included 5 domains: mental health status, mental health factor, mental health system, mental health service, and quality of mental health services. We considered 124 potential mental health indicators out of more than 600 from indicators of international organizations and foreign countries. Results We obtained the top 30 mental health indicators from the surveys. Among them, 10 indicators belong to the mental health system. The most important five mental health indicators are suicide rate, rate of increase in mental disorder treatment, burden caused by mental disorders, adequacy of identifying problems of mental health projects and deriving solutions, and annual prevalence of mental disorders. Conclusion Our study provides information about the process for indicator development and the use of survey results to measure the mental health status of the Korean population. The aim of mental health indicator development is to improve the mental health system by better grasping the current situation. We suggest these mental health indicators can monitor progress in efforts to implement reform policies, provide community services, and involve users, families and other stakeholders in mental health promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation. PMID:23251193

  20. Evaluating process and clinical outcomes of a primary care mental health integration project in rural Rwanda: a prospective mixed-methods protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie L; Misago, Claire Nancy; Osrow, Robyn A; Franke, Molly F; Iyamuremye, Jean Damascene; Dusabeyezu, Jeanne D'Arc; Mohand, Achour A; Anatole, Manzi; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Raviola, Giuseppe J

    2017-02-28

    Integrating mental healthcare into primary care can reduce the global burden of mental disorders. Yet data on the effective implementation of real-world task-shared mental health programmes are limited. In 2012, the Rwandan Ministry of Health and the international healthcare organisation Partners in Health collaboratively adapted the Mentoring and Enhanced Supervision at Health Centers (MESH) programme, a successful programme of supported supervision based on task-sharing for HIV/AIDS care, to include care of neuropsychiatric disorders within primary care settings (MESH Mental Health). We propose 1 of the first studies in a rural low-income country to assess the implementation and clinical outcomes of a programme integrating neuropsychiatric care into a public primary care system. A mixed-methods evaluation will be conducted. First, we will conduct a quantitative outcomes evaluation using a pretest and post-test design at 4 purposively selected MESH MH participating health centres. At least 112 consecutive adults with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression or epilepsy will be enrolled. Primary outcomes are symptoms and functioning measured at baseline, 8 weeks and 6 months using clinician-administered scales: the General Health Questionnaire and the brief WHO Disability Assessment Scale. We hypothesise that service users will experience at least a 25% improvement in symptoms and functioning from baseline after MESH MH programme participation. To understand any outcome improvements under the intervention, we will evaluate programme processes using (1) quantitative analyses of routine service utilisation data and supervision checklist data and (2) qualitative semistructured interviews with primary care nurses, service users and family members. This evaluation was approved by the Rwanda National Ethics Committee (Protocol #736/RNEC/2016) and deemed exempt by the Harvard University Institutional Review Board. Results will be submitted for peer-reviewed journal

  1. Exploring drivers and challenges in implementation of health promotion in community mental health services: a qualitative multi-site case study using Normalization Process Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burau, Viola; Carstensen, Kathrine; Fredens, Mia; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm

    2018-01-24

    There is an increased interest in improving the physical health of people with mental illness. Little is known about implementing health promotion interventions in adult mental health organisations where many users also have physical health problems. The literature suggests that contextual factors are important for implementation in community settings. This study focused on the change process and analysed the implementation of a structural health promotion intervention in community mental health organisations in different contexts in Denmark. The study was based on a qualitative multiple-case design and included two municipal and two regional provider organisations. Data were various written sources and 13 semi-structured interviews with 22 key managers and frontline staff. The analysis was organised around the four main constructs of Normalization Process Theory: Coherence, Cognitive Participation, Collective Action, and Reflexive Monitoring. Coherence: Most respondents found the intervention to be meaningful in that the intervention fitted well into existing goals, practices and treatment approaches. Cognitive Participation: Management engagement varied across providers and low engagement impeded implementation. Engaging all staff was a general problem although some of the initial resistance was apparently overcome. Collective Action: Daily enactment depended on staff being attentive and flexible enough to manage the complex needs and varying capacities of users. Reflexive Monitoring: During implementation, staff evaluations of the progress and impact of the intervention were mostly informal and ad hoc and staff used these to make on-going adjustments to activities. Overall, characteristics of context common to all providers (work force and user groups) seemed to be more important for implementation than differences in the external political-administrative context. In terms of research, future studies should adopt a more bottom-up, grounded description of context

  2. Mental structures and hierarchical brain processing. Comment on “Toward a computational framework for cognitive biology: Unifying approaches from cognitive neuroscience and comparative cognition” by W. Tecumseh Fitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, C. I.

    2014-09-01

    Fitch proposes an appealing hypothesis that humans are dendrophiles, who constantly build mental trees supported by analogous hierarchical brain processes [1]. Moreover, it is argued that, by comparison, nonhuman animals build flat or more compact behaviorally-relevant structures. Should we thus expect less impressive hierarchical brain processes in other animals? Not necessarily.

  3. Information Seeking Behavior & Information Resources Management:Mental Process Selecting Subjects & Identifying Information Needs Case study: Graduate Students in Women seminaries of Shiraz of Academic year 1393- 1394(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Eftekhar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is Information Resources Management: Mental Process Selecting Subjects &  Identifying Information Needs. The research method used in this study is a Quantitative method. Sampling is purposeful. This means that it includes graduate Students in Women seminaries of Shiraz who have information-seeking experience and are able to express their views and information needs. The sample was selected according to the random sampling method with Cochran formula from 710 students. According to this sampling method there is 241 Graduate Students included in 1392-1393 seminaries year of  Women seminaries of Shiraz. This is a survey research Which has been carried out by employing a questionnaire and SPSS for windows to analyze data. The results showed that students for selecting subjects,  identifying information needs used methods and media such as Prying Mind, reviewing of information resources, Consulting with subject specialists.

  4. Component Processes of Executive Function-Mindfulness, Self-control, and Working Memory-and Their Relationships with Mental and Behavioral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David S; Semple, Randye J; Pokhrel, Pallav; Grenard, Jerry L

    2011-09-01

    We examined the interrelationships between higher-order cognitive functions-mindfulness, self-control, and working memory-that appear to be component processes that underlie executive function (EF) and their association with indicators of mental and behavioral health. Data were collected from first-year medical students attending a large private university in California (N=31) via a computer-based questionnaire which was administered via email hyperlink. Results indicate that self-control schedule (SCS) scores were significantly correlated with the negative dimension of positive and negative affect schedule scores (r=-0.59, pattention awareness scale (MAAS) scores (r=0.35, p≤0.10). The planful behavior dimension of the SCS was correlated with MAAS scores (r=0.38, pspan task scores (r=0.51, p<0.05), and total SCS scores (r=0.72, p<0.01). Large and significant inverse correlations were found between current meditation practice and alcohol use (r=-0.56, p<0.05) and AUDIT scores (r=-0.48, p<0.05). Findings from this pilot study suggest that an overlap exists between some component processes of EF; however, the majority of variance in the components is not shared. Moreover, these higher-order cognitive processes appear to have protective relationships with substance use and are positively associated with self-reported meditation practice.

  5. Mindfulness and mental toughness among provincial adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , scant attention has been paid to the psychological processes that underpin mental toughness. Objectives: To explore the relationship between mindfulness and mental toughness among provincial adolescent female hockey players.

  6. Mentalizing animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Ethicists have tended to treat the psychology of attributing mental states to animals as an entirely separate issue from the moral importance of animals’ mental states. In this paper I bring these two issues together. I argue for two theses, one descriptive and one normative. The descriptive thesis...... holds that ordinary human agents use what are generally called phenomenal mental states (e.g., pain and other emotions) to assign moral considerability to animals. I examine recent empirical research on the attribution of phenomenal states and agential states (e.g., memory and intelligence) to argue...... that phenomenal mental states are the primary factor, psychologically, for judging an animal to be morally considerable. I further argue that, given the role of phenomenal states in assigning moral considerability, certain theories in animal ethics will meet significant psychological resistance. The normative...

  7. Human pursuance of equality hinges on mental processes of projecting oneself into the perspectives of others and into future situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takesue, Hirofumi; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Sakaiya, Shiro; Fan, Hongwei; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Kato, Junko

    2017-07-19

    In the pursuance of equality, behavioural scientists disagree about distinct motivators, that is, consideration of others and prospective calculation for oneself. However, accumulating data suggest that these motivators may share a common process in the brain whereby perspectives and events that did not arise in the immediate environment are conceived. To examine this, we devised a game imitating a real decision-making situation regarding redistribution among income classes in a welfare state. The neural correlates of redistributive decisions were examined under contrasting conditions, with and without uncertainty, which affects support for equality in society. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the caudate nucleus were activated by equality decisions with uncertainty but by selfless decisions without uncertainty. Activation was also correlated with subjective values. Activation in both the dACC and the caudate nucleus was associated with the attitude to prefer accordance with others, whereas activation in the caudate nucleus reflected that the expected reward involved the prospective calculation of relative income. The neural correlates suggest that consideration of others and prospective calculation for oneself may underlie the support for equality. Projecting oneself into the perspective of others and into prospective future situations may underpin the pursuance of equality.

  8. Trabalho e higiene mental: processo de produção discursiva do campo no Brasil Labor and mental hygiene: the process of discourse production in this field in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Teixeira de Carvalho

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a produção discursiva da psiquiatria higienista brasileira — cujo objeto são as relações entre psiquismo e trabalho humano —, nas décadas de 1920 e 1930. Denominamos de trabalho e higiene mental (THM o campo (Bourdieu, 1989 de saber e de práticas resultante da interseção desses dois registros. Com base na associação de elementos da "arqueologia do saber" e da "genealogia do poder", de Foucault, e usando os Archivos Brasileiros de Hygiene Mental (ABHM, analisamos os discursos referentes às relações entre trabalho e higiene mental produzidos pela Liga Brasileira de Hygiene Mental (LBHM, buscando apontar suas condições histórico-políticas, seus referentes conceituais básicos — incluindo-se aí as dimensões do objeto, do enunciado e da teorização — e seus objetivos quanto à formação e organização da força de trabalho industrial.This investigation of discourse production in Brazil’s field of hygienic psychiatry between the years of 1925 and 1934 explores the relations between psychism and human labor, endeavoring to more precisely define the field’s boundaries. We have chosen to designate the knowledge and practices which result from the intersection of these two areas as Labor and mental hygiene. My analytical procedure associated elements of Foucault’s "archeology of knowledge" and "genealogy of power" (Foucault, 1995; 1990; 1987, while the Brazilian Mental Hygiene Archives served as the research source. The latter documents subsidized analysis of the Brazilian Mental Hygiene League’s discourses on relations between labor and mental hygiene. Each one of the texts was analyzed with regard to the dimensions of object, concept, enunciation and theory. The study also explores how the authors and agents of this discourse viewed the social reproduction of the industrial labor force and the status quo.

  9. Mental models of the operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stary, I.

    2004-01-01

    A brief explanation is presented of the mental model concept, properties of mental models and fundamentals of mental models theory. Possible applications of such models in nuclear power plants are described in more detail. They include training of power plant operators, research into their behaviour and design of the operator-control process interface. The design of a mental model of an operator working in abnormal conditions due to power plant malfunction is outlined as an example taken from the literature. The model has been created based on analysis of experiments performed on a nuclear power plant simulator, run by a training center. (author)

  10. Novel Use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) to Predict Suicidal Ideation and Psychiatric Symptoms in a Text-Based Mental Health Intervention in Madrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progovac, Ana M.; Chen, Pei; Mullin, Brian; Hou, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning were used to predict suicidal ideation and heightened psychiatric symptoms among adults recently discharged from psychiatric inpatient or emergency room settings in Madrid, Spain. Participants responded to structured mental and physical health instruments at multiple follow-up points. Outcome variables of interest were suicidal ideation and psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12). Predictor variables included structured items (e.g., relating to sleep and well-being) and responses to one unstructured question, “how do you feel today?” We compared NLP-based models using the unstructured question with logistic regression prediction models using structured data. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of suicidal ideation were 0.61, 0.56, and 0.57, respectively, compared to 0.73, 0.76, and 0.62 of structured data-based models. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of heightened psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12 ≥ 4) were 0.56, 0.59, and 0.60, respectively, compared to 0.79, 0.79, and 0.85 in structured models. NLP-based models were able to generate relatively high predictive values based solely on responses to a simple general mood question. These models have promise for rapidly identifying persons at risk of suicide or psychological distress and could provide a low-cost screening alternative in settings where lengthy structured item surveys are not feasible. PMID:27752278

  11. Novel Use of Natural Language Processing (NLP to Predict Suicidal Ideation and Psychiatric Symptoms in a Text-Based Mental Health Intervention in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Cook

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural language processing (NLP and machine learning were used to predict suicidal ideation and heightened psychiatric symptoms among adults recently discharged from psychiatric inpatient or emergency room settings in Madrid, Spain. Participants responded to structured mental and physical health instruments at multiple follow-up points. Outcome variables of interest were suicidal ideation and psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12. Predictor variables included structured items (e.g., relating to sleep and well-being and responses to one unstructured question, “how do you feel today?” We compared NLP-based models using the unstructured question with logistic regression prediction models using structured data. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of suicidal ideation were 0.61, 0.56, and 0.57, respectively, compared to 0.73, 0.76, and 0.62 of structured data-based models. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of heightened psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12 ≥ 4 were 0.56, 0.59, and 0.60, respectively, compared to 0.79, 0.79, and 0.85 in structured models. NLP-based models were able to generate relatively high predictive values based solely on responses to a simple general mood question. These models have promise for rapidly identifying persons at risk of suicide or psychological distress and could provide a low-cost screening alternative in settings where lengthy structured item surveys are not feasible.

  12. Novel Use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) to Predict Suicidal Ideation and Psychiatric Symptoms in a Text-Based Mental Health Intervention in Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin L; Progovac, Ana M; Chen, Pei; Mullin, Brian; Hou, Sherry; Baca-Garcia, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning were used to predict suicidal ideation and heightened psychiatric symptoms among adults recently discharged from psychiatric inpatient or emergency room settings in Madrid, Spain. Participants responded to structured mental and physical health instruments at multiple follow-up points. Outcome variables of interest were suicidal ideation and psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12). Predictor variables included structured items (e.g., relating to sleep and well-being) and responses to one unstructured question, "how do you feel today?" We compared NLP-based models using the unstructured question with logistic regression prediction models using structured data. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of suicidal ideation were 0.61, 0.56, and 0.57, respectively, compared to 0.73, 0.76, and 0.62 of structured data-based models. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of heightened psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12 ≥ 4) were 0.56, 0.59, and 0.60, respectively, compared to 0.79, 0.79, and 0.85 in structured models. NLP-based models were able to generate relatively high predictive values based solely on responses to a simple general mood question. These models have promise for rapidly identifying persons at risk of suicide or psychological distress and could provide a low-cost screening alternative in settings where lengthy structured item surveys are not feasible.

  13. Mental Byomdannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tina Vestermann; Boye, Anne Mette; Borchmann, Inger Haarup

    Formålet med publikationen er at præsentere metoden "Mental byomdannelse". Metoden viser, hvordan man via midlertidig brug af grunde kan undersøge et steds potentialer, tage et område i brug tidligt i en byomdannelsesproces og derved bidrage til at opbygge en ny identitet for området. Mental...... byomdannelse går ud på at skabe bevidsthed om et byudviklingsområde overfor byens borgere, kommende beboere og fremtidige brugere af området allerede mens den fysiske omdannelse er i gang. I publikationen præsenteres en værktøjskasse, som giver redskaber og ideer til, hvordan man kan sætte en mental...... byomdannelsesproces i gang i byens rum. Publikationen udgør en afrapportering fra et støttet forsøgsprojekt hvor metoden ”Mental byomdannelse” er udviklet ved at afprøve ideerne om mental byomdannelse i to cases i Ålborg Kommune, hhv. i Østre Havn og Nibe by. Formålet med at anvende metoden i de to cases har været...

  14. Does job burnout mediate negative effects of job demands on mental and physical health in a group of teachers? Testing the energetic process of Job Demands-Resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baka, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the direct and indirect - mediated by job burnout - effects of job demands on mental and physical health problems. The Job Demands-Resources model was the theoretical framework of the study. Three job demands were taken into account - interpersonal conflicts at work, organizational constraints and workload. Indicators of mental and physical health problems included depression and physical symptoms, respectively. Three hundred and sixteen Polish teachers from 8 schools participated in the study. The hypotheses were tested with the use of tools measuring job demands (Interpersonal Conflicts at Work, Organizational Constraints, Quantitative Workload), job burnout (the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory), depression (the Beck Hopelessness Scale), and physical symptoms (the Physical Symptoms Inventory). The regression analysis with bootstrapping, using the PROCESS macros of Hayes was applied. The results support the hypotheses partially. The indirect effect and to some extent the direct effect of job demands turned out to be statistically important. The negative impact of 3 job demands on mental (hypothesis 1 - H1) and physical (hypothesis 2 - H2) health were mediated by the increasing job burnout. Only organizational constraints were directly associated with mental (and not physical) health. The results partially support the notion of the Job Demands-Resources model and provide further insight into processes leading to the low well-being of teachers in the workplace. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  15. Does job burnout mediate negative effects of job demands on mental and physical health in a group of teachers? Testing the energetic process of Job Demands-Resources model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Baka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the direct and indirect – mediated by job burnout – effects of job demands on mental and physical health problems. The Job Demands–Resources model was the theoretical framework of the study. Three job demands were taken into account – interpersonal conflicts at work, organizational constraints and workload. Indicators of mental and physical health problems included depression and physical symptoms, respectively. Material and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen Polish teachers from 8 schools participated in the study. The hypotheses were tested with the use of tools measuring job demands (Interpersonal Conflicts at Work, Organizational Constraints, Quantitative Workload, job burnout (the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, depression (the Beck Hopelessness Scale, and physical symptoms (the Physical Symptoms Inventory. The regression analysis with bootstrapping, using the PROCESS macros of Hayes was applied. Results: The results support the hypotheses partially. The indirect effect and to some extent the direct effect of job demands turned out to be statistically important. The negative impact of 3 job demands on mental (hypothesis 1 – H1 and physical (hypothesis 2 – H2 health were mediated by the increasing job burnout. Only organizational constraints were directly associated with mental (and not physical health. Conclusions: The results partially support the notion of the Job Demands-Resources model and provide further insight into processes leading to the low well-being of teachers in the workplace.

  16. Multimodal mental imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanay, Bence

    2017-07-17

    When I am looking at my coffee machine that makes funny noises, this is an instance of multisensory perception - I perceive this event by means of both vision and audition. But very often we only receive sensory stimulation from a multisensory event by means of one sense modality, for example, when I hear the noisy coffee machine in the next room, that is, without seeing it. The aim of this paper is to bring together empirical findings about multimodal perception and empirical findings about (visual, auditory, tactile) mental imagery and argue that on occasions like this, we have multimodal mental imagery: perceptual processing in one sense modality (here: vision) that is triggered by sensory stimulation in another sense modality (here: audition). Multimodal mental imagery is not a rare and obscure phenomenon. The vast majority of what we perceive are multisensory events: events that can be perceived in more than one sense modality - like the noisy coffee machine. And most of the time we are only acquainted with these multisensory events via a subset of the sense modalities involved - all the other aspects of these multisensory events are represented by means of multisensory mental imagery. This means that multisensory mental imagery is a crucial element of almost all instances of everyday perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chile mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Carmen López

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes main facts about Chile starting with key socio-demographic, socio-economic, political, environmental, epidemiological, social support and social pathology aspects that characterize the context in which current mental and neurological policy and programmes have been put in place since 2000, as part of the National Health Plan and Health Sector Strategy Plan. The 'National Plan for Mental Health and Psychiatry', using a community psychiatry approach, has been partially implemented for people covered by the Public Health Insurance, which comprises 62% of the Chilean population (people with lower income). This paper also describes: the management, population needs and demands, financial resources, human resources in primary care, mental health specialist care and community-based care, physical capital, social capital, provision and processes, and outcomes of the plan. Strengths are analyzed, like the health reform, including its values and principles, the active participation of consumer and family groups as well as mental health NGOs, access to mental health services through primary care, quality assurance of the mental health services delivered to the population and progressive development of a culture of respect for human rights, including those of people with mental illnesses. Finally, difficulties for the advance of mental health care are also enumerated: the low priority still given to mental health compared with physical health by the country's leaders, the insufficient emphasis on mental health in both undergraduate and postgraduate professional training, the strong stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness in the general population and the advocacy by some mental health professionals of the traditional model of care (role of the psychiatric hospital).

  18. Process and Effects Evaluation of a Digital Mental Health Intervention Targeted at Improving Occupational Well-Being: Lessons From an Intervention Study With Failed Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muuraiskangas, Salla; Harjumaa, Marja; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Ermes, Miikka

    2016-05-11

    Digital interventions have the potential to serve as cost-effective ways to manage occupational stress and well-being. However, little is known about the adoption of individual-level digital interventions at organizations. The aim of this paper is to study the effects of an unguided digital mental health intervention in occupational well-being and the factors that influence the adoption of the intervention. The intervention was based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and its aim was to teach skills for stress management and mental well-being. It was delivered via a mobile and a Web-based app that were offered to employees of two information and communication technology (ICT) companies. The primary outcome measures were perceived stress and work engagement, measured by a 1-item stress questionnaire (Stress) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9). The intervention process was evaluated regarding the change mechanisms and intervention stages using mixed methods. The initial interviews were conducted face-to-face with human resource managers (n=2) of both companies in August 2013. The participants were recruited via information sessions and email invitations. The intervention period took place between November 2013 and March 2014. The participants were asked to complete online questionnaires at baseline, two months, and four months after the baseline measurement. The final phone interviews for the volunteer participants (n=17) and the human resource managers (n=2) were conducted in April to May 2014, five months after the baseline. Of all the employees, only 27 (8.1%, 27/332) took the app into use, with a mean use of 4.8 (SD 4.7) different days. In the beginning, well-being was on good level in both companies and no significant changes in well-being were observed. The activities of the intervention process failed to integrate the intervention into everyday activities at the workplace. Those who took the app into use experienced many benefits such as

  19. Mental Toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Tori; Cavanaugh, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Mental toughness (MT) is defined as a set of attributes that allow an individual to persevere through difficult circumstances that ultimately can lead to successful outcomes. It is also a critical component of maximizing the performance of an athlete. These attributes assist with and promote a state of mind that enhances performance. A negative…

  20. Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH/National Institute of Mental Health – Division of AIDS Research SAMHSA – Behavioral Health and HIV/AIDS SAMHSA – Suicide ... Office of Adolescent Health OAR NIH Office of AIDS Research OCR HHS Office for Civil Rights OFBNP HHS ...

  1. Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to situations and to people Alcohol or drug abuse Major changes in eating habits Sex drive changes Excessive anger, hostility or violence Suicidal thinking Sometimes symptoms of a mental health disorder appear as physical ... on Drug Abuse. http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-drug-addiction- ...

  2. Process Evaluation of a Participatory Supportive Return to Work Program for Workers Without a Permanent Employment Contract, Sick-Listed Due to a Common Mental Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammerts, Lieke; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; van Mechelen, Willem; Anema, Johannes R

    2017-06-01

    Purpose This study aimed to perform a process evaluation of a participatory supportive return to work program for workers without a (permanent) employment contract, sick-listed due to a common mental disorder. The program consisted of a participatory approach, integrated care and direct placement in a competitive job. Our main questions were: were these components realized in practice and in accordance with the protocol? The evaluation took place alongside a randomized controlled trial. Methods The study population consisted of workers who filed a sickness benefit claim at the Dutch Social Security Agency, professionals of this agency and of vocational rehabilitation agencies. We focused on sick-listed workers and professionals who had actually participated in the intervention. Data was collected mainly by questionnaires. Results Only 36 out of 94 intervention group participants started with the program. In half of these cases application of integrated care was reported. Most other steps in the program were completed. However, fidelity to the protocol was low to reasonable. Much delay was observed in the execution of the program and only two sick-listed workers were placed in a competitive job. Still, satisfaction with the participatory approach was good. Conclusions Despite the positive evaluation of the participatory approach, the full program was executed less successfully compared to similar programs evaluated in earlier studies. This will probably affect the outcomes of our trial. Findings from this study will help to interpret these outcomes. Nevertheless, more knowledge is needed about experiences of stakeholders who participated in the program. Trial Registration NTR3563.

  3. Good Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mental Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Good mental health Nutrition and mental health Exercise and ... a friend. Return to top More information on Good mental health Read more from womenshealth.gov Action ...

  4. [Mentalization and theory of mind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyl, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Both concepts, mentalization and the theory of mind, describe metacognitive processes. Mentalization mainly concerns the reflection of affective mental states. In contrast, theory of mind focuses on epistemic states such as beliefs, intentions and persuasions. Gender differences have proved to be relevant for both, the development of mentalization and the theory of mind. However, there are few studies and findings are inconsistent. In an own study, we investigated the relationship between early competences in metacognition (tested in a false-belief-task second order) and narrative skills of kindergarten children. Results show that children who had successfully passed the theory of mind test tended to face conflicts more directly in the stories. In consequence, these children showed less narrative avoidance. However, differences were only found in girls and not in boys. The precise understanding of developmental differences in metacognition between girls and boys may be an important aspect with regards to improving mentalization based therapy of children.

  5. Enhancing Infant Mental Health Using a Capacity-Building Model: A Case Study of a Process Evaluation of the "Ready, Steady, Grow" Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrelly, Christine; Guerin, Suzanne; Victory, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Infant mental health (IMH) is best promoted through a continuum of services underpinned by strong service capacity. However, service providers often lack fundamental IMH knowledge and skills. Using the Ready, Steady, Grow (RSG) initiative as a case study of a capacity-building model (P., Hawe, L., King, M., Noort, C., Jordens, & B., Llyod,…

  6. How Training on Exact or Approximate Mental Representations of Number Can Enhance First-Grade Students' Basic Number Processing and Arithmetic Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obersteiner, Andreas; Reiss, Kristina; Ufer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Theories of psychology and mathematics education recommend two instructional approaches to develop students' mental representations of number: The "exact" approach focuses on the development of exact representations of organized dot patterns; the "approximate" approach focuses on the approximate representation of analogue magnitudes. This study…

  7. [Neuroscience of mental flexibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka, Zoltán

    2017-11-01

    Mental flexibility enabling shifts from the usual prepotent behaviour to new strategies and solutions is a significant factor in the successful adaptation to the changing environment. Components of mental flexibility comprise attention, salience detection, inhibition, working memory and switch processes which can be measured by neurocognitive tests. Data derived from examinations by the methods of cognitive neuroscience can be compared to the features, observed under resting state and during task performance, of brain structures and functions. Studying central nervous system correlates of mental flexibility by imaging, neurobiological, and pharmacological techniques revealed that certain cerebral regions (prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate and insula, striatum, inferior parietal lobule) with their network connectivities, and some neurotransmitters (e.g. dopamine) have profound roles in this respect. Flexibility shares some similarities with artistic/scientific/everyday creativity and openness as a personality trait and this is also reflected in neurobiological parameters. According to precedents in art history, the public reception and acceptance of nonconform avant-garde artistic products are also dependent on flexibility and openness. Alterations of mental flexibility have been found in diseases (psychiatric and others), and in stress situations. Although flexible switch is generally considered as positive and beneficial, under certain conditions advantages might arise from keeping stability maintaining customs, conventions, and traditions. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(45): 1771-1786.

  8. Bulgaria mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, Toma; Mladenova, Maya; Lazarova, Irina; Sotirov, Vladimir; Okoliyski, Mihail

    2004-01-01

    The mental health profile of Bulgaria has been compiled and following analysis of both the factual findings and the process of data collection a report has been prepared. The subject of discussion in the paper concerns several major findings: the discrepancy between what the policy documents state and the actual situation in mental health; the organizational culture, which alienates; and the peculiarities of the process of change and how it is driven under political pressure from outside the country. Analysis extends to encompass the influence of the general health reform on the mental health sector, the deficits of the leadership and how they impact on the effectiveness of the system, and the interdependence between the country's economy and the health sector. A conclusion is made about the need to consolidate the public health approach using the lever of international collaboration in the field of mental health.

  9. Assessment of Mental Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Glen R; Minagar, Alireza; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2016-02-01

    Assessing the mental status of patients with a neurobehavioral disorder is a critical element in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. This assessment should always be performed after the patient's history it taken and a general physical as well as a neurologic examination is completed. The mental status examination commences with observing the patient's appearance and level of consciousness. The examiner should also pay attention to patient's social behavior, emotional state and mood. There are 3 major means of assessing a patient's mental status. One type attempts to determine if the patient is demented and the severity of the dementia as it pertains to their ability to perform activities of daily living as well as instrumental activities. A second type of assessment utilizes what may be termed as "screening tests" or "omnibus tests". These brief tests are performed independent of the patient's history and examination. The two most frequently used screening tests are the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The third means of assessing a patient's mental status is by using specific neuropsychological tests that focus on specific domains of cognition, such as frontal executive functions, attention, episodic verbal and visuospatial memory, declarative knowledge such as language (speech, reading and writing) and arithmetical, as well as visuospatial and perceptual abilities. These neurobehavioral, neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological assessments of patients with a cognitive decline and behavioral abnormalities should often be accompanied by laboratory tests, and neuroimaging that can help determine the underlying pathologic process so that effective therapeutic and management approaches can be provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mental health and housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari-Koskinen, O; Karvonen, P

    1976-01-01

    political organizations, (3) leisure-time clubs and (4) societies and institutions for promoting social integration, including educational, advisory and assistance bodies. The study of satiation processes offers an interesting approach to the relationship between housing and mental health. Man requires new stimuli to motivate him. Boredom and satiation serve to induce passivity and may provoke destructive behaviour and escapism. Finland has the highest percentage of dwellings constructed in the immediate post-war period of any country in Europe, and in respect of the functions of housing many aspects are still apparent which are detrimental to mental health.

  11. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C.

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ‘preventive medicine’ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ‘R’s such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073

  12. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health.

  13. Mental Illness Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News & Events About Us Home > Health Information Share Statistics Research shows that mental illnesses are common in ... of mental illnesses, such as suicide and disability. Statistics Top ı cs Mental Illness Any Anxiety Disorder ...

  14. Common Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  15. Latino Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NAMI About NAMI + x IN THIS SECTION La salud mental en la comunidad latina Share NAMI Share Home ... Support Diverse Communities Latinos IN THIS SECTION La salud mental en la comunidad latina Latino Mental Health Video ...

  16. The Role of Mental Load in Inattentional Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Moreno, Elisa; Conchillo, Angela; Recarte, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine whether the mental load of a cognitive task prevents the processing of visual stimuli, that is, whether the mental load produces inattentional blindness, and at what point in the cognitive-task processing more interference is produced. An arithmetic task with two levels of mental load was used in a…

  17. Mental Practice : some observations and speculations

    OpenAIRE

    Lippman, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    The use of words such as mental practice, imagery, and rehearsal have great meaning in the psychological, motor learning and sport psycology literature. There exists logic and precedence to simplifyterminology and research that utilizes the paradigm where any kind of mental rehearsal is takin place. In fact, there is some justification that such a mechanism is and always have been an integral part of the learning process. A rubric incorporating mental practice into the mainstream of learning ...

  18. An Exploration of Secondary Students' Mental States When Learning about Acids and Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ju; Hou, I-Lin; Chiu, Houn-Lin; Treagust, David F.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored factors of students' mental states, including emotion, intention, internal mental representation, and external mental representation, which can affect their learning performance. In evaluating students' mental states during the science learning process and the relationship between mental states and learning…

  19. Team Learning: Building Shared Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Piet; Gijselaers, Wim; Segers, Mien; Woltjer, Geert; Kirschner, Paul

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight in the social processes that underlie knowledge sharing in teams, this article questions which team learning behaviors lead to the construction of a shared mental model. Additionally, it explores how the development of shared mental models mediates the relation between team learning behaviors and team effectiveness. Analyses were…

  20. Team learning: building shared mental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, van den P.; Gijselaers, W.; Segers, M.; Woltjer, G.B.; Kirschner, P.

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight in the social processes that underlie knowledge sharing in teams, this article questions which team learning behaviors lead to the construction of a shared mental model. Additionally, it explores how the development of shared mental models mediates the relation between team learning

  1. Homeless mentally ill or mentally ill homeless?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, C I; Thompson, K S

    1992-06-01

    Mainstream psychiatry conceptualizes people who are homeless and mentally ill as distinct from other homeless persons because it is thought that their status stems from their mental disorder and the poor implementation of deinstitutionalization. The authors believe this dichotomy is illusory. They present data indicating that recent socioeconomic and political shifts contributed greatly to homelessness among all groups, regardless of mental illness; that those with and without mental illness have similar biographical and demographic profiles; that high levels of mental distress are common to all homeless persons; and that few mentally ill homeless persons require involuntary hospitalization. This perspective suggests novel responses that de-emphasize clinical solutions and focus on empowerment, consumerism, entitlement, community-level interventions, and closer alliances with other advocates for the homeless.

  2. Procesos de cambio: Obstáculos y alternativas. Microprocesos mentales en adolescentes embarazadas en riesgo Process of change: Obstacles and alternatives. Mental microprocess in pregnancy adolescents in risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Franco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un diseño de tipo antes-después de administrado el tratamiento. La metodología triangula métodos cualitativos y cuantitativos. La hipótesis sostiene que el auto-concepto social mejora significativamente luego del proceso de cambio; la autoestima se mide antes y después verificando diferencias. Los fundamentos consisten en la re-categorización cognitiva, atención sistemática y la presencia de un observador participante entrenado, acompañante del proceso de cambio. La finalidad es definir-construir-instalar "el observador" que produce el cambio en forma controlada e intencional. La percepción del cambio resulta ser una construcción que se compone de datos de la observación y de la autobservación como problemas. Las elaboración de conjeturas acerca de las nuevas acciones a llevar a cabo y su experiencia subjetiva son tópicos pendientes para seguir indagando. Es necesaria la estabilidad creativa -resistir presiones para instalar el cambio: desorden, caos, son obstáculos. Re-categorizar, insight, metacognición, distanciamiento, son eventos para el cambio.The methodology before-after treatment that would be applied links qualitative and quantitative methods. Actual hypothesis supports that social self-concept improves meaningly after the change process. Selfesteem will be measured before and after to verify differences. Basis consists on cognitive recategorization, systematic attention and a trained participant observer who attends change process. The aim of this research is to describe - to construct - to install "the observer" who produces change in a controlled and intentional way. Change perception turns out to be a construction composed by observational and self-observational data as problems. Hypothesis about new actions and heir subjective experience should still be analize. The creative stability - to resist pressures- is necessary to install a change: disorder, chaos are obstacles. Recategorizing, insight

  3. Medieval theories of mental representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, S

    1998-11-01

    Throughout most of the Middle ages, it was generally held that stored mental representations of perceived objects or events preserved the forms or species of such objects. This belief was consistent with a metaphor used by Plato. It was also consistent with the medieval belief that a number of cognitive processes took place in the ventricles of the brain and with the phenomenology of afterimages and imagination itself. In the 14th century, William of Ockham challenged this belief by claiming that mental representations are not stored but instead constructed in the basis of past learned experiences.

  4. Aviation Disaster Intervention: A Mental Health Volunteer's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramonte, Michael R.

    The goals of this presentation were to help mental health professionals learn more about intervening in aviation disasters, learn about the uniqueness of disaster mental health, and share the presenter's mental health disaster experiences as they relate to aviation disasters. Survivors' emotional phases during the disaster recovery process are…

  5. Translation in Light of Bilingual Mental Lexicon: A Psycholinguistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congmin Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives insight into the translating process of second language learners in language use in light of the mechanism of bilingual mental lexicon. Structure and development of second language mental lexicon explains the existence of first language items and translation equivalents. Conversely translation can promote the construction of second language mental lexicon and ultimately second language acquisition.

  6. Infusing Early Childhood Mental Health into Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabert, John C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…

  7. Mental models and user training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Zupanič

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the functions of the reference service is user training which means teaching users how to use the library and it's information sorces (nowadays mainly computerized systems. While the scientific understanding of teaching/learning process is shifting, changes also affect the methods of user training in libraries.Human-computer interaction (HCI is an interdisciplinary and a very active research area which studies how humans use computers - their mental and behavioral characteristics. The application of psychological theories to HCI are especially great on three areas: psychological (mental, conceptual models, individual differences, and error behavior.The mental models theory is powerful tool for understanding the ways in which users interact with an information system. Claims, based on this theory can affect the methods (conceptualization of user training and the overall design of information systems.

  8. Electrophysiological potentials reveal cortical mechanisms for mental imagery, mental simulation, and grounded (embodied cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haline E. Schendan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Grounded cognition theory proposes that cognition, including meaning, is grounded in sensorimotor processing. The mechanism for grounding cognition is mental simulation, which is a type of mental imagery that re-enacts modal processing. To reveal top-down, cortical mechanisms for mental simulation of shape, event-related potentials were recorded to face and object pictures preceded by mental imagery of a picture. Mental imagery of the identical face or object (congruous condition facilitated not only categorical perception (VPP/N170 but also later visual knowledge (N3[00] complex and linguistic knowledge (N400 for faces more than objects, and strategic semantic analysis (late positive complex between 200 and 700 ms. The later effects resembled semantic congruity effects with pictures. Mental imagery also facilitated category decisions, as a P3(00 peaked earlier for congruous than incongruous (other category pictures, resembling the case when identical pictures repeat immediately. Thus mental imagery mimics semantic congruity and immediate repetition priming processes with pictures. Perception control results showed the opposite for faces and were in the same direction for objects: Perceptual repetition adapts (and so impairs processing of perceived faces from categorical perception onwards, but primes processing of objects during categorical perception, visual knowledge processes, and strategic semantic analysis. For both imagery and perception, differences between faces and objects support domain-specificity and indicate that cognition is grounded in modal processing. Altogether, this direct neural evidence reveals that top-down processes of mental imagery sustain an imagistic representation that mimics perception well enough to prime subsequent perception and cognition. This also suggests that automatic mental simulation of the visual shape of faces and objects operates between 200 and 400 ms, and strategic mental simulation operates between

  9. Neurophysiological Correlates of Various Mental Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo eHinterberger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A common view of consciousness is that our mind presents emotions, experiences and images in an internal mental (re-presentation space which in a state of wakefulness is triggered by the world outside. Consciousness can be defined as the observation of this inner mental space. We propose a new model, in which the state of the conscious observer is defined by the observer’s mental position and focus of attention. The mental position of the observer can either be within the mental self (intrapersonal space, in the mental outer world (extrapersonal space or in an empathic connection, i.e. within the intrapersonal space of another person (perspective taking. The focus of attention can be directed towards the self or towards the outside world. This mental space model can help us to understand the patterns of relationships and interactions with other persons as they occur in social life.To investigate the neurophysiological correlates and discriminability of the different mental states, we conducted an EEG experiment measuring the brain activity of 16 subjects via 64 electrodes while they engaged in different mental positions (intrapersonal, extrapersonal, perspective taking with different attentional foci (self, object. Compared to external mental locations, internal ones showed significantly increased alpha2 power, especially when the observer was focusing on an object. Alpha2 and beta2 were increased in the empathic condition compared to the extrapersonal perspective. Delta power was significantly higher when the attentional focus was directed towards an object in comparison to the participant’s own self. This exploratory study demonstrates highly significant differences between various mental locations and foci, suggesting that the proposed categories of mental location and intra- and interpersonal attentional foci are not only helpful theoretical concepts but are also physiologically relevant and therefore may relate to basic brain processing

  10. Mental Health Screening Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Important security updates for DBSAlliance.org. Read more... Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression Screening for Adult Depression Screening for ...

  11. International Student Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Welch, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.

  12. Mental Disorders - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Soomaali (Somali) MP3 EthnoMed Spanish (español) Expand Section Mental Disorders: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Enfermedades mentales: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine ...

  13. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  14. Introduction to Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arc of the United States, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define mental retardation and answer questions related to this topic. According to the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR), mental retardation is a disability that occurs before age 18. It is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviors as expressed in…

  15. MENTAL DEFICIENCY. SECOND EDITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HILLIARD, L.T.; KIRMAN, BRIAN H.

    REVISED TO INCLUDE LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES NEW IN BRITAIN SINCE THE 1957 EDITION, THE TEXT INCLUDES RECENT ADVANCES IN ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY. CONSIDERATION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY INCLUDES HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS, THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFECT, PRENATAL CAUSES OF…

  16. Learn About Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Promotion . Fact sheet no. 220. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Chronic Illness & Mental Health . Bethesda, MD: National Institutes ... of-onset distributions of mental disorders in the World Health Organization’s World Mental Health Survey Initiative. World Psychiatry. 2007; ...

  17. The Role of Gesture in Supporting Mental Representations: The Case of Mental Abacus Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Neon B.; Barner, David; Frank, Michael; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2018-01-01

    People frequently gesture when problem-solving, particularly on tasks that require spatial transformation. Gesture often facilitates task performance by interacting with internal mental representations, but how this process works is not well understood. We investigated this question by exploring the case of mental abacus (MA), a technique in which…

  18. Mental Health and Mental Disorder Recommendation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchiwit, Manyat

    2017-12-01

    The characteristic differences among the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries in terms of trade and investment, society and cultural values, medical information and technology, and the living and working environment have become major health problems in terms of mental disorders. The purpose of this article is to identify the gaps in those aspects, to propose mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs, and to recommend policies for policy makers and research investors. A comparative analysis and literature review of existing policy, including overviews of previous research were used to generate a synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs. The review results recommend mental health and mental disorder programs for policy makers, research investors, and stakeholders in order to strengthen the directions for implementing these programs in the future. The healthcare provision in each country will not be limited only to its citizens; the healthcare markets and target groups are likely to expand to the neighboring countries in the context of changes in domestic and international factors, which have both positive and negative impacts according to the political, economic, and social situations of the influencing countries.

  19. Low Achieving Eighth Graders Learn to Crack Word Problems: A Design Research Project for Aligning a Strategic Scaffolding Tool to Students' Mental Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediger, Susanne; Krägeloh, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Topic-specific didactical design research provides means not only to investigate how to learn but also what to learn, i.e., for specifying learning contents by analyzing students' comprehension processes in detail. This important characteristic of didactical design research is exemplarily shown for students' difficulties in finding symbolic…

  20. Mental toughness in soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diment, Gregory Michael

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade mental toughness has been discussed as a significant factor in performance in elite sport. Few studies have explored mental toughness from a behavioral perspective, and no comprehensive lists of mental toughness behaviors have been developed. The aim of the study was to produce...... a systematic observation checklist of mental toughness behavior in professional soccer. Consistent with existing studies, the results created a systematic observation instrument containing 15 mental toughness behaviors. Practical implications include goal-setting, game analysis and self-modeling interventions...

  1. Finding the mental foramen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laher, Abdullah Ebrahim; Wells, Mike; Motara, Feroza; Kramer, Efraim; Moolla, Muhammed; Mahomed, Zeyn

    2016-05-01

    The mental foramen and mental nerve are clinically important landmarks for clinicians across various disciplines including dentists, oral maxillofacial surgeons, emergency physicians and plastic and reconstructive surgeons. To minimize complications related to procedures in the vicinity of the mental foramen and nerve, knowledge of its anatomy and anatomical variations is cardinal to concerned clinicians. In this review, basic anatomy, procedural complications, hard and soft tissue relations, variations between population groups, asymmetry, accessory mental foramina and the use of various radiological modalities to determine the position of the mental foramen are reviewed to provide a more thorough understanding of this important landmark.

  2. Migration and mental health: Evidence from a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Steven; McKenzie, David; Gibson, John

    2009-05-01

    People migrate to improve their well-being. Yet a large literature suggests that migration can be a stressful process, with potentially negative impacts on mental health. However, to truly understand the effect of migration one must compare the mental health of migrants to what their mental health would be had they stayed in their home country. The existing literature is not able to do this. New Zealand allows a quota of Tongans to immigrate each year with a random ballot used to choose amongst the excess number of applicants. Experimental estimates of the mental health effects of migration are obtained by comparing the mental health of migrants who were successful applicants in the random ballot to the mental health of those who applied to migrate under the quota, but whose names were not drawn. Migration is found to lead to improvements in mental health, particularly for women and those with poor mental health.

  3. Review of Polarities of experience: Relatedness and self-definition in personality development, psychopathology, and the therapeutic process and Relatedness, self-definition and mental representation: Essays in honor of Sidney J. Blatt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Robert S

    2009-03-01

    Reviews the books, Polarities of experience: Relatedness and self-definition in personality development, psychopathology, and the therapeutic process by Sidney J. Blatt (see record 2008-01813-000) and Relatedness, self-definition and mental representation: Essays in honor of Sidney J. Blatt edited by John S. Auerbach, Kenneth N. Levy, and Carrie E. Schaffer (2005). These two volumes present a most impressive and fitting capstone to Sidney Blatt's very productive lifetime of almost unmatched threefold integration of (a) clinical experience, beginning with his astute observation of the strikingly different thematic preoccupations of two otherwise very similarly depressed patients whom Blatt was analyzing during his psychoanalytic training; (b) the theoretic conceptualization stemming from these clinical observations, which became the basic fabric of his lifetime major addition to our psychological explanatory universe; and (c) the painstaking systematic empirical data gathering, together with the creation of necessary-and truly appropriate-measures and instruments that, in ensemble, provide such strong data-based support for Blatt's clinically inspired theoretic harvesting. In the book Polarities of experience: Relatedness and self-definition in personality development, psychopathology, and the therapeutic process, Blatt draws upon a vast literature review of his own work with his collaborating authors-as well as a seemingly exhaustive list of contributors in all the linked and related areas. Blatt has organized his volume sequentially (after defining and describing his fundamental polarity of experience) into three logically following sections on personality development, personality organization and psychopathology, and lastly, the therapeutic process. Relatedness, self-definition and mental representation: Essays in honor of Sidney J. Blatt is put together by three of Blatt's former students, and now collaborating partners, although published 3 years earlier (2005

  4. The need for a behavioural science focus in research on mental health and mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Knappe, Susanne; Andersson, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories, principles, and methodological approaches to understand mental health, abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope, current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may...... help to depict the advances needed to inform future research agendas specifically on mental health and mental disorders. From an integrative psychological perspective, most maladaptive health behaviours and mental disorders can be conceptualized as the result of developmental dysfunctions...... of psychological functions and processes as well as neurobiological and genetic processes that interact with the environment. The paper presents and discusses an integrative translational model, linking basic and experimental research with clinical research as well as population-based prospective...

  5. Mental health stigma in Ireland: exploring occupational therapists perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Hanby, Louise

    2012-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed Stigma is considered the main barrier to recovery for people living with a mental illness. The process of stigma can be inconspicuous, operating through individual, systemic, institutional and structural levels and can leave those working in mental health care unsure of their role in the stigma process. Semi-structured interviews explored views of nine occupational therapists working in mental health, focusing on their perspectives of stigma and drawing on experiences of ...

  6. Psychotherapeutic Intervention in the Demobilization Process: Addressing Combat‐related Mental Injuries with Narrative Exposure in a First and Second Dissemination Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Susanne; Hecker, Tobias; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Depending on the exposure to traumatic stressors and combat, 20% to 50% of ex‐combatants present with trauma‐related disorders, and more than half of the members of armed groups have a proclivity to violence. Therefore, psychotherapeutic assistance should address both, trauma‐related suffering and the lowered threshold for aggressive behaviour. Objective Supporting the demobilization process of ex‐combatants in the eastern DR‐Congo, we implemented a version of Narrative Exposure Therapy adapted for Forensic Offender Rehabilitation (FORNET). Method In two successive dissemination stages (DS), local counsellors conducted FORNET. In DS1, they were trained by clinical experts, and in DS2, the by then experienced counsellors trained and supervised a second group of local counsellors (DS2). The training consisted of a 3‐week workshop covering theoretical concepts and practical therapeutic skills. In DS1 and DS2, a total of 98 demobilizing combatants received an intervention; treatment‐as‐usual served as the control condition. Posttraumatic stress disorder, appetitive aggression, depression severity and drug dependence were assessed prior to the intervention and 6 and 12 months later; additionally, we assessed reintegration success. Results Six months post‐intervention, FORNET significantly reduced Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms but had less effect on the trait of appetitive aggression; moreover, beneficial effects were found for depression severity and drug dependence as well as for reintegration indices. Treatment gains were retained at 12 months. Conclusions Individuals without previous training in psychotherapy can learn to effectively apply the brief intervention FORNET and support the demobilization process in ongoing conflicts. The study suggests that it is possible to pass down psychotherapeutic techniques over generations of counsellors. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy published by John Wiley

  7. [Mental illness and media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magli, Erica; Buizza, Chiara; Pioli, Rosaria

    2004-06-01

    Many knowledges on the mental disease that the community possesses are turning out of information disclosed from the media. It's common in the press to connect actions of violence and murders to the mental diseases. For this reason, the reader is induced to infer that murders and other violent actions are more frequent in people who have suffered from mentally ill, than in the general population. The mystifying impression provided by media accrues from the fact that these reports are rarely compensated from positive reports. Objective of the present study is to characterize the type of information concerning mental illness diffused from the local daily paper "Giornale di Brescia" in the year 2001. The results show that many articles connote negatively the mental disease. The journalistic sensationalism, denounced facing the speech of the prejudgment in the comparisons of the mentally ill people, seems to still remain, in the considered year of publication, one unchanging tendency.

  8. Cross-linguistic influence in the bilingual mental lexicon: evidence of cognate effects in the phonetic production and processing of a vowel contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eAmengual

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines cognate effects in the phonetic production and processing of the Catalan back mid-vowel contrast (/o/-/ɔ/ by 24 early and highly proficient Spanish-Catalan bilinguals in Majorca (Spain. Participants completed a picture-naming task and a forced-choice lexical decision task in which they were presented with either words (e.g. /bɔsk/ ‘forest’ or non-words based on real words, but with the alternate mid-vowel pair in stressed position (*/bosk/. The same cognate and non-cognate lexical items were included in the production and lexical decision experiments. The results indicate that even though these early bilinguals maintained the back mid-vowel contrast in their productions, they had great difficulties identifying non-words and real words based on the identity of the Catalan mid-vowel. The analyses revealed language dominance and cognate effects: Spanish-dominants exhibited higher error rates than Catalan-dominants, and production and lexical decision accuracy were also affected by cognate status. The present study contributes to the discussion of the organization of early bilinguals’ dominant and non-dominant sound systems, and proposes that exemplar theoretic approaches can be extended to include bilingual lexical connections that account for the interactions between the phonetic and lexical levels of early bilingual individuals.

  9. Cross-Linguistic Influence in the Bilingual Mental Lexicon: Evidence of Cognate Effects in the Phonetic Production and Processing of a Vowel Contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amengual, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines cognate effects in the phonetic production and processing of the Catalan back mid-vowel contrast (/o/-/ɔ/) by 24 early and highly proficient Spanish-Catalan bilinguals in Majorca (Spain). Participants completed a picture-naming task and a forced-choice lexical decision task in which they were presented with either words (e.g., /bɔsk/ "forest") or non-words based on real words, but with the alternate mid-vowel pair in stressed position ((*)/bosk/). The same cognate and non-cognate lexical items were included in the production and lexical decision experiments. The results indicate that even though these early bilinguals maintained the back mid-vowel contrast in their productions, they had great difficulties identifying non-words and real words based on the identity of the Catalan mid-vowel. The analyses revealed language dominance and cognate effects: Spanish-dominants exhibited higher error rates than Catalan-dominants, and production and lexical decision accuracy were also affected by cognate status. The present study contributes to the discussion of the organization of early bilinguals' dominant and non-dominant sound systems, and proposes that exemplar theoretic approaches can be extended to include bilingual lexical connections that account for the interactions between the phonetic and lexical levels of early bilingual individuals.

  10. In touch with mental rotation: interactions between mental and tactile rotations and motor responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Johannes; Rolke, Bettina; Butz, Martin V

    2017-04-01

    Although several process models have described the cognitive processing stages that are involved in mentally rotating objects, the exact nature of the rotation process itself remains elusive. According to embodied cognition, cognitive functions are deeply grounded in the sensorimotor system. We thus hypothesized that modal rotation perceptions should influence mental rotations. We conducted two studies in which participants had to judge if a rotated letter was visually presented canonically or mirrored. Concurrently, participants had to judge if a tactile rotation on their palm changed direction during the trial. The results show that tactile rotations can systematically influence mental rotation performance in that same rotations are favored. In addition, the results show that mental rotations produce a response compatibility effect: clockwise mental rotations facilitate responses to the right, while counterclockwise mental rotations facilitate responses to the left. We conclude that the execution of mental rotations activates cognitive mechanisms that are also used to perceive rotations in different modalities and that are associated with directional motor control processes.

  11. Disaster mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....

  12. Physiotherapy and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Probst, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Physiotherapy in mental health care and psychiatry is a recognized specialty within physiotherapy. It offers a rich variety of observational and evaluation tools as well as a range of interventions that are related to the patient’s physical and mental health problems based on evidence-based literature and a 50-year history. Physiotherapy in mental health care addresses human movement, function, physical activity and exercise in individual and group therapeutic settings. Additionally, it conne...

  13. Accessory mental foramen

    OpenAIRE

    Balcioglu, Huseyin Avni; Kocaelli, Humeyra

    2009-01-01

    Context: Accessory mental foramen is a rare anatomical variation. Even so, in order to avoid neurovascular complications, particular attention should be paid to the possible occurrence of one or more accessory mental foramen during surgical procedures involving the mandible. Case report: A 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scan of a female patient revealed an accessory mental foramen on the right side of her mandible. Conclusion: A 3D-CT scan should be obtained prior to mandibular sur...

  14. Urban mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Niels; Kristiansen, Christina Blanner; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2018-01-01

    areas include loneliness, violence, high crime rates, homelessness, noise and other pollutants, traffic accidents, drug abuse, and insufficiency of mental health services. Summary Urbanization is a global and growing phenomenon that pose significant challenges to mental health and mental health services....... Fast and unstructured urbanization, such as that seen in many developing countries, further exacerbates these challenges. There are promising initiatives emerging including initiatives to end homelessness, to improve access to green areas in urban environments, to provide emergency psychiatric services...

  15. Mental patients in prisons

    OpenAIRE

    ARBOLEDA-FLÓREZ, JULIO

    2009-01-01

    Mental conditions usually affect cognitive, emotional and volitional aspects and functions of the personality, which are also functions of interest in law, as they are essential at the time of adjudicating guilt, labeling the accused a criminal, and proffering a sentence. A relationship between mental illness and criminality has, thus, been described and given as one of the reasons for the large number of mental patients in prisons. Whether this relationship is one of causality or one that fl...

  16. Mental Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Švab, Vesna; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana

    2008-01-01

    Mental health conceptualize a state of well-being, perceived self efficacy, competence, autonomy, intergenerational dependence and recognition of the ability to realize one's intellectual and emotional potential. Mental health care are services provided to individuals or communities by agents of the health services or professions to promote, maintain, monitor, or restore mental health. Students will become familiar with extensiveness of the problem, and levels of preventing it. It is illustra...

  17. Salud mental y adicciones

    OpenAIRE

    Boccalari, Paola

    2013-01-01

    La recientemente reglamentada Ley Nacional de Salud Mental 26.657 plantea amplias reformas en el ámbito de la salud pública. Este escrito se detendrá en uno de los puntos de la ley referido al lugar de las adicciones en las políticas de salud mental. Reflexionará sobre las conexiones entre la salud mental y adicciones. Si bien desde la nueva ley las adicciones forman parte de las políticas de salud mental, la “Y” conectora entre ambas, a la vez que unifica ambos campos, también hace pensar en...

  18. Infant mental health in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran, Hasnah; Squires, Jane; Lawrence, Karen

    2011-03-01

    The Infant Mental Health system in Malaysia is described, beginning with cultural and religious practices that influence mental health practices. Second, a description of the Malaysian mental health system, including historical influences, is given. Third, policy and services for young children with mental health problems are described. Finally, recommendations for future steps for developing an effective infant mental health system are presented, including the development of infant mental health policies by the government, increased personnel training, increased community mental health resources, integration of culture into the mental health system, and finally, development of appropriate screening and assessment instruments and systems. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. Quality indicators for international benchmarking of mental health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Richard C; Mattke, Soeren; Somekh, David

    2006-01-01

    To identify quality measures for international benchmarking of mental health care that assess important processes and outcomes of care, are scientifically sound, and are feasible to construct from preexisting data.......To identify quality measures for international benchmarking of mental health care that assess important processes and outcomes of care, are scientifically sound, and are feasible to construct from preexisting data....

  20. Mental health disabilities and human rights protections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmukler, G; Bach, M

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, reports regularly expose persistent and systemic human rights violations of patients in mental health services and facilities, and of those who are unable to access needed supports. A number of factors contribute - political will; the range and quality of services available; public and professional attitudes to mental health; stigma; health professionals' training and expertise; and available resources. This paper examines one of the main determinants, the legal framework. This sets the parameters for mental health policies and services and for applicable human rights norms and standards that can be realized in practice. We provide an overview of international human rights instruments in relation to mental health disabilities, and of the major human rights violations in this area. Key implications for mental health law reform are drawn with a particular focus on discrimination and coercive interventions. The major challenges posed by the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006) are examined. Current mental health laws, to greater or lesser degrees, fail to meet the newly required standards. We discuss reforms based on 'generic law' and 'legal capacity' principles that seek to meet those standards. We outline some emergent and promising examples of reform. The role of civil society and the importance of the standing of those with mental health disabilities in this process is noted.

  1. Direct perception vs inferential processes in reading an opponent's mind: The case of a goalkeeper facing a soccer penalty kick. Comment on "Seeing mental states: An experimental strategy for measuring the observability of other minds" by Cristina Becchio et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandini, Giulio; Morasso, Pietro

    2018-03-01

    In engineering cybernetics, observability is a measure of how well internal states of a system can be inferred from knowledge of its external outputs. Moreover, observability and controllability of a system are mathematically inter-related properties in the sense that it does not matter to have access to hidden states if this knowledge is not exploited for achieving a goal. While such issues can be well posed in the engineering field, in cognitive neuroscience it is quite difficult to restrict the analysis in such a way to isolate direct perception from other cognitive processes, named as "inferences" by the authors [1], without losing a great part of the action (unless one trivializes the meaning of "direct" by stating that "all perception is direct": Gallagher and Zahavi [6]). In other words, in spite of the elegance and scientific rigor of the proposed experimental strategy, in our opinion it misses the fact that in real human-human interactions "direct perception" and "inference" are two faces of the same coin and mental states in a social context are, in a general sense, accessible on the basis of directly perceived sensory signals (here and now) tuned by expectations. In the following, we elaborate this opinion with reference to a competitive interaction paradigm, namely the attempt of a goalkeeper to save a soccer penalty kick by "reading the mind" of his opponent.

  2. Mental Health staff views on improving burnout and mental toughness

    OpenAIRE

    Posner, Zoe; Janssen, Jessica; Roddam, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose- Burnout in mental health staff is acknowledged as a major problem. The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of mental health staff views on improving burnout and mental toughness in mental health staff.\\ud Design/methodology/approach-Ten participants from two mental health rehabilitation units across the North West of England took part in a Nominal Group Technique (NGT). Participants consisted of mental health workers from varied roles in order to\\ud capture views from a...

  3. Children's Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Helping Children in Rural Areas Children's Mental Health Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Mental health in childhood means reaching developmental and emotional milestones, and learning healthy social skills and how to cope when ...

  4. Mental Pain and Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verrocchio, Maria Cristina; Carrozzino, Danilo; Marchetti, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    a systematic review analyzing the relationship between mental pain and suicide by providing a qualitative data synthesis of the studies. Methods: We have conducted, in accordance with PRISMA guidelines, a systematic search for the literature in PubMed, Web Of Science, and Scopus. Search terms were "mental pain...

  5. Deconstructing Mental Rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Axel

    2014-01-01

    A random walk model of the classical mental rotation task is explored in two experiments. By assuming that a mental rotation is repeated until sufficient evidence for a match/mismatch is obtained, the model accounts for the approximately linearly increasing reaction times (RTs) on positive trials...

  6. Women and mental health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohen, Dora

    2000-01-01

    ... for the individual. Covering issues including perinatal psychiatric disorders, depression, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and alcohol and drug abuse - from a female perspective - Women and Mental Health will prove a valuable tool for all those working in the fields of mental health. Dora Kohen is a Consultant Psychiatrist and an Honorary Senior...

  7. Mental Retardation in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Michael; And Others

    This monograph presents a general introduction to the history, classification, and characteristics of mental retardation. It begins with a discussion of the history of mental retardation from ancient Greece and Rome to the present. The beginnings of special education are traced to the early 19th century in Europe. Major influences in treatment of…

  8. Mentalization, embodiment and narrative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Recently, mentalization theory has risen to fame as a theoretical framework emphasising social cognition as a key issue in its approach to psychopathology and psychotherapy. In this paper, I review and criticise the social-ontological assumptions made by mentalization theory, arguing that, in spi...

  9. Mental activity and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, Gert Jan

    2018-01-01

    How does culture affect mental activity? That question, applied to the design of social agents, is tackled in this chapter. Mental activity acts on the perceived outside world. It does so in three steps: perceive, interpret, select action. We see that when culture is taken into account, objective

  10. Women and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unaiza Niaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to the mental health of women are a priority these days. Many international organisations working in the field of psychiatry are having sections on it now. This approach can go a long way in the improvement of the available mental health services for this population.

  11. Malawi's Mental Health Service

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    legislation humane treatment for the mentally ill. In 1913 there was a .... way, the person leaves his village and his com- munity at a time when he is ..... fective treatment? How might we predict if an epileptic patient may commit murder? We have in our mental hospital population a number of people who have murdered while ...

  12. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY IN INDIVIDULAS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag VUJOVIKJ

    2017-10-01

    included analysis of documentation, testing and survey. As the most suitable instruments for this research, I decided to use the test for measuring the IQ and level of mental deterioration of the respondents – WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale for the Macedonian population and Demographic questionnaire which determined the basic demographic characteristics of the respondents. With the help of these two instruments, the most important data for achieving the research goals were obtained, which were further processed and gave the end results of this research. Results: The processing of the data from the study showed that a significant proportion of the individuals with mental disorders do not have intellectual disability as a second diagnosis (p=0,0001, however in the population with mental disorders there will be an appearance of intellectual disability in a significantly greater extend in comparison to the general population (p=0,00096. The type of mental disorder has an effect on the appearance of intellectual disability(p=0,015. The gender (p=0,683 and the age (p=0,669 of the individuals with mental disorders are not affecting the appearance and the level of intellectual disability. There is no statically significant connection between the appearance and the level of mental deterioration and intellectual disability in individuals with mental disorders (p=0,921 and its appearance does not depend on the gender (p=0,606 and age (p=0,649 of the individual with a mental disorder. Conclusion: Considering the fact that there are a great number of people in the institutions for individuals with mental disorders, who despite having a mental disorder also have an intellectual disability as a second diagnosis, a lot more research is needed which will be beneficial for the better understanding of the condition and needs of these individuals, thus improving the diagnostics and the treatment, as well as the quality of their life.

  13. Cognitive processes in CBT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Hofmann, S.G.; Asmundson, G.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Automatic cognitive processing helps us navigate the world. However, if the emotional and cognitive interplay becomes skewed, those cognitive processes can become maladaptive and result in psychopathology. Although biases are present in most mental disorders, different disorders are characterized by

  14. Processer og procesledelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Benedicte

    Bogen udfolder, nuancerer og konkretiserer procesledelse ift. mentale, relationelle og organisatoriske processer. Eksempler på kapitel-overskrifter: Procesbegrebet, Rammesætning, Kontraktredskabet, Mødeledelse, Samtaler, Reflekterende positioner og processer, Konflikthåndtering og teamudvikling, ...

  15. National Institute of Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to content Home Health Information Health Information Home Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental ... Gordon discusses NIMH priorities and future directions in mental health research. More Autism Awareness Month Autism Spectrum Disorder ( ...

  16. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  17. Women Veterans and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... violence (IPV) and women veterans More information on women veterans and mental health Recent research shows that about 25to 30 percent of veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan report symptoms of a mental disorder. Untreated mental ...

  18. Looking after your mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    This leaflet outlines the signs of poor mental health and suggests steps that people can take to promote good mental health. It advises people to talk to someone if they feel that they may have a mental health problem.

  19. Accessory mental foramen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcioglu, Huseyin Avni; Kocaelli, Humeyra

    2009-11-01

    Accessory mental foramen is a rare anatomical variation. Even so, in order to avoid neurovascular complications, particular attention should be paid to the possible occurrence of one or more accessory mental foramen during surgical procedures involving the mandible. A 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scan of a female patient revealed an accessory mental foramen on the right side of her mandible. A 3D-CT scan should be obtained prior to mandibular surgeries so that the presence of accessory mental foramen can be detected, and so that the occurrence of a neurosensory disturbance or hemorrhage can be avoided. Although this anatomical variation is rare, it should be kept in mind that an accessory mental foramen may exist.

  20. [Religiosity and Mental Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Raphael Maria

    2016-12-01

    Since 1978, two systematic evidence-based reviews of the available data on religiosity and mental health in the field of psychiatry have been done. More than 70 % found a relationship between level of religious/spiritual involvement and less mental disorder (positive), some found mixed results (positive and negative), and only about 5 % reported more mental disorder (negative), as was originally suggested by Sigmund Freud. There is good evidence that religious involvement is correlated with better mental health in the areas of depression, substance abuse, and suicide; some evidence in stress-related disorders and dementia; insufficient evidence in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and no data in many other mental disorders. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Mentalizing Family Violence Part 1: Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asen, Eia; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-03-01

    This is the first of two companion papers describing concepts and techniques of a mentalization-based approach to understanding and managing family violence. We review evidence that attachment difficulties, sudden high levels of arousal, and poor affect control contribute to a loss of mentalizing capacity, which, in turn, undermines social learning and can favor the transgenerational transmission of violent interaction patterns. It is suggested that physically violent acts are only possible if mentalizing is temporarily inhibited or decoupled. However, being mentalized in the context of attachment relationships in the family generates epistemic trust within the family unit and reduces the likelihood of family violence. The implications of this framework for therapeutic work with families are discussed. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  2. [Stigma: Barrier to Access to Mental Health Services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Oviedo, Heidi Celina; Herazo, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    The perceived stigma represents a sociocultural barrier to access mental health services and prevents individuals who meet criteria for a mental disorder the possibility of receiving comprehensive and integred care. To update institutional mechanisms by which stigma related to mental disorders, perceived and perpetrated, acts as a barrier to mental health access. Stigma as a barrier to access to mental health services is due to a reduction in service requests, the allocation of limited resources to mental health, the systematic process of impoverishment of the people who suffer a mental disorder, increased risk of crime, and implications in contact with the legal system, and the invisibility of the vulnerability of these people. Structured awareness and education programs are needed to promote awareness about mental disorders, promote community-based psychosocial rehabilitation, and reintegration into productive life process. In Colombia, the frequency and variables associated with the stigma of mental disorders needs to be studied. This knowledge will enable the implementation of measures to promote the social and labor inclusion of people who meet the criteria for mental disorders. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. All rights reserved.

  3. Sterilization of mentally retarded persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Merwe, J V; Roux, J P

    1987-08-01

    South Africa's Abortion and Sterilization Act No 2 (1975) authorizes sterilization for severely retarded women provided the procedure is performed in a state hospital, certified by 2 medical practitioners (1 a psychiatrist), and the parent or guardian gives informed consent. Since 1975, 152 sterilizations (140 female, 12 male) have been performed under the provisions of this Act at Pretoria's H F Verwoerd Hospital. 92% of the patients were under 20 years of age. The majority were classified as profoundly or severely retarded (74) or moderately severely retarded (68). There were 20 patients with Down's syndrome and 22 with cerebral palsy. Hysterectomy was the method of choice in the 109 women in whom menstrual hygiene was a pertinent factor; the remaining 31 women were sterilized by tubal ligation. 98% of the parents or guardians of hysterectomy acceptors surveyed were satisfied with their decision and its outcome. Several indicated their daughter was more calm, cooperative, productive, and less irritable once relieved of her menstrual periods. A multidisciplinary team approach to the decision making process and the individualization of each case are essential to protect the rights of the mentally retarded. Factors such as the psychological trauma likely to result from pregnancy and childbirth, an inability to use contraception, and unsuitability to rear a child must be demonstrated. To ensure that legislation pertaining to the sterilization of the mentally retarded does not lead to abuse, inputs from the mental health professions are required.

  4. Organizational change management in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaly, Tom; Arya, Dinesh

    2005-06-01

    To discuss change management as applicable to mental health. As mental health care grows increasingly complex, and the network of accountability widens, change is both inevitable and necessary. Strategies to introduce change effectively are essential. Resistance by medical staff to change often has a sound basis and must be acknowledged and explored. Change in clinical systems and practice is facilitated by careful planning and preparation, and by engaging clinicians in all phases of the change process; change will fail if this is not achieved. A number of management models facilitate the understanding and process of change.

  5. A Dual Process Approach to Understand Tourists’ Destination Choice Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Florian; Josiassen, Alexander; Assaf, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Most studies that investigate tourists' choices of destinations apply the concept of mental destination representations, also referred to as destination image. The present study investigates tourists’ destination choice processes by conceptualizing how different components of destination image...... are mentally processed in tourists' minds. Specifically, the seminal dual processing approach is applied to the destination image literature. By doing this, we argue that some components of mental destination representations are processed systematically while others serve as inputs for heuristics...... that individuals apply to inform their decision making. Understanding how individuals make use of their mental destination representations and how they color their decision-making is essential in order to better explain tourist behavior....

  6. Integrating mental health and social development in theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagerson, Sophie

    2015-03-01

    In many low and middle income countries, attention to mental illness remains compartmentalized and consigned as a matter for specialist policy. Despite great advances in global mental health, mental health policy and practice dovetail only to a limited degree with social development efforts. They often lag behind broader approaches to health and development. This gap ignores the small but growing evidence that social development unavoidably impacts the mental health of those affected, and that this influence can be both positive and negative. This article examines the theoretical and practical challenges that need to be overcome for a more effective integration of social development and mental health policy. From a theoretical perspective, this article demonstrates compatibility between social development and mental health paradigms. In particular, the capability approach is shown to provide a strong framework for integrating mental health and development. Yet, capability-oriented critiques on 'happiness' have recently been applied to mental health with potentially detrimental outcomes. With regard to policy and practice, horizontal and vertical integration strategies are suggested. Horizontal strategies require stronger devolution of mental health care to the primary care level, more unified messages regarding mental health care provision and the gradual expansion of mental health packages of care. Vertical integration refers to the alignment of mental health with related policy domains (particularly the social, economic and political domains). Evidence from mental health research reinforces aspects of social development theory in a way that can have tangible implications on practice. First, it encourages a focus on avoiding exclusion of those affected by or at risk of mental illness. Secondly, it underscores the importance of the process of implementation as an integral component of successful policies. Finally, by retaining a focus on the individual, it seeks to

  7. Homelessness and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J

    1993-03-01

    In Great Britain 1-2 million people may be homeless. Most homeless people are men, but about 10-25% are women, of whom about half are accompanied by children. Significant mental illness is present in 30-50% of the homeless: functional psychoses predominate; acute distress and personality dysfunction are also prevalent. Co-morbidity of mental illness and substance abuse occurs in 20%, and physical morbidity rates exceed those of domiciled populations. The homeless mentally ill also have many social needs. Pathways to homelessness are complex; deinstitutionalization may be only one possible cause of the increase in the number of homeless people. There is much recent research estimating the extent of mental illness and the characteristics of selected subgroups of accessible homeless people. The evaluation of potential service solutions has received less attention. This review outlines the research, highlights current views on the definition and classification of homeless populations, and offers some guidelines on avenues which need to be explored.

  8. Psychoneuroimmunology of mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Virginia; Uribe, Javiera; Salvat-Pujol, Neus; Palao, Diego; Menchón, José Manuel; Labad, Javier

    2017-10-06

    The immune system is a key element in the organism's defence system and participates in the maintenance of homeostasis. There is growing interest in the aetiopathogenic and prognostic implications of the immune system in mental disorders, as previous studies suggest the existence of a dysregulation of the immune response and a pro-inflammatory state in patients with mental disorders, as well as an increased prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases or receiving immune treatments. This study aims to conduct a narrative review of the scientific literature on the role of Psychoneuroimmunology in mental disorders, with special focus on diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic issues. The development of this body of knowledge may bring in the future important advances in the vulnerability, aetiopathogenic mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of some mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. What Is Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Family Members For Educators For Community and Faith Leaders Conversations in Your Community How To Get Help Get Immediate Help Help for Veterans and Their Families Health Insurance and Mental Health Services Participate in a ...

  10. Women's Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tools and materials offering practical ways to help adolescent girls and adult women achieve better physical, mental, ... org Spanish-speaking operators available National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders 1-847-831-3438 9: ...

  11. Managerial support of community mental health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, Akiko; Miyamoto, Yuki; Kayama, Mami

    2007-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study to describe the support behaviours practised by managers of community mental health nurses (CMHNs) who provide homecare for people with mental illness, and to identify factors related to those behaviours. Homecare of mentally ill clients can prevent hospital readmission, provide rehabilitation, and include support for medication adherence, personal relationships, mental health, activities of daily living, as well as supporting informal caregivers. However, this work is stressful for CMHNs, who can themselves develop mental health problems and suffer burnout. Therefore support for these nurses is essential. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 nurse managers in 2004. A constant comparative data collection and analysis process was used, and a core category identified. Four categories of managerial support behaviour were identified: (1) 'modifying client-nurse relationships'; (2) 'ensuring community mental health nurse safety'; (3) 'providing emotional support'; (4) 'providing opportunities for skill development'. 'To continue homecare for clients in need' emerged as a core category, representing the ultimate purpose of managerial support behaviours. Moreover, the timing of managerial support behaviours was influenced by the quality and length of the client-nurse relationship. The managerial support behaviours reported in the present study may be useful in other cultural contexts. Further research is needed to evaluate their effectiveness for CMHNs in other settings in Japan and other countries.

  12. Coagulation and Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking coagulation and some psychiatric disorders.

  13. Radiation and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1988-01-01

    A brief article discusses mental retardation in children who had been exposed to ionizing radiation in utero. The time of greatest sensitivity is between the 8th and 15th week after conception and the time of lesser sensitivity between the 16th and 25th weeks. An examination of the thresholds for exposure indicate that severe mental retardation would not result from any present environmental exposures of the public. (U.K.)

  14. Mental sundhed i skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Grabowski, Dan

    Denne rapport sætter fokus på børn og unges mentale sundhed. Skolen kan gøre en forskel ved at skabe rammerne for en mental sundhedsfremmende skole, der tænker sundhedsbegrebet bredt. Men skolen bør ikke stå alene med ansvaret og derfor er der behov for en samlet strategi. En mentalt sundhedsfrem...

  15. Public school teachers’ perceptions about mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Amanda Gonçalves Simões; Estanislau, Gustavo; Brietzke, Elisa; Lefèvre, Fernando; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6%) showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools. PMID:26039397

  16. Mental Health, Racism, and Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others

    This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…

  17. Mental representation and mental practice: experimental investigation on the functional links between motor memory and motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M; Popp, Carmen; Schack, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on mental representation of complex action has revealed distinct differences in the structure of representational frameworks between experts and novices. More recently, research on the development of mental representation structure has elicited functional changes in novices' representations as a result of practice. However, research investigating if and how mental practice adds to this adaptation process is lacking. In the present study, we examined the influence of mental practice (i.e., motor imagery rehearsal) on both putting performance and the development of one's representation of the golf putt during early skill acquisition. Novice golfers (N = 52) practiced the task of golf putting under one of four different practice conditions: mental, physical, mental-physical combined, and no practice. Participants were tested prior to and after a practice phase, as well as after a three day retention interval. Mental representation structures of the putt were measured, using the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation. This method provides psychometric data on the distances and groupings of basic action concepts in long-term memory. Additionally, putting accuracy and putting consistency were measured using two-dimensional error scores of each putt. Findings revealed significant performance improvements over the course of practice together with functional adaptations in mental representation structure. Interestingly, after three days of practice, the mental representations of participants who incorporated mental practice into their practice regime displayed representation structures that were more similar to a functional structure than did participants who did not incorporate mental practice. The findings of the present study suggest that mental practice promotes the cognitive adaptation process during motor learning, leading to more elaborate representations than physical practice only.

  18. Mental Retardation and the Neglected Construct of Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzky, Harvey N.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that an educational definition of mental retardation has to be sensitive to the motivational self-system and the self-regulatory processes that underpin performance of students with mental retardation. The theory of motivational orientation that explains the differences in students with intrinsic motivation or extrinsic motivation is…

  19. Expert Systems as a Mindtool To Facilitate Mental Model Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Mason, Susan Dale; Tessmer, Martin A.

    2000-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated whether the process of constructing an expert system model promotes the formation of expert-like mental models. Discusses expert systems as mindtools, expert systems as learning tools, the assessment of mental models, results of pretests and posttests, and future research. (Contains 56 references.) (Author/LRW)

  20. California Colleges and Universities Collaborate to Support Student Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbridge, Michelle W.; Goldweber, Asha; Yu, Jennifer; Golan, Shari; Stein, Bradley D.

    2014-01-01

    One key objective of California's Prevention and Early Intervention (PEI) Student Mental Health (SMH) initiative funded under Proposition 63 is to establish a formal process for ongoing collaboration between higher education systems and county mental health, as well as to increase collaboration among higher education campuses to improve student…

  1. Human Trafficking: A Review for Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushko, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of current research on human trafficking for mental health practitioners and scholars. In addition to an overview of definitions, causes and processes of trafficking, the article highlights mental health consequences of trafficking along with suggestions for treatment of survivors. Directions for counseling services,…

  2. Migration and Mental Health: Evidence from a Natural Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, David; Gibson, John; Stillman, Steven

    2009-01-01

    People migrate to improve their well-being, whether through an expansion of economic and social opportunities or a reduction in persecution. Yet a large literature suggests that migration can be a stressful process, with potentially negative impacts on mental health, reducing the net benefits of migration. However, to truly understand the effect of migration on mental health one must compa...

  3. Effect of Mental Accounting on Corporate Profitability | Anolam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the impact of mental accounting on the performance of corporate organizations, using selected corporate entities in Owerri metropolis. The core objective of the study centres on the extent to which the components of mental accounting (including transaction utility, categorization process, and choice ...

  4. Mental stress in college students

    OpenAIRE

    BLECHOVÁ, Romana

    2016-01-01

    The thesis deals with an incidence of mental stress of college students. The thesis is not only focused on the present, but also on the degree of mental stress and the factors that affect the degree of stress. The first objective is to analyse the incidence and impact of mental stress at students of the faculty. A partial objective is to describe the relation of physical activity and mental load, as many authors state that physically active individuals are mentally more resistant. Furthermore...

  5. [Comorbid antisocial and borderline personality disorders: mentalization-based treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Mentalization is the process by which we implicitly and explicitly interpret the actions of ourselves and others as meaningful based on intentional mental states (e.g., desires, needs, feelings, beliefs, and reasons). This process is disrupted in individuals with comorbid antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD), who tend to misinterpret others' motives. Antisocial characteristics stabilize mentalizing by rigidifying relationships within prementalistic ways of functioning. However, loss of flexibility makes the person vulnerable to sudden collapse when the schematic representation is challenged. This exposes feelings of humiliation, which can only be avoided by violence and control of the other person. The common path to violence is via a momentary inhibition of the capacity for mentalization. In this article, the authors outline their current understanding of mentalizing and its relation to antisocial characteristics and violence. This is illustrated by a clinical account of mentalization-based treatment adapted for antisocial personality disorder. Treatment combines group and individual therapy. The focus is on helping patients maintain mentalizing about their own mental states when their personal integrity is challenged. A patient with ASPD does not have mental pain associated with another's state of mind; thus, to generate conflict in ASPD by thinking about the victim will typically be ineffective in inducing behavior change.

  6. Comorbid antisocial and borderline personality disorders: mentalization-based treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter

    2008-02-01

    Mentalization is the process by which we implicitly and explicitly interpret the actions of ourselves and others as meaningful based on intentional mental states (e.g., desires, needs, feelings, beliefs, and reasons). This process is disrupted in individuals with comorbid antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD), who tend to misinterpret others' motives. Antisocial characteristics stabilize mentalizing by rigidifying relationships within prementalistic ways of functioning. However, loss of flexibility makes the person vulnerable to sudden collapse when the schematic representation is challenged. This exposes feelings of humiliation, which can only be avoided by violence and control of the other person. The common path to violence is via a momentary inhibition of the capacity for mentalization. In this article, the authors outline their current understanding of mentalizing and its relation to antisocial characteristics and violence. This is illustrated by a clinical account of mentalization-based treatment adapted for antisocial personality disorder. Treatment combines group and individual therapy. The focus is on helping patients maintain mentalizing about their own mental states when their personal integrity is challenged. A patient with ASPD does not have mental pain associated with another's state of mind; thus, to generate conflict in ASPD by thinking about the victim will typically be ineffective in inducing behavior change. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  7. Communication and Mental Health: Psychiatric Forerunners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Deems M.

    The connections between human communication and mental health were first noted 50 to 60 years ago by such early psychiatrists as Alfred Adler, Harry Stack Sullivan, and Karen Horney. They were concerned with understanding those communication processes and skills that make for effective, fully functioning human beings. Adler emphasized faulty…

  8. Problems for Paraprofessionals in Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayes, Marjorie; Neill, T. Kerby

    1978-01-01

    Issues of changing positions and roles for paraprofessionals are considered in the context of the hierarchical structure and process of mental health organizations. Discussion focuses on problems arising when paraprofessionals are promoted in the functional hierarchy while continuing to occupy the lowest level in the professional caste system.…

  9. Mental health and due process in the Americas: protecting the human rights of persons involuntarily admitted to and detained in psychiatric institutions La salud mental y los procedimientos reglamentarios en las Américas: la protección de los derechos humanos de las personas recluidas y retenidas en hospitales psiquiátricos contra su voluntad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance Gable

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available En muchos países de la región de las Américas, las personas con discapacidades mentales pueden ser recluidas en centros psiquiátricos contra su voluntad, indefinidamente, sin apenas justificación, y con poca supervisión o ninguna. Estas circunstancias son una clara violación de derechos humanos, tales como el derecho a la libertad, y del derecho al procedimiento reglamentario con todas las garantías judiciales, tal como establecen los tratados de derechos humanos con fuerza vinculante en los niveles internacional y regional. Además, muchos países de América Latina y el Caribe no han adoptado leyes específicas en materia de salud mental ni han interpretado los dictámenes constitucionales en el contexto de la salud mental de una manera acorde con los principios y recomendaciones que rigen actualmente en materia de derechos humanos. mecanismos de vigilancia y monitoreo del Sistema Interamericano de Derechos Humanos pueden constituir un instrumento jurídico eficaz y de utilidad para promover y proteger los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales de las personas con discapacidades mentales; en este sentido pueden suplementar las leyes nacionales o servir como fuente de regulación en aquellos lugares donde no existen leyes nacionales. Los países deben promulgar leyes nacionales que confieren una protección básica, de acuerdo con las garantías legales, a aquellas personas que hayan sido recluidas en centros de salud mental en contra de su voluntad. Esto ayudaría a garantizar que las personas no sean internadas y retenidas de forma arbitraria, que la discapacidad mental sea lo bastante grave como para justificar su internamiento involuntario, y que la decisión de internar y retener a la persona sea revisada periódicamente, de manera eficiente, por un tribunal independiente e imparcial. Consideramos necesaria una aplicación más rigurosa de las normas de los derechos humanos por parte del Sistema Interamericano de Derechos

  10. Public mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Jutta; Bilsen, Johan; Jakubauskiene, Marija

    2017-10-01

    Public mental health (PMH) is a major challenge for public health research and practice. This article is organized in six parts. First, we will highlight the significance of PMH; second, we will define mental health and mental disorders; third, we identify and describe determinants of mental health and mental disorders on which we worked in the past 10 years since the establishment of the PMH section such as social determinants and violence. Fourth, we will describe the development of the EUPHA PMH section and provide details on vulnerable groups in the field of PMH, on violence as a main determinant and on suicide as an outcome which affects all countries in the European region. Fifth, we describe policy and practice implications of the development of PMH and highlight the European dimension of PMH. We will conclude this article by providing an outlook on potential further development of PMH as regards research and policy and practice. Finally, we hope that the EUPHA PMH section will contribute to public health in the next 25 years and we can contribute to improvement of PMH in Europe. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Double mental foramina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruska Ventorini Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the location, trajectory, and characteristics of the neurovascular bundles in the jaws is fundamental to reduce risk of injuries to this structure during surgical procedures, especially when anatomical variations are present. The presence of anatomical variations associated with the mental foramen has been reported in some cases and is frequently undervalued in clinical procedures. Sensorial disturbances, such as paresthesia in the lower lip or cheeks, may occur as result of pressure on the mental foramen. These anatomical variations can be detected in clinical practice by imaging exams. Computed tomography has been established as a valuable imaging modality capable of providing in-depth information about maxillofacial structures, allowing detailed evaluation of their topography and anatomical variations, such as additional mental foramina. The objective of this article was to describe a case with double mental foramina that only could be observed in computed tomography images. The use of cone beam computed tomography has increased in dentistry, thus anatomical variations that may have an influence on the diagnosis and treatment planning must be recognized. Have a good knowledge of additional mental foramina may contribute to adequate anesthetic techniques and to avoid misdiagnosis of bone lesions and eventual damages to the nerves and vessel during surgical procedures in that region.

  12. Romantic relationships and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Scott; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne

    2017-02-01

    This paper reviews the research on relationships and mental health. Individuals who are more mentally healthy are more likely to select into relationships, but relationships are also demonstrably associated with mental health. The type of relationship matters - evidence suggests that more established, committed relationships, such as marriage, are associated with greater benefits than less committed unions such as cohabitation. The association between relationships and mental health is clearly bidirectional, however, stronger effects are observed when mental health is the outcome and relationships are the predictor, suggesting that the causal arrow flows more strongly from relationships to mental health than vice versa. Moreover, improving relationships improves mental health, but improving mental health does not reliably improve relationships. Our review of research corroborates the view that relationships are a keystone component of human functioning that have the potential to influence a broad array of mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Mental health informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Insu; Yellowlees, Peter; Diederich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces approaches that have the potential to transform the daily practice of psychiatrists and psychologists. This includes the asynchronous communication between mental health care providers and clients as well as the automation of assessment and therapy. Speech and language are particularly interesting from the viewpoint of psychological assessment. For instance, depression may change the characteristics of voice in individuals and these changes can be detected by a special form of speech analysis. Computational screening methods that utilise speech and language can detect subtle changes and alert clinicians as well as individuals and caregivers. The use of online technologies in mental health, however, poses ethical problems that will occupy concerned individuals, governments and the wider public for some time. Assuming that these ethical problems can be solved, it should be possible to diagnose and treat mental health disorders online (excluding the use of medication).

  14. Mental Health Ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringer, Agnes

    2017-01-01

    hospitalized, but to get inside the contemporary psychiatric institution and to participate in the social world of patients and professionals, I had to experiment with different ethnographic approaches. Ethnographies of mental health have become increasingly rare, and much research on language in psychiatric......In 2010, I began a PhD study to examine how professionals and patients talked to—and about—each other in mental health institutions in Denmark. One year later, I found myself chain-smoking, dressed in baggy clothing, and slouching on a sofa in a closed psychiatric ward. I had not myself been...... institutions is done by interview research. My study involved observing and participating in the day-to-day life at two mental health facilities: an outpatient clinic and an inpatient closed ward. The case study provides an account of some of the specific methodological problems and unanticipated events...

  15. [Improving population mental health by integrating mental health care into primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Matthew; Gilbert, Michel; Fleury, Marie-Josée

    Objective The objectives of this review were to identify and compare major international initiatives aiming to integrate mental health services in primary care and to summarize the lessons learned for similar integration efforts in the province of Quebec, Canada.Methods We conducted a narrative review of the literature guided by a conceptual framework drawn from the literature on integrated care. We identified relevant initiatives to support primary mental health care integration through Pubmed searches and through previous systematic reviews on this topic. We then selected those initiatives that provided sufficient details on their key characteristics, outcomes, and implementation issues (e.g. barriers, facilitators). We focused our analysis on large-scale initiatives as these offered the most potential for impacts on population mental health. This process resulted in the selection of 20 initiatives that were described in 153 articles and reports. Our synthesis was guided by our conceptual framework, which distinguishes between five types of integration, namely clinical, professional, organizational, systemic and functional integration.Results Of the 20 primary mental health care integration initiatives, 3 targeted youth, 14 targeted adults or multiple age groups, and 3 were targeted towards seniors. Most initiatives aimed to implement collaborative care models for common mental disorders in primary care. Other initiatives focused on co-locating mental health professionals in primary care, supporting the emergence of a diversity of integration projects led by community-based primary care practices, or the merger of primary care and mental health organizations. Most initiatives were based on clinical, professional and functional integration strategies. Across initiatives, a range of positive outcomes were reported, notably to the accessibility and quality of services, the satisfaction of patients and providers, the costs of services, and impacts on patients' health

  16. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures

  17. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-08-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

  18. Mental Fatigue Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Rozhentsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article offers the method for evaluation of mental fatigue, based on the method of paired light pulses. Ten pre-trained test men with normal vision, aged 18–20 participated in the experiment. Testees were showed subsequent paired light pulses at a 200 ms interval, divided by initial interpulse interval of 70 ms, recurring at the fixed time interval of 1 s. Testees determined the threshold interpulse interval, at which the two pulses in a pair merged into one, three times, using the method of successive approximation. Then testees solved algebraic equations with several unknowns for two hours. The threshold interpulse interval was determined three times every 20 minutes in the course of equations solving. The degree of mental fatigue DMF was calculated, using the formula: DMFi = (TPIi – TPI0 100% / TPIi; i = 1, 2, … , n, where DMFi is the degree of mental fatigue at the i-th measurement; TPIi is average arithmetic duration of threshold interpulse interval at the i-th measurement; TPI0 is average arithmetic duration of threshold interpulse interval before algebraic equations solving; n is the dimension of threshold interpulse interval measurement in the course of algebraic equations solving. After 20 minutes of work, the degree of mental fatigue of one of the testees was 9.5 %, rose to 21 % by the end of the first hour and exceeded 39 % by the end of the second hour. Similar dynamics of mental fatigue was observed in all testees, but its development and the degree of fatigue are individual. To prevent fatigue and ensure high level of efficiency one should set the individual schedule and rest pauses duration during mental activity.

  19. Community Mental Health Preparedness in Disasters: A Qualitative Content Analysis in an Iranian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet Roudini

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Mental health preparedness is a multifactorial phenomenon that requires a clear understanding and definition of perceived threats, public trust on social structure and formal and informal supportive organization. This preparedness involves proportional, mental, social, familial, religious beliefs, and cultural sensitivity along with the ability to handle mentally disastrous situation, which can be measured after concept analysis and tool development process.

  20. Motion Controllers for Learners to Manipulate and Interact with 3D Objects for Mental Rotation Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shih-Ching; Wang, Jin-Liang; Wang, Chin-Yeh; Lin, Po-Han; Chen, Gwo-Dong; Rizzo, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Mental rotation is an important spatial processing ability and an important element in intelligence tests. However, the majority of past attempts at training mental rotation have used paper-and-pencil tests or digital images. This study proposes an innovative mental rotation training approach using magnetic motion controllers to allow learners to…

  1. Individual Differences in ERPs during Mental Rotation of Characters: Lateralization, and Performance Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beste, Christian; Heil, Martin; Konrad, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    The cognitive process of imaging an object turning around is called mental rotation. Many studies have been put forward analyzing mental rotation by means of event-related potentials (ERPs). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured during mental rotation of characters in a sample (N = 82) with a sufficient size to obtain even small effects. A…

  2. Specialized mechanisms for theory of mind: are mental representations special because they are mental or because they are representations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam S; Sasaki, Joni Y; German, Tamsin C

    2015-03-01

    Does theory of mind depend on a capacity to reason about representations generally or on mechanisms selective for the processing of mental state representations? In four experiments, participants reasoned about beliefs (mental representations) and notes (non-mental, linguistic representations), which according to two prominent theories are closely matched representations because both are represented propositionally. Reaction times were faster and accuracies higher when participants endorsed or rejected statements about false beliefs than about false notes (Experiment 1), even when statements emphasized representational format (Experiment 2), which should have favored the activation of representation concepts. Experiments 3 and 4 ruled out a counterhypothesis that differences in task demands were responsible for the advantage in belief processing. These results demonstrate for the first time that understanding of mental and linguistic representations can be dissociated even though both may carry propositional content, supporting the theory that mechanisms governing theory of mind reasoning are narrowly specialized to process mental states, not representations more broadly. Extending this theory, we discuss whether less efficient processing of non-mental representations may be a by-product of mechanisms specialized for processing mental states. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mental models of flash floods and landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Klaus

    2007-06-01

    Perceptions of flash floods and landslides were analyzed in four communities of the Bavarian Alps using the mental model approach. Thirty-eight qualitative interviews, two telephone surveys with 600 respondents, and two onsite interviews (74/95 respondents) were conducted. Mental models concerning flash floods are much better developed than those for landslides because the key physical processes for flash floods are easier for the general public to recognize and understand. Mental models are influenced by the local conditions. People who have a better knowledge about the hazards are those who use many different sources to inform themselves, express fear about natural hazards, or have previous experience with hazards. Conclusions for how to improve information for the general public are discussed.

  4. Mental health, participation and social identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Gundi Schrötter; Elstad, Toril

    2017-01-01

    , social incluison and integration for people who live with mental health problems. Aiming to support people in daily life, community mental health services that facilitate active participation are encouraged internationally (WHO 2001b, 2005,2013). From these perspectives, we will present our studies from......This chapter aims to contribute to an understanding of the social dimension the concept of participation and the meaning participation can have for mental health and identity. In order to increase participation, it is important to support the personal recovery process of each individual. However...... since participation can function as a link between individuals and society, health and welfare services should also provide opportunities for social inclusion and reciprocal relationships. According to the theories of Goffman (1967) and Mead (1934/1967) face-toface interaction is of central importance...

  5. Coping focus counselling in mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, Eamon; Jubb-Shanley, Maureen

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe a newly-developed system of mental health nurse counselling (coping focus counselling (CFC)) for people with serious and complex mental health needs. The system is based on the recovery alliance theory (RAT) of mental health nursing. The paper identifies shortcomings in current practices in psychotherapy and counselling in the exclusive use of techniques from a single approach, for example, cognitive behaviour therapy, client-centred therapy, attachment theory, or Gestalt theory. It also discusses the opposite dangers of the use of many techniques from different approaches, without a clear rationale for their selection. CFC was developed to avoid these practices. It accommodates the selective use of techniques from different approaches. Techniques selected are viewed as deriving their meanings from the theoretical framework into which they are assimilated, namely RAT, and no longer take the same meaning from the theory from which they originated. Central to this integrative process is the use of the concept of coping. Other distinguishing features of CFC are the use of everyday language in using the system and the reaffirmation of the nurse-client relationship within a working alliance as the basis in which the CFC operates. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  6. Indian legal system and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Choudhary Laxmi; Shikha, Deep

    2013-01-01

    Although there was a rich tradition of legal system in Ancient India, the present judicial system of the country derives largely from the British system and is based on English Common Law, a system of law based on recorded judicial precedents. Earlier legislations in respect of mental health were primarily concerned with custodial aspects of persons with mental illness and protection of the society. Indian laws are also concerned with determination of competency, diminished responsibility and/or welfare of the society. United Nations Convention for Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) was adopted in 2006, which marks a paradigm shift in respect of disabilities (including disability due to mental illness) from a social welfare concern to a human right issue. The new paradigm is based on presumption of legal capacity, equality and dignity. Following ratification of the convention by India in 2008, it became obligatory to revise all the disability laws to bring them in harmony with the UNCRPD. Therefore, the Mental Health Act - 1987 and Persons with Disability Act - 1995 are under process of revision and draft bills have been prepared. Human right activists groups are pressing for provisions for legal capacity for persons with mental illness in absolute terms, whereas the psychiatrists are in favor of retaining provisions for involuntary hospitalization in special circumstances.

  7. School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…

  8. Teacher Candidate Mental Health and Mental Health Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dods, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Providing teacher candidates with a strong foundation in mental health literacy during their teacher education program is crucial in ensuring novice teachers are prepared to support the mental health needs of their students. In addition to responding to students, teacher candidates are typically at an age when mental health disorders are common…

  9. Mental Illness in Persons with Mental Retardation: ARC Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Linda R.; Wimmer, Sharon

    This brief factsheet presents information on mental illness in mentally retarded persons. The most prevalent disorders found in this population are schizophrenia, organic brain syndrome, adjustment disorders, personality disorders, depression, and behavioral problems. Few standardized methods of assessment exist for the diagnosis of mental illness…

  10. Mental imagery: a tool to promote creativity in the FL classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Ávila López, Francisco Javier

    2002-01-01

    Recent psychological research suggests that much of our of learning includes imagery as part of the cognitive processes. Mental imagery can lead to significant improvement in learning given proper guidance. One of the most important reasons for that cognitive potential is the close relationship between mental imagery and creativity. Research points to the ability to generate and manipulate mental imagery as one of the main components of creativity; guided mental imagery training can help to a...

  11. The role of mental health in primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence

    OpenAIRE

    Gevers, Aník; Dartnall, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary preventio...

  12. Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... emotion as well as muscle movement. For years, mental health professionals have recognized that coping with a chronic ...

  13. Cities and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruebner, Oliver; Rapp, Michael A; Adli, Mazda; Kluge, Ulrike; Galea, Sandro; Heinz, Andreas

    2017-02-24

    More than half of the global population currently lives in cities, with an increasing trend for further urbanization. Living in cities is associated with increased population density, traffic noise and pollution, but also with better access to health care and other commodities. This review is based on a selective literature search, providing an overview of the risk factors for mental illness in urban centers. Studies have shown that the risk for serious mental illness is generally higher in cities compared to rural areas. Epidemiological studies have associated growing up and living in cities with a considerably higher risk for schizophrenia. However, correlation is not causation and living in poverty can both contribute to and result from impairments associated with poor mental health. Social isolation and discrimination as well as poverty in the neighborhood contribute to the mental health burden while little is known about specific interactions between such factors and the built environment. Further insights on the interaction between spatial heterogeneity of neighborhood resources and socio-ecological factors is warranted and requires interdisciplinary research.

  14. Help for Mental Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that participate with your plan. Mental Health and Addiction Insurance Help : This website from the U.S. Department ... in the Health & Education section. The website is mobile and print-friendly. Printed ... eastern time, M-F Phone: 1-866-615-6464 TTY: 1-301-443- ...

  15. Mental retirement and schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Martinello, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We assess the validity of differences in eligibility ages for early and old age pension benefits as instruments for estimating the effect of retirement on cognitive functioning. Because differences in eligibility ages across country and gender are correlated with differences in years of schooling...... of the “mental retirement” effects which have recently been found...

  16. Recovery from mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Friis, Vivi Soegaard; Haxholm, Birthe Lodahl

    2015-01-01

    Mental health services strive to implement a recovery-oriented approach to rehabilitation. Little is known about service users' perception of the recovery approach. The aim is to explore the service user's perspectives on facilitators and barriers associated with recovery. Twelve residents living...

  17. Mini mental state examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørner, Ejnar Alex; Lauritzen, Lise; Wang, August

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in Denmark, but often in non-validated versions. In 2000 a cross-sectional workgroup decided on a new common version of the MMSE with a corresponding manual, which is validated for the first time in the present study. MATERIALS...

  18. Mental sundhed i skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    Baggrund: Skolebørns opfattelse af sundhed har i høj grad noget med deres selvbilleder, trivsel og sociale inklusion at gøre. Det viser en lang række nyere undersøgelser, der alle peger på, at det er nødvendigt at skærpe opmærksomheden på børn og unges mentale sundhed. Internationalt er der...... udviklet og afprøvet en række pædagogiske programmer, der kan bruges til at igangsætte aktiviteter, der fremmer børn og unges mentale sundhed i skolen. Især i USA, Australien og Storbritannien har der været fokus på evidensbaseret praksis og praksisbaseret evidens i denne sammenhæng. I Danmark har man ikke...... på sammen måde tilgængelig systematiseret viden herom. Sundhedsstyrelsen har gennem de senere år prioriteret indsatser og fremskrivning af evidensgrundlag til fremme af mental sundhed højt. Betydningen af børns mentale sundhed og overvejelser om, hvilken slags evidens der er behov for på dette område...

  19. Mental Recreation in Wonderland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendlebury, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The author argues that children's books are not, as commonly held, either didactic or entertaining and that successful juvenile literature teaches what Lewis Carroll, who wrote "Alice in Wonderland," termed "mental recreation." Pendlebury contends that learning and play, far from being opposites, can closely resemble one…

  20. Nations for Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available La Organización Mundial de la Salud ha establecido un programa especial denominado "Naciones unidas para la salud mental" con el fin de fomentar la salud mental en poblaciones subatendidas, con particular énfasis en las mujeres, los niños, los adolescentes, los refugiados y los pueblos indígenas. Uno de los objetivos del programa es crear una mayor conciencia entre el público y los gobiernos acerca del costo social y económico de los trastornos mentales y del abuso de sustancias. Un segundo objetivo es identificar y promover estrategias de colaboración para mejorar la salud mental que se puedan poner en práctica por medio de proyectos de cooperación técnica de nivel nacional dirigidos por las organizaciones del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en colaboración con otras organizaciones internacionales gubernamentales y no gubernamentales. Ya están en marcha varios proyectos de demostración y otros se están planificando.

  1. Nations for Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available La Organización Mundial de la Salud ha establecido un programa especial denominado "Naciones unidas para la salud mental" con el fin de fomentar la salud mental en poblaciones subatendidas, con particular énfasis en las mujeres, los niños, los adolescentes, los refugiados y los pueblos indígenas. Uno de los objetivos del programa es crear una mayor conciencia entre el público y los gobiernos acerca del costo social y económico de los trastornos mentales y del abuso de sustancias. Un segundo objetivo es identificar y promover estrategias de colaboración para mejorar la salud mental que se puedan poner en práctica por medio de proyectos de cooperación técnica de nivel nacional dirigidos por las organizaciones del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en colaboración con otras organizaciones internacionales gubernamentales y no gubernamentales. Ya están en marcha varios proyectos de demostración y otros se están planificando.

  2. Carga Mental e Ergonomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Corrêa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investiga a utilidade e a possibilidade de uso da base teórica de Carga Mental no trabalho, em uma situação de trabalho específica no que se refere aos seus aspectos ergonômicos.

  3. Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.

  4. Mentalization-Based Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter

    2013-11-01

    The concept of mentalizing has captured the interest and imagination of an astonishing range of people-from psychoanalysts to neuroscientists, from child development researchers to geneticists, from existential philosophers to phenomenologists-all of whom seem to have found it useful. According to the Thompson Reuter maintained Web of Science, the use of the term in titles and abstracts of scientific papers increased from 10 to 2,750 between 1991 and 2011. Clinicians in particular have enthusiastically embraced the idea, and have put it to innovative use in their practices. Mentalization-based treatment (MBT)-making mentalizing a core focus of therapy-was initially developed for the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in routine clinical services delivered in group and individual modalities. Therapy with mentalizing as a central component is currently being developed for treatment of numerous groups, including people with antisocial personality disorder, substance abuse, eating disorders, and at-risk mothers with infants and children (A. Bateman & Fonagy, 2011). It is also being used with families and adolescents, in schools, and in managing social groups (Asen & Fonagy, 2011; Fonagy et al., 2009; Twemlow, Fonagy, & Sacco, 2005a, 2005b). In this article, we focus on MBT in the treatment of BPD.

  5. Mental hygiene in early Francoism: from racial hygiene to the prevention of mental illness (1939-1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Ricardo; Novella, Enric

    In this paper, we study the ideological bases of mental hygiene, understood as racial and moral hygiene, during the first years of Franco's regime and their evolution until 1960. First, we discuss the conceptualization of mental hygiene in the 1940s and its role as a tool for the legitimization of dictatorship, revealing the involvement of orthodox Catholicism and its links with moral and racial hygiene. Second, we assess the transformation of mental hygiene during the 1950s towards modernization and a stronger linkage with the dominant trends of contemporary psychiatry without ever leaving the ideological background of Catholicism. For this purpose, we will focus on analysis of the activities of the Mental Hygiene Week held in Barcelona in 1954 and on the creation in 1955 of the National Board of Psychiatric Care, which took on mental hygiene as one of its functions. This paper shows the close relationship of mental hygiene during the early years of Francoism with the political principles of the Dictatorship. The 1940s witnessed the deployment of a harsh discourse in which mental hygiene was a tool for the (moral and spiritual) education of the Spanish people in the political principles of the "New State", pathologizing political dissent and ideologically purifying the country. In the 1950s, Francoist mental hygiene underwent a process of aggiornamento marked by international political events following the defeat of fascism in World War II, advancing a project for (authoritarian) modernization in an international context already directed towards mental health.

  6. Promoting mental health in men

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, M.

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion is essential to improve the health status and quality of life of individuals. Promoting mental health at an individual, community and policy level is central to reducing the incidence of mental health problems, including self-harm and suicide. Men may be particularly vulnerable to mental health problems, in part because they are less likely to seek help from healthcare professionals. Although this article discusses mental health promotion and related strategies in general, th...

  7. Mental Mechanisms for Topics Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Massey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Topics identification (TI is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM. We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly.

  8. Memory Updating and Mental Arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cheng-Ching; Yang, Tsung-Han; Lin, Chia-Yuan; Yen, Nai-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Is domain-general memory updating ability predictive of calculation skills or are such skills better predicted by the capacity for updating specifically numerical information? Here, we used multidigit mental multiplication (MMM) as a measure for calculating skill as this operation requires the accurate maintenance and updating of information in addition to skills needed for arithmetic more generally. In Experiment 1, we found that only individual differences with regard to a task updating numerical information following addition (MUcalc) could predict the performance of MMM, perhaps owing to common elements between the task and MMM. In Experiment 2, new updating tasks were designed to clarify this: a spatial updating task with no numbers, a numerical task with no calculation, and a word task. The results showed that both MUcalc and the spatial task were able to predict the performance of MMM but only with the more difficult problems, while other updating tasks did not predict performance. It is concluded that relevant processes involved in updating the contents of working memory support mental arithmetic in adults.

  9. Memory updating and mental arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ching eHan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Is domain-general memory updating ability predictive of calculation skills or are such skills better predicted by the capacity for updating specifically numerical information? Here, we used multidigit mental multiplication (MMM as a measure for calculating skill as this operation requires the accurate maintenance and updating of information in addition to skills needed for arithmetic more generally. In Experiment 1, we found that only individual differences with regard to a task updating numerical information following addition (MUcalc could predict the performance of MMM, perhaps owing to common elements between the task and MMM. In Experiment 2, new updating tasks were designed to clarify this: a spatial updating task with no numbers, a numerical task with no calculation, and a word task. The results showed that both MUcalc and the spatial task were able to predict the performance of MMM but only with the more difficult problems, while other updating tasks did not predict performance. It is concluded that relevant processes involved in updating the contents of working memory support mental arithmetic in adults.

  10. Mental Accounting and Economic Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, Gerrit; Ranyard, Rob

    2017-01-01

    This chapter first presents an overview of research into mental accounting and its effects on economic behaviour. It then considers mental accounts posited to broadly categorize financial resources across the life-cycle, and those constructed for specific transactions. Mental accounting has several

  11. Improving Mental Health in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.

    2015-01-01

    Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…

  12. What Is Infant Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

  13. Mental health: More than neurobiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fried, E.; Tuerlinckx, F.; Borsboom, D.

    2014-01-01

    The decision by the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to fund only research into the neurobiological roots of mental disorders (Nature 507, 288; 2014) presumes that these all result from brain abnormalities. But this is not the case for many people with mental-health issues and we fear

  14. Cannabis use and mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gastel, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis use has been implicated as a risk factor for mental health problems, (subclinical) psychotic symptoms in particular. If cannabis use was a cause of these problems, cessation would lead to improved public mental health. If cannabis use was a mere consequence of a predisposition for mental

  15. Expert system aided operator's mental activities training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieci, A.; Macko, J.; Mosny, J.; Gese, A.

    1994-01-01

    The operator's mental activity is the most important part of his work. A processing of a large amount of the information by the operator is possible only if he/she possesses appropriate cognitive skills. To facilitate the novice's acquisition of the experienced operator's cognitive skills of the decision-making process a special type of the expert system was developed. The cognitive engineering's models and problem-solving methodology constitutes the basis of this expert system. The article gives an account of the prototype of the mentioned expert system developed to aid the whole mental activity of the nuclear power plant operator during his decision-making process. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs

  16. GENETIC DETERMINATIONS OF MENTALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Osadcha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to clarifying the role of physicality and psycho-physical characteristics of a person as a preconditions of the mentality forming. It is conducted a retrospective analysis of discourse on the mentality, the history of the concept, its temporal characteristics and collective conditioning. The concept of mentality has been widely studied in various fields of socio-humanities such as: history, psychology, and even marginal context of scientific discourses, including the esoteric. This study attempted to analyse the mentality phenomenon through the prism of the concept of experience. Methodology. The concept of experience was acquired by essential justification through the representatives of the phenomenological approach - the late Edmund Husserl, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Bernhard Valdenfels. On the other hand the concept of mentality as a form of collective unconscious experience was entered to the scientific vocabulary by the representatives of the French historical science - M. Bloch, L. Febvre, J. Le Goff and others. At the intersection of these two methods, historical and phenomenological, the genetic method has been established – as a history of coverage and experience of internalization. Thanks to the application of genetic method the transition of phenomenon into the concept was examined. Novelty. The problem of change dynamics of mental phenomenon, in particular psycho-physical nature of a person, which has been only mentioned in F. Braudel works but has not received the adequate theoretical coverage, is analysed. To explain the practices of physicality and causality of this factor the action component of the cultural the overview of developments of such authors as V. Rozin (2005, M. Epstein (2005, N. Brunov (2003, A. Soares, M. Farhangmehr, A. Shoham (2007, D. Vaskul, F. Vannini Hospital (2012 was committed. Conclusions. The transition to paradoxical behaviour that is oriented on sign, and not on signalling

  17. Correlates of Mental Health Among Latino Farmworkers in North Carolina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, R.; Grzywacz, J.G.; Swantes, Melody

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Latino farmworkers are a vulnerable population who confront multiple threats to their mental health. Informed by the stress-process model of psychiatric disorder, the goal of this paper is to determine primary and context-specific stressors of poor mental health among Latino farmworkers....... Methods: Structured interview data were obtained from farmworkers (N = 69) in 6 counties in eastern and western North Carolina. Findings: Results indicated that a substantial number of farmworkers have poor mental health, as indicated by elevated depressive symptoms (52.2%) and anxiety (16.4%). Results...... also indicated that each mental health outcome had different predictors. Conclusion: Addressing the mental health issues of farmworkers requires a comprehensive, multifaceted approach....

  18. Contemporary mental health rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killaspy, H

    2014-09-01

    In the United Kingdom, contemporary mental health rehabilitation services evolved during the period of deinstitutionalisation. They focus on people with complex psychosis, a "low volume, high needs" group which is at risk of social exclusion. Without these specialist services, this group is at risk of becoming stuck in a hospital or in other facilities that do not enable them to achieve their optimal level of autonomy. When a "whole system" of rehabilitative care is provided, including specialist inpatient facilities and supported accommodation, the majority are able to progress in their recovery and live successfully in the community. Rehabilitation is a complex intervention; current and further research is needed to identify the specific aspects of treatment and support it delivers that are most effective in enabling recovery and social inclusion for those with the most complex and long-term mental health needs.

  19. The genocidal mentality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifton, R.J.; Markusen, E.

    1990-01-01

    Since the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the world has witnessed the insidious growth of a genocidal system-a constellation of men, weapons, and war-fighting plans which, if implemented, could put an end to life on this planet. In this book, the cast of mind that created and maintains this threat is examined and an alternative, more hopeful direction is suggested. This book draws on the lessons of the Holocaust- and presents a picture of the genocidal mentality. If we are to survive this genocidal mentality must give way to a species self, to a deepened awareness of belonging to a single species. This shift in mind-set would enable us to renounce nuclearism and to envision a genuine human future

  20. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, T

    2001-10-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness.

  1. The genocidal mentality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lifton, R.J.; Markusen, E.

    1990-01-01

    Since the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the world has witnessed the insidious growth of a genocidal system-a constellation of men, weapons, and war-fighting plans which, if implemented, could put an end to life on this planet. In this book, the cast of mind that created and maintains this threat is examined and an alternative, more hopeful direction is suggested. This book draws on the lessons of the Holocaust- and presents a picture of the genocidal mentality. If we are to survive this genocidal mentality must give way to a species self, to a deepened awareness of belonging to a single species. This shift in mind-set would enable us to renounce nuclearism and to envision a genuine human future.

  2. Mental Representations of Weekdays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Ellis

    Full Text Available Keeping social appointments involves keeping track of what day it is. In practice, mismatches between apparent day and actual day are common. For example, a person might think the current day is Wednesday when in fact it is Thursday. Here we show that such mismatches are highly systematic, and can be traced to specific properties of their mental representations. In Study 1, mismatches between apparent day and actual day occurred more frequently on midweek days (Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday than on other days, and were mainly due to intrusions from immediately neighboring days. In Study 2, reaction times to report the current day were fastest on Monday and Friday, and slowest midweek. In Study 3, participants generated fewer semantic associations for "Tuesday", "Wednesday" and "Thursday" than for other weekday names. Similarly, Google searches found fewer occurrences of midweek days in webpages and books. Analysis of affective norms revealed that participants' associations were strongly negative for Monday, strongly positive for Friday, and graded over the intervening days. Midweek days are confusable because their mental representations are sparse and similar. Mondays and Fridays are less confusable because their mental representations are rich and distinctive, forming two extremes along a continuum of change.

  3. Rehabilitation of the Mentally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Zgonc

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The Slovenian Association for Mental Health (Šent helps the mentally ill to lead a better life than that possible during hospitalization. In Slovenia, the most frequent mental illness is schizophrenia. People from 18 to 42 years of age come to Šent in need of help but it is a fact causing most anxiety that almost one half of them is aged between 28 and 32 years which means that they are in the most active stage of life. Only a short visit to a psychiatric hospital tells one that this environment is highly non- stimulating and even discouraging for a patient, who sees him- /herself in the mirror of others living in a stigmatizing environ­ ment, which causes him/her to change the con­ sciousness about his/her own abilities. At Šent various activities are provided for them, e. g. foreign language courses, cultural events, excursions, sport activities, etc. For our members residential groups are organized in order to include persons unable to live by themselves. Each year a couple of campings and longer excursions are carried out, there is a group for self-help active, and our members are also being trained for easier jobs.

  4. Exercise Prevents Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.

    2017-03-01

    Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.

  5. Characteristics of Individuals With Mental Illness in Tokyo Homeless Shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Tsuyoshi; Takeshima, Tadashi; Tachimori, Hisateru; Takiwaki, Ken; Matoba, Yuki; Awata, Shuichi

    2015-12-01

    Japan has the largest number of psychiatric beds in the world and has been in the process of deinstitutionalization since 2004. The majority of psychiatric inpatients are elderly long-term patients, who are at risk of homelessness after they are discharged. There is little information about homeless people with mental illnesses in Japan, and the aim of this study was to describe characteristics of people with a mental illness in homeless shelters in Tokyo. A face-to-face survey was conducted from December 2012 to March 2013 by the staff of a nonprofit organization (NPO) that helps socially isolated persons. Of the 1,056 people who received help during the study period, 684 completed the survey. Eighteen percent of the 684 survey participants had a mental illness. Of the 210 individuals who lived in shelters, one-third had a mental illness. The mean age of shelter users with mental illness was 64.9; they tended to be referred from hospitals, and their mental well-being was poorer than other NPO service users in the study. Among the service users with mental illness, those living in shelters were older than those living in the community and more likely to have a history of trouble with alcohol, poor family relationships, and impaired instrumental activities of daily living. Unmet mental health needs were noted among discharged hospital patients living in Tokyo homeless shelters. An integrated and community-based support system with more effective health care delivery, including critical time interventions, is needed.

  6. Using accountability for mental health to drive reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Sebastian P; Hickie, Ian B; McGorry, Patrick D; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Burns, Jane; Christensen, Helen; Mendoza, John; Rosen, Alan; Russell, Lesley M; Sinclair, Sally

    2015-10-19

    Greatly enhanced accountability can drive mental health reform. As extant approaches are ineffective, we propose a new approach. Australia spends around $7.6 billion on mental health services annually, but is anybody getting better? Effective accountability for mental health can reduce variation in care and increase effective service provision. Despite 20 years of rhetoric, Australia's approach to accountability in mental health is overly focused on fulfilling governmental reporting requirements rather than using data to drive reform. The existing system is both fragmented and outcome blind. Australia has failed to develop useful local and regional approaches to benchmarking in mental health. New approaches must address this gap and better reflect the experience of care felt by consumers and carers, as well as by service providers. There are important social priorities in mental health that must be assessed. We provide a brief overview of the existing system and propose a new, modest but achievable set of indicators by which to monitor the progress of national mental health reform. These indicators should form part of a new, system-wide process of continuous quality improvement in mental health care and suicide prevention.

  7. COGNITIVE MODELING OF EPISTEMIC MENTAL STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurovitskaya, L.N.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Epistemic states of mind, connected with the cognitive activity of a man, are aimed not only at apprehending the world around us, but also at the process of this apprehension. A very important step on this way is an attempt to model these states and processes in terms of formal logics and semantics, irrespective of the language of cognition. The article presents the idea of how formal logical and linguistic modeling of the process of thinking shows the correlation and the interdependence of semantic units connected with mental activities of human brain. The basic notions of the conceptual field of cognition are presented in the article

  8. Stigma and intellectual disability: potential application of mental illness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchman, Nicole; Werner, Shirli; Kosyluk, Kristin; Jones, Nev; Elg, Brianna; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2013-05-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and individuals with mental illness are consistently found to be among the most socially excluded populations and continue to face substantial health, housing, and employment disparities due to stigma. Although this has spurred extensive research efforts and theoretical advancements in the study of stigma toward mental illness, the stigma of ID has received only limited attention. In this article we explore the application of mental illness stigma research for ID. We carefully reviewed the existing research on mental illness stigma as a foundation for a parallel summary of the empirical literature on attitudes and stigma related to ID. Based on our review, there has not been a systematic approach to the study of stigma toward ID. However, multilevel conceptual models of stigma have received much attention in the mental illness literature. These models have been used to inform targeted interventions and have application to the study of the stigma process for individuals with ID. Nonetheless, there are indeed key differences between-as well as substantial variability within-the ID and mental illness populations that must be considered. Stigma is an issue of social justice impacting the lives of individuals with ID, yet there remains virtually no systematic framework applied to the understanding of the stigma process for this group. Future research can draw on the stigma models developed in the mental illness literature to guide more rigorous research efforts and ultimately the development of effective, multilevel stigma-change strategies for ID.

  9. Mental representation and motor imagery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schack, Thomas; Essig, Kai; Frank, Cornelia; Koester, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Research in sports, dance and rehabilitation has shown that basic action concepts (BACs) are fundamental building blocks of mental action representations. BACs are based on chunked body postures related to common functions for realizing action goals. In this paper, we outline issues in research methodology and an experimental method, the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation (SDA-M), to assess action-relevant representational structures that reflect the organization of BACs. The SDA-M reveals a strong relationship between cognitive representation and performance if complex actions are performed. We show how the SDA-M can improve motor imagery training and how it contributes to our understanding of coaching processes. The SDA-M capitalizes on the objective measurement of individual mental movement representations before training and the integration of these results into the motor imagery training. Such motor imagery training based on mental representations (MTMR) has been applied successfully in professional sports such as golf, volleyball, gymnastics, windsurfing, and recently in the rehabilitation of patients who have suffered a stroke.

  10. Improving the quality of mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, M; Lund, C; Freeman, M; Drew, N

    2009-12-01

    To develop international guidance for improving the quality of mental health care in low- and middle-income countries. A panel developed recommendations based on a comprehensive literature review, consultation with over 100 experts from 46 countries and an analysis of international best practices. Recommendations A 5-pronged approach to improving the quality of mental health care is recommended. Quality improvement requires the alignment of policy and legislation with the attainment of good quality mental health outcomes. Key partners must be brought into the quality improvement process. Funding can be an important tool for promoting good quality but needs to be correctly aligned to meet policy objectives and to promote evidence-based interventions. Accreditation procedures and quality standards need to be carefully developed and resources allocated for their implementation. Finally, quality improvement must be brought into routine service management and delivery. Through a systematic approach to quality improvement, it is possible to ensure that the best possible interventions are provided within the constraints of each country and that the rights and well-being of people with mental disorders is optimally promoted. Quality improvement is not a luxury but an integral part of ensuring that the best possible services are provided to all who need them.

  11. Stress and mental health among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backović Dušan V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Medical studies bring many stressful activities to students. Prolonged stress can make adverse effects to mental health and lead to further professional burnout. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the association of stress impact and adverse effects of medical studies with psychological distress among medical students. Methods. The cross sectional study was conducted on 367 fourth­year medical students of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade, by means of the anonymous questionnaire, containing: socio­demographic data, self­reported health status and stressful influences of studying activities. Mental health status was estimated by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ­12. Results. More than 50% of students perceive frequent feeling of psychic tension, and one third has problems with insomnia. Nearly one­half of students assessed their general stress level as moderate or high. Exams were estimated as high stressor in 63.1% of all students. Stressful effects of communication with teaching staff were reported by one quarter of the examinees. The scores of GHQ­12 were above the threshold in 55.6 % of all students. Mental health problems among students were most significantly associated with stressful experience during exams and contacts with teaching staff. Conclusion. Academic stress makes great influence on mental health of medical students. Reduction of stress effects should be directed to optimization of the examination process and improvement of communication skills. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 175078

  12. Mental Representation and Motor Imagery Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSchack

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Research in sports, dance and rehabilitation has shown that Basic Action Concepts (BACs are fundamental building blocks of mental action representations. BACs are based on chunked body postures related to common functions for realizing action goals. In this paper, we outline issues in research methodology and an experimental method, SDA-M (structural dimensional analysis of mental representation, to assess action-relevant representational structures that reflect the organization of BACs. The SDA-M reveals a strong relationship between cognitive representation and performance if complex actions are performed. We show how the SDA-M can improve motor imagery training and how it contributes to our understanding of coaching processes. The SDA-M capitalizes on the objective measurement of individual mental movement representations before training and the integration of these results into the motor imagery training. Such motor imagery training based on mental representations has been applied successfully in professional sports such as golf, volleyball, gymnastics, windsurfing, and recently in the rehabilitation of patients who have suffered a stroke.

  13. [Family adherence in serious mental disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Padilla, Ernesto; Obando Posada, Diana; Sarmiento Medina, Pedro

    2017-10-09

    Identify attitudes and behaviors that evidence and characterize family adherence to treatment in patients with severe mental disorder. Qualitative descriptive, from an interpretative social approach. Chia, Colombia, with professionals in the psychiatric and geriatric settings. Twelve professionals in psychiatry, nursing and psychology, with experience in care of patients with serious mental disorder and their families. Intentional sampling. Twelve semi-structured interviews were carried out. The analysis strategy was made from the procedures of constant comparison and open coding of the grounded theory. As validation strategies, triangulation was done between researchers and methods, as interviews and results survey. Two categories of family adherence were defined: family and treatment (treatment cooperation, knowledge about the disease and attention to the disease evolution), and family attitudes towards the patient (patient's care, patient's promotion of autonomy, and affective attachment with the patient). A third category showed aspects that diminished family adherence, such as lack or distortion of information regarding mental disorder, or family and patient endurance attitudes. Participants agree about the relevance of the construct named «family adherence», which describes the behaviors and attitudes of the family regarding the treatment of patients with severe mental disorder. Family adherence can be seen as active participation behavior, but also as a process of strengthening relationships, which can reduce the burden and suffering on family members, caregivers and patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. [Stress and mental health among medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backović, Dusan V; Maksimović, Milos; Davidović, Dragana; Zivojinović, Jelena Ilić; Stevanović, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Medical studies bring many stressful activities to students. Prolonged stress can make adverse effects to mental health and lead to further professional burnout. The aim of this study was to assess the association of stress impact and adverse effects of medical studies with psychological distress among medical students. The cross sectional study was conducted on 367 fourth-year medical students of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade, by means of the anonymous questionnaire, containing: socio-demographic data, self-reported health status and stressful influences of studying activities. Mental health status was estimated by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). More than 50% of students perceive frequent feeling of psychic tension, and one third has problems with insomnia. Nearly one-half of students assessed their general stress level as moderate or high. Exams were estimated as high stressor in 63.1% of all students. Stressful effects of communication with teaching staff were reported by one quarter of the examinees. The scores of GHQ-12 were above the threshold in 55.6% of all students. Mental health problems among students were most significantly associated with stressful experience during exams and contacts with teaching staff. Academic stress makes great influence on mental health of medical students. Reduction of stress effects should be directed to optimization of the examination process and improvement of communication skills.

  15. Sentence Comprehension as Mental Simulation: An Information-Theoretic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Vigliocco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that the mental representation resulting from sentence comprehension is not (just an abstract symbolic structure but a “mental simulation” of the state-of-affairs described by the sentence. We present a particular formalization of this theory and show how it gives rise to quantifications of the amount of syntactic and semantic information conveyed by each word in a sentence. These information measures predict simulated word-processing times in a dynamic connectionist model of sentence comprehension as mental simulation. A quantitatively similar relation between information content and reading time is known to be present in human reading-time data.

  16. MENTAL CAPACITY AND ITS IMPACT ON IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING

    OpenAIRE

    F. D. Talkhanova

    2015-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive program to optimize the process of learning foreign languages were analyzed characteristics of mental efficiency in the process of learning a foreign language, which proves that the assessment of knowledge of a foreign language and mental efficiency associated direct and strong correlation. Good memory, logic level and constructive mentality if there is proper motivation and the organization of learning activities can, especially in the early stages of learning, to ...

  17. The role of mental imagery in depression: Negative mental imagery induces strong implicit and explicit affect in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Maria Görgen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mental imagery, seeing with the mind’s eyes, can induce stronger positive as well as negative affect compared to verbal processing. Given this emotion-amplifying effect, it appears likely that mental images play an important role in affective disorders. According to the subcomponents model of depression, depressed mood is maintained by both negative imagery (which amplifies negative mood and less efficient positive imagery processes. Empirical research on the link between mental imagery and affect in clinical depression, however, is still sparse. This study aimed at testing the role of mental imagery in depression, using a modified version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP and the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM to assess implicit (AMP and explicit (SAM affect elicited by mental images, pictures, and verbal processing in clinically depressed participants (n = 32 compared to healthy controls (n = 32. In individuals with a depressive disorder, compared to healthy controls, negative mental images induced stronger negative affect in the explicit as well as implicit measure. Negative mental imagery did not, however, elicit greater increases in explicitly and implicitly assessed negative affect compared to other processing modalities (verbal processing, pictures in the depressed group. Additionally, a positive imagery deficit in depression was observed in the explicit measure. Interestingly, the two groups did not differ in implicitly assessed affect after positive imagery, indicating that depressed individuals might benefit from positive imagery on an implicit or automatic level. Overall, our findings suggest that mental imagery also plays an important role in depression and confirm the potential of novel treatment approaches for depression such as the promotion of positive imagery.

  18. The silence of mental health issues within university environments: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynaden, Dianne; McAllister, Margaret; Tohotoa, Jenny; Al Omari, Omar; Heslop, Karen; Duggan, Ravani; Murray, Sean; Happell, Brenda; Byrne, Louise

    2014-10-01

    A descriptive study was used to examine the attitudes and experiences of staff and students towards mental health problems. Staff completed the "Attitude towards mental illness survey", and students who self-identified having a mental health problem completed the "Stigma scale". Using an online collection process, data from 270 staff and 201 students showed that the "silence" surrounding mental health problems permeates the university environment and impacts on help seeking behaviors, the provision of support and on the recovery and wellbeing of affected individuals. Universities must decrease stigma and foster social inclusion to build self-esteem in people who have mental health problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Healthy Immigrant Effect on Mental Health: Determinants and Implications for Mental Health Policy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Berta; Casal, Bruno; Currais, Luis

    2016-07-01

    Since the mid-1990s, Spain has started to receive a great number of migrant populations. The migration process can have a significantly negative impact on mental health of immigrant population and, consequently, generate implications for the delivery of mental health services. The aim of this article is to provide empirical evidence to demonstrate that the mental health of immigrants in Spain deteriorates the longer they are resident in the country. An empirical approach to this relationship is carried out with data from the National Survey of Health of Spain 2011-2012 and poisson and negative binomial models. Results show that immigrants who reside Spain appear to be in a better state of mental health than that observed for the national population. Studying health disparities in the foreign population and its evolution are relevant to ensure the population's access to health services and care. The need for further research is especially true in the case of the immigrant population's mental health in Spain because there is scant evidence available on their situation.

  20. The good, the bad, and the severely mentally ill: Official and informal labels as organizational resources in community mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobransky, Kerry

    2009-09-01

    Research on labeling mental illness has focused relatively little attention on practical organizational concerns in the process of labeling in community mental health services. This paper examines this issue through an ethnographic study of two multi-service community mental health services organizations for people labeled severely and persistently mentally ill in the Midwest United States. The findings show that the labeling process is structured by cultural and policy environments in which mental health services are able to provide resources otherwise difficult to obtain. Within organizations, official labels can be applied for reasons other than clinical practice; they channel resources to both organizations and clients. Informal organizational labels regarding client mental illness are not tethered to the bureaucratic apparatus granting access to and paying for services. Instead, they reflect workers' real assessments of clients, which can differ from official ones. These informal labels determine how organizations deal with clients when rules and routines are violated.

  1. PERSPECTIVES: Accountability for Mental Health: The Australian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Sebastian; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2017-03-01

    Australia was one of the first countries to develop a national policy for mental health. A persistent characteristic of all these policies has been their reference to the importance of accountability. What does this mean exactly and have we achieved it? Can Australia tell if anybody is getting better? To review accountability for mental health in Australia and question whether two decades of Australian rhetoric around accountability for mental health has been fulfilled. This paper first considers the concept of accountability and its application to mental health. We then draw on existing literature, reports, and empirical data from national and state governments to illustrate historical and current approaches to accountability for mental health. We provide a content analysis of the most current set of national indicators. The paper also briefly considers some relevant international processes to compare Australia's progress in establishing accountability for mental health. Australia's federated system of government permits competing approaches to accountability, with multiple and overlapping data sets. A clear national approach to accountability for mental health has failed to emerge. Existing data focuses on administrative and health service indicators, failing to reflect broader social factors which reveal quality of life. In spite of twenty years of investment and effort Australia has been described as outcome blind, unable to demonstrate the merit of USD 8bn spent on mental health annually. While it may be prolific, existing administrative data provide little outcomes information against which Australia can genuinely assess the health and welfare of people with a mental illness. International efforts are evolving slowly. Even in high income countries such as Australia, resources for mental health services are constrained. Countries cannot afford to continue to invest in services or programs that fail to demonstrate good outcomes for people with a mental illness

  2. Consensus statement on the role of Accredited Exercise Physiologists within the treatment of mental disorders: a guide for mental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Oscar; Grainger, Kristine; Stanton, Robert; Douglas, Angela; Gould, Kirrily; Perram, Amy; Baldeo, Rishi; Fokas, Theodora; Nauman, Fiona; Semaan, Amanda; Hewavasam, Jude; Pontin, Louise; Rosenbaum, Simon

    2016-08-01

    The aim is to identify the role and scope of Accredited Exercise Physiologist (AEP) services in the mental health sector and to provide insight as to how AEPs can contribute to the multidisciplinary mental health team. A modified Delphi approach was utilised. Thirteen AEPs with experience in mental health contributed to the iterative development of a national consensus statement. Six mental health professionals with expertise in psychiatry, mental health nursing, general practice and mental health research participated in the review process. Reviewers were provided with a template to systematically provide feedback on the language, content, structure and relevance to their professional group. This consensus statement outlines how AEPs can contribute to the multidisciplinary mental health team, the aims and scope of AEP-led interventions in mental health services and examples of such interventions, the range of physical and mental health outcomes possible through AEP-led interventions and common referral pathways to community AEP services. AEPs can play a key role in the treatment of individuals experiencing mental illness. The diversity of AEP interventions allows for a holistic approach to care, enhancing both physical and mental health outcomes. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  3. NIMH Prototype Management Information System for Community Mental Health Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Wurster, Cecil R.; Goodman, John D.

    1980-01-01

    Various approaches to centralized support of computer applications in health care are described. The NIMH project to develop a prototype Management Information System (MIS) for community mental health centers is presented and discussed as a centralized development of an automated data processing system for multiple user organizations. The NIMH program is summarized, the prototype MIS is characterized, and steps taken to provide for the differing needs of the mental health centers are highligh...

  4. Mental health in adolescents of Delicias (trujillo - Perú)

    OpenAIRE

    Perales Cabrera, Alberto; Unidad de Investigación, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Sogi, Cecilia; Unidad de Investigación, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Morales, Ricardo; Unidad de Postgrado, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, La Libertad, Perú

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the mental health of 12 to 18 year-old adolescent population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A mental health household survey was carried out in a sample randomly selected from two areas of Las Delicias, District of Moche, Trujillo City, Peru: 32 subjects from Taquila (a rural area) and 43 from the North Zone (an area in process of urbanization). RESULTS: Problems related to substance abuse, mainly alcohol, were more predominant in Taquila while symptoms of distress and depressio...

  5. Mental Models for Mechanical Comprehension. A Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    constructionists are concerned with how mental models are formed. Jean Piaget , the first constructionist (for a review, see Piaget , 1970), conceptualized mental...fact about the world without change in the structures, Piaget says the child had assimilated the information. If, on the other hand, a child’s structures...cannot assimilate the new fact in the present form, then the structures must change. Piaget calls this process accommodation. Taken together, these

  6. Mental health care in Germany: current state and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salize, Hans Joachim; Rössler, Wulf; Becker, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    Germany turned towards community-based mental health care in the mid seventies, during a general climate of social and political reform. The continuing deinstitutionalisation process and the implementation of community mental health services was considerably affected by the reunification of East and West Germany in 1990, which required dramatic changes in the structure and quality of the mental health care system of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). Overall, German mental health care is organised as a subsidiary system, where planning and regulating mental health care is the responsibility of the 16 federal states. So German mental health care provision is spread among many sectors and characterised by considerable regional differences. A key characteristic is the particularly wide gap between inpatient and outpatient services, which are funded separately and staffed by different teams. In 2003 the total number of psychiatric beds was a mere two thirds of the overall bed capacity in 1991, the first year as a re-unified Germany, when psychiatric beds in East and West Germany totalled 80,275. From 1970 onwards the number of psychiatric beds was cut by roughly half. So the momentum of the reform has been strong enough to assimilate the completely different mental health care system of the former German Democratic Republic and, in the course of a decade, to re-structure mental health services for an additional 17-18 million new inhabitants. In an ongoing struggle to adapt to changing administrative set-ups, legal frameworks, and financial constraints, psychiatry in Germany in currently facing specific problems and is seriously challenged to defend to considerable achievements of the past. A major obstacle to achieving this aim lies in the fragmented system of mental health care provision and mental health care funding.

  7. Stigmatization and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsum Ozge Doganavsargil Baysal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stigmatizasyon represent a chronic negative interaction with the environment that most of people with a of diagnosis mental disorders. Different types of stigma may have harmful effects. Poor psychological well being, poor quality of life and poor self esteem are related stigmatization. In this article, definition and mechanism of stigmatization, influenced factors and consequences of stigmatization are reviewed. Stigmatization is a modifiable environmental risk factor. Integrating approaches against stigma in treatment may represent cost-effective way to reduce the risk of relapse and poor outcome occasioned by chronic exposure to stigma. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 239-251

  8. Mindfulness og mental sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2011-01-01

    . In the beginning, cognitive approaches were central, but these have been gradually replaced by spiritual, phenomenological or existential perspectives. The article takes a historical point of departure in Williams James’ (1902) groundbreaking study of spiritual experiences related to 'healthy-mindedness' and 'mind......-cure' and explains a series of characteristics and documented effects of contemporary Buddhist psychological or spiritual inspired practice of mindfulness. It is concluded that mindfulness challenges established health education and the outlined understandings of mental health by breaking with the action orientation...

  9. BIOFEEDBACK AS A METHOD FOR STUDENTS’ MENTAL STATE ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Ababkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neurotechnologies based on the principles of a nervous system functioning are being introduced into modern educational process more and more actively. Neurotechnology-based devices give the chance to develop new educational products; to enlarge the content of education by means of transition from text, graphic and sound content filling of educational process to use of tactile, motor, emotional, and other content. One of the most perspective neurotechnologies for the field of education is the method of biofeedback (BF which enables to define students’ mental state, change various physiological processes proceeding from the obtained data, correct educational process, and improve its quality and effectiveness.The aim of the present publication is to identify the opportunities of the biofeedback method application for educational purposes.Methodology and research methods. A pilot study on the basis of biofeedback technique was conducted in order to study the influence of active learning methods on students’ mental state mastering in specialty “Advertising and Public Relations”. H. Eysenck’s PEN Model was used to form focus-groups (control and experimental; psychophysiological technique CMS (Current Mental State was applied for results processing. Also, such methods as comparative analysis, induction and generalization were used.Results. A true picture of psychological attributes of students’ mental condition has been received for efficient studying of the current psychological state on psychophysiological functions, and training active methods impact on a condition of mentality of students according to the results of cardiorhythmogram.The main results of a pilot research were quantitative data (as percentage points of the current mental and psychological conditions of examinees. The obtained results have reflected the degree of attributes manifestation such as general adaptive resource, degree of mobility (lability of

  10. Neural Networks Mediating High-Level Mentalizing in Patients With Right Cerebral Hemispheric Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Riho; Kinoshita, Masashi; Okita, Hirokazu; Yahata, Tetsutaro; Matsui, Mie; Nakada, Mitsutoshi

    2018-01-01

    Mentalizing is the ability to understand others' mental state through external cues. It consists of two networks, namely low-level and high-level metalizing. Although it is an essential function in our daily social life, surgical resection of right cerebral hemisphere disturbs mentalizing processing with high possibility. In the past, little was known about the white matter related to high-level mentalizing, and the conservation of high-level mentalizing during surgery has not been a focus of attention. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to examine the neural networks underlying high-level mentalizing and then, secondarily, investigate the usefulness of awake surgery in preserving the mentalizing network. A total of 20 patients with glioma localized in the right hemisphere who underwent awake surgery participated in this study. All patients were assigned to two groups: with or without intraoperative assessment of high-level mentalizing. Their high-level mentalizing abilities were assessed before surgery and 1 week and 3 months after surgery. At 3 months after surgery, only patients who received the intraoperative high-level mentalizing test showed the same score as normal healthy volunteers. The tract-based lesion symptom analysis was performed to confirm the severity of damage of associated fibers and high-level mentalizing accuracy. This analysis revealed the superior longitudinal fascicles (SLF) III and fronto-striatal tract (FST) to be associated with high-level mentalizing processing. Moreover, the voxel-based lesion symptom analysis demonstrated that resection of orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) causes persistent mentalizing dysfunction. Our study indicates that damage of the OFC and structural connectivity of the SLF and FST causes the disorder of mentalizing after surgery, and assessing high-level mentalizing during surgery may be useful to preserve these pathways.

  11. Thailand mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwanarangsan, Porntep; Liknapichitkul, Dusit; Khandelwal, Sudhir K

    2004-01-01

    Thailand, a constitutional monarchy, has undergone a rapid shift in its demography and economy in last two decades. This has put a great burden on the health services, including mental health care of the country. The current emphasis of the Ministry of Public Health is to change its role from health care provider to policymaker and regulator of standards, and to provide technical support to health facilities under its jurisdiction as well as in the private sector. The Department of Mental Health, established in 1994, has laid down a mental health policy that aims to promote mental health care within the community with the help of people's participation in health programmes. Focus has been placed on developing suitable and efficient technology by seeking cooperation both within and outside the Ministry of Public Health. Consequently, the Department of Mental Health has been receiving increasing budgetary allocations. Since there is a paucity of trained manpower, the emphasis is being laid on the utilization of general health care for mental health care. Some of the specific interventions are community services, prison services, psychiatric rehabilitation, and use of media in mental health operations. There have been active efforts towards international cooperation for developing technologies for specific programmes. Private and non-governmental organizations are supported and encouraged to provide mental health care to the marginalized sections of society. Efforts have also been made by the Department of Mental Health to inspect and raise the efficiency of its operations to result in quality service.

  12. Mental health nursing: Daring to be different, special and leading recovery-focused care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Peter; Procter, Nicholas; Fassett, Denise

    2018-02-01

    How mental health nursing is differentiated from other disciplines and professions, and what special contribution mental health nurses make to health services, is a question at the heart of contemporary practice. One of the significant challenges for mental health nurses is identifying, developing and advancing those aspects of their practice that they consider differentiate them in the multi-disciplinary mental health care team and to articulate clearly what a mental health nurse is and does. This paper draws on data from interviews with 36 mental health nurses in Australia who identified their practice as autonomous. Participants were asked the question, "What's special about mental health nursing?" Constructivist grounded theory techniques were applied to the research process. Findings were formulated and expressed as the 'Ten P's of the professional profile that is mental health nursing', which are 'present', 'personal', 'participant partnering', 'professional', 'phenomenological', 'pragmatic', 'power-sharing', 'psycho-therapeutic', 'proud' and 'profound'. The combined elements of the findings present a theoretical construct of mental health nursing practice as something distinctive and special. It provides a model and exemplar for contemporary practice in mental health nursing, embracing the role of mental health nurses in the health care workforce as being well placed as providers of productive and effective care. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  13. Reappraising the relationships between physics students’ mental models and predictions: An example of heat convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Li Chiou

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although prediction is claimed to be a prime function of mental models, to what extent students can run their mental models to make predictions of physical phenomena remains uncertain. The purpose of this study, therefore, was first to investigate 30 physics students’ mental models of heat convection, and then to examine the relationship between their mental models and predictions of convection-related phenomena. A series of semistructured interviews was conducted to probe the participants’ mental models and predictions of heat convection, and the constant comparative method was adopted for data analysis. The results reveal that the participants held a variety of mental models of heat convection, and nearly half held flawed mental models rather than a scientifically compatible one. In addition, while many participants attempted to run their mental models to make a prediction at the beginning stage of solving an interview problem, the relationship between the models and predictions became increasingly complex as the problem solving process continued. The relationships between mental models and predictions, however, could be better understood by considering the completeness of a mental model, the scale of analyzing mental models, and the retrieval of different formats of mental representations.

  14. Implicit Mentalizing Persists beyond Early Childhood and Is Profoundly Impaired in Children with Autism Spectrum Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuwerk, Tobias; Jarvers, Irina; Vuori, Maria; Sodian, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Implicit mentalizing, a fast, unconscious and rigid way of processing other's mental states has recently received much interest in typical social cognitive development in early childhood and in adults with autism spectrum condition (ASC). This research suggests that already infants implicitly mentalize, and that adults with ASC have a sustained implicit mentalizing deficit. Yet, we have only sparse empirical evidence on implicit mentalizing beyond early childhood, and deviations thereof in children with ASC. Here, we administered an implicit mentalizing eye tracking task to assess the sensitivity to false beliefs to a group of 8-year-old children with and without ASC, matched for chronological age, verbal and non-verbal IQ. As previous research suggested that presenting outcomes of belief-based actions leads to fast learning from experience and false belief-congruent looking behavior in adults with ASC, we were also interested in whether already children with ASC learn from such information. Our results provide support for a persistent implicit mentalizing ability in neurotypical development beyond early childhood. Further, they confirmed an implicit mentalizing deficit in children with ASC, even when they are closely matched to controls for explicit mentalizing skills. In contrast to previous findings with adults, no experience-based modulation of anticipatory looking was observed. It seems that children with ASC have not yet developed compensatory general purpose learning mechanisms. The observed intact explicit, but impaired implicit mentalizing in ASC, and correlation patterns between mentalizing tasks and executive function tasks, are in line with theories on two dissociable mentalizing systems.

  15. The role of mental health in primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Aník; Dartnall, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.

  16. The role of mental health in primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aník Gevers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV. However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.

  17. Breakfast and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A P

    1998-09-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to study the relationship between breakfast consumption and subjective reports of mental health and health-related behaviours in a general population sample (126 subjects aged between 20 and 79 years). Individuals who consumed a cereal breakfast each day were less depressed, less emotionally distressed and had lower levels of perceived stress than those who did not eat breakfast each day. Those who consumed breakfast had a healthier lifestyle than the others in that they were less likely to be smokers, drank less alcohol and had a healthier diet. However, the relationship between cereal breakfast consumption and mental health did not reflect these differences in the smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. In conclusion, there is an association between breakfast consumption and well-being which cannot entirely be accounted for by differences in other aspects of diet or smoking and alcohol consumption. Further intervention studies are now needed to establish whether causal relationships and mechanisms underlie the associations seen in this study.

  18. Teaching Mental Abacus Calculation to Students with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hong

    2006-01-01

    The abacus is a calculating tool that has been used in Asia for thousands of years. Mental abacus calculation is a skill in which an abacus image in the mind is used without the actual physical manipulation of the abacus. Using this method, people can perform extremely rapid and accurate mental calculations. Research indicates that abacus training…

  19. Acute mental health care according to recent mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute mental health care according to recent mental health legislation. Part II. Activity-based costing. ABR Janse van Rensburg1, W Jassat2. 1Division of Psychiatry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. 2School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Abstract.

  20. Acute mental health care and South African mental health legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This is the first of three reports on a follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). In this first part, qualitative and quantitative descriptions were made of the services and of demographic and clinical data on acute mental health care users managed at HJH, in a retrospective review of ...

  1. Acute mental health care and South African mental health legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mental illness in the regional population HJH is supposed to serve. Therefore, only an analysis of trends for specific cohorts of in-patient users was possible. Both studies - the current review as well as the previous pilot, were retrospective descriptive clinical record reviews of mental health service delivery, training.

  2. Sterilization of the Mentally Ill and the Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a survey on the sterilization of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded. Thirty-three states responded to the survey. It was found that 17 states have a sterilization statute, but the existence of the statute was explained not to mean that the procedure was used. Sixteen states responded that they did not have a…

  3. Acute mental health care and South African mental health legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Reliable data is necessary to facilitate the effective planning, management and restructuring of mental health care facilities. Access to accurate information on clinical conditions, treatment outcomes and expenditure is essential to ensure accountability, quality and cost-effective mental health care. This article is ...

  4. General Mental Ability and Satisfaction with School and Work: A Longitudinal Study from Ages 13 to 48

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Cornelia; Bergman, Lars R.; Sverke, Magnus

    2008-01-01

    Although it has been proposed that general mental ability (GMA) may affect the adjustment process, few studies have examined the relation of mental ability to individuals' sense of satisfaction with school and work. The present study investigated the importance of mental ability for school and job satisfaction, using a Swedish sample of 298 men…

  5. Teachers' Language in Interactions: An Exploratory Examination of Mental State Talk in Early Childhood Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth; La Paro, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined 34 Head Start teachers' use of four categories of mental state talk (verbalizations of mental processes using emotion terms, cognition terms, desire terms, and perception terms) during naturally occurring classroom interactions. Transcriptions from classroom videos were coded for mental state talk…

  6. The legal mentality and the succession of the law.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rybakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 340Subject. The peculiarities of the legal mentality and succession of law, their correlation and communication.The purpose of the article is to identify the relationship of the legal mentality and development of the law.Methodology. The research is based on the method of legal analysis, formal-legal method.Results, scope of application. The legal mentality and continuity in the law are linked and have common features. They are based on national law, are a reflection of him.Continuity in the law is objectively existing relationship between the various stages of its development, aimed at ensuring the continuity of national rights, preserving the past in the present.The basis of the legal mentality and continuity in the development of the law are objective factors. These phenomena are associated with the past, with the history of their own, caused by it. The development of law and legal awareness is provided not only in the change process, but in the process of preservation. The legal mentality and continuity in the development of the law are genetic in nature. Communication legal mentality with continuity in the development of the law can clearly be seen in its functions: maintain the continuity of the existence of a particular community (homeostasis function, communication, preservation (protection, stabilization and preservation of justice, regulatory.Conclusions. There is an interaction between the legal mentality and continuity in the development of the law. Mentality as a historically formed and stable matrix typification of behavior and thinking through the lawmaking process predetermines the preservation and use of the original legal material is proven to be effective. The stability of the legal positions, legal thinking, passed down from generation to generation are the basis of the continuity law. Stability of legal views, legal thinking, transferred from generation to generation are the basis succession of law. 

  7. Impaired mental rotation in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and acute vestibular neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candidi, Matteo; Micarelli, Alessandro; Viziano, Andrea; Aglioti, Salvatore M; Minio-Paluello, Ilaria; Alessandrini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Vestibular processing is fundamental to our sense of orientation in space which is a core aspect of the representation of the self. Vestibular information is processed in a large subcortical-cortical neural network. Tasks requiring mental rotations of human bodies in space are known to activate neural regions within this network suggesting that vestibular processing is involved in the control of mental rotation. We studied whether mental rotation is impaired in patients suffering from two different forms of unilateral vestibular disorders (vestibular neuritis - VN - and Benign Paroxysmal positional Vertigo - BPPV) with respect to healthy matched controls (C). We used two mental rotation tasks in which participants were required to: (i) mentally rotate their own body in space (egocentric rotation) thus using vestibular processing to a large extent and (ii) mentally rotate human figures (allocentric rotation) thus using own body representations to a smaller degree. Reaction times and accuracy of responses showed that VN and BPPV patients were impaired in both tasks with respect to C. Significantly, the pattern of results was similar in the three groups suggesting that patients were actually performing the mental rotation without using a different strategy from the control individuals. These results show that dysfunctional vestibular inflow impairs mental rotation of both own body and human figures suggesting that unilateral acute disorders of the peripheral vestibular input massively affect the cerebral processes underlying mental rotations.

  8. Impaired mental rotation in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and acute vestibular neuritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eCandidi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vestibular processing is fundamental to our sense of orientation in space which is a core aspect of the representation of the self. Vestibular information is processed in a large subcortical-cortical neural network. Tasks requiring mental rotations of human bodies in space are known to activate neural regions within this network suggesting that vestibular processing is involved in the control of mental rotation. We studied whether mental rotation is impaired in patients suffering from two different forms of unilateral vestibular disorders (Vestibular Neuritis – VN- and Benign Paroxysmal positional Vertigo – BPPV with respect to healthy matched controls (C. We used two mental rotation tasks in which participants were required to: i mentally rotate their own body in space (egocentric rotation thus using vestibular processing to a large extent and ii mentally rotate human figures (allocentric rotation thus using own body representations to a smaller degree. Reaction times and accuracy of responses showed that VN and BPPV patients were impaired in both tasks with respect to C. Significantly, the pattern of results was similar in the three groups suggesting that patients were actually performing the mental rotation without using a different strategy from the control individuals. These results show that dysfunctional vestibular inflow impairs mental rotation of both own body and human figures suggesting that unilateral acute disorders of the peripheral vestibular input massively affect the cerebral processes underlying mental rotations.

  9. Preventing Criminal Recidivism Through Mental Health and Criminal Justice Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, J Steven

    2016-11-01

    Criminal justice system involvement is common among persons with serious mental illness in community treatment settings. Various intervention strategies are used to prevent criminal recidivism among justice-involved individuals, including mental health courts, specialty probation, and conditional release programs. Despite differences in these approaches, most involve the use of legal leverage to promote treatment adherence. Evidence supporting the effectiveness of leverage-based interventions at preventing criminal recidivism is mixed, however, with some studies suggesting that involving criminal justice authorities in mental health treatment can increase recidivism rates. The effectiveness of interventions that utilize legal leverage is likely to depend on several factors, including the ability of mental health and criminal justice staff to work together. Collaboration is widely acknowledged as essential in managing justice-involved individuals, yet fundamental differences in goals, values, and methods exist between mental health and criminal justice professionals. This article presents a six-step conceptual framework for optimal mental health-criminal justice collaboration to prevent criminal recidivism among individuals with serious mental illness who are under criminal justice supervision in the community. Combining best practices from each field, the stepwise process includes engagement, assessment, planning and treatment, monitoring, problem solving, and transition. Rationale and opportunities for collaboration at each step are discussed.

  10. Mental health impact of social capital interventions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Elaine C; Fuhr, Daniela C; Bayer, Angela M; Lescano, Andres G; Thorogood, Nicki; Simms, Victoria

    2018-02-01

    Mental disorders are a major contributor to the global burden of disease and disability, and can be extremely costly at both individual and community level. Social capital, (SC) defined as an individual's social relationships and participation in community networks, may lower the risk of mental disorders while increasing resilience capacity, adaptation and recovery. SC interventions may be a cost-effective way of preventing and ameliorating these conditions. However, the impact of these SC interventions on mental health still needs research. We conducted a systematic review of SC-based interventions to investigate their effect on mental health outcomes from controlled, quasi-experimental studies or pilot trials. We searched twelve academic databases, three clinical trials registries, hand-searched references and contacted field experts. Studies' quality was assessed with the Cochrane Risk of Bias tools for randomized and non-randomized studies. Seven studies were included in the review, published between 2006 and 2016. There was substantial heterogeneity in the definitions of both SC and mental disorders among the studies, preventing us from calculating pooled effect sizes. The interventions included community engagement and educative programs, cognitive processing therapy and sociotherapy for trauma survivors, and neighbourhood projects. There are paucity of SC interventions investigating the effect on mental health outcomes. This study showed that both SC scores and mental health outcomes improved over time but there was little evidence of benefit compared to control groups in the long term. Further high-quality trials are needed, especially among adverse populations to assess sustainability of effect.

  11. Pediatric disaster preparedness in the medical setting: integrating mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jeffrey I; Montano, Zorash; Shields, Sandra; Mahrer, Nicole E; Vibhakar, Viktoria; Ybarra, Tanya; Yee, Nancy; Upperman, Jeffrey; Blake, Nancy; Stevenson, Kathleen; Nager, Alan L

    2009-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of disasters worldwide highlights the need for established and universal disaster preparedness plans. The devastating events of September 11 and Hurricane Katrina have spurred the development of some disaster response systems. These systems, however, are predominantly focused on medical needs and largely overlook mental health considerations. Negative outcomes of disasters include physical damage as well as psychological harm. Mental health needs should be considered throughout the entire disaster response process, especially when caring for children, adolescents, and their families. To provide an overview and recommendations for the integration of mental health considerations into pediatric disaster preparedness and response in the medical setting. Recommendations were developed by a panel of disaster preparedness and mental health experts during the Childrens Hospital Los Angeles Pediatric Disaster Resource and Training Center: Workshop on Family Reunification in Los Angeles, California, March 31-April 1, 2008. Experts discussed the inclusion of mental health-specific considerations and services at all stages of disaster preparedness and response. Recommendations involve the integration of mental health into triage and tracking, the adoption of a child ambassador model, environment, and developmentally appropriate interventions, education, communication, death notification, and family reunification. The inclusion of mental health concerns into pediatric disaster preparedness may help prevent further and unnecessary psychological harm to children and adolescent survivors following a disaster.

  12. The influence of music on mental effort and driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Ayça Berfu; Steg, Linda; Epstude, Kai

    2012-09-01

    The current research examined the influence of loud music on driving performance, and whether mental effort mediated this effect. Participants (N=69) drove in a driving simulator either with or without listening to music. In order to test whether music would have similar effects on driving performance in different situations, we manipulated the simulated traffic environment such that the driving context consisted of both complex and monotonous driving situations. In addition, we systematically kept track of drivers' mental load by making the participants verbally report their mental effort at certain moments while driving. We found that listening to music increased mental effort while driving, irrespective of the driving situation being complex or monotonous, providing support to the general assumption that music can be a distracting auditory stimulus while driving. However, drivers who listened to music performed as well as the drivers who did not listen to music, indicating that music did not impair their driving performance. Importantly, the increases in mental effort while listening to music pointed out that drivers try to regulate their mental effort as a cognitive compensatory strategy to deal with task demands. Interestingly, we observed significant improvements in driving performance in two of the driving situations. It seems like mental effort might mediate the effect of music on driving performance in situations requiring sustained attention. Other process variables, such as arousal and boredom, should also be incorporated to study designs in order to reveal more on the nature of how music affects driving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mental health research in The Lancet: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Banfield, Michelle; Leach, Liana

    2010-02-01

    The Lancet recently declared that it intends to "make mental health one of its campaign focal points". However, it has been silent on the role it might play in disseminating mental health research. To examine The Lancet's track record in publishing mental health research relative to its disease burden. Research articles (n = 733) published in The Lancet over a 2.5 year period (2003-2005) were coded according to the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) classification system and compared with data from the 2002 GBD study. A range of other characteristics including whether consumers were involved in the research process were coded. Mental health articles (excluding neurological and substance abuse) accounted for 1.8% of articles but are responsible for a worldwide YLD of 22.8% (25.4% high income countries) and DALYs of 9.0% (14.7% in high income countries). Despite its commendable mental health advocacy work, mental health research is under-represented in The Lancet. The journal should take steps to ensure that the dissemination of mental health research is not a neglected aspect of their advocacy activities.

  14. Is mental illness complex? From behavior to brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Albert C; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2013-08-01

    A defining but elusive feature of the human brain is its astonishing complexity. This complexity arises from the interaction of numerous neuronal circuits that operate over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, enabling the brain to adapt to the constantly changing environment and to perform various amazing mental functions. In mentally ill patients, such adaptability is often impaired, leading to either ordered or random patterns of behavior. Quantification and classification of these abnormal human behaviors exhibited during mental illness is one of the major challenges of contemporary psychiatric medicine. In the past few decades, attempts have been made to apply concepts adopted from complexity science to better understand complex human behavior. Although considerable effort has been devoted to studying the abnormal dynamic processes involved in mental illness, unfortunately, the primary features of complexity science are typically presented in a form suitable for mathematicians, physicists, and engineers; thus, they are difficult for practicing psychiatrists or neuroscientists to comprehend. Therefore, this paper introduces recent applications of methods derived from complexity science for examining mental illness. We propose that mental illness is loss of brain complexity and the complexity of mental illness can be studied under a general framework by quantifying the order and randomness of dynamic macroscopic human behavior and microscopic neuronal activity. Additionally, substantial effort is required to identify the link between macroscopic behaviors and microscopic changes in the neuronal dynamics within the brain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrophysiological correlates of mental navigation in blind and sighted people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kober, Silvia Erika; Wood, Guilherme; Kampl, Christiane; Neuper, Christa; Ischebeck, Anja

    2014-10-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate functional reorganization of the occipital cortex for a mental navigation task in blind people. Eight completely blind adults and eight sighted matched controls performed a mental navigation task, in which they mentally imagined to walk along familiar routes of their hometown during a multi-channel EEG measurement. A motor imagery task was used as control condition. Furthermore, electrophysiological activation patterns during a resting measurement with open and closed eyes were compared between blind and sighted participants. During the resting measurement with open eyes, no differences in EEG power were observed between groups, whereas sighted participants showed higher alpha (8-12Hz) activity at occipital sites compared to blind participants during an eyes-closed resting condition. During the mental navigation task, blind participants showed a stronger event-related desynchronization in the alpha band over the visual cortex compared to sighted controls indicating a stronger activation in this brain region in the blind. Furthermore, groups showed differences in functional brain connectivity between fronto-central and parietal-occipital brain networks during mental navigation indicating stronger visuo-spatial processing in sighted than in blind people during mental navigation. Differences in electrophysiological parameters between groups were specific for mental navigation since no group differences were observed during motor imagery. These results indicate that in the absence of vision the visual cortex takes over other functions such as spatial navigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Problem based learning in mental health nursing: the students' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Carol; Carver, Neil

    2012-04-01

    Problem based learning (PBL) is well established within the field of health-care education for professionals worldwide, although little has been done to explore the experiences of students undertaking a PBL course in mental health nursing. Without firm evidence of the benefits of PBL, educationalists in mental health might be reluctant to view it as an option in curricula design. This U.K. study examined the experiences of pre-registration post-graduate mental health student nurses undertaking a 2-year educational course in which all teaching and assessment followed a PBL philosophy. Focus groups were used throughout the course to elicit in-depth qualitative data that was analysed by applying a constant comparative method. The analysis of the data uncovered the following broad themes: 'moves to autonomy, 'surviving the groups' and 'the impact of PBL'. The findings show that participants had mainly positive experiences and gained a range of study and interpersonal skills central to mental health nursing. Participants described initial anxieties resulting from engagement in PBL. However, they increasingly gained confidence in this approach, exercising increasing control over the PBL process. Despite this increased autonomy, participants continued to value the input of skilled facilitators. A recurring issue centred on the potential for interpersonal conflict within the student group and its impact on their learning. It is suggested that more research is needed examining the use of PBL in mental health nursing. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  17. The Role of Gesture in Supporting Mental Representations: The Case of Mental Abacus Arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Neon B; Barner, David; Frank, Michael; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2017-09-11

    People frequently gesture when problem-solving, particularly on tasks that require spatial transformation. Gesture often facilitates task performance by interacting with internal mental representations, but how this process works is not well understood. We investigated this question by exploring the case of mental abacus (MA), a technique in which users not only imagine moving beads on an abacus to compute sums, but also produce movements in gestures that accompany the calculations. Because the content of MA is transparent and readily manipulated, the task offers a unique window onto how gestures interface with mental representations. We find that the size and number of MA gestures reflect the length and difficulty of math problems. Also, by selectively interfering with aspects of gesture, we find that participants perform significantly worse on MA under motor interference, but that perceptual feedback is not critical for success on the task. We conclude that premotor processes involved in the planning of gestures are critical to mental representation in MA. © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Diagnosis in young children: how a father's perceptions of mental health change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Marian

    2014-05-01

    This case study's purpose was to understand how diagnosing mental illness in a child affects a parent's perception of mental health, using Denzin's interpretive interactionism. Two interviews from a case study were analyzed. Emergent themes were alienation from peers, ambivalence, shifting orientation to mental illness, school system stigmatization and conflict with mental health care, and discovery of mental healthcare specialists and new peers. Perceptions were influenced by peers, education, and mental healthcare systems, and by the disease model paradigm of mental illness. Future research should explore the effect of the diagnostic process on parents of very young children, and expand on consequences of undergoing current diagnostic and treatment practices. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. What Do Mental Terms Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Psychologists and philosophers have long been interested in two questions: (a) What do mental terms mean? and (b) what role do mental terms play in explanations of behavior? In the current sketch I review how mediational neobehaviorism, cognitive psychology, and the radical behaviorism of B. F. Skinner address these questions. In so doing, I seek…

  20. Teenage Pregnancy and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Corcoran

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.

  1. Teenage Pregnancy and Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Corcoran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.

  2. Substance Use and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Use and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you know that addiction ... Plus – also en Español Treatment Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA): SAMHSA’s National Helpline: 1-800-662- ...

  3. Crossing borders via mental bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Dirk

    administration, and in specific on the attempt to initiate and promote cross-border regional integration via the building of mental bridges between Danish and German parts of the Femern Belt Region. Here one of the first projects aiming primarily at building mental bridges in the Femern Belt Region...

  4. The Nevada mental health courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, George B

    2010-01-01

    The deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill which started in the 1960s greatly contributed to the overcrowding of judicial systems throughout the world. In the ensuing years, the actors involved in the adversarial system present in United States courts, a system that is primarily interested in assessing the culpability of the offender, have come to realize that the system is lacking therapeutic and reintegrative approaches to offenders, especially those who are mentally ill. Therapeutic jurisprudence, an interdisciplinary science, addresses this problematic situation of the mentally ill. It offers a fresh insight into the potentially beneficial and detrimental effects of legal decisions and views one of the roles of law as that of a healing agent. At present, many states have instituted mental health courts based on these concepts, incorporating previous drug court experiences. Their goal is to avoid the criminalization of the mentally ill and their recidivism through the creation of special programs. This article describes the mental health court programs of Washoe County and Clark County, Nevada, their organization, their therapeutic goals, and their success in keeping mentally ill offenders out of the correctional system, while improving their mental condition. In so doing, the program has lightened the load of the overburdened courts and has greatly diminished the financial burden incurred for court trials and jail and prison stays. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. International Students and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…

  6. Mental Models: A Robust Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The concept of a mental model has been described by theorists from diverse disciplines. The purpose of this paper is to offer a robust definition of an individual mental model for use in organisational management. Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted involves an interdisciplinary literature review of disciplines, including…

  7. X-linked mental retardation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ropers, H.H.; Hamel, B.C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Genetic factors have an important role in the aetiology of mental retardation. However, their contribution is often underestimated because in developed countries, severely affected patients are mainly sporadic cases and familial cases are rare. X-chromosomal mental retardation is the exception to

  8. School Mental Health Consultation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, John A.

    The goals of the School Mental Health Consultation Program, a cooperative effort of the Children and Youth Service at High Plains Mental Health Center and the Unified School District 489 in Hays, Kansas, are to evaluate students' behavioral problems, to assess how students' difficulties affect teachers, and to help the consultee assess the…

  9. Inferring mental states from neuroimaging data: From reverse inference to large-scale decoding

    OpenAIRE

    Poldrack, Russell A.

    2011-01-01

    A common goal of neuroimaging research is to use imaging data to identify the mental processes that are engaged when a subject performs a mental task. The use of reasoning from activation to mental functions, known as “reverse inference”, has been previously criticized on the basis that it does not take into account how selectively the area is activated by the mental process in question. In this Perspective, I outline the critique of informal reverse inference, and describe a number of new de...

  10. Applying concept mapping to solving in-patient mental health recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alafaireet, Patricia; Bouras, Adam; Houghton, Howard L; Lavoie, Beau J; Lavoie, Jaie P; Cressman, Beth; Modi, Saumil

    2015-01-01

    Concept mapping is a powerful research tool using visual representation to expose the complementary impact and synergy of factors affecting a specific process. This article outlines an example, in the domain of mental health, of concept mapping applied to the specific issue of readmissions or recidivism of mental health patients. Concept mapping is used to unify the diverse perspectives found across the existing literature and in mental health care delivery so that patient input and engagement in the care process can be maximally applied to improvement in the delivery of local inpatient mental health care and, penultimately, to transformation of an inefficacious care delivery model.

  11. VA National Mental Health Statistics - 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — VAMC-level statistics on the prevalence, mental health utilization, non-mental health utilization, mental health workload, and psychological testing of Veterans with...

  12. Mental Health Concerns: Veterans & Active Duty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dialing 1-800-273-8255 and pressing 1. Mental Health Concerns There are three primary mental health concerns ... care or call 911. How Will Asking for Mental Health Treatment Affect My Career? Military personnel have always ...

  13. Cultural diversity and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalkrishnan, Narayan; Babacan, Hurriyet

    2015-12-01

    Cultural diversity and its impact on mental health has become an increasingly important issue in a globalised world where the interactions between cultures continue to grow exponentially. This paper presents critical areas in which culture impacts on mental health, such as how health and illness are perceived, coping styles, treatment-seeking patterns, impacts of history, racism, bias and stereotyping, gender, family, stigma and discrimination. While cultural differences provide a number of challenges to mental health policy and practice they also provide a number of opportunities to work in unique and effective ways towards positive mental health. Ethno-specific approaches to mental health that incorporate traditional and community-based systems can provide new avenues for working with culturally diverse populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  14. Positive Mental Health from the perspective of Iranian society: A qualitative study [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mirabzadeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the World Health Organization, mental health relates, not only to the absence of mental disorder, but also to Positive Mental Health. Studies have shown that promoting positive mental health, not only reduces the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders, but also affects the process of treatment and reduces related burden. However, this concept has different interpretations in different cultures, and in many societies, mental health is still considered the absence of mental illness. Thus, the present study was conducted to provide an in-depth understanding of Iranian adults` perspective towards the concept of positive mental health. Materials and Methods: In the present qualitative study, eight focus group discussions (6 to 8 adults in each session were held consisting of 30 to 60 year-old men and women from Tehran. Data were analyzed in "DeDoose" qualitative software using content analysis. Results: According to the data obtained, participants found no difference between positive mental health and mental health, mostly equating it to the absence of mental disorders and having positive energy, peace in and satisfaction with life. According to the results, positive mental health has four domains of emotional/psychological, spiritual, social, and life skills. Conclusion: Understanding an individual’s positive mental health concepts culturally and providing appropriate community based programs can significantly promote the mental health of the community.

  15. Positive Mental Health from the perspective of Iranian society: A qualitative study [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mirabzadeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the World Health Organization, mental health relates, not only to the absence of mental disorder, but also to Positive Mental Health. Studies have shown that promoting positive mental health, not only reduces the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders, but also affects the process of treatment and reduces related burden. However, this concept has different interpretations in different cultures, and in many societies, mental health is still considered the absence of mental illness. Thus, the present study was conducted to provide an in-depth understanding of Iranian adults` perspective towards the concept of positive mental health. Materials and Methods: In the present qualitative study, eight focus group discussions (6 to 8 adults in each session were held consisting of 30 to 60 year-old men and women from Tehran. Data were analyzed in "DeDoose" qualitative software using content analysis. Results: According to the data obtained, participants found no difference between positive mental health and mental health, mostly equating it to the absence of mental disorders and having positive energy, peace in and satisfaction with life. According to the results, positive mental health has four domains of emotional/psychological, spiritual, social, and life skills. Conclusion: Understanding an individual’s positive mental health concepts culturally and providing appropriate community based programs can significantly promote the mental health of the community.

  16. Disaster medicine. Mental care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haginoya, Masato; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2012-01-01

    Described are 5 essential comments of view concerning the post-disaster psychiatric care through authors' experience at the aid of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami including Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. Firstly, at the acute phase of disaster, the ensured safe place, sleep and rest are necessary as a direct aid of sufferers and their family. Insomnia is seen in many of them and can partly be a prodrome of disorders like post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). US Psychological First Aid (PFA) is useful for a guide of the initial aid for disaster, and translated Japanese version is available free. Public anxiety as a psychological effect can be caused even out of the disaster-stricken area by such factors as on-site news reports (inducing identification), internet information, economical and social confusion, forecasted radiation hazard, etc. Cool-headed understanding is required for them and particularly for complicated radiological information. The system for psychiatric treatment is needed as exemplified by its temporary lack due to the radiation disaster near the Plant and consequent prompt dispatch of psychiatrists from Dokkyo Medical University. Survived sufferers' grief and bereavement are said to tend to last long, to be complicated and deteriorated, indicating the necessity of management of continuous mental health. Alcoholism as a result to avoid those feelings should be noted. Finally, pointed out is the mental care for supporters working for recovery from the disaster, like policeman, Self-Defense Force member, fireman, doctor, nurse, officer, volunteer and many others concerned, because PTSD prevalence is reported to amount to 12.4% of rescue and recovery workers of US World Trade Center Disaster (9.11) even 2-3 years after. (T.T.)

  17. Whole-school mental health promotion in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip T. Slee

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although there is increasing recognition internationally of the significance of social and emotional health and wellbeing for the healthy development of young people, the levels of support that governments provide for mental health policy and programme initiatives vary widely. In this paper, consideration is given to Australia's approach to mental health promotion from early years to secondary school, including specific reference to the KidsMatter Primary mental health promotion, prevention and early intervention initiative. Although it is now well established that schools provide important settings for the promotion of mental health initiatives, there are significant challenges faced in effectively implementing and maintaining the delivery of evidence-based practice in school settings, including concerns about quality assurance in processes of implementation, translation, dissemination and evaluation.

  18. [Psychosocial rehabilitation: perceptions of the mental health staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa; Randemark, Norma Faustino Rocha; Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Ruiz, Erasmo Miessa

    2006-01-01

    This study is inserted in assumptions of research's analysis qualitative which objective was to interpretate the Mental Health professional's perspectives about psychosocial rehabilitation of mental disorder's porter to know as them proceed it in their professional practice. Data collection came up by the application of semi-structured interviews to 8 Mental Health professionals that work in the Center of Psychosocial Attention. After the readings, notes of pieces of talk, subcategories and categories were composed after the interpretation based on the literature. The results pointed that psychosocial rehabilitation is a process which implementation and still needs effective overcome of traditional paradigma of health mental disease, that form conception and therapeutic practices and requires trust of professionals about the users' capacity of live as citizen in the most variable segments of social life.

  19. Creative writing in recovery from severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Robert; Neilsen, Philip; White, Emma

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that creative writing forms an important part of the recovery experience of people affected by severe mental illness. In this paper, we consider theoretical models that explain how creative writing might contribute to recovery, and we discuss the potential for creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation. We argue that the rehabilitation benefits of creative writing might be optimized through focus on process and technique in writing, rather than content, and that consequently, the involvement of professional writers might be important. We describe a pilot workshop that deployed these principles and was well-received by participants. Finally, we make recommendations regarding the role of creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation for people recovering from severe mental illness and suggest that the development of an evidence base regarding the effectiveness of creative writing is a priority. © 2012 The Authors; International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  20. Dynamic Pricing for Airline Revenue Management under Passenger Mental Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusheng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental accounting is a far-reaching concept, which is often used to explain various kinds of irrational behaviors in human decision making process. This paper investigates dynamic pricing problems for single-flight and multiple flights settings, respectively, where passengers may be affected by mental accounting. We analyze dynamic pricing problems by means of the dynamic programming method and obtain the optimal pricing strategies. Further, we analytically show that the passenger mental accounting depth has a positive effect on the flight’s expected revenue for the single flight and numerically illustrate that the passenger mental accounting depth has a positive effect on the optimal prices for the multiple flights.

  1. Smartphone Applications for Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovic, Ana; Vona, Pamela L; Santostefano, Antonella M; Ciaravino, Samantha; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D

    2016-07-01

    Many adolescents and adults do not seek treatment for mental health symptoms. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist individuals with mental health concerns in alleviating symptoms or increasing understanding. This study seeks to characterize apps readily available to smartphone users seeking mental health information and/or support. Ten key terms were searched in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores: mental health, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, trauma, trauma in schools, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), child trauma, and bullying. A content analysis of the first 20 application descriptions retrieved per category was conducted. Out of 300 nonduplicate applications, 208 (70%) were relevant to search topic, mental health or stress. The most common purported purpose for the apps was symptom relief (41%; n = 85) and general mental health education (18%; n = 37). The most frequently mentioned approaches to improving mental health were those that may benefit only milder symptoms such as relaxation (21%; n = 43). Most app descriptions did not include information to substantiate stated effectiveness of the application (59%; n = 123) and had no mention of privacy or security (89%; n = 185). Due to uncertainty of the helpfulness of readily available mental health applications, clinicians working with mental health patients should inquire about and provide guidance on application use, and patients should have access to ways to assess the potential utility of these applications. Strategic policy and research developments are likely needed to equip patients with applications for mental health, which are patient centered and evidence based.

  2. Querying the Call to Introduce Mental Capacity Testing to Mental Health Law: Does the Doctrine of Necessity Provide an Alternative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Gooding

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trends in international human rights law have challenged States globally to rethink involuntary mental health interventions from a non-discrimination perspective. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD in particular prohibits laws that discriminate on the basis of disability. However, a key criterion for compulsory mental health treatment under typical mental health legislation is a psychiatric diagnosis (in conjunction with risk of harm and other criteria. Hence, for people with mental health disabilities, rights to liberty and consent in healthcare are held to a different standard compared to other citizens. A prominent law reform option being explored by some governments and commentators for achieving non-discrimination is to replace the diagnostic criterion for triggering involuntary intervention with an assessment of mental capacity. After all, every citizen is subject to restrictions on autonomy where they are deemed to lack mental capacity, such as where concussion necessitates emergency service. However, the use of mental capacity “testing” is seen by diverse commentators as wanting in key respects. A prominent criticism comes from the United Nations Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which considers mental capacity assessments a form of disability-based discrimination. This article queries the call to replace the diagnostic criterion in mental health law with an assessment of mental capacity in the light of jurisprudence on equality and non-discrimination in international human rights law. Instead, we examine the doctrine of necessity as an area of law, which might help identify specific thresholds for overriding autonomy in emergency circumstances that can be codified in a non-discriminatory way. We also consider the need for deliberative law reform processes to identify such measures, and we suggest interim, short-term measures for creating a “supported decision

  3. The neurobiology of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: Altered functioning in three mental domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthys, W.C.H.J.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses neurobiological studies of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder within the conceptual framework of three interrelated mental domains: punishment processing, reward processing, and cognitive control. First, impaired fear conditioning, reduced cortisol reactivity to

  4. How to be Brilliant at Mental Arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, Beryl

    2010-01-01

    How to be Brilliant at Mental Arithmetic addresses the twin pillars of mental arithmetic - mental recall and mental agility. Mental recall depends on familiarity with number bonds and plenty of opportunity to practise. Mental agility depends more on confidence with the number system and the four operations. Using the worksheets in this book, students will learn about: tens and units; addition, subtraction, multiplication and division; addition shortcuts; product squares; quick recall; number se

  5. Mental Health Treatment and Criminal Justice Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Frank; Thomas G. McGuire

    2010-01-01

    Are many prisoners in jail or prison because of their mental illness? And if so, is mental health treatment a cost-effective way to reduce crime and lower criminal justice costs? This paper reviews and evaluates the evidence assessing the potential of expansion of mental health services for reducing crime. Mental illness and symptoms of mental illness are highly prevalent among adult and child criminal justice populations. The association between serious mental illness and violence and arrest...

  6. Mental Illness, Healthcare, and Homelessness in Mississippi

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Stewart

    2017-01-01

    Mental illness is prevalent among the homeless population and the rate of mentally ill homeless individuals has increased since deinstitutionalization. There is little information about homeless population mental health and access to mental healthcare. This study sought to describe the mental health status and utilization of mental healthcare services among homeless individuals in Mississippi. This is a cross-sectional study with 3,375 adults participants. There were 58% males, 42% females, 4...

  7. Strengthening practical wisdom: mental health workers' learning and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Kristin Ådnøy; Dahl, Hellen; Karlsson, Bengt; Arman, Maria

    2014-09-01

    Practical wisdom, understood as knowing how to be or act in any present situation with clients, is believed to be an essential part of the knowledge needed to be a professional mental health worker. Exploring processes of adapting, extending knowledge and refining tacit knowledge grounded in mental health workers' experiences with being in practice may bring awareness of how mental health workers reflect, learn and practice professional 'artistry'. The aim of the article was to explore mental health workers' processes of development and learning as they appeared in focus groups intended to develop practical wisdom. The main research question was 'How might the processes of development and learning contribute to developing practical wisdom in the individual as well as in the practice culture?' The design was multi-stage focus groups, and the same participants met four times. A phenomenological hermeneutical method for researching lived experience guided the analysis. Eight experienced mental health workers representing four Norwegian municipalities participated. The research context was community-based mental health services. The study was reported to Norwegian Social Data Services, and procedures for informed consent were followed. Two examples of processes of re-evaluation of experience (Association, Integration, Validation, Appropriation and Outcomes and action) were explored. The health workers had developed knowledge in previous encounters with clients. In sharing practice experiences, this knowledge was expressed and developed, and also tested and validated against the aims of practice. Discussions led to adapted and extended knowledge, and as tacit knowledge was expressed it could be used actively. Learning to reflect, being ready to be provoked and learning to endure indecisiveness may be foundational in developing practical wisdom. Openness is demanding, and changing habits of mind is difficult. Reflection on, and confrontation with, set practices are

  8. The Use of "Literary Fiction" to Promote Mentalizing Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Maria Chiara; Mazza, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is a multidimensional process that incorporates both mentalizing and emotional sharing dimensions. Empathic competencies are important for creating interpersonal relationships with other people and developing adequate social behaviour. The lack of these social components also leads to isolation and exclusion in healthy populations. However, few studies have investigated how to improve these social skills. In a recent study, Kidd and Castano (2013) found that reading literary fiction increases mentalizing ability and may change how people think about other people's emotions and mental states. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of reading literary fiction, compared to nonfiction and science fiction, on empathic abilities. Compared to previous studies, we used a larger variety of empathy measures and utilized a pre and post-test design. In all, 214 healthy participants were randomly assigned to read a book representative of one of three literary genres (literary fiction, nonfiction, science fiction). Participants were assessed before and after the reading phase using mentalizing and emotional sharing tests, according to Zaki and Ochsner' s (2012) model. Comparisons of sociodemographic, mentalizing, and emotional sharing variables across conditions were conducted using ANOVA. Our results showed that after the reading phase, the literary fiction group showed improvement in mentalizing abilities, but there was no discernible effect on emotional sharing abilities. Our study showed that the reading processes can promote mentalizing abilities. These results may set important goals for future low-cost rehabilitation protocols for several disorders in which the mentalizing deficit is considered central to the disease, such as Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia.

  9. Mental Health Technologies: Designing With Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, Simone; Matthews, Ben; Bidargaddi, Niranjan; Jones, Gabrielle; Lawn, Sharon; Venning, Anthony; Collin, Philippa

    2016-01-28

    Despite growing interest in the promise of e-mental and well-being interventions, little supporting literature exists to guide their design and the evaluation of their effectiveness. Both participatory design (PD) and design thinking (DT) have emerged as approaches that hold significant potential for supporting design in this space. Each approach is difficult to definitively circumscribe, and as such has been enacted as a process, a mind-set, specific practices/techniques, or a combination thereof. At its core, however, PD is a design research tradition that emphasizes egalitarian partnerships with end users. In contrast, DT is in the process of becoming a management concept tied to innovation with strong roots in business and education. From a health researcher viewpoint, while PD can be reduced to a number of replicable stages that involve particular methods, techniques, and outputs, projects often take vastly different forms and effective PD projects and practice have traditionally required technology-specific (eg, computer science) and domain-specific (eg, an application domain, such as patient support services) knowledge. In contrast, DT offers a practical off-the-shelf toolkit of approaches that at face value have more potential to have a quick impact and be successfully applied by novice practitioners (and those looking to include a more human-centered focus in their work). Via 2 case studies we explore the continuum of similarities and differences between PD and DT in order to provide an initial recommendation for what health researchers might reasonably expect from each in terms of process and outcome in the design of e-mental health interventions. We suggest that the sensibilities that DT shares with PD (ie, deep engagement and collaboration with end users and an inclusive and multidisciplinary practice) are precisely the aspects of DT that must be emphasized in any application to mental health provision and that any technology development process must

  10. Theory of mind in the wild: toward tackling the challenges of everyday mental state reasoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie E Wertz

    Full Text Available A complete understanding of the cognitive systems underwriting theory of mind (ToM abilities requires articulating how mental state representations are generated and processed in everyday situations. Individuals rarely announce their intentions prior to acting, and actions are often consistent with multiple mental states. In order for ToM to operate effectively in such situations, mental state representations should be generated in response to certain actions, even when those actions occur in the presence of mental state content derived from other aspects of the situation. Results from three experiments with preschool children and adults demonstrate that mental state information is indeed generated based on an approach action cue in situations that contain competing mental state information. Further, the frequency with which participants produced or endorsed explanations that include mental states about an approached object decreased when the competing mental state information about a different object was made explicit. This set of experiments provides some of the first steps toward identifying the observable action cues that are used to generate mental state representations in everyday situations and offers insight into how both young children and adults processes multiple mental state representations.

  11. Students′ perception about mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Mahto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developing countries like India, there are evidences that stigma associated with mental illness is increasing. As in parts of the developing world, with advancement of urbanization and rapid industrialization, people tend to react in a very peculiar and biased way when they confront a mentally ill person. Materials and Methods: The present study aimed to find out students′ opinion about mental illness. A total of 100 students (50 male and 50 female from Ranchi University were purposively recruited for the study, and the 51-item Opinion about Mental Illness (OMI Scale was administered. Results: Majority of the students were from Hindu families, of whom 42 (84% were males and 38 (68% were females. With regard to OMI scale, the item, viz., ′The law should allow a woman to divorce her husband as soon as he has been confined in mental hospital with a severe mental illness′, both male (46% and female (56% students were neutral (significant at 0.014, P < 0.05. Conclusion: Overall no significant level of difference emerged between male and female students with regard to opinion about mental illness.

  12. Competencies for disaster mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Richard V; Burkle, Frederick M; Walsh, Lauren E; North, Carol S

    2015-03-01

    Competencies for disaster mental health are essential to domestic and international disaster response capabilities. Numerous consensus-based competency sets for disaster health workers exist, but no prior study identifies and discusses competency sets pertaining specifically to disaster mental health. Relevant competency sets were identified via MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and Google Scholar searches. Sixteen competency sets are discussed, some providing core competencies for all disaster responders and others for specific responder groups within particular professions or specialties. Competency sets specifically for disaster mental health professionals are lacking, with the exception of one set that focused only on cultural competence. The identified competency sets provide guidance for educators in developing disaster mental health curricula and for disaster health workers seeking education and training in disaster mental health. Valid, criterion-based competencies are required to guide selection and training of mental health professionals for the disaster mental health workforce. In developing these competencies, consideration should be given to the requirements of both domestic and international disaster response efforts.

  13. Moderators of Coronary Vasomotion during Mental Stress in Coronary Artery Disease Patients: Stress Reactivity, Serum Lipoproteins, and Severity of Atherosclerosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howell, Robert H

    1996-01-01

    Impaired coronary artery vasomotion in response to behavioral triggers such as mental stress may be an important pathophysiological process involved in acute manifestations of coronary artery disease...

  14. Mental health care user participation in mental health policy development and implementation in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleintjes, Sharon; Lund, Crick; Swartz, Leslie; Flisher, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes current support for mental health care user participation in policy development and implementation in South Africa and suggests strategies for improving participation. The World Health Organization (WHO) Mental Health Policy Checklist and WHO Mental Health Legislation Checklist were completed. Between August 2006 and August 2009 96 semi-structured interviews with national, regional and district stakeholders were conducted. Most respondents felt that inclusion of user perspectives in policy processes would improve policy development. In practice, mental health care user consultation in policy development and implementation has been limited during the 16 years of democracy in South Africa. Strategies to create a supportive environment for user participation include social action directed at reducing stigma, advocating for acceptance of users' rights to participate in decision making, crafting a supportive regulatory framework to promote participation, and equipping providers and policy makers to support inclusion. User capacity for participation could be strengthened through early and effective access to treatment and support, development of a national user lobby, skills training and practical exposure to the policy and service development environment.

  15. STRESS AND MENTAL DISORDERS IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH AKOOCHEKIAN

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic renal failure and dialysis are complicated situations that affect on somatic and mental status of patients. In this study, relation between stress, renal diseas, dialysis and mental disorders was determined. Methods. In a case control study in Noor hospital"s dialysis ward (affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services the mental status of 30 end stage renal disease (ESRD patients were compaired with well matched control group by MMPI. Results. Hypochondriasis (Hs, depression (D, hysteria (Hy psychastenia (Pt and schizophrenia (Sc were observed in ESRD patients more than controls (P < 0.05. Means of sociopathy (Pd, paranoia (Pa and hypomania (Ma had no difference between groups (P > 0.05. Realy sadness and dysphoria, rumintion with illness, obsession, anxiety, compulsion, impaired process of thinking, isolation tendency and odd sensation in patients were more than control group (P < 0.05. Discussion. Chronic diseases have psychological complication and as a stress must cope and adjust with it. So, these patients and their families must be educated about coping mechanism. When the patients and their families have good coping mechanism, they would be able tolerate these streses.

  16. Guideline implementation strategies for specialist mental healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girlanda, Francesca; Fiedler, Ines; Ay, Esra; Barbui, Corrado; Koesters, Markus

    2013-07-01

    Clinical practice guidelines in mental healthcare are viewed as an essential asset if appropriately developed and implemented. The purpose of this article was to review the existing literature on how guidelines should be implemented to optimize their impact on provider performance and patient outcomes in specialist mental healthcare settings. Findings from recent studies suggest a trend toward an improvement in process and patient outcomes following guideline implementation. However, studies are heterogeneous in terms of design, implementation strategies and outcome measures, making it very difficult to draw firm conclusions about which implementation strategy is effective in different healthcare contexts. Current knowledge about how guidelines should be implemented is still sparse and inconclusive in mental healthcare. Future studies should attempt to employ more rigorous designs, including random allocation of patients or clusters of patients, to shed further light on this compelling issue. Research on guideline implementation strategies should additionally take into account potential barriers to knowledge translation, which can heavily influence the implementability of treatment recommendations.

  17. What imagination can teach us about higher mental functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The chapter uses the history of the concept of imagination as example of how psychology creates a normative model of mental processes that affects our understanding of development. Following the traditional hierarchy of psychological functions, with abstract rationality on top, we fail to underst......The chapter uses the history of the concept of imagination as example of how psychology creates a normative model of mental processes that affects our understanding of development. Following the traditional hierarchy of psychological functions, with abstract rationality on top, we fail...

  18. Migration and common mental disorder: an improvement in mental health over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Margaret; Warfa, Nasir; Khatib, Yasmin; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2015-02-01

    Global migration is reaching record high levels and UK migrant groups comprise an increasing proportion of the total population. The migratory process causes stress that can affect mental health. There is limited consistent empirical evidence of a longitudinal nature to explain the association between migration and mental health. This review aims to examine the evidence of a relationship between migration and common mental disorder (CMD) amongst migrants over time. A comprehensive search of medical and psychiatric databases for global quantitative empirical studies investigating incidence of CMD amongst adult migrants from 1975 to July 2012 was conducted. Declines in rates of CMD amongst migrants over time were reported by two thirds of the 18 studies reviewed, less than one third of which were statistically significant. On the contrary, three studies showed an increased rate of CMD, one statistically significant. Individual psychological resources, social support, the acculturation process, cultural variations and time since relocation are identified as statistically significant protective factors against the development of CMD amongst migrants. New enlightening points include the significant impact of varying patterns of psychological distress, of which negative is the most adverse for CMD. Migration is an extremely complex process. Further clarification is needed to gain deeper understanding of the relationship between migration and CMD to address contradictions in the literature and health inequalities amongst migrants.

  19. Cognitive mapping in mental time travel and mental space navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Baptiste; van Wassenhove, Virginie

    2016-09-01

    The ability to imagine ourselves in the past, in the future or in different spatial locations suggests that the brain can generate cognitive maps that are independent of the experiential self in the here and now. Using three experiments, we asked to which extent Mental Time Travel (MTT; imagining the self in time) and Mental Space Navigation (MSN; imagining the self in space) shared similar cognitive operations. For this, participants judged the ordinality of real historical events in time and in space with respect to different mental perspectives: for instance, participants mentally projected themselves in Paris in nine years, and judged whether an event occurred before or after, or, east or west, of where they mentally stood. In all three experiments, symbolic distance effects in time and space dimensions were quantified using Reaction Times (RT) and Error Rates (ER). When self-projected, participants were slower and were less accurate (absolute distance effects); participants were also faster and more accurate when the spatial and temporal distances were further away from their mental viewpoint (relative distance effects). These effects show that MTT and MSN require egocentric mapping and that self-projection requires map transformations. Additionally, participants' performance was affected when self-projection was made in one dimension but judgements in another, revealing a competition between temporal and spatial mapping (Experiment 2 & 3). Altogether, our findings suggest that MTT and MSN are separately mapped although they require comparable allo- to ego-centric map conversion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sufism and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamie, S Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N A

    2013-01-01

    Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health.

  1. Barriers and facilitators to the utilization of adult mental health services by Australia's Indigenous people: seeking a way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Anton Neville; Pyett, Priscilla; Oakley-Browne, Mark A; Gruis, Hilton; Waples-Crowe, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Mental disorders are the second leading cause of disease burden among Australia's Indigenous people after cardiovascular disease. Yet Indigenous people do not access mental health services in proportion to their need. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators for Indigenous people seeking mental health services in Australia and identifies key elements in the development and maintenance of partnerships for improved service delivery and future research. The process of seeking help for mental illness has been conceptualized as four consecutive steps starting from recognizing that there is a problem to actually contacting the mental health service. We have attempted to explore the factors affecting each of these stages. While people in the general population experience barriers across all four stages of the process of seeking treatment for a mental disorder, there are many more barriers for Indigenous people at the stage of actually contacting a mental health service. These include a history of racism and discrimination and resultant lack of trust in mainstream services, misunderstandings due to cultural and language differences, and inadequate measures to reduce the stigma associated with mental illness. Further research is required to understand the mental health literacy of Indigenous people, their different perceptions of mental health and well-being, issues around stigma, and the natural history of mental illness among Indigenous people who do not access any form of professional help. Collaborations between mainstream mental health services and Aboriginal organizations have been promoted as a way to conduct research into developing appropriate services for Indigenous people.

  2. Developing Iraq's mental health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Hamada I; Everett, Anita

    2007-10-01

    As Iraq faces the challenge of securing a sustainable resolution to the current violence, the burden of mental illness is likely to increase dramatically. The impact of Saddam Hussein's dictatorship, the Iran-Iraq war, U.S.-led economic sanctions, the Persian Gulf wars, and the U.S. invasion and subsequent violent insurgency have devastated Iraq's governmental and social infrastructure. Health care delivery across sectors has suffered greatly. During the reconstruction phase, the United States and coalition forces allocated resources to restructure Iraq's health care system. Many multinational organizations, governments, and policy makers had the political will as well as the financial and human resources to greatly influence Iraq's mental health program. However, the lack of an existing mental health plan stifled these efforts. Applying Kingdon's model for policy development, which includes political analysis, problem defining, and proposal drafting, the authors describe the development of Iraq's current mental health policy.

  3. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  4. Mentalization and Dialectical Behavior Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Charles R; Choi-Kain, Lois W

    2015-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) and Mentalization-Based Treatment (MBT) are two approaches to the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD). While DBT has the most empirical support, MBT has a small but significant evidence base. Dialectical behavior therapy synthesizes behaviorism, mindfulness, and dialectics, while MBT is conceptually anchored in psychoanalysis, attachment theory, cognitive neuroscience, and developmental psychopathology. While coming from strikingly different orientations, DBT and MBT therapists share more interventions and stances than one might suppose. The central purported active ingredient of MBT is the capacity to mentalize, which is crucial for the formation of secure attachment, and this ability is thought to be weak and unstable in individuals with borderline personality disorder. This article explores the question of whether or not mentalizing is already present in DBT practice, whether it would be compatible with DBT conceptually and practically, and whether a focus on mentalizing would be of use to the DBT therapists and their patients.

  5. Mentalizing Family Violence Part 2: Techniques and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asen, Eia; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-03-01

    This is the second of two companion papers that provide an overview of mentalization-based concepts and techniques when working with the seeming "mindlessness" of intra-family violence. The focus of this paper is on general mentalization-oriented approaches and specific interventions that aim to (1) disrupt the non-mentalizing cycles that can generate intra-family violence and (2) encourage the emergence of patterns of family interactions that provide the foundation for non-violent alternatives. Various playful exercises and activities are described, including the taking of "mental state snapshots" and "selfies" in sessions and staging inverted role-plays, as well as using theatrical masks and creating body-mind maps and scans. These can make "chronic" relationship issues come alive in session and permit "here and now" experiences that generate a safe context for mentalizing to take place. At the core of the work is the continuous focus on integrating experience and reflection. Without acute awareness of the thoughts and feelings occurring in the sessions, mere reflection is not likely to enable change. By increasing mentalizing in the family system, family members' trusting attitudes grow, both within and outside the family. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  6. Information for global mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Lora, A.; Sharan, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Information is needed for development of mental health (MH) services; and particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs), where the MH systems are relatively weak. World Health Organization (WHO) has worked intensively during the last 15 years for developing a strategy in the field of MH information. Methods. The paper analyzes WHO instruments developed in this area [MH Atlas series and WHO Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS)]. Results. Data from ...

  7. Mental health in Tamil cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangala, R; Thara, R

    2009-06-01

    Tamil cinema is a vibrant part of the lives of many in south India. A chequered history and a phenomenal growth have made this medium highly influential not only in Tamil Nadu politics, but also in the social lives of the viewers. This paper provides an overview of the growth of Tamil cinema, and discusses in detail the way mental health has been handled by Tamil films. Cinema can be used very effectively to improve awareness about mental health issues.

  8. Konseling Islami Dan Pendidikan Mental

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Saiful Akhyar

    2010-01-01

    Islamic Counseling and Mental Education. This paper analyzes the nature of Islamic counseling and its relation to mental education. It isundeniable that due to problems faced in this life man may be hindered from realizing his goals. In reality, however, not every individual is capable of solving his own problem but he needs assistance of others instead. In this context, this paper discusses an approach of what is the so called Islamic counseling. The writer tries to build a paradigm that, as...

  9. Indices of Community Mental Health. A Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Martin K.

    One of the major problems in measuring community mental health status is the lack of consensus among mental health workers in psychiatry, psychology, sociology, and epidemiology as to what constitutes mental illness. Additionally, changing social mores preclude a definition of mental illness in behavioral terms. An operational definition of mental…

  10. 14 CFR 67.307 - Mental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mental. 67.307 Section 67.307 Aeronautics... STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.307 Mental. Mental standards for a... itself by overt acts. (2) A psychosis. As used in this section, “psychosis” refers to a mental disorder...

  11. 14 CFR 67.207 - Mental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mental. 67.207 Section 67.207 Aeronautics... STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.207 Mental. Mental standards for a... itself by overt acts. (2) A psychosis. As used in this section, “psychosis” refers to a mental disorder...

  12. 14 CFR 67.107 - Mental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mental. 67.107 Section 67.107 Aeronautics... STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.107 Mental. Mental standards for a... itself by overt acts. (2) A psychosis. As used in this section, “psychosis” refers to a mental disorder...

  13. Relationship between mental toughness and physical endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crust, Lee; Clough, Peter J

    2005-02-01

    This study tested the criterion validity of the inventory, Mental Toughness 48, by assessing the correlation between mental toughness and physical endurance for 41 male undergraduate sports students. A significant correlation of .34 was found between scores for overall mental toughness and the time a relative weight could be held suspended. Results support the criterion-related validity of the Mental Toughness 48.

  14. Mental life in the space of reasons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues the Wittgensteinian point that we can undo the psychologizing of psychology by conceiving of mental life as lived in the space of reasons. It is argued that mental life - human action, feeling and thinking - is constituted by normative connections and necessities rather than...... that it violates our conception of mental illness as something mental, yet outside the space of reasons...

  15. Combating the Stigma of Mental Illness. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    Many former mental patients see their biggest problem in resuming community life to be their inability to be accepted by other people. The National Institute of Mental Health has worked to remove the stigma associated with mental illness and research has unraveled many of the mysteries about the origins of mental illness. Deinstitutionalization,…

  16. Mental disorder in Canada: an epidemiological perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Streiner, David L; Cairney, John

    2010-01-01

    ..., and analyses the prevalence of several significant mental disorders in the population. The collection also includes essays on stigma, mental disorder and the criminal justice system, and mental health among women, children, workers, and other demographic groups. Focusing on Canadian scholarship, yet wide-reaching in scope, Mental Disorder in C...

  17. Dangerousness and mental health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, J L

    2008-04-01

    Mental health policy development in the UK has become increasingly dominated by the assumed need to prevent violence and alleviate public concerns about the dangers of the mentally ill living in the community. Risk management has become the expected focus of contemporary mental health services, and responsibility has increasingly been devolved to individual service professionals when systems fail to prevent violence. This paper analyses the development of mental health legislation and its impact on services users and mental health professionals at the micro level of service delivery. Historical precedence, media influence and public opinion are explored, and the reification of risk is questioned in practical and ethical terms. The government's newest proposals for compulsory treatment in the community are discussed in terms of practical efficacy and therapeutic impact. Dangerousness is far from being an objectively observable phenomenon arising from clinical pathology, but is a formulation of what is partially knowable through social analysis and unknowable by virtue of its situation in individual psychic motivation. Risk assessment can therefore never be completely accurate, and the solution of a 'better safe than sorry' approach to mental health policy is ethically and pragmatically flawed.

  18. Evolving society and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipesh Bhagabati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous issues related to culture, occupation, gender, caste, and health, to name a few, have faced harshness of society from time immemorial. Reasons are debatable, ranging from somewhat understandable to completely unacceptable. There is no doubt that society is dynamic and it has changed its view on many of the issues with passing time. Mental health is one such issue which society has neglected for quite a long time. Even today, mental health and mentally ill people face stigma and discrimination in their family, society, and at their workplace. People do not feel comfortable talking about mental health, even if they know that there cannot be any health without a healthy mind. But, as Albert Einstein has said “learn from yesterday, live for today, and hope for tomorrow”, everything is not lost. The mentally ill patients who were once abandoned and left on their own have now started to get humane care and attention. This article discusses this very pertinent topic of changing society and mental health.

  19. Development of Clinical Psychology and Mental Health Resources in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hoang-Minh; Ngo, Victoria; Pollack, Amie; Sang, David; Lam, Trung T.; Nguyen, My Loc Thi; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Tran, Nam; Tran, Cong; Do, Khanh N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss development of the Vietnam National University graduate Clinical Psychology Program, which has the goal of training both Vietnamese researchers who will develop and evaluate culturally appropriate mental health treatments, as well as Vietnamese clinicians who will implement and help disseminate these evidence-based treatments. We first review the background situation in Vietnam regarding mental health, and its infrastructure and training needs, and discuss the process through which the decision was made to develop a graduate program in clinical psychology as the best approach to address these needs. We then review the development process for the program and its current status, and our focus on the schools as a site for service provision and mental health task shifting. Finally, we outline future goals and plans for the program, and discuss the various challenges that the program has faced and our attempts to resolve them. PMID:21785513

  20. Helping partnerships that facilitate recovery from severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Kathleen Hope

    2008-07-01

    The intent of this study was to learn how consumers experience helping partnerships that assist them in recovery to inform families, professionals, and peers about meaningful actions and strategies that promote the healing process. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 10 individuals who had a self-reported diagnosis of severe mental illness. Using the phenomenological research process, helping partnerships and how they develop were described. Six key themes emerged from the data and included Networks of Helping Partnerships, Teaching-Learning, Spirituality, Creative Drive, Time, and Medication Adherence. Characteristics and behaviors of helping partners were identified, as well as structures that promoted their development. Educating the public, consumers, and mental health professionals about how to promote recovery, the role of spirituality and creativity, the benefits of medication and therapy, and the impact of learning on progressing through recovery can go a long way toward eliminating the mystery and fear associated with mental illness.

  1. [Supply and demand in the meetings between mental health professionals and family members of people with mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinidis, Teresinha Cid; de Andrade, Angela Nobre

    2015-02-01

    This paper is a development of a doctoral thesis presented at the Federal University of Espírito Santo. It seeks to analyze the elucidation of needs, development of supply and demand in the provision of care and the relationship between mental health professionals and family members of people with mental disorders. A qualitative research approach was used as the method of choice to achieve the proposed objectives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with mental health professionals from two psychosocial care centers (CAPS) in the city of Vitória, Espírito Santo, and with family members of frequenters of these institutions. After thematic analysis of content, senses, meanings and values assigned to the needs, supplies and demands present in this relationship were revealed. It highlighted the disparity between supply and demand and the lack of awareness of the needs of family members and their demands related to the routines of mental institutions. Using ethics in the philosophy of Spinoza as a benchmark, the ramifications of this process are discussed in the meetings between mental health professionals and family members of people with mental disorders and the micropolitics of the provision of care in the context of these actors.

  2. Mental Retardation. Fact Sheet = El Retraso Mental. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on mental retardation is written in both English and Spanish. It begins with a vignette of a 15-year-old boy with mental retardation. Mental retardation is briefly explained as are some causes of mental retardation. It notes that a diagnosis of mental retardation looks at two things: first, the ability of a person's brain to learn,…

  3. Mental retirement and its relations with obsolenscence training and job enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuskens, G.A.; Sanders, J.M.A.F.; Kraan, K.O.; Liebregts, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Mental retirement may occur when workers approach the end of their career and stop investing in new knowledge and social relationships at work. If workers stop investing in new knowledge, their skills may lose economic value and become obsolete. The processes of mental retirement itself

  4. Community Involvement and Adolescent Mental Health: Moderating Effects of Race/Ethnicity and Neighborhood Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Pamela; Kilbourne, Barbara; Reece, Michelle; Husaini, Baqar

    2008-01-01

    Social development and stress process theories suggest that participation in one's community can function as a protective factor for mental health, especially for youth from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. However, the effects of community involvement on adolescent mental health could vary across racial/ethnic groups and levels of…

  5. Women's Mental Health Questionnaire (W-MHQ), Construction, Reliability, Validity: Father Parenting Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Rose J. Merlino

    2018-01-01

    "Women's Mental Health Questionnaire" (W-MHQ) assesses females' adult mental health concerns, and examines their associations with specified father-daughter childhood relationships. Presented are W-MHQ item and scale development, and psychometric findings drawn from factor analyses, reliability assessments, and validation processes. For…

  6. California College and University Collaborations: Facilitators, Challenges, and Impact on Student Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbridge, Michelle W.; Yu, Jennifer; Goldweber, Asha; Golan, Shari; Stein, BradleyD.

    2015-01-01

    One key objective of California's Statewide Prevention and Early Intervention (PEI) Student Mental Health (SMH) initiative funded under Proposition 63 was to establish a formal process for ongoing collaboration between higher education systems and county mental health, and to increase collaboration among higher education campuses to improve…

  7. Teachers' Role Breadth and Perceived Efficacy in Supporting Student Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzer, Kelly R.; Rickwood, Debra J.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers are considered well placed to identify issues concerning students' mental health and well-being and can play a critical role in the helping process for their concerns. However, little is known about the views of teachers regarding their role in supporting student mental health and how well-equipped they feel to fulfil it. The aim of this…

  8. Similarities in the Detection of Stimulus Symmetry by Individuals with and without Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Michael T.; Soraci, Sal A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This study found that 10 adolescents with mental retardation processed stimuli varying with respect to symmetry in comparable manner to peers matched for mental age and chronological age. Results argue for the robustness of the symmetry effect across groups differing in intelligence and physically dissimilar stimulus types (checkerboard versus…

  9. Pathways for Homeless Mentally Ill People in Washington, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockett, Kathleen H.

    The need for a more responsive service system for people who are both mentally ill and homeless is a salient concern in America today. Preliminary research was conducted to examine how homeless mentally ill persons are processed by the currently organized network of human services in the nation's capital. Data were gathered in the summer of 1985…

  10. The window of my eyes: Task disengagement and mental fatigue covary with pupil dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopstaken, J.; Linden, D. van der; Bakker, A.B.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Although mental fatigue is a complex, multi-facetted state that involves changes in motivation, cognition, and mood, one of its main characteristics is reduced task engagement. Despite its relevance for performance and safety, knowledge about the underlying neurocognitive processes in mental fatigue

  11. Effects of Mental Health Support on the Grief of Bereaved People Caused by Sewol Ferry Accident

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Hyesung; Noh, Jin-Won; Huh, Hyu Jung; Huh, Seung; Joo, Ji-Young; Hong, Jin Hyuk; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    Few studies have assessed the overall effects of multi-centered, complicated mental health support on the grief process. This study investigated the broader influence of mental health support provided practically to the bereaved family on the severity of complicated grief. Ninety-three bereaved

  12. Effective self-regulation change techniques to promote mental wellbeing among adolescents: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genugten, L. van; Dusseldorp, E.; Massey, E.K.; Empelen, P. van

    2017-01-01

    Mental wellbeing is influenced by self-regulation processes. However, little is known on the efficacy of change techniques based on self-regulation to promote mental wellbeing. The aim of this meta-analysis is to identify effective self-regulation techniques (SRTs) in primary and secondary

  13. Experiencing Community: Perspectives of Individuals Diagnosed as Having Serious Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Elizabeth; Gabrielian, Sonya; Brekke, Benjamin; Pahwa, Rohini; Daly, Kathleen A.; Brekke, John S.; Braslow, Joel T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Community integration is recognized as a crucial component of recovery from serious mental illness. Although the construct of community integration can be measured with structured instruments, little is known about the subjective and experiential meaning of community and community involvement for persons with serious mental illness. Methods In 2010, 30 individuals with serious mental illness treated in two public mental health clinics completed semistructured interviews that elicited the places and people that they associate with the experience of community and the larger meaning of community in their lives. Results Participants described four experiences as integral to their concepts of community: receiving help, minimizing risk, avoiding stigma, and giving back. Participants looked for communities that provide reliable support, and they described the need to manage community contact in order to protect themselves and others from their symptoms and from discrimination. Most participants experienced communities centered on mental health treatment or mentally ill peers as providing opportunities for positive engagement. Conclusions The experience of having a serious mental illness shapes preferences for and perceptions of community in pervasive ways. Participants describe community involvement not as a means to move away from illness experiences and identities but as a process that is substantially influenced by them. Mental health communities may help individuals with serious mental illness to both manage their illness and recognize and enjoy a sense of community. The findings indicate the need for further research on the relationship between community integration and outcome in serious mental illness. PMID:23545784

  14. Strengthening mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries: the Emerald programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Maya; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Alem, Atalay; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chisholm, Dan; Gureje, Oye; Hanlon, Charlotte; Jordans, Mark; Kigozi, Fred; Lempp, Heidi; Lund, Crick; Petersen, Inge; Shidhaye, Rahul; Thornicroft, Graham

    2015-04-10

    There is a large treatment gap for mental health care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), with the majority of people with mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders receiving no or inadequate care. Health system factors are known to play a crucial role in determining the coverage and effectiveness of health service interventions, but the study of mental health systems in LMICs has been neglected. The 'Emerging mental health systems in LMICs' (Emerald) programme aims to improve outcomes of people with MNS disorders in six LMICs (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda) by generating evidence and capacity to enhance health system performance in delivering mental health care. A mixed-methods approach is being applied to generate evidence on: adequate, fair, and sustainable resourcing for mental health (health system inputs); integrated provision of mental health services (health system processes); and improved coverage and goal attainment in mental health (health system outputs). Emerald has a strong focus on capacity-building of researchers, policymakers, and planners, and on increasing service user and caregiver involvement to support mental health systems strengthening. Emerald also addresses stigma and discrimination as one of the key barriers for access to and successful delivery of mental health services.

  15. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fang-pei; Ying-Chi Lai, Grace; Yang, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person’s participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese-immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) has specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese-immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruite...

  16. Television and the promotion of mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Current media campaigns, realized within national campaigns and actions on mental health prevention and promotion, are considered in this paper, in the context of expert public relation, as well as the whole society, towards mental health. Mental health promotion is determined as a range of activities by which individuals, community and society are being enabled to take control over mental health determinants and to improve it, but also as an action for improvement of mental health posi...

  17. Malaysia mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameshvara Deva, M

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be

  18. Mental Retardation and Parenting Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Siamaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: The presence, upbringing and looking after of a mentally retarded child in the family, can become a threat to the mental health of its parents and is the main predisposing factor of stress for the parents.Aim: The purpose of this systematic review is (a to document the contemporary research bibliography related to the stress of parents with mentally retarded children, (b to aggregate the factors and secondary parameters based on the contemporary research related to the influence of the (child’s mental retardation on the parents and (c to show an intercultural aspect regarding the presence of stress to parents with mentally retarded children.Methods: Systematic review of research articles published in scientific journals included in the international academic databases HEAL-LING, SAGE, ELSEVIER, WILSON, SCIENCEDIRECT, MEDLINE, PUBMED, PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCIRUS and CINAHL having as search criteria and key words the terms («parental stress and mental retardation» [MeSH], «parenting stress and persons with special needs» [MeSH], «mental retardation and family problems» [MeSH], «stress and parents» [MeSH], «parenting and stress» [MeSH], «mental delay and parents» [MeSH], «developmental disabilities and family stress» [MeSH], «intellectual handicap and parenting» [MeSH], «maternal stress and child with disabilities» [MeSH].Discussion: The review has proven that all forms of mental retardation have an important -from a statistic point of viewimpacton the parents’ mental health. Anxiety, stress and depression are common symptoms mentioned by the parents.Additionally, there are individual variables such as the husband-wife relationship, the parents’ approach to their child’s disability, the parental strategies used in order to cope with the daily life of the child’s disability and the behavioural problems of their child, all of which contribute to the increase of the level of parental stress

  19. Sports psychiatry: mental health and mental disorders in athletes and exercise treatment of mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhle, Andreas

    2018-03-21

    Sports psychiatry has developed for the past 3 decades as an emerging field within psychiatry and sports medicine. An International society has been established in 1994 and also national interest groups were implemented, mostly within the national organizations for psychiatry, some also containing the topic of exercise treatment of mental disorders. Where are we now 30 years later? We systematically but also selectively review the medical literature on exercise, sport, psychiatry, mental health and mental disorders and related topics. The number of publications in the field has increased exponentially. Most topics keep remaining on the agenda, e.g., head trauma and concussion, drug abuse and doping, performance enhancement, overtraining, ADHD or eating disorders. Supported by the growing literature, evidence-based recommendations have become available now in many clinical areas. A relatively new phenomenon is muscle dysmorphia, observed in weightlifters, bodybuilders but also in college students and gym users. Further, sports therapy of mental disorders has been studied by more and more high-quality randomized controlled clinical trials. Mostly as a complementary treatment, however, for some disorders already with a 1a evidence level, e.g., depression, dementia or MCI but also post-traumatic stress disorder. Being grown up and accepted nowadays, sports psychiatry still represents a fast-developing field. The reverse side of the coin, sport therapy of mental disorders has received a scientific basis now. Who else than sports psychiatry could advance sport therapy of mental disorders? We need this enthusiasm for sports and psychiatry for our patients with mental disorders and it is time now for a broadening of the scope. Optimized psychiatric prevention and treatment of athletes and ideal sport-related support for individuals with mental disorders should be our main purpose and goal.

  20. Prisoners signify: a political discourse analysis of mental illness in a prison control unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyes, Kristin Gates

    2007-09-01

    Increasingly, US prisoners diagnosed with mental illness are housed in control units, the most restrictive form of confinement in the US prison system. This situation has led to intense debate over the legal, ethical and clinical status of mental illness. This is a semiotic struggle with profound effects, yet most related work treats mental illness as a neutral, individual variable. Few analyses locate mental illness within a larger sociopolitical context. Fewer still focus on discursive practice. None critically analyze the accounts of control unit prisoners, who talk about extreme marginality and risk for victimization. This paper has two aims: (i) to develop a systematic method of analysis that accounts for signification as discourse-in-action; and (ii) to show how prisoners' signification of mental illness articulates agency through and against marginalizing discourse. Political discourse analysis demonstrates how control unit prisoners with psychiatric diagnoses signify mental illness, and articulate safer identifications in the process.

  1. Arithmetic word problem solving: evidence for a magnitude-based mental representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrantia, Josetxu; Múñez, David

    2013-01-01

    Previous findings have suggested that number processing involves a mental representation of numerical magnitude. Other research has shown that sensory experiences are part and parcel of the mental representation (or "simulation") that individuals construct during reading. We aimed at exploring whether arithmetic word-problem solving entails the construction of a mental simulation based on a representation of numerical magnitude. Participants were required to solve word problems and to perform an intermediate figure discrimination task that matched or mismatched, in terms of magnitude comparison, the mental representations that individuals constructed during problem solving. Our results showed that participants were faster in the discrimination task and performed better in the solving task when the figures matched the mental representations. These findings provide evidence that an analog magnitude-based mental representation is routinely activated during word-problem solving, and they add to a growing body of literature that emphasizes the experiential view of language comprehension.

  2. Mental Illness, Healthcare, and Homelessness in Mississippi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Stewart

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental illness is prevalent among the homeless population and the rate of mentally ill homeless individuals has increased since deinstitutionalization. There is little information about homeless population mental health and access to mental healthcare. This study sought to describe the mental health status and utilization of mental healthcare services among homeless individuals in Mississippi. This is a cross-sectional study with 3,375 adults participants. There were 58% males, 42% females, 45% Caucasian, 54% African Americans, and 1% other minorities (Asian, Indian, and Pacific Islander at intake into Mississippi United to End Homelessness' (MUTEH Homeless Management Information System (HMIS program. The data was collected during the initial screening of homeless individuals. The screening documented mental illness and utilization of healthcare. Frequency tables and Chi-SQ was used to test the relationship between mental illness and utilization of mental healthcare among the homeless in Mississippi. The result of the analysis revealed that 83% of the chronically homeless individual had a mental illness, and 78% of the chronically homeless participants were not receiving mental healthcare. Mental health services were successful in connecting mentally ill homeless individuals to mental healthcare in lieu of institutionalization. However, chronically homeless mentally ill individuals struggle with obtaining appropriate care.

  3. Mental imagery of gravitational motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravano, Silvio; Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    There is considerable evidence that gravitational acceleration is taken into account in the interaction with falling targets through an internal model of Earth gravity. Here we asked whether this internal model is accessed also when target motion is imagined rather than real. In the main experiments, naïve participants grasped an imaginary ball, threw it against the ceiling, and caught it on rebound. In different blocks of trials, they had to imagine that the ball moved under terrestrial gravity (1g condition) or under microgravity (0g) as during a space flight. We measured the speed and timing of the throwing and catching actions, and plotted ball flight duration versus throwing speed. Best-fitting duration-speed curves estimate the laws of ball motion implicit in the participant's performance. Surprisingly, we found duration-speed curves compatible with 0g for both the imaginary 0g condition and the imaginary 1g condition, despite the familiarity with Earth gravity effects and the added realism of performing the throwing and catching actions. In a control experiment, naïve participants were asked to throw the imaginary ball vertically upwards at different heights, without hitting the ceiling, and to catch it on its way down. All participants overestimated ball flight durations relative to the durations predicted by the effects of Earth gravity. Overall, the results indicate that mental imagery of motion does not have access to the internal model of Earth gravity, but resorts to a simulation of visual motion. Because visual processing of accelerating/decelerating motion is poor, visual imagery of motion at constant speed or slowly varying speed appears to be the preferred mode to perform the tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Qualitative Methods in Mental Health Services Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This paper reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the papers included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a “thick description” or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods, but often differ with respect to study design, data collection and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semi-structured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research. PMID:25350675

  5. Training and testing ERP-BCIs under different mental workload conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yufeng; Wang, Peiyuan; Chen, Yuqian; Gu, Bin; Qi, Hongzhi; Zhou, Peng; Ming, Dong

    2016-02-01

    Objective. As one of the most popular and extensively studied paradigms of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), event-related potential-based BCIs (ERP-BCIs) are usually built and tested in ideal laboratory settings in most existing studies, with subjects concentrating on stimuli and intentionally avoiding possible distractors. This study is aimed at examining the effect of simultaneous mental activities on ERP-BCIs by manipulating various levels of mental workload during the training and/or testing of an ERP-BCI. Approach. Mental workload was manipulated during the training or testing of a row-column P300-speller to investigate how and to what extent the spelling performance and the ERPs evoked by the oddball stimuli are affected by simultaneous mental workload. Main results. Responses of certain ERP components, temporal-occipital N200 and the late reorienting negativity evoked by the oddball stimuli and the classifiability of ERP features between targets and non-targets decreased with the increase of mental workload encountered by the subject. However, the effect of mental workload on the performance of ERP-BCI was not always negative but depended on the conditions where the ERP-BCI was built and applied. The performance of ERP-BCI built under an ideal lab setting without any irrelevant mental activities declined with the increasing mental workload of the testing data. However, the performance was significantly improved when an ERP-BCI was built under an appropriate mental workload level, compared to that built under speller-only conditions. Significance. The adverse effect of concurrent mental activities may present a challenge for ERP-BCIs trained in ideal lab settings but which are to be used in daily work, especially when users are performing demanding mental processing. On the other hand, the positive effects of the mental workload of the training data suggest that introducing appropriate mental workload during training ERP-BCIs is of potential benefit to the

  6. Mentalized affectivity: A new model and assessment of emotion regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Greenberg

    Full Text Available Here we introduce a new assessment of emotion regulation called the Mentalized Affectivity Scale (MAS. A large online adult sample (N = 2,840 completed the 60-item MAS along with a battery of psychological measures. Results revealed a robust three-component structure underlying mentalized affectivity, which we labeled: Identifying emotions (the ability to identify emotions and to reflect on the factors that influence them; Processing emotions (the ability to modulate and distinguish complex emotions; and Expressing emotions (the tendency to express emotions outwardly or inwardly. Hierarchical modeling suggested that Processing emotions delineates from Identifying them, and Expressing emotions delineates from Processing them. We then showed how these components are associated with personality traits, well-being, trauma, and 18 different psychological disorders (including mood, neurological, and personality disorders. Notably, those with anxiety, mood, and personality disorders showed a profile of high Identifying and low Processing compared to controls. Further, results showed how mentalized affectivity scores varied across psychological treatment modalities and years spent in therapy. Taken together, the model of mentalized affectivity advances prior theory and research on emotion regulation and the MAS is a useful and reliable instrument that can be used in both clinical and non-clinical settings in psychology, psychiatry, and neuroscience.

  7. Enabling Access for the Mentally Challenged (India) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The number of children with mental challenges is large and growing at an alarming rate in India. Approximately 1% of children have an Autism Spectrum Disorder, while an estimated 2-5% have an auditory processing disorder. Such children face obstacles to communication, and this makes it more difficult for doctors to treat ...

  8. Enabling Access for the Mentally Challenged (India) | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The number of children with mental challenges is large and growing at an alarming rate in India. Approximately 1% of children have an Autism Spectrum Disorder, while an estimated 2-5% have an auditory processing disorder. Such children face obstacles to communication, and this makes it more difficult for doctors to treat ...

  9. Mentalized affectivity: A new model and assessment of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M; Kolasi, Jonela; Hegsted, Camilla P; Berkowitz, Yoni; Jurist, Elliot L

    2017-01-01

    Here we introduce a new assessment of emotion regulation called the Mentalized Affectivity Scale (MAS). A large online adult sample (N = 2,840) completed the 60-item MAS along with a battery of psychological measures. Results revealed a robust three-component structure underlying mentalized affectivity, which we labeled: Identifying emotions (the ability to identify emotions and to reflect on the factors that influence them); Processing emotions (the ability to modulate and distinguish complex emotions); and Expressing emotions (the tendency to express emotions outwardly or inwardly). Hierarchical modeling suggested that Processing emotions delineates from Identifying them, and Expressing emotions delineates from Processing them. We then showed how these components are associated with personality traits, well-being, trauma, and 18 different psychological disorders (including mood, neurological, and personality disorders). Notably, those with anxiety, mood, and personality disorders showed a profile of high Identifying and low Processing compared to controls. Further, results showed how mentalized affectivity scores varied across psychological treatment modalities and years spent in therapy. Taken together, the model of mentalized affectivity advances prior theory and research on emotion regulation and the MAS is a useful and reliable instrument that can be used in both clinical and non-clinical settings in psychology, psychiatry, and neuroscience.

  10. The Police Response to Mental Illness on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Gary J.; Shtull, Penny R.

    2012-01-01

    Campus police officers are often among the initial contacts for behavioral incidents involving people with mental illness. Their training and access to resources influence decisions to direct the individual to support services and/or through campus disciplinary processes and/or the criminal justice system. Over the past decade, there has been an…

  11. The Mental Representation of Numerical Fractions: Real or Integer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, Mario; Fabbri, Sara; Umilta, Carlo; Zorzi, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Numerical fractions are commonly used to express ratios and proportions (i.e., real numbers), but little is known about how they are mentally represented and processed by skilled adults. Four experiments employed comparison tasks to investigate the distance effect and the effect of the spatial numerical association of response codes (SNARC) for…

  12. Music Regions and Mental Maps: Teaching Cultural Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobe, Hunter; Banis, David

    2010-01-01

    Music informs understandings of place and is an excellent vehicle for teaching cultural geography. A study was developed of geography students' perception of where music genres predominate in the United States. Its approach, involving mental map exercises, reveals the usefulness and importance of maps as an iterative process in teaching cultural…

  13. 2 Courts Put Limits on Research Involving the Mentally Ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    Courts in New York and Texas have imposed limits on psychiatric research involving involuntarily institutionalized patients as subjects, citing state and constitutional protection of privacy, due process, and equal protection. Some are concerned that mental health research and treatment will suffer. (MSE)

  14. Technical Drafting and Mental Visualization in Interior Architecture Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ali Riza; Dazkir, Sibel Seda

    2017-01-01

    We explored how beginning-level interior architecture students develop skills to create mental visualizations of three-dimensional objects and environments, how they develop their technical drawing skills, and whether or not physical and computer generated models aid this design process. We used interviews and observations to collect data. The…

  15. The human Turing machine: a neural framework for mental programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zylberberg, A.; Dehaene, S.; Roelfsema, P.R.; Sigman, M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years much has been learned about how a single computational processing step is implemented in the brain. By contrast, we still have surprisingly little knowledge of the neuronal mechanisms by which multiple such operations are sequentially assembled into mental algorithms. We outline a

  16. Glycemic allostasis during mental activities on fasting in non alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glycemic allostasis is the process by which blood glucose stabilization is achieved through the balancing of glucose consumption rate and release into the blood stream under a variety of stressors.This paper reviews findings on the dynamics of glycemic levels during mental activities on fasting in non‑alcohol users and ...

  17. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Karen F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable to the manner in which individual healthcare providers diagnose mental disorders, this noticeable distribution can be also explained by studies which show that a lack of certain dietary nutrients contribute to the development of mental disorders. Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population in America and other developed countries; and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders. Studies have shown that daily supplements of vital nutrients often effectively reduce patients' symptoms. Supplements that contain amino acids also reduce symptoms, because they are converted to neurotransmitters that alleviate depression and other mental disorders. Based on emerging scientific evidence, this form of nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for controlling major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD, addiction, and autism. The aim of this manuscript is to emphasize which dietary supplements can aid the treatment of the four most common mental disorders currently affecting America and other developed countries: major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. Most antidepressants and other prescription drugs cause severe side effects, which usually discourage patients from taking their medications. Such

  18. Mental health economics: insights from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Luciane; Lima, Ana Flavia Da Silva; Graeff-Martins, Ana; Maia, Carlos Renato Moreira; Ziegelmann, Patricia; Miguel, Sandoro; Fleck, Marcelo; Polanczyk, Carisi

    2013-04-01

    As the responsibility and demand on health care grows and resources do not increase at the same pace, the healthcare system has been forced to reconsider the benefits and costs of their actions, to ensure a rational and effective decision-making process regarding the adoption of interventions and allocation of resources. Cost-effectiveness (CE) studies represent one of the basic tools to achieve this goal. To present the current state of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and health economics in mental health in Brazil and its importance to the decision-making process. Descriptive paper on HTA and health economics in Brazil. Databases from government and universities as well as some scientific databases to assess the information are presented. Economic analysis to evaluate interventions in mental health care is a relatively recent addition to the field of health economics; in Brazil, it is also considered a topic within Epidemiology research area. There have been an increased number of studies developed in high-income countries. However, there are fewer CE studies in low- and middle-income ones. Psychiatric disorders represent a significant burden in developing countries, where resources devoted to health care are even scarcer.

  19. Population mental health: evidence, policy, and public health practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    ... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well-­ being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...

  20. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney eRozand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.

  1. Developing European guidelines for training care professionals in mental health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greacen, Tim; Jouet, Emmanuelle; Ryan, Peter; Cserhati, Zoltan; Grebenc, Vera; Griffiths, Chris; Hansen, Bettina; Leahy, Eithne; da Silva, Ksenija Maravic; Sabić, Amra; De Marco, Angela; Flores, Paz

    2012-12-27

    Although mental health promotion is a priority mental health action area for all European countries, high level training resources and high quality skills acquisition in mental health promotion are still relatively rare. The aim of the current paper is to present the results of the DG SANCO-funded PROMISE project concerning the development of European guidelines for training social and health care professionals in mental health promotion. The PROMISE project brought together a multidisciplinary scientific committee from eight European sites representing a variety of institutions including universities, mental health service providers and public health organisations. The committee used thematic content analysis to filter and analyse European and international policy documents, scientific literature reviews on mental health promotion and existing mental health promotion programmes with regard to identifying quality criteria for training care professionals on this subject. The resulting PROMISE Guidelines quality criteria were then subjected to an iterative feedback procedure with local steering groups and training professionals at all sites with the aim of developing resource kits and evaluation tools for using the PROMISE Guidelines. Scientific committees also collected information from European, national and local stakeholder groups and professional organisations on existing training programmes, policies and projects. The process identified ten quality criteria for training care professionals in mental health promotion: embracing the principle of positive mental health; empowering community stakeholders; adopting an interdisciplinary and intersectoral approach; including people with mental health problems; advocating; consulting the knowledge base; adapting interventions to local contexts; identifying and evaluating risks; using the media; evaluating training, implementation processes and outcomes. The iterative feedback process produced resource kits and

  2. Physical, neural, and mental timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Grind, Wim

    2002-06-01

    The conclusions drawn by Benjamin Libet from his work with colleagues on the timing of somatosensorial conscious experiences has met with a lot of praise and criticism. In this issue we find three examples of the latter. Here I attempt to place the divide between the two opponent camps in a broader perspective by analyzing the question of the relation between physical timing, neural timing, and experiential (mental) timing. The nervous system does a sophisticated job of recombining and recoding messages from the sensorial surfaces and if these processes are slighted in a theory, it might become necessary to postulate weird operations, including subjective back-referral. Neuroscientifically inspired theories are of necessity still based on guesses, extrapolations, and philosophically dubious manners of speech. They often assume some neural correlate of consciousness (NCC) as a part of the nervous system that transforms neural activity in reportable experiences. The majority of neuroscientists appear to assume that the NCC can compare and bind activity patterns only if they arrive simultaneously at the NCC. This leads to a search for synchrony or to theories in terms of the compensation of differences in neural delays (latencies). This is the main dimension of the Libet discussion. Examples from vision research, such as "temporal-binding-by-synchrony" and the "flash-lag" effect, are then used to illustrate these reasoning patterns in more detail. Alternatively one could assume symbolic representations of time and space (symbolic "tags") that are not coded in their own dimension (not time in time and space in space). Unless such tags are multiplexed with the quality message (tickle, color, or motion), one gets a binding problem for tags. One of the hidden aspects of the discussion between Libet and opponents appears to be the following. Is the NCC smarter than the rest of the nervous system, so that it can solve the problems of local sign (e.g., "where is the event

  3. Injury prevention risk communication: A mental models approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel Cecelia; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2012-01-01

    Individuals' decisions and behaviour can play a critical role in determining both the probability and severity of injury. Behavioural decision research studies peoples' decision-making processes in terms comparable to scientific models of optimal choices, providing a basis for focusing...... interventions on the most critical opportunities to reduce risks. That research often seeks to identify the ‘mental models’ that underlie individuals' interpretations of their circumstances and the outcomes of possible actions. In the context of injury prevention, a mental models approach would ask why people...... and uses examples to discuss how the approach can be used to develop scientifically validated context-sensitive injury risk communications....

  4. Training Mental Health Professionals in Child Sexual Abuse: Curricular Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Maureen C; Abreu, Roberto L

    2015-01-01

    Given the incidence of child sexual abuse in the United States, mental health professionals need training to detect, assess, and treat victims and should possess a clear understanding of the process of victimization. However, many mental health professionals who work with children and families have not been exposed to any training in child sexual abuse during their formal education. This article will examine the need for such training, suggest critical components of child sexual abuse training, and describe various methods of training (e.g., in person, Web-based, and community resources).

  5. [Being personal: the development of community psychiatric mental health nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Shu-Jen; Lee, Shu-Hong

    2009-08-01

    Community psychiatric mental health nursing care emphasizes humanistic values and focuses on serving patient and family needs. In Taiwan, such care is delivered largely as part of patient discharge care plans and hospital / community based service models. Issues involved underscore the importance of operating an effective and integrated transfer system, the role and function of nurses and training in relevant competencies (Shiau, Huang & Lin, 2005). This article again emphasizes the importance of 'being personal' in the development of community psychiatric mental health nursing in Taiwan. Critical issues to consider include humanization, empowerment, nursing competencies, regulations, relating on a personal level, and facilitating empowerment and enlightenment on the healing process.

  6. Mental health training program for community mental health staff in Guangzhou, China: effects on knowledge of mental illness and stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Li, Juan; Huang, Yuanguang; Thornicroft, Graham

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the huge treatment gap in mental health, WHO has called for integrating mental health into primary care. The purposes of this study are to provide a training course to improve the community mental health staff's knowledge of mental health and reduce stigma related to mental illness, as well as to evaluate the impact of this training on knowledge and stigma. The training intervention was a one day course for community mental health staff in Guangzhou, China. Evaluation questionnaires were given before and after the training session. Mental health knowledge was assessed using two vignettes. Stigma was evaluated by the Mental Illness: Clinicians' Attitudes Scale (MICA) and the Reported and Intended Behavior Scale (RIBS). A total of 99 community mental health staff from eight regions in Guangzhou, China were recruited for the study. The training course did not lead to a significant improvement of participants' levels of mental health knowledge. The mean score of MICA decreased from 47.92 ± 8.63 to 43.53 ± 9.61 after the training (t = 6.64, P training course is an effective way to improve community mental health staff's attitudes toward people with mental illness in the short term, as well as to lessen the social distance between staff and people with mental illness.

  7. Adult Neurogenesis and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Cameron, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in adulthood, may play a role in psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Medications and other treatments for mental disorders often promote the proliferation of new neurons; the time course for maturation and integration of new neurons in circuitry parallels the delayed efficacy of psychiatric therapies; adverse and beneficial experiences similarly affect development of mental illness and neurogenesis; and ablation of new neurons in adulthood alters the behavioral impact of drugs in animal models. At present, the links between adult neurogenesis and depression seem stronger than those suggesting a relationship between new neurons and anxiety or schizophrenia. Yet, even in the case of depression there is currently no direct evidence for a causative role. This article reviews the data relating adult neurogenesis to mental illness and discusses where research needs to head in the future. PMID:25178407

  8. [Occupational stress and mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigantesco, Antonella; Lega, Ilaria

    2013-01-01

    One fifth of workers reports experiencing stress in the work environment in Europe. A number of studies show that psychosocial stressors in the workplace are associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes, including symptoms of anxiety and depression. The present paper: briefly describes the characteristics of occupational stress and the main psychosocial stressful risk factors in the work environment; reports the main results of studies on psychosocial risk factors in the work environment as risk factor for common mental disorders; presents findings from an Italian study aimed at assessing prevalence of common mental disorders and workplace psychosocial stressors in a sample of hospital employees; provides the "Working conditions Questionnaire", a validated self-administered instrument to assess perceived stress in the workplace; this questionnaire includes the assessment of organizational justice.

  9. Mental toughness: progress and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucciardi, Daniel F

    2017-08-01

    Mental toughness (MT) has become a popular area of investigation and practice within sport and exercise psychology over the past two decades. Since the turn of the twenty first century, there have been hundreds of studies published on mental toughness, yet concerns remain about the conceptualisation and measurement of mental toughness. In this paper, I take stock of past work with the goal of clarifying and elaborating the most fundamental and common aspects of MT. I also look to the future and outline key substantive and methodological issues that may offer the greatest potential for refining the conceptualisation of MT and contributing to theory building on this concept. My hope is that this information will provide a platform from which to foster coherent and systematic scholarly work on MT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Positive Mental Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Stephen; Wood, Lisa; Marais, Ida; Rosenberg, Michael; Ferguson, Renee; Pettigrew, Simone

    2017-04-01

    This study presents a Rasch-derived short form of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale for use as a screening tool in the general population. Data from 2,005 18- to 69-year-olds revealed problematic discrimination at specific thresholds. Estimation of model fit also deviated from Rasch model expectations. Following deletion of 4 items, the 10 remaining items indicated the data fitted the model. No items showed differential item functioning, thereby making comparisons of overall positive mental well-being for the different age, gender, and income groups valid and accurate. Cronbach's alpha and Rasch Person Separation Index indicated a strong degree of reliability. Overall, the 10-item scale challenges researchers and clinicians to reconsider the assessment of positive mental well-being.

  11. Error adaptation in mental arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Charlotte; Imbo, Ineke; De Brauwer, Jolien; Brass, Marcel; Fias, Wim; Notebaert, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Until now, error and conflict adaptation have been studied extensively using simple laboratory tasks. A common finding is that responses slow down after errors. According to the conflict monitoring theory, performance should also improve after an error. However, this is usually not observed. In this study, we investigated whether the characteristics of the experimental paradigms normally used could explain this absence. More precisely, these paradigms have in common that behavioural adaptation has little room to be expressed. We therefore studied error and conflict adaptation effects in a task that encounters the richness of everyday life's behavioural adaptation--namely, mental arithmetic, where multiple solution strategies are available. In accordance with our hypothesis, we observed that post-error accuracy increases after errors in mental arithmetic. No support for conflict adaptation in mental arithmetic was found. Implications for current theories of conflict and error monitoring are discussed.

  12. Zambia mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeya, John; Chazulwa, Roy; Mayeya, Petronella Ntambo; Mbewe, Edward; Magolo, Lonia Mwape; Kasisi, Friday; Bowa, Annel Chishimba

    2004-01-01

    This country profile for Zambia was compiled between 1998 and 2002. The objectives of the exercise were to first of all avail policymakers, other key decision makers and leaders in Zambia, information about mental health in Zambia in order to assist policy and services development. Secondly, to facilitate comparative analyses of mental health services between countries. The work involved formation of a core group of experts who coordinated the collection of information from the various organizations in Zambia. The information was later shared to a broad spectrum of stakeholders for consensus. A series of focus group discussions (FGDs) supplemented the information collected. There are various factors that contribute to mental health in Zambia. It is clear from the Zambian perspective that social, demographic, economic, political, environmental, cultural and religious influences affect the mental health of the people. With a population of 10.3 million and annual growth rate of 2.9%, Zambia is one of the most urbanized countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty levels stood at 72.9% in 1998. In terms of unemployment, the most urbanized provinces, Lusaka (the capital city), and the copper-belt are the most affected. The gross domestic product (GDP) is US$3.09 billion dollars while per capita income is US$300. The total budget allocation for health in the year 2002 was 15% while the proportion of the GDP per capita expenditure for health was 5.6%. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rates stand at 20% among the reproductive age group 15-49 years. Political instability and wars in neighbouring states has resulted in an influx of refugees. Environmental factors affecting the country include natural and man-made disasters such as floods and drought, mine accidents, and deforestation. To a large extent in Zambia, people who are mentally ill are stigmatized, feared, scorned at, humiliated and condemned. However, caring for mental ill health in old age is positively perceived. It is

  13. Brain networks underlying mental imagery of auditory and visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Clemens, Benjamin; Chechko, Natalya; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Sack, Alexander T; Mathiak, Klaus

    2013-05-01

    Mental imagery is a complex cognitive process that resembles the experience of perceiving an object when this object is not physically present to the senses. It has been shown that, depending on the sensory nature of the object, mental imagery also involves correspondent sensory neural mechanisms. However, it remains unclear which areas of the brain subserve supramodal imagery processes that are independent of the object modality, and which brain areas are involved in modality-specific imagery processes. Here, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study to reveal supramodal and modality-specific networks of mental imagery for auditory and visual information. A common supramodal brain network independent of imagery modality, two separate modality-specific networks for imagery of auditory and visual information, and a common deactivation network were identified. The supramodal network included brain areas related to attention, memory retrieval, motor preparation and semantic processing, as well as areas considered to be part of the default-mode network and multisensory integration areas. The modality-specific networks comprised brain areas involved in processing of respective modality-specific sensory information. Interestingly, we found that imagery of auditory information led to a relative deactivation within the modality-specific areas for visual imagery, and vice versa. In addition, mental imagery of both auditory and visual information widely suppressed the activity of primary sensory and motor areas, for example deactivation network. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms that are involved in generation of mental imagery. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Consideraciones sobre las categorías de acceso a la atención en salud y procesos de estigmatización en personas externadas de instituciones de salud mental Considerations on the categories of accessibility to health care and stigmatization process of mental health care outpatient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Garbus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se considera a la accesibilidad a la atención en salud y los procesos estigmatizantes como una dimensión de un problema complejo que merecen ser analizados en distintos niveles: uno Macrocontextual, uno de Metaprocesos y uno de Microprocesos. Las prácticas de atención en salud deben leerse en la articulación de estas dos categorías y en el entretejido de estos tres niveles de análisis. Los procesos de estigmatización no necesariamente han de convertirse en barreras de acceso al sistema. El estigma también puede operar como facilitador del acceso a partir de la inclusión de estos sujetos en políticas focalizadas. Debemos interrogarnos no solo por las barreras de acceso que existen para una población tal, sino aún ¿cuáles son las características de la accesibilidad a la atención en salud de esta población específica? Muchas de las prácticas que se llevan a cabo con esta población se sostienen en una lógica de victimización que continúa objetivando la locura.It is consider the accessibility of health care and stigmatizing processes as a dimension of a complex problem that deserves to be analyzed at different levels: one Macro context, one of Meta procesess and one of micro procesess. The health care practices should be read in the articulation of these two categories and in the interweaving of these three levels of analysis. Stigmatization processes not necesary become barriers to access to the health system. Stigma can also operate as a facilitator of access whith the inclusion of these subjects in targeted policies. We should inquire not only for access barriers that exist for these population, but still what are the characteristics of accessibility to health care in this specific population? Many of the practices that take place with this population are held in a logic of victimization that continues aiming madness.

  15. Perceptions of traditional healing for mental illness in rural Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Julie; Lipkin, Samuel; Javid, Munazza; Rosen, Anna; Solanki, Mehul; Shah, Sandip; Katz, Craig L

    2014-01-01

    Despite the significant toll of mental illness on the Indian population, resources for patients often are scarce, especially in rural areas. Traditional healing has a long history in India and is still widely used, including for mental illnesses. However, its use has rarely been studied systematically. The aim of this study was to determine the perspective of patients, their families, and healthy community members toward faith healing for mental illness, including the type of interventions received, perceptions of its efficacy, and overall satisfaction with the process. We also sought to explore the range of care received in the community and investigate possibilities for enhancing mental health treatment in rural Gujarat. We interviewed 49 individuals in July 2013 at Dhiraj General Hospital and in 8 villages surrounding Vadodara. A structured qualitative interview elicited attitudes toward faith healing for mental illnesses and other diseases. Qualitative analysis was performed on the completed data set using grounded theory methodology. Subjects treated by both a doctor and a healer reported they overwhelmingly would recommend a doctor over a healer. Almost all who were treated with medication recognized an improvement in their condition. Many subjects felt that traditional healing can be beneficial and believed that patients should initially go to a healer for their problems. Many also felt that healers are not effective for mental illness or are dishonest and should not be used. Subjects were largely dissatisfied with their experiences with traditional healers, but healing is still an incredibly common first-line practice in Gujarat. Because healers are such integral parts of their communities and so commonly sought out, collaboration between faith healers and medical practitioners would hold significant promise as a means to benefit patients. This partnership could improve access to care and decrease the burden of mental illness experienced by patients and

  16. Mild mental stress in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, P; Mehlsen, J; Sestoft, L

    1985-01-01

    A TV-game of tennis of 20 min duration was used to study the influence of mild mental stress on subcutaneous blood-flow (SBF), blood-pressure and heart rate in nine insulin-dependent diabetics and nine healthy subjects. SBF was measured on the thigh by local clearance of xenon-133. Measurements......--increase in blood-pressure was observed in both groups. In conclusion, we found that even mild mental strain influences SBF in both normal subjects and in diabetics. The induced alterations in the two groups are different, probably because of a slight parasympathetic dysfunction in the diabetics....

  17. Acute mental health care according to recent mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This is the second of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). Objectives for the review were to provide realistic estimates of cost for unit activities and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate cost centre management. Method: The study described ...

  18. Acute mental health care according to recent mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. To assess the use of space requires the review of activities performed and functions executed. The assessment of the use and structuring of space for acute mental health care necessitates the review of all operational areas and related activities incorporated in the care program. At the same time appropriate ...

  19. [Quality of mental health services: a self audit in the South Verona mental health service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allevi, Liliana; Salvi, Giovanni; Ruggeri, Mirella

    2006-01-01

    To start a process of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) in an Italian Community Mental Health Service by using a quality assurance questionnaire in a self audit exercise. The questionnaire was administered to 14 key workers and clinical managers with different roles and seniority. One senior manager's evaluation was used as a benchmark for all the others. Changes were introduced in the service practice according to what emerged from the evaluation. Meetings were scheduled to monitor those changes and renew the CQI process. There was a wide difference in the key workers' answers. Overall, the senior manager's evaluation was on the 60th percentile of the distribution of the other evaluations. Those areas that required prompt intervention were risk management, personnel development, and CQI. The CQI process was followed up for one year: some interventions were carried out to change the practice of the service. A self audit exercise in Community Mental Health Services was both feasible and useful. The CQI process was easier to start than to carry on over the long term.

  20. Mental health in L'Aquila after the earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Stratta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the present work we describe the mental health condition of L'Aquila population in the aftermath of the earthquake in terms of structural, process and outcome perspectives. METHOD: Literature revision of the published reports on the L'Aquila earthquake has been performed. RESULTS: Although important psychological distress has been reported by the population, capacity of resilience can be observed. However if resilient mechanisms intervened in immediate aftermath of the earthquake, important dangers are conceivable in the current medium-long-term perspective due to the long-lasting alterations of day-to-day life and the disruption of social networks that can be well associated with mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS: In a condition such as an earthquake, the immediate physical, medical, and emergency rescue needs must be addressed initially. However training first responders to identify psychological distress symptoms would be important for mental health triage in the field.