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Sample records for mental illness smi

  1. Stage movement following a 5A's intervention in tobacco dependent individuals with serious mental illness (SMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiClemente, Carlo C; Delahanty, Janine C; Kofeldt, Miranda G; Dixon, Lisa; Goldberg, Richard; Lucksted, Alicia

    2011-03-01

    Smoking among individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) creates significant health problems. This study explored stage of change transitions over time among smokers with serious mental illness (SMI) and how dose of a brief intervention and other psychosocial variables were related to stage transitions. Participants were a subsample of 110 patients who participated in a larger controlled trial (Dixon, et al., 2009) examining whether psychiatrists in mental health clinics implementing the "5A's" (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) significantly reduced smoking among persons with SMI. Participants were classified into one of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) Stages of Change for Smoking Cessation as well as classified into groups based upon the pattern of stage status transitions over time (i.e., Regressors, Stable, Inconsistent, Progressors with and without a successful quit). Modest quit rates for this brief intervention were found at one-year (6.4%) and the dose of the intervention was meaningfully related to positive stage transitions. Cessation outcomes from the controlled trial (Dixon, et al., 2009) indicated a small effect on smoking cessation, which is confirmed in this stage transition secondary analysis with a subset of these smokers. However, these results suggest that a brief intervention delivered by psychiatrists in a mental health treatment setting does seem to make an impact on these smokers.

  2. Longitudinal Relationships between Neurocognition, Theory of Mind, and Community Functioning in Outpatients with Serious Mental Illness (SMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Elizabeth A.; Liu, Nancy H.; Tarasenko, Melissa; Davidson, Charlie A.; Spaulding, William D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between neurocognition, theory of mind, and community functioning in a sample of 43 outpatients with serious mental illness (SMI). Relationships between baseline values and changes over time were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Results showed that: 1. Neurocognition and theory of mind were each associated with community functioning at baseline. 2. Community functioning improved over approximately 12 months of treatment. 3. Greater improvement in neurocognition over time predicted higher rates of improvement in community functioning. 4. Theory of mind did not predict change in community functioning after controlling for neurocognition. 5. The effect of change in neurocognition on community functioning did not depend on the effect of baseline neurocognition. This study provides empirical support that individuals with SMI may experience improvement in community functioning, especially when they also experience improvement in neurocognition. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:23995035

  3. What are individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) dealing with in a competitive labor market? Two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Hang

    2015-06-01

    Understanding individual experiences is crucial for consumer-centered practice and policy. However, limited literature has thoroughly explored individual employment experiences outside of rehabilitation programs. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the challenges that two individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) had experienced in competitive employment settings. Through in-depth interviews followed by an inductive qualitative analysis, the barriers that restrained them from obtaining and keeping a job were identified. Even though the two cases had dissimilar backgrounds and diagnoses, they had both been struggling with multiple problems including psychiatric symptoms, medications, and social stigma. The findings indicate that a flexible work schedule and a supportive work environment are important to their work participation. However, many competitive employment settings did not allow them to have a flexible schedule for frequent medical leaves. The stigma toward mental illness was also prevalent in various workplaces they worked at. The implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  4. Stigma Related Avoidance in People Living with Severe Mental Illness (SMI): Findings of an Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiri, Sadat; Oakley, Linda Denise; Hitchcock, Mary E; Hall, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this integrative review is to synthesize primary evidence of the impact of internalized stigma on avoidance in adult community treatment patients living with SMI. A keyword database search of articles published through 2015 yielded 21 papers and a total of 4256 patients. Our analyses found that stigmatizing beliefs associated with avoidance are related to significant loss of self-esteem. Factors generally thought to reduce stigma internalized as self-stigmatizing beliefs, such as improved insight, increased self-awareness, and psycho-education to improve stigma coping skills, do not appear to improve self-esteem.

  5. SMI life goals: description of a randomized trial of a collaborative care model to improve outcomes for persons with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Amy M; Bramlet, Margretta; Barbaresso, Michelle M; Nord, Kristina M; Goodrich, David E; Lai, Zongshan; Post, Edward P; Almirall, Daniel; Verchinina, Lilia; Duffy, Sonia A; Bauer, Mark S

    2014-09-01

    Persons with serious mental illnesses (SMI) are more likely to die earlier than the general population, primarily due to increased medical burden, particularly from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Life Goals Collaborative Care (LG-CC) is designed to improve health outcomes in SMI through self-management, care management, and provider support. This single-blind randomized controlled effectiveness study will determine whether patients with SMI receiving LG-CC compared to usual care (UC) experience improved physical health in 12 months. Patients diagnosed with SMI and at least one CVD risk factor receiving care at a VA mental health clinic were randomized to LG-CC or UC. LG-CC included five self-management sessions covering mental health symptom management reinforced through health behavior change, care coordination and health monitoring via a registry, and provider feedback. The primary outcome is change in physical health-related quality of life score (VR-12) from baseline to 12 months. Secondary outcomes include changes in mental health-related quality of life, CVD risk factors (blood pressure, BMI), and physical activity from baseline to 12 months later. Out of 304 enrolled, 139 were randomized to LG-CC and 145 to UC. Among patients completing baseline assessments (N = 284); the mean age was 55.2 (SD = 10.9; range 28-75 years), 15.6% were women, the majority (62%) were diagnosed with depression, and the majority (63%) were diagnosed with hypertension or were overweight (BMI mean ± SD = 33.3 ± 6.3). Baseline VR-12 physical health component score was below population norms (50.0 ± SD = 10) at 33.4 ± 11.0. Findings from this trial may inform initiatives to improve physical health for SMI patient populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. All-cause mortality among people with serious mental illness (SMI, substance use disorders, and depressive disorders in southeast London: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee William

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher mortality has been found for people with serious mental illness (SMI, including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorders, and bipolar affective disorder at all age groups. Our aim was to characterize vulnerable groups for excess mortality among people with SMI, substance use disorders, depressive episode, and recurrent depressive disorder. Methods A case register was developed at the South London and Maudsley National Health Services Foundation Trust (NHS SLAM, accessing full electronic clinical records on over 150,000 mental health service users as a well-defined cohort since 2006. The Case Register Interactive Search (CRIS system enabled searching and retrieval of anonymised information since 2008. Deaths were identified by regular national tracing returns after 2006. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs were calculated for the period 2007 to 2009 using SLAM records for this period and the expected number of deaths from age-specific mortality statistics for the England and Wales population in 2008. Data were stratified by gender, ethnicity, and specific mental disorders. Results A total of 31,719 cases, aged 15 years old or more, active between 2007-2009 and with mental disorders of interest prior to 2009 were detected in the SLAM case register. SMRs were 2.15 (95% CI: 1.95-2.36 for all SMI with genders combined, 1.89 (1.64-2.17 for women and 2.47 (2.17-2.80 for men. In addition, highest mortality risk was found for substance use disorders (SMR = 4.17; 95% CI: 3.75-4.64. Age- and gender-standardised mortality ratios by ethnic group revealed huge fluctuations, and SMRs for all disorders diminished in strength with age. The main limitation was the setting of secondary mental health care provider in SLAM. Conclusions Substantially higher mortality persists in people with serious mental illness, substance use disorders and depressive disorders. Furthermore, mortality risk differs substantially with age, diagnosis, gender

  7. Weight management in a cohort of Irish inpatients with serious mental illness (SMI) using a modular behavioural programme. A preliminary service evaluation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bushe, Chris J

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight gain is commonly observed during psychotropic treatments for chronic forms of severe mental illness and is most rapid during the early treatment phases. All formats of behavioural weight intervention programmes have suggested that weight gain can be prevented or reversed in some patients. There is no data on these programmes in acutely unwell inpatients whom may be the major beneficiaries. METHODS: A modular behavioural intervention programme (Solutions for Wellness) used in SMI outpatients since 2002 in Ireland has been adapted for inpatient use. Preliminary data is reported from 5 centres in Ireland. RESULTS: In 47 inpatients the mean weight change was +0.26 kg (SD 2.02) with a median change of 0 kg. Mean follow-up was 23.7 (SD 21.6) days, and median 14 days (range 6-98 days). There was no difference in mean weight change in those patients involved for > 35 days compared with < 35 days (+0.26 kg; 0.25 kg; p = 0.5). Weight loss or maintenance was seen in 70% of patients. CONCLUSION: These preliminary data are supportive of the concept that acutely unwell inpatients with SMI may engage with a behavioural weight programme. Weight change observed contrasts with the significant weight gain often seen in most subjects. Further clinical trials are warranted.

  8. Opportunities and challenges in Improving Access to Psychological Therapies for people with Severe Mental Illness (IAPT-SMI): evaluating the first operational year of the South London and Maudsley (SLaM) demonstration site for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Suzanne; Garety, Philippa; Peters, Emmanuelle; Fornells-Ambrojo, Miriam; Onwumere, Juliana; Harris, Victoria; Brabban, Alison; Johns, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Despite its demonstrated clinical and economic effectiveness, access to Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for psychosis (CBTp) in routine practice remains low. The UK National Health Service (NHS England) Improving Access to Psychological Therapies for people with Severe Mental Illness (IAPT-SMI) initiative aims to address this problem. We report 14-month outcomes for our psychosis demonstration site. Primary and secondary care and self-referrals were screened to check the suitability of the service for the person. Psychotic symptoms, distress, service use, functioning and satisfaction were measured before and after therapy, by trained assessors. User-defined wellbeing and goal-attainment were rated sessionally. Access to CBTp increased almost threefold (2011/12 accepted referrals/year n = 106; 2012/13, n = 300). The IAPT-SMI assessment protocol proved feasible and acceptable to service users, with paired primary outcomes for 97% of closed cases. Therapy completion (≥5 sessions) was high (83%) irrespective of ethnicity, age and gender. Preliminary pre-post outcomes showed clinical improvement and reduced service use, with medium/high effect sizes. User-rated satisfaction was high. We conclude that individual psychological interventions for people with psychosis can be successfully delivered in routine services using an IAPT approach. High completion rates for paired outcomes demonstrate good user experience, clinical improvement, and potential future cost savings.

  9. Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... financial problems, a loved one's death or a divorce An ongoing (chronic) medical condition, such as diabetes ... years, but most begin earlier in life. The effects of mental illness can be temporary or long ...

  10. Disseminating Evidence-Based Practices for Adults with PTSD and Severe Mental Illness in Public-Sector Mental Health Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frueh, B. Christopher; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Cusack, Karen J.; Elhai, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains largely untreated among adults with severe mental illnesses (SMI). The treatment of psychotic symptoms usually takes precedence in the care of adults with SMI. Such oversight is problematic in that PTSD in SMI populations is common (19%-43%), contributes a significant illness burden, and hinders mental…

  11. Needs of people with severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, D

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study reviews conceptual and methodological issues of needs for care among people with severe mental illness (SMI) and presents data on their prevalence, correlates and consequences for mental health care. Method: Focus is on the definition of the concept of need as what people can b

  12. Needs of people with severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, D

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study reviews conceptual and methodological issues of needs for care among people with severe mental illness (SMI) and presents data on their prevalence, correlates and consequences for mental health care. Method: Focus is on the definition of the concept of need as what people can

  13. Mental Health Stigma about Serious Mental Illness among MSW Students: Social Contact and Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Irene; Han, Meekyung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the attitudes toward and beliefs about serious mental illness (SMI) held by a group of graduate social work students in the northwestern United States were examined. Mental health stigma was examined with relation to the following factors: participants' level of social contact with SMI populations, adherence to stereotypes about SMI…

  14. Mental Health Stigma about Serious Mental Illness among MSW Students: Social Contact and Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Irene; Han, Meekyung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the attitudes toward and beliefs about serious mental illness (SMI) held by a group of graduate social work students in the northwestern United States were examined. Mental health stigma was examined with relation to the following factors: participants' level of social contact with SMI populations, adherence to stereotypes about SMI…

  15. Children of Parents With Serious Mental Illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranning, Anne; Munk Laursen, Thomas; Thorup, Anne

    2016-01-01

    with a single mother with SMI. Conjugal families were dissolved at higher rates if a parent had SMI, especially if the mother (incidence rate ratio 2.98; 95% CI 2.80–3.17) or the father (incidence rate ratio 2.60; 95% CI 2.47–2.74) had schizophrenia. Risks for family dissolution varied greatly with parents...... analyses were performed assessing the risk of dissolution of the conjugal family. Results Children's living arrangements were characterized by fewer nuclear families and more single-parent–headed households when parents had serious mental illness (SMI). From birth, 15% to 20% of children lived......’ socioeconomic position in all diagnostic groups. Conclusion Parents’ SMI affects children's family living arrangements because fewer children live with both parents and more children live with a single parent or are separated from both parents. Family cohesion seems especially difficult to maintain when parents...

  16. Mental health services availability and admission of the seriously mentally ill from the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Charles; Shen, Jay; Cochran, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    This study used a cross-sectional, multiple logistic regression design to examine the relationship between mental health service availability and the admission of 111,527 seriously mentally ill (SMI) patients from the emergency department (ED) in New York State in 2002. The study found that SMI patients were admitted from the ED in counties that were mental health professional shortage areas and in counties with less long-term inpatient psychiatric days. Contrary to expectations, counties with community mental health centers (CMHCs) had more admissions than counties without CMHCs. The results support prior research that indicates the need for more specialized mental health services for the SMI, including more psychiatric beds.

  17. Prevalence of diagnosed ocular disease in veterans with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Osamah; Ashraf, Hasan; Malouf, Marc; Slade, Eric P; Medoff, Deborah R; Li, Lan; Kreyenbuhl, Julie

    To compare the prevalence of diagnosed ocular disease and eye disease treatment between Veteran's Administration (VA) patients with and without serious mental illness (SMI). Retrospective comparison of diagnosed ocular disease and treatment prevalence among patients with and without diagnosed SMI in fiscal year 2011 in the VA Capitol Health Care System (VISN 5). We identified 6462 VA patients with SMI and 137,933 without SMI. The prevalence of diagnosed ocular disease was 22.7% in SMI patients and 35.4% in non-SMI patients (Pdisease, particularly cataract, glaucoma and dry eye. While SMI patients utilize eye care services at a higher rate than the general VA population, the majority of subjects with SMI do not get recommended annual eye examinations. More consistent annual ocular screening among VA patients with SMI may be indicated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving somatic health for outpatients with severe mental illness : the development of an intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hasselt, F.; Loonen, Antonius

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Patients with severe mental illness (SMI) suffer from more somatic illness than the general population. Possible causes are side effects of neuropsychiatric medication, genetic vulnerability, insufficient health care and lifestyle. This co-morbidity is potentially reversible and augments

  19. Mental health provider perspectives regarding integrated medical care for patients with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Amy M; Greenwald, Devra E; Bauer, Mark S; Charns, Martin P; Yano, Elizabeth M

    2012-11-01

    Integrated care for medical conditions is essential for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). This qualitative study describes mental health provider perspectives regarding barriers and facilitators of integrated care for patients with SMI. We interviewed providers from a national sample of Veterans Health Administration facilities that scored in the top or bottom percentile in medical care quality. Providers from high-performing sites reported substantial in-person contacts with general medical providers, while providers from low-performing sites reported stigma and limited communication with medical providers as major concerns. Interventions to improve mental health and medical provider communication may facilitate integrated care for persons with SMI.

  20. Disease Burden Among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness in a Community Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Kristin R; Bonfine, Natalie; Dugan, Sara E; Adams, Richard; Gallagher, Mary; Olds, R Scott; Piatt, Elizabeth; Ritter, Christian

    2016-05-01

    This study examines the prevalence of comorbid physical health conditions within a community sample of individuals with severe mental illness (SMI), compares them to a matched national sample without SMI, and identifies which comorbidities create the greatest disease burden for those with SMI. Self-reported health status, co-morbid medical conditions and perceived disease burden were collected from 203 adults with SMI. Prevalence of chronic health conditions was compared to a propensity-matched sample without SMI from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R). Compared to NCS-R sample without SMI, our sample with SMI had a higher prevalence of seven out of nine categories of chronic health conditions. Chronic pain and headaches, as well as the number of chronic conditions, were associated with increased disease burden for individuals with SMI. Further investigation of possible interventions, including effective pain management, is needed to improve the health status of this population.

  1. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is present. For More Information Share Chronic Illness & Mental Health Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... For more information, see the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) booklet on Depression at http://www.nimh. ...

  2. Parents with serious mental illness: differences in internalised and externalised mental illness stigma and gender stigma between mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Melanie; Paolini, Stefania; Hanlon, Mary-Claire; Melville, Jessica; Galletly, Cherrie; Campbell, Linda E

    2015-02-28

    Research demonstrates that people living with serious mental illness (SMI) contend with widespread public stigma; however, little is known about the specific experiences of stigma that mothers, and in particular fathers, with SMI encounter as parents. This study aimed to explore and compare the experiences of stigma for mothers and fathers with SMI inferred not only by living with a mental illness but also potential compounding gender effects, and the associated impact of stigma on parenting. Telephone surveys were conducted with 93 participants with SMI who previously identified as parents in the Second Australian National Survey of Psychosis. Results indicated that mothers were more likely than fathers to perceive and internalise stigma associated with their mental illness. Conversely, fathers were more inclined to perceive stigma relating to their gender and to hold stigmatising attitudes towards others. Mental illness and gender stigma predicted poorer self-reported parenting experiences for both mothers and fathers. These findings may assist in tailoring interventions for mothers and fathers with SMI.

  3. Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauritz, M.W.; Goossens, P.J.J.; Draijer, N.; Achterberg, T. van

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. METHODS: We con

  4. Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauritz, M.W.; Goossens, P.J.J.; Draijer, N.; Achterberg, T. van

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. METHODS: We

  5. Changing the obesogenic environment of severe mentally ill residential patients : ELIPS, a cluster randomised study design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looijmans, Anne; Jorg, Frederike; Schoevers, Robert A.; Bruggeman, Richard; Stolk, Ronald P.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Background: Severe mentally ill (SMI) patients have a reduced life expectancy of 13-30 years compared to the general population, largely due to an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours in SMI patients contribute to this increased risk. The obesogenic living envir

  6. The Effects of Prospective Naturalistic Contact on the Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Shannon M.; Penn, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether naturalistic, interpersonal contact with persons with a severe mental illness (SMI) could reduce stigma. Participants from the agency Compeer (which pairs volunteers with people with SMI) were compared to volunteers from a control agency and to nonvolunteer participants from the community on…

  7. Gaps in health care for the somatic health of outpatients with severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hasselt, Fenneke M.; Schorr, Susanne G.; Mookhoek, Evert J.; Brouwers, Jacobus R. B. J.; Loonen, Anton J. M.; Taxis, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The physical health of outpatients with severe mental illness (SMI) can be improved by changes in the health-care system. Analysis of current practice is necessary to develop these strategies. We compared the number of somatic health problems of outpatients with SMI with the frequency of consulting

  8. Severe and persistent mental illness: a useful definition for prioritizing community-based mental health service interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parabiaghi, Alberto; Bonetto, Chiara; Ruggeri, Mirella; Lasalvia, Antonio; Leese, Morven

    2006-06-01

    There is a lack of consensus on the identification of seriously mentally ill patients (SMI). This study investigates the external and predictive validity of an operationalized definition for the severity and persistency of mental illness applied to a sample of service users attending a community mental health service. The definition is based on the fulfilment of dysfunction (GAF or = 2 yrs) criteria. The study was conducted with a two-year longitudinal design. External and predictive validity of the SMI definition were assessed against the diagnosis of psychosis. Our data show evidence for an overall high predictive and external validity of the SMI definition and high sensitivity in predicting those with high burden of mental illness. In order to identify people with high levels of psychiatric burden, the SMI working definition seems to be more useful than that simply based on diagnostic criteria.

  9. A mixed methods exploration of family involvement in medical care for older adults with serious mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aschbrenner, K.A.; Pepin, R.; Mueser, K.T.; Naslund, J.A.; Rolin, S.A.; Faber, M.J.; Bartels, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many older persons with serious mental illness (SMI) suffer from high rates of comorbid medical conditions. Although families play a critical role in psychiatric illness management among adults with SMI, their contributions to improving health outcomes in this population has received litt

  10. A mixed methods exploration of family involvement in medical care for older adults with serious mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aschbrenner, K.A.; Pepin, R.; Mueser, K.T.; Naslund, J.A.; Rolin, S.A.; Faber, M.J.; Bartels, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many older persons with serious mental illness (SMI) suffer from high rates of comorbid medical conditions. Although families play a critical role in psychiatric illness management among adults with SMI, their contributions to improving health outcomes in this population has received

  11. Family representative payeeship and violence risk in severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbogen, Eric B; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Swartz, Marvin S; Van Dorn, Richard

    2005-10-01

    Although representative payeeship is prevalent among people with mental illness and shows promise to positively influence clinically relevant outcomes, research also suggests this legal mechanism could be implemented in ways that are problematic. The current study examined whether family representative payeeship was associated with elevated risk of family violence perpetrated by persons with severe mental illness (SMI). Data were collected every 4 months for 1 year in structured interviews with N = 245 persons with SMI who received disability benefits. Multivariate analyses showed that substance abuse, history of violence, frequency of family contact, and family representative payeeship were associated with elevated odds of family violence. Analyses also showed family contact and family representative payeeship had a cumulative effect on increasing the predicted probability of family violence (controlling for covariates such as violence history and substance abuse). The data shed light on the potential for family representative payeeship to be associated with increased risk of interpersonal conflict and violence in SMI.

  12. Improving somatic health of outpatients with severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hasselt, Fenneke M.; Oud, Marian J. T.; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Loonen, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with severe mental illness (SMI) experience a 13-to 30-year reduction in life expectancy compared with the general population. The majority of these deaths can be attributed to somatic health problems. The risk on somatic health problems is partly increased due to a reduced abil

  13. Violence and Mental Illness

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, includi...

  14. Exploring the Present and Projecting the Future: People with Severe Mental Illness Speaking for Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Montserrat; Pallisera, Maria; Fullana, Judit

    2016-01-01

    The participation of people with mental illness in research is key to their empowerment and provides them with a highly meaningful experience. The aim of this article was to explore the perspectives, views and experiences of people with severe mental illness (SMI) regarding their present life and projection of the future (desires, expectations…

  15. Exploring the Present and Projecting the Future: People with Severe Mental Illness Speaking for Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Montserrat; Pallisera, Maria; Fullana, Judit

    2016-01-01

    The participation of people with mental illness in research is key to their empowerment and provides them with a highly meaningful experience. The aim of this article was to explore the perspectives, views and experiences of people with severe mental illness (SMI) regarding their present life and projection of the future (desires, expectations…

  16. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  17. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  18. Gender and violence against people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifeh, Hind; Dean, Kimberlie

    2010-01-01

    Men and women with severe mental illness (SMI) are at significantly increased risk of violent victimisation, but the gender pattern for this has not been systematically examined. In the general population, men are at higher risk of overall and physical victimisation, whilst women are at increased risk of domestic and sexual violence. We re-examined published victimisation studies from a gender perspective, and found that, compared to the general population, women with SMI are at greater excess risk than men, leading to a narrowing in the 'gender gap'. We discuss theoretical explanations for this and implications for prevention and research.

  19. Labor market conditions and employment of the mentally ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Ralph; Drake, Robert E.; Becker, Deborah R.; Clark, Robin E.

    1999-06-01

    BACKGROUND: The mental health services literature includes assertions that workers with mental illness are at earlier risk of unemployment than other workers when the economy contracts. This possibility is important for several reasons. One is that such a phenomenon would support the argument that the lives of mentally ill persons are made unnecessarily stressful by the stigma of mental illness. Another is that the phenomenon could distort comparisons of the effectiveness of programs designed to prepare persons with severe mental illness for work. Despite its importance, the assertion that severely mentally ill workers are at early risk of unemployment has never been empirically tested. AIMS OF THE STUDY: We aim to test the hypothesis that unemployment among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) increases before job loss among other workers. METHODS: We test the hypothesis by applying Granger causality methods to time-series data collected in two communities in the United States (i.e., Concord and Manchester, NH) over 131 weeks beginning on 12 May 1991. RESULTS: We find no relationship between job loss in the labor market and the likelihood that persons with SMI will be unemployed. DISCUSSION: We speculate that persons with SMI participate in the secondary labor market and that their employment status is unlikely to be well described by data gathered in the primary labor market. This implies that widely available measures of labor market status, which are designed to describe the primary labor market, cannot be used to improve the evaluation of programs intended to prepare the mentally ill for work. We also discuss the possibility that persons with SMI may have needs that are better met by the secondary than by the primary labor market. CONCLUSIONS: The intuition that workers with severe mental illness are affected earlier than other workers by labor market contraction may not be correct. We infer that persons with severe mental illness may participate in the

  20. Automated telehealth for managing psychiatric instability in people with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Sarah I; Naslund, John A; Wolfe, Rosemarie S; Santos, Meghan; Bartels, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Serious mental illness (SMI) with psychiatric instability accounts for disproportionately high use of emergency room visits and hospitalizations. To evaluate the effectiveness of an automated telehealth intervention supported by nurse health care management for improving psychiatric illness management and reducing acute service use among individuals with SMI and psychiatric instability. Thirty-eight individuals with SMI received the automated telehealth intervention for 6 months. Psychiatric symptoms, illness self-management, and self-reported service use (emergency room visits and hospital admissions) were collected at baseline, 3- and 6-months. Measures of quality of life, health indicators, and subjective health status were also collected. Participants demonstrated improvements in self-reported psychiatric symptoms and illness self-management skills, an 82% decrease in hospital admissions (from 76 to 14 hospitalizations, p manager for people with SMI, and highlight the potential for cost savings through reductions in acute health care utilization.

  1. Exercise Prevents Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.

    2017-03-01

    Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.

  2. Gaius Caligula's mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidwell, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The strange behavior of emperor Gaius has been the subject of debate for many historians. Some charge him with madness and attribute it to his illness in A.D. 37, whereas others believe it occurred later, or else had nothing to do with his sickness.We have no real evidence to reconstruct his mental state. Therefore speculations about madness are fruitless, as they can't be proven. Also, his madness belongs to a discourse which originates mainly from the senatorial narrative that sought to discredit him through any means possible. Thus, his acts should be seen from other angles, and the search for "mad Caligula" abandoned.

  3. Social Tie Characteristics and Psychiatric Rehabilitation Outcomes among Adults with Serious Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chronister, Julie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social support has achieved national attention as a key component of the mental health recovery paradigm for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of variance accounted for by four social tie characteristics (social network orientation, emotional support, tangible support, and negative…

  4. Severe mental illness and mortality of hospitalized ACS patients in the VHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomondon, Mary E; Ho, P Michael; Wang, Li; Greiner, Gwendolyn T; Shore, James H; Sakai, Joseph T; Fihn, Stephan D; Rumsfeld, John S

    2007-01-01

    Background Severe mental illness (SMI) has been associated with more medical co-morbidity and less cardiovascular procedure use for older patients with myocardial infarction. However, it is unknown whether SMI is associated with increased long term mortality risk among patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We tested the hypothesis that SMI is associated with higher one-year mortality following ACS hospitalization. Methods All ACS patients (n = 14,194) presenting to Veterans Health Administration (VHA) hospitals between October 2003 and September 2005 were included. Survival analysis evaluated the association between SMI and one-year all-cause mortality, adjusting for demographics, co-morbidities, in-hospital treatment, and discharge medications. Results Overall, 18.4 % of ACS patients had SMI. Patients with SMI were more likely female, younger, Caucasian race, have a history of alcohol abuse, liver disease, dementia, hypertension and more likely to be a current smoker; however, prior cardiac history was similar between the 2 groups. There were no significant differences in cardiac procedure use, including coronary angiogram (38.7% vs. 40.3%, p = 0.14) or coronary revascularization (31.0% vs. 32.3%, p = 0.19), and discharge medications between those with and without SMI. One-year mortality was lower for patients with SMI (15.8% vs. 19.1%, p < 0.001). However, in multivariable analysis, there were no significant differences in mortality (HR 0.91; 95% CI 0.81–1.02) between patients with and without SMI. Conclusion Among ACS patients in the VHA, SMI is prevalent, affecting almost 1 in 5 patients. However, patients with SMI were as likely to undergo coronary revascularization and be prescribed evidence-based medications at hospital discharge, and were not at elevated risk of adverse 1-year outcomes compared to patients without SMI. PMID:17877804

  5. The stigma of mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Kordosi A; Saridi M; Souliotis K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:The stigma of mental illness is not a modern phenomenon, but it can now be approached scientifically. The stigma, because of the mental illness which characterizes a person, can be explained by the natural propensity of man to deliver biased and stereotyped estimates to phenomena he cannot explain, accept or face. Methodology:This study is an attempt to describe the concept of stigma and the impact of the stigma of mental illness in the personal and social life of the...

  6. Mental Illness And Brain Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrick, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    It has become common to say psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases. This reflects a conception of the mental as being biologically based, though it is also thought that thinking of psychiatric illness this way will reduce the stigma attached to psychiatric illness. If psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases, however, it is not clear why psychiatry should not collapse into neurology, and some argue for this course. Others try to maintain a distinction by saying that neurology deals with abnormalities of neural structure while psychiatry deals with specific abnormalities of neural functioning. It is not clear that neurologists would accept this division, nor that they should. I argue that if we take seriously the notion that psychiatric illnesses are mental illnesses we can draw a more defensible boundary between psychiatry and neurology. As mental illnesses, psychiatric illnesses must have symptoms that affect our mental capacities and that the sufferer is capable of being aware of, even if they are not always self-consciously aware of them. Neurological illnesses, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, may be diagnosed even if they are silent, just as the person may not be aware of having high blood pressure or may suffer a silent myocardial infarction. It does not make sense to speak of panic disorder if the person has never had a panic attack, however, or of bipolar disorder in the absence of mood swings. This does not mean psychiatric illnesses are not biologically based. Mental illnesses are illnesses of persons, whereas other illnesses are illnesses of biological individuals.

  7. Physical illness in patients with severe mental disorders. I. Prevalence, impact of medications and disparities in health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hert, Marc; Correll, Christoph U.; Bobes, Julio; Cetkovich-Bakmas, Marcelo; Cohen, Dan; Asai, Itsuo; Detraux, Johan; Gautam, Shiv; Moeller, Hans-Jurgen; Ndetei, David M.; Newcomer, John W.; Uwakwe, Richard; Leucht, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The lifespan of people with severe mental illness (SMI) is shorter compared to the general population. This excess mortality is mainly due to physical illness. We report prevalence rates of different physical illnesses as well as important individual lifestyle choices, side effects of psychotropic t

  8. Physical illness in patients with severe mental disorders. I. Prevalence, impact of medications and disparities in health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hert, Marc; Correll, Christoph U.; Bobes, Julio; Cetkovich-Bakmas, Marcelo; Cohen, Dan; Asai, Itsuo; Detraux, Johan; Gautam, Shiv; Moeller, Hans-Jurgen; Ndetei, David M.; Newcomer, John W.; Uwakwe, Richard; Leucht, Stefan

    The lifespan of people with severe mental illness (SMI) is shorter compared to the general population. This excess mortality is mainly due to physical illness. We report prevalence rates of different physical illnesses as well as important individual lifestyle choices, side effects of psychotropic

  9. Systematic review of EBPs for SMI in rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Addie; Capobianco, Jeff; Ruffolo, Mary

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review of the implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for adults with severe mental illnesses (SMI) in rural mental health settings examined peer-reviewed literature, grey literature, and public information. Included articles had to report implementation efforts of EBP(s) for SMI in rural settings or adaptations for rural service delivery. Only three peer-reviewed articles and two publicly available reports met inclusion criteria. Findings suggest little attention is focused on studying factors affecting implementation of EBPs for SMI in rural areas. Adaptations are occurring in rural settings, though rarely documented or tested; their impact on fidelity and consumer outcomes is unclear.

  10. Severe mental illness and mortality of hospitalized ACS patients in the VHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shore James H

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe mental illness (SMI has been associated with more medical co-morbidity and less cardiovascular procedure use for older patients with myocardial infarction. However, it is unknown whether SMI is associated with increased long term mortality risk among patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS. We tested the hypothesis that SMI is associated with higher one-year mortality following ACS hospitalization. Methods All ACS patients (n = 14,194 presenting to Veterans Health Administration (VHA hospitals between October 2003 and September 2005 were included. Survival analysis evaluated the association between SMI and one-year all-cause mortality, adjusting for demographics, co-morbidities, in-hospital treatment, and discharge medications. Results Overall, 18.4 % of ACS patients had SMI. Patients with SMI were more likely female, younger, Caucasian race, have a history of alcohol abuse, liver disease, dementia, hypertension and more likely to be a current smoker; however, prior cardiac history was similar between the 2 groups. There were no significant differences in cardiac procedure use, including coronary angiogram (38.7% vs. 40.3%, p = 0.14 or coronary revascularization (31.0% vs. 32.3%, p = 0.19, and discharge medications between those with and without SMI. One-year mortality was lower for patients with SMI (15.8% vs. 19.1%, p Conclusion Among ACS patients in the VHA, SMI is prevalent, affecting almost 1 in 5 patients. However, patients with SMI were as likely to undergo coronary revascularization and be prescribed evidence-based medications at hospital discharge, and were not at elevated risk of adverse 1-year outcomes compared to patients without SMI.

  11. Improvement of care for the physical health of patients with severe mental illness : a qualitative study assessing the view of patients and families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hasselt, Fenneke M.; Oud, Marian J. T.; Loonen, Anton J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients with severe mental illness (SMI) experience more physical comorbidity than the general population. Multiple factors, including inadequate seeking of healthcare and health care related factors such as lack of collaboration, underlie this undesirable situation. To improve this sit

  12. Provision of health promotion programmes to people with serious mental illness: a mapping exercise of four South London boroughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, C; Gardner-Sood, P; Corlett, S K; Ismail, K; Smith, S; Atakan, Z; Greenwood, K; Joseph, C; Gaughran, F

    2014-03-01

    People with serious mental illness (SMI) are at increased risk of developing various physical health diseases, contributing to significantly reduced life expectancies compared with the general population. In light of this, the Department of Health have set the physical health of people with mental health problems as a priority for improvement. Additionally, the UK government encourages the NHS and local authorities to develop health promotion programmes (HPPs) for people with SMI. To document how many and what types of HPPs were available to people with SMI across four South London boroughs, UK. We found 145 HPPs were available to people with SMI across the four boroughs, but with an inequitable distribution. We also found that certain HPPs set admission criteria that were likely to act as a barrier to improving health. A more integrated approach of documenting and providing information regarding the provision of HPPs for or inclusive of people with SMI is needed. People with serious mental illness (SMI) such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorders and bipolar disorder are at increased risk of developing diabetes, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease, contributing to significantly reduced life expectancies. As a result, emphasis has been placed on developing Health Promotion Programmes (HPPs) to modify the risk of poor physical health in SMI. We examined how many and what types of HPPs are available for or inclusive of people with SMI across four borough in South London, UK. A cross-sectional mapping study was carried out to identify the number of HPPs available to people with SMI. We found 145 HPPs available to people with SMI existed across the four boroughs but with an inequitable distribution, which in some boroughs we anticipate may not meet need. In some cases, HPPs set admission conditions which were likely to further impede access. We recommend that accurate and readily available information on the provision of HPPs for or inclusive of people

  13. Mental Illness And Brain Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedrick Jeffrey D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It has become common to say psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases. This reflects a conception of the mental as being biologically based, though it is also thought that thinking of psychiatric illness this way will reduce the stigma attached to psychiatric illness. If psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases, however, it is not clear why psychiatry should not collapse into neurology, and some argue for this course. Others try to maintain a distinction by saying that neurology deals with abnormalities of neural structure while psychiatry deals with specific abnormalities of neural functioning. It is not clear that neurologists would accept this division, nor that they should. I argue that if we take seriously the notion that psychiatric illnesses are mental illnesses we can draw a more defensible boundary between psychiatry and neurology. As mental illnesses, psychiatric illnesses must have symptoms that affect our mental capacities and that the sufferer is capable of being aware of, even if they are not always self-consciously aware of them. Neurological illnesses, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, may be diagnosed even if they are silent, just as the person may not be aware of having high blood pressure or may suffer a silent myocardial infarction. It does not make sense to speak of panic disorder if the person has never had a panic attack, however, or of bipolar disorder in the absence of mood swings. This does not mean psychiatric illnesses are not biologically based. Mental illnesses are illnesses of persons, whereas other illnesses are illnesses of biological individuals.

  14. Living with Mentally Ill Parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Buldukoglu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review seeks to identify and analyze qualitative studies that examined experiences of children whose parents have a mental illness. This study reported that children whose parents have a mental illness had some common experiences. These experiences may have negative effects on children’s coping skills, resilience to tough living conditions and ability to maintain their mental health. In spite of these negative conditions, some of these children have much more self-confidence, resilience and independence because of inner development and early maturation. Some effective intervention programs are needed to promote information to children and other family members about mental illness, coping behaviors. Availability of such psychiatric services and nation-wide programs with professionals to deal with these problems should be organized properly to increase quality of life of these children. Furthermore, qualitative researches that explore the experiences of children whose parents with mental illness should also be conducted in our country.

  15. Access to general health care services by a New Zealand population with serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wheeler A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Literature suggests that good quality health care access can have a positive impact on the health of people with serious mental illness (SMI, but literature relating to patterns of access by this group is equivocal. AIM: This study was designed to explore health care access patterns in a group of people with SMI and to compare them with a general New Zealand population group, in order for health providers to understand how they might contribute to positive health outcomes for this group. METHODS: The study surveyed 404 mental health consumers aged 18-65 years receiving care from one district health board in Auckland about their patterns of health care access. Results were compared with those from the New Zealand Health Survey of the general population. RESULTS: Findings suggest that the SMI consumer respondents had poorer physical health than the general population respondents, accessed health care services in more complex ways and were more particular about who they accessed for their care than the general population respondents. There was some concern from SMI consumers around discrimination from health care providers. The study also suggested that some proactive management with SMI consumers for conditions such as metabolic syndrome was occurring within the health care community. DISCUSSION: The first point of access for SMI consumers with general health problems is not always the family general practitioner and so other health professionals may sometimes need to consider the mental and physical health of such consumers in a wider context than their own specialism.

  16. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  17. Motivation for Psychiatric Treatment in Outpatients with Severe Mental Illness : Different Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.C. Jochems (Eline)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe main aim of the current thesis was to empirically test and compare three current theoretical models of motivation for treatment in the context of outpatient psychiatric care for patients with severe mental illness (SMI). In a literature review (Chapter 2), we argued that Self-Determi

  18. Different perspectives of clinicians and patients with severe mental illness on motivation for treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochems, E.C.; van Dam, A.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Scheffer, S.C.M.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.; Mulder, N.L.

    2016-01-01

    The present study assessed motivation for engaging in treatment as rated by clinicians (n = 57) and patients with severe mental illness (SMI, n = 294) using measures based on three different motivation theories. Questionnaires were derived from self-determination theory, the transtheoretical model

  19. Randomized Trial of Social Rehabilitation and Integrated Health Care for Older People with Severe Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueser, Kim T.; Pratt, Sarah I.; Bartels, Stephen J.; Swain, Karin; Forester, Brent; Cather, Corinne; Feldman, James

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Helping Older People Experience Success (HOPES) program was developed to improve psychosocial functioning and reduce long-term medical burden in older people with severe mental illness (SMI) living in the community. HOPES includes 1 year of intensive skills training and health management, followed by a 1-year maintenance phase.…

  20. Natural language processing to extract symptoms of severe mental illness from clinical text: the Clinical Record Interactive Search Comprehensive Data Extraction (CRIS-CODE) project.

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, R. G.; Patel, R.(Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, USA); Jayatilleke, N.; Kolliakou, A; Ball, M; Gorrell, G.; Roberts, A; Dobson, R. J.; Stewart, R.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to use natural language processing to develop a suite of language models to capture key symptoms of severe mental illness (SMI) from clinical text, to facilitate the secondary use of mental healthcare data in research. DESIGN: Development and validation of information extraction applications for ascertaining symptoms of SMI in routine mental health records using the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) data resource; description of their distribution in a corpus of ...

  1. Somali Refugees' Perceptions of Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Joanna E; Penney, Deb; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela; Lecy, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 13% of the U.S. population is comprised of foreign-born individuals, with Somalis constituting one of the largest resettled groups. Research suggests that, among Somali refugees, rates of mental illness are high. Yet research shows Somalis underutilize mental health services. Understanding their perceptions of mental illness and its cures may help practitioners to design more effective treatments for this population. Thus, this pilot study investigated Somali refugees' perceptions of mental illness and its treatments. Using purposive sampling, this qualitative study interviewed 20 Somali refugees using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative analysis yielded participants' perceptions of mental illness through their descriptions of physical symptoms accompanying mental illness, the stigma of mental illness, causes of mental illness, medical and non-medical treatments for mental illness, spirit possession causing mental illness, and the Qur'an as treatment for mental illness. Such information may help practitioners in the United States approach Somali clients in the most culturally coherent manner.

  2. The stigma of mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordosi A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The stigma of mental illness is not a modern phenomenon, but it can now be approached scientifically. The stigma, because of the mental illness which characterizes a person, can be explained by the natural propensity of man to deliver biased and stereotyped estimates to phenomena he cannot explain, accept or face. Methodology:This study is an attempt to describe the concept of stigma and the impact of the stigma of mental illness in the personal and social life of the individual. The search for sources of this review was made through books on the topic and articles of the last twenty years, from online internet sources (pubmed, scopus, google scholar. Literature Review:Stigma brought about by illness from mental illness, is a complex process and concept, located in social interaction and the dynamics of social relations. The social stigma borne by mental illness in general, as well as the lack of information, ignorance, stereotypes, myths and prejudices, are the main reasons that characterize, even today, depression as a taboo subject. The stigma of mental illness is indeliblyimprinted in the identity of human suffering. In any case, the impact of stigma is critical for people who are sick. The psychological stress and difficult conditions that shape their daily lives aggravate their already compromised mental health, having a significant impact on the course and outcome of the disease itself. Key strategies to address stigma are protest, education and contact. Conclusions:A significant step in combating the stigma is to raise public awareness on the issues of mental health and their inclusion in society.

  3. Risk Profile and Treatment Needs of Women in Jail with Co-Occurring Serious Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nowotny, Kathryn M.; Belknap, Joanne; Lynch, Shannon; DeHart, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has documented the unusually high rates of incarcerated women’s serious mental illness (SMI) and substance use disorders (SUD). Complicating these high rates is the high comorbidity of SMI with SUD and trauma histories. Yet, incarcerated women have significantly less access to treatment and health services while incarcerated than men. We used data from a multi-site, multi-method project funded by the Bureau of Justice Assistance (2011–2012) to determine the risk profile of wom...

  4. Mental health professional support in families with a member suffering from severe mental illness: a grounded theory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavois, Helena; Paulsson, Gun; Fridlund, Bengt

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a model of mental health professional (MHP) support based on the needs of families with a member suffering from severe mental illness (SMI). Twelve family members were interviewed with the focus on their needs of support by MHP, then the interviews were analyzed according to the grounded theory method. The generated model of MHP support had two core categories: the family members' process from crisis to recovery and their interaction with the MHP about mental health/illness and daily living of the person with SMI. Interaction based on ongoing contact between MHP and family members influenced the family members' process from crisis towards recovery. Four MHP strategies--being present, listening, sharing and empowering--met the family members' needs of support in the different stages of the crisis. Being present includes early contact, early information and protection by MHP at onset of illness or relapse. Listening includes assessing burden, maintaining contact and confirmation in daily living for the person with SMI. Sharing between MHP and family members includes co-ordination, open communication and security in daily living for the person with SMI. Finally, the MHP strategy empowering includes creating a context, counselling and encouraging development for the family members. The present model has a holistic approach and can be used as an overall guide for MHP support in clinical care of families of persons with SMI. For future studies, it is important to study the interaction of the family with SMI and the connection between hope, coping and empowerment.

  5. News media framing of serious mental illness and gun violence in the United States, 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Webster, Daniel W; Jarlenski, Marian; Barry, Colleen L

    2014-03-01

    Recent mass shootings by persons seemingly afflicted with serious mental illness (SMI) have received extensive news media coverage and prompted national dialogue about the causes of, and policy responses to, mass shootings. News media framing of SMI as a cause of gun violence may influence public attitudes about persons with SMI and support for gun violence prevention proposals. We analyzed the content of a 25% random sample of news stories on SMI and gun violence published in 14 national and regional news sources from 1997 to 2012. Across the study period, most news coverage occurred in the wake of mass shootings, and "dangerous people" with SMI were more likely than "dangerous weapons" to be mentioned as a cause of gun violence.

  6. Lifetime Traumatic Events and High-Risk Behaviors as Predictors of PTSD Symptoms in People with Severe Mental Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Thomas; Sherrer, Margaret V.

    2009-01-01

    Research is limited regarding the role of high-risk behaviors, trauma, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in people with severe mental illnesses (SMI). The current survey of 276 community mental health clients diagnosed with either a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or a major mood disorder examined the mediating role of lifetime…

  7. Help for Mental Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local university health centers for their psychiatry or psychology departments. You can also go to the website ... coverage for mental health care. Participate in a Clinical Trial Clinical trials are part of clinical research ...

  8. [Creativity and mental illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihmer, Zoltán; Gonda, Xénia; Rihmer, Annamária

    2006-01-01

    It has been known for a long time that people with salient social and artistic creativity suffer more frequently from psychiatric illnesses than the average population. In their review paper, the authors assess the Hungarian and international scientific literature regarding the association of creativity and psychopathology. They conclude that contrary to the concept prevailing in the first part of the 20th century about the strong association between schizophrenia and creativity, the results of empirical research now unambiguously suggest that prominent social and artistic creativity is associated primarily with affective, and more specifically with bipolar affective illnesses. In addition, we already know that as regards the development of creativity, it is not the given affective (depressive, manic, hypomanic) episode which is important, but the hyperthymic or cyclothymic temperament structure which also predisposes for affective illness.

  9. Positive mental health and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Heather

    2014-09-01

    Based on the Mental Health Continuum Short Form administered in the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health (CCHS-MH), the percentages of Canadians aged 15 or older classified as having flourishing, moderate or languishing mental health were 76.9%, 21.6% and 1.5%, respectively. Compared with estimates for other countries, a higher percentage of Canadians were flourishing. In accordance with the complete mental health model, mental health was also assessed in combination with the presence or absence of mental illness (depression; bipolar disorder; generalized anxiety disorder; alcohol, cannabis or other drug abuse or dependence). An estimated 72.5% of Canadians (19.8 million) were classified as having complete mental health; that is they were flourishing and did not meet the criteria for any of the six past 12-month mental or substance use disorders included in the CCHS-MH. Age, marital status, socio-economic status, spirituality and physical health were associated with complete mental health. Men and women were equally likely to be in complete mental health.

  10. Diabetes and Cardiovascular Care Among People with Severe Mental Illness: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangurian, Christina; Newcomer, John W; Modlin, Chelsea; Schillinger, Dean

    2016-09-01

    Close to 19 million US adults have severe mental illnesses (SMI), and they die, on average, 25 years earlier than the general population, most often from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Many of the antipsychotic medications used to treat SMI contribute to CVD risk by increasing risk for obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Based on compelling evidence, the American Diabetes Association and the American Psychiatric Association developed guidelines for metabolic screening and monitoring during use of these medications.In this manuscript, we have reviewed the evidence on diabetes and other CVD risk screening, prevalence, and management among populations with SMI. We also review differences in screening among subpopulations with SMI (e.g., racial/ethnic minorities, women, and children). We found that despite national guidelines for screening for diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors, up to 70 % of people taking antipsychotics remain unscreened and untreated. Based on estimates that 20 % of the 19 million US adults with SMI have diabetes and 70 % of them are not screened; it is likely that over 2 million Americans with SMI have unidentified diabetes. Given that undiagnosed diabetes costs over $4,000 per person, this failure to identify diabetes among people with SMI represents a missed opportunity to prevent morbidity and translates to over $8 billion in annual preventable costs to our healthcare system.Given the high burden of disease and significant evidence of suboptimal medical care received by people with SMI, we propose several clinical and policy recommendations to improve diabetes and other CVD risk screening and care for this highly vulnerable population. These recommendations include reducing antipsychotic medication dose or switching antipsychotic medications, enhancing smoking cessation efforts, sharing electronic health records between physical and mental health care systems, and promoting integration of care.

  11. Recovery from mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Friis, Vivi Soegaard; Haxholm, Birthe Lodahl;

    2015-01-01

    Mental health services strive to implement a recovery-oriented approach to rehabilitation. Little is known about service users' perception of the recovery approach. The aim is to explore the service user's perspectives on facilitators and barriers associated with recovery. Twelve residents living...

  12. Barriers and facilitators of a healthy lifestyle among persons with serious and persistent mental illness: perspectives of community mental health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, Christine L; Kitchen, Katherine A; Wykes, Thomas L; Lee, Aaron A

    2014-07-01

    The investigators used qualitative methods to examine perspectives of community mental health professionals on obesity management in adults with serious mental illness (SMI). Data from 5 focus groups were subjected to constant comparison analysis and grounded theory. Results showed that influences at individual, social, community, and societal levels impact development and maintenance of obesity. Mental health providers desired a collaborative relationship with health promotion program staff. They also believed that frequent, group-based health promotion should include participation incentives for adults with SMI and should occur over durations of at least 6-months to achieve improved health outcomes for this population.

  13. Rural-urban differences in psychiatric status and functioning among clients with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottl, S L; Greenley, J R

    1997-08-01

    Studies of clients with severe mental illness (SMI) typically focus on individuals in larger urban areas. Less is known about clients in rural and smaller urban areas. Here we compare the psychiatric status, home and community activities of daily living, and social and vocational functioning of 1600 adult clients with SMI from 18 small-city and rural Wisconsin counties. Rural clients are less likely to have a diagnosis of schizophrenia or organic brain syndrome; have higher levels of general pathology, including more belligerent, bizarre, nervous, and depressive behaviors; and engage in fewer vocational activities than urban clients.

  14. Navigating the Disability Determination Process from the Perspective of Incarcerated Adults with Serious Mental Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Erin; Samples, Leah

    2017-05-03

    In the U.S. serious mental illness (SMI) is common in jails, which are often primary healthcare providers. Incarceration and healthcare are intertwined-lack of care access increases the risk of imprisonment which decreases care access. This case study explores a jail program which assists people with SMI with the disability determination process. Interviews with employees (n = 4) and clients (n = 25), and administrative data from jail databases on recidivism, benefit receipt, and demographics highlight the importance of reentry planning and access to resources in crime desistance, as well as how the program increased resource access, and provided feelings of hope and safety.

  15. Daily stress and cortisol patterns in parents of adult children with a serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Erin T; Greenberg, Jan S; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Almeida, David M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine whether parenting an adult child with a serious mental illness (SMI) has a physiological impact on parents. Multiple samples of saliva were collected on 4 days from 61 parents (mean age = 60.07 years, SD = 10.01) of individuals with a SMI (bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depression; mean age = 32.46 years, SD = 10.57) and a comparison group of 321 parents (mean age = 58.09 years, SD = 12.88) of individuals without a SMI (mean age = 32.36; SD = 13.87). Saliva samples were assayed for the hormone cortisol and group differences in diurnal cortisol patterns and their association with daily stress severity were explored. On days after elevated stress, a hypoactivation pattern of diurnal cortisol suggestive of chronic stress was evident for parents of individuals with a SMI. After more stressful days, cortisol levels increased less from waking to 30 min after waking and declined less from 30 min after waking to bedtime for parents of individuals with a SMI. The results of the current study add to a growing body of evidence that the long-term effects of parenting an adult with a disability has a biological impact on aging parents and support the need for family interventions across adulthood and into old age for parents of individuals with SMI.

  16. Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria W. Mauritz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI are often not recognized in clinical practice. Objective: To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of four databases (1980–2010 and then described and analysed 33 studies in terms of primary diagnosis and instruments used to measure trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders. Results: Population-weighted mean prevalence rates in SMI were physical abuse 47% (range 25–72%, sexual abuse 37% (range 24–49%, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD 30% (range 20–47%. Compared to men, women showed a higher prevalence of sexual abuse in schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, and mixed diagnosis groups labelled as having SMI. Conclusions: Prevalence rates of interpersonal trauma and trauma-related disorders were significantly higher in SMI than in the general population. Emotional abuse and neglect, physical neglect, complex PTSD, and dissociative disorders have been scarcely examined in SMI.

  17. Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Maria W.; Goossens, Peter J. J.; Draijer, Nel; van Achterberg, Theo

    2013-01-01

    Background Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice. Objective To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. Methods We conducted a systematic review of four databases (1980–2010) and then described and analysed 33 studies in terms of primary diagnosis and instruments used to measure trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders. Results Population-weighted mean prevalence rates in SMI were physical abuse 47% (range 25–72%), sexual abuse 37% (range 24–49%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 30% (range 20–47%). Compared to men, women showed a higher prevalence of sexual abuse in schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, and mixed diagnosis groups labelled as having SMI. Conclusions Prevalence rates of interpersonal trauma and trauma-related disorders were significantly higher in SMI than in the general population. Emotional abuse and neglect, physical neglect, complex PTSD, and dissociative disorders have been scarcely examined in SMI. PMID:23577228

  18. Relative risk of diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome in people with severe mental illnesses: Systematic review and metaanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Michael B

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe mental illnesses (SMI may be independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors and the metabolic syndrome. We aimed to systematically assess studies that compared diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and metabolic syndrome in people with and without SMI. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL & PsycINFO. We hand searched reference lists of key articles. We employed three search main themes: SMI, cardiovascular disease, and each cardiovascular risk factor. We selected cross-sectional, case control, cohort or intervention studies comparing one or more risk factor in both SMI and a reference group. We excluded studies without any reference group. We extracted data on: study design, cardiovascular risk factor(s and their measurement, diagnosis of SMI, study setting, sampling method, nature of comparison group and data on key risk factors. Results Of 14592 citations, 134 papers met criteria and 36 were finally included. 26 reported on diabetes, 12 hypertension, 11 dyslipidaemia, and 4 metabolic syndrome. Most studies were cross sectional, small and several lacked comparison data suitable for extraction. Meta-analysis was possible for diabetes, cholesterol and hypertension; revealing a pooled risk ratio of 1.70 (1.21 to 2.37 for diabetes and 1.11 (0.91 to 1.35 of hypertension. Restricting SMI to schizophreniform illnesses yielded a pooled risk ratio for diabetes of 1.87 (1.68 to 2.09. Total cholesterol was not higher in people with SMI (Standardized Mean Difference -0.10 (-0.55 to 0.36 and there were inconsistent data on HDL, LDL and triglycerides with some, but not all, reporting lower levels of HDL cholesterol and raised triglyceride levels. Metabolic syndrome appeared more common in SMI. Conclusion Diabetes (but not hypertension is more common in SMI. Data on other risk factors were limited by poor quality or inconsistent research findings, but a small number of studies show greater prevalence

  19. Measuring the internalized stigma of parents of persons with a serious mental illness: the factor structure of the parents' internalized stigma of mental illness scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Levy-Frank, Itamar; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Kravetz, Shlomo; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Roe, David

    2013-03-01

    Research has revealed that approximately one third of persons with a serious mental illness (SMI) experience elevated internalized stigma, which is associated with a large number of negative outcomes. Family members of persons with SMI are also often subject to stigma, but the degree to which these experiences are internalized and lead to self-stigma has rarely been studied. The present study investigated the factor structure of a modification of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale by Ritsher, Otilingam, and Grajales (Psychiatry Res 121:31-49, 2003). A central assumption of this investigation was that the factor structure of the Parents' Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (PISMI) scale would be similar to the factor structure of the ISMI scale. A total of 194 parents of persons with SMI completed the PISMI scale. The results revealed that the PISMI scale has high internal consistency and that it is made up of three distinctive factors: discrimination experience, social withdrawal and alienation, and stereotype endorsement. These factors are similar, but not identical, to the factors that underlie the ISMI scale. This study's findings also indicate that parents' prominent reaction to self-stigma is stereotype endorsement.

  20. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cognitive adaptation training as a nursing intervention in long-term residential patients with severe mental illness : Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiekema, Annemarie P. M.; Quee, Piotr J.; Dethmers, Marian; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Redmeijer, Jeroen E.; Rietberg, Kees; Stant, A. Dennis; Swart, Marte; van Weeghel, Jaap; Aleman, Andre; Velligan, Dawn I.; Schoevers, Robert A.; Bruggeman, Richard; van der Meer, Lisette

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the well-known importance of cognitive deficits for everyday functioning in patients with severe mental illness (SMI), evidence-based interventions directed at these problems are especially scarce for SMI patients in long-term clinical facilities. Cognitive adaptation Training

  1. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cognitive adaptation training as a nursing intervention in long-term residential patients with severe mental illness : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiekema, Annemarie P. M.; Quee, Piotr J.; Dethmers, Marian; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Redmeijer, Jeroen E.; Rietberg, Kees; Stant, A. Dennis; Swart, Marte; van Weeghel, Jaap; Aleman, Andre; Velligan, Dawn I.; Schoevers, Robert A.; Bruggeman, Richard; van der Meer, Lisette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the well-known importance of cognitive deficits for everyday functioning in patients with severe mental illness (SMI), evidence-based interventions directed at these problems are especially scarce for SMI patients in long-term clinical facilities. Cognitive adaptation Training

  2. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cognitive adaptation training as a nursing intervention in long-term residential patients with severe mental illness : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiekema, Annemarie P. M.; Quee, Piotr J.; Dethmers, Marian; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Redmeijer, Jeroen E.; Rietberg, Kees; Stant, A. Dennis; Swart, Marte; van Weeghel, Jaap; Aleman, Andre; Velligan, Dawn I.; Schoevers, Robert A.; Bruggeman, Richard; van der Meer, Lisette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the well-known importance of cognitive deficits for everyday functioning in patients with severe mental illness (SMI), evidence-based interventions directed at these problems are especially scarce for SMI patients in long-term clinical facilities. Cognitive adaptation Training (C

  3. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations.

  4. Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kaylene; Bradley, Loretta J.

    2002-01-01

    Each year, an estimated 50 million Americans will experience a mental disorder while only one fourth of them will seek mental health services. Contends that this disparity results from the stigma attached to mental illness. Proposes that counselors must educate the general public about the misconceptions of mental illness and advocate for parity…

  5. Do people with mental illness receive adequate smoking cessation advice? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alex J; Vancampfort, Davy; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence rates of smoking in people with mental illness are high, and premature mortality attributed to tobacco related physical comorbidity is a major concern. We conducted a meta-analysis comparing rates of receipt of smoking cessation advice among people with and without mental illness. Major electronic databases were searched from inception till August 2014 for studies comparing rates of receipt of smoking cessation advice of people with and without a mental illness. Two independent authors completed methodological appraisal and extracted data. A random-effects meta-analysis was utilized. Seven studies of satisfactory methodological quality (n mental illness=68,811, n control=652,847) were included. Overall there was no significant difference in smoking cessation advice rates between those with and without a mental illness [relative risk (RR)=1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.94-1.11, n=721,658, Q=1421, Ppeople with severe mental illness (SMI) received comparable rates of smoking cessation advice to those without SMI (RR=1.09, 95% CI=0.98-1.2, n=559,122). This remained true for people with schizophrenia (RR=1.09, 95% CI=0.68-1.70) and bipolar disorder (RR=1.14, 95% CI=0.85-1.5). People with non-SMIs were slightly more likely to receive smoking cessation advice (RR=1.16, 95% CI=1.04-1.30, Q=1364, PPeople with SMI receive similar smoking cessation advice rates to people without mental illness, while those with non-SMI are slightly more likely to receive smoking cessation advice. While progress has been made, offering smoking cessation advice should receive a higher priority in everyday clinical practice for patients with a mental health diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of Trends in Incidence, Revascularization, and In-Hospital Mortality in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Patients With Versus Without Severe Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Goyal, Parag; Swaminathan, Rajesh V; Feldman, Dmitriy N; Wong, Shing-Chiu; Singh, Harsimran S; Minutello, Robert M; Bergman, Geoffrey; Kim, Luke K

    2016-05-01

    Patients with severe mental illness (SMI), including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, are at elevated risk of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) but have previously been reported as less likely to receive revascularization. To study the persistence of these findings over time, we examined trends in STEMI incidence, revascularization, and in-hospital mortality for patients with and without SMI in the National Inpatient Sample from 2003 to 2012. We further used multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess the odds of revascularization and in-hospital mortality. SMI was present in 29,503 of 3,058,697 (1%) of the STEMI population. Patients with SMI were younger (median age 58 vs 67 years), more likely to be women (44% vs 38%), and more likely to have several co-morbidities, including diabetes, chronic pulmonary disease, substance abuse, and obesity (p SMI (p for trend SMI (p for trend 0.14). Revascularization increased in all subgroups (p for trend SMI. In-hospital mortality decreased in non-SMI (p for trend = 0.004) but not in SMI (p for trend 0.10). After adjustment, patients with SMI were less likely to undergo revascularization (odds ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.61, p SMI was not associated with increased in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 0.97, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.01, p = 0.16). In conclusion, in contrast to the overall population, the incidence of STEMI is not decreasing in patients with SMI. Despite changes in the care of STEMI, patients with SMI remain less likely to receive revascularization therapies.

  7. Predicting Post-Treatment-Initiation Alcohol Use among Patients with Severe Mental Illness and Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradizza, Clara M.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Vincent, Paula C.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Connors, Gerard J.; Mercer, Nicole D.

    2009-01-01

    Few investigators studying alcohol abuse among individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) have examined predictors of posttreatment alcohol outcomes. In the present study, a multivariate approach based on a theoretical model was used to study the relationship between psychosocial factors and post-treatment-initiation alcohol use. Predictors of…

  8. The prevalence of full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder among people with severe mental illness in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelkopf, Marc; Roe, David; Werbeloff, Nomi; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Mueser, Kim T; Caspi, Asaf; Weiser, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Research has shown higher rates of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among persons with severe mental illness (SMI). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of traumatic events and full and partial PTSD among people with SMI and their associations with trauma-related cognitions and depressive symptoms. A total of 122 persons with SMI were assessed for trauma exposure and PTSD. A subsample of 40 participants, 20 with PTSD and 20 without PTSD, were randomly selected, and their posttraumatic cognitions and depressive symptoms were assessed. The prevalence of traumatic events was 90%, and 19% met full diagnostic criteria for PTSD, and 20% had partial PTSD. The people with PTSD had more depressive symptoms and negative cognitions. PTSD in SMI is highly prevalent and underdiagnosed.

  9. Violence and mental illness: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Heather

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the relationship of mental illness and violence by asking three questions: Are the mentally ill violent? Are the mentally ill at increased risk of violence? Are the public at risk? Mental disorders are neither necessary nor sufficient causes of violence. Major determinants of violence continue to be socio-demographic and economic factors. Substance abuse is a major determinant of violence and this is true whether it occurs in the context of a concurrent ...

  10. The high prevalence of poor physical health and unhealthy lifestyle behaviours in individuals with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David; Happell, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Recent mental health care policy has addressed the need for health care professionals to consider the physical health of consumers. Mental health nurses are particularly well-placed for this role. To provide mental health nurses with practical information, this narrative review summarises evidence from recent research on the physical health of individuals with Serious Mental Illness (SMI). In those with SMI, the international prevalence of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, symptoms of cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease all exceed that of the general population by at least two times, and HIV prevalence may be increased by as much as eight times. This increased prevalence of chronic disease may be largely responsible for an increased risk of death of up to five times, resulting in as much as 30 years of potential life lost. Of particular concern, the recent evidence suggests that for physical health and increased mortality, the gap between individuals with SMI and the general population is worsening. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours undoubtedly play a role in the development of poor physical health and chronic disease, and the present review indicates that low physical activity, poor diet, smoking, alcohol and substance abuse, and risky sexual behaviour are common in individuals with SMI. This narrative review demonstrates that the prevalence of poor physical health and health behaviours in people with SMI far exceed that observed in the general population, and reinforces the urgent need for mental health nurses to address physical health concerns in patients.

  11. Prevalence and characteristics of intimate partner violence against women with severe mental illness: a prevalence study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Cases, Juan; Polo Usaola, Cristina; González Aguado, Francisco; López Gironés, Marisa; Rullas Trincado, Margarita; Fernández Liria, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the prevalence and characteristics of intimate partner violence (IPV) towards women with a severe mental illness (SMI). The sample consisted of 142 adult women with SMI treated in public mental health services in three districts of Madrid (Spain). The prevalence of IPV in the 12 months preceding the interview was 30.3% and over the lifespan was 79.6%. 32.7% of women victims of violence do not qualify themselves as battered women. 48.5% of battered women do not talk about their abusive situation with anyone or come to any resource or service. Women victims of abuse have low social support. Women who have suffered physical abuse in childhood are at 2.22 times higher risk of being victims of IPV in the past year. Mental health professionals identified 50% of recent abuse cases. This research highlights the extent of IPV experienced by women with SMI.

  12. Media and mental illness: relevance to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhy, S K; Khatana, S; Sarkar, S

    2014-01-01

    Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored.

  13. Long-term mortality of persons with severe mental illness and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribe, A R; Laursen, T M; Sandbaek, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) have excess mortality, which may partly be explained by their high prevalence of diabetes. METHOD: We compared the overall and cause-specific mortality in persons with SMI and diabetes with that of the general Danish population between 1997...... and 2009 by linking data from Danish national registries. RESULTS: The cohort counted 4 734 703 persons, and during follow-up 651 080 persons died of whom 1083 persons had SMI and diabetes. Compared with the background population, the overall mortality rate ratios (MRRs) for persons with SMI and diabetes...... were 4.14 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.81-4.51] for men and 3.13 (95% CI 2.88-3.40) for women. The cause-specific MRRs for persons with SMI and diabetes were lowest for malignant neoplasms (women: MRR = 1.98, 95% CI 1.64-2.39; men: MRR = 2.08, 95% CI 1.69-2.56) and highest for unnatural causes...

  14. Mediators of the Association between Parental Severe Mental Illness and Offspring Neurodevelopmental Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Brittany M.; Rickert, Martin E.; Class, Quetzal A.; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Parental severe mental illness (SMI) is associated with an increased risk of offspring Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). We conducted a study to examine the extent to which risk of preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and small for gestational age (SGA) mediated this association. Methods We obtained data on offspring born 1992-2001 in Sweden (n = 870,017) through the linkage of multiple population-based registers. We used logistic and Cox regression to assess the associations between parental SMI, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and offspring ASD and ADHD, as well as tested whether adverse pregnancy outcomes served as mediators. Results After controlling for measured covariates, maternal and paternal SMI were associated with an increased risk for PTB, LBW, and SGA, as well as for offspring ASD and ADHD. These pregnancy outcomes were also associated with an increased risk of ASD and ADHD. We found that pregnancy outcomes did not mediate the association between parental SMI and offspring ASD and ADHD, as there was no substantial change in magnitude of the risk estimates after controlling for pregnancy outcomes. Conclusions Parental SMI and adverse pregnancy outcomes appear to be independent risk factors for offspring ASD and ADHD. PMID:25037304

  15. Barriers to involvement in physical activities of persons with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Ron; Shalev, Anat

    2016-03-01

    Participating in physical activities could be essential for reducing the multiple risk factors for health problems that persons with severe mental illness (SMI) may suffer. However, people with SMI are significantly less active than the general population. To develop knowledge about factors related to the perceived barriers hindering this population's participation in physical activities and the benefits this participation would have, a study was conducted in Israel with 86 people with mental illness living in community mental health facilities prior to their participation in a health promotion program. A mixed method was implemented and included: a scale designed to measure participants' perceptions of the barriers to and benefits of involvement in physical activities; instruments focusing on bio-psycho-social factors that may affect the level of barriers experienced; and personal interviews. The findings revealed high ranking for accessibility barriers hindering the participation in physical activities. Bio-psycho-social factors stemming from the participants' mental health, such as level of depression, were correlated with higher ranking of accessibility barriers. Bio-psycho-social factors reflecting positive mental health and health, such as positive appraisal of body weight, were correlated with lower ranking of accessibility barriers. Other barriers may include organizational and broader systemic barriers in the mental health facilities where the participants reside. These findings illuminate the need to consider the unique challenges that persons with mental illness may face in any attempt to advance their involvement in physical activity.

  16. Next steps for meeting the needs of people with severe mental illness in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, C

    2017-08-01

    The explicit inclusion of mental health within the Sustainable Development Goals is a welcome development, borne out of powerful advocacy using public health, economic and human rights arguments. As funding comes on line for scale-up of evidence-based mental health care by task-sharing with primary care, it is time to take stock about care for people affected by severe mental illness (SMI). The existing evidence base for task shared care for SMI provides an imperative to get started, but is skewed towards relatively more affluent and urban populations in middle-income countries where specialist mental health professionals provide most of the care. Randomised, controlled trials and rigorous implementation research on task shared service models are underway which will go some way to improving understanding of the quality, safety, effectiveness and acceptability of more widely generalisable care for people with SMI. A sub-group of people with SMI have more complex and long-term needs for care, with a high risk of homelessness, imprisonment and human rights violations as family and social supports become overwhelmed. Case studies from non-governmental organisations provide examples of holistic approaches to rehabilitation, recovery and empowerment of people with SMI, but rigorous comparative studies are needed to identify the most efficient, effective and scalable approaches to care. Health system constraints are emerging as the over-riding barriers to successful task-sharing, highlighting a need to develop and evaluate chronic care models for people with SMI that succeed in reducing premature mortality, improving wellbeing and achieving better social outcomes. Addressing these evidence gaps is essential if task-sharing mental health care is going to deliver on its promise of promoting recovery for the full range of people affected by SMI.

  17. Emotional Intelligence and resilience in mental health professionals caring for patients with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Pardeller, Silvia; Kemmler, Georg; Hofer, Alex

    2016-09-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) and resilience may be considered as prerequisites for mental health professionals caring for patients with serious mental illness (SMI), since they are often exposed to severe emotional stress during daily work. Accordingly, this cross-sectional study assessed both EI and resilience and their interrelationship in 61 individuals belonging to an assertive outreach team for patients suffering from SMI compared 61 control subjects without healthcare-related working conditions. EI was assessed by means of the German version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso-Emotional-Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), resilience was assessed using the German version of the Resilience Scale. Both groups showed an average level of EI in all categories of the MSCEIT and indicated high levels of resilience. They did not differ significantly from each other, neither in terms of EI nor resilience. Correlation analysis revealed a positive association between EI and resilience, albeit small in magnitude. Our results suggest that mental health professionals are not more resilient and therefore not more 'protected' from stressors than the general population. Though this finding warrants cautious interpretation, the positive correlation between EI and resilience suggests that EI may be a potential target for education and training in order to strengthen resilience even in healthy individuals and vice versa.

  18. Motivation for physical activity and exercise in severe mental illness: A systematic review of cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farholm, Anders; Sørensen, Marit

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) are less physically active than the general population. One important barrier contributing to this inactivity is lack of motivation. The aim of this paper is to systematically review all cross-sectional literature on motivation for physical activity among people with SMI and to use the results as basis for guidance on how mental health nurses can facilitate motivation for physical activity. Systematic searches of seven databases were conducted from database inception to February 2015. Studies were eligible if they included participants with SMI and reported data on motivation for physical activity. In total, 21 articles were included and over half them were published in 2011 or later. The present results indicate preliminary evidence of how the motivational processes do not differ between individuals with SMI and the general population, and that they are independent of diagnosis, medication, age, gender, and body mass index. Results from the current systematic review can give some tentative guidance on how to facilitate motivation for physical activity within mental health-care. However, there is still a great need for developing and examining practical strategies that can enhance adoption and adherence of physical activity among people with SMI. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  19. The Fight against Stigma toward Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Cam

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In many health conditions, stigma is receiving increasing attention. Public stigmatization toward mental illness can affect particularly the patients and family memberships to help seeking behavior and treatment. These stigmatized persons in the society are deprived of rights and benefits. In this paper, reasons and consequences of stigma associated with mental illness are reviewed and combat against mental illnesses originated stigma are discussed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(1.000: 71-78

  20. Internalized stigma of mental illness and depressive and psychotic symptoms in homeless veterans over 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jennifer E; Hayward, H'Sien; Bassett, Elena D; Hoff, Rani

    2016-06-30

    We investigated the relationship between internalized stigma of mental illness at baseline and depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, controlling for baseline symptoms. Data on homeless veterans with severe mental illness (SMI) were provided by the Northeast Program Evaluation Center (NEPEC) Special Needs-Chronic Mental Illness (SN-CMI) study (Kasprow and Rosenheck, 2008). The study used the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale to measure internalized stigma at baseline and the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) to measure depressive and psychotic symptoms at baseline and 3 and 6 month follow-ups. Higher levels of internalized stigma were associated with greater levels of depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, even controlling for symptoms at baseline. Alienation and Discrimination Experience were the subscales most strongly associated with symptoms. Exploratory analyses of individual items yielded further insight into characteristics of potentially successful interventions that could be studied. Overall, our findings show that homeless veterans with SMI experiencing higher levels of internalized stigma are likely to experience more depression and psychosis over time. This quasi-experimental study replicates and extends findings of other studies and has implications for future controlled research into the potential long-term effects of anti-stigma interventions on mental health recovery. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Attitudes of psychiatry residents toward mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Attitudes of lay people and physicians towards mentally ill patients are frequently highly biased. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in attitudes of psychiatry and internal medicine residents toward mental illness and to establish the relationship between their attitudes and their personal characteristics. Material and methods. The sample consisted of 45 psychiatry and 36 internal medicine residents. The attitudes toward mental illness were assessed using Opinions about Mental Illness Questionnaire (OMI and personality traits were examined using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ. Results. Our findings showed that in regard to internal medicine residents, psychiatry residents do not consider mentally ill patients to be inferior and dangerous. Psychiatry residents have a benevolent attitude toward the mentally ill. Personality traits of psychiatry residents were not related to their opinions about mental illness. Discussion. The results suggest that there is a need to develop strategies that would bring about changes in the curriculum of training programs for medical residents, including proper training in mental health issues. Such strategies should help in destigmatization of persons with mental disorders and increase the competence of physicians to deal with mentally ill. .

  2. Social Work Faculty and Mental Illness Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amy C.; Fulambarker, Anjali; Kondrat, David C.; Holley, Lynn C.; Kranke, Derrick; Wilkins, Brittany T.; Stromwall, Layne K.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2017-01-01

    Stigma is a significant barrier to recovery and full community inclusion for people with mental illnesses. Social work educators can play critical roles in addressing this stigma, yet little is known about their attitudes. Social work educators were surveyed about their general attitudes about people with mental illnesses, attitudes about practice…

  3. Geographic access to and availability of community resources for persons diagnosed with severe mental illness in Philadelphia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metraux, Stephen; Brusilovskiy, Eugene; Prvu-Bettger, Janet A; Irene Wong, Yin-Ling; Salzer, Mark S

    2012-05-01

    This study assesses whether there are differences in geographic access to and availability of a range of different amenities for a large group of persons diagnosed with severe mental illness (SMI) in Philadelphia (USA) when compared to a more general set of residential addresses. The 15,246 persons who comprised the study group had better outcomes than an equal number of geographical points representative of the general Philadelphia population on measures of geographic proximity and availability for resources considered important by people diagnosed with SMI. These findings provide support for the presence of geographic prerequisites for attaining meaningful levels of community integration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Recovery and creative practices in people with severe mental illness: evaluating well-being and social inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Javier; Pérez, Elvira; Crawford, Paul; Arias, Samuel

    2017-02-06

    This mixed (quantitative-qualitative) study evaluates the impact of an artistic workshop on a group of people with severe mental illness (SMI). This study focuses on the impact of creative practices on well-being and social inclusion outcomes. After participating in a creative workshop, 31 people diagnosed with a SMI completed pre/post-intervention measures, namely, the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale and the Social Inclusion questionnaire. It was applied in two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. The statistic Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis were applied for non-parametric data to measure pre/post-test effects and workshop experience effects, respectively. In addition to quantitative measures, one observer participated in each workshop that ran in parallel in order to deepen and triangulate quantitative outcomes. The qualitative and quantitative results show that social inclusion improved in a significant way with an important size effect. Psychological wellbeing increased significantly with a low size effect. In accordance with these results, creative practices with people diagnosed with SMI are recommended. In order to increase the impact of these interventions, it is recommended to utilize public space away from clinical environments and to include people without SMI in creative activities together with SMI patients. Implications for Rehabilitation: Creative practices can significantly improve social inclusions and well-being in people with severe mental illness. Participating in creative workshops helps to elaborate personal meanings and promote recovery. Creative practices in mental health services can challenge professional roles and institutional practices. Participation of people with and without severe mental illness engaged together in artistic activities can decrease public stigma.

  5. Natural language processing to extract symptoms of severe mental illness from clinical text: the Clinical Record Interactive Search Comprehensive Data Extraction (CRIS-CODE) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilleke, Nishamali; Kolliakou, Anna; Ball, Michael; Gorrell, Genevieve; Roberts, Angus; Stewart, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We sought to use natural language processing to develop a suite of language models to capture key symptoms of severe mental illness (SMI) from clinical text, to facilitate the secondary use of mental healthcare data in research. Design Development and validation of information extraction applications for ascertaining symptoms of SMI in routine mental health records using the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) data resource; description of their distribution in a corpus of discharge summaries. Setting Electronic records from a large mental healthcare provider serving a geographic catchment of 1.2 million residents in four boroughs of south London, UK. Participants The distribution of derived symptoms was described in 23 128 discharge summaries from 7962 patients who had received an SMI diagnosis, and 13 496 discharge summaries from 7575 patients who had received a non-SMI diagnosis. Outcome measures Fifty SMI symptoms were identified by a team of psychiatrists for extraction based on salience and linguistic consistency in records, broadly categorised under positive, negative, disorganisation, manic and catatonic subgroups. Text models for each symptom were generated using the TextHunter tool and the CRIS database. Results We extracted data for 46 symptoms with a median F1 score of 0.88. Four symptom models performed poorly and were excluded. From the corpus of discharge summaries, it was possible to extract symptomatology in 87% of patients with SMI and 60% of patients with non-SMI diagnosis. Conclusions This work demonstrates the possibility of automatically extracting a broad range of SMI symptoms from English text discharge summaries for patients with an SMI diagnosis. Descriptive data also indicated that most symptoms cut across diagnoses, rather than being restricted to particular groups. PMID:28096249

  6. Negotiating Risk: Knowledge and Use of HIV Prevention by Persons With Serious Mental Illness Living in Supportive Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, Bret; Gross, Steven M.; Meese, Katharine J.; Meade, Christina S.; Doughty, Jhan D.; Hawkins, Dietra D.; Zimmerman, Susan O.; Snow, David L.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2008-01-01

    As a population, persons with serious mental illness (SMI) have an elevated risk for HIV infection. However, relatively little is known about how the risk of HIV has affected their lives, how persons with SMI evaluate their HIV risk, and what preventive measures they undertake. Furthermore, relatively little is known about community-based HIV prevention for persons with SMI as most interventions have been restricted to clinical settings. This report presents findings on the HIV-related experiences of persons with SMI living in supportive housing programs, one possible setting for implementing community-based HIV prevention with this population. The qualitative investigation interviewed 41 men and women living in five supportive housing programs. In-depth, qualitative interviews elicited discussion of research participants’ (a) experiences with HIV, (b) knowledge about HIV and HIV prevention, (c) assessments of their own risk, (d) descriptions of how they apply their prevention knowledge, and (e) reports of barriers for HIV prevention. Research participants describe social networks that have substantial contact with persons affected by HIV. However, contrary to some expectations of persons with SMI, research participants report using HIV prevention knowledge in negotiating their risk of contracting HIV. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for implementing community-based HIV prevention for persons with SMI. PMID:16389505

  7. Self-reported comfort treating severe mental illnesses among pre-doctoral graduate students in clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Benjamin; Romeo, Katy Harper; Olbert, Charles M; Penn, David L

    2014-12-01

    One possible explanation for the dearth of psychologists working in severe mental illness (SMI) areas is a lack of training opportunities. Recent studies have shown that while training opportunities have increased, there remain fewer resources available for SMI training compared to other disorders. Examines whether students express discomfort working with this population and whether they are satisfied with their level of training in SMI. One-hundred sixty-nine students currently enrolled in doctoral programs in clinical psychology in the United States and Canada were surveyed for their comfort treating and satisfaction with training related to a number of disorders. RESULTS indicate that students are significantly less comfortable treating and finding a referral for a patient with schizophrenia as well as dissatisfied with their current training in SMI and desirous of more training. Regression analyses showed that dissatisfaction with training predicted a desire for more training; however, discomfort in treating people with SMI did not predict a desire for more training in this sample. This pattern generally held across disorders. Our results suggest general discomfort among students surveyed in treating SMI compared to other disorders.

  8. Recruitment and Enrollment of African Americans and Caucasians in a Health Promotion Trial for Persons with Serious Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mona; Cooper, Lisa A.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Yu, Airong; Charleston, Jeanne; Gennusa, Joseph; Dickerson, Faith; Daumit, Gail L.

    2015-01-01

    African Americans with serious mental illness (SMI) continue to experience inadequate representation in clinical trials. Persons with SMI, regardless of race, have an increased burden of all cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, the metabolic syndrome and tobacco smoking. Having SMI and being African American, however, is each associated with an increased risk of CVD mortality compared to the general population. There is a critical need, therefore, to adapt health promotion interventions for African Americans with SMI. We sought to examine overall recruitment into a randomized clinical trial of CVD prevention among persons with SMI, and to examine racial differences in interest, enrollment, and potential barriers to participation. Although similar levels of interest in participation were seen between African Americans and Caucasians in signing screening consent, 9.6% fewer African Americans enrolled due to inability to complete initial data collection. Further work is needed to more fully understand the nature of the barriers encountered by African Americans with SMI who otherwise may be interested in participating within clinical trials. PMID:25812255

  9. What Patients With Severe Mental Illness Transitioning From Hospital to Community Have to Say About Care and Shared Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velligan, Dawn I; Roberts, David L; Sierra, Cynthia; Fredrick, Megan M; Roach, Mary Jo

    2016-06-01

    Shared decision-making (SDM) has been slow to disseminate in mental health. We conducted focus groups with ten individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) treated in a 90 day, outpatient transitional care clinic. Parallel groups were held with family caregivers (n = 8). Individuals with SMI wanted longer visits, to have their stories heard, more information about options presented simply, to hear from peers about similar experiences, and a bigger say in treatment choices. Caregivers wanted to be invited to participate to a larger extent.  Results suggest that after a decade, SDM may not have the expected penetration in community mental health.

  10. World survey of mental illness stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Neil; Tang, Sabrina; Brown, Adalsteinn D; Ing, Alton

    2016-01-15

    To obtain rapid and reproducible opinions that address mental illness stigma around the world. Random global Web users were exposed to brief questions, asking whether they interacted daily with someone with mental illness, whether they believed that mental illness was associated with violence, whether it was similar to physical illness, and whether it could be overcome. Over a period of 1.7 years, 596,712 respondents from 229 countries completed the online survey. The response rate was 54.3%. China had the highest proportion of respondents in daily contact with a person with mental illness. In developed countries, 7% to 8% of respondents endorsed the statement that individuals with mental illness were more violent than others, in contrast to 15% or 16% in developing countries. While 45% to 51% of respondents from developed countries believed that mental illness was similar to physical illness, only 7% believed that mental illness could be overcome. To test for reproducibility, 21 repeats of the same questions were asked monthly in India for 21 months. Each time, 10.1 ± 0.11% s.e., of respondents endorsed the statement that persons who suffer from mental illness are more violent than others, indicating strong reproducibility of response. This study shows that surveys of constructs such as stigma towards mental illness can be carried out rapidly and repeatedly across the globe, so that the impact of policy interventions can be readily measured. The method engages English speakers only, mainly young, educated males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evolving Definitions of Mental Illness and Wellness

    OpenAIRE

    Tara W. Strine, MPH; Satvinder Dhingra, MPH; Lela R. McKnight-Eily, PhD; Carol D. Ryff, PhD; Elsie J. Freeman, MD, MPH; Ronald W. Manderscheid, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the definitions of wellness and illness has changed from the mid-20th century to modern times, moving from a diagnosis-focused to a person-focused definition of mental illnesses, and from an "absence of disease" model to one that stresses positive psychological function for mental health. Currently, wellness refers to the degree to which one feels positive and enthusiastic about oneself and life, whereas illness refers to the presence of disease. These definitions apply to ph...

  12. Psychosocial Approaches for Sexual Health and Intimate Relationships Among Patients With Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helu-Brown, Paula; Aranda, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The sexual health and behavior and the intimate relationships of patients diagnosed with a serious mental illness (SMI) have been described as ongoing and often ignored concerns in mental health treatment. Evidence-based psychosocial interventions have emerged as effective complimentary approaches to address symptoms of SMI in conjunction with psychopharmacology, yet rarely do they address sexual concerns in a targeted manner. This systematic review explores the scope and efficacy of psychosocial interventions designed to address sexual health and behavior and intimate relationship concerns in patients with SMI. The search was conducted in four targeted databases and identified 967 articles with four of those meeting inclusion criteria for this review. The data extracted included setting, study sample, study design, outcome measures, data analysis, and results. The measures utilized in the studies assess mental and sexual health-related outcomes. All four studies reported an improvement in sexual and mental health outcomes. Given the lack of psychosocial approaches and culturally sensitive adaptations, this review highlights a gap in literature that should be addressed, particularly emphasizing their combined treatment with psychotropic medication and efficacy testing with diverse populations. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Social support and functional outcome in severe mental illness: the mediating role of proactive coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lisa; Brekke, John

    2014-01-30

    Individuals with Severe Mental Illness (SMI) are faced with wide-spread social and occupational impairment, yet some are able to achieve a meaningful degree of functional improvement. A structural model based on Proactive Coping Theory was developed and tested in a longitudinal context to better understand: (1) the impact of proactive processes on functioning for people with SMI, and (2) the stability of the theoretical framework over time for this population. A latent path analysis examining social support, positive reappraisal, intrinsic motivation, and role functioning was tested with 148 severely mentally ill individuals receiving psychosocial rehabilitation treatment at baseline. An observed path analysis of the model was examined at six months post-baseline with 102 people. The baseline model displayed an excellent fit to the data and accounted for 54% of the variance in role functioning. Results at time 2 also suggest the empirical promise and potential longitudinal viability of the model. In line with Proactive Coping Theory and a social resources model of coping, social support may facilitate proactive coping processes to enhance role functioning, and these processes may be stable over time for people with SMI.

  14. Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adults with Severe Mental Illness: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Paul, Lisa; Egede, Leonard E.; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    There is a great deal of research on the prevalence, correlates, and treatment of PTSD in the general population. However, we know very little about the manifestation and consequences of PTSD in more complicated patient populations. The purpose of the current paper is to provide a comprehensive review of PTSD within the context of severe mental illness (SMI; i.e., schizophrenia spectrum disorders, mood disorders). Extant data suggest that trauma and PTSD are highly prevalent among individuals with SMI relative to the general population, and both are associated with adverse clinical functioning and increased healthcare burden. However, trauma and PTSD remain overlooked in this population, with low recognition rates in public-sector settings. Additionally, there are few data on the clinical course and treatment of PTSD among individuals with SMI. Particularly lacking are longitudinal studies, randomized controlled treatment trials, and studies using ethno-racially diverse samples. Furthermore, there is a need to better understand the interplay between trauma, PTSD, and severe forms of mental illness and to further develop and disseminate evidence-based PTSD treatments in this population. The current state of the literature and future directions for practice are discussed. PMID:21596012

  15. Evolving definitions of mental illness and wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manderscheid, Ronald W; Ryff, Carol D; Freeman, Elsie J; McKnight-Eily, Lela R; Dhingra, Satvinder; Strine, Tara W

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the definitions of wellness and illness has changed from the mid-20th century to modern times, moving from a diagnosis-focused to a person-focused definition of mental illnesses, and from an "absence of disease" model to one that stresses positive psychological function for mental health. Currently, wellness refers to the degree to which one feels positive and enthusiastic about oneself and life, whereas illness refers to the presence of disease. These definitions apply to physical as well as mental illness and wellness. In this article, we build on the essential concepts of wellness and illness, discuss how these definitions have changed over time, and discuss their importance in the context of health reform and health care reform. Health reform refers to efforts focused on health, such as health promotion and the development of positive well-being. Health care reform refers to efforts focused on illness, such as treatment of disease and related rehabilitation efforts.

  16. Visit Patterns for Severe Mental Illness with Implementation of Integrated Care: A Pilot Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Fondow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in models that integrate behavioral health services into primary care. For patients with severe mental illness (SMI, a population with disproportionate morbidity and mortality, little is known about the impact of such models on primary care clinic utilization, and provider panels. We performed a retrospective cohort pilot study examining visit patterns for 1,105 patients with SMI overall, by provider, before, and after the implementation of a primary care behavioral health model which had a ramp up period from May 2006-August 2007. We used 2003-2012 electronic health record data from two clinics of a Federally Qualified Health Center and conducted interrupted time series and chi-square analyses. During the intervention period there was a significant increase in the proportion of visits per month to the clinic for patient with SMI relative to overall visits (0.27; 95% CI 0.22-0.32. After the intervention period, this rate declined (-0.23; -0.19-0.28 but remained above the pre-intervention period. After integration of behavioral health into our primary care clinics, there was a sharp increase in the number of patients with SMI, suggesting patient willingness to explore receiving care under this model. Clinics looking to adopt the model should be mindful of potential changes in patient subpopulations and proactively manage this transition.

  17. Enhancing Work-Focused Supports for People with Severe Mental Illnesses in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Contreras

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Persons with severe mental illness (SMI have reduced workforce participation, which leads to significant economic and social disadvantage. This theoretical review introduces the strategies that have been implemented to address this issue. These include Individual Placement and Support (IPS services, the most widely researched form of supported employment, to which cognitive remediation has more recently been recognised in the USA, as an intervention to improve employment outcomes by addressing the cognitive impairments often experienced by people with SMI. The authors review the international literature and discuss specifically the Australian context. They suggest that Australia is in a prime position to engage clients in such a dual intervention, having had recent success with increasing access to supported employment programs and workforce reentry, through implementation of the Health Optimisation Program for Employment (HOPE. Such programs assist with gaining and maintaining employment. However, they do not address the cognitive issues that often prevent persons with SMI from effectively participating in work. Thus, optimising current interventions, with work-focused cognitive skills development is critical to enhancing employment rates that remain low for persons with SMI.

  18. Diet and exercise effects on aerobic fitness and body composition in seriously mentally ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Botonis, Petros; Kostara, Christina; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Low exercise capacity and high obesity levels are the main characteristics of people with serious mental illness (SMI). We conducted a pilot study on the effects of a 3-month exercise and dietary intervention on the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI taking Olanzapine, a second generation antipsychotic medication known to induce weight increments. Fifty adults with SMI (15 males and 35 females) followed a 3-month weight loss intervention programme based on exercise and diet. Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. All participants were obese (body mass index (BMI): 33.61 ± 0.91 kg/m(2)). Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test on the treadmill was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. Significant reductions in body weight, BMI, body fat and waist circumference were found from pre to post (p diet improves the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI, despite the use of Olanzapine.

  19. Sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder in adult women with severe mental illness: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonugli, Rebecca; H Brackley, Margaret; Williams, Gail B; Lesser, Janna

    2010-07-01

    Research indicates that women with serious mental illness (SMI) are vulnerable to sexual abuse, resulting in adverse health outcomes such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the prevalence of undiagnosed PTSD among a cohort of 20 women with SMI and reporting past sexual abuse. Furthermore, the researcher sought to identify specific symptom manifestations of PTSD among women with SMI and sexual abuse histories. Finally, the feasibility of using specific data collection tools was examined. Results indicated that PTSD was not previously diagnosed or recognized in the study sample, in spite of the presence of a sexual trauma history. The screening tools were effective in identifying depression, guilt, emotional withdrawal, blunted affect, decreased psychomotor activity, suicidal ideations, sexual dysfunction, and substance abuse. Additionally, the data collection tools provided a framework for discussing sensitive issues related to sexual abuse. Implications of this pilot study suggest the need to evaluate all women with SMI and history of sexual abuse for PTSD.

  20. Targeted ethnography as a critical step to inform cultural adaptations of HIV prevention interventions for adults with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainberg, Milton L; Alfredo González, M; McKinnon, Karen; Elkington, Katherine S; Pinto, Diana; Gruber Mann, Claudio; Mattos, Paulo E

    2007-07-01

    As in other countries worldwide, adults with severe mental illness (SMI) in Brazil are disproportionately infected with HIV relative to the general population. Brazilian psychiatric facilities lack tested HIV prevention interventions. To adapt existing interventions, developed only in the US, we conducted targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and staff from two psychiatric institutions in Brazil. We sought to characterize individual, institutional, and interpersonal factors that may affect HIV risk behavior in this population. We conducted 350 hours of ethnographic field observations in two mental health service settings in Rio de Janeiro, and 9 focus groups (n=72) and 16 key-informant interviews with patients and staff in these settings. Data comprised field notes and audiotapes of all exchanges, which were transcribed, coded, and systematically analyzed. The ethnography identified and/or characterized the institutional culture: (1) patients' risk behaviors; (2) the institutional setting; (3) intervention content; and (4) intervention format and delivery strategies. Targeted ethnography also illuminated broader contextual issues for development and implementation of HIV prevention interventions for adults with SMI in Brazil, including an institutional culture that did not systematically address patients' sexual behavior, sexual health, or HIV sexual risk, yet strongly impacted the structure of patients' sexual networks. Further, ethnography identified the Brazilian concept of "social responsibility" as important to prevention work with psychiatric patients. Targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and institutional staff provided information critical to the adaptation of tested US HIV prevention interventions for Brazilians with SMI.

  1. Electrotherapy and mental illness: then and now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Sander L

    2008-09-01

    Today electrotherapy has reappeared as a therapy of choice for the treatment of depression and other forms of mental illness. It had de facto vanished from allopathic medicine from the 1920s to the end of the century. The debates about electrotherapy mirror the question of whether mental illness was somatic and to be treated by somatic means or psychological to be treated with psychotherapy. Sigmund Freud's move from an advocate to an opponent of electrotherapy is exemplary for a shift in attitude and the decline of electrotherapy. With the re-somaticization of mental illness over the past decades has come the reappearance of somatic therapies such as electrotherapy.

  2. Beyond shared decision-making: Collaboration in the age of recovery from serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treichler, Emily B H; Spaulding, William D

    2017-01-01

    The role that people with serious mental illness (SMI) play in making decisions about their own treatment and rehabilitation is attracting increasing attention and scrutiny. This attention is embedded in a broader social/consumer movement, the recovery movement, whose agenda includes extensive reform of the mental health system and advancing respect for the dignity and autonomy of people with SMI. Shared decision-making (SDM) is an approach for enhancing consumer participation in health-care decision-making. SDM translates straightforwardly to specific clinical procedures that systematically identify domains of decision-making and guide the practitioner and consumer through making the decisions. In addition, Collaborative decision-making (CDM) is a set of guiding principles that avoids the connotations and limitations of SDM. CDM looks broadly at the range of decisions to be made in mental health care, and assigns consumers and providers equal responsibility and power in the decision-making process. It recognizes the diverse history, knowledge base, and values of each consumer by assuming patients can lead and contribute to decision-making, contributing both value-based information and technical information. This article further discusses the importance of CDM for people with SMI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Media and mental illness: Relevance to India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Padhy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored.

  4. A social ecological approach to investigating relationships between housing and adaptive functioning for persons with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, Bret; Shah, Seema

    2009-12-01

    This paper seeks to advance mental health-housing research regarding which factors of housing and neighborhood environments are critical for adaptive functioning, health, and recovery for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). Housing and neighborhood environments are particularly important for persons with SMI because of the prevalence of poor housing conditions among this population. Most mental health-housing research has been limited by a focus on problems in environments and functioning. The paper seeks to expand the mental health-housing research agenda to consider protective factors that promote community integration and adaptive functioning. We provide an account of how social ecology theory transformed a research program, from examining individual risk factors to investigating the functioning of persons in the contexts of their housing and neighborhood experiences. The resulting housing environment framework-physical aspects of housing and neighborhoods, social environment of neighborhoods, and interpersonal relationships tied to housing-allows for identification of opportunities for health promotion and facilitation of participation in community-based settings. This program of research draws upon several methods to understand the social experience of persons with SMI living in community settings-survey research, qualitative interviews, Geographic Information Systems, participatory research, and visual ethnography. In this paper, we present how social ecology theory was instrumental in the development of new housing environment measures, the selection of appropriate research methods, and framing research questions that are building a new empirical base of knowledge about promoting adaptive functioning, health, and recovery for persons with SMI living in community settings.

  5. A familial risk enriched cohort as a platform for testing early interventions to prevent severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Rudolf; Cumby, Jill; MacKenzie, Lynn E; Morash-Conway, Jessica; Glover, Jacqueline M; Aylott, Alice; Propper, Lukas; Abidi, Sabina; Bagnell, Alexa; Pavlova, Barbara; Hajek, Tomas; Lovas, David; Pajer, Kathleen; Gardner, William; Levy, Adrian; Alda, Martin

    2014-12-02

    Severe mental illness (SMI), including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and severe depression, is responsible for a substantial proportion of disability in the population. This article describes the aims and design of a research study that takes a novel approach to targeted prevention of SMI. It is based on the rationale that early developmental antecedents to SMI are likely to be more malleable than fully developed mood or psychotic disorders and that low-risk interventions targeting antecedents may reduce the risk of SMI. Families Overcoming Risks and Building Opportunities for Well-being (FORBOW) is an accelerated cohort study that includes a large proportion of offspring of parents with SMI and embeds intervention trials in a cohort multiple randomized controlled trial (cmRCT) design. Antecedents are conditions of the individual that are distressing but not severely impairing, predict SMI with moderate-to-large effect sizes and precede the onset of SMI by at least several years. FORBOW focuses on the following antecedents: affective lability, anxiety, psychotic-like experiences, basic symptoms, sleep problems, somatic symptoms, cannabis use and cognitive delay. Enrolment of offspring over a broad age range (0 to 21 years) will allow researchers to draw conclusions on a longer developmental period from a study of shorter duration. Annual assessments cover a full range of psychopathology, cognitive abilities, eligibility criteria for interventions and outcomes. Pre-emptive early interventions (PEI) will include skill training for parents of younger children and courses in emotional well-being skills based on cognitive behavioural therapy for older children and youth. A sample enriched for familial risk of SMI will enhance statistical power for testing the efficacy of PEI. FORBOW offers a platform for efficient and unbiased testing of interventions selected according to best available evidence. Since few differences exist between familial and 'sporadic' SMI, the

  6. The experience of Greek-Cypriot individuals living with mental illness: preliminary results of a phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charis P. Kaite

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research evidence shows that healthcare professionals do not fully comprehend the difficulty involved in problems faced by people living with severe mental illness (SMI. As a result, mental health service consumers do not show confidence in the healthcare system and healthcare professionals, a problem related to the phenomenon of adherence to therapy. Moreover, the issue of unmet needs in treating individuals living with SMI is relared to their quality of life in a negative way. Methods A qualitative methodological approach based on the methodology of van Manen phenomenology was employed through a purposive sampling of ten people living with SMI. The aim was to explore their perceptions and interpretations regarding: a their illness, b their self-image throughout the illness, c the social implications following their illness, and d the quality of the therapeutic relationship with mental health nurses. Participants were recruited from a community mental health service in a Greek-Cypriot urban city. Data were collected through personal, semi-structured interviews. Results Several main themes were identified through the narratives of all ten participants. Main themes included: a The meaning of mental illness, b The different phases of the illness in time, c The perception of the self during the illness, d Perceptions about the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy, e Social and personal consequences for participants following the diagnosis of mental illness, f Participants’ perceptions regarding mental health professionals and services and g The therapeutic effect of the research interview on the participants. Conclusions The present study provides data for the enhancement of the empathic understanding of healthcare professionals regarding the concerns and particular needs of individuals living with SMI, as well as the formation of targeted psychosocial interventions based on these needs. Overall, the present data illuminate the

  7. Relationships between World Health Organization "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health" Constructs and Participation in Adults with Severe Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jennifer; Rosenthal, David A.; Chan, Fong; Brooks, Jessica; Bezyak, Jill L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the World Health Organization "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health" (ICF) constructs as correlates of community participation of people with severe mental illnesses (SMI). Methods: Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlational techniques was used to…

  8. Physical illness in patients with severe mental disorders. II. Barriers to care, monitoring and treatment guidelines, plus recommendations at the system and individual level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hert, Marc; Cohen, Dan; Bobes, Julio; Cetkovich-Bakmas, Marcelo; Leucht, Stefan; Ndetei, David M.; Newcomer, John W.; Uwakwe, Richard; Asai, Itsuo; Moeller, Hans-Jurgen; Gautam, Shiv; Detraux, Johan; Correll, Christoph U.

    2011-01-01

    Physical disorders are, compared to the general population, more prevalent in people with severe mental illness (SMI). Although this excess morbidity and mortality is largely due to modifiable lifestyle risk factors, the screening and assessment of physical health aspects remains poor, even in devel

  9. Relationships between World Health Organization "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health" Constructs and Participation in Adults with Severe Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jennifer; Rosenthal, David A.; Chan, Fong; Brooks, Jessica; Bezyak, Jill L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the World Health Organization "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health" (ICF) constructs as correlates of community participation of people with severe mental illnesses (SMI). Methods: Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlational techniques was used to…

  10. Cost effectiveness and budgetary impact of the Boston University approach to Psychiatric Rehabilitation for societal participation in people with severe mental illness : a randomised controlled trial protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanches, Sarita A.; Swildens, Wilma E.; van Busschbach, Jooske T.; Stant, A. Dennis; Feenstra, Talitha L.; van Weeghel, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with Severe Mental Illness (SMI) frequently experience problems with regard to societal participation (i.e. work, education and daily activities outside the home), and require professional support in this area. The Boston University approach to Psychiatric Rehabilitation (BPR) is

  11. Focus on Exercise: Client and Clinician Perspectives on Exercise in Individuals with Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Julia; Mihas, Paul; Penn, David L

    2016-05-01

    The health benefits of exercise are well established, yet individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) have a shorter life expectancy due in large part to physical health complications associated with poor diet and lack of exercise. There is a paucity of research examining exercise in this population with the majority of studies having examined interventions with limited feasibility and sustainability. Before developing an intervention, a thorough exploration of client and clinician perspectives on exercise and its associated barriers is warranted. Twelve clients and fourteen clinicians participated in focus groups aimed at examining exercise, barriers, incentives, and attitudes about walking groups. Results indicated that clients and clinicians identified walking as the primary form of exercise, yet barriers impeded consistent participation. Distinct themes arose between groups; however, both clients and clinicians reported interest in a combination group/pedometer based walking program for individuals with SMI. Future research should consider examining walking programs for this population.

  12. A Novel Approach to Identifying a Neuroimaging Biomarker for Patients With Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Alok; Fowler, J Christopher; Patriquin, Michelle A; Salas, Ramiro; Baldwin, Philip R; Velasquez, Kenia M; Viswanath, Humsini; Molfese, David L; Sharp, Carla; Allen, Jon G; Hardesty, Susan; Oldham, John M; Frueh, B Christopher

    2017-02-27

    Serious mental illness (SMI) is disabling, and current interventions are ineffective for many. This exploratory study sought to demonstrate the feasibility of applying topological data analysis (TDA) to resting-state functional connectivity data obtained from a heterogeneous sample of 235 adult inpatients to identify a biomarker of treatment response. TDA identified two groups based on connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and striatal regions: patients admitted with greater functional connectivity between these regions evidenced less improvement from admission to discharge than patients with lesser connectivity between them. TDA identified a potential biomarker of an attenuated treatment response among inpatients with SMI. Insofar as the observed pattern of resting-state functional connectivity collected early during treatment is replicable, this potential biomarker may indicate the need to modify standard of care for a small, albeit meaningful, percentage of patients.

  13. Electrotherapy and mental illness: then and now

    OpenAIRE

    Sander L. Gilman

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Today electrotherapy has reappeared as a therapy of choice for the treatment of depression and other forms of mental illness. It had de facto vanished from allopathic medicine from the 1920s to the end of the century. The debates about electrotherapy mirror the question of whether mental illness was somatic and to be treated by somatic means or psychological to be treated with psychotherapy. Sigmund Freud's move from an advocate to an opponent of electrothera...

  14. Australian mental health care practitioners' practices and attitudes for encouraging smoking cessation and tobacco harm reduction in smokers with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ratika; Meurk, Carla; Bell, Stephanie; Ford, Pauline; Gartner, Coral

    2017-02-03

    Reducing the burden of physical illness among people living with severe mental illnesses (SMI) is a key priority. Smoking is strongly associated with SMIs resulting in excessive smoking related morbidity and mortality in smokers with SMI. Smoking cessation advice and assistance from mental health practitioners would assist with reducing smoking and smoking-related harms in this group. This study examined the attitudes and practices of Australian mental health practitioners towards smoking cessation and tobacco harm reduction for smokers with SMI, including adherence to the 5As (ask, assess, advise, assist and arrange follow up) of smoking cessation. We surveyed 267 Australian mental health practitioners using a cross-sectional, online survey. Most practitioners (77.5%) asked their clients about smoking and provided health education (66.7%) but fewer provided direct assistance (31.1-39.7%). Most believed that tobacco harm reduction strategies are effective for reducing smoking related risks (88.4%) and that abstinence from all nicotine should not be the only goal discussed with smokers with SMI (77.9%). Many respondents were unsure about the safety (56.9%) and efficacy (39.3%) of e-cigarettes. Practitioners trained in smoking cessation were more likely (OR: 2.9, CI: 1.5-5.9) to help their clients to stop smoking. Community mental health practitioners (OR: 0.3, CI: 0.1-0.9) and practitioners who were current smokers (OR: 0.3, CI: 0.1-0.9) were less likely to adhere to the 5As of smoking cessation intervention. The results of this study emphasize the importance and need for providing smoking cessation training to mental health practitioners especially community mental health practitioners.

  15. Mental Illness in the Peripartum Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostler, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…

  16. State anxiety as a moderator of real world grocery shopping performance among people with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Elise H; Fowler, Christopher A; Rempfer, Melisa V

    2016-12-30

    Anxiety is frequently overlooked as a factor when examining task performance among individuals with serious mental illness. Given the known effects of anxiety on performance in general populations, it is important to examine anxiety and performance within a serious mental illness population. This study examined state anxiety during a grocery-shopping task among 106 individuals diagnosed with a serious mental illness. Results indicate that state anxiety may impact task performance through its relationship with knowledge about grocery-shopping skills. These data suggest the need to examine further the impact of anxiety on task performance in serious mental illness. Furthermore, the identification and treatment of anxiety in persons with SMI may serve to improve functional outcomes and rehabilitation efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Resisting the Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoits, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus conditions…

  18. Resisting the Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoits, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus conditions…

  19. Physical illness in patients with severe mental disorders. I. Prevalence, impact of medications and disparities in health care

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE HERT, MARC; CORRELL, CHRISTOPH U.; BOBES, JULIO; CETKOVICH-BAKMAS, MARCELO; COHEN, DAN; ASAI, ITSUO; DETRAUX, JOHAN; GAUTAM, SHIV; MÖLLER, HANS-JURGEN; NDETEI, DAVID M.; NEWCOMER, JOHN W.; UWAKWE, RICHARD; LEUCHT, STEFAN

    2011-01-01

    The lifespan of people with severe mental illness (SMI) is shorter compared to the general population. This excess mortality is mainly due to physical illness. We report prevalence rates of different physical illnesses as well as important individual lifestyle choices, side effects of psychotropic treatment and disparities in health care access, utilization and provision that contribute to these poor physical health outcomes. We searched MEDLINE (1966 – August 2010) combining the MeSH terms of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder with the different MeSH terms of general physical disease categories to select pertinent reviews and additional relevant studies through cross-referencing to identify prevalence figures and factors contributing to the excess morbidity and mortality rates. Nutritional and metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, viral diseases, respiratory tract diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, sexual dysfunction, pregnancy complications, stomatognathic diseases, and possibly obesity-related cancers are, compared to the general population, more prevalent among people with SMI. It seems that lifestyle as well as treatment specific factors account for much of the increased risk for most of these physical diseases. Moreover, there is sufficient evidence that people with SMI are less likely to receive standard levels of care for most of these diseases. Lifestyle factors, relatively easy to measure, are barely considered for screening; baseline testing of numerous important physical parameters is insufficiently performed. Besides modifiable lifestyle factors and side effects of psychotropic medications, access to and quality of health care remains to be improved for individuals with SMI. PMID:21379357

  20. How the Media Cover Mental Illnesses: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zexin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Mental illness has become an important public health issue in society, and media are the most common sources of information about mental illnesses. Thus, it is important to review research on mental illnesses and media. The purpose of this paper is to provide a narrative review of studies on mental illnesses in the media and identifies…

  1. How the Media Cover Mental Illnesses: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zexin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Mental illness has become an important public health issue in society, and media are the most common sources of information about mental illnesses. Thus, it is important to review research on mental illnesses and media. The purpose of this paper is to provide a narrative review of studies on mental illnesses in the media and identifies…

  2. Self-clarity and different clusters of insight and self-stigma in mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Lysaker, Paul H; Roe, David

    2016-06-30

    The current study explored the self-experience of persons with Serious Mental Illness (SMI) by investigating the associations between different insight and self-stigma clusters, self-clarity, hope, recovery, and functioning. One hundred seven persons diagnosed with a SMI were administered six scales: self-concept clarity, self-stigma, insight into the illness, hope, recovery, and functioning. Correlations and cluster analyses were performed. Insight, as measured by a self-report scale was not related to any other variable. Self-stigma was negatively associated with self-clarity, hope, recovery and functioning. Three clusters emerged: moderate stigma/high insight (n=31), high stigma/moderate insight (n=28), and low stigma/low insight (n=42). The group with low stigma and low insight had higher mean levels of self-clarity and hope than the other two groups. There were no significant differences between cluster 1 (moderate stigma/high insight) and cluster 2 (high stigma/moderate insight) in all the variables beside self-clarity. The group with moderate stigma and high insight had significantly higher mean levels of self-clarity than the group with high stigma and moderate insight. Results reveal that when people diagnosed with SMI do not have high levels of self-stigma they often report a positive and clear sense of self accompanied with hope, regardless of having low insight.

  3. Life expectancy at birth for people with serious mental illness and other major disorders from a secondary mental health care case register in London.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Kuo Chang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite improving healthcare, the gap in mortality between people with serious mental illness (SMI and general population persists, especially for younger age groups. The electronic database from a large and comprehensive secondary mental healthcare provider in London was utilized to assess the impact of SMI diagnoses on life expectancy at birth. METHOD: People who were diagnosed with SMI (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, substance use disorder, and depressive episode/disorder before the end of 2009 and under active review by the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLAM in southeast London during 2007-09 comprised the sample, retrieved by the SLAM Case Register Interactive Search (CRIS system. We estimated life expectancy at birth for people with SMI and each diagnosis, from national mortality returns between 2007-09, using a life table method. RESULTS: A total of 31,719 eligible people, aged 15 years or older, with SMI were analyzed. Among them, 1,370 died during 2007-09. Compared to national figures, all disorders were associated with substantially lower life expectancy: 8.0 to 14.6 life years lost for men and 9.8 to 17.5 life years lost for women. Highest reductions were found for men with schizophrenia (14.6 years lost and women with schizoaffective disorders (17.5 years lost. CONCLUSION: The impact of serious mental illness on life expectancy is marked and generally higher than similarly calculated impacts of well-recognised adverse exposures such as smoking, diabetes and obesity. Strategies to identify and prevent causes of premature death are urgently required.

  4. Recording of severe mental illness in United Kingdom primary care, 2000-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hardoon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is increasing emphasis on primary care services for individuals with severe mental illnesses (SMI, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other non-organic psychotic disorders. However we lack information on how many people receive these different diagnoses in primary care. Primary care databases offer an opportunity to explore the recording of new SMI diagnoses in representative general practices. METHODS: We used data from The UK Health Improvement Network (THIN primary care database including longitudinal patient records for individuals aged over 16 years from 437 general practices. We determined the annual GP recorded rate of first diagnosis of SMI by age, gender, social deprivation and urbanicity between 2000 and 2010. RESULTS: We identified 10,520 individuals with a first record of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or other non-organic psychosis among 4,164,794 patients. This corresponded to a rate of first diagnosis of 46.4 per 100,000 person years at risk (PYAR (95% CI 45.4 to 47.4 in the 16-65 age group. The rate of first record of schizophrenia was 9.2 per 100,000 PYAR (95% CI 8.7 to 9.6 in this age group, bipolar disorder was 15.0 per 100,000 PYAR (95% CI 14.4 to 15.5 and other non-organic psychotic disorder was 22.3 per 100,000 PYAR (95% CI 21.6 to 23.0. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of GP recorded SMI in primary care records were broadly comparable to incidence rates from previous epidemiological studies of SMI and show similar patterns by socio-demographic characteristics. However there were some differences by specific diagnoses. GPs may be recording rates that are higher than those used to commission services.

  5. Predictors of general and violent recidivism among SMI prisoners returning to communities in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Donna L; Miraglia, Richard P; Lee, Li-Wen G; Chard-Wierschem, Deborah; Sawyer, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Correctional and forensic mental health systems throughout the country are routinely called on to manage and provide treatment for mentally ill prison inmates. This study identifies criminal justice and mental health predictors of general re-arrest and re-arrest for violence in seriously mentally ill (SMI) persons leaving prison in New York State. Both length and diversity of criminal history predicted general re-arrest, as did substance abuse diagnoses, participation in community mental health treatment, parole supervision, and coordinated parole and mental health services. Only demographics and criminal justice measures were predictive of re-arrest for violence. The rate of re-arrest for violence in this SMI sample was lower than that of general prison release populations.

  6. Motivation for physical activity and exercise in severe mental illness: A systematic review of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farholm, Anders; Sørensen, Marit

    2016-06-01

    There has been increasing interest for research on motivation for physical activity (PA) and exercise among individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). The aim of this systematic review is to summarize findings from all intervention studies on PA or exercise that either include empirical data on motivational constructs or apply motivational techniques/theories in their intervention. Systematic searches of seven databases were conducted from database inception to February 2015. Studies were eligible if they: (i) included participants with SMI, (ii) had PA as part of the intervention, and (iii) reported empirical data on motivational constructs related to PA or incorporated motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Of the 79 studies that met the inclusion criteria only one had motivation for PA as its main outcome. Nine additional interventions reported empirical data on motivational constructs. Altogether these studies yielded mixed results with respect to change in motivational constructs. Only one of those examined the association between motivation and PA, but found none. Sixty-four studies reported using motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Motivational interviewing and goal-setting were the most popular techniques. Due to the exploratory nature of most of these studies, findings from intervention studies do not so far give very clear directions for motivational work with the patients. There is an urgent need for a more systematic theory based approach when developing strategies that target to increase engagement in PA among people with SMI. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  7. Different Perspectives of Clinicians and Patients with Severe Mental Illness on Motivation for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochems, Eline C; van Dam, Arno; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Scheffer, Sylvia C M; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; Mulder, Niels L

    2016-09-01

    The present study assessed motivation for engaging in treatment as rated by clinicians (n = 57) and patients with severe mental illness (SMI, n = 294) using measures based on three different motivation theories. Questionnaires were derived from self-determination theory, the transtheoretical model and the integral model of treatment motivation. It was investigated to which extent clinicians of patients with SMI were able to estimate their patient's perspective on motivation for engaging in treatment, to which extent they agreed on the patient's motivation and which factors were associated with estimation and agreement on treatment motivation. It was found that clinicians were poorly to moderately capable of estimating their patient's type of motivation and readiness for change. Further, agreement on the level of motivation between patients and clinicians was moderate. These findings were consistent across diagnostic groups (psychotic and personality disorders). A higher quality therapeutic relationship was generally associated with higher clinician-rated motivation. The patient's ethnicity and socially desirable responding were factors that differentiated between scales of different motivation theories. It is concluded that patients with SMI and their clinicians have different perceptions on the patient's motivation for engaging in psychiatric treatment, regardless of the theoretical framework that is used to measure motivation. The findings imply that a negotiated approach is needed where both perceptions of clinicians and patients on motivation for treatment are considered to ensure effective mental health interventions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Designing websites for persons with cognitive deficits: Design and usability of a psychoeducational intervention for persons with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondi, Armando J; Sinkule, Jennifer; Haas, Gretchen L; Spring, Michael B; Litschge, Christine M; Newhill, Christina E; Ganguli, Rohan; Anderson, Carol M

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the design elements that influence the ability of persons with severe mental illness (SMI) and cognitive deficits to use a website, and to use this knowledge to design a web-based telehealth application to deliver a psychoeducation program to persons with schizophrenia and their families. Usability testing was conducted with 98 persons with SMI. First, individual website design elements were tested. Based on these results, theoretical website design models were used to create several alternative websites. These designs were tested for their ability to facilitate use by persons with SMI. The final website design is presented. The results indicate that commonly prescribed design models and guidelines produce websites that are poorly suited and confusing to persons with SMI. Our findings suggest an alternative model that should be considered when designing websites and other telehealth interventions for this population. Implications for future studies addressing the characteristics of accessible designs for persons with SMI and cognitive deficits are discussed.

  9. Walking the fine line: Self-reported reasons for substance use in persons with severe mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Pettersen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many theoretical models have been proposed to explain the relationship between severe mental illness (SMI and substance use. Because many of these are contradictory quantitative American studies, a qualitative, exploratory study of a Scandinavian sample may offer a new perspective. The aim of the study is to explore reasons for substance use through analysis of the participants’ experiences. A qualitative study with semistructured interviews was used. Purposeful sampling (N=11 of patients with substance use disorder (SUD and SMI, who were included in assertive community treatment teams, was completed. Inclusion criteria are increased quality of life or increased general functioning, and decreased substance use, after a minimum of 12 months in treatment. Reasons given for using substances were categorized as (a controlling the symptoms of mental illness, (b counteracting medication side effects, or (c balancing the ambiguity. The conclusion is that the study findings mainly support secondary substance use models in explaining the comorbidity of SMI and substance use. However, there is some support for the traditional self-medication hypothesis (SMH, iatrogenic vulnerability, and the supersensitivity model. This may be because the majority of the study participants reported having a mental illness with subsequent substance use. The expressed ambivalence to substance use also lends some support to bidirectional models.

  10. Walking the fine line: Self-reported reasons for substance use in persons with severe mental illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Henning; Ruud, Torleif; Ravndal, Edle; Landheim, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Many theoretical models have been proposed to explain the relationship between severe mental illness (SMI) and substance use. Because many of these are contradictory quantitative American studies, a qualitative, exploratory study of a Scandinavian sample may offer a new perspective. The aim of the study is to explore reasons for substance use through analysis of the participants’ experiences. A qualitative study with semistructured interviews was used. Purposeful sampling (N=11) of patients with substance use disorder (SUD) and SMI, who were included in assertive community treatment teams, was completed. Inclusion criteria are increased quality of life or increased general functioning, and decreased substance use, after a minimum of 12 months in treatment. Reasons given for using substances were categorized as (a) controlling the symptoms of mental illness, (b) counteracting medication side effects, or (c) balancing the ambiguity. The conclusion is that the study findings mainly support secondary substance use models in explaining the comorbidity of SMI and substance use. However, there is some support for the traditional self-medication hypothesis (SMH), iatrogenic vulnerability, and the supersensitivity model. This may be because the majority of the study participants reported having a mental illness with subsequent substance use. The expressed ambivalence to substance use also lends some support to bidirectional models. PMID:24369778

  11. Access to physical health care for people with serious mental illness: a nursing perspective and a human rights perspective-common ground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankivell, Janette; Platania-Phung, Chris; Happell, Brenda; Scott, David

    2013-06-01

    Relative to the general population, people with serious mental illness (SMI) experience elevated risks of physical disease and illness and live shorter lives. A human rights perspective argues that people with serious mental illness have a right to equal access to physical health care. Nurses in mental health services can contribute to improving the availability and accessibility of physical health care. This study, involving focus group interviews with nurses in a large regional and rural mental health care district of Queensland, Australia, revealed significant problems in access to physical health care for service users. The current article reports on our exploratory analysis of nurses' views and perceptions to identify (1) orientation of nurses to human rights, and (2) access of consumers with SMI to general practitioner services. It was rare for nurses to raise the topic of human rights, and when raised, it was not as a strategy for improving access to physical health care services that they felt consumers with SMI greatly needed. Two main themes were identified as causes of poor access: clinical barriers to physical care and attitudinal barriers to physical care. In light of these results, the authors explore a human rights perspective on access and how this provides an inclusive lobbying umbrella under which nurses and other groups can pursue access to physical health services that are adequate, accessible, and non-discriminatory. The article then discusses the implications for these findings for the value of human rights as a perspective and means of increasing physical health of people with SMI.

  12. Diabetes Knowledge Among Adults with Serious Mental Illness and Comorbid Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykes, Thomas L; Lee, Aaron A; Bourassa, Katelynn; Kitchen, Katherine A; McKibbin, Christine L

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the association between psychiatric symptoms and diabetes knowledge (DK) among 90 adults with serious mental illness (SMI) and type 2 diabetes. The relationship between DK and glucose control (i.e., A1C) was also examined. In a hierarchical linear regression, greater negative symptom severity and lower cognitive functioning both predicted lower DK, though cognitive functioning superseded negative symptom severity when analyzed simultaneously. A Pearson correlation showed no significant relationship between DK and A1C. Although symptom severity and cognitive functioning are both related to DK among this population, cognitive functioning maybe particularly important. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  14. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  15. Mental Illness among Us: A New Curriculum to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma among Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anuj K.; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us…

  16. Mental Illness among Us: A New Curriculum to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma among Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anuj K.; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us…

  17. Ten-Year Mortality after a Breast Cancer Diagnosis in Women with Severe Mental Illness: A Danish Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Riisgaard Ribe

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether higher mortality after breast cancer contributes to the life-expectancy gap of 15 years in women with severe mental illness (SMI.We estimated all-cause mortality rate ratios (MRRs of women with SMI, women with breast cancer and women with both disorders compared to women with neither disorder using data from nationwide registers in Denmark for 1980-2012.The cohort included 2.7 million women, hereof 31,421 women with SMI (12,852 deaths, 104,342 with breast cancer (52,732 deaths, and 1,106 with SMI and breast cancer (656 deaths. Compared to women with neither disorder, the mortality was 118% higher for women with SMI (MRR: 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.14-2.22, 144% higher for women with breast cancer (MRR: 2.44, 95% CI: 2.42-2.47 and 327% higher for women with SMI and breast cancer (MRR: 4.27, 95% CI: 3.98-4.57. Among women with both disorders, 15% of deaths could be attributed to interaction. In a sub-cohort of women with breast cancer, the ten-year all-cause-mortality was 59% higher after taking tumor stage into account (MRR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.47-1.72 for women with versus without SMI.The mortality among women with SMI and breast cancer was markedly increased. More information is needed to determine which factors might explain this excess mortality, such as differences between women with and without SMI in access to diagnostics, provision of care for breast cancer or physical comorbidity, health-seeking-behavior, and adherence to treatment.

  18. Preparing non-government organization workers to conduct health checks for people with serious mental illness in regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martin; Kruger, Mellissa; Walsh, Sandra M

    2016-06-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: People diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder have a life expectancy 10-15 years less than the general population. In rural and remote Australia, there is a shortage of health care professionals to provide physical health care for people living with a serious mental illness (SMI). A large proportion of the care for people living with a SMI is provided by non-government organizations (NGOs), often employing workers without formal qualifications. There has been minimal research regarding the experiences of NGO workers who have been trained to complete health checks to help people living with SMI to access primary care services. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This is the first study to examine the experiences of preparing NGO workers to use the health improvement profile (HIP) to support the physical health of people with SMI. It builds on previous studies that examined the use of the HIP by trained/qualified staff. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: This study highlights that NGO employees may have an important role in helping people with a SMI to address their physical health. Engaging lay workers to use the HIP increases their awareness of the importance of providing good physical health care for people with SMI. The use of a tool, such as the HIP, prepares NGO workers to support the physical health needs and enables them to describe meaningful improvements in the health of people with a SMI. Background The life expectancy of people living with a serious mental illness (SMI) is up to 10-15 years less than the general population. They experience difficulties in accessing timely and appropriate physical health care. People with SMI living in regional Australia experience additional barriers to accessing services. This is in part due to the difficulties associated with recruiting and retaining health professionals in regional Australia. Aim To explore the regional non-government organization (NGO

  19. The stigma of mental illness in the labor market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipes, Crosby; Lucas, Jeffrey; Phelan, Jo C; White, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Mental illness labels are accompanied by devaluation and discrimination. We extend research on reactions to mental illness by utilizing a field experiment (N = 635) to test effects of mental illness labels on labor market discrimination. This study involved sending fictitious applications to job listings, some applications indicating a history of mental illness and some indicating a history of physical injury. In line with research indicating that mental illness leads to stigma, we predicted fewer callbacks to candidates with mental illness. We also predicted relatively fewer callbacks for applicants with mental illness when the jobs involved a greater likelihood for interpersonal contact with the employer. Results showed significant discrimination against applicants with mental illness, but did not indicate an effect of potential proximity to the employer. This contributes a valuable finding in a natural setting to research on labor market discrimination towards people with mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reducing Premature Mortality in the Mentally Ill Through Health Promotion Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, Joy A; Whaley, Cathy; Bowman, Sharon

    2016-09-01

    Nearly half of the U.S. adult population will have a major mental illness during their lifetimes. At any point in time, almost a fifth of all American adults have a serious mental illness (SMI). Too many in our society do not understand mental illnesses, placing the blame for the illness on those with the illness, resulting in isolation, marginalization, or incarceration of individuals with SMIs. They may experience stigma, inadequate and delayed health and mental health care, and major socioeconomic disadvantages. They may struggle with activities of daily living, lose many of their resources, and spiral down into poverty. The disadvantages and decreased ability to function experienced by individuals with SMIs lead to increased unhealthy behaviors, reduced participation in wellness-related activities, and premature morbidity and mortality. The general and physical health of individuals with SMIs poses greater challenges from both practice and research standpoints. However, health educators are poised uniquely to provide health promotion programs, conduct research, and advocate for the health and well-being of individuals with SMIs. In this review, we summarize the challenges and opportunities for health promotion in individuals with SMIs.

  1. Care for patients with severe mental illness: the general practitioner's role perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groenier Klaas H

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with severe mental illness (SMI experience distress and disabilities in several aspects of life, and they have a higher risk of somatic co-morbidity. Both patients and their family members need the support of an easily accessible primary care system. The willingness of general practitioners and the impeding factors for them to participate in providing care for patients with severe mental illness in the acute and the chronic or residual phase were explored. Methods A questionnaire survey of a sample of Dutch general practitioners spread over the Netherlands was carried out. This comprised 20 questions on the GP's 'Opinion and Task Perspective', 19 questions on 'Treatment and Experiences', and 27 questions on 'Characteristics of the General Practitioner and the Practice Organisation'. Results 186 general practitioners distributed over urban areas (49%, urbanised rural areas (38% and rural areas (15% of the Netherlands participated. The findings were as follows: GPs currently considered themselves as the first contact in the acute psychotic phase. In the chronic or residual phase GPs saw their core task as to diagnose and treat somatic co-morbidity. A majority would be willing to monitor the general health of these patients as well. It appeared that GP trainers and GPs with a smaller practice setting made follow-up appointments and were willing to monitor the self-care of patients with SMI more often than GPs with larger practices. GPs also saw their role as giving support and information to the patient's family. However, they felt a need for recognition of their competencies when working with mental health care specialists. Conclusion GPs were willing to participate in providing care for patients with SMI. They considered themselves responsible for psychotic emergency cases, for monitoring physical health in the chronic phase, and for supporting the relatives of psychotic patients.

  2. Evolving Definitions of Mental Illness and Wellness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara W. Strine, MPH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the definitions of wellness and illness has changed from the mid-20th century to modern times, moving from a diagnosis-focused to a person-focused definition of mental illnesses, and from an “absence of disease” model to one that stresses positive psychological function for mental health. Currently, wellness refers to the degree to which one feels positive and enthusiastic about oneself and life, whereas illness refers to the presence of disease. These definitions apply to physical as well as mental illness and wellness. In this article, we build on the essential concepts of wellness and illness, discuss how these definitions have changed over time, and discuss their importance in the context of health reform and health care reform. Health reform refers to efforts focused on health, such as health promotion and the development of positive well-being. Health care reform refers to efforts focused on illness, such as treatment of disease and related rehabilitation efforts.

  3. Peer health coaching for overweight and obese individuals with serious mental illness: intervention development and initial feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Naslund, John A; Barre, Laura K; Mueser, Kim T; Kinney, Allison; Bartels, Stephen J

    2015-09-01

    Effective and scalable interventions are needed to reach a greater proportion of individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) who experience alarmingly high rates of obesity. This pilot study evaluated the feasibility of translating an evidenced-based professional health coach model (In SHAPE) to peer health coaching for overweight and obese individuals with SMI. Key stakeholders collaborated to modify In SHAPE to include a transition from professional health coaching to individual and group-based peer health coaching enhanced by mobile health technology. Ten individuals with SMI were recruited from a public mental health agency to participate in a 6-month feasibility pilot study of the new model. There was no overall significant change in mean weight; however, over half (56 %) of participants lost weight by the end of the intervention with mean weight loss 2.7 ± 2.1 kg. Participants reported high satisfaction and perceived benefits from the program. Qualitative interviews with key stakeholders indicated that the intervention was implemented as planned. This formative research showed that peer health coaching for individuals with SMI is feasible. Further research is needed to evaluate its effectiveness.

  4. Long-term correlates of childhood abuse among adults with severe mental illness: adult victimization, substance abuse, and HIV sexual risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Christina S; Kershaw, Trace S; Hansen, Nathan B; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2009-04-01

    The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Seventy percent reported childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, and 32% reported both types of abuse. Participants with childhood abuse were more likely to report adult victimization and greater HIV risk. A structural equation model found that childhood abuse was directly and indirectly associated with HIV risk through drug abuse and adult vicitimization. Integrated treatment approaches that address interpersonal violence and substance abuse may be necessary for HIV risk reduction in this population.

  5. Discrimination, poor mental health, and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2016-08-01

    Discrimination is a major public health issue. Discrimination is known and well recognized to be associated with poor physical and mental health, as well as creating social divisions and fear that undermines the success of society and economic progress. Policies to eradicate discrimination and prejudice in the public sphere, and in public life, need thoughtful and careful planning and engagement by all public institutions and in the way they conduct their business. This forms the basis of social justice. Employers, politicians, and public servants, as well as other stakeholders, irrespective of their professional status, all have ethical responsibilities to uphold such actions and policies, values, and supporting behaviours, as a core principle of successful societies.

  6. The Mental Health Recovery Measure Can Be Used to Assess Aspects of Both Customer-Based and Service-Based Recovery in the Context of Severe Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Maia, Albino J; Mendonça, Carina; Pessoa, Maria J; Camacho, Marta; Gago, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Within clinical psychiatry, recovery from severe mental illness (SMI) has classically been defined according to symptoms and function (service-based recovery). However, service-users have argued that recovery should be defined as the process of overcoming mental illness, regaining self-control and establishing a meaningful life (customer-based recovery). Here, we aimed to compare customer-based and service-based recovery and clarify their differential relationship with other constructs, namely needs and quality of life. The study was conducted in 101 patients suffering from SMI, recruited from a rural community mental health setting in Portugal. Customer-based recovery and function-related service-based recovery were assessed, respectively, using a shortened version of the Mental Health Recovery Measure (MHRM-20) and the Global Assessment of Functioning score. The Camberwell Assessment of Need scale was used to objectively assess needs, while subjective quality of life was measured with the TL-30s scale. Using multiple linear regression models, we found that the Global Assessment of Functioning score was incrementally predictive of the MHRM-20 score, when added to a model including only clinical and demographic factors, and that this model was further incremented by the score for quality of life. However, in an alternate model using the Global Assessment of Functioning score as the dependent variable, while the MHRM-20 score contributed significantly to the model when added to clinical and demographic factors, the model was not incremented by the score for quality of life. These results suggest that, while a more global concept of recovery from SMI may be assessed using measures for service-based and customer-based recovery, the latter, namely the MHRM-20, also provides information about subjective well-being. Pending confirmation of these findings in other populations, this instrument could thus be useful for comprehensive assessment of recovery and subjective

  7. Consideration of the influence of place on access to employment for persons with serious mental illness in northeastern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeiro Gruhl, K L; Kauppi, C; Montgomery, P; James, S

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing attention to employment within the mental health sector, reports indicate that people with serious mental illness (SMI) continue to experience limited employment success in the province of Ontario, Canada. Research specifies that people with SMI who live in rural places are less likely than those living in urban centers to have access to satisfactory employment services or to become gainfully employed. The objective of this study was to examine access to employment from the perspectives of people with SMI, mental health and vocational service providers, and decision-makers, and to explore whether place influenced their access to work in northeastern Ontario. A qualitative case study using community-based participatory research methods was chosen to examine the experience of access to competitive employment in two northeastern Ontario communities. The cases selected for study were two geographic areas in northeastern Ontario which provided best-practice, mental health services to persons with SMI. Community-based site partners advertised and recruited participants, and a consumer advisory provided input on key stakeholders, questions, findings and the study action plan. The study findings were informed by individual and group interviews conducted with 46 individuals who resided in both rural and urban settings in the case communities, and feedback from 49 participants who attended town hall forums for presentation of study findings and development of an action plan. The qualitative data was supported by a secondary data source reporting on the employment outcomes of 4112 people with SMI who received disability income support and who resided in the case communities. Qualitative data were analyzed inductively, and categories and themes were developed. Findings were member checked with all informants and town hall participants in each case community. This article draws on the findings of a larger study and reports on the influence of place to the low

  8. Life course adversity in the lives of formerly homeless persons with serious mental illness: context and meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Deborah K; Smith, Bikki Tran; Henwood, Benjamin F; Tiderington, Emmy

    2012-07-01

    This qualitative study assessed the frequency and subjective meaning of adverse experiences using case study analyses of interviews with 38 formerly homeless adults with co-occurring serious mental illness (SMI) and substance abuse histories. Adverse life events were inventoried using an adaptation of Lloyd and Turner's (2008) 41-item checklist. Participants averaged 8.8 adverse events, with approximately one-third having experienced incarceration (37%), suicidality (32%), abandonment by one or both parents (30%), and death of their mother (34%). Cross-case analyses yielded 3 themes: social losses because of death and estrangement; the significance of chronic stressors as well as acute events; and the cumulative lifetime nature of adversity. Findings suggest that life course experiences of trauma and loss have a cumulative influence in the lives of this population in addition and in relation to SMI, substance abuse, and homelessness. In this context, the mental health recovery movement should address prior adverse experiences beyond comorbid diagnoses in this population.

  9. Design of the Lifestyle Interventions for severe mentally ill Outpatients in the Netherlands (LION) trial; a cluster randomised controlled study of a multidimensional web tool intervention to improve cardiometabolic health in patients with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looijmans, Anne; Jörg, Frederike; Bruggeman, Richard; Schoevers, Robert; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2017-03-21

    The cardiometabolic health of persons with a severe mental illness (SMI) is alarming with obesity rates of 45-55% and diabetes type 2 rates of 10-15%. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours play a large role in this. Despite the multidisciplinary guideline for SMI patients recommending to monitor and address patients' lifestyle, most mental health care professionals have limited lifestyle-related knowledge and skills, and (lifestyle) treatment protocols are lacking. Evidence-based practical lifestyle tools may support both patients and staff in improving patients' lifestyle. This paper describes the Lifestyle Interventions for severe mentally ill Outpatients in the Netherlands (LION) trial, to investigate whether a multidimensional lifestyle intervention using a web tool can be effective in improving cardiometabolic health in SMI patients. The LION study is a 12-month pragmatic single-blind multi-site cluster randomised controlled trial. 21 Flexible Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) teams and eight sheltered living teams of five mental health organizations in the Netherlands are invited to participate. Per team, nurses are trained in motivational interviewing and use of the multidimensional web tool, covering lifestyle behaviour awareness, lifestyle knowledge, motivation and goal setting. Nurses coach patients to change their lifestyle using the web tool, motivational interviewing and stages-of-change techniques during biweekly sessions in a) assessing current lifestyle behaviour using the traffic light method (healthy behaviours colour green, unhealthy behaviours colour red), b) creating a lifestyle plan with maximum three attainable lifestyle goals and c) discussing the lifestyle plan regularly. The study population is SMI patients and statistical inference is on patient level using multilevel analyses. Primary outcome is waist circumference and other cardiometabolic risk factors after six and twelve months intervention, which are measured as part of routine outcome

  10. Personal well-being networks, social capital and severe mental illness: exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Daryl; Byng, Richard; Webber, Martin; Enki, Doyo Gragn; Porter, Ian; Larsen, John; Huxley, Peter; Pinfold, Vanessa

    2017-10-05

    BackgroundConnectedness is a central dimension of personal recovery from severe mental illness (SMI). Research reports that people with SMI have lower social capital and poorer-quality social networks compared to the general population.AimsTo identify personal well-being network (PWN) types and explore additional insights from mapping connections to places and activities alongside social ties.MethodWe carried out 150 interviews with individuals with SMI and mapped social ties, places and activities and their impact on well-being. PWN types were developed using social network analysis and hierarchical k-means clustering of this data.ResultsThree PWN types were identified: formal and sparse; family and stable; and diverse and active. Well-being and social capital varied within and among types. Place and activity data indicated important contextual differences within social connections that were not found by mapping social networks alone.ConclusionsPlace locations and meaningful activities are important aspects of people's social worlds. Mapped alongside social networks, PWNs have important implications for person-centred recovery approaches through providing a broader understanding of individual's lives and resources. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  11. Social partnered dance for people with serious and persistent mental illness: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Madeleine E; Earhart, Gammon M

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) often experience isolation and poor health, but normalized social opportunities aid recovery. This study aimed to determine social dance's feasibility and effects on mood, functional mobility, and balance confidence in 12 people with SMI. Participants danced once per week in 1-hour lessons for 10 weeks. Before and after lessons, participants were evaluated for gait velocity and with one-leg stance, Timed Up and Go, and 6-minute walk tests. Participants self-completed Beck Depression II and Beck Anxiety Inventories and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale. Posttesting included an exit questionnaire assessing participant experiences. Participants significantly improved on the Timed Up and Go, (p = 0.012, effect size = 0.68), and demonstrated nonsignificant improvements in anxiety, depression, and balance confidence (effect sizes of 0.41, 0.54, and 0.64, respectively). Participants reported enjoying classes, and interest to continue. Social dance is feasible and may benefit mobility for those with SMI.

  12. Therapeutic intervention for internalized stigma of severe mental illness: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Hector W H; Ching, S C; Tang, K H; Lam, H T; Law, Peggy Y Y; Wan, C N

    2016-05-01

    Internalized stigma can lead to pervasive negative effects among people with severe mental illness (SMI). Although prevalence of internalized stigma is high, there is a dearth of interventions and meanwhile a lack of evidence as to their effectiveness. This study aims at unraveling the existence of different therapeutic interventions and the effectiveness internalized stigma reduction in people with SMI via a systematic review and meta-analysis. Five electronic databases were searched. Studies were included if they (1) involved community or hospital based interventions on internalized stigma, (2) included participants who were given a diagnosis of SMI>50%, and (3) were empirical and quantitative in nature. Fourteen articles were selected for extensive review and five for meta-analysis. Nine studies showed significant decrease in internalized stigma and two showed sustainable effects. Meta-analysis showed that there was a small to moderate significant effect in therapeutic interventions (SMD=-0.43; p=0.003). Among the intervention elements, four studies suggested a favorable effect of psychoeducation. Meta-analysis showed that there was small to moderate significant effect (SMD=-0.40; p=0.001). Most internalized stigma reduction programs appear to be effective. This systematic review cannot make any recommendation on which intervention is more effective although psychoeducation seems most promising. More Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) on particular intervention components using standard outcome measures are recommended in future studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Impact of a nurse-led intervention to improve screening for cardiovascular risk factors in people with severe mental illnesses. Phase-two cluster randomised feasibility trial of community mental health teams

    OpenAIRE

    Nazareth Irwin; Osborn David PJ; Wright Christine A; King Michael B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background People with severe mental illnesses (SMI) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Clinical guidelines recommend regular screening for CVD risk factors. We evaluated a nurse led intervention to improve screening rates across the primary-secondary care interface. Methods Six community mental health teams (CMHTs) were randomised to receive either the nurse led intervention plus education pack (n = 3) or education pack only (n = 3). Intervention (6 months): The ...

  14. Volunteering in the care of people with severe mental illness: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallett Claudia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of the literature to date concerning public attitudes towards people with severe mental illness (SMI has focused on negative stereotypes and discriminatory behaviour. However, there also exists a tradition of volunteering with these people, implying a more positive attitude. Groups with positive attitudes and behaviours towards people with SMI have received relatively little attention in research. They merit further attention, as evidence on characteristics and experiences of volunteers may help to promote volunteering. The present paper aims to systematically review the literature reporting characteristics, motivations, experiences, and benefits of volunteers in the care of people with SMI. Methods In November 2010, a systematic electronic search was carried out in BNI, CINAHL, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, Cochrane Registers and Web of Science databases, using a combination of ‘volunteer’, ‘mental health’ and ‘outcome’ search terms. A secondary hand search was performed in relevant psychiatric journals, grey literature and references. Results 14 papers met the inclusion criteria for the review, with data on a total of 540 volunteers. The results suggest that volunteers are a mostly female, but otherwise heterogeneous group. Motivations for volunteering are a combination of what they can ‘give’ to others and what they can ‘get’ for themselves. Overall volunteers report positive experiences. The main benefit to persons with a psychiatric illness is the gaining of a companion, who is non-stigmatizing and proactive in increasing their social-community involvement. Conclusions The evidence base for volunteers in care of people with SMI is small and inconsistent. However there are potential implications for both current and future volunteering programmes from the data. As the data suggests that there is no ‘typical’ volunteer, volunteering programmes should recruit individuals from a variety of

  15. Mental illness in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almutairi AF

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adel F Almutairi Population Health Research Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaWhile I was reading on this topic, I came across an online article attributed to a Saudi psychologist that contained information about mental illness among the Saudi population. What really struck me right away was the estimate that was given for the number of mentally ill people in the country. It was claimed that about half of the Saudi population is suffering from mental illness.1 This made me wonder on what grounds the psychologist was basing the claim and how she came up with this scary statistic. If the figure was based on an empirical study, what was the sample size and how robust was the research? Unfortunately, no details were given to answer these questions. Nevertheless, such an alarming figure was the main impetus and driving force for me to write this article and provide readers with an overview of the magnitude of mental illness in the world, and more specifically, in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, based on recent literature. This article also provides perspectives of scientists working at King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, on how we intend to tackle this issue.  

  16. Mental Illness in Children: Know the Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Autism spectrum disorder: Signs and symptoms. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/signs.html. Accessed Dec. 8, 2014. Feb. 11, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/mental-illness-in-children/ ...

  17. The Stigma of Families with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jon E.; Corrigan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. Methods: The authors describe family stigma and present current research related to mental illness stigma experienced by family members. Research indicates this type of stigma…

  18. Smoking, Mental Illness, and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Das, Smita; Young-Wolff, Kelly C

    2016-12-16

    Tobacco remains the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. In particular, people with mental illness are disproportionately affected with high smoking prevalence; they account for more than 200,000 of the 520,000 tobacco-attributable deaths in the United States annually and die on average 25 years prematurely. Our review aims to provide an update on smoking in the mentally ill. We review the determinants of tobacco use among smokers with mental illness, presented with regard to the public health HAVE framework of "the host" (e.g., tobacco user characteristics), the "agent" (e.g., nicotine product characteristics), the "vector" (e.g., tobacco industry), and the "environment" (e.g., smoking policies). Furthermore, we identify the significant health harms incurred and opportunities for prevention and intervention within a health care systems and larger health policy perspective. A comprehensive effort is warranted to achieve equity toward the 2025 Healthy People goal of reducing US adult tobacco use to 12%, with attention to all subgroups, including smokers with mental illness. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 38 is March 20, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  19. The Stigma of Families with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jon E.; Corrigan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. Methods: The authors describe family stigma and present current research related to mental illness stigma experienced by family members. Research indicates this type of stigma…

  20. Prevention of coronary heart disease in people with severe mental illnesses: a qualitative study of patient and professionals' preferences for care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazareth Irwin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with severe mental illness (SMI are at increased risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD and there is growing emphasis on the need to monitor their physical health. However, there is little consensus on how services for the primary prevention of CHD should be organised for this patient group. We explored the views of people with SMI and health professionals from primary care and community mental health teams (CMHTs on how best to provide these services. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of patients with SMI (n = 31 and staff from primary care (n = 10 and community mental health teams (n = 25 in North Central London. Transcripts of the qualitative interviews were analysed using a 'framework' approach to identify the main themes in opinions regarding various service models. Results Cardiovascular risk factors in people with SMI were of concern to participants. However, there was some disagreement about the best way to deliver appropriate care. Although staff felt that primary care should take responsibility for risk factor screening and management, patients favoured CHD screening in their CMHT. Problems with both approaches were identified. These included a lack of familiarity in general practice with SMI and antipsychotic side effects and poor communication of physical health issues to the CMHT. Lack of knowledge regarding CHD risk factor screening and difficulties in interpreting screening results and implementing appropriate interventions exist in secondary care. Conclusion Management of physical health care for people with SMI requires complex solutions that cross the primary-secondary care interface. The views expressed by our participants suggest that neither primary nor secondary care services on their own can provide a comprehensive service for all patients. The increased risk of CHD associated with SMI and antipsychotic medications requires flexible solutions with clear

  1. Mental illness in the nursing workplace: a collective autoethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Jacquie Dianne; Finlayson, Mary P

    2010-01-01

    Many nurses are burned out, exhausted and have a high intent to leave their jobs. These factors, when experienced over a period of time, are consistent with the development of mental illness. This study takes a collective autoethnographical approach to mental illness in the nursing workplace by focusing on the stories of nurses who have experienced mental illness in clinical practice. It highlights three ways in which nursing and mental illness are connected; the nurse who is vulnerable to mental illness prior to entering the profession, the nurse who develops mental illness that is independent of her work but is nevertheless impacted by it, and the nurse who develops mental illness as a result of her work and/or role. This paper explores the hyphenated lives and bullying these nurses experience, and recommends strategies that the profession, employing organisations, and individuals can adopt to reduce nurses' progression from stress to distress and mental illness.

  2. Veterans Affairs Health System and mental health treatment retention among patients with serious mental illness: evaluating accessibility and availability barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John F; Blow, Frederic C; Valenstein, Marcia; Fischer, Ellen P; Owen, Richard R; Barry, Kristen L; Hudson, Teresa J; Ignacio, Rosalinda V

    2007-06-01

    We examine the impact of two dimensions of access-geographic accessibility and availability-on VA health system and mental health treatment retention among patients with serious mental illness (SMI). Among 156,631 patients in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder in fiscal year 1998 (FY98), we used Cox proportional hazards regression to model time to first 12-month gap in health system utilization, and in mental health services utilization, by the end of FY02. Geographic accessibility was operationalized as straight-line distance to nearest VA service site or VA psychiatric service site, respectively. Service availability was assessed using county-level VA hospital beds and non-VA beds per 1,000 county residents. Patients who died without a prior gap in care were censored. There were 32, 943 patients (21 percent) with a 12-month gap in health system utilization; 65,386 (42 percent) had a 12-month gap in mental health services utilization. Gaps in VA health system utilization were more likely if patients were younger, nonwhite, unmarried, homeless, nonservice-connected, if they had bipolar disorder, less medical morbidity, an inpatient stay in FY98, or if they lived farther from care or in a county with fewer VA inpatient beds. Similar relationships were observed for mental health, however being older, female, and having greater morbidity were associated with increased risks of gaps, and number of VA beds was not significant. Geographic accessibility and resource availability measures were associated with long-term continuity of care among patients with SMI. Increased distance from providers was associated with greater risks of 12-month gaps in health system and mental health services utilization. Lower VA inpatient bed availability was associated with increased risks of gaps in health system utilization. Study findings may inform efforts to improve treatment retention.

  3. Monitoring and prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome in military veterans with serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameed Ahmed M Khatana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality among patients with serious mental illness (SMI and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome--a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors--is significantly higher in these patients than in the general population. Metabolic monitoring among patients using second generation antipsychotics (SGAs--a risk factor for metabolic syndrome--has been shown to be inadequate despite the release of several guidelines. However, patients with SMI have several factors independent of medication use that predispose them to a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Our study therefore examines monitoring and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with SMI, including those not using SGAs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We retrospectively identified all patients treated at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center with diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder during 2005-2006 and obtained demographic and clinical data. Incomplete monitoring of metabolic syndrome was defined as being unable to determine the status of at least one of the syndrome components. Of the 1,401 patients included (bipolar disorder: 822; schizophrenia: 222; and schizoaffective disorder: 357, 21.4% were incompletely monitored. Only 54.8% of patients who were not prescribed SGAs and did not have previous diagnoses of hypertension or hypercholesterolemia were monitored for all metabolic syndrome components compared to 92.4% of patients who had all three of these characteristics. Among patients monitored for metabolic syndrome completely, age-adjusted prevalence of the syndrome was 48.4%, with no significant difference between the three psychiatric groups. CONCLUSIONS: Only one half of patients with SMI not using SGAs or previously diagnosed with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were completely monitored for metabolic syndrome components compared to greater than 90% of those with these characteristics

  4. Mental Illness In Nursing Homes: Variations Across States

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowski, David C.; Aschbrenner, Kelly A.; Feng, Zhanlian; Mor, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    The institutionalization of individuals with mental illness in nursing homes is an important policy concern. Using nursing home Minimum Data Set assessments from 2005, we found large cross-state variation in both the rates of mental illness among nursing home admissions and the estimated rates of nursing home admissions among persons with mental illness. We also found that newly admitted individuals with mental illness were younger and more likely to become long-stay residents. Taken together...

  5. A well-being support program for patients with severe mental illness: a service evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawber Nicky

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of cardiovascular disease is increased in patients with severe mental illness (SMI dramatically reducing life expectancy. Method A real world pragmatic service evaluation of a Well-Being Support Program (WSP was conducted. This was a four-session package delivered over a one-year period by mental health practitioners that had received additional training in providing physical health assessment and intervention. Patients' physical health was screened and appropriate one-to-one and group intervention was offered. Results 212 mental health practitioners were trained in the WSP and 782 patients were enrolled on the program. The majority of our sample was overweight or obese; 66% had a Body Mass Index (BMI >25. Lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD were common and the patients had low self esteem. The average number of formally recorded well-being sessions attended was 2.10. Just under a quarter of those patients enrolled in the program completed. The only cardiovascular risk factor that significantly altered in patients that completed the program was BMI. The qualitative feedback about the program was largely positive. Conclusions The need to intervene to enhance the physical health of people with SMI is beyond doubt. Maintaining patient engagement in a physical health improvement program is challenging. Regular comprehensive physical health monitoring is necessary to establish the benefit of intervention and increase life expectancy and well-being in this population.

  6. American Christian Engagement With Mental Health and Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    Although religious belief and practice are relevant to mental health outcomes, many clinicians lack knowledge of particular religious traditions required to make informed judgments about referral to and collaboration with faith-based organizations and clinicians. This Open Forum examines five diverse American Christian approaches to mental health and mental illness-pastoral care and counseling, biblical counseling, integrationism, Christian psychology, and the work of the Institute for the Psychological Sciences--that are relevant for contemporary mental health service delivery. Each of these movements is briefly described and placed in historical, conceptual, and organizational context. Knowledge of the diverse and varied terrain of American Christian engagement with mental health care can inform clinicians' interactions with faith-based providers, clarify opportunities for responsible collaboration, and provide important insight into religious subcultures with faith-based concerns about contemporary psychiatric care.

  7. The Relationship Between the Perceived Risk of Harm by a Family Member with Mental Illness and the Family Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Judith; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Li Juan; Dixon, Lisa B

    2015-10-01

    Family members of people with serious mental illness (SMI) at times report that they act to stop their ill relative from self harm or harming others. This study examines the relationship between the perception of risk of harm and family distress, burden, empowerment, coping, physical and mental health, appraisal of the caregiving experience, family communication, and family functioning. The study is a secondary analysis of baseline data collected for a randomized study of the family-to-family peer driven education program (FTF). Four hundred thirty-four enrolled individuals who were seeking to participate in FTF completed survey items that asked if they had tried to stop or prevent their ill family member from harming themselves or others in the last 30 days. Participants who perceived a recent risk of harm by their ill relative reported more negative appraisals of caregiving, greater psychological distress, poorer mental health and greater objective burden compared with those who did not perceive a recent risk of harm. The results suggest that families of persons with SMI should be asked about perceived risk of harm to self and others, and the presence of perceived risk of harm should serve as a red flag indicating the need for further evaluation of the family experience and additional support for the family.

  8. Resolving mental illness stigma: should we seek normalcy or solidarity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W

    2016-04-01

    Two approaches have emerged to deal with the stigma of mental illness: normalcy, where people with mental illness are framed as 'just like everyone else'; and solidarity, where the public agrees to stand with those with mental illness regardless of their symptoms. Pros and cons of each approach are considered.

  9. Recent physical and sexual violence against adults with severe mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifeh, Hind; Oram, Siân; Osborn, David; Howard, Louise M; Johnson, Sonia

    2016-10-01

    People with severe mental illness (SMI) have high prevalence of lifetime victimization, but little is known about the extent and risk of recent domestic/sexual violence. The objective was to synthesize evidence on prevalence, odds, and risk factors for recent violence against people with SMI, with a focus on domestic and sexual violence. Relevant studies were identified through literature searches in Medline, Psychinf, Embase (for studies published in 2010-2015), and through existing systematic reviews (for studies published in 2000-2014). The review included 30 studies (with 16 140 SMI participants), including six on domestic violence and 11 on sexual violence. Prevalence of recent domestic violence ranged from 15-22% among women and from 4-10% among men/mixed samples; with little evidence on risk compared with the general population. Median prevalence of sexual violence was 9.9% (IQR = 5.9-18.1%) in women and 3.1% (IQR = 2.5-6.7%) in men; with 6-fold higher odds of victimization compared with the general population. There was little evidence on risk factors for domestic or sexual violence. In conclusion, people with SMI have a high prevalence of recent domestic and sexual violence, but little is known about risk factors for these violence types, or extent of domestic violence victimization compared to the general population.

  10. Narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder associated with repeated interpersonal trauma in patients with severe mental illness: a mixed methods design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Maria W.; Van Gaal, Betsie G. I.; Jongedijk, Ruud A.; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Goossens, Peter J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Netherlands, most patients with severe mental illness (SMI) receive flexible assertive community treatment (FACT) provided by multidisciplinary community mental health teams. SMI patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are sometimes offered evidence-based trauma-focused treatment like eye movement desensitization reprocessing or prolonged exposure. There is a large amount of evidence for the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy (NET) within various vulnerable patient groups with repeated interpersonal trauma. Some FACT-teams provide NET for patients with comorbid PTSD, which is promising, but has not been specifically studied in SMI patients. Objectives The primary aim is to evaluate NET in SMI patients with comorbid PTSD associated with repeated interpersonal trauma to get insight into whether (1) PTSD and dissociative symptoms changes and (2) changes occur in the present SMI symptoms, care needs, quality of life, global functioning, and care consumption. The second aim is to gain insight into patients’ experiences with NET and to identify influencing factors on treatment results. Methods This study will have a mixed methods convergent design consisting of quantitative repeated measures and qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews based on Grounded Theory. The study population will include adult SMI outpatients (n=25) with comorbid PTSD and receiving NET. The quantitative study parameters will be existence and severity of PTSD, dissociative, and SMI symptoms; care needs; quality of life; global functioning; and care consumption. In a longitudinal analysis, outcomes will be analyzed using mixed models to estimate the difference in means between baseline and repeated measurements. The qualitative study parameters will be experiences with NET and perceived factors for success or failure. Integration of quantitative and qualitative results will be focused on interpreting how qualitative results enhance the

  11. Arranged matches and mental illness: therapists' dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David; Buchbinder, Jacob Tuvia; Witztum, Eliezer

    2012-01-01

    Traditional societies place especial value on marriage and having children, and marriages are often arranged. A series of situations and dilemmas associated with arranged matches and their consequences are described in the course of mental health work with ultra-orthodox Jewish people with severe mental illness. Issues of confidentiality may arise with parents and matchmakers; on the other hand, respectful cooperation with religious authorities, counselors in the community, and family members is important. Information on genetic counseling, contraception, medication during pregnancy, and breastfeeding are considered and interact with communal structures and practices. There is a need for close support and evaluation during the process of marriage, childbearing, and parenthood.

  12. Narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder associated with repeated interpersonal trauma in patients with severe mental illness: a mixed methods design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria W. Mauritz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the Netherlands, most patients with severe mental illness (SMI receive flexible assertive community treatment (FACT provided by multidisciplinary community mental health teams. SMI patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD are sometimes offered evidence-based trauma-focused treatment like eye movement desensitization reprocessing or prolonged exposure. There is a large amount of evidence for the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy (NET within various vulnerable patient groups with repeated interpersonal trauma. Some FACT-teams provide NET for patients with comorbid PTSD, which is promising, but has not been specifically studied in SMI patients. Objectives: The primary aim is to evaluate NET in SMI patients with comorbid PTSD associated with repeated interpersonal trauma to get insight into whether (1 PTSD and dissociative symptoms changes and (2 changes occur in the present SMI symptoms, care needs, quality of life, global functioning, and care consumption. The second aim is to gain insight into patients’ experiences with NET and to identify influencing factors on treatment results. Methods: This study will have a mixed methods convergent design consisting of quantitative repeated measures and qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews based on Grounded Theory. The study population will include adult SMI outpatients (n=25 with comorbid PTSD and receiving NET. The quantitative study parameters will be existence and severity of PTSD, dissociative, and SMI symptoms; care needs; quality of life; global functioning; and care consumption. In a longitudinal analysis, outcomes will be analyzed using mixed models to estimate the difference in means between baseline and repeated measurements. The qualitative study parameters will be experiences with NET and perceived factors for success or failure. Integration of quantitative and qualitative results will be focused on interpreting how qualitative results

  13. Primary care consultation rates among people with and without severe mental illness: a UK cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Olier, Ivan; Planner, Claire; Reeves, David; Ashcroft, Darren M; Gask, Linda; Doran, Tim; Reilly, Siobhan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about service utilisation by patients with severe mental illness (SMI) in UK primary care. We examined their consultation rate patterns and whether they were impacted by the introduction of the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), in 2004. Design Retrospective cohort study using individual patient data collected from 2000 to 2012. Setting 627 general practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a large UK primary care database. Participants SMI cases (346 551) matched to 5 individuals without SMI (1 732 755) on age, gender and general practice. Outcome measures Consultation rates were calculated for both groups, across 3 types: face-to-face (primary outcome), telephone and other (not only consultations but including administrative tasks). Poisson regression analyses were used to identify predictors of consultation rates and calculate adjusted consultation rates. Interrupted time-series analysis was used to quantify the effect of the QOF. Results Over the study period, face-to-face consultations in primary care remained relatively stable in the matched control group (between 4.5 and 4.9 per annum) but increased for people with SMI (8.8–10.9). Women and older patients consulted more frequently in the SMI and the matched control groups, across all 3 consultation types. Following the introduction of the QOF, there was an increase in the annual trend of face-to-face consultation for people with SMI (average increase of 0.19 consultations per patient per year, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.36), which was not observed for the control group (estimates across groups statistically different, p=0.022). Conclusions The introduction of the QOF was associated with increases in the frequency of monitoring and in the average number of reported comorbidities for patients with SMI. This suggests that the QOF scheme successfully incentivised practices to improve their monitoring of the mental and physical health of this group of patients

  14. Mental illness in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Almutairi AF

    2015-01-01

    Adel F Almutairi Population Health Research Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaWhile I was reading on this topic, I came across an online article attributed to a Saudi psychologist that contained information about mental illness among the Saudi population. What really struck me right away was the estimate that was given for the number of m...

  15. Mental illness stigma: concepts, consequences, and initiatives to reduce stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2005-12-01

    Persons with mental illness frequently encounter public stigma and may suffer from self-stigma. This review aims to clarify the concept of mental illness stigma and discuss consequences for individuals with mental illness. After a conceptual overview of stigma we discuss two leading concepts of mental illness stigma and consequences of stigma, focussing on self-stigma/empowerment and fear of stigma as a barrier to using health services. Finally, we discuss three main strategies to reduce stigma -- protest, education, and contact -- and give examples of current anti-stigma campaigns. Well-designed anti-stigma initiatives will help to diminish negative consequences of mental illness stigma.

  16. Predicting quality of life in adults with severe mental illness: Extending the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jennifer; Rosenthal, David A; Tansey, Timothy N; Frain, Michael P; Bezyak, Jill L

    2016-02-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework was used to investigate person-environment contextual factors, mental functioning, activity limitations, and participation as predictors of quality of life (QoL) in adults with severe mental illness (SMI). A quantitative descriptive design using multiple regression and correlational analyses was used. One hundred ninety-four individuals with SMI from 4 community-based mental health agencies in 2 states from Southern and Midwestern regions of the United States participated in the study. The criterion variable was QoL. Predictor variables comprised the ICF constructs: (a) demographics, (b) personal factors, (c) environmental factors, (d) mental functioning, (e) activity limitations, and (f) participation. A majority of participants were White (60.3%) and not employed (59.8%). Half of them received Social Security Disability Income and/or Supplemental Security Income (50.0%). Correlations between QoL and the predictor variables ranged from small to large (r = .01 to .63, respectively). The final regression model accounted for 58% of the variance in QoL. After controlling for other factors, social competency, social support, societal stigma, psychological distress, cognitive dysfunction, activity limitations, and participation were found to be significant predictors of QoL in adults with SMI. The study supports the use of the ICF to predict QoL for adults with SMI. Evidence-based treatments focused on increasing social competence, social support, and participation should be developed to promote rehabilitation outcomes and overall QoL. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Assessing vocational outcome expectancy in individuals with serious mental illness: a factor-analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Kanako; Umucu, Emre; Wu, Jia-Rung; Yaghmaian, Rana; Lee, Hui-Ling; Fitzgerald, Sandra; Chan, Fong

    2017-07-04

    Self-determination theory (SDT) and self-efficacy theory (SET) can be used to conceptualize self-determined motivation to engage in mental health and vocational rehabilitation (VR) services and to predict recovery. To incorporate SDT and SET as a framework for vocational recovery, developing and validating SDT/SET measures in vocational rehabilitation is warranted. Outcome expectancy is an important SDT/SET variable affecting rehabilitation engagement and recovery. The purpose of this study was to validate the Vocational Outcome Expectancy Scale (VOES) for use within the SDT/SET vocational recovery framework. One hundred and twenty-four individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) participated in this study. Measurement structure of the VOES was evaluated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Both EFA and CFA results supported a two-factor structure: (a) positive outcome expectancy, and (b) negative outcome expectancy. The internal consistency reliability coefficients for both factors were acceptable. In addition, positive outcome expectancy correlated stronger than negative outcome expectancy with other SDT/SET constructs in the expected directions. The VOES is a brief, reliable and valid instrument for assessing vocational outcome expectancy in individuals with SMI that can be integrated into SDT/SET as a vocational rehabilitation engagement and recovery model in psychiatric rehabilitation.

  18. Social network, recovery attitudes and internal stigma among those with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Bernadette Am; Mojtabai, Ramin; Bordbar, Elahe; Everett, Anita; Nugent, Katie L; Eaton, William W

    2017-08-01

    Social network size and strength is an important determinant of overall health. This study describes the extent and strength of the social network among a sample of individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) and explores the relationship between an individual's social network and their experience of internal stigma and recovery attitudes. Over a 2-year period, consecutive new patients with SMI attending two community mental health clinics were recruited and interviewed using a comprehensive battery of assessments including assessment of internalized stigma, recovery attitudes and symptom severity. Among the 271 patients interviewed, social network size was small across all diagnostic categories. In adjusted results, the number of friends and support from relatives and friends was significantly related to the personal confidence and hope recovery attitude ( p stigma ( p stigma. There is a significant positive relationship between the size and perceived strength of an individual's social network and internalized stigma and some recovery attitudes. Clinical programs that address any of these factors could potentially improve outcomes for this population.

  19. Metabolic Syndrome in South African Patients with Severe Mental Illness: Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamima Saloojee

    Full Text Available There is a surge of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Africa. CVD is the leading cause of mortality among patients with severe mental illness (SMI in developed countries, with little evidence from the African context.To determine the prevalence and risk factors for MetS among South African patients with SMI.In a cross sectional study, individuals with SMI treated with antipsychotics and a control group without a mental illness, matched for age, gender and ethnicity were evaluated for MetS using the 2009 Joint Interim statement (JIS criteria.Of the 276 study group subjects, 65.9% were male, 84.1% black African, 9.1% white, 5.4% of Indian descent and 1.5% coloured (mixed race with a mean age of 34.7 years (±12.5. Schizophrenia was the most common diagnosis (73.2% and 40% were taking first generation antipsychotics. The prevalence of MetS was 23.2% (M: 15.4%, F: 38.3% in the study group and 19.9% (M: 11.9%, F: 36.3% in the control group (p = 0.4. MetS prevalence was significantly higher in study subjects over 55 years compared to controls (p = 0.03. Increased waist circumference (p< 0.001 and low high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (p = 0.003 were significantly more prevalent in study subjects compared to controls. In study subjects, risk factors associated with MetS included age (OR: 1.09, 95% CI 1.06-1.12, p < 0.001, female gender (OR: 2.19, 95% CI 1.06-4.55, p = 0.035 and Indian descent (OR: 5.84, 95% CI 1.66-20.52, p = 0.006 but not class of antipsychotic (p = 0.26.The overall MetS prevalence was not increased in patients with SMI compared to controls; however, the higher prevalence of the individual components (HDL cholesterol and waist circumference suggests an increased risk for CVD, especially in patients over 55 years.

  20. Life skills programmes for chronic mental illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungpunkom, Patraporn; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla

    2014-01-01

    Background Most people with schizophrenia have a cyclical pattern of illness characterised by remission and relapses. The illness can reduce the ability of self-care and functioning and can lead to the illness becoming disabling. Life skills programmes, emphasising the needs associated with independent functioning, are often a part of the rehabilitation process. These programmes have been developed to enhance independent living and quality of life for people with schizophrenia. Objectives To review the effects of life skills programmes compared with standard care or other comparable therapies for people with chronic mental health problems. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (June 2010). We supplemented this process with handsearching and scrutiny of references. We inspected references of all included studies for further trials. Selection criteria We included all relevant randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials for life skills programmes versus other comparable therapies or standard care involving people with serious mental illnesses. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a random-effects model. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), again based on a random-effects model. Main results We included seven randomised controlled trials with a total of 483 participants. These evaluated life skills programmes versus standard care, or support group. We found no significant difference in life skills performance between people given life skills training and standard care (1 RCT, n = 32, MD −1.10; 95% CI −7.82 to 5.62). Life skills training did not improve or worsen study retention (5 RCTs, n = 345, RR 1.16; 95% CI 0.40 to 3.36). We found no significant difference in PANSS positive, negative or total scores between life skills intervention and

  1. Disparities in oral cancer survival among mentally ill patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Shou Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported excess cancer mortality in patients with mental illness. However, scant studies evaluated the differences in cancer treatment and its impact on survival rates among mentally ill patients. Oral cancer is one of the ten most common cancers in the world. We investigated differences in treatment type and survival rates between oral cancer patients with mental illness and without mental illness. METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance (NHI database, we compared the type of treatment and survival rates in 16687 oral cancer patients from 2002 to 2006. The utilization rate of surgery for oral cancer was compared between patients with mental illness and without mental illness using logistic regression. The Cox proportional hazards model was used for survival analysis. RESULTS: Oral cancer patients with mental disorder conferred a grave prognosis, compared with patients without mental illness (hazard ratios [HR] = 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30-1.93; P<0.001. After adjusting for patients' characteristics and hospital characteristics, patients with mental illness were less likely to receive surgery with or without adjuvant therapy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.34-0.65; P<0.001. In multivariate analysis, oral cancer patients with mental illness carried a 1.58-times risk of death (95% CI = 1.30-1.93; P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Oral cancer patients with mental illness were less likely to undergo surgery with or without adjuvant therapy than those without mental illness. Patients with mental illness have a poor prognosis compared to those without mental illness. To reduce disparities in physical health, public health strategies and welfare policies must continue to focus on this vulnerable group.

  2. Fathers with mental illness: implications for clinicians and health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Richard J; Maharaj, O'Neil N; Fletcher Watson, Chloe H; May, Chris; Skeates, Nigel; Gruenert, Stefan

    2013-08-05

    A significant proportion of fathers living with their natural, adopted, step or foster children experience mental illness. Psychiatric illness among fathers can have a devastating impact on children's wellbeing, and even milder forms of paternal mental illness can have serious developmental effects on children. While several pathways linking paternal mental illness with poor child outcomes have been identified, fathers' impaired parenting is an important, potentially malleable factor. Clinicians can assist fathers with mental illness and their families by proactively inquiring about children and by exploring fathering-focused psychological support.

  3. Mental Illness and Mental Health Defenses: Perceptions of the Criminal Bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierson, Richard L; Boyd, Mary S; Harper, Angela

    2015-12-01

    As the number of state mental hospital beds declines, persons with persistent mental illness are increasingly encountered by those working in the legal system. Attorneys may have little experience in working with this population. This research involved a 32-item written survey of the 492 members of the criminal bar in South Carolina. Demographic variables were surveyed, and attorneys were asked to define two common terms describing mental illnesses (delusion and psychosis) and the legal criteria for verdicts of not guilty by reason of insanity and guilty but mentally ill. They were also asked to identify the most severe mental illness (schizophrenia). Attitudes about these verdicts and about working with defendants who are mentally ill were also surveyed. Results indicate that attorneys are fairly knowledgeable about mental illness, but not verdicts involving mental illness, particularly the verdict of guilty but mentally ill. Most attorneys prefer to work with clients who do not have mental illness. However, as they become more experienced interacting with defendants who are affected by mental illness, they become more knowledgeable and are more willing to defend them. A large majority believe that their law school education about mental illness was inadequate. When comparing attorney occupations, public defenders were the most knowledgeable about mental illness and mental health defenses, followed by prosecutors and private defense attorneys. Judges were the least knowledgeable group.

  4. Motivating factors and barriers towards exercise in severe mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, J; Rosenbaum, S; Stubbs, B; Gorczynski, P; Yung, A R; Vancampfort, D

    2016-10-01

    Exercise can improve clinical outcomes in people with severe mental illness (SMI). However, this population typically engages in low levels of physical activity with poor adherence to exercise interventions. Understanding the motivating factors and barriers towards exercise for people with SMI would help to maximize exercise participation. A search of major electronic databases was conducted from inception until May 2016. Quantitative studies providing proportional data on the motivating factors and/or barriers towards exercise among patients with SMI were eligible. Random-effects meta-analyses were undertaken to calculate proportional data and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for motivating factors and barriers toward exercise. From 1468 studies, 12 independent studies of 6431 psychiatric patients were eligible for inclusion. Meta-analyses showed that 91% of people with SMI endorsed 'improving health' as a reason for exercise (N = 6, n = 790, 95% CI 80-94). Among specific aspects of health and well-being, the most common motivations were 'losing weight' (83% of patients), 'improving mood' (81%) and 'reducing stress' (78%). However, low mood and stress were also identified as the most prevalent barriers towards exercise (61% of patients), followed by 'lack of support' (50%). Many of the desirable outcomes of exercise for people with SMI, such as mood improvement, stress reduction and increased energy, are inversely related to the barriers of depression, stress and fatigue which frequently restrict their participation in exercise. Providing patients with professional support to identify and achieve their exercise goals may enable them to overcome psychological barriers, and maintain motivation towards regular physical activity.

  5. Revisiting the concept of severe mental illness: severity indicators and healthcare spending in psychotic, depressive and dissociative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Vazquez, Ana Isabel; Seijo Ameneiros, Natalia; Díaz Del Valle, Juan Carlos; Lopez Fernandez, Ester; Santed Germán, Miguel Angel

    2017-08-10

    The concept of severe mental illness (SMI) has been related to bipolar or psychotic diagnosis, or to some cases of depressive disorders. Other mental health problems such as personality disorders or posttraumatic dissociative conditions, which can sometimes lead to relevant functional impairments, remain separate from the SMI construct. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical severity as well as healthcare spending on dissociative disorders (DDs). This diagnostic group was compared with two other groups usually considered as causing severe impairment and high healthcare spending: bipolar and psychotic disorders, and unipolar depression. From a random sample of 200 psychiatric outpatients, 108 with unipolar depression (N = 45), psychotic/bipolar (N = 31) or DDs (N = 32) were selected for this study. The three groups were compared by the severity of their disorder and healthcare indicators. Of the three groups, those with a DD were more prone to and showed higher indices of suicide, self-injury, emergency consultations, as well as psychotropic drug use. This group ranked just below psychotic/bipolar patients in the amount of psychiatric hospitalisations. Despite a certain intra-professional stigma regarding DDs, these data supported the severity of these posttraumatic conditions, and their inclusion in the construct of SMI.

  6. Pre-conception to parenting: a systematic review and meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature on motherhood for women with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolman, Clare; Jones, Ian; Howard, Louise M

    2013-06-01

    The majority of women with a severe mental illness (SMI) become pregnant and have children. The aim of this systematic review and meta-synthesis was to examine the qualitative research on the experiences of motherhood in women with SMI from preconception decision making to being a mother. The experiences of the health professionals treating women with SMI were also reviewed. Eleven databases were searched for papers published up to April 25, 2012, using keywords and mesh headings. A total of 23 studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria on the views of women with SMI, eight reported the views of health professionals including one which reported both. The meta-synthesis of the 23 studies on women's views produced two overarching themes Experiences of Motherhood and Experiences of Services. Sub-themes included the following: Guilt, Coping with Dual Identities, Stigma, and Centrality of Motherhood. Four themes emerged from the synthesis of the eight papers reporting the views of health professionals: Discomfort, Stigma, Need for education, and Integration of services. An understanding of the experiences of pregnancy and motherhood for women with SMI can inform service development and provision to ensure the needs of women and their families are met.

  7. Self-Stigma of Mental Illness in High School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Leah I.; Michel, Natalie M.; Winter, Ariella; Young, Rebecca E.; Flett, Gordon L.; Goldberg, Joel O.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of mental health problems, society continues to stigmatize and discriminate against people with mental illness and in particular, schizophrenia. Among the negative consequences of stigma, is that some individuals with mental illness internalize negative stereotypes about themselves, referred to as self-stigma, which is…

  8. How Clinical Diagnosis Might Exacerbate the Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    Stigma can greatly exacerbate the experience of mental illness. Diagnostic classification frequently used by clinical social workers may intensify this stigma by enhancing the public's sense of "groupness" and "differentness" when perceiving people with mental illness. The homogeneity assumed by stereotypes may lead mental health professionals and…

  9. Self-Stigma of Mental Illness in High School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Leah I.; Michel, Natalie M.; Winter, Ariella; Young, Rebecca E.; Flett, Gordon L.; Goldberg, Joel O.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of mental health problems, society continues to stigmatize and discriminate against people with mental illness and in particular, schizophrenia. Among the negative consequences of stigma, is that some individuals with mental illness internalize negative stereotypes about themselves, referred to as self-stigma, which is…

  10. Mental Illness in Offender Populations: Prevalence, Duty and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderstrom, Irina R.

    2007-01-01

    Prisons are increasingly being filled with inmates who suffer from mental illness. This paper examines the prevalence of mental illness in American jails and prisons, the duty government and society has to provide appropriate mental health treatment, and the implications for inmate safety, costs, recidivism, and community reintegration if…

  11. How Clinical Diagnosis Might Exacerbate the Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    Stigma can greatly exacerbate the experience of mental illness. Diagnostic classification frequently used by clinical social workers may intensify this stigma by enhancing the public's sense of "groupness" and "differentness" when perceiving people with mental illness. The homogeneity assumed by stereotypes may lead mental health professionals and…

  12. Mental illness-related stigma in healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantler, Ed; Szeto, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Mental illness-related stigma, including that which exists in the healthcare system and among healthcare providers, creates serious barriers to access and quality care. It is also a major concern for healthcare practitioners themselves, both as a workplace culture issue and as a barrier for help seeking. This article provides an overview of the main barriers to access and quality care created by stigmatization in healthcare, a consideration of contributing factors, and a summary of Canadian-based research into promising practices and approaches to combatting stigma in healthcare environments.

  13. The rights of americans with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, John A

    2011-08-01

    This contribution to the literature starts by summarizing the history of psychiatric services in America from the time of our colonization to the present. It then discusses the Bill of Rights and the subsequent "rights" gained by the mentally ill, largely through state legislative or legal actions. Finally, it concludes with a discussion of how the entire area of rights has been swept up in a larger attempt to achieve a federal Bill of Patients' Rights and then a Health Reform Act in 2010.

  14. Graphic Depictions: Portrayals of Mental Illness in Video Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Samuel; Rotter, Merrill

    2016-11-01

    Although studies have examined portrayals of mental illness in the mass media, little attention has been paid to such portrayals in video games. In this descriptive study, the fifty highest-selling video games in each year from 2011 to 2013 were surveyed through application of search terms to the Wikia search engine, with subsequent review of relevant footage on YouTube. Depiction categories were then assigned based on the extent of portrayal and qualitative characteristics compared against mental illness stereotypes in cinema. Twenty-three of the 96 surveyed games depicted at least one character with mental illness. Forty-two characters were identified as portraying mental illness, with most characters classified under a "homicidal maniac" stereotype, although many characters did not clearly reflect cinema stereotypes and were subcategorized based on the shared traits. Video games contain frequent and varied portrayals of mental illness, with depictions most commonly linking mental illness to dangerous and violent behaviors.

  15. Media portrayal of mental illness and its treatments: what effect does it have on people with mental illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews dominant media portrayals of mental illness, the mentally ill and mental health interventions, and examines what social, emotional and treatment-related effects these may have. Studies consistently show that both entertainment and news media provide overwhelmingly dramatic and distorted images of mental illness that emphasise dangerousness, criminality and unpredictability. They also model negative reactions to the mentally ill, including fear, rejection, derision and ridicule. The consequences of negative media images for people who have a mental illness are profound. They impair self-esteem, help-seeking behaviours, medication adherence and overall recovery. Mental health advocates blame the media for promoting stigma and discrimination toward people with a mental illness. However, the media may also be an important ally in challenging public prejudices, initiating public debate, and projecting positive, human interest stories about people who live with mental illness. Media lobbying and press liaison should take on a central role for mental health professionals, not only as a way of speaking out for patients who may not be able to speak out for themselves, but as a means of improving public education and awareness. Also, given the consistency of research findings in this field, it may now be time to shift attention away from further cataloguing of media representations of mental illness to the more challenging prospect of how to use the media to improve the life chances and recovery possibilities for the one in four people living with mental disorders.

  16. Constructs and concepts comprising the stigma of mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    People with mental illness frequently confront public stigma andmay experience self-stigma. This review discusses the concepts of mental illness stigma and its consequences for those with mental illness. After a conceptual overview of stigma prominent consequences pertaining to public stigma (i.e.,employment, health care quality) and self-stigma (i.e., self-confidence, quality of life, “why try” effect) are reviewed. We discuss the three main public stigma change strategies - protest, educati...

  17. Self-stigma, insight, and family burden among Israeli mothers of people with serious mental illness: Ethno-national considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Levy-Frank, Itamar; Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Roe, David

    2017-06-01

    The current cross-sectional study investigated and compared the associations between insight, self-stigma, and family burden among Jewish and Arab mothers of an adult son or daughter with serious mental illness (SMI) in Israel. A total of 162 Israeli mothers of a person with SMI participated in the study; 95 were Jewish (58.6%), and 67 were Arab (41.4%). Insight, self-stigma, and family burden scales were administered. Jewish mothers reported higher levels of insight into their son's or daughter's illness and reported greater family burden compared to Arab mothers. No significant differences in self-stigma scores were found between Jewish and Arab mothers. The pattern of associations between insight, self-stigma, and burden differed between Jewish and Arab mothers. Self-stigma was found to mediate the relationship between insight and burden among Jewish mothers but not among Arab mothers. Ethno-national affiliation should be taken into consideration regarding how family members conceptualize and experience mental illness, as this might affect care.

  18. Functional status and all-cause mortality in serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Hayes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serious mental illness can affect many aspects of an individual's ability to function in daily life. The aim of this investigation was to determine if the environmental and functional status of people with serious mental illness contribute to the high mortality risk observed in this patient group. METHODS: We identified cases of schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorder aged ≥ 15 years in a large secondary mental healthcare case register linked to national mortality tracing. We modelled the effect of activities of daily living (ADLs, living conditions, occupational and recreational activities and relationship factors (Health of the Nation Outcome Scale [HoNOS] subscales on all-cause mortality over a 4-year observation period (2007-10 using Cox regression. RESULTS: We identified 6,880 SMI cases (242 deaths in the observation period. ADL impairment was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3-2.8; p = 0.001, p for trend across ADL categories = 0.001 after controlling for a broad range of covariates (including demographic factors, physical health, mental health symptoms and behaviours, socio-economic status and mental health service contact. No associations were found for the other three exposures. Stratification by age indicated that ADLs were most strongly associated with mortality in the youngest (15 to <35 years and oldest (≥ 55 years groups. CONCLUSIONS: Functional impairment in people with serious mental illness diagnoses is a marker of increased mortality risk, possibly in younger age groups as a marker of negative symptomatology.

  19. Peer-based health interventions for people with serious mental illness: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Camacho, David; Vélez-Grau, Carolina M; Stefancic, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Health interventions delivered by peer specialists or co-facilitated by peer specialists and health professionals can help improve the physical health of people with serious mental illness (SMI). Yet, the quality of the studies examining these health interventions and their impact on health outcomes remains unclear. To address this gap, we conducted a systematic literature review of peer-based health interventions for people with SMI. We rated the methodological quality of studies, summarized intervention strategies and health outcomes, and evaluated the inclusion of racial and ethnic minorities in these studies. We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines to conduct our systematic literature review. Electronic bibliographic databases and manual searches were used to locate articles that were published in English in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2015, described peer-based health interventions for people with SMI, and evaluated the impact of the interventions on physical health outcomes. Two independent reviewers used a standardized instrument to rate studies' methodological quality, abstracted study characteristics, and evaluated the effects of the interventions on different health outcomes. Eighteen articles were reviewed. Findings indicated that the strength of the evidence generated from these studies is limited due to several methodological limitations. Mixed and limited intervention effects were reported for most health outcomes. The most promising interventions were self-management and peer-navigator interventions. Efforts to strengthen the evidence of peer-based interventions require a research agenda that focuses on establishing the efficacy and effectiveness of these interventions across different populations and settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America. ... attitudes were generally more positive and less socially stigmatizing toward mental ... Cultural influences on these public attitudes are more likely important than language ...

  1. Sociodemographic characteristics of severely mentally ill clients in rural and urban counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenley, J R; Dottl, S L

    1997-12-01

    Sociodemographic differences between rural and urban clients with severe mental illness (SMI) are explored using approaches which extend research in this area beyond limitations found in the few existing studies. Sixteen hundred adult clients from 18 Wisconsin counties are classified according to the degree of rurality of their counties of residence, using two definitions: a dichotomous metropolitan-non-metropolitan grouping and population density. There are significant differences between rural and urban clients for age, gender, and marital status, but not education or income. Young (18-35 years), unmarried males are more likely to live in more densely populated counties. Older (65 and older) women who are currently or previously married are more likely to live in less densely populated counties.

  2. Witchcraft and Biopsychosocial Causes of Mental Illness: Attitudes and Beliefs About Mental Illness Among Health Professionals in Five Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovics, Elina A; He, Hongbo; Cavalcanti, Maria; Neto, Helio; Ofori-Atta, Angelo; Leddy, Meaghan; Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-03-01

    This study examines the intercorrelation of measures reflecting beliefs about and attitudes toward people with mental illness in a sample of health professionals (N = 902) from five countries: Brazil, China, Ghana, Nigeria, and the United States, and, more specifically, the association of beliefs in supernatural as contrasted with biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Factor analysis of a 43-item questionnaire identified four factors favoring a) socializing with people with mental illness; b) normalizing their roles in society; c) belief in supernatural causes of mental illness (e.g., witchcraft, curses); and d) belief in biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Unexpectedly, a hypothesized negative association between belief in supernatural and biopsychosocial causation of mental illness was not found. Belief in the biopsychosocial causation was weakly associated with less stigmatized attitudes towards socializing and normalized roles.

  3. Outcomes of inpatients with severe mental illness: a naturalistic descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela L. Nuernberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe and evaluate the response and predictors of remission during inpatient treatment in a psychiatric unit in a general hospital based on symptomatology, functionality, and quality of life (QoL. Methods: Patients were admitted to a psychiatric unit in a tertiary general hospital in Brazil from June 2011 to December 2013 and included in the study if they met two of the severe mental illness (SMI criteria: Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF ≤ 50 and duration of service contact ≥ 2 years. Patients were assessed by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, the Clinical Global Impression (CGI Severity Scale , GAF, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument – Abbreviated version (WHOQOL-Bref, and specific diagnostic scales. Results: A total of 239 patients were included. BPRS mean scores were 25.54±11.37 at admission and 10.96±8.11 at discharge (p < 0.001. Patients with manic episodes (odds ratio: 4.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.14-14.30; p = 0.03 were more likely to achieve remission (CGI ≤ 2 at discharge than those with depressive episodes. Mean length of stay was 28.95±19.86 days. All QoL domains improved significantly in the whole sample. Conclusion: SMI patients had marked improvements in symptomatic and functional measures during psychiatric hospitalization. Patients with manic episodes had higher chance of remission according to the CGI.

  4. The Impact of Illness Identity on Recovery from Severe Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanos, Philip T; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H

    2010-04-01

    The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically driven model of the impact of illness identity on the course and recovery from severe mental illness and reviews relevant research. We propose that accepting a definition of oneself as mentally ill and assuming that mental illness means incompetence and inadequacy impact hope and self-esteem, which further impact suicide risk, coping, social interaction, vocational functioning, and symptom severity. Evidence supports most of the predictions made by the model. Implications for psychiatric rehabilitation services are discussed.

  5. Family contact and health status among older adults with serious mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Mueser, Kim T; Bartels, Stephen J; Pratt, Sarah I

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the amount of family contact among older persons with serious mental illnesses (SMI), and to examine its relationship to health and mental health. An analysis of baseline data was conducted from a treatment study including 180 adults age 50 and older. The amount of family contact was examined with descriptive statistics. Differences in health and mental health were examined between participants with low, moderate, or high levels of family contact. Analyses also compared these groups on health and mental health functioning, controlling for psychiatric symptoms and the number and severity of medical diseases, respectively. Over three-quarters of respondents (77.8%) reported speaking on the phone with a relative and two-thirds (67.2%) reported seeing a relative at least once during the past month. Older adults who lived with a family member had more severe mood symptoms and poorer mental health functioning. Those who lived with family or had moderate levels of family contact had more comorbid diseases and more disease severity than those with less family contact. These relationships remained significant after controlling for medical conditions or psychiatric symptoms. The majority of older persons have regular family contact and those with the highest levels of family contact appear to have more compromised physical and mental health. Study findings provide new knowledge for practitioners regarding the importance of using family interventions to target physical health and mental illness management for older consumers who may need assistance to access medical care and treatment. Further research on the role of families in psychiatric and physical health management will provide a foundation for family interventions aimed at supporting community living among older adults.

  6. Discrimination in health care against people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornicroft, Graham; Rose, Diana; Kassam, Aliya

    2007-04-01

    This paper discusses factors associated with low rates of help-seeking and poorer quality of physical healthcare among people with mental illnesses. Evidence is reviewed on the associations between low rates of mental health literacy, negative attitudes towards people with mental illness, and reluctance to seek help by people who consider that they may have a mental disorder. People with mental illness often report encountering negative attitudes among mental health staff about their prognosis, associated in part with 'physician bias'. 'Diagnostic overshadowing' appears to be common in general health care settings, meaning the misattribution of physical illness signs and symptoms to concurrent mental disorders, leading to underdiagnosis and mistreatment of the physical conditions.

  7. Mental Illness, Your Client and the Criminal Law: A Handbook for Attorneys Who Represent Persons with Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This handbook for attorneys represents part of an effort to improve legal representation for criminal defendants with mental illness. The handbook was developed and reviewed by both mental health professionals and attorneys experienced in criminal and mental health law. However, it is not a comprehensive guide on mental health law or on how to…

  8. Art Education and Disability Studies Perspectives on Mental Illness Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, John K.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation critically examines mental illness discourses through the intersecting disciplinary lenses of art education and disability studies. Research from multiple disciplines is compared and theorized to uncover the ways in which discourses, or language systems, have oppressively constructed and represented "mental illness." To establish…

  9. Mental Illness as a Barrier to Marriage among Unmarried Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores how mental illness shapes transitions to marriage among unwed mothers using augmented data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (N = 2,351). We estimate proportional hazard models to assess the effects of mental illness on the likelihood of marriage over a 5-year period following a nonmarital birth. Diagnosed…

  10. New Strategies for Representing Mental Illness on Canadian Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kirsty

    2009-01-01

    Workman Arts, a Toronto-based theatre and visual arts company with a 20-year history, provides a rich site for re-imagining stigmatised representations of mental illness. Writing and performing against a long tradition of representing people with mental illnesses as incoherent speakers and visually different, company members seek to re-imagine…

  11. Attitude towards Epilepsy and Mental Illness in Ekiti State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    and marriage options and to examine whether the level of education, gender and religious ... concerning the effect of gender on the attitude towards epilepsy and mental illness and that .... The more frequent a disorder, the higher the chance of its coinciding with .... What is Psychiatric Disability and Mental illness? Dada ...

  12. Art Education and Disability Studies Perspectives on Mental Illness Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, John K.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation critically examines mental illness discourses through the intersecting disciplinary lenses of art education and disability studies. Research from multiple disciplines is compared and theorized to uncover the ways in which discourses, or language systems, have oppressively constructed and represented "mental illness." To establish…

  13. Perceptions of discrimination among persons with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick; Thompson, Vetta; Lambert, David; Sangster, Yvette; Noel, Jeffrey G; Campbell, Jean

    2003-08-01

    The authors sought to gain further perspective on discrimination experienced by persons with mental illness by comparing self-reports of discrimination due to mental illness to self-reports of discrimination due to other group characteristics, such as race, gender, and sexual orientation. A total of 1,824 persons with serious mental illness who participated in a baseline interview for a multistate study on consumer-operated services completed a two-part discrimination questionnaire. The first part of the questionnaire assessed participants' perceptions about discrimination due to mental illness as well as more than half a dozen other group characteristics. The second part of the questionnaire asked participants who reported some experience with discrimination to identify areas in which this discrimination occurred, such as employment, education, and housing. More than half of the study participants (949 participants, or 53 percent) reported some experience with discrimination. The most frequent sources of this discrimination were mental disability, race, sexual orientation, and physical disability. Areas in which discrimination frequently occurred included employment, housing, and interactions with law enforcement. Areas in which discrimination was experienced did not significantly differ among groups of study participants characterized by mental disability, race, gender, sexual orientation, or physical disability. Discrimination based on group characteristics other than mental illness does not diminish the impact of stigma associated with mental illness. Antistigma programs need to target not only discrimination related to mental illness but also that associated with other group characteristics, such as race, gender, sexual orientation, and physical disability.

  14. Perceived mental illness stigma, intimate relationships and sexual risk behavior in youth with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine S; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A; Latack, Jessica A; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R; Wainberg, Milton L

    2013-05-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth's sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed.

  15. Intensive case management for severe mental illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Marina; Irving, Claire B; Park, Bert; Marshall, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background Intensive Case Management (ICM) is a community based package of care, aiming to provide long term care for severely mentally ill people who do not require immediate admission. ICM evolved from two original community models of care, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management (CM), where ICM emphasises the importance of small caseload (less than 20) and high intensity input. Objectives To assess the effects of Intensive Case Management (caseload 20) and with standard community care in people with severe mental illness. To evaluate whether the effect of ICM on hospitalisation depends on its fidelity to the ACT model and on the setting. Search methods For the current update of this review we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (February 2009), which is compiled by systematic searches of major databases, hand searches and conference proceedings. Selection criteria All relevant randomised clinical trials focusing on people with severe mental illness, aged 18 to 65 years and treated in the community-care setting, where Intensive Case Management, non-Intensive Case Management or standard care were compared. Outcomes such as service use, adverse effects, global state, social functioning, mental state, behaviour, quality of life, satisfaction and costs were sought. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For binary outcomes we calculated relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data we estimated mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% confidence interval (CI). We employed a random-effects model for analyses. We performed a random-effects meta-regression analysis to examine the association of the intervention’s fidelity to the ACT model and the rate of hospital use in the setting where the trial was conducted with the treatment effect. Main results We included 38 trials (7328 participants) in this review. The trials provided data for two

  16. Mental illness and violence: lessons from the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry; Frank, Richard G

    2014-02-01

    The debate about addressing mental illness and violence often ignores key facts. Many people experience mental illnesses, so having had a diagnosed illness is not a very specific predictor of violent behavior. This means that many proposed policy approaches, from expanded screening to more institutionalization, are unlikely to be effective. Expanded access to effective treatments, although desirable, will have only modest impacts on violence rates. Most people with mental health problems do not commit violent acts, and most violent acts are not committed by people with diagnosed mental disorders.

  17. Children's Conceptions of Mental Illness: A Naive Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claudine; Buchanan-Barrow, Eithne; Barrett, Martyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports two studies that investigated children's conceptions of mental illness using a naive theory approach, drawing upon a conceptual framework for analysing illness representations which distinguishes between the identity, causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of an illness. The studies utilized semi-structured interviewing…

  18. Mental illness--stigma and discrimination in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapungwe, A; Cooper, S; Mwanza, J; Mwape, L; Sikwese, A; Kakuma, R; Lund, C; Flisher, A J

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the presence, causes and means of addressing individual and systemic stigma and discrimination against people with mental illness in Zambia. This is to facilitate the development of tailor-made antistigma initiatives that are culturally sensitive for Zambia and other low-income African countries. This is the first in-depth study on mental illness stigma in Zambia. Fifty semi-structured interviews and 6 focus group discussions were conducted with key stakeholders drawn from 3 districts in Zambia (Lusaka, Kabwe and Sinazongwe). Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Mental illness stigma and discrimination is pervasive across Zambian society, prevailing within the general community, amongst family members, amid general and mental health care providers, and at the level of government. Such stigma appears to be fuelled by misunderstandings of mental illness aetiology; fears of contagion and the perceived dangerousness of people with mental illness; and associations between HIV/AIDS and mental illness. Strategies suggested for reducing stigma and discrimination in Zambia included education campaigns, the transformation of mental health policy and legislation and expanding the social and economic opportunities of the mentally ill. In Zambia, as in many other low-income African countries, very little attention is devoted to addressing the negative beliefs and behaviours surrounding mental illness, despite the devastating costs that ensue. The results from this study underscore the need for greater commitment from governments and policy-makers in African countries to start prioritizing mental illness stigma as a major public health and development issue.

  19. Treatment of Children with Mental Illness: Frequently Asked Questions about the Treatment of Mental Illness in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Research shows that half of all lifetime cases of mental illness begin by age 14. Scientists are discovering that changes in the body leading to mental illness may start much earlier, before any symptoms appear. Through greater understanding of when and how fast specific areas of children's brains develop, we are learning more about the early…

  20. Adult Smoking Among People with Mental Illness PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-05

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the February 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which shows that cigarette smoking is a serious problem among adults with mental illness. More needs to be done to help adults with mental illness quit smoking and make mental health facilities tobacco-free.  Created: 2/5/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/5/2013.

  1. Public stigma towards mental illness in the Greek culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzouvara, V; Papadopoulos, C

    2014-12-01

    Mental illness stigma negatively affects the lives of individuals with mental health disorders. Studies have indicated that the type and degree of stigma significantly varies across cultures. This study aimed to add to this body of knowledge by examining the prevalence and the type of mental illness stigma among individuals who identified themselves as Greek. It also examined the influence of a range of potential within-culture stigma moderating factors, including levels of previous experience with mental illness and mental illness knowledge. A cross-sectional quantitative design was employed, and 111 participants living in England and Greece were sampled through the snowball sampling technique. Stigma prevalence was measured using the 'Community Attitudes to Mental Illness' questionnaire. The findings revealed that participants showed a high degree of sympathy for people with mental illness but also considered them to be inferior and of a lower social class, and needing strict societal control. Higher stigma was significantly associated with being educated in England (instead of Greece), higher religiosity, lower knowledge levels and lower levels personal experience of mental illness. Targeted antistigma campaigns specifically tailored for the Greek culture are required in order to help reduce stigmatizing attitudes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Physical Health Risk Behaviours in Young People with Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim; Marabong, Nikka; Miu, David; Fethney, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Comorbid physical health conditions, commonly associated with mental illness, contribute to increased morbidity and reduced life expectancy. The trajectory to poorer health begins with the onset of mental illness. For young people with mental illness, health risk behaviours and poor physical health can progress to adulthood with long-term detrimental impacts. Using a cross-sectional survey design, self-reported health risk behaviours were gathered from 56 young (16-25 years) Australians who had been hospitalised for mental illness and taking psychotropic medication. Smoking, alcohol use, minimal physical activity, and lack of primary health care were evident. While these behaviours are typical of many young people, those with mental illness have substantially increased vulnerability to poor health and reduced life expectancy. Priority needs to be given to targeted health promotion strategies for young people with mental illness to modify their risky long-term health behaviours and improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. Nurses in mental health settings play a vital role in promoting young peoples' well-being and preventing poorer physical health outcomes. Implementation of a cardiometabolic health nurse role in inpatient settings for young people with mental illness could facilitate prevention and early intervention for health risk behaviours.

  3. Mental illness, poverty and stigma in India: a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Bakhshi, Parul; Kuhlberg, Jill; Narayanan, Sreelatha S; Venkataraman, Hemalatha; Mishra, Nagendra N; Groce, Nora E; Jadhav, Sushrut; Deshpande, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of experienced stigma on depth of multidimensional poverty of persons with severe mental illness (PSMI) in Delhi, India, controlling for gender, age and caste. Design Matching case (hospital)–control (population) study. Setting University Hospital (cases) and National Capital Region (controls), India. Participants A case–control study was conducted from November 2011 to June 2012. 647 cases diagnosed with schizophrenia or affective disorders were recruited and 647 individuals of same age, sex and location of residence were matched as controls at a ratio of 1:2:1. Individuals who refused consent or provided incomplete interview were excluded. Main outcome measures Higher risk of poverty due to stigma among PSMI. Results 38.5% of PSMI compared with 22.2% of controls were found poor on six dimensions or more. The difference in multidimensional poverty index was 69% between groups with employment and income of the main contributors. Multidimensional poverty was strongly associated with stigma (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.27 to 5.31), scheduled castes/scheduled tribes/other backward castes (2.39, 1.39 to 4.08), mental illness (2.07, 1.25 to 3.41) and female gender (1.87, 1.36 to 2.58). A significant interaction between stigma, mental illness and gender or caste indicates female PSMI or PSMI from ‘lower castes’ were more likely to be poor due to stigma than male controls (ppoverty linked to SMI are pervasive and intertwined. In particular for low caste and women, it is a strong predictor of poverty. Exclusion from employment linked to negative attitudes and lack of income are the highest contributors to multidimensional poverty, increasing the burden for the family. Mental health professionals need to be aware of and address these issues. PMID:25712818

  4. Mental illness, poverty and stigma in India: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Bakhshi, Parul; Kuhlberg, Jill; Narayanan, Sreelatha S; Venkataraman, Hemalatha; Mishra, Nagendra N; Groce, Nora E; Jadhav, Sushrut; Deshpande, Smita

    2015-02-23

    To assess the effect of experienced stigma on depth of multidimensional poverty of persons with severe mental illness (PSMI) in Delhi, India, controlling for gender, age and caste. Matching case (hospital)-control (population) study. University Hospital (cases) and National Capital Region (controls), India. A case-control study was conducted from November 2011 to June 2012. 647 cases diagnosed with schizophrenia or affective disorders were recruited and 647 individuals of same age, sex and location of residence were matched as controls at a ratio of 1:2:1. Individuals who refused consent or provided incomplete interview were excluded. Higher risk of poverty due to stigma among PSMI. 38.5% of PSMI compared with 22.2% of controls were found poor on six dimensions or more. The difference in multidimensional poverty index was 69% between groups with employment and income of the main contributors. Multidimensional poverty was strongly associated with stigma (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.27 to 5.31), scheduled castes/scheduled tribes/other backward castes (2.39, 1.39 to 4.08), mental illness (2.07, 1.25 to 3.41) and female gender (1.87, 1.36 to 2.58). A significant interaction between stigma, mental illness and gender or caste indicates female PSMI or PSMI from 'lower castes' were more likely to be poor due to stigma than male controls (ppoverty linked to SMI are pervasive and intertwined. In particular for low caste and women, it is a strong predictor of poverty. Exclusion from employment linked to negative attitudes and lack of income are the highest contributors to multidimensional poverty, increasing the burden for the family. Mental health professionals need to be aware of and address these issues. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Changing the tide: stigma, school youth, and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Marsha

    2015-03-01

    Schools are in a key position not only to identify mental health concerns early but to address issues of stigma that prevent both children and their parents from seeking help with mental illness. Stigma associated with mental illness perpetuates isolative behavior and poor engagement within the academic community. Programs within schools that address mental health issues and support open communication with families can reduce the pain and isolation that is often the experience of youth with undiagnosed and untreated mental and emotional disorders. © 2014 The Author(s).

  6. Racial Disparities in Mental Health Outcomes after Psychiatric Hospital Discharge among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after…

  7. Mental Illness and Mental Health: The Two Continua Model Across the Lifespan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben J.; Keyes, Cory L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mental health has long been defined as the absence of psychopathologies, such as depression and anxiety. The absence of mental illness, however, is a minimal outcome from a psychological perspective on lifespan development. This article therefore focuses on mental illness as well as on three core co

  8. Intensive case management for severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Marina; Irving, Claire B; Bergman, Hanna; Khokhar, Mariam A; Park, Bert; Marshall, Max

    2017-01-06

    Intensive Case Management (ICM) is a community-based package of care aiming to provide long-term care for severely mentally ill people who do not require immediate admission. Intensive Case Management evolved from two original community models of care, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management (CM), where ICM emphasises the importance of small caseload (fewer than 20) and high-intensity input. To assess the effects of ICM as a means of caring for severely mentally ill people in the community in comparison with non-ICM (caseload greater than 20) and with standard community care. We did not distinguish between models of ICM. In addition, to assess whether the effect of ICM on hospitalisation (mean number of days per month in hospital) is influenced by the intervention's fidelity to the ACT model and by the rate of hospital use in the setting where the trial was conducted (baseline level of hospital use). We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (last update search 10 April 2015). All relevant randomised clinical trials focusing on people with severe mental illness, aged 18 to 65 years and treated in the community care setting, where ICM is compared to non-ICM or standard care. At least two review authors independently selected trials, assessed quality, and extracted data. For binary outcomes, we calculated risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we estimated mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% CI. We employed a random-effects model for analyses.We performed a random-effects meta-regression analysis to examine the association of the intervention's fidelity to the ACT model and the rate of hospital use in the setting where the trial was conducted with the treatment effect. We assessed overall quality for clinically important outcomes using the GRADE approach and investigated possible risk of bias within included trials. The 2016 update included two more

  9. The power gap: freedom, power and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2006-10-01

    Up to one in four individuals in the US meet the diagnostic criteria for a mental illness in any given year and a significant proportion have severe or recurring illnesses (e.g. schizophrenia). Despite this prevalence, mental health services remain poorly funded, mental illness remains misunderstood and individuals with recurring illness are constrained to live lives characterized by isolation, under-employment, stigma and denial of rights. Here I examine the idea that this situation is attributable, at least in part, to the ways in which the freedom and power of the mentally ill are undermined by a range of factors, including: (i) dispersion of political power amongst interest groups, which, combined with the relatively wide distribution of the 'interest' of mental illness, has the paradoxical result that mental health interest groups do not command political power proportional to the number affected; (ii) systematic exclusion of the mentally ill from full participation in civic, social and political life (structural violence), resulting in a lack of emphasis on mental health on political agendas and the exclusion of certain policy options as possible responses and (iii) difficulties the mentally ill may experience recognizing or articulating their own needs the absence of effective health-care systems, and the absence of knowledge about alternative systems. I argue that the enhancement of individual agency is central to efforts to address this power gap, including: (i) rights-based approaches, involving the enhancement of national mental health legislation, improvement of advocacy, empowerment and guardianship processes and development of governance, accountability and quality procedures in mental health services; (ii) approaches based on enhancing direct political participation, including voter-registration programmes and development of larger, more effective interest groups and (iii) additional approaches, including increasing accountability throughout services

  10. [Mental illness and stigma or how to become mentally ill for life.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, J C; T-Brault, M M

    1979-01-01

    In this article mental illness is presented in a sociological perspective, giving prominence to social-interaction factors which, in many cases, are responsable for the permanence of this type of illness. Its thereotical base comes !form the psychology of social-interaction developped by G.H. Mead and his disciples. This perspective defines the social human being as derived from successive interactions, beginning, at birth, with maternal contacts and extending progressively to the entirety of the members of the community of which the individual is a part. This interactional network is comprised of messages, of responses, and of expectations which make up the norms and values which in turn from the basis for the distribution of roles and statuses- From these roles and statuses derive the behaviours acceptable to a given collectivity. Among other theoretical developments, interactionist sociology gave birth to formulations on deviance which became known, in american terminology as "labelling theory". In the case of mental illness many sociologists interested in the phenomenon have studied it, using the framework elaborated by the proponents of this approach to deviance. Thus, rather than considering the deviant as abnormal in himself, deviance is viewed as a process; that is, as the result of a series of interactions confronting the individual who is not, or does not behave like the collectivity as a whole and the milieu in which he lives. When the reaction of the entourage is negative, the so-called deviant is subjected to sanctions such as avoidance, rejection, exclusion, confinement, etc... This process terminates generally in stigmatization which wraps the deviant in a label from which he will probably never free himself. The studies cited demonstrate this interactional process at different stages of mental illness, these being; d) at the point of medical diagnosis, b) during hospitalisation, c) on leaving We psychiatric institution, d) and after the return to

  11. A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature.

  12. Estimating the true global burden of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, Daniel; Thornicroft, Graham; Atun, Rifat

    2016-02-01

    We argue that the global burden of mental illness is underestimated and examine the reasons for under-estimation to identify five main causes: overlap between psychiatric and neurological disorders; the grouping of suicide and self-harm as a separate category; conflation of all chronic pain syndromes with musculoskeletal disorders; exclusion of personality disorders from disease burden calculations; and inadequate consideration of the contribution of severe mental illness to mortality from associated causes. Using published data, we estimate the disease burden for mental illness to show that the global burden of mental illness accounts for 32·4% of years lived with disability (YLDs) and 13·0% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), instead of the earlier estimates suggesting 21·2% of YLDs and 7·1% of DALYs. Currently used approaches underestimate the burden of mental illness by more than a third. Our estimates place mental illness a distant first in global burden of disease in terms of YLDs, and level with cardiovascular and circulatory diseases in terms of DALYs. The unacceptable apathy of governments and funders of global health must be overcome to mitigate the human, social, and economic costs of mental illness.

  13. Components of implicit stigma against mental illness among Chinese students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Wang

    Full Text Available Although some research has examined negative automatic aspects of attitudes toward mental illness via relatively indirect measures among Western samples, it is unclear whether negative attitudes can be automatically activated in individuals from non-Western countries. This study attempted to validate results from Western samples with Chinese college students. We first examined the three-component model of implicit stigma (negative cognition, negative affect, and discriminatory tendencies toward mental illness with the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT. We also explored the relationship between explicit and implicit stigma among 56 Chinese university college students. In the three separate SC-IATs and the combined SC-IAT, automatic associations between mental illness and negative descriptors were stronger relative to those with positive descriptors and the implicit effect of cognitive and affective SC-IATs were significant. Explicit and implicit measures of stigma toward mental illness were unrelated. In our sample, women's overall attitudes toward mental illness were more negative than men's were, but no gender differences were found for explicit measures. These findings suggested that implicit stigma toward mental illness exists in Chinese students, and provide some support for the three-component model of implicit stigma toward mental illness. Future studies that focus on automatic components of stigmatization and stigma-reduction in China are warranted.

  14. Stigma and intellectual disability: potential application of mental illness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchman, Nicole; Werner, Shirli; Kosyluk, Kristin; Jones, Nev; Elg, Brianna; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2013-05-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and individuals with mental illness are consistently found to be among the most socially excluded populations and continue to face substantial health, housing, and employment disparities due to stigma. Although this has spurred extensive research efforts and theoretical advancements in the study of stigma toward mental illness, the stigma of ID has received only limited attention. In this article we explore the application of mental illness stigma research for ID. We carefully reviewed the existing research on mental illness stigma as a foundation for a parallel summary of the empirical literature on attitudes and stigma related to ID. Based on our review, there has not been a systematic approach to the study of stigma toward ID. However, multilevel conceptual models of stigma have received much attention in the mental illness literature. These models have been used to inform targeted interventions and have application to the study of the stigma process for individuals with ID. Nonetheless, there are indeed key differences between-as well as substantial variability within-the ID and mental illness populations that must be considered. Stigma is an issue of social justice impacting the lives of individuals with ID, yet there remains virtually no systematic framework applied to the understanding of the stigma process for this group. Future research can draw on the stigma models developed in the mental illness literature to guide more rigorous research efforts and ultimately the development of effective, multilevel stigma-change strategies for ID.

  15. Art promoting mental health literacy and a positive attitude towards people with experience of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eugen; Shrimpton, Bradley

    2014-03-01

    Exhibitions of art by people with experience of mental illness are increasingly being staged to improve awareness of mental health issues in the general community and to counter the stigma of mental illness. However, few exhibitions have incorporated research to ascertain their actual effectiveness. This paper reports the results of a study that considered the responses of 10,000 people after they viewed exhibitions of art produced by people with experience of mental illness. These works were selected from the Cunningham Dax Collection, one of the world's most extensive collection of artworks by people with experience of mental illness and/or psychological trauma. More than 90% of respondents agreed with three propositions that the exhibitions helped them: (1) gain a better understanding of mental illness; (2) gain a more sympathetic understanding of the suffering of people with mental illness; and (3) appreciate the ability and creativity of people with mental illness. The results suggest that exhibitions can successfully promote mental health literacy and contribute to positive attitudes towards people with experience of mental illness. This paper explores these findings and raises questions about how the presentation of artworks in an exhibition influences their effectiveness in mental health promotion.

  16. Physical illness in patients with severe mental disorders. II. Barriers to care, monitoring and treatment guidelines, plus recommendations at the system and individual level

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE HERT, MARC; COHEN, DAN; BOBES, JULIO; CETKOVICH-BAKMAS, MARCELO; LEUCHT, STEFAN; M. NDETEI, DAVID; W. NEWCOMER, JOHN; UWAKWE, RICHARD; ASAI, ITSUO; MÖLLER, HANS-JURGEN; GAUTAM, SHIV; DETRAUX, JOHAN; U. CORRELL, CHRISTOPH

    2011-01-01

    Physical disorders are, compared to the general population, more prevalent in people with severe mental illness (SMI). Although this excess morbidity and mortality is largely due to modifiable lifestyle risk factors, the screening and assessment of physical health aspects remains poor, even in developed countries. Moreover, specific patient, provider, treatment and system factors act as barriers to the recognition and to the management of physical diseases in people with SMI. Psychiatrists can play a pivotal role in the improvement of the physical health of these patients by expanding their task from clinical psychiatric care to the monitoring and treatment of crucial physical parameters. At a system level, actions are not easy to realize, especially for developing countries. However, at an individual level, even simple and very basic monitoring and treatment actions, undertaken by the treating clinician, can already improve the problem of suboptimal medical care in this population. Adhering to monitoring and treatment guidelines will result in a substantial enhancement of physical health outcomes. Furthermore, psychiatrists can help educate and motivate people with SMI to address their suboptimal lifestyle, including smoking, unhealthy diet and lack of exercise. The adoption of the recommendations presented in this paper across health care systems throughout the world will contribute to a significant improvement in the medical and related psychiatric health outcomes of patients with SMI. PMID:21633691

  17. Experiences of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination: a review of measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brohan, Elaine; Slade, Mike; Clement, Sarah; Thornicroft, Graham

    2010-01-01

    .... This study aims to review current practice in the survey measurement of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination experienced by people who have personal experience of mental illness...

  18. Television coverage of mental illness in Canada: 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Rob; Wang, JiaWei

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to assess television news coverage of mental illness in Canadian media, including change over time. Data consist of news clips mentioning terms including 'mental illness' (N = 579). These were systematically collected and coded over 3 years (2013-2015) using a media retrieval software. Trend analysis indicated a significant linear increase for positively oriented coverage. In 2013, less than 10% of clips had a positive overall tone, whereas in 2015, this figure reached over 40%. Articles linking mental illness to violence significantly decreased, though these remain over 50%. Improvement may be due to educational initiatives targeted at journalists.

  19. [Mental disorder and suicide prevention in patients with physical illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Masatoshi; Ohtsuki, Tsuyuka

    2012-01-01

    Suicide rate in Japan is 25/100,000 in a year. The rate is higher than those in other developed countries. Physical illness is a risk factor for suicide. To prevent suicide in patients with physical illness, identification of mental illness, such as depression, is important. In addition, palliative care for distressing physical and psychological symptoms is also important. In process of identification of mental illness and distressing physical symptoms, communications between medical staff and patients are essential. Enhancing communication skills of medical staff may be a key point to prevent suicide.

  20. Providing Physical Care to Persons With Serious Mental Illness: Attitudes, Confidence, Barriers and Psychological Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Margaret; Bolton, Paula; Kopeski, Lynne

    2017-10-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in people with serious mental illness (SMI) has been well documented in the mental health literature. Despite the adoption of various guidelines for monitoring risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular risk in this population, limited translation has occurred in actual practice (Hermes, Sernyak, & Rosenheck, 2013). The Institute of Medicine (IoM) (2009) has noted a lag time in the application of knowledge within clinical settings. Evidence-based practice was deemed as a means of improving healthcare outcomes through the use of science supported standards of care. Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a process to guide clinical decision making that involves the clinician's experience, well documented research findings, and the patient's values and choices (Sackett, Rosenberg, Gray, Haynes, & Richardson, 1996). The IoM has established that by the year 2020, 90% of clinical decisions should be based upon current and scientifically based information (IoM, 2009). Psychiatric-mental health nurses are challenged to utilize EBP for clients with MetS in assessing their health status and discussing the findings, educating them about their current risk and life style modifications to mitigate risk, and finally, partnering with them to maximize health and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing illness- and non-illness-based motivations for violence in persons with major mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Stephanie R; Morgan, Andrew; Simpson, Alexander I F

    2016-02-01

    Research on violence perpetrated by individuals with major mental illness (MMI) typically focuses on the presence of specific psychotic symptoms near the time of the violent act. This approach does not distinguish whether symptoms actually motivate the violence or were merely present at the material time. It also does not consider the possibility that non-illness-related factors (e.g., anger, substance use), or multiple motivations, may have been operative in driving violence. The failure to make these distinctions clouds our ability to understand the origins of violence in people with MMI, to accurately assess risk and criminal responsibility, and to appropriately target interventions to reduce and manage risk. This study describes the development of a new coding instrument designed to assess motivations for violence and offending among individuals with MMI, and reports on the scheme's interrater reliability. Using 72 psychiatric reports which had been submitted to the court to assist in determining criminal responsibility, we found that independent raters were able to assess different motivational influences for violence with a satisfactory degree of consistency. More than three-quarters (79.2%) of the sample were judged to have committed an act of violence as a primary result of illness, whereas 20.8% were deemed to have offended as a result of illness in conjunction with other non-illness-based motivating influences. Current findings have relevance for clarifying the rate of illness-driven violence among psychiatric patients, as well as legal and clinical issues related to violence risk and criminal responsibility more broadly.

  2. Filicide: mental illness in those who kill their children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M Flynn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most child victims of homicide are killed by a parent or step-parent. This large population study provides a contemporary and detailed description of filicide perpetrators. We examined the relationship between filicide and mental illness at the time of the offence, and care received from mental health services in the past. METHOD: All filicide and filicide-suicide cases in England and Wales (1997-2006 were drawn from a national index of homicide perpetrators. Data on people in contact with mental health services were obtained via a questionnaire from mental health teams. Additional clinical information was collected from psychiatric reports. RESULTS: 6144 people were convicted of homicide, 297 were filicides, and 45 cases were filicide-suicides. 195 (66% perpetrators were fathers. Mothers were more likely than fathers to have a history of mental disorder (66% v 27% and symptoms at the time of the offence (53% v 23%, most often affective disorder. 17% of mothers had schizophrenia or other delusional disorders. Overall 8% had schizophrenia. 37% were mentally ill at the time of the offence. 20% had previously been in contact with mental health services, 12% within a year of the offence. CONCLUSION: In the majority of cases, mental illness was not a feature of filicide. However, young mothers and parents with severe mental illness, especially affective and personality disorder who are providing care for children, require careful monitoring by mental health and other support services. Identifying risk factors for filicide requires further research.

  3. Attitudes toward people with mental illness among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi Poreddi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, people with mental illness frequently encounter stigma, prejudice, and discrimination by public and health care professionals. Research related to medical students′ attitudes toward people with mental illness is limited from India. Aim: The aim was to assess and compare the attitudes toward people with mental illness among medical students′. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design was carried out among medical students, who were exposed (n = 115 and not exposed (n = 61 to psychiatry training using self-reporting questionnaire. Results: Our findings showed improvement in students′ attitudes after exposure to psychiatry in benevolent (t = 2.510, P < 0.013 and stigmatization (t = 2.656, P < 0.009 domains. Further, gender, residence, and contact with mental illness were the factors that found to be influencing students′ attitudes toward mental illness. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that psychiatric education proved to be effective in changing the attitudes of medical students toward mental illness to a certain extent. However, there is an urgent need to review the current curriculum to prepare undergraduate medical students to provide holistic care to the people with mental health problems.

  4. Attitude toward mental illness amongst urban nonpsychiatric health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Pande

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to examine the attitude of nonpsychiatric health professionals about mental illness in urban multispeciality tertiary care setting. Aim: To assess attitude toward mental illness among urban nonpsychiatric health professionals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. A pretested, semistructured questionnaire was administered to 222 medical and paramedical staff at two tertiary care hospitals at Chandigarh. Results: There is an increased awareness of mental illness especially in military subjects. Literacy was associated with a positive attitude toward mental illness. Health care givers commonly fail to ask about the emotional well being of their patients. Many saw referral to psychiatrist as a form of punishment. There is uniform desire for more knowledge about psychiatric disorders in medical and paramedical staff. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the need for educational programs aimed at demystifying mental illness. A better understanding of mental disorders among the nonpsychiatric medical professional would help to allay fear and mistrust about mentally ill persons in the community as well as lessen stigmatization toward such persons.

  5. [Community integrated services for persons with mental illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jung-Tai

    2007-10-01

    Anti-psychotic medications have changed the lives and treatment of persons with mental illness for the better since the social isolation of the 1950s and earlier. Community support programs break down barriers surrounding mental patients, but the stigma and negative attitudes about mental illness continue to block the development of community-based services. Individuals struggling to overcome a mental health issue find themselves facing a constant series of rejections and exclusions. Now that the Mental Health Law and Physically and Mentally Disabled Citizens Protection Act have been amended by The Legislative Yuan, the government will need to review the design of the Mental Health Care Network Project and to promote and facilitate friendly supportive communities for the mentally ill. All of us have to face these challenges to find a new balance between the civil rights of the public and the mentally ill. This paper examines issues concerning the gap between the development of the mental health system and the needs of patients and their families in the last two decades. The system often falls short of meeting needs. To meet the mental health needs of the people and make effective use of resources, changes must be made in the way services are designed, organized and delivered. The process of reforming mental health services, moreover, must not take money away from other services. Instead, changes must be made by reallocating funds. Following the revised Mental Health Law, the government should begin now to develop implementation planning guidelines to establish a comprehensive and integrated mental health services system, especially for the 80?% of patients with mild or moderate mental health problems who live in the community. We will monitor the process carefully, and ensure that patients and their families get the services they need, and help them remain in their communities as far as possible.

  6. Constructs and concepts comprising the stigma of mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Michaels

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available People with mental illness frequently confront public stigma andmay experience self-stigma. This review discusses the concepts of mental illness stigma and its consequences for those with mental illness. After a conceptual overview of stigma prominent consequences pertaining to public stigma (i.e.,employment, health care quality and self-stigma (i.e., self-confidence, quality of life, “why try” effect are reviewed. We discuss the three main public stigma change strategies - protest, education, and contact – as well as current selfstigma change strategies (e.g., psychoeducation, cognitive-behavioral therapy.We conclude by noting that anti-stigma initiatives with more tailored content for specific groups (e.g., police officers vs. general public may diminish the negative consequences of mental illness stigma by providing more concrete ways to help stigmatized people.

  7. Perceived and Measured Stigma Among Workers With Serious Mental Illness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baldwin, Marjorie L; Marcus, Steven C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This research analyzed the extent to which self-reports of job-related discrimination by persons with serious mental illness are associated with econometric measures of discrimination. METHODS...

  8. Half of Opioid Prescriptions Go to People with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167031.html Half of Opioid Prescriptions Go to People With Mental Illness Those ... disorders receive a troubling percentage of the nation's opioid prescriptions, a new study finds. Of the 115 ...

  9. Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of American firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2015-02-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat.

  10. National Database for Clinical Trials Related to Mental Illness (NDCT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Database for Clinical Trials Related to Mental Illness (NDCT) is an extensible informatics platform for relevant data at all levels of biological and...

  11. The epidemiology of mental illness in Afro-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D H

    1986-01-01

    The epidemiologic study of mental illness among Afro-Americans has progressed since the antebellum period when the rate of mental illness among free Afro-Americans living in the North was inflated to justify continued slavery. Community-wide surveys conducted after World War II demonstrated that when socioeconomic variables were controlled, the rate of mental illness among Afro-Americans was no higher than that of other groups. The rates of mental illness and substance abuse of Afro-Americans vary according to socioeconomic class and are also related to differential family structure, early performance in school, and antisocial behavior of fathers. Despite progress, undersampling of middle-class Afro-Americans and poor, unemployed, young, urban Afro-American males are consistent deficiencies of surveys that even the ambitious NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program seems to share.

  12. Attitudes and beliefs about mental illness among relatives of patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-03

    Aug 3, 2017 ... participants many had positive attitude towards letting the patients be part of ... Keywords: schizophrenia, mental illness, sfigma, attitudes, beliefs ... (CAMI) scale [8]. ..... Conflict of interest: All authors have declared that there.

  13. Mental illness stigma and disclosure in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Kosyluk, Kristin A; Markowitz, Fred; Brown, Robyn Lewis; Conlon, Bridget; Rees, Jo; Rosenberg, Jessica; Ellefson, Sarah; Al-Khouja, Maya

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mental illness identity, shame, secrecy, public stigma, and disclosure amongst college students. Participants included 1393 college students from five postsecondary institutions. Structural equation modeling was used to examine two path models predicting disclosure and desire to join a program aiding with disclosure. Variables found to be significant in predicting disclosure included mental illness identity and public stigma. In turn, desire for disclosure predicted desire to join a program aiding in disclosure. Gender and race/ethnic differences were observed, with men and Whites more likely to want to disclose a mental illness or join a program aiding with disclosure compared with women and non-Whites, respectively. These findings suggest that some college students may find programs aiding in disclosure useful in assisting them to achieve their desire to be "out" with their mental illness.

  14. Mental illness - stigma and discrimination in Zambia : original article

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mwanza, J; Lund, C; Flisher, A.J; Mwape, L; Sikwese, A; Cooper, S; Kakuma, R; Kapungwe, A

    2010-01-01

    Objective : The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the presence, causes and means of addressing individual and systemic stigma and discrimination against people with mental illness in Zambia...

  15. Preventing the Epidemic of Mental Ill Health: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Anthony,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Diet, lifestyle and environment do not just affect a person's health, they also determine the health of their children and possibly the health of their grandchildren. Mental ill health is an epidemic worldwide because of the combined effect of the modern diet and a sedentary lifestyle. Primary prevention of mental ill health starts, crucially, with optimal adult nutrition before the inception of pregnancy, includes breastfeeding, and continues throughout the life of th...

  16. Newspaper reporting of homicide-suicide and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Sandra; Gask, Linda; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    Aims and method To explore the portrayal of homicide-suicide in newspaper articles, particularly how mental illness was reported. We carried out a qualitative study in England and Wales (2006-2008). Data from newspaper articles obtained via the LexisNexis database were used to examine a consecutive series of 60 cases. Results A fascination with extreme violence, vulnerable victims and having someone to blame made homicide-suicides newsworthy. Some offenders were portrayed in a stereotypical manner and pejorative language was used to describe mental illness. The findings showed evidence of inaccurate and speculative reference to mental disorder in newspaper reports. Clinical implications The media should avoid speculation on people's mental state. Accurate reporting is essential to reduce stigma of mental illness, which may in turn encourage people to seek help if they experience similar emotional distress.

  17. Increasing burden of mental illnesses across the globe: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Thyloth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders cause significant burden to individuals and society across the world, accounting for nearly 13% of the global burden of disease. Eighty percent of people with mental disorders now live in low and middle-income countries. With one million deaths per year, suicide is the major reason for years of life lost due to mental illness. Estimates suggest that the burden due to mental illness is likely to increase over next decade and appropriate interventions are need of the hour. We discuss this increasing burden as a consequence of (1 lack of resources, (2 low budget for mental health in lower and middle income countries, and (3 under-utilization of services and stigma attached to mental illnesses.

  18. Gender, mental illness and the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, Soumitra; Nardodkar, Renuka; Shields, Laura; Bunders, Joske F G; Sagade, Jaya

    2015-01-01

    Section 5(ii) of The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 (HMA) states that under certain circumstances, mental illness is accepted as a ground for the annulment of marriage, while Section 13(1) (iii) states that mental illness is a ground for divorce. There is little data on how this provision is used and applied in matrimonial petitions. This paper assesses judicial practices in divorce cases, exploring the extent to which gender and the diagnosis of mental illness affect the decision to grant annulment or divorce. The paper analyses judgments related to annulment and divorce at the Family Court in Pune and at the High Courts in India. In the Family Court at Pune, 85% of the cases were filed by husbands, who alleged that their spouse was mentally ill. Medical evidence of mental illness was presented in only 36% of the cases and in many cases, divorce/nullity was granted even in the absence of medical evidence. In 14% of the cases, nullity/divorce was granted even when both spouses were not present. Of the Family Court cases reaching the High Court, 95% were filed by male petitioners. The High Courts reversed the lower courts' judgments in 50% of the cases. Our analysis highlights the need for standardised guidelines for lower courts on what constitutes adequate medical proof of mental illness when hearing a petition related to nullity or divorce under HMA. It also provides a critical review of Section 5(ii) of HMA.

  19. Interpersonal violence and mental illness: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donna; O'brien, Louise

    2006-05-01

    There is a perception that people with a mental illness are dangerous. However, there are still arguments in the research literature as to whether the evidence supports this perception. The major aim of this paper is to review the findings of these studies in regard to the risk of violent behaviour in people with mental illness. An additional aim is to give an overview of the risk factors for violence in people with a mental illness. This systematic search of the literature resulted in good evidence that diagnoses such as schizophrenia and personality disorder are associated with an increased risk of violent behaviour. Substance abuse was the risk factor most associated with an increase in the risk of violent behaviour in people with a mental illness. However, there are substantial differences in the methods used in studies of the risk in violence in people with mental illness resulting in a large variability in the estimates of risk. One of the major causes of variation may be due to the different definitions of violence that are used. The need remains, therefore, for a meta-analysis of this literature based on clear definitions of violence in order to get a more accurate estimate of the risk of violence in people with a mental illness.

  20. Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, K O; Roberts, P M

    2013-03-01

    Public attitudes toward mental illness in two widely disparate cultures, Canada and Cameroon, were compared using an experimental version of a survey instrument, the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Mental Illness or POSHA-MI(e). 120 respondents rated POSHA-MI(e) items relating to mental illness on 1-9 equal appearing interval scales: 30 in English and 30 in French in both Cameroon and Canada. Additionally, 30 matched, monolingual English, American respondents were included as a comparison group. In Canada (and in the USA), attitudes were generally more positive and less socially stigmatizing toward mental illness than in Cameroon. Differences between countries were much larger than differences between language groups. Consistent with other research, beliefs and reactions of the public regarding mental illness reflect stigma, especially in Cameroon. Cultural influences on these public attitudes are more likely important than language influences. Results of this field test of the POSHA-MI(e), documenting differences in public attitudes toward mental illness in two divergent cultures, support its further development.

  1. The role of stigma and uncertainty in moderating the effect of procedural justice on cooperation and resistance in police encounters with persons with mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amy C; Angell, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Within social psychology, procedural justice theory has been used to understand variations in compliance with legal authorities such as police. Thus, it may help explain variation in cooperation and compliance in encounters between police officers and people with serious mental illness (SMI), which are often fraught with difficulty and risk. In this paper, we examine the extent to which perceptions of procedural justice among persons with SMI are associated with self-reported levels of cooperation and resistance in encounters with police. We also examine stigma and encounter type as potential moderators of the procedural justice effect. 154 persons with serious mental illness who reported a police contact within the past year were interviewed using the newly developed Police Contact Experience Survey (PCES), which includes questions about the characteristics of the contact, perceived procedural justice (PPJ) and degree of cooperation and resistance. Participants also completed the Link Perceived Devaluation and Discrimination Scale (PDS). Findings suggest that greater PPJ is associated with more cooperation and less resistance. The effect on cooperation, however, is moderated by both perceived stigma and the type of encounter. The direct effect of perceived stigma (PDS) on cooperation was unexpected, with higher perceived stigma associated with greater cooperation. Findings underline the importance of both procedurally just treatment in police interactions with vulnerable individuals and further efforts to reduce the stigma of mental illness.

  2. Hearing Voices: Qualitative Research with Postsecondary Students Experiencing Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venville, Annie; Street, Annette F.

    2014-01-01

    Vocational Education and Training (VET) students experiencing mental illness have been described as one of the most vulnerable student groups in the Australian post-secondary sector. This vulnerability can be attributed to the impacts of illness, the oft-reported experiences of stigma and discrimination, and low educational outcomes. There is…

  3. Hearing Voices: Qualitative Research with Postsecondary Students Experiencing Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venville, Annie; Street, Annette F.

    2014-01-01

    Vocational Education and Training (VET) students experiencing mental illness have been described as one of the most vulnerable student groups in the Australian post-secondary sector. This vulnerability can be attributed to the impacts of illness, the oft-reported experiences of stigma and discrimination, and low educational outcomes. There is…

  4. [Social Networks of Children with Mentally Ill Parents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiawa, Maja; Kilian, Reinhold

    2017-10-01

    Social Networks of Children with Mentally Ill Parents Mental illness of parents can be a load situation for children. Supporting social relations might be an important source in such a situation. Social relations can be shown by social network analysis. Studies about social networks and mental health indicate differences regarding structure and potential for support when compared with social networks of healthy individuals. If and how mental illness of parents has an impact on their children's network is widely unknown. This systematic review shows methods and results of studies about social networks of children with mentally ill parents. By systematic search in electronic databases as well as manual search, two studies were found who met the target criteria. Both studies were conducted in the USA. Results of studies indicate that parental mental illness affects the state of mental health and social networks of children. Symptomatology of children changed due to perceived social support of network contacts. Impact of social support and strong network contacts seems to depend on age of children and the family situation. That's why support offers should be adapt to children's age. Focusing on social networks as potential resource for support and needs of the family affected seems appropriate during treatment.

  5. Prevalence of Mental Illness among Homeless People in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larina Chi-Lap Yim

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence and correlates of mental illness in homeless people in Hong Kong and explored the barriers preventing their access to health care. Ninety-seven Cantonese-speaking Chinese who were homeless during the study period were selected at random from the records of the three organisations serving the homeless population. The response rate was 69%. Seventeen subjects could not give valid consent due to their poor mental state, so their responses were excluded from the data analysis. A psychiatrist administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I and the Mini -Mental State Examination. Consensus diagnoses for subjects who could not complete the SCID-I were established by three independent psychiatrists.The point prevalence of mental illness was 56%. Seventy-one percent of the subjects had a lifetime history of mental illness, 30% had a mood disorder, 25% had an alcohol use disorder, 25% had a substance use disorder, 10% had a psychotic disorder, 10% had an anxiety disorder and 6% had dementia. Forty-one percent of the subjects with mental illness had undergone a previous psychiatric assessment. Only 13% of the subjects with mental illness were receiving psychiatric care at the time of interview. The prevalence of psychotic disorders, dementia and the rate of under treatment are hugely underestimated, as a significant proportion (18% of the subjects initially selected were too ill to give consent to join the study.The low treatment rate and the presence of this severely ill and unreached group of homeless people reflect the fact that the current mode of service delivery is failing to support the most severely ill homeless individuals.

  6. Mental Illness May Make Teens Vulnerable to Drugs, Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160284.html Mental Illness May Make Teens Vulnerable to Drugs, Alcohol Brazilian study found half of those who smoked, drank, did pot had symptoms of psychological ... -- Teens who are struggling with mental health disorders are more likely to smoke cigarettes, ...

  7. Domestic violence: the hidden epidemic associated with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Kelsey

    2011-03-01

    Despite domestic violence being a very common problem in individuals with severe mental illness, there is very little research in this setting. Multiple barriers exist to disclosure by users and enquiry by providers. Training and systems for identification and responding to domestic violence are urgently needed in mental health clinics.

  8. Beliefs about mental illness among Chinese in the West

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, C.-H.; Meeuwesen, L.; van Wesel, F.; Ingleby, D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to test the widely held assumption that underutilisation of mental health services by Chinese living in western countries is due to their different beliefs regarding mental illness. Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative data were analysed from in-depth inte

  9. Perceived and measured stigma among workers with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Marjorie L; Marcus, Steven C

    2006-03-01

    This research analyzed the extent to which self-reports of job-related discrimination by persons with serious mental illness are associated with econometric measures of discrimination. Data were from the 1994-1995 National Health Interview Survey-Disability Supplement. Data for workers with mood, psychotic, or anxiety disorders (N=1,139) were compared with data for those without such disorders (N=66,341). The main outcome measures were self-reports of wages and stigmatizing experiences in the workplace. After the analyses controlled for functional limitations and job characteristics, no significant difference in mean wages was found between workers with serious mental illness who did not report experiencing stigma and those with no mental illness. In contrast, for all types of mental disorders examined, mean wages for workers with serious mental illness who reported experiencing stigma were significantly lower than mean wages for those with no mental illness. Workers' self-reports of stigmatizing experiences in the labor market appear to be consistent with econometric measures of the effect of stigma on wages, suggesting that workers know when they are being discriminated against.

  10. Workplace accommodations for people with mental illness: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Caitlin; Fossey, Ellie

    2015-03-01

    Disability discrimination legislation means that employees with a disability or mental illness are legally entitled to reasonable workplace accommodations that enable them to work effectively and safely. This scoping review aims to investigate the types of workplace accommodations provided for people with mental illness, and their costs and benefits. A literature search was conducted using five electronic databases. Peer reviewed research articles published between 1993 and June 2013 were included in this scoping review and their quality was assessed. Opinion papers, reports, and case descriptions were excluded. Nine studies explored workplace accommodations for people with mental illness. The most commonly reported work-related accommodations were flexible scheduling/reduced hours, modified training and supervision, and modified job duties/descriptions. The least common type of accommodation was physical modification to the workplace. For employees with persistent mental illness who were accessing a supported employment agency, the majority of accommodations related to support from the job coach or employment specialist, such as facilitating communication with the employer during hiring or on the job. The quality of the studies varied considerably and the benefits of the accommodations are not yet well documented. There is limited evidence that a larger number of workplace accommodations are associated with longer job tenure. Workplace accommodations appear to be important to support employees with mental illness, but more accessible information about how disability discrimination legislation applies to this population is needed. Future research should address the implementation and effectiveness of mental health-related workplace accommodations.

  11. Assessing the knowledge of perinatal mental illness among student midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Louise

    2015-11-01

    The experience of perinatal mental illness (mental illness occurring around the time of pregnancy) currently affect 1 in 10 women and can have adverse effects on the mother and her child (Massie and Szajnberg, 2002; O'Connor et al., 2002). The care and effective management of women experiencing perinatal mental illness is therefore an important issue for health care staff, managers, psychiatrists, commissioners and campaigners. Midwives play a significant part in caring for women throughout their pregnancies, during labour and up to the first month after birth. Midwives are in a unique position to assess a woman's well-being and to offer appropriate support. However, previous research has revealed that midwives often have poor understanding and knowledge of perinatal mental health issues and require improved training (Ross-Davie et al, 2006; McCann and Clark, 2010). This research project aims to systematically assess student midwives awareness of perinatal mental illness. The findings of this study will inform curriculum development for graduate and post-graduate midwifery students therefore improving the care and support women with mental illness receive from antenatal services. The findings from this study will also be used for the formation of an educational web-based programme for student and qualified midwives.

  12. Severe Mental Illness in LGBT Populations: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sean A; Howison, Meg; Pilling, Merrick; Ross, Lori E; McKenzie, Kwame

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing attention to diversity in psychiatric services and widespread recognition of the mental health implications of stigma for individuals from sexual or gender minority groups. However, these areas remain markedly underdeveloped in the area of severe mental illness. The aim of this review was to map out the existing base of knowledge in these areas to help inform future research, practice, and policy directions. A review of the literature was conducted to answer the following question: What factors and strategies need to be considered when developing services for individuals from sexual or gender minority groups who are experiencing severe mental illness? A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar was completed by using Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework for scoping reviews. A total of 27 publications were identified for review. Mental health services research indicated generally lower levels of service satisfaction among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and transsexual (LGBT) individuals and minimal evidence regarding specific interventions. Descriptive research suggested an increased risk of severe mental illness in LGBT populations, an association between this increased risk and discrimination, and the potential benefit of cultivating spaces where individuals can be "out" in all aspects of themselves. There is a pressing need for research into interventions for LGBT populations with severe mental illness as well as descriptive studies to inform efforts to reduce illness morbidity linked to discrimination.

  13. An online intervention using information on the mental health-mental illness continuum to reduce stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomerus, G; Angermeyer, M C; Baumeister, S E; Stolzenburg, S; Link, B G; Phelan, J C

    2016-02-01

    A core component of stigma is being set apart as a distinct, dichotomously different kind of person. We examine whether information on a continuum from mental health to mental illness reduces stigma. Online survey experiment in a quota sample matching the German population for age, gender and region (n=1679). Participants randomly received information on either (1) a continuum, (2) a strict dichotomy of mental health and mental illness, or (3) no information. We elicited continuity beliefs and stigma toward a person with schizophrenia or depression. The continuum intervention decreased perceived difference by 0.19 standard deviations (SD, Pmental illness can be improved by providing information on a mental health-mental illness continuum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Perceived Stress in Family Caregivers of Individuals With Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masa'Deh, Rami

    2017-06-01

    The current study aimed to measure the stress levels of family caregivers of individuals with mental illness and compare their stress levels according to the diagnosis and other sociodemographic characteristics. The sample comprised 310 family caregivers of individuals with mental illness in Jordan. Family caregivers completed a demographic checklist and the Arabic version of the Perceived Stress Scale 10-Item (PSS-10) questionnaire. A significant difference was found in PSS-10 levels among family caregivers according to gender, diagnosis of their family member, and time since diagnosis. Female caregivers reported significantly higher stress levels than male caregivers. Family members of individuals with schizophrenia reported the highest stress levels (p stress levels in family members of individuals with mental illness may be helpful when designing interventions to reduce such stress. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(6), 30-35.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Health professionals’ familiarity and attributions to mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghukwa Nkereuwem Chikaodiri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A few months from the time of this survey, the nearly completed inpatient psychiatric facility within the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital’s complex would be ready for admissions. Understanding the health workers’ level of experience of mental illness and their likely behavioural responses towards people with psychiatric illness, therefore, should be a good baseline to understanding their likely reactions towards admitting such patients within a general hospital setting. The study, which used a pre-tested and adapted attribution questionnaire, was pro­spective and cross-sectional. Randomly selected health workers in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital had their level of familiarity and attributions towards psychiatric patients assessed. The respondents showed a high level of experience with mental illness, with more than 3 in 5 of them having watched movies on mental illness before. More than half of them held positive (favorable attributions towards persons with mental illness on nine of the ten assessed attribution factors. Almost all held negative (unfavourable opinion towards intimate relationships with such persons. Attribution factors, “Responsibility, “Anger”, “Dangerousness”, “Fear” and “Segregation” were significantly related to the respondents’ level of education (P less than 0.05. Marital status of the respondents related significantly to “Pity” and “Avoidance” factors (P less than 0.05. Having watched movies on mental illness significantly related to “Responsibility” and “Fear” factors (P less than 0.05. Programs designed to improve the health workers mental health literacy, and increased positive professional contacts with mentally ill persons on treatment, would further enhance their perceived positive attributions towards them.

  16. Disparities in appendicitis rupture rate among mentally ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Ya-Mei

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have been carried out that focus on mental patients' access to care for their mental illness, but very few pay attention on these same patients' access to care for their physical diseases. Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency. Our population-based study was to test for any possible association between mental illness and perforated appendicitis. We hypothesized that there are significant disparities in access to timely surgical care between appendicitis patients with and without mental illness, and more specifically, between patients with schizophrenia and those with another major mental illness. Methods Using the National Health Insurance (NHI hospital-discharge data, we compared the likelihood of perforated appendix among 97,589 adults aged 15 and over who were hospitalized for acute appendicitis in Taiwan between the years 1997 to 2001. Among all the patients admitted for appendicitis, the outcome measure was the odds of appendiceal rupture vs. appendicitis that did not result in a ruptured appendix. Results After adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES and hospital characteristics, the presence of schizophrenia was associated with a 2.83 times higher risk of having a ruptured appendix (odds ratio [OR], 2.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.20–3.64. However, the presence of affective psychoses (OR, 1.15; 95% CI: 0.77–1.73 or other mental disorders (OR, 1.58; 95% CI: 0.89–2.81 was not a significant predictor for a ruptured appendix. Conclusion These findings suggest that given the fact that the NHI program reduces financial barriers to care for mentally ill patients, they are still at a disadvantage for obtaining timely treatment for their physical diseases. Of patients with a major mental illness, schizophrenic patients may be the most vulnerable ones for obtaining timely surgical care.

  17. 250 labels used to stigmatise people with mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinfold Vanessa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The stigma against people with mental illness is a major barrier to help-seeking in young people for mental health problems. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of stigma in relation to treatment avoidance in 14 year-old school students in England in relation to how they refer to people with mental illness. Methods This is a qualitative, cross-sectional study. The data were gathered as part of the baseline assessment for an intervention study intended to reduce stigma among 14 year old school students. The participating schools were two grammar (selective schools and three comprehensive (non-selective schools. At the start of the lesson, the students were asked 'What sorts of words or phrases might you use to describe someone who experiences mental health problems?' Words and terms used to refer to mental illness were enumerated. Using the grounded theory approach, words and terms were grouped in terms of their denotative and connotative meanings. Labels were then derived to capture the key themes attached by the students to the concepts of mental illness. The frequencies of occurrence for each word were also tabulated. Results 400 of the 472 participating students (85% provided 250 words and terms to describe a person with mental illness. Five themes were identified from the data. The first theme called 'popular derogatory terms' (116 items accounted for nearly half of the words examined. The second theme occurred less often and was described as 'negative emotional state' (61 items. The third theme demonstrated the confusion of young people between physical disabilities, learning difficulties and mental health problems (38 items. The use of psychiatric diagnoses (15 items and terms related to violence (9 items were unexpectedly uncommon. Conclusion Our findings suggest the hypothesis that help-seeking by mentally ill young people may be improved by interventions that address both their lack of factual

  18. Association between public views of mental illness and self-stigma among individuals with mental illness in 14 European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Evans-Lacko, S.; Brohan, E.; Mojtabai, R.; Thornicroft, G

    2012-01-01

    Background. Little is known about how the views of the public are related to self-stigma among people with mental health problems. Despite increasing activity aimed at reducing mental illness stigma, there is little evidence to guide and inform specific anti-stigma campaign development and messages to be used in mass campaigns. A better understanding of the association between public knowledge, attitudes and behaviours and the internalization of stigma among people with mental health problems...

  19. Uncivilizing "Mental Illness": Contextualizing Diverse Mental States and Posthuman Emotional Ecologies within The Icarus Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Erica Hua

    2017-09-11

    This article argues humans should not be defined strictly at their physical boundaries with clear distinctions between anatomical bodies, mental states, and the rest of the world. Rather, diverse mental states, which are often diagnosed as "mental illness," take shape within greater environmental forces and flows, including those that are constructed online. Drawing from a multi-sited ethnography of The Icarus Project, a radical mental health community, the author situates online narratives written by two of its members within posthuman emotional ecologies in which the exchange of ideas online affects mental states in a profound way. These narratives can be seen as a new type of psychiatric resistance based in new technologies, one that "uncivilizes" mental illness by searching for alternative frameworks and metaphors to understand lived experiences with mental distress. This ethnographic perspective differs significantly from traditional bio-psychiatric models and interventions and can offer both patients and mental healthcare providers with an alternative language to frame mental health.

  20. Build a better mouse: directly-observed issues in computer use for adults with SMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Anne C; Serowik, Kristin L; Schensul, Jean J; Bowen, Anne M; Rosen, Marc I

    2013-03-01

    Integrating information technology into healthcare has the potential to bring treatment to hard-to-reach people. Individuals with serious mental illness (SMI), however, may derive limited benefit from these advances in care because of lack of computer ownership and experience. To date, conclusions about the computer skills and attitudes of adults with SMI have been based primarily on self-report. In the current study, 28 psychiatric outpatients with co-occurring cocaine use were interviewed about their computer use and opinions, and 25 were then directly observed using task analysis and think aloud methods as they navigated a multi-component health informational website. Participants reported low rates of computer ownership and use, and negative attitudes towards computers. Self-reported computer skills were higher than demonstrated in the task analysis. However, some participants spontaneously expressed more positive attitudes and greater computer self-efficacy after navigating the website. Implications for increasing access to computer-based health information are discussed.

  1. Factors promoting mental health of adolescents who have a parent with mental illness: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.M.A. van; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Hosman, C.M.H.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and extern

  2. Deinstitutionalization: Its Impact on Community Mental Health Centers and the Seriously Mentally Ill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Stephen P.; McNally Melissa; Trippany, Robyn L.

    2009-01-01

    Deinstitutionalization has had a significant impact on the mental health system, including the client, the agency, and the counselor. For clients with serious mental illness, learning to live in a community setting poses challenges that are often difficult to overcome. Community mental health agencies must respond to these specific needs, thus…

  3. Factors promoting mental health of adolescents who have a parent with mental illness: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.M.A. van; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Hosman, C.M.H.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and

  4. Factors Promoting Mental Health of Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…

  5. Factors promoting mental health of adolescents who have a parent with mental illness: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.M.A. van; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Hosman, C.M.H.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and extern

  6. Terrorism and mental illness: is there a relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherston, David; Moran, Jonathan

    2003-12-01

    This article examines the connections between mental illness and terrorism. Most social scientists have discounted a causal relationship between mental illness and terrorism. This is not necessarily always the case within terrorism studies, the media, or political circles where the psychology of terrorism is often expressed in the language of mentalisms, and theories of pathologisation continue to exist. This article reaffirms the view that apart from certain pathological cases, there is no causal connection between an individual's mental disorder and engagement in terrorist activity. The individual terrorist's motivations can be explained by other factors, including behavioural psychology. However, there may be a connection between an individual engaging in terrorist activity and developing a mental disorder[s]. Certain stressors that occur because of terrorist activity may result in psychological disturbance in terrorist individuals. These factors may partially explain terrorist group instability and should be taken into account when detaining and interrogating terrorist suspects.

  7. Eugenics, genetics, and mental illness stigma in Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WonPat-Borja, Ahtoy J; Yang, Lawrence H; Link, Bruce G; Phelan, Jo C

    2012-01-01

    The increasing interest in the genetic causes of mental disorders may exacerbate existing stigma if negative beliefs about a genetic illness are generally accepted. China's history of policy-level eugenics and genetic discrimination in the workplace suggests that Chinese communities will view genetic mental illness less favorably than mental illness with non-genetic causes. The aim of this study is to identify differences between Chinese Americans and European Americans in eugenic beliefs and stigma toward people with genetic mental illness. We utilized data from a 2003 national telephone survey designed to measure how public perceptions of mental illness differ if the illness is described as genetic. The Chinese American (n = 42) and European American (n = 428) subsamples were analyzed to compare their support of eugenic belief items and measures of stigma. Chinese Americans endorsed all four eugenic statements more strongly than European Americans. Ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between genetic attribution and three out of five stigma outcomes; however, genetic attribution actually appeared to be de-stigmatizing for Chinese Americans while it increased stigma or made no difference for European Americans. Our findings show that while Chinese Americans hold more eugenic beliefs than European Americans, these attributions do not have the same effect on stigma as they do in Western cultures. These results suggest that future anti-stigma efforts must focus on eugenic attitudes as well as cultural beliefs for Chinese Americans, and that the effects of genetic attributions for mental illness should be examined relative to other social, moral, and religious attributions common in Chinese culture.

  8. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... signin form Forgot Sign In Create an Account Logging in... Learn More Find Support Get Involved Donate ... to function. Some standard alcohol and drug screening tools are used in mental health clinics to identify ...

  9. Association between public views of mental illness and self-stigma among individuals with mental illness in 14 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, S; Brohan, E; Mojtabai, R; Thornicroft, G

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about how the views of the public are related to self-stigma among people with mental health problems. Despite increasing activity aimed at reducing mental illness stigma, there is little evidence to guide and inform specific anti-stigma campaign development and messages to be used in mass campaigns. A better understanding of the association between public knowledge, attitudes and behaviours and the internalization of stigma among people with mental health problems is needed. This study links two large, international datasets to explore the association between public stigma in 14 European countries (Eurobarometer survey) and individual reports of self-stigma, perceived discrimination and empowerment among persons with mental illness (n=1835) residing in those countries [the Global Alliance of Mental Illness Advocacy Networks (GAMIAN) study]. Individuals with mental illness living in countries with less stigmatizing attitudes, higher rates of help-seeking and treatment utilization and better perceived access to information had lower rates of self-stigma and perceived discrimination and those living in countries where the public felt more comfortable talking to people with mental illness had less self-stigma and felt more empowered. Targeting the general public through mass anti-stigma interventions may lead to a virtuous cycle by disrupting the negative feedback engendered by public stigma, thereby reducing self-stigma among people with mental health problems. A combined approach involving knowledge, attitudes and behaviour is needed; mass interventions that facilitate disclosure and positive social contact may be the most effective. Improving availability of information about mental health issues and facilitating access to care and help-seeking also show promise with regard to stigma.

  10. Accounting for unemployment among people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Richard C; Salzer, Mark S

    2002-01-01

    Persons diagnosed with a serious mental illness experience significantly high rates of unemployment compared with the general population. The explanations for this situation have included a focus on the symptoms associated with these disorders, a focus on the lack of effective vocational rehabilitation programs for this population, and, most recently, a focus on employer discrimination and the financial disincentives to employment in various public policies. The authors of this manuscript review the evolution in thought pertaining to the labor market experiences of persons with a serious mental illness and propose as an additional set of factors that should be considered, those labor market liabilities that this population shares with others without disabilities who experience similar employment histories. The authors conclude that the inclusion of these factors in our understanding of issues that persons with serious mental illness face in the competitive labor market will likely lead to a further evolution in program and policy development. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Challenging claims that mental illness has been increasing and mental well-being declining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busfield, Joan

    2012-08-01

    There has been a tendency by some social scientists and the media to claim that in advanced western societies like Britain and the US mental illness has been increasing and mental well-being declining over the period since the Second World War. In this paper I consider the evidence that is invoked in making such claims, along with the counter-evidence. In order to assess the evidence it is essential to take account of the different ways mental illness and mental well-being are measured and the definitions the measures embed. I argue that when the findings from studies using similar measures at different points in time are compared, there is little evidence of consistent secular increases in mental illness or declines in mental well-being. I suggest that such claims are encouraged by two main factors: first and most importantly, the major changes that have occurred in the official boundaries of mental disorder over the post-war period, which have also changed the ideas and perceptions of professionals and the public about mental health and illness; and second, the ready way in which data on mental health and illness can be used to support criticism of certain features of present-day society.

  12. Mental Health: Overcoming the Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accessed April 25, 2017. Sickel AE, et al. Mental health stigma: Impact on mental health treatment attitudes and physical health. Journal of Health ... 2, 2017. Wong EC, et al. Effects of stigma and discrimination reduction trainings ... Health Services Authority. Rand Health Quarterly. 2016;5:9. ...

  13. Effects of the Indianapolis Vocational Intervention Program (IVIP) on defeatist beliefs, work motivation, and work outcomes in serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervis, Joshua E; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Lysaker, Paul H; Nienow, Tasha M; Mathews, Laura; Wardwell, Patricia; Petrik, Tammy; Thime, Warren; Choi, Jimmy

    2017-04-01

    Defeatist beliefs and amotivation are prominent obstacles in vocational rehabilitation for people with serious mental illnesses (SMI). The CBT-based Indianapolis Vocational Intervention Program (IVIP) was specifically designed to reduce defeatist beliefs related to work functioning. In the current study, we examined the impact of IVIP on defeatist beliefs and motivation for work, hypothesizing that IVIP would be associated with a reduction in defeatist beliefs and greater motivation for work. We also examined the effects of IVIP on these variables as well as work outcomes during a 12-month follow-up. Participants with SMI (n=64) enrolled in a four-month work therapy program were randomized to IVIP or a support therapy group (SG). Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-treatment (4months), and follow-up (1year). Compared to those in SG condition, individuals randomized to IVIP condition reported greater reductions in defeatist beliefs and greater motivation for work at follow-up, along with greater supported employment retention rates. Specifically treating and targeting negative expectations for work therapy improves outcomes, even once active supports of the IVIP program and work therapy are withdrawn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Diagnosis and treatment of mental illness in mentally retarded children: a developmental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosen, A

    1989-01-01

    Attempts have been made in recent years to discover the roots of psychiatric disorders in mentally retarded children by employing a developmental approach in which the child, not the handicap, is brought more clearly into focus. This paper provides a brief overview of the developmental model that has proven useful for the author in the psychiatric diagnosis of mentally retarded children. Application of this model to the treatment of mentally ill-mentally retarded children is also addressed.

  15. [Madness, poverty and society: When poverty becomes mental illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Andrés

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this article is to review the literature on the relationship between homeless and serious mental illness. For both concepts there are different definitions, which will be promptly worked according to the analysis. The study of this issue, particularly outside the scope of our country just highlights the lack of information about this topic in our country. In addition, the following work aims to discuss the relationship between homeless and serious mental illness, as well as a new perspective of work with respect to this issue.

  16. Family influence in recovery from severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldersey, Heather Michelle; Whitley, Rob

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived influence of family on recovery from severe mental illness. 54 semi-structured interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of people with severe mental illness living in Montreal. Results indicated that family both facilitated and impeded recovery processes. Specifically, family facilitated recovery through providing (a) moral support, (b) practical support and (c) motivation to recover. However family impeded recovery through (a) acting as a stressor, (b) displaying stigma and lack of understanding, and (c) forcing hospitalization. The study indicates the importance of family psychoeducation in promoting recovery.

  17. Newspaper coverage of mental illness in England 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornicroft, Amalia; Goulden, Robert; Shefer, Guy; Rhydderch, Danielle; Rose, Diana; Williams, Paul; Thornicroft, Graham; Henderson, Claire

    2013-04-01

    Better newspaper coverage of mental health-related issues is a target for the Time to Change (TTC) anti-stigma programme in England, whose population impact may be influenced by how far concurrent media coverage perpetuates stigma and discrimination. To compare English newspaper coverage of mental health-related topics each year of the TTC social marketing campaign (2009-2011) with baseline coverage in 2008. Content analysis was performed on articles in 27 local and national newspapers on two randomly chosen days each month. There was a significant increase in the proportion of anti-stigmatising articles between 2008 and 2011. There was no concomitant proportional decrease in stigmatising articles, and the contribution of mixed or neutral elements decreased. These findings provide promising results on improvements in press reporting of mental illness during the TTC programme in 2009-2011, and a basis for guidance to newspaper journalists and editors on reporting mental illness.

  18. What Influences Mental Illness? Discrepancies Between Medical Education and Conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Hy Einstein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This preliminary study examined the differences between what was taught during a formal medical education and medical students’ and psychiatry residents’ conceptions of notions regarding the causes and determinants of mental illness. Methods: The authors surveyed 74 medical students and 11 residents via convenience sampling. The survey contained 18 statements which were rated twice based on truthfulness in terms of a participant’s formal education and conception, respectively. Descriptive statistics and a Wilcoxon signed rank test determined differences between education and conception. Results: Results showed that students were less likely to perceive a neurotransmitter imbalance to cause mental illness, as opposed to what was emphasized during a formal medical education. Students and residents also understood the importance of factors such as systemic racism and socioeconomic status in the development of mental illness, which were factors that did not receive heavy emphasis during medical education. Furthermore, students and residents believed that not only did mental illnesses have nonuniform pathologies, but that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders also had the propensity to sometimes arbitrarily categorize individuals with potentially negative consequences. Conclusions: If these notions are therefore part of students’ and residents’ conceptions, as well as documented in the literature, then it seems appropriate for medical education to be further developed to emphasize these ideas.

  19. How to Improve Interactions between Police and the Mentally Ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krameddine, Yasmeen I; Silverstone, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    There have been repeated instances of police forces having violent, sometimes fatal, interactions with individuals with mental illness. Police forces are frequently first responders to those with mental illness. Despite this, training police in how to best interact with individuals who have a mental illness has been poorly studied. The present article reviews the literature examining mental illness training programs delivered to law-enforcement officers. Some of the key findings are the benefits of training utilizing realistic "hands-on" scenarios, which focus primarily on verbal and non-verbal communication, increasing empathy, and de-escalation strategies. Current issues in training police officers are firstly the tendency for organizations to provide training without proper outcome measures of effectiveness, secondly the focus of training is on changing attitudes although there is little evidence to demonstrate this relates to behavioral change, and thirdly the belief that a mental health training program given on a single occasion is sufficient to improve interactions over the longer-term. Future police training needs to address these issues.

  20. How to improve interactions between police and the mentally ill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen eKrameddine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been repeated instances of police forces having violent, sometimes fatal, interactions with individuals with mental illness. Police forces are frequently first responders to those with mental illness. Despite this, training police in how to best interact with individuals who have a mental illness has been poorly studied. The present article reviews the literature examining mental illness training programs delivered to law enforcement officers. Some of the key findings are the benefits of training utilizing realistic hands-on scenarios, which focus primarily on verbal and non-verbal communication, increasing empathy, and de-escalation strategies. Current issues in training police officers are firstly the tendency for organizations to provide training without proper outcome measures of effectiveness, secondly the focus of training is on changing attitudes although there is little evidence to demonstrate this relates to behavioural change, and thirdly the belief that a mental health training program given on a single occasion is sufficient to improve interactions over the longer-term. Future police training needs to address these issues.

  1. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NAMI to 741741 Find Help Living with a Mental Health Condition Family Members and Caregivers Teens and Young Adults Veterans & Active Duty Diverse Communities LGBTQ NAMI Programs Discussion Groups NAMI HelpLine Get Involved stigma free Learn how you can help replace stigma ...

  2. Adulthood and mental illness in full inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Dieter Stobäus

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article reweaves the information included in Bins’ Master Dissertation discussions with his guide Stobäus and with Mosquera, centered in interfaces between Special Education and Full Inclusion, more in direction of the constitution of adult with mental deficiency and the relationship with learning, at the modality of teaching at Adolescent and Adult Education.

  3. Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…

  4. Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…

  5. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Mental Illness Stigma and Discrimination Among Californians Experiencing Mental Health Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eunice C; Collins, Rebecca L; Cerully, Jennifer; Seelam, Rachana; Roth, Beth

    2017-01-01

    Reports racial and ethnic differences on the California Well-Being Survey, a surveillance tool that tracks mental illness stigma and discrimination among a sample of California adults experiencing psychological distress.

  6. [The aging of the mentally ill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouckson, G

    1975-01-01

    The growing old of patients levels and reduces the affective impact of the mental diseases in the way of leucotomia (Muller). The author considers this problem of these patient's destiny. The fact of sending them to retreat-home may recreate new-focus of segregation. The chimiotherapy becomes illusory when treating old people (iatrogene pseudo-dementia. Irreversible tertiary effect of the medical treatments). The old psychotic dies more peacefully than the old person who has become psychotical late in life with a kind of serenity which evokes a bonze's wisdom, identification pattern for the young people. Is schizophrenia a chronic disease or is it made chronic by our society? Is there an analogy between the residual mental automatism and the Far-Eastern extasis?

  7. Stigma, agency and recovery amongst people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Rob; Campbell, Rosalyn Denise

    2014-04-01

    Evidence suggests that people with a severe mental illness still suffer high levels of stigma and discrimination. However little is known about how people with a severe mental illness manage such stigma. As such, the overall aim of this study is to document and analyze behavioral and psychological strategies of stigma management and control in a sample of people in recovery from a severe mental illness. To meet this aim, we conducted a five-year (2008-2012) qualitative longitudinal study in Washington D.C. Participants were recruited from small-scale congregate housing units ('recovery communities') for people in recovery, provided by a public mental health agency. We conducted regular focus groups at these communities, augmented by in-depth participant observation. Analysis was propelled by the grounded theory approach. A key finding of this study is that stigma and discrimination were not perceived as commonly experienced problems by participants. Instead, stigma and discrimination were perceived as omnipresent potential problems to which participants remained eternally vigilant, taking various preventive measures. Most notable among these measures was a concerted and self-conscious effort to behave and look 'normal'; through dress, appearance, conduct and demeanor. In this endeavor, participants possessed and deployed a considered degree of agency to prevent, avoid or preempt stigma and discrimination. These efforts appeared to have a strong semiotic dimension, as participants reported their developing 'normality' (and increased agentic power) was tangible proof of their ongoing recovery. Participants also routinely discussed severe mental illness in normative terms, noting its similarity to physical illnesses such as diabetes, or to generic mental health problems experienced by all. These behavioral and psychological strategies of normalization appeared to be consolidated within the recovery communities, which provided physical shelter and highly-valued peer

  8. Mental Illness Discrimination in Mental Health Treatment Programs: Intersections of Race, Ethnicity, and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Lynn C; Tavassoli, Kyoko Y; Stromwall, Layne K

    2016-04-01

    People with mental illnesses (PWMI) who are of color and/or lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) experience mental health disparities, including within mental health treatment programs (MHTPs). Informed by a critical framework with attention to intersectionality and microaggressions, this qualitative study asked 20 PWMI and family members who also are of color and/or LGB whether they had experienced mental illness discrimination in MHTPs, a possible factor in disparities. We also asked participants about aspects of MHTPs that supported recovery. Participants reported that they were ignored/not listened to, not viewed as complex individuals, experienced condescension/lack of respect and violations of privacy or other rights, and were presumed to lack intelligence. In addition, identifying mental illness discrimination was complex due to intersections of identities. Despite these perceptions of discrimination, participants described supportive aspects of MHTPs. Implications for practice and research are offered.

  9. Mental Illness and Labour Market Outcomes: Employment and Earnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Agerbo, Esben; Eriksson, Tor Viking

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of severe mental illness on the capacity to hold a job and to earn an income. We find that the employment rate is reduced with about 1/3 during the development of the disease. Hospital admission seems to stabilize employment for all diagnoses. The employment rate...

  10. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma among Youth in Psychiatric Outpatient Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the experiences of mental illness stigma in 24 youth (58.3% male, 13-24 years, 75% Latino) in psychiatric outpatient treatment. Using Link and Phelan's (2001) model of stigmatization, we conducted thematic analysis of the interview texts, examining experiences of stigma at individual and structural levels, in addition to the…

  11. Theory of Primary Rights for Persons with Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreuth, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Argues for an organized scheme that considers the human rights of people with mental illness in a way that focuses attention on primary rights. The theory of primary rights emphasizes: life, liberty, and security of persons; the right to an adequate standard of living; all human beings being free and equal in dignity and rights; and conditional…

  12. Assertive community treatment for elderly people with severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Stobbe (Jolanda); N.C.L. Mulder (Niels); B.J. Roosenschoon (Bert); M. Depla (Marja); H. Kroon (Hans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Adults aged 65 and older with severe mental illnesses are a growing segment of the Dutch population. Some of them have a range of serious problems and are also difficult to engage. While assertive community treatment is a common model for treating difficult to engage severe m

  13. Stigma, Reflected Appraisals, and Recovery Outcomes in Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Fred E.; Angell, Beth; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on modified labeling theory and the reflected appraisals process and using longitudinal data from 129 mothers and their adult children with schizophrenia, we estimate models of the effects of mothers' stigmatized identity appraisals of their mentally ill children on reflected and self-appraisals, and how appraisals affect outcomes…

  14. The Police Response to Mental Illness on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Gary J.; Shtull, Penny R.

    2012-01-01

    Campus police officers are often among the initial contacts for behavioral incidents involving people with mental illness. Their training and access to resources influence decisions to direct the individual to support services and/or through campus disciplinary processes and/or the criminal justice system. Over the past decade, there has been an…

  15. Risky Business: Mental Illness, Disclosure and the TAFE Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venville, Annie

    2010-01-01

    This paper meets at the crossroads of personal experience and public policy. The personal is the experience of learning as described by five TAFE students with a mental illness. The public policy context is the increased political pressure on Australia's major vocational training providers to increase workforce participation of people with mental…

  16. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma among Youth in Psychiatric Outpatient Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the experiences of mental illness stigma in 24 youth (58.3% male, 13-24 years, 75% Latino) in psychiatric outpatient treatment. Using Link and Phelan's (2001) model of stigmatization, we conducted thematic analysis of the interview texts, examining experiences of stigma at individual and structural levels, in addition to the…

  17. Reducing Psychotropic Polypharmacy in patients with severe mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, P; Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Killian, R.;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients with mental illness receive psychotropic medicine in high dosages and from more than one drug. One of the consequences of this practice is obesity, which is a contributing factor to increased physical morbidity and premature death. METHODS: Our study was a cluster...

  18. Many with Mental Illness Miss Out on HIV Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163139.html Many With Mental Illness Miss Out on HIV Tests Rates of infection up to 15 times ...

  19. Teaching Students with Emotional Disorders and/or Mental Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    This resource manual is designed to assist Alberta teachers in the identification and education of students with emotional disorders and/or mental illnesses. It takes a comprehensive look at six emotional disorders. The first section focuses on eating disorders. It describes the characteristics and symptoms of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…

  20. M Swanepoel LEGAL ASPECTS WITH REGARD TO MENTALLY ILL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Mental illness is a disorder (or a disease) of the mind that is judged by experts to interfere .... disorder. Often associated with the anti-psychiatry movement, he himself rejected the ... psychiatric treatments are ultimately far more damaging than helpful to patients. ... markedly incoherent speech, disorientation and confusion.

  1. Stigma, Reflected Appraisals, and Recovery Outcomes in Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Fred E.; Angell, Beth; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on modified labeling theory and the reflected appraisals process and using longitudinal data from 129 mothers and their adult children with schizophrenia, we estimate models of the effects of mothers' stigmatized identity appraisals of their mentally ill children on reflected and self-appraisals, and how appraisals affect outcomes…

  2. Validity and Reliability of Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (Cantonese)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Daniel Kim-Wan; Ng, Petrus Y. N.; Pan, Jia-Yan; Cheng, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to translate and test the reliability and validity of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness-Cantonese (ISMI-C). Methods: The original English version of ISMI is translated into the ISMI-C by going through forward and backward translation procedure. A cross-sectional research design is adopted that involved 295…

  3. Using Young Adult Literature To End Discrimination against Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Kathy

    In an effort to inform junior and senior high school students about mental illness, this document provides educators with an annotated bibliography of young adult fiction and a set of supporting activities. Included in the bibliography are nearly 100 current fiction titles, grouped according to the following topics: anorexia, drugs and alcohol,…

  4. The Future of Psychotherapy for Mentally Ill Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Given striking advances in translational developmental neuroscience and its convergence with developmental psychopathology and developmental epidemiology, it is now clear that mental illnesses are best thought of as neurodevelopmental disorders. This simple fact has enormous implications for the nature and organization of psychotherapy…

  5. Service-Learning with the Mentally Ill: Softening the Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Steve T.; Corser, Grant C.; White, Lynn H.

    2010-01-01

    Stigmas toward those who have mental illnesses are wide-spread and detrimental to the health and well-being of those suffering from these debilitating conditions, and to society as a whole. Stigma-reducing programs are plentiful but many are only marginally effective. In this paper we describe and evaluate a course in Psychopathology that included…

  6. The Sylvia Plath Effect: Mental Illness in Eminent Creative Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, James C.

    2001-01-01

    Two studies involving a total of 2149 writers and other eminent individuals found that female poets were significantly more likely to suffer from mental illness than female fiction writers, than male writers of any type, or than eminent individuals in other fields. This finding has been dubbed the "Sylvia Plath" effect. (Contains references.)…

  7. Creativity, self creation, and the treatment of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, A

    2006-06-01

    This paper examines how an understanding of systematic findings about creative processes involved in art, literature, and science can be applied to the effective treatment of mental illness. These findings and applications are illustrated by particular reference to the work of the poet Sylvia Plath and the treatment of a patient who aspired to become a writer.

  8. The availability and quality across Europe of outpatient care for difficult-to-engage patients with severe mental illness: a survey among experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Cornelis L; Ruud, Torleif; Bahler, Michiel; Kroon, Hans; Priebe, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    As many patients with severe mental illness (SMI) who have complex needs are difficult to engage, outreach mental health services are needed to engage them into treatment. The extent to which these services exist in large European cities is unknown. Experts in 29 European countries were sent a structured questionnaire containing two case vignettes of difficult-to-engage patients (a first-episode psychosis patient and a homeless chronic schizophrenia patient). The type and quality of outpatient care was assessed and related to several national indices. The questionnaire was returned by experts from 22 countries (76%) representing 92% of the EU population. Six countries (21%) had a systematic method for detecting difficult-to-engage patients. The most important route whereby such patients entered the mental health system was through informal care; the most important reasons for entering it were the level of psychiatric symptoms, nuisance and violence. Assertive outreach was available in nine countries (41%), with coverage ranging from a few teams (sometimes for a specific target group) to most of the country. The case vignettes showed that outpatient care for these difficult-to-engage patients varied widely. In seven (30%) of the 22 countries, a hospital would take no action if such patients who had been admitted voluntarily discharged themselves prematurely. On a scale of 0-10, the experts' mean scores regarding the quality of outpatient care for patients with SMI in general were 5.2 (SD = 1.9) and 3.2 (SD = 2.2) in difficult-to-engage ones. Explorative analyses showed that the quality of outpatient care for difficult-to-engage patients was associated with gross national income and the number of psychiatrists per capita. Outpatient mental health services for difficult-to-engage SMI patients varied widely among European countries; experts judged their overall quality to be poor. It is now important to achieve consensus on a minimum European standard for the quality

  9. Severe Mental Illness, Somatic Delusions, and Attempted Mass Murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarteschi, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    A case of an attempted mass shooting at a large psychiatric hospital in the United States by a 30-year-old male with severe mental illness, somatic delusions, and exceptional access to healthcare professionals is reported. Six persons were shot, one died at the scene, and the shooter was then killed by the police. Data were gathered from court documents and media accounts. An analysis of the shooter's psychiatric history, his interactions with healthcare professionals, and communications prior to the shooting suggest a rare form of mass murder, a random attack by a documented psychotic and delusional individual suffering with somatic delusions. Despite his being psychotic, the killer planned the attack and made a direct threat 1 month prior to the shootings. This case highlights problems with the healthcare system, indicating that it might be ill equipped to appropriately deal with severe mental illness. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Aceh Free Pasung: Releasing the mentally ill from physical restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puteh, Ibrahim; Marthoenis, M; Minas, Harry

    2011-05-14

    Physical restraint and confinement of the mentally ill (called pasung in Indonesia) is common in Aceh. In early 2010, the local government initiated a program called Aceh Free Pasung 2010. The main goal of the program is to release the mentally ill in the province from restraint and to provide appropriate medical treatment and care. The aim of the paper is to report the findings of a preliminary investigation of the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who have been admitted to the Banda Aceh Mental Hospital as part of the Aceh Free Pasung program. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at the Banda Aceh Mental Hospital, where people who had been restrained or confined in the community are being admitted for psychiatric treatment and, where necessary, physical rehabilitation, as part of the Aceh Free Pasung program. Fifty-nine of former ex-pasung patients were examined. The majority (88.1%) of the patients were male, aged 18 to 68 years. The duration of pasung varied from a few days to 20 years, with a mean duration of 4.0 years. The reasons for applying pasung are many, with concerns about dangerousness being most common. The great majority (89.8%) had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The development of a community mental health system and the introduction of a health insurance system in Aceh (together with the national health insurance scheme for the poor) has enabled access to free hospital treatment for people with severe mental disorders, including those who have been in pasung. The demographic and clinical characteristics of this group of ex-pasung patients are broadly similar to those reported in previous studies. The Aceh Free Pasung program is an important mental health and human rights initiative that can serve to inform similar efforts in other parts of Indonesia and other low and middle-income countries where restraint and confinement of the mentally ill is receiving insufficient attention.

  11. Statin prescribing for people with severe mental illnesses: a staggered cohort study of ‘real-world’ impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, R; Osborn, D; Falcaro, M; Nazareth, I; Petersen, I

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the ‘real-world effectiveness of statins for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and for lipid modification in people with severe mental illnesses (SMI), including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Design Series of staggered cohorts. We estimated the effect of statin prescribing on CVD outcomes using a multivariable Poisson regression model or linear regression for cholesterol outcomes. Setting 587 general practice (GP) surgeries across the UK reporting data to The Health Improvement Network. Participants All permanently registered GP patients aged 40–84 years between 2002 and 2012 who had a diagnosis of SMI. Exclusion criteria were pre-existing CVD, statin-contraindicating conditions or a statin prescription within the 24 months prior to the study start. Exposure One or more statin prescriptions during a 24-month ‘baseline’ period (vs no statin prescription during the same period). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was combined first myocardial infarction and stroke. All-cause mortality and total cholesterol concentration were secondary outcomes. Results We identified 2944 statin users and 42 886 statin non-users across the staggered cohorts. Statin prescribing was not associated with significant reduction in CVD events (incident rate ratio 0.89; 95% CI 0.68 to 1.15) or all-cause mortality (0.89; 95% CI 0.78 to 1.02). Statin prescribing was, however, associated with statistically significant reductions in total cholesterol of 1.2 mmol/L (95% CI 1.1 to 1.3) for up to 2 years after adjusting for differences in baseline characteristics. On average, total cholesterol decreased from 6.3 to 4.6 in statin users and 5.4 to 5.3 mmol/L in non-users. Conclusions We found that statin prescribing to people with SMI in UK primary care was effective for lipid modification but not CVD events. The latter finding may reflect insufficient power to detect a smaller effect size than that observed in randomised

  12. The Relation Between Parental Mental Illness and Adolescent Mental Health: The Role of Family Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.M.A. van; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Witteman, C.L.M.; Hosman, C.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Children of parents with a mental illness are often found to be at high risk of developing psychological problems themselves. Little is known about the role of family factors in the relation between parental and adolescent mental health. The current study focused on parent-child interaction and

  13. Stigma of Mental Illness as Cause of Divorce in Byzantium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassia Nestor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Byzantium mentally ill persons were stigmatized, despite the fact that they could live normally. This stigma consisted a very serious problem not only for the patients themselves, but also for their families.Through the legislation of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian and also the Leo's VI the Wise (9th – 10th A.C. legislation, mental illness was a main health cause of divorce and it concerned both males and females.During these years men were treated different than women, which had to wait five years in order to get a divorce. On the opposite men had to wait only three years to get a divorce for the cause of mentally retarded wife.

  14. Clinical characteristics and service use of incarcerated males with severe mental disorders: a comparative case-control study with patients found not criminally responsible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Alexandre; Côté, Gilles; Larue, Caroline; Goulet, Marie-Hélène; Pelletier, Jean-François

    2014-08-01

    Since the drop in the bed capacity of civil psychiatric hospitals, an increase in the bed capacity of forensic psychiatric care and prison units has been reported in the United States and Europe. However, in Canada, a decrease in the number of people with severe mental illness (SMI) during the last two decades in penitentiaries has been reported. At the same time, an increase in individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) was observed in forensic hospitals. The aim of this study is to compare incarcerated severely mentally ill (I-SMI) individuals with forensic-hospitalized SMI individuals in terms of their clinical profiles and service use in the province of Quebec (Canada). A case-control study design was selected using a sample of 44 I-SMI individuals and 59 forensic-hospitalized SMI individuals. Important findings include the following: I-SMI persons had less schooling; they more often reported suicide attempts and violent and non-violent crimes; and they had a higher level of comorbidity involving Cluster B personality disorders and substance-use disorders. Forensic-hospitalized SMI persons were more likely to have been receiving psychiatric follow-up before hospitalization. The final logistic regression model showed that lifetime suicide attempts, non-violent crimes, and psychopathic traits were higher among I-SMI individuals than among forensic-hospitalized SMI individuals. In contrast, receiving regular psychiatric follow-up was associated with forensic-hospitalized SMI individuals. Differences in psychopathological characteristics and the use of mental health services were found for I-SMI persons. More research is needed to determine which new initiatives might be efficacious in addressing the mental health needs of I-SMI individuals.

  15. [Phobic syndromes in mentally ill adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaeva, N A; Golovina, A G

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of phobias in 1731 adolescents with mental disorders was estimated as 15,2%. A clinical follow-up study included 261 patients, aged 15-17 years, with ICD-10 diagnosis of phobic disorders. One third of patients was diagnosed with organic non-psychotic disorder, while one third with a disorder of endogenous cluster, the other nosologic units were represented rarely. The ratio of male to female was 6:1. Frequency allocation in a spectrum of phobic types was as follows: the fear of darkness (23%), social phobia (20,8%), with about a half of the fears being connected with the study process, thanatophobia (15,8%). Other types were found less often. The analysis of nosologic specificity of phobia content demonstrated an unspecific character of the fear of darkness. Mannered, with complicated content, exaggerated "childish" phobias were presented mainly in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  16. Does Mental Illness Stigma Contribute to Adolescent Standardized Patients' Discomfort With Simulations of Mental Illness and Adverse Psychosocial Experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark D.; Johnson, Samantha; Niec, Anne; Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; High, Bradley; MacMillan, Harriet; Eva, Kevin W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical…

  17. Does Mental Illness Stigma Contribute to Adolescent Standardized Patients' Discomfort With Simulations of Mental Illness and Adverse Psychosocial Experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark D.; Johnson, Samantha; Niec, Anne; Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; High, Bradley; MacMillan, Harriet; Eva, Kevin W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical…

  18. Stigmatising attitudes towards the mentally ill: A survey in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    workshop programme in UK and Canadian secondary schools are quite ... towards the mentally ill in a Nigerian university teaching hospital population using .... that mentally ill persons could be a threat to public safety (Table II). Seventy-five ...

  19. Provider-initiated HIV counselling and testing (PICT) in the mentally ill

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the social drift associated with mental illness (e.g. poverty, ... ill population and many mental health settings do not encourage. HIV testing. Studies ..... Geneva: WHO, 2011. http://www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/.

  20. Mental health, mental illness, and human rights in India and elsewhere: What are we aiming for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2016-12-01

    The Mental Health Care Bill 2013 was introduced to the Rajya Sabha (India's upper house of parliament) in August 2013 and following 134 official amendments, passed in August 2016. Properly implemented, mental health legislation such as this plays a key role in protecting the rights of the mentally ill, ensuring access to care, and promoting social justice for the mentally ill, their families and carers. In this context, the 2006 United Nations' Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) presents a real opportunity to improve the position of people with disabilities and those disabled by long-term mental illness. The CRPD also presents many challenges to mental health legislators and service-providers, especially in relation to involuntary care, mental capacity, and substitute decision-making. Nevertheless, the CRPD has still generated strong incentive for reform and is an opportunity that should not be missed. Legislation along the lines of India's 2013 Bill offers much that is positive and progressive in terms of standards of care, revised processes for involuntary admission, and enhanced governance throughout mental health services. In this way, this kind of legislation, although imperfect in certain respects, promotes the principles of the CRPD (as outlined in the preamble to India's 2013 Bill). It is important that such initiatives focus not only on the right to liberty but also on rights to treatment, social care, social inclusion, and political empowerment of the mentally ill. Globally, the mentally ill have been neglected for far, far too long. It is time to fix this.

  1. Associations of serious mental illness with earnings: results from the WHO World Mental Health surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Daphna; Lakoma, Matthew D.; Petukhova, Maria; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Angermeyer, Matthias; Borges, Guilherme; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Aimee N.; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Browne, Mark Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, José; Sagar, Rajesh; Viana, Maria Carmen; Williams, David R.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Burden-of-illness data, which are often used in setting healthcare policy-spending priorities, are unavailable for mental disorders in most countries. Aims To examine one central aspect of illness burden, the association of serious mental illness with earnings, in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Method The WMH Surveys were carried out in 10 high-income and 9 low- and middle-income countries. The associations of personal earnings with serious mental illness were estimated. Results Respondents with serious mental illness earned on average a third less than median earnings, with no significant between-country differences (χ2(9) = 5.5–8.1, P = 0.52–0.79). These losses are equivalent to 0.3–0.8% of total national earnings. Reduced earnings among those with earnings and the increased probability of not earning are both important components of these associations. Conclusions These results add to a growing body of evidence that mental disorders have high societal costs. Decisions about healthcare resource allocation should take these costs into consideration. PMID:20679263

  2. Availability and Accessibility of Treatment for Persons with Mental Illness Through a Community Mental Health Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shravya Raghunandan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes experiences in implementing a community mental health and development project in a rural district in southern India, including the  position of persons with mental illness when the project was initiated, the challenges the faced and the strategies that were developed to overcome these challenges. The authors conclude that when  services are locally available, persons with mental illness can be treated and rehabilitated within their own community. They can live with dignity and their rights are respected. There is a great need for inclusion of persons with mental illness in the existing developmental activities and in disabled persons’ organizations.doi 10.5463/DCID.v22i2.58

  3. Changes in body weight, body composition and cardiovascular risk factors after long-term nutritional intervention in patients with severe mental illness: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlahavas George

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared with the general population, individuals with severe mental illness (SMI have increased prevalence rates of obesity and greater risk for cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a long term nutritional intervention on body weight, body fat and cardiovascular risk factors in a large number of patients with SMI. Methods Nine hundred and eighty-nine patients with a mean ± S.D age of 40 ± 11.7 yrs participated in a 9 mo nutritional intervention which provided personalised dietetic treatment and lifestyle counselling every two weeks. Patients had an average body mass index (BMI of 34.3 ± 7.1 kg.m-2 and body weight (BW of 94.9 ± 21.7 kg. Fasted blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL- cholesterol. All measurements were undertaken at baseline and at 3 mo, 6 mo and 9 mo of the nutritional intervention. Results Four hundred and twenty-three patients of 989 total patients' cases (42.8% dropped out within the first 3 months. Two hundred eighty-five completed 6 months of the program and 145 completed the entire 9 month nutritional intervention. There were progressive statistically significant reductions in mean weight, fat mass, waist and BMI throughout the duration of monitoring (p -2 (p Conclusion The nutritional intervention produced significant reductions in body weight, body fat and improved the cardiometabolic profile in patients with SMI. These findings indicate the importance of weight-reducing nutritional intervention in decreasing the cardiovascular risk in patients with SMI.

  4. Positive psychology: an approach to supporting recovery in mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, B; Brownell, T; Tylee, A; Slade, M

    2014-09-01

    This paper reviews the literature on positive psychology with a special focus on people with mental illness. It describes the characteristics, critiques, and roots of positive psychology and positive psychotherapy, and summarises the existing evidence on positive psychotherapy. Positive psychology aims to refocus psychological research and practice on the positive aspects of experience, strengths, and resources. Despite a number of conceptual and applied research challenges, the field has rapidly developed since its introduction at the turn of the century. Today positive psychology serves as an umbrella term to accommodate research investigating positive emotions and other positive aspects such as creativity, optimism, resilience, empathy, compassion, humour, and life satisfaction. Positive psychotherapy is a therapeutic intervention that evolved from this research. It shows promising results for reducing depression and increasing well-being in healthy people and those with depression. Positive psychology and positive psychotherapy are increasingly being applied in mental health settings, but research evidence involving people with severe mental illness is still scarce. The focus on strengths and resources in positive psychology and positive psychotherapy may be a promising way to support recovery in people with mental illness, such as depression, substance abuse disorders, and psychosis. More research is needed to adapt and establish these approaches and provide an evidence base for their application.

  5. 78 FR 28140 - Tentative Eligibility Determinations; Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... first factor is that ``having a mental illness is like having a disability.'' The second factor is that... Association (DSM-IV), and we recognize mental illness as a disability that can serve as the basis for an award... Psychosis and Other Mental Illness AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  6. The First Steps to Learning with a Child Who Has a Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    This article shares the author's experience in dealing with her child who has a mental illness. The author hopes that other teachers and school administrators would find her experience helpful when dealing with mentally ill children. The author describes the first steps to learning with a child with a mental illness.

  7. Talking about Mental Illness: A Guide for Developing an Awareness Program for Youth. Community Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001

    This guide contains all of the information, support and tools that community members need to implement "Talking About Mental Illness" in their community--an awareness program proven to be effective in bringing about positive change in young people's knowledge about mental illness, and in reducing stigma that surrounds mental illness. The…

  8. Breaking the Silence: Teaching the Next Generation about Mental Illness. For Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susin, Janet; Kaplan, Lorraine; Slater, Louise

    As part of a campaign to end discrimination against mentally ill persons, this educational packet is designed to provide health educators with the material necessary to teach the facts about mental illness. The objectives of the lesson plans are for middle school students to: (1) identify the stigmatizing words associated with mental illness and…

  9. Breaking the Silence: Teaching the Next Generation about Mental Illness. For High School. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susin, Janet; Kaplan, Lorraine; Slater, Louise

    This educational packet is designed to provide health educators with materials necessary to teach high school students about the facts concerning mental illness. The objectives of the lesson plans are to (1) identify common fears and misconceptions about people who have mental illness; (2) discuss how stereotypes about mental illness are formed;…

  10. Human rights of the mentally ill in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjannah, I; Mills, J; Park, T; Usher, K

    2015-06-01

    The mentally ill are vulnerable to human rights violations, particularly in Indonesia, where shackling is widespread. The aim of this study was to understand the provision of mental health care in Indonesia, thereby identifying ways to improve care and better support carers. Grounded theory methods were used. Study participants included health professionals, non-health professionals and individuals living with a mental disorder who were well at the time (n = 49). Data were collected through interviews conducted in 2011 and 2012. The core category of this grounded theory is 'connecting care' a term coined by the authors to describe a model of care that involves health professionals and non-health professionals, such as family members. Four main factors influence care-providers' decision-making: competence, willingness, available resources and compliance with institutional policy. Health professionals are influenced most strongly by institutional policy when deciding whether to accept or shift responsibility to provide care. Non-health professionals base their decisions largely on personal circumstances. Jointly-made decisions can be matched or unmatched. Unmatched decisions can result in forced provision of care, increasing risks of human rights violations. Generalization of this grounded theory is difficult as the research was conducted in two provinces of Indonesia. Institutional policy was important in the process of connecting care for the mentally ill in Indonesia and needs to be underpinned by legislation to protect human rights. Strengthening mental health legislation in Indonesia will allow nurses to connect care more effectively. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  11. Interprofessional education in mental health: An opportunity to reduce mental illness stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranzan, K Amanda

    2016-05-01

    Mental illness stigma is a common problem in healthcare students and professionals in addition to the general public. Stigma is associated with numerous negative outcomes and hence there is an urgent need to address it. This article explores the potential for interprofessional education (IPE) to emerge as a strategy to reduce mental illness stigma amongst healthcare students and professionals. Most anti-stigma strategies use a combination of knowledge and contact (with a person with lived experience) to change attitudes towards mental illness. Not surprisingly interprofessional educators are well acquainted with theory and learning approaches for attitude change as they are already used in IPE to address learners' attitudes and perceptions of themselves, other professions, and/or teamwork. This article, through an analysis of IPE pedagogy and learning methods, identifies opportunities to address mental illness stigma with application of the conditions that facilitate stigma reduction. The goal of this article is to raise awareness of the issue of mental illness stigma amongst healthcare students and professionals and to highlight interprofessional education as an untapped opportunity for change.

  12. Mythos and mental illness: psychopathy, fantasy, and contemporary moral life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Geoff

    2008-12-01

    Medical accounts of the absence of conscience are intriguing for the way they seem disposed to drift away from the ideal of scientific objectivity and towards fictional representations of the subject. I examine here several contemporary accounts of psychopathy by Robert Hare and Paul Babiak. I first note how they locate the truth about their subject in fiction, then go on to contend that their accounts ought to be thought of as a "mythos," for they betray a telling uncertainty about where "fact" ends and "fantasy" begins, as well as the means of distinguishing mental health from mental illness in regard to some social roles.

  13. Involuntary detention and treatment of the mentally ill: China's 2012 Mental Health Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    The long-awaited Mental Health Law of China was passed on 26 October 2012 and took effect on 1 May 2013. Being the first national legislation on mental health, it establishes a basic legal framework to regulate mental health practice and recognizes the fundamental rights of persons with mental disorders. This article focuses on the system of involuntary detention and treatment of the mentally ill under the new law, which is expected to prevent the so-called "Being misidentified as mentally disordered" cases in China. A systematic examination of the new system demonstrates that the Mental Health Law of China implicitly holds two problematic assumptions and does not provide adequate protection of the fundamental rights of the involuntary patients. Administrative enactments and further national legislative efforts are needed to remedy these flaws in the new law.

  14. Empowerment and serious mental illness: treatment partnerships and community opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W

    2002-01-01

    The health goals of persons with serious mental illness are greatly improved when their personal power is advanced. Two targets of empowerment are discussed in this paper: treatment partnerships and community opportunities. Strategies that enhance treatment partnerships include provider endorsement of recovery rather than promoting an approach that suggests poor prognoses, treatment plans that are collaborative rather than unilateral decision making that is perceived as coercive, and treatment services provided in the person's community rather than geographically or psychological distant institutions. Approaches that focus on the person and treatment relationship are not sufficient however. Stigma and discrimination are significant barriers to the kind of community opportunities that are necessary to help people attain life goals. Communities that substitute stigmatizing attitudes and discriminatory behaviors with realistic views of mental illness are more likely to provide the kind of reasonable accommodations that some people need for work and independent living opportunities.

  15. DSM-V and the stigma of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zeev, Dror; Young, Michael A; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2010-08-01

    Stigma associated with mental illness has been shown to have devastating effects on the lives of people with psychiatric disorders, their families, and those who care for them. In the current article, the relationship between diagnostic labels and stigma is examined in the context of the forthcoming DSM-V. Three types of negative outcomes are reviewed in detail - public stigma, self-stigma, and label avoidance. The article illustrates how a clinical diagnosis may exacerbate these forms of stigma through socio-cognitive processes of groupness, homogeneity, and stability. Initial draft revisions recently proposed by the DSM-V work groups are presented, and their possible future implications for stigma associated with mental illness are discussed.

  16. Mentally ill persons who commit crimes: punishment or treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Yuval

    2010-01-01

    In many countries, there continue to be conflicting opinions and mechanisms regarding the appropriateness of treatment and/or punishment for mentally ill individuals who commit crimes. The general population is concerned with public safety and often finds it difficult to accept the possibility that a mentally ill individual who commits a crime can be hospitalized and eventually discharged, sometimes after a relatively short time. In most countries the options of incarceration and hospitalization are available in concert. In some, incarceration occurs before hospitalization. In others, hospitalization is first, followed by a prison term. An additional option could be "treatment years." The court would determine the number of years of treatment required, according to the crime. This dilemma has no unequivocal solution. The goal is to reach a balance between the right of the patient to treatment and the responsibility of the courts to ensure public safety.

  17. Creative writing in recovery from severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Robert; Neilsen, Philip; White, Emma

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that creative writing forms an important part of the recovery experience of people affected by severe mental illness. In this paper, we consider theoretical models that explain how creative writing might contribute to recovery, and we discuss the potential for creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation. We argue that the rehabilitation benefits of creative writing might be optimized through focus on process and technique in writing, rather than content, and that consequently, the involvement of professional writers might be important. We describe a pilot workshop that deployed these principles and was well-received by participants. Finally, we make recommendations regarding the role of creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation for people recovering from severe mental illness and suggest that the development of an evidence base regarding the effectiveness of creative writing is a priority.

  18. Self-Stigma and Coming Out about One's Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Morris, Scott; Larson, Jon; Rafacz, Jennifer; Wassel, Abigail; Michaels, Patrick; Wilkniss, Sandra; Batia, Karen; Rusch, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Self-stigma can undermine self-esteem and self-efficacy of people with serious mental illness. Coming out may be one way of handling self-stigma and it was expected that coming out would mediate the effects of self-stigma on quality of life. This study compares coming out to other approaches of controlling self-stigma. Eighty-five people with…

  19. Self-Stigma and Coming Out about One's Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Morris, Scott; Larson, Jon; Rafacz, Jennifer; Wassel, Abigail; Michaels, Patrick; Wilkniss, Sandra; Batia, Karen; Rusch, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Self-stigma can undermine self-esteem and self-efficacy of people with serious mental illness. Coming out may be one way of handling self-stigma and it was expected that coming out would mediate the effects of self-stigma on quality of life. This study compares coming out to other approaches of controlling self-stigma. Eighty-five people with…

  20. Gene-Environment Interactions in Severe Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf eUher

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Severe mental illness is a broad category that includes schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and severe depression. Both genetic disposition and environmental exposures play important roles in the development of severe mental illness. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the roles of genetic and environmental depend on each other. Gene-environment interactions may underlie the paradox of strong environmental factors for highly heritable disorders, the low estimates of shared environmental influences in twin studies of severe mental illness and the heritability gap between twin and molecular heritability estimates. Sons and daughters of parents with severe mental illness are more vulnerable to the effects of prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures, suggesting that the expression of genetic liability depends on environment. In the last decade, gene-environment interactions involving specific molecular variants in candidate genes have been identified. Replicated findings include an interaction between a polymorphism in the AKT1 gene and cannabis use in the development of psychosis and an interaction between the length polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene and childhood maltreatment in the development of persistent depressive disorder. Bipolar disorder has been underinvestigated, with only a single study showing an interaction between a functional polymorphism in BDNF and stressful life events triggering bipolar depressive episodes. The first systematic search for gene-environment interactions has found that a polymorphism in CTNNA3 may sensitise the developing brain to the pathogenic effect of cytomegalovirus in utero, leading to schizophrenia in adulthood. Strategies for genome-wide investigations will likely include coordination between epidemiological and genetic research efforts, systematic assessment of multiple environmental factors in large samples, and prioritization of genetic variants.

  1. [Evidence-based treatment of mentally ill homeless persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Maja; Nordentoft, Merete

    2010-05-31

    A systematic review of the literature shows that it is possible to reduce homelessness among mentally ill homeless persons, partly by offering access to housing and partly by providing intensive care through Assertive Community Treatment. Assertive Community Treatment can, to some extent, decrease psychiatric symptoms and increase quality of life. It is evident that by offering housing, homelessness may be reduced, but the comparison of independent housing and group living did not reveal big differences.

  2. Gun policy and serious mental illness: priorities for future research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma Elizabeth; Webster, Daniel W; Barry, Colleen L

    2014-01-01

    In response to recent mass shootings, policy makers have proposed multiple policies to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns. The political debate about these proposals is often uninformed by research. To address this gap, this review article summarizes the research related to gun restriction policies that focus on serious mental illness. Gun restriction policies were identified by researching the THOMAS legislative database, state legislative databases, prior review articles, and the news media. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched for publications between 1970 and 2013 that addressed the relationship between serious mental illness and violence, the effectiveness of gun policies focused on serious mental illness, the potential for such policies to exacerbate negative public attitudes, and the potential for gun restriction policies to deter mental health treatment seeking. Limited research suggests that federal law restricting gun possession by persons with serious mental illness may prevent gun violence from this population. Promotion of policies to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns does not seem to exacerbate negative public attitudes toward this group. Little is known about how restricting gun possession among persons with serious mental illness affects suicide risk or mental health treatment seeking. Future studies should examine how gun restriction policies for serious mental illness affect suicide, how such policies are implemented by states, how persons with serious mental illness perceive policies that restrict their possession of guns, and how gun restriction policies influence mental health treatment seeking among persons with serious mental illness.

  3. [The mentally ill artist--a historical retrospect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdolt, K

    1995-07-01

    The painting of the mentally ill has fascinated artists and their public throughout the 20th century. Yet the psychologically as well as art-historically interesting topic can be traced back over a long period in the history of Western culture. Aristotle emphasizes that all men who create great works, such as artists, philosophers, poets and politicians, are prone to melancholy, that excess of black gall which is characteristic of artists and depressive. Although Plato distinguished between creative and clinical mania, the topos of "genius and madness" prevails up to our century. The cult of melancholy is taken up bei Marsilio Ficino and becomes fashionable among the artists of the 16th and 17th centuries. During the Romantic period of the early 19th century the psychologically unstable or even sick intellectual and artist becomes the focus of attention. Artistic madness is glorified in an almost mystical fashion. However, disillusionment was soon to follow. Schopenhauer, Lombroso and many physicians stress the close relationship between genius and madness. However, they judge madness to be merely morbid and negative. During the 20th century the artists of the avantgarde show much interest in psychoanalysis and in the art of the mentally ill. The rise of National Socialism brought about a drastic break in the appraisal of the art of the mentally ill, which today is an acknowledged factor in contemporary art.

  4. Legal Aspects with Regard to Mentally Ill Offenders in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaleen Swanepoel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this note is to discuss legal aspects with regard to mentally ill offenders with specific reference to the defence raised as a result of mental illness. In order to fully understand this defence it is important to provide a clinical background on what forensic psychiatry is. It is also necessary to define certain clinical concepts such as the concept of mental illness, and the criteria for the classification of mental illnesses. This then leads to a discussion of the defence of mental illness. A conclusion is drawn at the end, with a summary of the findings.

  5. Impact of a population‐wide mental health promotion campaign on people with a diagnosed mental illness or recent mental health problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donovan, Rob; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Robinson, Katy; Lin, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives : To determine the impact of the Act‐Belong‐Commit mental health promotion campaign on people with a diagnosed mental illness or who had sought professional help for a mental health problem in the previous 12 months. Method...

  6. Aceh Free Pasung: Releasing the mentally ill from physical restraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthoenis M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical restraint and confinement of the mentally ill (called pasung in Indonesia is common in Aceh. In early 2010, the local government initiated a program called Aceh Free Pasung 2010. The main goal of the program is to release the mentally ill in the province from restraint and to provide appropriate medical treatment and care. The aim of the paper is to report the findings of a preliminary investigation of the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who have been admitted to the Banda Aceh Mental Hospital as part of the Aceh Free Pasung program. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at the Banda Aceh Mental Hospital, where people who had been restrained or confined in the community are being admitted for psychiatric treatment and, where necessary, physical rehabilitation, as part of the Aceh Free Pasung program. Results Fifty-nine of former ex-pasung patients were examined. The majority (88.1% of the patients were male, aged 18 to 68 years. The duration of pasung varied from a few days to 20 years, with a mean duration of 4.0 years. The reasons for applying pasung are many, with concerns about dangerousness being most common. The great majority (89.8% had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Discussion The development of a community mental health system and the introduction of a health insurance system in Aceh (together with the national health insurance scheme for the poor has enabled access to free hospital treatment for people with severe mental disorders, including those who have been in pasung. The demographic and clinical characteristics of this group of ex-pasung patients are broadly similar to those reported in previous studies. Conclusions The Aceh Free Pasung program is an important mental health and human rights initiative that can serve to inform similar efforts in other parts of Indonesia and other low and middle-income countries where restraint and confinement of the mentally

  7. The role of "evidence" in recovery from mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Sandra J

    2006-12-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP), a derivative of evidence-based medicine (EBM), is ascendant in the United States' mental health system; the findings of randomized controlled trials and other experimental research are widely considered authoritative in mental health practice and policy. The concept of recovery from mental illness is similarly pervasive in mental health programming and advocacy, and it emphasizes consumer expertise and self-determination. What is the relationship between these two powerful and potentially incompatible forces for mental health reform? This paper identifies four attempts, in the mental health literature, to delineate the role of "evidence" in recovery. One is the strong version of evidence-based practice-an applied science model-and three others address weaknesses in the first by limiting the authority of probabilistic findings. The paper also offers a fifth version, based on the concept of communicative accountability, which is derived from Habermas' work on communicative action. The fifth version responds to the other four and emphasizes learning, disclosure and respect in clinical and other helping relationships.

  8. Human Trafficking, Mental Illness, and Addiction: Avoiding Diagnostic Overshadowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoklosa, Hanni; MacGibbon, Marti; Stoklosa, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews an emergency department-based clinical vignette of a trafficked patient with co-occurring pregnancy-related, mental health, and substance use disorder issues. The authors, including a survivor of human trafficking, draw on their backgrounds in addiction care, human trafficking, emergency medicine, and psychiatry to review the literature on relevant general health and mental health consequences of trafficking and propose an approach to the clinical complexities this case presents. In their discussion, the authors explicate the deleterious role of implicit bias and diagnostic overshadowing in trafficked patients with co-occurring addiction and mental illness. Finally, the authors propose a trauma-informed, multidisciplinary response to potentially trafficked patients.

  9. California's historic effort to reduce the stigma of mental illness: the Mental Health Services Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Wayne; Welch, Stephanie N; Berry, Sandra H; Collentine, Ann M; Collins, Rebecca; Lebron, Dorthy; Shearer, Amy L

    2013-05-01

    In a historic effort to reduce the stigma of mental illness, California voters approved the Mental Health Services Act in 2004. The law funds a comprehensive statewide prevention initiative that places stigma and discrimination reduction at its center, with 25 projects providing interventions at the institutional, societal, and individual levels. Stakeholders selected specific strategies from the research-based California Strategic Plan on Reducing Stigma and Discrimination. Strategies range from social marketing to increase public knowledge to capacity building at the local level, including training that emphasizes participation by consumers of mental health services and cultural competence. Collectively, these strategies aim to foster permanent change in the public perception of mental illness and in the individual experience of stigma. We examined the context, planning, programming, and evaluation of this effort.

  10. Psychometric evaluation of the internalized stigma of mental illness scale for patients with mental illnesses: measurement invariance across time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Cheng Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current investigation examined the psychometric properties of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale in a sample of patients with mental illness. In addition to the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity that previous studies have tested for the ISMI, we extended the evaluation to its construct validity and measurement invariance using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. METHODS: Three hundred forty-seven participants completed two questionnaires (i.e., the ISMI and the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale [DSSS], and 162 filled out the ISMI again after 50.23±31.18 days. RESULTS: The results of this study confirmed the frame structure of the ISMI; however, the Stigma Resistance subscale in the ISMI seemed weak. In addition, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity were all satisfactory for all subscales and the total score of the ISMI, except for Stigma Resistance (α = 0.66; ICC = 0.52, and r = 0.02 to 0.06 with DSSS. Therefore, we hypothesize that Stigma Resistance is a new concept rather than a concept in internalized stigma. The acceptable fit indices supported the measurement invariance of the ISMI across time, and suggested that people with mental illness interpret the ISMI items the same at different times. CONCLUSION: The clinical implication of our finding is that clinicians, when they design interventions, may want to use the valid and reliable ISMI without the Stigma Resistance subscale to evaluate the internalized stigma of people with mental illness.

  11. Perspectives of Treatment Providers and Clients with Serious Mental Illness Regarding Effective Therapeutic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Alison; Pollock, Michele; Pope, Leah Gogel; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Smith, Thomas E

    2016-07-01

    This study explores the nature of clinical therapeutic relationships between mental health treatment providers and high-need clients with serious mental illness who had recently discontinued treatment. Semi-structured qualitative interviews of 56 clients with serious mental illness who had recently discontinued care and 25 mental health treatment providers were completed. Both clients with serious mental illness and treatment providers emphasized the importance of client-focused goal setting, time and availability of treatment providers, a caring approach, and trust and honesty in the relationship. However, clients with serious mental illness placed greater emphasis on goals involving tangible services, a notable area of discord between the two groups. Individuals with serious mental illness and treatment providers agreed regarding several key elements to a positive clinical relationship. Further attention to client goals related to tangible services may serve to improve relationships between treatment providers and high-need clients with serious mental illness.

  12. The Role of Mental Health Services in Addressing HIV Infection Among Women With Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Mary V

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews how mental health services can best prevent and treat HIV infection among women with serious mental illness. This is a selective narrative review of the recent literature on mental health services and HIV. The author used the terms "HIV," "serious mental illness," and "women" to search Google Scholar. Out of 500 relevant papers retrieved, 82 were included, based on their state-of-the-art findings. Women with serious mental illness at risk of HIV were found to be an especially vulnerable group. The evidence suggests that discussion of the modes of viral transmission reduces the risk of infection in this population, as do psychoeducation; long-term antipsychotic medication; adherence therapy; community treatment orders; prevention of domestic violence and homelessness; disbursement of financial entitlements; provision of psychotherapy and social support; cognitive rehabilitation; promotion of abstinence, monogamy, or reduction in the number of sexual partners; access to and training in the use of condoms; prophylaxis with vaginal microbicides and oral antiretroviral drugs; prompt diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases; across-the-board offers of HIV testing; and preservation and monitoring of reproductive health. For HIV-positive individuals, comprehensive treatment measures have included prompt HIV treatment; long-term retention in care; supervision of medication adherence and drug interactions; rapid management of substance use disorders and all other comorbidities as well as drug side effects; and preclusion of professional stigmatization. There is now sufficient evidence to recommend effective combinations of strategies to prevent and treat HIV within mental health services.

  13. What do persons with mental illnesses need to quit smoking? Mental health consumer and provider perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Chad D; Waxmonsky, Jeanette A; May, Mandy G; Giese, Alexis A

    2009-01-01

    Forty-one percent (41%) of persons in the U.S. who reported having recent mental illnesses also smoke cigarettes. Tobacco use among this population is associated with up to 25 less years of life and excess medical comorbidity compared to the general population. While research demonstrates that tobacco interventions can be effective for persons with mental illnesses, they are not commonly utilized in clinical practice. The current study explored how to adapt evidence-based tobacco cessation interventions to meet the unique physiological, psychological, and social challenges facing persons with mental illnesses. Ten focus groups were conducted utilizing a semi-structured discussion; 5 for adult mental health consumers (n = 62) and 5 with mental health clinicians and administrators (n = 22). Content analysis was used to organize themes into categories. Five thematic categories were found: (1) Barriers to treatment, (2) Resources and infrastructure, (3) Negative influences on smoking behavior, (4) Knowledge deficits, and (5) Treatment needs. These findings are instructive in developing appropriate tobacco cessation services for this population. Specifically, these data have been incorporated into a mental health provider toolkit for smoking cessation and have informed the development of a tobacco cessation intervention study.

  14. Serving severely mentally ill people in a major Canadian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, D A; Sladen-Dew, N; Russell, J S

    1994-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, GVMHS has been the single organization taking ultimate responsibility for the seriously mentally ill throughout the city. It uses central coordination coupled with community-based teams and partnership programs with other agencies to strike a useful balance between integration and flexibility. GVMHS's mission throughout that time has been to provide everyday community support, networking, case management, rehabilitation, and counseling services to as many seriously mentally ill persons with concomitant disabilities as possible. To carry out that mission, GVMHS has developed some innovative solutions for the problems of community support--problems such as psychiatric emergencies, crises, community demands for service outside the mandate, and workload management. GVMHS has also developed dual-diagnosis, multicultural, multiagency case coordination for the multiproblem client (Buckley and Bigelow, 1992), specialized family and child programs, and specialized geriatric programs. This has all been possible only because financial support is available on an ongoing basis at a level adequate to provide good, dependable services. GVMHS has been proven an effective service in a number of studies (Bigelow and Beiser, 1978; Beiser, Shore, Peters, and Tatum, 1985). It has also demonstrated good cost-efficiency (Bigelow and McFarland, 1989) and abundant innovation and adaptation to emerging challenges (Bigelow, McFarland, Russell, and Sladen-Dew, 1990). It has proven that dedicated, well-trained professionals working at the community level will work hard and smart and that an agency and its staff will stick to the mandate of serving people with serious mental illnesses and disabilities even under pressure to do otherwise. The intriguing thing is that this productivity is not driven by competition, incentives, or threat: none of these factors presses upon the Greater Vancouver Mental Health Services Society from without and none is built in. The

  15. Marriage as a perceived panacea to mental illness in India: Reality check

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Marriage is a consensual and contractual relationship recognized by law. In India, there is a tremendous social and cultural pressure to marry. It is of paramount importance to discuss the relationship between marriage and mental illness in Indian scenario as marriage is perceived to be a panacea to mental illness by many. This review aims to explore whether marriage contributes to mental-health problems; whether it has a protective role; what effect it has on pre-existing mental illnesses an...

  16. Public stigma of mental illness in the United States: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcesepe, Angela M; Cabassa, Leopoldo J

    2013-09-01

    Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public's stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public's stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental disorders and advance research in this area. Public stigma of mental illness in the U.S. was widespread. Findings can inform interventions to reduce the public's stigma of mental illness.

  17. The effect of mental interventions on troublemaking risks of patients with severe mental illness%心理干预对重性精神疾病患者肇事肇祸危险度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪海燕; 徐健

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨心理干预对社区重性精神疾病患者肇事肇祸危险度的影响。方法对603例社区重性精神疾病患者进行肇事肇祸危险度评估,并在常规治疗的基础上于随访时进行社区心理干预,观察1a。干预后再次评定患者的肇事肇祸危险度,并与干预前进行对比分析。结果心理干预后入组患者的肇事肇祸等级构成有显著变化(P<0.05),其中精神分裂症患者和初中及以上文化程度患者的肇事肇祸危险等级显著降低(P<0.01),精神发育迟滞患者和小学及以下文化程度患者的肇事肇祸危险等级无明显变化(P>0.05)。结论心理干预能显著降低社区重性精神疾病患者的肇事肇祸危险度,但对精神发育迟滞患者及文化程度低的患者效果不明显。%Objective To explore the effect of mental interventions on trouble‐making risks of patients with severe mental illness (SMI) .Methods Assessments of troublemaking risks were carries out in 603 SMI patients ,community mental interventions given to them on the basis of routine treatment during follow‐up ,and they observed for 1 year .Assessments of troublemaking risks were car‐ries out again after intervention and compared with pre‐intervention assessments .Results After interven‐tion troublemaking grade constitution of SMI patients changed significantly (P0 .05) .Conclusion Psychological intervention could no‐tably reduce the troublemaking risk of SMI patients except patients with mental retardation and ones with primary school and below .

  18. Attitudes toward mental illness in adults by mental illness-related factors and chronic disease status: 2007 and 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobau, Rosemarie; Zack, Matthew M

    2013-11-01

    We examined how attitudes toward mental illness treatment and its course differ by serious psychological distress, mental illness treatment, chronic disease, and sociodemographic factors using representative state-based data. Using data from jurisdictions supporting the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System's Mental Illness and Stigma Module (35 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico), we compared adjusted proportions of adults agreeing that "Treatment can help people with mental illness lead normal lives" (treatment effectiveness) and that "People are generally caring and sympathetic to people with mental illness" (supportive environment), by demographic characteristics, serious psychological distress, chronic disease status, and mental illness treatment. Attitudes regarding treatment effectiveness and a supportive environment for people with mental illness varied within and between groups. Most adults receiving mental illness treatment agreed that treatment is effective. Fewer adults with serious psychological distress than those without such distress agreed that treatment is effective. Fewer of those receiving treatment, those with psychological distress, and those with chronic disease perceived the environment as supportive. These data can be used to target interventions for population subgroups with less favorable attitudes and for surveillance.

  19. Is the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale valid for use in the investigation of European nurses' attitudes towards the mentally ill? A confirmatory factor analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Roisin; Scott, Philomena Anne; Cocoman, Angela; Chambers, Mary; Guise, Veslemøy; Välimäki, Maritta; Clinton, Gerard

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the construct validity of the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale in the investigation of European nurses' attitudes towards mental illness and mental health patients. The harbouring of negative attitudes by nurses towards any patient can have implications for recovery. To gather robust evidence upon which to base information and education aimed at fostering acceptance, support and general positivity towards people with mental health illness, a valid and reliable system of data collection is required. A confirmatory factor analysis of both the original Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale and two modified versions of the scale were carried out during May - June 2007 using a data set representing the responses of 858 European nurses to the scale. Data were subjected to three different confirmatory factor analyses using Maximum Likelihood estimation in the software package, Analysis of Moment Structures 7. A number of absolute, relative and incremental fit statistics were used to assess the fit of the original Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale and two modified versions to the European nursing data. A modification of the scale was found to be most suitable for use in the investigation of European nurses' attitudes towards mental illness and people with mental illness. Further research is recommended to develop a valid and reliable research tool to specifically measure the attitudes of 'nurses' working across different mental healthcare facilities towards this vulnerable patient group. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. [Violence by and against people with mental illnesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Tilman; Traub, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    There is robust evidence for an increased risk of violence through people with psychotic disorders. Until recently this was frequently denied to prevent stigmatization. Alcohol and drug abuse equally increases the risk, while appropriate treatment reduces it drastically. Staff in psychiatric hospitals is exposed to an elevated risk of aggressive assaults. A limited number of severely ill and socially disintegrated patients accounts for these incidents, which are often recurrent. Besides patient characteristics, factors such as ward climate, staffing levels, education and attitudes of staff, and physical environment play a major role in aggressive escalations. On the other hand, mentally ill people, particularly women, are themselves at a higher risk of becoming victims of violent and non-violent crime. This also applies after correction for variables such as social status and living environment. Additionally mentally ill people are confronted with violence in the form of coercive interventions legitimised by the state (involuntary admission, involuntary treatment, freedom-restrictive measures such as seclusion or manual/physical restraint). In contrast to other countries in Central and Western Europe, involuntary outpatient treatment has never been legalized in Germany. Efforts to reduce violence and coercion in psychiatric facilities by evidence-based interventions are widespread nowadays, treatment guidelines are available.

  1. Attitudes of Mental Health Professionals about Mental Illness: A Review of the Recent Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Otto; Aroesty-Cohen, Eli

    2010-01-01

    A large body of research has documented public attitudes toward people with mental illness. The current attitudes of the people who provide services to those with psychiatric disorders are important to understand, as well. The authors review what studies over the past 5 years reveal about the attitudes of psychiatric professionals. Empirical…

  2. Employers’ Perspectives on Hiring and Accommodating Workers With Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janki Shankar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many individuals with mental illness want to return to work and stay in employment. Yet, there is little research that has examined the perspectives of employers on hiring and accommodating these workers and the kinds of supports employers need to facilitate their reintegration into the workforce. The aim of the current research was to explore the challenges employers face and the support they need to hire and accommodate workers with mental illness (WWMI. A qualitative research design guided by a grounded theory approach was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 employers selected from a wide range of industries in and around Edmonton, Canada. The employers were a mix of frontline managers, disability consultants, and human resource managers who had direct experience with hiring and supervising WWMI. Data were analyzed using the principles of grounded theory. The findings highlight several challenges that employers face when dealing with mental health issues of workers in the workplace. These challenges can act as barriers to hiring and accommodating WWMI.

  3. Physical and mental illness burden: disability days among working adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the association between physical and mental health conditions and disability days among a nationally representative working population, after controlling for basic sociodemographic variables, moderating variables, and comorbidities. Cross-sectional data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) for 2007 was used. T tests and linear regressions were used to examine differences in disability days by comorbidities. The average number of disability days by condition ranged from 4 days for impulse control disorders to a maximum of 18 days for stroke. Comorbidities explain all of the disability days for allergies. The contribution of comorbidities to disability days varied from 0% for stroke and 14% for cancer to 72% for diabetes and 77% for asthma. Among those with mental illnesses, comorbidities contributed 64% of the disability days for anxiety and only 18% for depression. The associations between comorbidities and disability days varied by type of physical and mental condition. Except for stroke, cancer, and depression, illness burden was exacerbated by comorbidities. Treatment strategies and plans must focus on comanagement of chronic conditions to reduce disability days.

  4. Human rights violations among economically disadvantaged women with mental illness: An Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Ramachandra; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Globally women confront manifold violations of human rights and women with poverty and mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. The aim was to examine the influence of poverty in meeting human rights needs among recovered women with mental illness at family and community level. This was a descriptive study carried out among randomly selected (n = 100) recovered women with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data were collected through face-to-face interview using structured needs assessment questionnaire. Our findings revealed that below poverty line (BPL) participants were not satisfied in meeting their physical needs such as "access to safe drinking water" (χ(2) = 8.994, P mentally ill in their community (χ(2) = 11.848, P disability allowance, housing and other social security for women with mental illness. Further, mental health professionals play an essential role in educating the family and public regarding human rights of people with mental illness.

  5. Undertreatment before the award of a disability pension for mental illness: the HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, Simon; Glozier, Nicholas; Krokstad, Steinar; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2007-11-01

    Mental illnesses are consistently underrecognized and undertreated, leading to underestimations of the societal burden of mental illness as a contributor to disability benefit expenditures. This study examined the extent of undertreatment before disability pensions for mental illness were awarded. Norwegian National Insurance Administration data were linked to data from the HUNT-2 study, a population-based health survey, and 403 persons awarded a disability pension for mental illness in the five years before the health survey were identified. The extent of help seeking for any mental illness before the pension was awarded was examined. Of the 403 adults who were pensioned out of the workforce for a disability involving mental illness, 128 (32%, 95% confidence interval=27%-36%) reported never having sought help for any mental health problem. Although self-report of receipt of treatment is a limitation of the study, the results suggest a potential for preventing permanent work-related disability through improved access to effective treatment.

  6. Marriage as a perceived panacea to mental illness in India: Reality check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Marriage is a consensual and contractual relationship recognized by law. In India, there is a tremendous social and cultural pressure to marry. It is of paramount importance to discuss the relationship between marriage and mental illness in Indian scenario as marriage is perceived to be a panacea to mental illness by many. This review aims to explore whether marriage contributes to mental-health problems; whether it has a protective role; what effect it has on pre-existing mental illnesses and its outcome in major mental illnesses.

  7. Mental illness and stigma: Has psychiatry done more harm than good?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashima Kanwar

    2015-01-01

    The result-for the mentally ill-could well be diminished access to social determinants of healthcare, employment, and housing. In addition, people with mental illnesses are exposed to numerous health risks such as malnutrition, drug abuse, violence and homelessness. Maybe this explains nondisclosure of illness in an increasingly degenerate civil society.

  8. Frames of mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies: implications for orthodox mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, Olayinka; Olayiwola, Funmilayo

    2013-06-01

    This study examines the modes of framing mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies. All Yoruba films on display in a convenient sample of movie rental shops in Ibadan (Nigeria) were sampled for content. Of the 103 films studied, 27 (26.2%) contained scenes depicting mental illness. Psychotic symptoms were the most commonly depicted, while effective treatments were mostly depicted as taking place in unorthodox settings. The most commonly depicted aetiology of mental illness was sorcery and enchantment by witches and wizards, as well as other supernatural forces. Scenes of mental illness are common in Nigerian movies and these depictions-though reflecting the popular explanatory models of Yoruba-speaking Nigerians about mental illness- may impede utilization of mental health care services and ongoing efforts to reduce psychiatry stigma in this region. Efforts to reduce stigma and improve service utilization should engage the film industry.

  9. Mental illness and Irish people: stereotypes, determinants and changing perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, L

    1998-12-01

    The causes of psychological illness in Irish people have been identified with colonial rule and the catastrophic conditions deriving from famine in the nineteenth century. In particular, the scourge of unremitting emigration, resulting from famine, has formed a background against which speculative theories of inferiority, alienation and mental illness have been constructed. In particular, the long standing idea that Irish people exhibit higher rates of schizophrenia, both in Ireland and abroad, is discussed. Contemporary studies which suggest that these elevated rates do not correspond to international diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia are introduced. Rather, these enhanced rates may reflect a malaise which resembles schizophrenia but which is really a product of historical dispossession. The importance of these factors is underscored by the previous neglect of Irish people, considered as an ethnic minority, as well as the particular distaste which many Irish people display towards such a notion.

  10. Practice Wisdom on Custodial Parenting with Mental Illness: A Strengths View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Laura Dreuth; Buila, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Social work principles of strengths, empowerment, and consumer-centered care for persons with mental illness are currently being adapted to broader contexts. This article presents study findings on practice wisdom about custodial parents with mental illness, a potentially increasing group of consumers in light of mental health reform. The research…

  11. The Silent Parent: Developing Knowledge about the Experiences of Parents with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursnell, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the lived experiences of parents with mental illness in Australia. It draws on in-depth interviews with parents (n = 10) who have mental illness and provides an analysis of national mental health policies. The analysis of the parents' narratives is essential in building a picture for those involved in the issues associated with…

  12. The real mental illnesses: Susan Nolen-Hoeksema (1959-2013) in memoriam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E P

    2014-02-01

    Susan Nolen-Hoeksema's life work concerned rumination, gender differences in depression, and the "transdiagnostic" processes in mental illness. The articles in this special section expand on these themes. Her work on transdiagnostic processes leads us to consider that the real mental illnesses are not the congeries of symptoms in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, but these processes themselves.

  13. Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

  14. Breaking Down the Stigma of Mental Illness through an Adventure Camp: A Collaborative Education Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhlmiller, Cynthia M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an outdoor adventure camp to help mental health consumers and nursing students explore the issues of mental health and illness through experiential and perceived risk challenges. Evaluation data reveals a breakdown in the stigma of mental illness as consumers and students came to know, trust, and count on each other in order to succeed…

  15. Guns, schools, and mental illness: potential concerns for physicians and mental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ryan Chaloner Winton; Friedman, Susan Hatters

    2013-11-01

    Since the recent shootings in Tucson, Arizona; Aurora, Colorado; and Newtown, Connecticut, there has been an ever-increasing state and national debate regarding gun control. All 3 shootings involved an alleged shooter who attended college, and in hindsight, evidence of a mental illness was potentially present in these individuals while in school. What appears to be different about the current round of debate is that both pro-gun control and anti-gun control advocates are focusing on mentally ill individuals, early detection of mental illness during school years, and the interactions of such individuals with physicians and the mental health system as a way to solve gun violence. This raises multiple questions for our profession about the apparent increase in these types of events, dangerousness in mentally ill individuals, when to intervene (voluntary vs involuntary), and what role physicians should play in the debate and ongoing prevention. As is evident from the historic Tarasoff court case, physicians and mental health professionals often have new regulations/duties, changes in the physician-patient relationship, and increased liability resulting from high-profile events such as these. Given that in many ways the prediction of who will actually commit a violent act is difficult to determine with accuracy, physicians need to be cautious with how the current gun debate evolves not only for ourselves (eg, increased liability, becoming de facto agents of the state) but for our patients as well (eg, increased stigma, erosion of civil liberties, and changes in the physician-patient relationship). We provide examples of potential troublesome legislation and suggestions on what can be done to improve safety for our patients and for the public.

  16. Involuntary hospitalization of the mentally ill as a moral issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodoff, P

    1984-03-01

    Conflict exists between medical model and civil liberties approaches to involuntary hospitalization for mental illness. The amassing and analysis of data will not resolve this conflict because the two sides view the problem from differing moral vantage points. Medical model adherents are influenced chiefly by utilitarian or consequentialist considerations, while the civil libertarians take more of a deontological or absolutist position. Opinions about such issues as hospitalization criteria of dangerousness versus medical necessity and the relative role of rights versus obligations and of autonomy versus paternalism can be seen largely to depend on such underlying value judgments. Neither side has a monopoly on truth or right in the question of involuntary hospitalization.

  17. Setting the bar: athletes and vulnerability to mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Lynette; Leavey, Gerard

    2012-02-01

    Whereas physical sport activity is generally considered a health benefit, extreme exercise may be harmful. Of particular concern in this regard is the considerable variation between doctors in the primary care setting and those working within the sports setting around the diagnosis and treatment of athletes presenting with similar symptoms. Known risk factors for athletes are herein presented to raise awareness of the negative side of sport and to bring attention to the psychological outcomes and needs of athletes. The need for research into the incidence and aetiology of mental illness within elite level sport is also raised.

  18. Sociodrama in the rehabilitation of chronic mentally ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, F W

    1989-04-01

    Sociodrama, a synthesis of group psychotherapy and theatrical presentation, was used from 1978 to 1981 to promote rehabilitation of chronic mentally ill patients at Bellevue Mental Hospital in Jamaica. Staff and patients collectively analyzed their recollections of the hospital's history, then wrote and staged dramatic productions based on the insights derived from those analyses. Changes in the major themes that emerged from the process reflected improvement in therapeutic attitudes and practices and in patient-staff communication over the four-year period. Patients who participated in the sociodramas had greater decreases in medication dosage and psychosocial disability scores and higher rates of improvement and discharge than a matched group of patients who did not participate.

  19. Treatment engagement of individuals experiencing mental illness: review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Lisa B; Holoshitz, Yael; Nossel, Ilana

    2016-02-01

    Individuals living with serious mental illness are often difficult to engage in ongoing treatment, with high dropout rates. Poor engagement may lead to worse clinical outcomes, with symptom relapse and rehospitalization. Numerous variables may affect level of treatment engagement, including therapeutic alliance, accessibility of care, and a client's trust that the treatment will address his/her own unique goals. As such, we have found that the concept of recovery-oriented care, which prioritizes autonomy, empowerment and respect for the person receiving services, is a helpful framework in which to view tools and techniques to enhance treatment engagement. Specifically, person-centered care, including shared decision making, is a treatment approach that focuses on an individual's unique goals and life circumstances. Use of person-centered care in mental health treatment models has promising outcomes for engagement. Particular populations of people have historically been difficult to engage, such as young adults experiencing a first episode of psychosis, individuals with coexisting psychotic and substance use disorders, and those who are homeless. We review these populations and outline how various evidence-based, recovery-oriented treatment techniques have been shown to enhance engagement. Our review then turns to emerging treatment strategies that may improve engagement. We focus on use of electronics and Internet, involvement of peer providers in mental health treatment, and incorporation of the Cultural Formulation Interview to provide culturally competent, person-centered care. Treatment engagement is complex and multifaceted, but optimizing recovery-oriented skills and attitudes is essential in delivery of services to those with serious mental illness.

  20. Using simulation to educate police about mental illness: A collaborative initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Stanyon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mental illness is a major public health concern in Canada and also globally. According to the World Health Organization, five of the top ten disabilities worldwide are mental health disorders. Within Canada, one in five individuals is living with mental illness each year. Currently, there are 6.7 million Canadians living with mental illness and over 1 million Canadian youth living with mental illness. Police are frequently the first responders to situations in the community involving people with mental illness, and police services are increasingly aware of the need to provide officers with additional training and strategies for effectively interacting with these citizens. This study examined the effectiveness of four online, interactive video-based simulations designed to educate police officers about mental illness and strategies for interacting with people with mental illness. The simulations were created through the efforts of a unique partnership involving a police service, a mental health facility and two postsecondary institutions. Frontline police officers from Ontario were divided into one of three groups (simulation, face to face, control. Using a pre- and post-test questionnaire, the groups were compared on their level of knowledge and understanding of mental illness. In addition, focus groups explored the impact of the simulations on officers’ level of confidence in engaging with individuals with mental illness and officers’ perceptions of the simulations’ ease of use and level of realism. The study’s findings determined that the simulations were just as effective as face-to-face learning, and the officers reported the simulations were easy to use and reflected real-life scenarios they had encountered on the job. As mental health continues to be a major public concern, not only in Canada but also globally, interactive simulations may provide an effective and affordable education resource not only for police officers but for

  1. Experiencing community: perspectives of individuals diagnosed as having serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Elizabeth; Gabrielian, Sonya; Brekke, Benjamin; Pahwa, Rohini; Daly, Kathleen A; Brekke, John S; Braslow, Joel T

    2013-07-01

    Community integration is recognized as a crucial component of recovery from serious mental illness. Although the construct of community integration can be measured with structured instruments, little is known about the subjective and experiential meaning of community and community involvement for persons with serious mental illness. In 2010, 30 individuals with serious mental illness treated in two public mental health clinics completed semistructured interviews that elicited the places and people that they associate with the experience of community and the larger meaning of community in their lives. Participants described four experiences as integral to their concepts of community: receiving help, minimizing risk, avoiding stigma, and giving back. Participants looked for communities that provide reliable support, and they described the need to manage community contact in order to protect themselves and others from their symptoms and from discrimination. Most participants experienced communities centered on mental health treatment or mentally ill peers as providing opportunities for positive engagement. The experience of having a serious mental illness shapes preferences for and perceptions of community in pervasive ways. Participants described community involvement not as a means to move away from illness experiences and identities but as a process that is substantially influenced by them. Mental health communities may help individuals with serious mental illness to both manage their illness and recognize and enjoy a sense of community. The findings indicate the need for further research on the relationship between community integration and outcome in serious mental illness.

  2. Suggested avenues to reduce the stigma of mental illness in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewilam, Ahmed M; Watson, Annie M M; Kassem, Ahmed M; Clifton, Sue; McDonald, Margaret C; Lipski, Rebecca; Deshpande, Smita; Mansour, Hader; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L

    2015-03-01

    Stigma toward mentally ill individuals acts as a barrier to accessing care and receiving treatment. To review current evidence pertaining to stigma toward mental illness in the Middle East in order to inform effective and sustainable interventions in this region. We conducted a systematic literature search using the PubMed database and evaluated all identified studies according to specific inclusion criteria. Stigma toward individuals with mental illness does exist in the Middle East. Stigmatizing attitudes are particularly high toward culturally proscribed mental illnesses like alcohol abuse and lower for other disorders such as depression and psychosis. We propose the following initiatives to reduce stigma toward mental illness in the Middle East: (a) educate families to enable them to support their affected relatives, (b) increase cooperation between psychiatrists and faith healers and (c) educate young people in schools to increase their awareness and understanding of mental illnesses and to combat negative stereotypes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Shared decision making in public mental health care: perspectives from consumers living with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltmann, Emily M; Whitley, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Most theoretical and empirical work regarding decision making in mental health suggests that mental health consumers have better outcomes when their preferences are integrated into quality of life decisions. A wealth of research, however, indicates that providers have difficulty predicting what their clients' priorities are. This study investigates consumer decision-making preferences and understanding of construction of decisions in community mental health. People living with severe mental illness being treated in the public mental health care system (N=16) participated in qualitative interviews regarding case management decision making as a part of a larger study investigating a decision support system to facilitate shared decision making. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and cross-case thematic analyses were conducted. Mental health consumers generally endorse a "shared" style of decision making. When asked what "shared" means, however, consumers describe a two-step process which first prioritizes autonomy, and if that is not possible, defers to case managers' judgment. Consumers also primarily focused on the relationship and affective components of decision making, rather than information-gathering or deliberating on options. Finally, when disagreements arose, consumers primarily indicated they handled them. Mental health consumers may have a different view of decision making than the literature on shared decision making suggests. Mental health consumers may consciously decide to at least verbally defer to their case managers, and remain silent about their preferences or wishes.

  4. VULNERABILITY AND JUST DESERT: A THEORY OF SENTENCING AND MENTAL ILLNESS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    E. LEA JOHNSTON

    2013-01-01

    .... Drawing upon social science research, the Article first establishes that offenders with serious mental illnesses are more likely than non-ill offenders to suffer physical and sexual assaults, endure...

  5. Health-seeking behaviour of mentally ill patients in Enugu, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-03-01

    Mar 1, 2009 ... of disability throughout the world, 5 are psychiatric illnesses.2. According to the World ... Gender, educational status, attributing of the mental illness to a ... respondents, those with a high level of education, urban dwellers.

  6. [Time in mental illness according to Nise da Silveira].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Jacileide; Saeki, Toyoko

    2007-01-01

    This research is about time at psychiatric hospitals. After a brief review of the literature on time and time at a psychiatric hospital, the author focused on psychiatry's approach and on studies by Nise da Silveira, a researcher who worked at the Centro Psiquiátrico Nacional do Engenho de Dentro, Rio de Janeiro (now named Centro Psiquiátrico Pedro II), where in 1946 she founded an Occupational Therapy and Rehabilitation Division, which a patient named "the emotions coping room". Time of mental illness according to Nise is equal to the synthesis of time versus affection, with no considerations towards the sensitivities of scientific knowledge, but instead is a search for the real complexities of the human condition. Referring back on life and then suffering, Nise instead she considered affection as a sine qua non condition for the understanding of "difference" and "at the limit" referring to what the psychiatric jargon called " time and space disorientation ". Considering the trends of the adoption of new policies in psychiatric care in Brazil, an alternative for secluded time of mental illness is a contribution from Nise da Silveira as a dignifying survival measure in a time of psychosocial care.

  7. E-cigarette use among smokers with serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith J Prochaska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We examined electronic cigarette (EC use, correlates of use, and associated changes in smoking behavior among smokers with serious mental illness in a clinical trial. METHODS: Adult smokers were recruited during acute psychiatric hospitalization (N = 956, 73% enrollment among approached smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area between 2009-2013. At baseline, participants averaged 17 (SD = 10 cigarettes per day for 19 (SD = 14 years; 24% intended to quit smoking in the next month. Analyses examined frequency and correlates of EC use reported over the 18-month trial and changes in smoking behavior by EC use status. FINDINGS: EC use was 11% overall, and by year of enrollment, increased from 0% in 2009 to 25% in 2013. In multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of EC use was significantly greater with each additional year of recruitment, for those aged 18-26, and for those in the preparation versus precontemplation stage of change, and unlikely among Hispanic participants. EC use was unrelated to gender, psychiatric diagnosis, and measures of tobacco dependence at baseline. Further, over the 18-month trial, EC use was not associated with changes in smoking status or, among continued smokers, with reductions in cigarettes per day. INTERPRETATION: Within a clinical trial with smokers with serious mental illness, EC use increased over time, particularly among younger adults and those intending to quit tobacco. EC use was unrelated to changes in smoking. The findings are of clinical interest and warrant further study.

  8. Schizophrenia and relationships: the effect of mental illness on sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östman, Margareta; Björkman, Ann-Christine

    2013-04-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the impact of mental illness on the sexuality of patients with a schizophrenic disorder who live in the community in a long-term relationship with a partner. We conducted qualitative, in-depth interviews with five such patients who were in treatment at a psychiatric outpatient clinic, and three of their partners. The data were analyzed by thematic analysis and identified the following areas of concern: relationships outweigh sexuality; uncertainties about one’s sexual capacity; the dwindling of sexual fantasies, feelings of desire, and satisfaction; and, a lack of communication and support in sexual matters. Both patients and partners reported feeling overlooked by psychiatric services as sexual beings. They also expressed dissatisfaction with a patient-therapist treatment model that excluded their partners. Our findings indicate that dysfunctional sexuality affects both patients suffering from severe mental illness and their partners. Patients and partners deplore the lack of opportunity to discuss questions related to their sexuality and long-term relationships with psychiatric clinicians. Sexual problems arising from, or exacerbated by, schizophrenia require supportive services, whether in the form of general, psychiatric, or couples therapy.

  9. Social support and recovery in people with serious mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Phelan, Sean M

    2004-12-01

    This study examines the relationship between objective and subjective measures of social support with recovery from serious mental illness; recovery has been described as both an outcome state and an ongoing process. One hundred and seventy six people with serious mental illness completed the Recovery Assessment Scale, a process measure of recovery that assessed, among other factors, personal confidence, goal orientation, and non-domination by symptoms. They also were administered the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, a semi-structured interview that assesses psychiatric symptom and represents recovery as an outcome. Finally, research participants completed the Social Network Scale, which assessed size of the overall network plus such important subnetworks as family, friends, and health professionals. The SNS also provided measures of the perceived satisfaction with, mutuality in, and obligation towards individuals in their support network. Results showed people with larger overall network size and more network satisfaction were likely to report higher factors on the Recovery Assessment Scale. For the most part, network size and satisfaction was not significantly associated with psychiatric symptoms. Implications of these findings for better understanding the association between social support and recovery are discussed.

  10. Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Muhammad; Ghulam, Hamzah; Wajih Ullah, Muhammad; Zubair Tariq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI) Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences). Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents). Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8%) had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%). Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3%) considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4%) and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7%) to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1%) considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41%) respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p < .05). Conclusion. Although low awareness and exposure were found in this sample of Pakistani university students, their attitude towards mental illnesses was generally positive. Most respondents gave supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can play a

  11. Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Waqas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan.Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences.Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents. Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8% had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%. Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3% considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4% and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7% to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1% considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41% respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p < .05.Conclusion. Although low awareness and exposure were found in this sample of Pakistani university students, their attitude towards mental illnesses was generally positive. Most respondents gave supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can

  12. Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, JW; McGinty, EE; Fazel, S.; Mays, VM

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This article describes epidemiologic evidence concerning risk of gun violence and suicide linked to psychiatric disorders, in contrast to media-fueled public perceptions of the dangerousness of mentally ill individuals, and evaluates effectiveness of policies and laws designed to prevent firearms injury and mortality associated with serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders. METHODS: Research concerning public attitudes toward persons with mental illness is reviewed and ju...

  13. The stigma of mental illness in Arab families: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, L A; Simmons, L A

    2015-11-01

    The stigma of mental illness varies significantly from culture to culture and from person to person. To date, little is known about how mental illness stigma manifests within the Arab community. This study aimed at bringing clarity to the concept of 'mental illness stigma' as it applies to Arab families. Nursing's holistic and patient-centered approach is integral to helping Arab patients and their families appropriately incorporate individual values, beliefs, and cultural perspectives into treatment plans. This study establishes a scientific alert for professionals at all levels to avoid making false generalizations about a specific culture that are not based on specific research findings from that culture. Accessing mental health services is a critical step towards reducing the burden of mental illness. The stigma of mental illness is one of the most common reasons for not seeking mental health care leading to negative health consequences and undue suffering for many individuals and their families. Stigma is embedded in its social context. What may be considered acceptable in one society may be considered unacceptable and open to stigmatization in other societies. Arabs have a shared set of values, beliefs, and traditions that are substantially different from those of Westerners. Further, in most Arab countries, formal mental health resources are scarce and people with mental illness experience the compounded disadvantages of poverty and illness stigma. To date, little is known about how mental illness stigma manifests within the Arab community making it difficult to design and test interventions that support Arab individuals with mental illness and their families in treatment seeking and adherence. Using Rodger's concept analysis method, we examined how 'mental illness stigma' operates within an Arab context as a first step towards elucidating culturally competent approaches to treatment. This analysis provides a foundation for future work in the areas of mental

  14. Facilitation of the mental health of couples in a relationship where one is challenged with mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M.Cur. (Nursing Science) People play a major role in each other’s lives and this is because they rely on one another for survival. Many studies have been done on families and how they experience having persons challenged with mental illness but little has been done on couples and how they experience a relationship where one is challenged with mental illness or on the facilitation of the mental health of couples in a relationship where one is challenged with mental illness. The purpose of t...

  15. Facilitation of the mental health of couples in a relationship where one is challenged with mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M.Cur. (Nursing Science) People play a major role in each other’s lives and this is because they rely on one another for survival. Many studies have been done on families and how they experience having persons challenged with mental illness but little has been done on couples and how they experience a relationship where one is challenged with mental illness or on the facilitation of the mental health of couples in a relationship where one is challenged with mental illness. The purpose of t...

  16. Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; McGinty, E Elizabeth; Fazel, Seena; Mays, Vickie M

    2015-05-01

    This article describes epidemiologic evidence concerning risk of gun violence and suicide linked to psychiatric disorders, in contrast to media-fueled public perceptions of the dangerousness of mentally ill individuals, and evaluates effectiveness of policies and laws designed to prevent firearms injury and mortality associated with serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders. Research concerning public attitudes toward persons with mental illness is reviewed and juxtaposed with evidence from benchmark epidemiologic and clinical studies of violence and mental illness and of the accuracy of psychiatrists' risk assessments. Selected policies and laws designed to reduce gun violence in relation to mental illness are critically evaluated; evidence-based policy recommendations are presented. Media accounts of mass shootings by disturbed individuals galvanize public attention and reinforce popular belief that mental illness often results in violence. Epidemiologic studies show that the large majority of people with serious mental illnesses are never violent. However, mental illness is strongly associated with increased risk of suicide, which accounts for over half of US firearms-related fatalities. Policymaking at the interface of gun violence prevention and mental illness should be based on epidemiologic data concerning risk to improve the effectiveness, feasibility, and fairness of policy initiatives. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Attitudes of Students at a US Medical School Toward Mental Illness and Its Causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiles, Catherine; Stefanovics, Elina; Rosenheck, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Stigma among health care providers toward people with mental illness is a worldwide problem. This study at a large US university examined medical student attitudes toward mental illness and its causes, and whether student attitudes change as they progress in their education. An electronic questionnaire focusing on attitudes toward people with mental illness, causes of mental illness, and treatment efficacy was used to survey medical students at all levels of training. Exploratory factor analysis was used to establish attitudinal factors, and analysis of variance was used to identify differences in student attitudes among these factors. Independent-samples t tests were used to assess attitudes toward efficacy of treatments for six common psychiatric and medical conditions. The study response rate was 42.6 % (n = 289). Exploratory factor analysis identified three factors reflecting social acceptance of mental illness, belief in supernatural causes, and belief in biopsychosocial causes. Stages of student education did not differ across these factors. Students who had completed the psychiatry clerkship were more likely to believe that anxiety disorders and diabetes could be treated effectively. Students reporting personal experiences with mental illness showed significantly more social acceptance, and people born outside the USA were more likely to endorse supernatural causes of mental illness. Sociocultural influences and personal experience with mental illness have a greater effect than medical education on attitudes toward people with mental illness. Psychiatric education appears to have a small but significant effect on student attitudes regarding treatment efficacy.

  18. [Social representations and living conditions of the mentally ill and mentally retarded elderly in nursing homes.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorvil, H; Benoit, M

    1999-01-01

    The aging of the population in Québec as in the rest of the western world, brings to the fore people who until now were greatly marginalized. This is the case of mentally ill and mentally retarded elderly who until recently, lived their aging in the shadow of psychiatric institutions. Have these people now found with deinstitutionalization, the possibility of growing old within society ? This article analyses the conditions of integration and support networks, in sum a collective responsability of these aging people in nursing homes.

  19. Concept analysis of recovery in mental illness in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, C O; McKenna, H P; Keeney, S; McLaughlin, D F

    2015-10-01

    Recovery, as a concept, emerged as a core philosophy of the service user movement that began in the late 1960s and 1970s. Previous reviews on recovery in mental health have presented definitions or a conceptual framework; however, over time it has been open to disparate interpretations. The aim of this paper was to conduct the first concept analysis of mental health recovery in young adulthood within various multidisciplinary contexts. Rodgers's (2000) six-stepped evolutionary method enabled the analysis of recovery's conceptual characteristics, the identification of an exemplar and the proposition of a hypothesis with implications for practice. This analysis has revealed the derivation of the term recovery does not convey its identified conceptual characteristics. Identified attributes include the reawakening of hope, reclaiming a positive self and meaning through personal growth. Antecedents include the disruption of illness, stigmatization, internal inventory and contemplative recovery. Identified consequences include the return to normality, reconstruction of self and active social connection. The new conceptual definition is the reawakening of hope and rediscovery of a positive sense of self through finding meaning and purpose within personal growth and connection using creative self-care coping strategies. This paper reveals an apparent disparity between professional and personal interpretations of recovery. Therefore, the implication for mental health nursing is the congruence of recovery-orientated practice with the process of recovery experienced by young adult service users. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Computational Psychiatry: towards a mathematically informed understanding of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rick A; Huys, Quentin J M; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Computational Psychiatry aims to describe the relationship between the brain's neurobiology, its environment and mental symptoms in computational terms. In so doing, it may improve psychiatric classification and the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. It can unite many levels of description in a mechanistic and rigorous fashion, while avoiding biological reductionism and artificial categorisation. We describe how computational models of cognition can infer the current state of the environment and weigh up future actions, and how these models provide new perspectives on two example disorders, depression and schizophrenia. Reinforcement learning describes how the brain can choose and value courses of actions according to their long-term future value. Some depressive symptoms may result from aberrant valuations, which could arise from prior beliefs about the loss of agency ('helplessness'), or from an inability to inhibit the mental exploration of aversive events. Predictive coding explains how the brain might perform Bayesian inference about the state of its environment by combining sensory data with prior beliefs, each weighted according to their certainty (or precision). Several cortical abnormalities in schizophrenia might reduce precision at higher levels of the inferential hierarchy, biasing inference towards sensory data and away from prior beliefs. We discuss whether striatal hyperdopaminergia might have an adaptive function in this context, and also how reinforcement learning and incentive salience models may shed light on the disorder. Finally, we review some of Computational Psychiatry's applications to neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, and some pitfalls to avoid when applying its methods.

  1. Knowledge of mental illnesses: Two studies using a new test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Gee, Marcus; Weis, Laura

    2016-10-30

    While the benefits of public knowledge of physical diseases are widely recognised, knowledge about mental disorders (mental health literacy, MHL) has received much less attention. This paper reports on two studies using the new Multiple-Choice Knowledge of Mental Illness Test (MC-KOMIT), a 33 item test of MHL (Compton et al., 2011). In Study 1, we examined cross-cultural associations between country of origin and their MHL in an online sample of 250 adults. In line with previous findings, we demonstrate that British and American participants outperform respondents from India. Furthermore, males showed significantly lower MHL, but - contrary to expectations - age did not have a significant impact. Study 2 was conducted to validate and extend findings of study 1 concerning the impact of demographics and individual difference factors on MHL. Results of the second study, using American participants are consistent with findings of study 1. In addition we show that while religious beliefs may reduce MHL, higher levels of education and self-confidence are associated with higher levels of MHL.

  2. The contribution of exercise and sport to mental health promotion in serious mental illness: An interpretative project

    OpenAIRE

    Carless, D; Douglas, K

    2008-01-01

    In this article we synthesise the findings of previous research to explore the question: How can exercise and sport contribute to mental health promotion in the context of serious mental illness? We used an interpretive approach to gain insights into the sport and exercise experiences of 11 men with serious mental illness. Data were gathered through interviews and participant observation, and analysed through a content analysis and a narrative analysis of structure and form. These analyses su...

  3. Internalized stigma and quality of life among persons with severe mental illness: the mediating roles of self-esteem and hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Yanos, Philip T; Lysaker, Paul H; Roe, David

    2013-06-30

    Research has revealed the negative consequences of internalized stigma among people with serious mental illness (SMI), including reductions in self-esteem and hope. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between internalized stigma and subjective quality of life (QoL) by examining the mediating role of self-esteem and hope. Measures of internalized stigma, self-esteem, QoL, and hope were administrated to 179 people who had a SMI. Linear regression analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to analyze the cross-sectional data. Self-esteem mediated the relation between internalized stigma and hope. In addition, hope partially mediated the relationship between self-esteem and QoL. The findings suggest that the effect of internalized stigma upon hope and QoL may be closely related to levels of self-esteem. This may point to the need for the development of interventions that target internalized stigma as well as self-esteem.

  4. Attitudes of Malaysian general hospital staff towards patients with mental illness and diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Minas, H.; Zamzam, R; Midin, M; Cohen, A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The context of the study is the increased assessment and treatment of persons with mental illness in general hospital settings by general health staff, as the move away from mental hospitals gathers pace in low and middle income countries. The purpose of the study was to examine whether general attitudes of hospital staff towards persons with mental illness, and extent of mental health training and clinical experience, are associated with different attitudes and behaviours...

  5. Impact of a population-wide mental health promotion campaign on people with a diagnosed mental illness or recent mental health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Rob; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Robinson, Katy; Lin, Chad

    2016-06-01

    To determine the impact of the Act-Belong-Commit mental health promotion campaign on people with a diagnosed mental illness or who had sought professional help for a mental health problem in the previous 12 months. In 2013 and 2014, 1,200 adults in Western Australia were interviewed by telephone. The questionnaire measured campaign reach, impact on beliefs about mental health and mental illness and behavioural impact. Campaign impact on changing the way respondents thought about mental health was significantly higher among those with a mental illness or who had sought help (41.4% vs 24.2%; pmental health as a result of their exposure to the campaign (20.5% vs 8.7%; pmental illness or who recently sought help to take steps of their own to enhance their mental health. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  6. Impact of a nurse-led intervention to improve screening for cardiovascular risk factors in people with severe mental illnesses. Phase-two cluster randomised feasibility trial of community mental health teams

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    Nazareth Irwin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with severe mental illnesses (SMI are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Clinical guidelines recommend regular screening for CVD risk factors. We evaluated a nurse led intervention to improve screening rates across the primary-secondary care interface. Methods Six community mental health teams (CMHTs were randomised to receive either the nurse led intervention plus education pack (n = 3 or education pack only (n = 3. Intervention (6 months: The nurse promoted CVD screening in primary care and then in CMHTs. Patients who remained unscreened were offered screening by the nurse. After the intervention participants with SMI were recruited from each CMHT to collect outcome data. Main outcome: Numbers screened during the six months, confirmed in General Practice notes. Results All six CMHTs approached agreed to randomisation. 121 people with SMI participated in outcome interviews during two waves of recruitment (intervention arm n = 59, control arm n = 62. Participants from both arms of the trial had similar demographic profiles and rates of previous CVD screening in the previous year, with less than 20% having been screened for each risk factor. After the trial, CVD screening had increased in both arms but participants from the intervention arm were significantly more likely to have received screening for blood pressure (96% vs 68%; adjusted Odds Ratio (OR 13.6; 95% CI: 3.5-38.4, cholesterol (66.7% vs 26.9%, OR 6.1; 3.2-11.5, glucose (66.7% vs 36.5% OR 4.4; 2.7-7.1, BMI (92.5% vs 65.2% OR 6.5; 2.1-19.6, and smoking status (88.2% vs 57.8% OR 5.5; 3.2-9.5 and have a 10 year CVD risk score calculated (38.2% vs 10.9% OR 5.2 1.8-15.3. Within the intervention arm approximately half the screening was performed in general practice and half by the trial nurse. Conclusions The nurse-led intervention was superior, resulting in an absolute increase of approximately 30% more people with SMI receiving screening for each

  7. Correlation of mental illness and HIV/AIDS infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anousheh Safarcherati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in world. There are more than 35 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world. Although the annual incidence of HIV infection is decreasing globally, HIV prevalence is rising due to development of more effective treatment and higher survival. Iran suffers from concentrated HIV epidemics among injecting and non-injecting drug users. There are more than 27 thousand registered cases of HIV infection and it is estimated that there are above seventy eight thousand cases in the country. Regarding the burden of disease, it is projected that HIV/AIDS will have the highest growth during the next 10 years. The outcome of this epidemics will be determined by human behavior. HIV, psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are closely correlated and are accompanied by similar risk factors. They also share common consequences such as stigma and discrimination. Correlation of psychiatric disorders, as one of the most influential determinants of our behavior, and HIV/AIDS infection is reviewed in this narrative article. Psychiatric disorders are associated with greater risk of HIV acquisition. Substance use disorders, both injecting and non-injecting, as well as severe mental illnesses put the individual at higher risk of acquiring HIV infection. Impaired judgment, diminished inhibition and control over behaviors, lack of insight and poor self-care have been proposed as the underlying mechanisms. On the other hand, HIV infection may put the individual at greater risk of developing a mental illness. Coping with a chronic and life-threatening illness, fear of stigma and discrimination, CNS invasion of the virus as well as the adverse neuropsychiatric side effects of anti-retroviral medications may all contribute to establishment of a psychiatric disorder. Although there exists a bi-directional correlation between mental health problems and HIV/AIDS infection, this reciprocity goes beyond

  8. Carers of Mentally Ill People in Queensland: Their Perceived Relationships with Professional Mental Health Service Providers: Report on a Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Orme; King, Robert; Leggatt, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Explores the relationships of caregivers of mentally ill people with professional mental health providers since the introduction of community-based services. Respondents perceived mental health workers to be professional, friendly, respectful and positive in outlook. However they indicated dissatisfaction with accessibility, communication about…

  9. Impact of work experience placements on school students' attitude towards mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Vanathi; Belgamwar, Ravindra B

    2014-08-01

    Aims and method Research shows that 16- to 19-year-olds express the greatest level of negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of work experience placements in influencing secondary-school students' attitudes towards mental illness and career choices. The Adolescent Attitude Towards Mental Illness questionnaire measured and assessed the adolescents' attitude changes. Pre- and post-evaluation questionnaires assessed changes in their career choices. Results There was a statistically significant change in the adolescents' attitudes, especially regarding categorical thinking and perceptions that people with mental illness are violent and out of control. There was also a positive shift in their career choices towards options in the field of mental health. Clinical implications Work experience placements can have a positive impact on secondary-school students' attitudes towards mental illness and may improve the level of student recruitment into the field of psychiatry.

  10. Aggressive Children With Mental Illness: A Conceptual Model of Family-Level Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporer, Karyn

    2016-04-13

    The purpose of this research was to examine how families adapt and respond to an aggressive child with mental illness. This article presents findings from a qualitative study of four families, which were selected as typifying the experiences of a larger sample of 14 families; each family included a child with mental illness and a history of violent behavior. The analysis revealed a five-stage pattern in how families perceived and responded to victimization and their child or sibling's mental illness. The study suggests that families with a violent child with mental illness and other healthy children cannot live through episodes of violence without removing the child with mental illness from the home or suffering considerable damage to the family. The article concludes with recommendations for mental health practitioners and family intervention specialists.

  11. Perceptions of mental illness in Mexico: a descriptive study in the city of Chihuahua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, F

    1987-01-01

    This work is a study of perceptions toward mental illness among respondents from the city of Chihuahua in Mexico. A non-probability sample of forty-seven respondents was taken during a two-week stay in the summer of 1985. To tap respondents' perceptions of mental illness, vignettes characterizing people normally thought to have symptoms of mental illness were employed. The study reveals that men and women perceive mental illness differently. In three out of four vignettes, women perceive mental disorder than men. It is argued that the reason for the disparity in perceptions between the sexes is the result of the sexual differentiation that exists in Mexico. With regard to whom the respondents would refer the person for help, the majority of the respondents recommended that, whether or not the person in the vignette is characterized as mentally ill or simply "sick", the person should seek professional help.

  12. An evidence synthesis of care models to improve general medical outcomes for individuals with serious mental illness: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Daniel W; Cunningham, Natasha T; Slubicki, Monica N; McDuffie, Jennifer R; Kilbourne, Amy M; Nagi, Avishek; Williams, John W

    2013-08-01

    To conduct a systematic review of studies of interventions that integrated medical and mental health care to improve general medical outcomes in individuals with serious mental illness. English-language publications in MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library, from database inception through January 18, 2013, were searched using terms for our diagnoses of interest, a broad set of terms for care models, and a set of terms for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-experimental design. Bibliographies of included articles were examined for additional sources. ClinicalTrials.gov was searched using the terms for our diagnoses of interest (serious mental illness,SMI,bipolar disorder,schizophrenia,orschizoaffective disorder) to assess for evidence of publication bias and ongoing studies. 4 RCTs were included from 1,729 articles reviewed. Inclusion criteria were RCT or quasi-experimental design; adult outpatient population with 25% or greater carrying a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder; intervention with a stated goal to improve medical outcomes through integration of care, using a comparator of usual care or other quality improvement strategy; and outcomes assessing process of care, clinical outcomes, or physical functioning. A trained researcher abstracted the following data from the included articles: study design, funding source, setting, population characteristics, eligibility and exclusion criteria, number of subjects and providers, intervention(s), comparison(s), length of follow-up, and outcome(s). These abstracted data were then overread by a second reviewer. Of the 4 studies reviewed, 2 good-quality studies (according to the guidelines of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality) that evaluated processes of preventive and chronic disease care demonstrated positive effects of integrated care. Specifically, integrated care interventions were associated with increased rates of immunization

  13. Beyond attributions: Understanding public stigma of mental illness with the common sense model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Winnie W S; Chong, Eddie S K; Wong, Celia C Y

    2014-03-01

    The present study applied the common sense model (i.e., cause, controllability, timeline, consequences, and illness coherence) to understand public attitudes toward mental illness and help-seeking intention and to examine the mediating role of perceived controllability between causal attributions with public attitudes and help seeking. Based on a randomized household sample of 941 Chinese community adults in Hong Kong, results of the structural equation modeling demonstrated that people who endorsed cultural lay beliefs tended to perceive the course of mental illness as less controllable, whereas those with psychosocial attributions see its course as more controllable. The more people perceived the course of mental illness as less controllable, more chronic, and incomprehensible, the lower was their acceptance and the greater was mental illness stigma. Furthermore, those who perceived mental illness with dire consequences were more likely to feel greater stigma and social distance. Conversely, when people were more accepting, they were more likely to seek help for psychological services and felt a shorter social distance. The common sense model provides a multidimensional framework in understanding public's mental illness perceptions and stigma. Not only should biopsychosocial determinants of mental illness be advocated to the public, cultural myths toward mental illness must be debunked.

  14. Access to dental care and dental ill-health of people with serious mental illness: views of nurses working in mental health settings in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Platania-Phung, Chris; Scott, David; Hanley, Christine

    2015-01-01

    People with serious mental illness experience higher rates of oral and dental health problems than the wider population. Little is known about how dental health is viewed or addressed by nurses working with mental health consumers. This paper presents the views of nurses regarding the nature and severity of dental health problems of consumers with serious mental illness, and how often they provide advice on dental health. Mental health sector nurses (n=643) completed an online survey, including questions on dental and oral health issues of people with serious mental illness. The majority of nurses considered the oral and dental conditions of people with serious mental illness to be worse than the wider community. When compared with a range of significant physical health issues (e.g. cardiovascular disease), many nurses emphasised that dental and oral problems are one of the most salient health issues facing people with serious mental illness, their level of access to dental care services is severely inadequate and they suffer significantly worse dental health outcomes as a result. This study highlights the need for reforms to increase access to dental and oral health care for mental health consumers.

  15. Attitude about mental illness of health care providers and community leaders in rural Haryana, North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Ramesh Salve

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attitude about mental illness determines health seeking of the people. Success of National Mental Health Programme (NMHP is dependent on attitude about mental illness of various stakeholders in the programme. Material & Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out in Ballabgarh block of Faridabad district in Haryana. We aimed to study attitude about mental illness of various stakeholders of health care providers (HCP, community leaders in rural area of Haryana, north India. Study area consisting of five Primary Health Centers (PHCs serving 2,12,000 rural population. All HCP working at PHCs, Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA and community leaders in study area were approached for participation. Hindi version of Opinion about Mental illness Scale for Chinese Community (OMICC was used to study attitude. Results: In total, 467 participants were participated in the study. Of which, HCP, ASHAs and community leaders were 81 (17.4%, 145 (31.0% and 241 (51.6% respectively. Community members reported socially restrictive, pessimistic and stereotyping attitude towards mentally ill person. ASHA and HCP reported stereotyping attitude about person with mental illness. None of the stakeholders reported stigmatizing attitude. Conclusion: Training programme focusing on spectrum of mental illness for HCP and ASHA working in rural area under NMHP programme is needed. Awareness generation of community leaders about bio-medical concept of mental illness is cornerstone of NMHP success in India.

  16. The effects of news stories on the stigma of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Michaels, Patrick J

    2013-03-01

    The media are often identified as partially responsible for increasing the stigma of mental illness through their negatively focused representations. For many years, training programs have educated journalists on how to report on mental illness to reduce stigma. This purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits of reading a positive, neutral or a negative journalism article that discusses mental illness. Consenting adult participants were randomly assigned to read one of three published articles about recovery from mental illness, a dysfunctional public mental health system, or dental hygiene. The participants completed measures immediately before and after the intervention; the measures administered evaluated stigmatizing and affirming attitudes toward people with mental illness. Public stigma was assessed using the nine-item Attribution Questionnaire and the Stigma Through Knowledge Test (STKT). The STKT is a measure of mental illness stigma less susceptible to the impact of social desirability. Affirming attitudes represent public perceptions about recovery, empowerment, and self-determination, indicated as important to accepting and including people with psychiatric disabilities into society. Significant differences were observed between the articles on recovery and dysfunctional public mental health system, as well as the control condition, on the measures of stigma and affirming attitudes. The recovery article reduced stigma and increased affirming attitudes, whereas the dysfunctional public mental health system article increased stigma and decreased affirming attitudes. Not all journalistic stories have positive effects on attitudes about mental illness.

  17. Older men and older women remand prisoners: mental illness, physical illness, offending patterns and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoren, Mary; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Caddow, Fintan; Caddow, Martin; O'Neill, Conor; O'Neill, Helen; Kennedy, Harry G

    2015-05-01

    Older prisoners are the fastest growing group of prisoners in most countries. They have high rates of physical and psychiatric co-morbidity, compared to community dwelling older persons and also compared with other prisoner groups. Very high rates of mental illness have been found in remand (pre-trial) prisoners when compared with other prisoner groups; however to date there have been no studies examining older male and female remand prisoners. A retrospective chart review was conducted of all remands, to a male and a female prison, over a six and half-year period. Demographic data were collected pertaining to psychiatric and medical diagnoses and seriousness of offending. We found rising numbers of older prisoners amongst male remand prisoners. Older remand prisoners had very high rates of affective disorder and alcohol misuse. They had rates of psychotic illnesses and deliberate self-harm comparable to younger remand prisoners. High rates of vulnerability were found among older prisoners and older prisoners had a greater need for general medical and psychiatric services than younger prisoners. We also found comparable offending patterns with younger prisoners and high rates of sexual offending among the older male prisoner group. Given the ageing population of many countries it is likely the numbers of older prisoners will continue to grow and given their high levels of both physical and psychiatric illness this will have implications for future service delivery.

  18. Narrative processing of entertainment media and mental illness stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Nicole Mossing; Rouner, Donna

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the narrative effects of familiarity, transportation, whether a story is factual or fiction, and perceived realism on the stigmatizing behavior of social distancing behavior. A sample of N = 137 participants watched a commercial movie about mental illness. Genre was manipulated to determine whether fiction or nonfiction impacted social distancing behavior. Although there was no effect of the genre manipulation, transportation was found to have a relationship with social distancing, with the more relevant the participants found the story, the lower they demonstrated social distancing behavior. How much participants identified with the main character was found to have a partial mediating effect between perceived story relevance and social distancing behavior.

  19. The Use of Humor in Serious Mental Illness: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gelkopf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation.

  20. Violence and mental illness: what Lewis Carroll had to say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, E Fuller; Miller, Judy

    2014-12-01

    In 1873 Skeffington Lutwidge, a Lunacy Commission inspector of asylums in England, was killed by an asylum patient. Lutwidge was the uncle and close friend of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, also known as Lewis Carroll. One year later, Carroll began writing The Hunting of the Snark, a poem whose meaning has mystified Carroll enthusiasts. In fact, the poem is a description of the Lunacy Commission inspection team and reflects Carroll's personal understanding of, and reaction to, the killing of his uncle by an individual with a severe mental illness. Carroll's close relationship with his uncle also explains the prominence of psychotic thinking in Carroll's work, including the Mad Hatter's tea party. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Guns, Mental Illness, and the Law: Introduction to This Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Felthous, Alan R

    2015-06-01

    Firearm violence is a top-tier public health problem in the U.S., killing 33,563 and injuring an additional 81,396 people in 2012 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, ). Given constitutional protection and the cultural entrenchment of private gun ownership in the U.S., it is likely that guns will remain widely accessible--and largely unrestricted--for the foreseeable future. Therefore, most policies and laws intended to reduce firearm violence focus selectively on preventing "dangerous people" from having access to guns. That is a formidable challenge. How do we think productively about guns and mental illness in this context, and about the role of law in lessening the toll of gun violence? Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The Use of Humor in Serious Mental Illness: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelkopf, Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation. PMID:19687190

  3. Gender-Atypical Mental Illness as Male Gender Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michniewicz, Kenneth S; Bosson, Jennifer K; Lenes, Joshua G; Chen, Jason I

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined whether men view gender-atypical (i.e., feminine) psychological disorders as threats to their gender status. Men and women (N = 355) rated their expectations of gender status loss, feelings of distress, and help-seeking intentions in response to 10 different stereotypically masculine and feminine psychological disorders. Men as compared to women expected greater gender status loss for, and reported more distress to, gender-atypical versus gender-typical disorders. Expectations of gender status loss partially mediated the link between participant gender and distress at the thought of gender-atypical disorders. These findings suggest that feminine disorders pose more powerful gender status threats for men than masculine disorders do and that men's expectations of gender status loss for feminine disorders drive their negative reactions to these mental illnesses. The discussion emphasizes the importance of considering the gender-typicality of disorders, and the implications of these findings for clinical interventions.

  4. Cultural diversity in physical diseases among patients with mental illnesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jens I; Andersen, Ulla A; Becker, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    in accordance with ICD-10 were also registered. Psychiatric and physical comorbidity were calculated and standardized rate ratio incidences of background populations were our primary measures.Results:Incidence rate ratios were increased for both CVD, DM and overweight in both F2 and F3 in all cultures (Western...... in background populations was seen and was most marked in overweight.Conclusions:Overweight, CVD and DM were increased in schizophrenia spectrum disorders and affective disorders in all three cultures investigated (Western Europe, Nigeria and Japan). Lifestyle diseases were also seen in Nigeria and Japan....... The results from this study indicate that cultural background might be seen as an important factor in dealing with lifestyle diseases among people with a severe mental illness, as it is in the general population....

  5. How to Respect the Will of Mentally Ill Persons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theda Rehbock

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article I oppose the current account of autonomy and informed consent in bioethics through criticising the four underlying prejudices of an objectivistic, dualistic, rationalistic and individualistic misunderstanding of the will. With special regard to the case of patients with dementia I argue for the thesis that the principle of autonomy, as moral principles in general, has unconditional and universal validity, but has to be applied differently in the face of specific situations and circumstances by means of the power of judgment (Urteilskraft. As the philosophical resp. anthropological basis of my argument I develop a broad understanding of the will in an Aristotelian and phenomenological sense. The practical consequences of my thesis consist in the ethical requirement of equal respect for the will of mentally ill patients.

  6. Violence and mental illness: a new analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidz, Charles W; Banks, Steven; Simon, Lorna; Schubert, Carol; Mulvey, Edward P

    2007-02-01

    Empirical studies of violence and mental illness have used many different methods. Current state-of-the-art methods gather information from both subject and collateral interviews as well as official records. Typically these sources are treated as additive. Any report of a violent incident from any source is treated as true and all reported incidents are added to generate estimates of frequency. This paper presents a new statistical technique that uses the level of agreement between the sources of data to adjust those estimates. The evidence suggests that, although the additive technique for using multiple sources correctly estimates how many people are involved, it substantially underestimates the number of incidents. The new technique substantially reduces both false negatives and false positives.

  7. Homelessness, mental illness, and criminal activity: examining patterns over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sean N; Shinn, Marybeth; Shrout, Patrick; Tsemberis, Sam

    2008-12-01

    This study examined whether street homelessness, sheltered homelessness, and the severity of psychological symptoms predicted non-violent and violent crime among 207 mentally ill participants who were homeless at baseline. Participants were interviewed at 9 time points over 4 years. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine whether changes in homelessness status and symptom severity predicted changes in criminal activity over time. Results indicated that homelessness both on the streets and in shelters and psychological symptom severity predicted increases in non-violent crime. Sheltered homelessness and symptom severity predicted increases in violent crime, although street homelessness did not. A separate mediational analysis with 181 participants showed that the relationship between diagnosis of a psychotic disorder and both non-violent and violent criminal activity was partially mediated through the severity of psychotic symptoms. Implications for research and intervention are discussed.

  8. A 2-year follow-up study of people with severe mental illness involved in psychosocial rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedberg, Petra; Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars; Jormfeldt, Henrika

    2014-08-01

    BACKGROUNDS. A focus on psychiatric rehabilitation in order to support recovery among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) has been given great attention in research and mental health policy, but less impact on clinical practice. Despite the potential impact of psychiatric rehabilitation on health and wellbeing, there is a lack of research regarding the model called the Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach from Boston University (BPR). The aim was to investigate the outcome of the BPR intervention regarding changes in life situation, use of healthcare services, quality of life, health, psychosocial functioning and empowerment. The study has a prospective longitudinal design and the setting was seven mental health services who worked with the BPR in the county of Halland in Sweden. In total, 71 clients completed the assessment at baseline and of these 49 completed the 2-year follow-up assessments. The most significant finding was an improved psychosocial functioning at the follow-up assessment. Furthermore, 65% of the clients reported that they had mainly or almost completely achieved their self-formulated rehabilitation goals at the 2-year follow-up. There were significant differences with regard to health, empowerment, quality of life and psychosocial functioning for those who reported that they had mainly/completely had achieved their self-formulated rehabilitation goals compared to those who reported that they only had to a small extent or not at all reached their goals. Our results indicate that the BPR approach has impact on clients' health, empowerment, quality of life and in particular concerning psychosocial functioning.

  9. Stigma associated with mental illness: perspectives of university students in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolezzi, Monica; Bensmail, Nawal; Zahrah, Farah; Khaled, Salma Mawfek; El-Gaili, Tayseer

    2017-01-01

    Background Stigma in relation to mental illness is one of the main factors inhibiting people from seeking help. Studies have been undertaken looking into the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB) about mental illness among residents in Qatar; however, none have looked specifically at students in higher education. The aim of this study was to understand the KAB toward mental illness among students at a Qatari university and determine if there are any differences based on gender, nationality, and college type. Methods A convenience sample of students from all genders, colleges, and nationalities was approached to participate in a survey that consisted of four sections: demographic, beliefs, attitudes, and help-seeking and treatment preferences associated with mental illness. Chi-square testing was performed to test for differences in the distribution of proportions of our primary outcomes (students’ beliefs, attitudes, and help-seeking and treatment preferences). Results A total of 282 students completed the survey. The majority of the participating students were females (59.3%), non-Qataris (64.3%), and enrolled in science-based colleges (62.7%). Beliefs reflecting poor mental health literacy, such as “medications to treat mental illness can cause addiction”, “mental illness is not like any other illness”, or that “mental illness is a punishment from God”, were reported by a majority of students (84.4%, 56.7%, and 50.2%, respectively). Stigmatizing attitudes that were endorsed by a majority of students included believing that people with mental illness cannot have regular jobs (60.2%), that people with mental illness are dangerous (65.7%), and that they would not marry someone with a mental illness (88.9%). Additionally, 33.6% of students indicated they would be ashamed to mention if someone in their family or they themself, had a mental illness. A vast majority of students (86.3%) indicated to prefer family and friend’s support as treatment

  10. Designing eHealth Applications to Reduce Cognitive Effort for Persons With Severe Mental Illness: Page Complexity, Navigation Simplicity, and Comprehensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Michael R; Hanusa, Barbara H; Eack, Shaun M; Haas, Gretchen L

    2017-01-01

    Background eHealth technologies offer great potential for improving the use and effectiveness of treatments for those with severe mental illness (SMI), including schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. This potential can be muted by poor design. There is limited research on designing eHealth technologies for those with SMI, others with cognitive impairments, and those who are not technology savvy. We previously tested a design model, the Flat Explicit Design Model (FEDM), to create eHealth interventions for individuals with SMI. Subsequently, we developed the design concept page complexity, defined via the design variables we created of distinct topic areas, distinct navigation areas, and number of columns used to organize contents and the variables of text reading level, text reading ease (a newly added variable to the FEDM), and the number of hyperlinks and number of words on a page. Objective The objective of our study was to report the influence that the 19 variables of the FEDM have on the ability of individuals with SMI to use a website, ratings of a website’s ease of use, and performance on a novel usability task we created termed as content disclosure (a measure of the influence of a homepage’s design on the understanding user’s gain of a website). Finally, we assessed the performance of 3 groups or dimensions we developed that organize the 19 variables of the FEDM, termed as page complexity, navigational simplicity, and comprehensibility. Methods We measured 4 website usability outcomes: ability to find information, time to find information, ease of use, and a user’s ability to accurately judge a website’s contents. A total of 38 persons with SMI (chart diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder) and 5 mental health websites were used to evaluate the importance of the new design concepts, as well as the other variables in the FEDM. Results We found that 11 of the FEDM’s 19 variables were significantly associated with all 4

  11. Disability income support design and mental illnesses: a review of Australia and Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Ashley; Hackett, Maree L; Leeder, Stephen R

    2017-04-27

    Mental illnesses have many distinctive features that make determining eligibility for disability income support challenging - for example, their fluctuating nature, invisibility and lack of diagnostic clarity. How do policy makers deal with these features when designing disability income support? More specifically, how do mental illnesses come to be considered eligible disabilities, what tools are used to assess mental illnesses for eligibility, what challenges exist in this process, and what approaches are used to address these challenges? We aimed to determine what evidence is available to policy makers in Australia and Ontario, Canada, to answer these questions. Ten electronic databases and grey literature in both jurisdictions were searched using key words, including disability income support, disability pension, mental illness, mental disability, addiction, depression and schizophrenia, for articles published between 1991 and June 2013. This yielded 1341 articles, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria and were critically appraised. Limited evidence is available on disability income support design and mental illnesses in the Australian and Ontarian settings. Most of the evidence is from the grey literature and draws on case law. Many documents reviewed argued that current policy in Australia and Ontario is frequently based on negative assumptions about mental illnesses rather than evidence (either peer reviewed or in the grey literature). Problems relating to mental illnesses largely relate to interpretation of the definition of mental illness rather than the definition itself. The review confirmed that mental illnesses present many challenges when designing disability income support and that academic as well as grey literature, especially case law, provides insight into these challenges. More research is needed to address these challenges, and more evidence could lead to policies for those with mental illnesses that are well informed and do not reinforce

  12. A comparative study of attitude to mental illness between journalists and nurses in Uyo, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abasiubong, F; Ekott, J U; Bassey, E A

    2007-12-01

    The pernicious attitudes to mental illness often result from ignorance and enduring sociocultural prejudices. The endless negative depiction of mentally ill persons by the society is responsible for poor mental health services and care, thus the increasing number of persons with mental illness roaming the streets in our environment. The objectives of the study were: First to assess the attitude of the Journalists to mental illness. Secondly to compare the journalists' attitudes with that of the Nurses. Two hundred and fifty Journalists in Uyo were randomly assessed for attitudes to mental illness, using Taylor and Dear Inventory of Community Attitude to mental illness. This was compared with Nurses from Health Centers in Uyo. Data from 210 (84.0%) Journalists and 154 (85.6%) Nurses were analyzed, 40 (16.0%) of Journalists and 26 (14.4%) of Nurses were excluded due to incomplete information. The mean age of the two groups was 39.4 +/- 8.3 and 34.4 +/- 7.6 years respectively. The difference in the mean was statistically significant (p = 0.001). Responses were similar in the two groups. Negative opinions were prevalent among the respondents in the region of over 70% among Journalist and 60% in Nurses in most cases. Except marrying people with mental illness, other responses were statistically significant. There is a widespread negative attitude to mental illness among Journalists and this is a reflection of the general population. The media is the primary source of public information. Therefore, accurate and positive portrayal of mental illness on both electronic and printing media may be necessary to sensitize the public so as to improve the negative cultural environment surrounding persons with mental illness.

  13. Unfinished Business: Student Perspectives on Disclosure of Mental Illness and Success in VET. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venville, Annie; Street, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Of all the different types of disability, mental illness can be particularly disruptive to education and training outcomes. In this report, the authors explore the factors contributing to successful course completion for students with a mental illness. The authors especially focus on the role of disclosure and the reasons why students choose to…

  14. Maternal Mental Illness and the Safety and Stability of Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Patricia L.; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Children of mothers with mental illness are at risk for multiple untoward outcomes, including child maltreatment and foster care placement. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the association between maternal mental illness and children's long term safety and stability. Methods: A multi-sector administrative dataset from the…

  15. Exploring the role of Islam in perceptions of mental illness in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mental illness is influenced by their religion and culture. Furthermore, all ... a sample of Muslim psychiatrists based in Johannesburg. T Bulbulia .... management of mental illness. Conclusion ... Malaysia: Islamic Medical Association of Malaysia N. Sembilan, 2003. 5. Okasha ... Ethnic,cultural, and religious issues. In: Dulcan ...

  16. Effects of Culturally Relevant Psychoeducation for Korean American Families of Persons with Chronic Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun-Kyung

    2004-01-01

    This study is to identify culturally relevant treatment methods and to assess the effects of family psychoeducational intervention for Korean Americans who had a family member with mental illness. 48 Korean Americans with children with mental illness were randomly assigned to either an experimental group program that provided culturally sensitive…

  17. The social context of mental illness : individual, partner and parental resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, P.C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent numbers show that a great deal of people experience mental illness during a period of time over the life course. Mental illness, however is not randomly distributed throughout society, but rather depends on one's social position in society. This book examines the link between the social conte

  18. Maternal Mental Illness and the Safety and Stability of Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Patricia L.; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Children of mothers with mental illness are at risk for multiple untoward outcomes, including child maltreatment and foster care placement. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the association between maternal mental illness and children's long term safety and stability. Methods: A multi-sector administrative dataset from the…

  19. Impact of Parental Severe Mental Illness: Ethical and Clinical Issues for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelhoff, Sarah F.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This article draws attention to the issue of parental severe mental illness and the ethical and clinical implications for counselors who work with this population. Parents with mental illness face a multitude of life challenges including, but not limited to, parenting difficulties, medication and hospitalization, custody and placement of their…

  20. Treatment of Persons with Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Anna L. S.

    2012-01-01

    The number of mentally ill inmates in the criminal justice system has increased dramatically. This article evaluates the prevalence and causes of mental illness in the criminal justice system and describes the inadequate care that is provided, the effects of imprisonment, and the problem of rehabilitation. (Contains 4 notes.)

  1. Understanding Parental Grief as a Response to Mental Illness: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…

  2. A Research Agenda Concerning Depictions of Mental Illness in Children's Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdale, John H.; Nairn, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To review research on depictions of mental illness in mass media directed to children and to identify requirements for further research in this important field. Methods: The authors identified published research on depictions of mental illness in children's media and the important strengths and weaknesses of such research. Results: Only…

  3. Teaching Abnormal Psychology to Improve Attitudes toward Mental Illness and Help-Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal psychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormal psychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes…

  4. Microsocial determinants of the formation verbal-behavioral social practices interact with the mentally ill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Pironkova

    2014-01-01

    For respondents with higher education and high social status were characterized by a more humanistic and tolerant practices of interaction with the mentally ill against the possibility of hidden­negativities attitude towards the mentally ill, which is reflected in social practices bypassing the declared position.

  5. Stigma Sentiments and Self-Meanings: Exploring the Modified Labeling Theory of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce "stigma sentiments" as a way to operationalize the cultural conceptions of the mentally ill. Stigma sentiments are the evaluation, potency, and activity (EPA) associated with the cultural category "a mentally ill person." We find consistent support for the validity of the evaluation and potency components as measures of these…

  6. Understanding Parental Grief as a Response to Mental Illness: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…

  7. Family matters: Infants, toddlers and preschoolers of parents affected by mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalenko, N.M.; Mares, S.P.; Newman, L.K.; Williams, A.E.S.; Powrie, R.M.; Doesum, K.T.M. van

    2012-01-01

    One in five young people in Australia, including infants, toddlers and preschoolers, lives in a family with a parent with a mental illness.1 Families affected by mental illness are more likely than other families to experience poverty and social isolation,2 and are more likely to have children taken

  8. John Stuart Mill on the liberty of the mentally ill: a historical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, J

    1977-12-01

    The author discusses the quote from Mill's On Liberty that is often cited by libertarians in opposition to involuntary commitment of the mentally ill. This quote has been taken out of context; other statements in the document indicate that Mill excluded from his libertarian credo those "without the ordinary amount of understanding," i.e., those people who would now be considered mentally ill.

  9. Measuring mental illness stigma with diminished social desirability effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Patrick J; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2013-06-01

    For persons with mental illness, stigma diminishes employment and independent living opportunities as well as participation in psychiatric care. Public stigma interventions have sought to ameliorate these consequences. Evaluation of anti-stigma programs' impact is typically accomplished with self-report questionnaires. However, cultural mores encourage endorsement of answers that are socially preferred rather than one's true belief. This problem, social desirability, has been circumvented through development of faux knowledge tests (KTs) (i.e., Error-Choice Tests); written to assess prejudice. Our KT uses error-choice test methodology to assess stigmatizing attitudes. Test content was derived from review of typical KTs for façade reinforcement. Answer endorsement suggests bias or stigma; such determinations were based on the empirical literature. KT psychometrics were examined in samples of college students, community members and mental health providers and consumers. Test-retest reliability ranged from fair (0.50) to good (0.70). Construct validity analyses of public stigma indicated a positive relationship with the Attribution Questionnaire and inverse relationships with Self-Determination and Empowerment Scales. No significant relationships were observed with self-stigma measures (recovery, empowerment). This psychometric evaluation study suggests that a self-administered questionnaire may circumvent social desirability and have merit as a stigma measurement tool.

  10. Attitudes of Malaysian general hospital staff towards patients with mental illness and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midin Marhani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The context of the study is the increased assessment and treatment of persons with mental illness in general hospital settings by general health staff, as the move away from mental hospitals gathers pace in low and middle income countries. The purpose of the study was to examine whether general attitudes of hospital staff towards persons with mental illness, and extent of mental health training and clinical experience, are associated with different attitudes and behaviours towards a patient with mental illness than towards a patients with a general health problem - diabetes. Methods General hospital health professionals in Malaysia were randomly allocated one of two vignettes, one describing a patient with mental illness and the other a patient with diabetes, and invited to complete a questionnaire examining attitudes and health care practices in relation to the case. The questionnaires completed by respondents included questions on demographics, training in mental health, exposure in clinical practice to people with mental illness, attitudes and expected health care behaviour towards the patient in the vignette, and a general questionnaire exploring negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Questionnaires with complete responses were received from 654 study participants. Results Stigmatising attitudes towards persons with mental illness were common. Those responding to the mental illness vignette (N = 356 gave significantly lower ratings on care and support and higher ratings on avoidance and negative stereotype expectations compared with those responding the diabetes vignette (N = 298. Conclusions Results support the view that, in the Malaysian setting, patients with mental illness may receive differential care from general hospital staff and that general stigmatising attitudes among professionals may influence their care practices. More direct measurement of clinician behaviours than able to be implemented

  11. Trends in newspaper coverage of mental illness in Canada: 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Rob; Berry, Sarah

    2013-02-01

    Much research suggests that the general public relies on the popular media as a primary source of information about mental illness. We assessed the broad content of articles relating to mental illness in major Canadian newspapers over a 6-year period. We also sought to assess if such content has changed over time. We conducted a retrospective analysis of Canadian newspaper coverage from 2005 to 2010. Research assistants used a standardized guide to code 11 263 newspaper articles that mention the terms mental health, mental illness, schizophrenia, or schizophrenic. Once the articles were coded, descriptive statistics were produced for overarching themes and time trend analyses from 2005 to 2010. Danger, violence, and criminality were direct themes in 40% of newspaper articles. Treatment for a mental illness was discussed in only 19% of newspaper articles, and in only 18% was recovery or rehabilitation a significant theme. Eighty-three per cent of articles coded lacked a quotation from someone with a mental illness. We did not observe any significant changes over time from 2005 to 2010 in any domain measured. There is scope for more balanced, accurate, and informative coverage of mental health issues in Canada. Newspaper articles infrequently reflect the common realities of mental illness phenomenology, course, and outcome. Currently, clinicians may direct patients and family members to other resources for more comprehensive and accurate information about mental illness.

  12. Perception and beliefs about mental illness among adults in Karfi village, northern Nigeria

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    Kabir Mohammed

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to examine the knowledge, attitude and beliefs about causes, manifestations and treatment of mental illness among adults in a rural community in northern Nigeria. Methods A cross sectional study design was used. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 250 adults residing in Karfi village, northern Nigeria. Results The most common symptoms proffered by respondents as manifestations of mental illness included aggression/destructiveness (22.0%, loquaciousness (21.2%, eccentric behavior (16.1% and wandering (13.3%. Drug misuse including alcohol, cannabis, and other street drugs was identified in 34.3% of the responses as a major cause of mental illness, followed by divine wrath/ God's will (19%, and magic/spirit possession (18.0%. About 46% of respondents preferred orthodox medical care for the mentally sick while 34% were more inclined to spiritual healing. Almost half of the respondents harbored negative feelings towards the mentally ill. Literate respondents were seven times more likely to exhibit positive feelings towards the mentally ill as compared to non-literate subjects (OR = 7.6, 95% confidence interval = 3.8–15.1. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the need for community educational programs in Nigeria aimed at demystifying mental illness. A better understanding of mental disorders among the public would allay fear and mistrust about mentally ill persons in the community as well as lessen stigmatization towards such persons.

  13. Mental illness in metropolitan, urban and rural Georgia populations.

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    Reeves, William C; Lin, Jin-Mann S; Nater, Urs M

    2013-04-30

    Mental illness represents an important public health problem. Local-level data concerning mental illness in different populations (e.g., socio-demographics and residence--metropolitan/urban/rural) provides the evidence-base for public health authorities to plan, implement and evaluate control programs. This paper describes prevalence and covariates of psychiatric conditions in Georgia populations in three defined geographic areas. Data came from the Georgia population-based random-digit-dialing study investigating unwellness and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in Georgia populations of three defined geographic areas (metropolitan, urban, and rural). Respondents were screened for symptoms of fatigue, sleep, cognition, and pain at household screening interviews, and a randomly selected sample completed detailed individual phone interviews. Based on the detailed phone interviews, we conducted one-day clinical evaluations of 292 detailed interview participants classified as unwell with a probable CFS (i.e. CFS-like; a functional somatic syndrome), 268 classified as other unwell, and 223 well (matched to CFS-like). Clinical evaluation included psychiatric classification by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID). To derive prevalence estimates we used sample weighting to account for the complexity of the multistage sampling design. We used 2- and 3-way table analyses to examine socio-demographic and urbanicity specific associations and multiple logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Anxiety and mood disorders were the most common psychiatric conditions. Nineteen percent of participants suffered a current anxiety disorder, 18% a mood disorder and 10% had two or more conditions. There was a significant linear trend in occurrence of anxiety or mood disorders from well to CFS-like. The most common anxiety disorders were post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (6.6%) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (5.8%). Logistic regression showed that

  14. A qualitative exploration of the perspectives of mental health professionals on stigma and discrimination of mental illness in Malaysia.

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    Hanafiah, Ainul Nadhirah; Van Bortel, Tine

    2015-01-01

    Stigma of mental illness has been identified as a significant barrier to help-seeking and care. Basic knowledge of mental illness - such as its nature, symptoms and impact - are neglected, leaving room for misunderstandings on mental health and 'stigma'. Numerous researches have been conducted on stigma and discrimination of people with mental disorders. However, most of the literature investigates stigma from a cultural conception point of view, experiences of patients or public attitudes towards mental illness but little to none from the standpoint of mental health professionals. In Malaysia, this research on stigma is particularly limited. Therefore, the state of stigma and discrimination of people with mental illness was investigated from the perspectives of mental health professionals in Malaysia. In-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 mental health professionals from both government and private sectors including psychiatrists, psychologists and counsellors. The interviews were approximately 45-minutes long. The data was subsequently analysed using the basic thematic approach. Seven principal themes, each with their own sub-themes, emerged from the analysis of 'stigma of mental illness' from mental health professionals' point of view, including: (1) main perpetrators, (2) types of mental illness carrying stigma, (3) demography and geography of stigma, (4) manifestations of stigma, (5) impacts of stigma, (6) causes of stigma and (7) proposed initiatives to tackle stigma. Stigma of mental illness is widespread in Malaysia. This is most evident amongst people suffering from conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression. Stigma manifests itself most often in forms of labelling, rejection, social exclusion and in employment. Family, friends and workplace staff are reported to be the main perpetrators of discriminatory conducts. According to the perspectives of the mental health professionals, implications of

  15. [Outreach services to clients with severe mental illness in the Okayama Prefectural Mental Health and Welfare Center].

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    Noguchi, Masayuki; Moriya, Akira; Fujita, Kenzo

    2012-01-01

    The community mental health system in Japan is being adversely affected by diminishing public mental health services, including those provided by public healthcare centers and the mental health divisions of municipal governments. It seems reasonable to expect that this will lead to the inadequate detection, assessment, and treatment of the population with mental health problems, and thus to the flooding of psychiatric hospitals with excessive numbers of severely mentally ill patients. In this article, the author suggests the utility of a 'network-based outreach team' as a possible remedy for the current situation. The Okayama Prefectural Mental Health & Welfare Center is running a network-based outreach team on a trial basis to work with individuals with serious mental illness who are disengaged from mental health services. The team is composed of members from the Mental Health & Welfare Center, public mental health services, and human service agencies. The main aims of this team are two-fold: to enhance support for clients with severe mental illness who are overwhelmed with multiple complex problems, through collaborative intervention within the framework of a network-based outreach team; and to develop the qualities and skills of public mental health service and human agency personnel in order that they better assist people with severe mental illness, by providing joint training with mental health specialists of the Mental Health & Welfare Center in community settings. The author suggests that the team structure of the network-based outreach team will benefit public mental health services by reintegrating currently fragmented services into coordinated ones.

  16. Characteristics of mentally ill offenders from 100 psychiatric court reports

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    2010-01-01

    Background There is an increasing probability that the psychiatrist will, willingly or not, come into contact with mentally ill offenders in the course of their practice. There are increasing rates of violence, substance abuse and other psychiatric disorders that are of legal importance. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the rates of different mental disorders in 100 court reports and to investigate the characteristics of mentally ill offenders. Methods All cases referred from different departments of the legal system to the forensic committee for assessment of legal accountability over 13-months duration were included. A specially designed form was prepared for data collection. Cases were classified into five groups: murder, robbery, financial offences, violent and simple offences and a group for other offences. Data were subjected to statistical analysis and comparisons between different groups of subjects were performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results Men constituted 93% of cases. In all, 73% of offenders were younger than 40 years old. Schizophrenia cases made up 13% of the total, substance related cases constituted 56% and amphetamine cases alone made up 21%; 10% of cases were antisocial personality disorders, and 51% of cases were classified as having a low education level. Unemployment was found in 34% of cases. The final decision of the forensic committee was full responsibility in 46% of cases and partial responsibility in 11% of cases, with 33% considered non-responsible. A total of 58% of cases had had contact with psychiatric healthcare prior to the offence and in 9% of cases contact had been in the previous 12 weeks. A history of similar offences was found in 32% of cases. In all, 14% of the offences were murders, 8% were sexual crimes, and 31% were violent/simple crimes. Conclusions The ability of the legal system to detect cases was good, while the ability of the healthcare system to predict crimes and offences was weak, as

  17. Characteristics of mentally ill offenders from 100 psychiatric court reports

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    Al-Zahrani Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing probability that the psychiatrist will, willingly or not, come into contact with mentally ill offenders in the course of their practice. There are increasing rates of violence, substance abuse and other psychiatric disorders that are of legal importance. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the rates of different mental disorders in 100 court reports and to investigate the characteristics of mentally ill offenders. Methods All cases referred from different departments of the legal system to the forensic committee for assessment of legal accountability over 13-months duration were included. A specially designed form was prepared for data collection. Cases were classified into five groups: murder, robbery, financial offences, violent and simple offences and a group for other offences. Data were subjected to statistical analysis and comparisons between different groups of subjects were performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results Men constituted 93% of cases. In all, 73% of offenders were younger than 40 years old. Schizophrenia cases made up 13% of the total, substance related cases constituted 56% and amphetamine cases alone made up 21%; 10% of cases were antisocial personality disorders, and 51% of cases were classified as having a low education level. Unemployment was found in 34% of cases. The final decision of the forensic committee was full responsibility in 46% of cases and partial responsibility in 11% of cases, with 33% considered non-responsible. A total of 58% of cases had had contact with psychiatric healthcare prior to the offence and in 9% of cases contact had been in the previous 12 weeks. A history of similar offences was found in 32% of cases. In all, 14% of the offences were murders, 8% were sexual crimes, and 31% were violent/simple crimes. Conclusions The ability of the legal system to detect cases was good, while the ability of the healthcare system to predict

  18. Newspaper coverage of mental illness in the UK, 1992-2008

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    2011-01-01

    Background Recent years have seen a number of attempts to reduce the stigma related to mental illness; the media can play a significant role in perpetuating this stigma. This paper analyses trends in newspaper coverage of mental illness in the UK between 1992-2008 across a range of psychiatric diagnoses. Methods A content analysis was performed on a sample of articles (n = 1361) about mental illness in a range of UK newspapers in 1992, 2000, and 2008. Results There was a significant proportional reduction in negative articles about mental illness between 1992 and 2008, and a significant increase in articles explaining psychiatric disorders. Coverage improved for depression but remained largely negative for schizophrenia. Conclusions Newspaper coverage of mental illness became less stigmatising overall in the 1990s and 2000s, but this was not true for all diagnoses. PMID:21992410

  19. 'Individualism-collectivism' as an explanatory device for mental illness stigma.

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    Papadopoulos, Chris; Foster, John; Caldwell, Kay

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is investigate whether the cross-cultural value paradigm 'individualism-collectivism' is a useful explanatory model for mental illness stigma on a cultural level. Using snowball sampling, a quantitative questionnaire survey of 305 individuals from four UK-based cultural groups (white-English, American, Greek/Greek Cypriot, and Chinese) was carried out. The questionnaire included the 'Community Attitudes to Mental Illness scale' and the 'vertical-horizontal individualism-collectivism scale'. The results revealed that the more stigmatizing a culture's mental illness attitudes are, the more likely collectivism effectively explains these attitudes. In contrast, the more positive a culture's mental illness attitudes, the more likely individualism effectively explains attitudes. We conclude that a consideration of the individualism-collectivism paradigm should be included in any future research aiming to provide a holistic understanding of the causes of mental illness stigma, particularly when the cultures stigmatization levels are particularly high or low.

  20. Does availability of illicit drugs mediate the association between mental illness and substance use?

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    Liang, Wenbin; Lenton, Simon; Allsop, Steve; Chikritzhs, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the association between presence of mental illness, detected by an increased level of Kessler Psychological Distress Scale score, and prevalence of exposure to opportunity to obtain illicit drugs among adolescents and young adults aged 12-24 years using data collected by the 2007 Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey (N = 2,663). Adolescents and young adults with mental illness have increased prevalence of exposure to drug use opportunity. Higher exposure to opportunity to obtain illicit drugs among people with pre-existing mental illness may further contribute to the co-existence of drug dependence and other mental disorders that are frequently reported in the literature.