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Sample records for mental health-related correlates

  1. Review of mental-health-related stigma in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Shuntaro; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Aoki, Yuta; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the nature and characteristics of mental-health-related stigma among Japanese people. We searched relevant studies in English or Japanese published since 2001 using MEDLINE and PsycINFO, and found 19 studies that examined mental-health-related stigma in Japan. Regarding knowledge about mental illness, reviewed studies showed that in the Japanese general population, few people think that people can recover from mental disorders. Psychosocial factors, including weakness of personality, are often considered the cause of mental illness, rather than biological factors. In addition, the majority of the general public in Japan keep a greater social distance from individuals with mental illness, especially in close personal relationships. Schizophrenia is more stigmatized than depression, and its severity increases the stigmatizing attitude toward mental illness. The literature also showed an association between more direct social contact between health professionals and individuals with mental illness and less stigmatization by these professionals. Less stigmatization by mental health professionals may be associated with accumulation of clinical experience and daily contact with people who have mental illness. Stigmatizing attitudes in Japan are stronger than in Taiwan or Australia, possibly due to institutionalism, lack of national campaigns to tackle stigma, and/or society's valuing of conformity in Japan. Although educational programs appear to be effective in reducing mental-health-related stigma, future programs in Japan need to address problems regarding institutionalism and offer direct social contact with people with mental illness. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  2. Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of oral health related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of oral health related quality of life among Tanzanian adults: a national pathfinder survey. ... A higher proportion of those who reported poor conditions of teeth had difficulties in chewing and sleeping was often interrupted. Multivariate analysis indicated that those who ...

  3. Correlates of health-related social media use among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Crookston, Benjamin T; West, Joshua H

    2013-01-30

    Sixty percent of Internet users report using the Internet to look for health information. Social media sites are emerging as a potential source for online health information. However, little is known about how people use social media for such purposes. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to establish the frequency of various types of online health-seeking behaviors, and (2) to identify correlates of 2 health-related online activities, social networking sites (SNS) for health-related activities and consulting online user-generated content for answers about health care providers, health facilities, or medical treatment. The study consisted of a telephone survey of 1745 adults who reported going online to look for health-related information. Four subscales were created to measure use of online resources for (1) using SNS for health-related activities; (2) consulting online rankings and reviews of doctors, hospitals or medical facilities, and drugs or medical treatments; (3) posting a review online of doctors, hospitals or medical facilities, and drugs or medical treatments, and (4) posting a comment or question about health or medical issues on various social media. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Respondents consulted online rankings or reviews (41.15%), used SNS for health (31.58%), posted reviews (9.9%1), and posted a comment, question, or information (15.19%). Respondents with a chronic disease were nearly twice as likely to consult online rankings (odds ratio [OR] 2.09, 95% CI 1.66-2.63, Phealth-related activities (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.97, Phealth-related activities (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.43-2.52, Psocial media for seeking health information. However, individuals are more likely to consume information than they are to contribute to the dialog. The inherent value of "social" in social media is not being captured with online health information seeking. People with a regular health care provider, chronic disease, and

  4. Mass media interventions for reducing mental health-related stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Sarah; Lassman, Francesca; Barley, Elizabeth; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Williams, Paul; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Slade, Mike; Rüsch, Nicolas; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-07-23

    Mental health-related stigma is widespread and has major adverse effects on the lives of people with mental health problems. Its two major components are discrimination (being treated unfairly) and prejudice (stigmatising attitudes). Anti-stigma initiatives often include mass media interventions, and such interventions can be expensive. It is important to know if mass media interventions are effective. To assess the effects of mass media interventions on reducing stigma (discrimination and prejudice) related to mental ill health compared to inactive controls, and to make comparisons of effectiveness based on the nature of the intervention (e.g. number of mass media components), the content of the intervention (e.g. type of primary message), and the type of media (e.g. print, internet). We searched eleven databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 7, 2011); MEDLINE (OvidSP),1966 to 15 August 2011; EMBASE (OvidSP),1947 to 15 August 2011; PsycINFO (OvidSP), 1806 to 15 August 2011; CINAHL (EBSCOhost) 1981 to 16 August 2011; ERIC (CSA), 1966 to 16 August 2011; Social Science Citation Index (ISI), 1956 to 16 August 2011; OpenSIGLE (http://www.opengrey.eu/), 1980 to 18 August 2012; Worldcat Dissertations and Theses (OCLC), 1978 to 18 August 2011; metaRegister of Controlled Trials (http://www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/mrct_about.asp), 1973 to 18 August 2011; and Ichushi (OCLC), 1903 to 11 November 2011. We checked references from articles and reviews, and citations from included studies. We also searched conference abstracts and websites, and contacted researchers. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster RCTs or interrupted time series studies of mass media interventions compared to inactive controls in members of the general public or any of its constituent groups (excluding studies in which all participants were people with mental health problems), with mental health as a subject of the intervention and

  5. Graduation Prospects of College Students with Specific Learning Disorder and Students with Mental Health Related Disabilities

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    Jorgensen, Mary; Budd, Jillian; Fichten, Catherine S.; Nguyen, Mai N.; Havel, Alice

    2018-01-01

    This study's goal was to compare aspects related to academic persistence of two groups of college students with non-visible disabilities: 110 Canadian two and four-year college students--55 with mental health related disabilities and 55 with Specific Learning Disorder (LD). Results show that students with mental health related disabilities were…

  6. Time to recurrence of mental health-related absence from work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norder, G.; Hoedeman, R.; de Bruin, J.; van Rhenen, W.; Roelen, C. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background It is unclear when occupational health providers should re-evaluate workers after mental health-related absences from work. Aims To investigate the time to recurrence of mental health-related absences, stratified by International Classification of Diseases-Tenth Revision (ICD-10)

  7. Health-related quality of life and mental health outcomes in Mexican TBI caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, Shaina L; Perrin, Paul B; Stevens, Lillian F; Villaseñor-Cabrera, Teresita J; Jiménez-Maldonado, Miriam; Martínez-Cortes, Ma Luisa; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2014-03-01

    Research has documented the deleterious effects on caregivers of providing care for an individual with traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI caregivers in Mexico specifically have reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL) across both physical and mental health domains. The purpose of the current study was to uncover the system of connections between Mexican TBI caregivers' HRQOL and their mental health. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at a public medical facility in Guadalajara, México. Ninety family caregivers of individuals with TBI completed measures of HRQOL, satisfaction with life, depression, and burden. A canonical correlation analysis revealed that the better the caregivers' HRQOL, the better their mental health was, with the effect reaching a large-sized effect. A distinct pattern emerged linking caregivers' higher energy levels and better social functioning to lower depression and greater satisfaction with life. A series of multiple regressions similarly uncovered that the most robust independent HRQOL predictors of caregiver mental health were vitality and social functioning. Especially for TBI caregivers with poor health, behavioral health interventions in Latin America that target the HRQOL domains of social functioning and vitality may significantly improve caregiver mental health, and as a result, informal care for TBI.

  8. Mental Health-Related Stigma and Discrimination in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Mental health is now attracting increased public health attention from health professionals, policy makers and the general population. However, stigma and discrimination usually have enormous negative impact on the patients and their families. This study reports on stigma and discrimination faced by ...

  9. Community Music as a Vehicle for Tackling Mental Health-Related Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Debra

    2017-01-01

    This paper seeks to highlight some of the key issues of the social stigma associated with mental health-related issues, to present examples of some existing anti-stigma concepts found within mental health literature and, in turn, to begin to suggest ways in which the personal and social experience of participation within community music activities…

  10. Time to recurrence of mental health-related absence from work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norder, G.; Hoedeman, R.; de Bruin, J.; van Rhenen, W.; Roelen, C.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear when occupational health providers should re-evaluate workers after mental healthrelated absences from work. Aims: To investigate the time to recurrence of mental health-related absences, stratified by International Classification of Diseases-Tenth Revision (ICD-10) diagnostic

  11. Mental health related Internet use among psychiatric patients: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalckreuth, Sophie; Trefflich, Friederike; Rummel-Kluge, Christine

    2014-12-24

    The Internet is of great importance in today's health sector, as most Internet users utilize online functions for health related purposes. Concerning the mental health care sector, little data exist about the Internet use of psychiatric patients. It is the scope of this current study to analyze the quantity and pattern of Internet usage among mental health patients. Patients from all services of the Department of Psychiatry at a university hospital were surveyed by completing a 29-item questionnaire. The data analysis included evaluation of frequencies, as well as group comparisons. 337 patients participated in the survey, of whom 79.5% were Internet users. Social media was utilized by less than half of the users: social networks (47.8%), forums (19.4%), chats (18.7%), blogs (12.3%). 70.9% used the Internet for mental health related reasons. The contents accessed by the patients included: information on mental disorders (57.8%), information on medication (43.7%), search for mental health services (38.8%), platforms with other patients (19.8%) and platforms with mental health professionals (17.2%). Differences in the pattern of use between users with low, medium and high frequency of Internet use were statistically significant for all entities of social media (p mental health services (p = 0.017) and usage of platforms with mental health professionals (p = 0. 048). The analysis of differences in Internet use depending on the participants' type of mental disorder revealed no statistically significant differences, with one exception. Regarding the Internet's role in mental health care, the participants showed differing opinions: 36.2% believe that the Internet has or may have helped them in coping with their mental disorder, while 38.4% stated the contrary. Most psychiatric patients are Internet users. Mental health related Internet use is common among patients, mainly for information seeking. The use of social media is generally less frequent. It varies

  12. Mental-health-related stigma among Japanese children and their parents and impact of renaming of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Ohta, Kazusa; Ojio, Yasutaka; Watanabe, Kei-Ichiro; Ando, Shuntaro

    2017-03-01

    Mental-health-related stigma affects help-seeking behavior and service utilization among young people. Whether mental-health-related stigma is different or correlated between parents and their children is unknown. It is also unknown whether the name change of schizophrenia in 2002 has had long-term effects on reducing stigma for adults in the general population. We recruited 143 parent-child pairs (mean ages [SD]: 51.5 [3.6] and 21.2 [1.2] years, respectively) to complete self-report questionnaires regarding mental-health-related stigma and experience. We also assessed negative stereotypes for three psychiatric disease names (old and new names of schizophrenia, and depression), and for diabetes mellitus as a physical illness comparison. The questionnaires also asked respondents to identify the old and new names of schizophrenia and dementia, respectively, among 10 names for mental and physical illnesses and conditions. Parents showed lower stigma levels toward mental illness and diabetes mellitus, but similar or greater stigma levels toward schizophrenia, compared with their children. Stigma levels toward mental illness in parents and their children were significantly correlated. The rate of correct identification of the old and new names for schizophrenia was higher in parents than in their children (64.7% vs 41.4%, P stigma toward mental illness is shared between family members, and the name change of schizophrenia has effectively reduced stigma levels toward this disorder in adults of various ages. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  13. Sleep deprivation in adolescents: correlations with health complaints and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Teresa; Gaspar, Tania; Matos, Margarida G

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the influences of sleep duration, sleep deprivation, and weekend variability of sleep upon other adolescents' features, namely those related to health and health-related quality of life. The Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey is based on a self-completed questionnaire. The participants in the present study were 3476 students (53.8% were girls) in the 8th and 10th grades at school; the mean age was 14.9 years (range 12.5-19.0). Subjective sleep duration during the weeknights and weekends was collected; sleep deprivation (SD) was considered whenever the difference was greater than 3 h. Health complaint frequency and health-related quality of life (with the Kidscreen 10) were collected. Sleep deprivation was present in 18.9% of the students. It was negatively correlated with sleep duration on weeknights. There were no gender differences, but SD increased with age and grade. Higher school grades were mainly associated with fatigue. A considerable number of adolescents had sleep problems (37.2%); 25.5% had difficulties in sleep initiation, which was more prevalent in adolescents with SD. The sleep duration on weeknights was decreased in the SD group. The average health-related quality of life was reduced in adolescents with SD. The frequency of health complaint was higher is adolescents with SD. Girls had significantly more health complaints than boys, with special focus on headaches. Sleep deprivation is associated with the perception of health-related quality of life and perceived physical and mental health. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Study on life-style and mental health related to sleep quality in university students

    OpenAIRE

    佐々木, 浩子; 木下, 教子; 高橋, 光彦; 志渡, 晃一

    2014-01-01

    In order to make clear the life_style and mental health related to sleep quality in university student, We carried out a questionnaire for the student.This questionnaire is composed by personal profile (gender, age, school year, subjective physique), the lifestyle (regular activities, exercise, dietary, drinking, smoking and sleep habits) and mental health status (GHQ__; 30 items of the General Health Questionnaire). Sleep habits were measured by Japanese version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality I...

  15. Psychosocial work environment and mental health-related long-term sickness absence among nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corné A.M.; van Hoffen, Marieke F.A.; Waage, Siri; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Twisk, Jos W R; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Moen, Bente E.; Pallesen, Ståle

    Purpose: We investigated which job demands and job resources were predictive of mental health-related long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in nurses. Methods: The data of 2059 nurses were obtained from the Norwegian survey of Shift work, Sleep and Health. Job demands (psychological demands, role

  16. Correlations Between Clinical Parameters and Health-Related Quality of Life in Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbovic Vesna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between health-related quality of life (HRQoL and clinically relevant osteodensitometric and biochemical parameters in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Bone mineral density (BMD and T scores of the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck were assessed in 100 osteoporotic women (56 without previous fractures and 44 with previous fractures using dual x-ray absorptiometry. The Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX index for major osteoporotic and hip fractures was calculated based on demographic data and hip BMD. Venous blood samples were taken from each subject for biochemical analysis (serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and vitamin D levels. HRQoL was assessed using the QUALEFFO-41 questionnaire (domains: Health perception, Pain, and Physical, Social and Mental function. Basic participant characteristics (age, menopause length, body mass index, smoking habits, hereditary tendency towards fracture, fracture history correlated with some of the QUALEFFO-41 domains, but the correlation coefficients were low (r<0.3, except in the case of the correlation between Pain and fracture history (r=0.638. Of the six variables included in the multiple regression model, fracture history was shown to be the most significant predictor with respect to the following three QUALEFFO-41 domains: Pain (b=20.511, Social function (b=2.548 and Health perception (b=3.185. Correlation analysis showed that after adjustment for basic characteristics, BMD and T score of the femoral neck and Pain (r=0.331 and r=0.449, respectively, Social function (r=0.422 and r=0.419 and Health perception (r=0.434 for T score of the femoral neck exhibited the strongest correlations. Vitamin D was negatively correlated with Mental function, while the other biochemical parameters exhibited variable correlations with the QUALEFFO- 41 domains (r≈0.2-0.5. Our study confirmed the previously established relationship between BMD of the

  17. Health-related quality of life in patients with dual diagnosis: clinical correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benaiges Irina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the studies published so far have found an affectation in the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL in both psychiatric and substance use dependence disorders, very few studies have applied HRQOL as an assessment measure in patients suffering both comorbid conditions, or Dual Diagnosis. The aim of the current study was to assess HRQOL in a group of patients with Dual Diagnosis compared to two other non-comorbid groups and to determine what clinical factors are related to HRQOL. Methods Cross-sectional assessment of three experimental groups was made through the Short Form – 36 Item Health Survey (SF-36. The sample consisted of a group with Dual Diagnosis (DD; N = 35, one with Severe Mental Illness alone (SMI; N = 35 and another one with Substance Use Dependence alone (SUD; N = 35. The sample was composed only by males. To assess the clinical correlates of SF-36 HRQOL, lineal regression analyses were carried out. Results The DD group showed lower scores in most of the subscales, and in the mental health domain. The group with SUD showed in general a better state in the HRQOL while the group with SMI held an intermediate position with respect to the other two groups. Daily medication, suicidal attempts and daily number of coffees were significantly associated to HRQOL, especially in the DD group. Conclusions The DD group showed lower self-reported mental health quality of life. Assessment of HRQOL in dual patients allows to identify specific needs in this population, and may help to establish therapeutic goals to improve interventions.

  18. Cannabis use and mental health-related quality of life among individuals with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ran, Shaul; Le Foll, Bernard; McKenzie, Kwame; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-12-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance in individuals with anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to assess mental health-related quality of life (QoL) among individuals with anxiety disorders with and without concurrent cannabis use based on a large representative US sample. Mental health-related QoL of regular cannabis users (N = 144), occasional cannabis users (N = 181) and non-users (N = 4427) was assessed using the Short-Form 12-Item Health Survey (SF-12). Among individuals with anxiety disorders, mean SF-12 mental summary scores were significantly lower (indicating a lower QoL) among regular, but not occasional, cannabis users (by 0.8 standard deviations (SDs) and 0.6SD for females and males, respectively) compared to non-users. Adjusting for sociodemographic variables and co-morbid mood disorders, regular, but not occasional, cannabis use was associated with lower mental health summary and subscales scores. Out results highlight the importance of taking into account direct functional and emotional outcomes, as well as frequency of cannabis used, when assessing the impact of cannabis use among individuals with anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diabetes in young adult men: social and health-related correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Koelmeyer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is a global public health issue. It is associated with significant disability, morbidity and mortality risks and substantial healthcare costs. Of great concern is the fact that its prevalence is rising, particularly amongst the young, while epidemiological data regarding the incidence, prevalence and complications of early-onset type 2 diabetes is noted to be sparse. Methods We used data from the baseline wave of Ten to Men, a national cohort study of Australian males, to investigate the social and health-related correlates of Australian males aged 18–49 years reporting being diagnosed with diabetes. Results The estimated prevalence of a self-reported diabetes diagnosis amongst Australian males aged 18–49 years was 2.95 % (95 % CI: 2.54–3.43 %. Within this age group, approximately 75 % of those diagnosed with diabetes are expected to be living with a known diagnosis of type 2 diabetes; the remainder are expected to be living with type 1 diabetes. Of the 20 social and health-related factors considered, we found evidence to support the association of eighteen factors after adjusting for age and body mass index. The strongest correlates of reporting a diabetes diagnosis, associated with a ≥2-fold increase in the odds of reporting diabetes were being aged 35–49 years, being unemployed, being obese, seeing a doctor for a check-up more frequently, reporting comorbid high blood pressure or physical or mental health comorbidities and worse self-rated and physical health status. Conclusion Australian males aged 18–49 years who are living with a known diagnosis of diabetes are more likely to be socio-economically disadvantaged and suffer substantially worse health status than Australian males aged 18–49 years living without a diabetes diagnosis. Based on the associations detected in this study, older, single males living in regional areas who are socioeconomically disadvantaged, obese and/or who have other

  20. Resilience as a mediator between cardiorespiratory fitness and mental health-related quality of life: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozuelo-Carrascosa, Diana P; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Bartolomé-Gutiérrez, Raquel; Rodríguez-Martín, Beatriz; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca

    2017-09-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the relationship between resilience, cardiorespiratory fitness, and mental health-related quality of life, and examined whether resilience acts as a mediator between the latter two. The study included 770 university students, aged 18-30 years, from Cuenca, Spain. Anthropometric, sociodemographic, cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle run test), biochemical parameters, resilience, and mental health-related quality of life measurements were analyzed. The results showed that mental health-related quality-of-life values were significantly higher in students who had good cardiorespiratory fitness and a high level of resilience. Moreover, resilience acted as a partial mediator between cardiorespiratory fitness and mental health-related quality of life at 33.79%. Therefore, in young adults, resilience mediates the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and mental health-related quality of life. These findings should be taken into account by nurses and other public health professionals, because in addition to the development of physical activity interventions to improve mental health-related quality of life, it is necessary to implement measures that increase resilience to achieve mental wellness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Health-related Quality of Life and Mental Health of Adults With Atopic Dermatitis.

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    Kwak, Yeunhee; Kim, Yoonjung

    2017-10-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the association between the prevalence of atopic dermatitis in Korean adults and their health-related quality of life and mental health. Data from a nationally representative sample of 11,913 adults who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2010-2012) were analyzed by using SAS version 9.3. The adults with atopic dermatitis had significantly lower quality of life and higher stress than did those without it. Moreover, the health-related quality of life of the adults with atopic dermatitis was significantly lower than those without the disease, after adjusting for all covariates. The adjusted odds ratios of the adults with atopic dermatitis were 1.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-2.65) for stress, 1.69 (95% CI: 1.00-2.84) for depression, and 1.66 (95% CI: 1.02-2.69) for suicidal ideation. Improving our understanding of atopic dermatitis should help nurses and patients manage the stress, depression, suicidal ideation, and reduced quality of life associated with this chronic disease. There is a need to develop and conduct intervention of programs for improving mental health as well as clinical aspects of adult atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Connecting health-related quality of life and mental health in dementia caregivers from Colombia, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Paul B; Morgan, Matthew; Aretouli, Eleni; Sutter, Megan; Snipes, Daniel J; Hoyos, Guillermo Ramirez; Buraye, Jacqueline Arabia; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Research in Caucasian populations has begun to examine the broad associations between physical and mental health in dementia caregivers. However, the examination of this relationship in Latin America is largely absent from the literature despite the fact that the region will see a major increase in dementia cases over the next 20 years. The current study examined the associations between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and mental health in 90 dementia caregivers from Colombia, South America. A canonical correlation found that higher caregiver HRQOL was related to better mental health, as expected. Caregivers with high vitality and low role limitations due to physical problems tended to have low depression and high satisfaction with life. Follow-up multiple regressions found that caregiver role limitations due to physical problems was uniquely associated with satisfaction with life, whereas vitality, role limitations due to physical problems, and pain were uniquely associated with burden (although the pain effect was likely error due to a suppressor effect). Additionally, vitality and social functioning were uniquely negatively related to depression. Because of the extremely high overlap between these two sets of variables, dementia interventions are needed in Latin America that target both caregiver mental and physical health, as both likely operate in unison and influence each other.

  3. Predictors of health-related quality of life among industrial workers: A descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malak, Malakeh Z

    2017-06-01

    Assessment and evaluation of the health-related quality of life of industrial workers is an important research focus. This descriptive correlational study identifies the predictors of health-related quality of life using a random sampling of industrial workers (n = 640) from construction factories in Amman Governorate in Jordan using demographic characteristics, a health and work-related factors questionnaire, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief scale. Results showed that industrial workers had good physical health but a poor working environment. There was a statistically significant relationship between educational level, conflict between work and individual life and work and social life, working hours, and workload, and all domains of health-related quality of life. Overall, educational level was the main predictor for all domains of health-related quality of life. Such results confirm the need to develop appropriate interventions and strategies to improve workers' health-related quality of life. Furthermore, developing an integrated approach among policymakers, employers, and work organizations to enhance industrial workers' occupational health programs could be effective. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Impact of trismus on health-related quality of life and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joakim; Johansson, Mia; Rydén, Anna; Houltz, Erik; Finizia, Caterina

    2015-11-01

    Trismus is a common symptom often related to the treatment for head and neck cancer and to temporomandibular disorders. The purpose of the present study was to measure the impact of trismus on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and mental health in patients with head and neck cancer and temporomandibular disorder. We used the criteria for trismus of maximum interincisal opening (MIO) ≤35 mm and the study subjects responded to the following instruments: the Gothenburg Trismus Questionnaire (GTQ), the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The study also comprised an age-matched and sex-matched control group without trismus. Patients with trismus reported significantly more dysfunction in all GTQ domains and more facial pain compared to the control group. The patients with head and neck cancer and trismus scored significantly lower on all SF-36 domains except general health compared to the control group, and the patients with temporomandibular disorder with trismus scored significantly lower in 3 of the 8 domains in SF-36. According to the HADS, a greater proportion of patients with head and neck cancer with trismus displayed more depression compared to the control group. The results showed that trismus is associated with a significant impact on HRQOL and that patients with trismus should be approached in a holistic way with respect for the underlying cause, treating not only the physical aspects of trismus but also addressing the patients' mental health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Comparison of health-related quality of life among men with different co-existing severe mental disorders in treatment for substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adan, Ana; Marquez-Arrico, Julia E; Gilchrist, Gail

    2017-10-23

    Patient-perceived health-related quality of life has become an important outcome in health care as an indicator of treatment effectiveness and recovery for patients with substance use disorder. As no study has assessed health-related quality of life among male patients with substance use disorder and co-existing severe mental illness, we compared health-related quality of life among patients with substance use disorder and the following severe mental illness diagnosis in Barcelona, Spain: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and examined the associations with clinically related variables. Additionally, we compared results for health-related quality of life in patients with substance use disorder and severe mental illness, with Spanish population norms. We assessed 107 substance use disorder male patients using the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey comparing results across three groups with: comorbid schizophrenia (n = 37), comorbid bipolar disorder (n = 34), and comorbid major depressive disorder (n = 36). Multiple analyses of variance were performed to explore health-related quality of life by the type of co-existing SMI and linear regression analyses examined clinical correlates for the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey dimensions for each group. There were differences in Physical Functioning, Vitality and the Physical Composite Scale among groups. Poorer Physical Functioning was observed for patients with comorbid schizophrenia (80.13±3.27) and major depressive disorder (81.97±3.11) compared with comorbid bipolar disorder patients (94.26±1.93). Patients with substance use disorder and schizophrenia presented lower scores in Vitality (41.6±2.80) than those with co-existing bipolar disorder (55.68±3.66) and major depressive disorder (53.63±2.92). Finally, results in the Physical Composite Scale showed lower scores for patients with comorbid schizophrenia (51.06±1.41) and major depressive disorder (51.99±1.87) than for those with

  6. Mental Health Pathways from Interpersonal Violence to Health-Related Outcomes in HIV-Positive Sexual Minority Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantalone, David W.; Hessler, Danielle M.; Simoni, Jane M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We examined mental health pathways between interpersonal violence (IPV) and health-related outcomes in HIV-positive sexual minority men engaged with medical care. Method: HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (N = 178) were recruited for this cross-sectional study from 2 public HIV primary care clinics that treated outpatients in an urban…

  7. Bronchiectasis: correlation of high-resolution CT findings with health-related quality of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshed, I. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon (Israel)]. E-mail: iriseshed@gmail.com; Minski, I. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon (Israel); Katz, R. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon (Israel); Jones, P.W. [Department of Respiratory Medicine, St George' s Hospital Medical School, University of London (United Kingdom); Priel, I.E. [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel, Affiliated with the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University (Israel)

    2007-02-15

    Aim: To evaluate the relationship between the severity of bronchiectatic diseases, as evident on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and the patient's quality of life measured using the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Methods and materials: Forty-six patients (25 women, 21 men, mean age: 63 years) with bronchiectatic disease as evident on recent HRCT examinations were recruited. Each patient completed the SGRQ and underwent respiratory function tests. HRCT findings were blindly and independently scored by two radiologists, using the modified Bhalla scoring system. The relationships between HRCT scores, SGRQ scores and pulmonary function tests were evaluated. Results: The patients' total CT score did not correlate with the SGRQ scores. However, patients with more advanced disease on HRCT, significantly differed in their SGRQ scores from patients with milder bronchiectatic disease. A significant correlation was found between the CT scores for the middle and distal lung zones and the activity, impacts and total SGRQ scores. No correlation was found between CT scores and respiratory function test indices. However, a significant correlation was found between the SGRQ scores and most of the respiratory function test indices. Conclusion: A correlation between the severity of bronchiectatic disease as expressed in HRCT and the health-related quality of life exists in patients with a more severe bronchiectatic disease but not in patients with mild disease. Such correlation depends on the location of the bronchiectasis in the pulmonary tree.

  8. Pregnancy complications, mental health-related problems and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Malaysian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Syed Shahzad; Thiruchelvam, Kaeshaelya; Ahmed, Syed Imran; Clavarino, Alexandra M; Mamun, Abdullah A; Kairuz, Therese

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between pregnancy complications, mental health-related problems, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Malaysian women. A case-control study of women with T2DM (n=160) matched by age range to controls without T2DM (n=160). Data were collected in the Negeri Sembilan and PutraJaya regions in Malaysia, from two hospital outpatient clinics, PutraJaya Hospital and Tuanku Jaa'far Hospital Seremban, and one health clinic at Seremban. Validated, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to obtain the data. The unadjusted and adjusted estimates were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method. Neither depression (RR 0.74, 95% CI: 0.39-1.41) nor anxiety (RR 1.00, 95% CI: 0.53-1.88) symptoms increased the risk of T2DM significantly. However, gestational diabetes (RR 1.35, 95% CI: 1.02-1.79), and ≥3 pregnancies (RR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.08-1.79) were significant risk factors for the development of T2DM. T2DM was not a significant risk factor for either depression (RR 1.26, 95% CI: 0.91-1.74) or anxiety symptoms (RR 1.13, 95% CI: 0.59-2.19). In this study, T2DM is not a significant risk factor for depression and anxiety; similarly, neither are depression and anxiety significant risk factors for T2DM. Although prevalence of depression and anxiety is not alarming, the findings reported here should alert clinicians to screen and treat anxiety and depression in people with diabetes and also note the importance of monitoring women with complications in pregnancy for risk of later T2DM. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Correlation Between Lumbopelvic and Sagittal Parameters and Health-Related Quality of Life in Adults With Lumbosacral Spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussous, Yazeed; Theologis, Alexander A; Demb, Joshua B; Tangtiphaiboontana, Jennifer; Berven, Sigurd

    2018-02-01

    Secondary analysis of prospective, multicenter data. To evaluate impact of sagittal parameters on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults with lumbosacral spondylolisthesis. Adults with unoperated lumbosacral spondylolisthesis were identified in the Spinal Deformity Study Group database. Pearson's correlations were calculated between SF-12 (Short Form-12)/Scoliosis Research Society-30 (SRS-30) scores and radiographic parameters (C7 sagittal vertical axis [SVA] deviation, T1 pelvic angle, pelvic tilt [PT], pelvic incidence, sacral slope, slip angle, Meyerding slip grade, Labelle classification). Main effects linear regression models measured association between individual health status measures and individual radiographic predictor variables. Forty-five patients were analyzed (male, 15; female, 30; average age 40.5 ± 18.7 years; 14 low-grade, 31 high-grade). For low-grade slips, SVA had strong negative correlations with SF-12 mental component score (MCS), SRS-30 appearance, mental, and satisfaction domains ( r = -0.57, r = -0.60, r = -0.58, r = -0.53, respectively; P grade slips, slip angle had a moderate negative correlation with SF-12 MCS ( r = -0.36; P = .05) and SVA had strong negative correlations with SF-12 physical component score (PCS), SRS-30 appearance and activity domains ( r = -0.48, r = -0.48, r = -0.45; P point decrease in SRS appearance, 0.05-point decrease in SRS activity, 0.06-point decrease in SRS satisfaction, and 0.04-point decrease in SRS total score ( P grade slips. Improvement of sagittal parameters is an important goal of surgery for adults with lumbosacral spondylolisthesis.

  10. Intimate partner violence among women with mental health-related activity limitations: a Canadian population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mont, Janice; Forte, Tonia

    2014-01-18

    There is strong evidence that women with serious or chronic mental illness experience higher rates of violence than women in the general population. Our objective was to examine the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV), a form of violence that is often recurrent and linked to negative physical and psychological consequences, among a representative sample of non-institutionalized women with activity limitations (ALs) due to a mental health condition. Data from the 2009 General Social Survey were used, a national, population-based, cross-sectional survey. The sample included 6851 women reporting contact with a current or former partner in the previous five years, of whom 322 (4.7%) reported a mental health-related AL always/often or sometimes. The prevalence of any type of IPV was highest among women with mental health-related ALs always/often (54.4%), followed by women reporting ALs sometimes (49.9%), and those reporting no ALs (18.3%, p financial IPV (18.1%, 9.5%, 4.0%, p reporting mental health-related ALs always/often and sometimes, but were lower among those reporting no ALs (20.2%, 20.9%, 5.9%, p reporting ALs always/often (OR = 3.65; 95% CI: 2.10, 6.32) and sometimes (OR = 3.20; 95% CI: 2.15, 4.75) than those reporting no ALs. Several social capital variables, including perceptions of having experienced discrimination, a weak sense of belonging in their local community, and low trust toward family members and strangers were also significantly associated with having experienced IPV. Findings suggest that women with mental health-related ALs may be at increased risk of IPV. Health and social service providers may need, therefore, to better target prevention and intervention initiatives to this population.

  11. Mental and physical health-related functioning mediates between psychological job demands and sickness absence among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné; van Rhenen, Willem; Schaufeli, Wilmar; van der Klink, Jac; Magerøy, Nils; Moen, Bente; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-08-01

    To investigate whether health-related functioning mediates the effect of psychological job demands on sickness absence in nurses. Nurses face high job demands that can have adverse health effects resulting in sickness absence. Prospective cohort study with 1-year follow-up. Data for 2964 Norwegian nurses were collected in the period 2008-2010. At baseline, psychological job demands were measured with the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Health-related functioning was assessed by the Mental Composite Score and the Physical Composite Score of the SF-12 Health Survey (2nd version). Sickness absence (no = 0, yes = 1) was self-reported at 1-year follow-up. Interaction and mediation analyses were conducted stratified by tenure (6 years) as a registered nurse. A total of 2180 nurses (74%) with complete data were eligible for analysis. A significant three-way interaction between job demands, control and support was found in newly licensed nurses (tenure sickness absence at 1-year follow-up. This association was substantially weakened when Mental Composite Score and Physical Composite Score were introduced as mediator variables, indicating a partial mediation effect that was particularly pronounced in newly licensed nurses. Psychological job demands did not modify the effect of health-related functioning on sickness absence. Both mental and physical health-related functioning mediated between psychological job demands and sickness absence. Nurse managers should pay attention to health-related functioning, because poor health-related functioning may predict sickness absence, especially in newly licensed nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. SPIRITUALITY, MENTAL HEALTH, PHYSICAL HEALTH, AND HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG WOMEN WITH HIV/AIDS: INTEGRATING SPIRITUALITY INTO MENTAL HEALTH CARE

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmida, Safiya George

    2006-01-01

    HIV-positive women have used spirituality as a resource to enhance their psychological well-being and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The purpose of this article is to review the literature about depression among HIV-positive women and to describe the positive associations reported among spirituality, mental health, and HRQOL. This article also advocates the development and use of interventions integrated with spirituality. The incorporation of spirituality into traditional mental hea...

  13. Variation in Utilization of Health Care Services for Rural VA Enrollees With Mental Health-Related Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher E; Bush, Ruth L; Harman, Jeffrey; Bolin, Jane; Evans Hudnall, Gina; Nguyen, Ann M

    2015-01-01

    Rural-dwelling Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) enrollees are at high risk for a wide variety of mental health-related disorders. The objective of this study is to examine the variation in the types of mental and nonmental health services received by rural VA enrollees who have a mental health-related diagnosis. The Andersen and Aday behavioral model of health services use and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data were used to examine how VA enrollees with mental health-related diagnoses accessed places of care from 1999 to 2009. Population survey weights were applied to the MEPS data, and logit regression was conducted to model how predisposing, enabling, and need factors influence rural veteran health services use (measured by visits to different places of care). Analyses were performed on the subpopulations: rural VA, rural non-VA, urban VA, and urban non-VA enrollees. For all types of care, both rural and urban VA enrollees received care from inpatient, outpatient, office-based, and emergency room settings at higher odds than urban non-VA enrollees. Rural VA enrollees also received all types of care from inpatient, office-based, and emergency room settings at higher odds than urban VA enrollees. Rural VA enrollees had higher odds of a mental health visit of any kind compared to urban VA and non-VA enrollees. Based on these variations, the VA may want to develop strategies to increase screening efforts in inpatient settings and emergency rooms to further capture rural VA enrollees who have undiagnosed mental health conditions. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  14. Mental Health-Related Stigma and Discrimination in Ghana: Experience of Patients and Their Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawiah, P E; Adongo, P B; Aikins, M

    2015-03-01

    Mental health is now attracting increased public health attention from health professionals, policy makers and the general population. However, stigma and discrimination usually have enormous negative impact on the patients and their families. This study reports on stigma and discrimination faced by mental health patients and their caregivers in a suburban area of Ghana and the coping strategies used. This is a cross-sectional exploratory study which used both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Two hundred and seventy seven mental health patients were purposively interviewed. Focus group discussions were held with caregivers and in-depth interviews were held with mental health professionals. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS and Microsoft Excel(®) whilst the qualitative data were coded and manually analyzed thematically. Mental disorder cuts across all age, sex, education, ethnicity, employment, and marital status. More females were stigmatized than males at the work/employment and educational levels. Various forms of stigma were observed at the economic, psychological and social levels, whilst for discrimination it was only observed at the economic and social levels. Caregivers were also stigmatized and discriminated. The coping strategies adopted by the mental patients and their caregivers were also economic, psychological and social in nature. Mental health patients and their families suffer from stigma and discrimination from the individual, family, work, employment, education to the health level. Thus, community level policy on mental health care needs to be developed and implemented. Furthermore mental health education needs to be intensified at the community level.

  15. Psychological predictors of mental health and health-related quality of life after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz; Dela, Flemming; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2014-01-01

    that preoperative psychological factors including psychiatric symptoms, body image and self-esteem may be important for mental health postoperatively. Predictors of postoperative HRQOL seem to include personality, severe psychiatric disorder at baseline and improvement of depressive symptoms. In addition...

  16. Logistic regression models for predicting physical and mental health-related quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alishiri, Gholam Hossein; Bayat, Noushin; Fathi Ashtiani, Ali; Tavallaii, Seyed Abbas; Assari, Shervin; Moharamzad, Yashar

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop two logistic regression models capable of predicting physical and mental health related quality of life (HRQOL) among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. In this cross-sectional study which was conducted during 2006 in the outpatient rheumatology clinic of our university hospital, Short Form 36 (SF-36) was used for HRQOL measurements in 411 RA patients. A cutoff point to define poor versus good HRQOL was calculated using the first quartiles of SF-36 physical and mental component scores (33.4 and 36.8, respectively). Two distinct logistic regression models were used to derive predictive variables including demographic, clinical, and psychological factors. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each model were calculated. Poor physical HRQOL was positively associated with pain score, disease duration, monthly family income below 300 US$, comorbidity, patient global assessment of disease activity or PGA, and depression (odds ratios: 1.1; 1.004; 15.5; 1.1; 1.02; 2.08, respectively). The variables that entered into the poor mental HRQOL prediction model were monthly family income below 300 US$, comorbidity, PGA, and bodily pain (odds ratios: 6.7; 1.1; 1.01; 1.01, respectively). Optimal sensitivity and specificity were achieved at a cutoff point of 0.39 for the estimated probability of poor physical HRQOL and 0.18 for mental HRQOL. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the physical and mental models were 73.8, 87, 83.7% and 90.38, 70.36, 75.43%, respectively. The results show that the suggested models can be used to predict poor physical and mental HRQOL separately among RA patients using simple variables with acceptable accuracy. These models can be of use in the clinical decision-making of RA patients and to recognize patients with poor physical or mental HRQOL in advance, for better management.

  17. Reducing the Mental Health-Related Stigma of Social Work Students: A Cluster RCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Valera, Maria; Aznar-Lou, Ignacio; Vives-Collet, Mireia; Fernández, Ana; Gil-Girbau, Montserrat; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a social contact and education intervention to improve attitudes to mental illness in first-year social work students. This was a 3-month cluster randomized controlled trial with two parallel arms: intervention (87) and control group (79). The intervention was a workshop led by an OBERTAMENT…

  18. Mass social contact interventions and their effect on mental health related stigma and intended discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, Sara; London, Jillian; Japhet, Sarah; Rüsch, Nicolas; Flach, Clare; Corker, Elizabeth; Henderson, Claire; Thornicroft, Graham

    2012-06-28

    Stigma and discrimination associated with mental health problems is an important public health issue, and interventions aimed at reducing exposure to stigma and discrimination can improve the lives of people with mental health problems. Social contact has long been considered to be one of the most effective strategies for improving inter-group relations. For this study, we assess the impact of a population level social contact intervention among people with and without mental health problems. This study investigated the impact of social contact and whether presence of specific facilitating factors (equal status, common goals, cooperation and friendship potential): (1) improves intended stigmatising behaviour; (2) increases future willingness to disclose a mental health problem; and (3) promotes behaviours associated with anti-stigma campaign engagement. Two mass participation social contact programmes within England's Time to Change campaign were evaluated via a 2-part questionnaire. 403 participants completed initial questionnaires (70% paper, 30% online) and 83 completed follow-up questionnaires online 4-6 weeks later. This study investigated the impact of social contact and whether presence of specific facilitating factors (equal status, common goals, cooperation and friendship potential): (1) improves intended stigmatising behaviour; (2) increases future willingness to disclose a mental health problem; and (3) promotes behaviours associated with anti-stigma campaign engagement. Two mass participation social contact programmes within England's Time to Change campaign were evaluated via a 2-part questionnaire. 403 participants completed initial questionnaires (70% paper, 30% online) and 83 completed follow-up questionnaires online 4-6 weeks later. Campaign events facilitated meaningful intergroup social contact between individuals with and without mental health problems. Presence of facilitating conditions predicted improved stigma-related behavioural intentions

  19. Evidence for effective interventions to reduce mental-health-related stigma and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornicroft, Graham; Mehta, Nisha; Clement, Sarah; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Doherty, Mary; Rose, Diana; Koschorke, Mirja; Shidhaye, Rahul; O'Reilly, Claire; Henderson, Claire

    2016-03-12

    Stigma and discrimination in relation to mental illnesses have been described as having worse consequences than the conditions themselves. Most medical literature in this area of research has been descriptive and has focused on attitudes towards people with mental illness rather than on interventions to reduce stigma. In this narrative Review, we summarise what is known globally from published systematic reviews and primary data on effective interventions intended to reduce mental-illness-related stigma or discrimination. The main findings emerging from this narrative overview are that: (1) at the population level there is a fairly consistent pattern of short-term benefits for positive attitude change, and some lesser evidence for knowledge improvement; (2) for people with mental illness, some group-level anti-stigma inventions show promise and merit further assessment; (3) for specific target groups, such as students, social-contact-based interventions usually achieve short-term (but less clearly long-term) attitudinal improvements, and less often produce knowledge gains; (4) this is a heterogeneous field of study with few strong study designs with large sample sizes; (5) research from low-income and middle-income countries is conspicuous by its relative absence; (6) caution needs to be exercised in not overgeneralising lessons from one target group to another; (7) there is a clear need for studies with longer-term follow-up to assess whether initial gains are sustained or attenuated, and whether booster doses of the intervention are needed to maintain progress; (8) few studies in any part of the world have focused on either the service user's perspective of stigma and discrimination or on the behaviour domain of behavioural change, either by people with or without mental illness in the complex processes of stigmatisation. We found that social contact is the most effective type of intervention to improve stigma-related knowledge and attitudes in the short term

  20. Major health-related behaviours and mental well-being in the general population: the Health Survey for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranges, Saverio; Samaraweera, Preshila Chandimali; Taggart, Frances; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Stewart-Brown, Sarah

    2014-09-19

    Major behavioural risk factors are known to adversely affect health outcomes and be strongly associated with mental illness. However, little is known about the association of these risk factors with mental well-being in the general population. We sought to examine behavioural correlates of high and low mental well-being in the Health Survey for England. Participants were 13,983 adults, aged 16 years and older (56% females), with valid responses for the combined 2010 and 2011 surveys. Mental well-being was assessed using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS). ORs of low and high mental well-being, compared to the middle-range category, were estimated for body mass index (BMI), smoking, drinking habits, and fruit and vegetable intake. ORs for low mental well-being were increased in obese individuals (up to 1.72, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.36 in BMI 40+ kg/m(2)). They increased in a linear fashion with increasing smoking (up to 1.98, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.53, >20 cigarettes/day) and with decreasing fruit and vegetable intake (up to 1.53, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.90, mental well-being were not correlated with categories of BMI or alcohol intake. ORs were reduced among ex-smokers (0.81, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.92), as well as with lower fruit and vegetable intake (up to 0.79, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.92, 1 to mental well-being in both sexes. Alcohol intake and obesity were associated with low, but not high mental well-being. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. The link between mental health-related discrimination and suicidality: service user perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, S; Jeffery, D; Rüsch, N; Williams, P; Thornicroft, G; Clement, S

    2015-07-01

    Suicide is a major global public health issue. Mental illness is a risk factor for suicide, but as many individuals with a diagnosed mental health problem do not experience suicidal ideation or attempt suicide, other individual and societal factors must be considered. Mental illness-related discrimination is one potential risk factor. Using mixed methods, the influence of discrimination on suicidality amongst 194 individuals diagnosed with depression, bipolar or schizophrenia spectrum disorders was investigated. Qualitative interviews with a sub-sample of 58 individuals who reported a link between experience of discrimination and suicidality were analysed using framework analysis. Quantitative methods were used to examine the model derived from qualitative analyses. Results indicate that the experience of discrimination led 38% of the overall sample of 194 participants, to suicidal feelings and 20% reported that it contributed to making a suicide attempt. The qualitative model derived from interviews with a sub-sample of 58 participants suggested that the experience of discrimination is experienced as a stressor that exceeds coping resources, leading to a negative self-image and a perception of decreased supportive networks/social structure. The anticipation of further negative events and treatment, and the perception of a lack of supportive networks led individuals in this study to feelings of hopelessness and suicidality. Quantitative analyses provided support for the model. These data suggest that both psychological therapies aimed at improving coping skills and population-level anti-stigma interventions that reduce the occurrence of discrimination may provide some protection against suicide amongst individuals with mental health problems.

  2. [Systematic review of health-related utilities in Spain: the case of mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Lidia; Aguiar-Ibáñez, Raquel; Pinilla-Domínguez, Pilar; Arvelo-Martín, Alejandro; Linertová, Renata; Rivero-Santana, Amado

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no registry of utility values for the Spanish population that could potentially be used in economic evaluations. Consequently, a systematic review of utilities or preferences for health states in the Spanish population was conducted. The results related to mental health are reported. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. The main databases searched were MEDLINE, CRD, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Cochrane. The search strategy combined terms related to utilities and Spain. The inclusion criteria comprised the resident population in Spain, whether affected by any disease or not; the reported utilities had to be evaluated through a tool validated in Spain (i.e., EQ-5D, HUI, SF-6D) and/or following accepted techniques (e.g., time trade-off, standard gamble, or the visual analog scale). A narrative synthesis of articles was undertaken and the results related to mental health summarized. A total of 103 articles were finally included, from which 742 utility values were extracted. Sixty-nine utility values related to mental health and behavioral disorders were extracted from 12 studies. The most widely used tool was the E5-QD questionnaire. Most of the excluded articles evaluated quality of life but did not provide an estimation of utilities. This review adds value to research on utilities in Spain by gathering values to be included in economic evaluations, as well as by identifying research gaps in this field. The utility values related to mental health identified in this study are similar to those reported in international publications. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Health-related quality of life among children with mental health problems: a population-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey Michelle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with mental health problems have been neglected in health-related quality of life (HRQOL studies. Therefore, the aims of the current study were 1 to assess the influence of the presence of mental or physical health problems on HRQOL; and 2 to analyze the effects of item overlap between mental health problems and HRQOL-measurements. Methods Proxy- and self-rated HRQOL (KIDSCREEN-27 of children 9–14 years old was assessed across children with mental health problems (n = 535, children with physical health problems (n = 327, and healthy controls (n = 744. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted with health status, severity of symptoms, status of medication use, gender and nationality as independent, and HRQOL scores as dependent variables. The effects of item overlap were analyzed by repeating regression analyses while excluding those HRQOL items that contextually overlapped the most frequently-occurring mental health problem (attention deficits. Results Severity of symptoms was the strongest predictor of reduced HRQOL. However, all other predictors (except for the status of medication use also contributed to the prediction of some HRQOL scores. Controlling for item overlap did not meaningfully alter the results. Conclusions When children with different health constraints are compared, the severity of their particular health problems should be considered. Furthermore, item overlap seems not to be a major problem when the HRQOL of children with mental health problems is studied. Hence, HRQOL assessments are useful to gather information that goes beyond the clinical symptoms of a health problem. This information can, for instance, be used to improve clinical practice.

  4. Health Related Quality of Life among Insulin-Dependent Diabetics: Disease-Related and Psychosocial Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Uutela, Antti; Aro, Arja R.

    1997-01-01

    The associations of health and psychosocial factors with the Health Related Quality of Life Questionnaire were examined in adult type 1 diabetic patients (N=385). The most important factors from multivariate analysis were self-efficacy and diabetes-related social support, especially among those in good physical condition. Diabetes-specific factors…

  5. Does health-related quality of life in asthma patients correlate with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has been shown to be more relevant to patients who have chronic diseases such as asthma, as achieving the best possible quality of life is the paramount objective in the management of such patients. This study assessed the quality of life of asthma patients ...

  6. Correlates of health related quality of life in adult patients with Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruitwagen-van Reenen, Esther Th; Wadman, Renske I; Visser-Meily, Johanna MA; van den Berg, Leonard H; Schröder, Carin; van der Pol, W Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To improve care for patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), we assessed the physical and mental quality of life (QoL) in 62 adult patients with SMA. Methods Physical component scores (PCS) and mental component scores (MCS) of the Short Form -36 Health Survey (SF-36) were obtained.

  7. Clinical correlates of health preference and generic health-related quality of life in patients with colorectal neoplasms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos K H Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aims of the study were to assess the health preference and health-related quality of life (HRQOL in patients with colorectal neoplasms (CRN, and to determine the clinical correlates that significantly influence the HRQOL of patients. METHODS: Five hundred and fifty-four CRN patients, inclusive of colorectal polyp or cancer, who attended the colorectal specialist outpatient clinic at Queen Mary Hospital in Hong Kong between October 2009 and July 2010, were included. Patients were interviewed with questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, and generic and health preference measures of HRQOL using the SF-12 and SF-6D Health Surveys, respectively. Clinical information on stage of disease at diagnosis, time since diagnosis, primary tumour site was extracted from electronic case record. Mean HRQOL and health preference scores of CRN patients were compared with age-sex matched controls from the Chinese general population using independent t-test. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the associations of clinical characteristics with HRQOL measures with the adjustment of socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Cross-sectional data of 515 eligible patients responded to the whole questionnaires were included in outcome analysis. In comparison with age-sex matched normative values, CRN patients reported comparable physical-related HRQOL but better mental-related HRQOL. Amongst CRN patients, time since diagnosis was positively associated with health preference score whilst patients with rectal neoplasms had lower health preference and physical-related HRQOL scores than those with sigmoid neoplasms. Health preference and HRQOL scores were significantly lower in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer than those with other less severe stages, indicating that progressive decline from low-risk polyp to stage IV colorectal cancer was observed in HRQOL scores. CONCLUSION: In CRN patients, a more advanced

  8. Cannabis use and mental health-related quality of life among individuals with depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspis, Itay; Feingold, Daniel; Weiser, Mark; Rehm, Jurgen; Shoval, Gal; Lev-Ran, Shaul

    2015-12-15

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance among individuals with depressive disorders. This study aimed to evaluate whether among individuals with depressive disorders, higher frequency of cannabis use would be associated with poorer Quality of Life (QoL), based on a large nationally representative US sample. Individuals with depressive disorders (N=3416) were divided into categories according to no use (N=3096), occasional use (less than weekly, N=176) and regular (at least weekly, N=144) use of cannabis in the past 12 months. QoL was assessed using the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) questionnaire. Women who used cannabis regularly had a significantly lower SF-12 Mental Component Summary score (MCS) compared to non-users, with a mean difference of 0.4 Standard Deviations (SDs). Comparison of subscale scores showed no significant differences. No significant difference was noted when comparing women who used cannabis occasionally to non-users. No differences were found among men when comparing MCS and mental subscale scores of both regular and occasional users to non-users. Our findings highlight the importance of taking gender and the frequency of cannabis use into account, when assessing functional and emotional aspects of cannabis use among individuals with depressive disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neurophysiological Correlates of Various Mental Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo eHinterberger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A common view of consciousness is that our mind presents emotions, experiences and images in an internal mental (re-presentation space which in a state of wakefulness is triggered by the world outside. Consciousness can be defined as the observation of this inner mental space. We propose a new model, in which the state of the conscious observer is defined by the observer’s mental position and focus of attention. The mental position of the observer can either be within the mental self (intrapersonal space, in the mental outer world (extrapersonal space or in an empathic connection, i.e. within the intrapersonal space of another person (perspective taking. The focus of attention can be directed towards the self or towards the outside world. This mental space model can help us to understand the patterns of relationships and interactions with other persons as they occur in social life.To investigate the neurophysiological correlates and discriminability of the different mental states, we conducted an EEG experiment measuring the brain activity of 16 subjects via 64 electrodes while they engaged in different mental positions (intrapersonal, extrapersonal, perspective taking with different attentional foci (self, object. Compared to external mental locations, internal ones showed significantly increased alpha2 power, especially when the observer was focusing on an object. Alpha2 and beta2 were increased in the empathic condition compared to the extrapersonal perspective. Delta power was significantly higher when the attentional focus was directed towards an object in comparison to the participant’s own self. This exploratory study demonstrates highly significant differences between various mental locations and foci, suggesting that the proposed categories of mental location and intra- and interpersonal attentional foci are not only helpful theoretical concepts but are also physiologically relevant and therefore may relate to basic brain processing

  10. Discrimination and mental health-related service use in a national study of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Michael S; Chen, Juan; Gee, Gilbert C; Fabian, Cathryn G; Takeuchi, David T

    2010-12-01

    We examined the association between perceived discrimination and use of mental health services among a national sample of Asian Americans. Our data came from the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first national survey of Asian Americans. Our sample included 600 Chinese, 508 Filipinos, 520 Vietnamese, and 467 other Asians (n=2095). We used logistic regression to examine the association between discrimination and formal and informal service use and the interactive effect of discrimination and English language proficiency. Perceived discrimination was associated with more use of informal services, but not with less use of formal services. Additionally, higher levels of perceived discrimination combined with lower English proficiency were associated with more use of informal services. The effect of perceived discrimination and language proficiency on service use indicates a need for more bilingual services and more collaborations between formal service systems and community resources.

  11. Perceived mental health related stigma, gender, and depressive symptom severity in a psychiatric facility in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Raguram, R; Rao, Deepa

    2014-06-01

    Few studies exist on the topic of gender associated with depression and mental health-related stigma coming out of non-Western countries such as India. We aimed to add to the literature by assessing these relationships among adults seeking psychiatric services in India. Participants were 60 individuals seeking care at a psychiatric clinic in Bangalore, India. The majority of participants were female with a mean age of 36 years (SD=9.75). Contrary to our prediction, there were no significant differences between men (M=28.96; SD=9.85) and women (M=33.03; SD=12.08) on depression severity, t(58)=1.42, p=.16. Yet, women (M=10.09, SD=8.23) reported significantly more perceived stigma than men (M=5.79, SD=5.86), t(58)=2.30, p=.02. While men and women seeking psychiatric services at the psychiatric clinic in India report similar levels of depression severity, women reported more perceived mental illness stigma. Having experienced regular forms of discrimination associated with female status in India, it may be the case that women are more attuned to other forms of stigma, such as mental health stigma investigated in the present study. Given the detrimental impact of stigma on treatment adherence and engagement in care, additional research is needed support this work, including research on interventions to reduce stigma and improve engagement in care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. C-reactive protein as an available biomarker determining mental component of health-related quality of life among individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabour, Hadis; Latifi, Sahar; Soltani, Zahra; Shakeri, Hania; Norouzi Javidan, Abbas; Ghodsi, Seyed-Mohammad; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Emami Razavi, Seyed-Hassan

    2017-05-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) has been shown to correlate with health-related quality of life (HRQL) in some chronic medical conditions. However, these associations have not yet described in spinal cord injury (SCI). In this study, we tried to identify biomarkers associated with HRQL in SCI. Cross-sectional. Tertiary rehabilitation center. Referred patients to Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center between November 2010 and April 2013. Blood samples were taken to measure circulatory CRP, leptin, adiponectin, ferritin, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, thyroid hormones, fasting plasma glucose and lipid profile. All the analyses were performed with adjustment for injury-related confounders (level of injury, injury completeness and time since injury) and demographic characteristics. HRQL was measured with Short Form health survey (SF-36). The initial inverse association between CRP and total score of SF-36 (P: 0.006, r = -0.28) was lost after adjustment for confounders. However, the negative correlation between CRP and Mental Component Summary (MCS) remained significant (P: 0.0005, r = -0.38). Leptin level was inversely correlated with Physical Component Summary (PCS) (P: 0.02, r = -0.30). Although CRP and leptin levels were not related with total scores of SF-36 questionnaire, CRP can be more useful in determining mental component of HRQL whereas leptin can be a determinant of physical component. The combined consideration of these two biomarkers may help to predict HRQL in individuals with SCI.

  13. Effect of a Primary Care Management Intervention on Mental Health-Related Quality of Life Among Survivors of Sepsis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, K.; Worrack, S.; Korff, M. Von; Davydow, D.; Brunkhorst, F.; Ehlert, U.; Pausch, C.; Mehlhorn, J.; Schneider, N.; Scherag, A.; Freytag, A.; Reinhart, K.; Wensing, M.; Gensichen, J.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Survivors of sepsis face long-term sequelae that diminish health-related quality of life and result in increased care needs in the primary care setting, such as medication, physiotherapy, or mental health care. OBJECTIVE: To examine if a primary care-based intervention improves mental

  14. Correlation between changes in diastolic dysfunction and health-related quality of life after cardiac rehabilitation program in dilated cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin H.M. Mehani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic heart failure (CHF is a complex syndrome characterized by progressive decline in left ventricular function, low exercise tolerance and raised mortality and morbidity. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction plays a major role in CHF and progression of most cardiac diseases. The current recommended goals can theoretically be accomplished via exercise and pharmacological therapy so the aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of cardiac rehabilitation program on diastolic dysfunction and health related quality of life and to determine the correlation between changes in left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and domains of health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Forty patients with chronic heart failure were diagnosed as having dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM with systolic and diastolic dysfunction. The patients were equally and randomly divided into training and control groups. Only 30 of them completed the study duration. The training group participated in rehabilitation program in the form of circuit-interval aerobic training adjusted according to 55–80% of heart rate reserve for a period of 7 months. Circuit training improved both diastolic and systolic dysfunction in the training group. On the other hand, only a significant correlation was found between improvement in diastolic dysfunction and health related quality of life measured by Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. It was concluded that improvement in diastolic dysfunction as a result of rehabilitation program is one of the important underlying mechanisms responsible for improvement in health-related quality of life in DCM patients.

  15. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A

    2015-02-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50-64; 65-79; 80 and older). Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old-old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The prevalence, severity, and correlates of psychological distress and impaired health-related quality of life following treatment for testicular cancer: a survivorship study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allan Ben; Butow, Phyllis; Olver, Ian; Luckett, Tim; Grimison, Peter; Toner, Guy C; Stockler, Martin R; Hovey, Elizabeth; Stubbs, John; Turner, Sandra; Hruby, George; Gurney, Howard; Alam, Mahmood; Cox, Keith; King, Madeleine T

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to establish the prevalence, severity, and correlates of psychological distress and impaired generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in testicular cancer (TC) survivors. Men who had completed active anti-cancer treatment for TC between 6 months and 5 years previously showing no evidence of recurrence were recruited from 14 Australian cancer centers from September 2009 to February 2011. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire measuring demographic, disease, and treatment information, psychological distress (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress; DASS21), generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL; SF-36v2), TC-specific HRQOL (EORTC QLQ-TC26), coping (MAC), social support (DUFSS), and unmet needs (CaSUN). Of 486 eligible TC survivors, 244 (50.2%) completed the questionnaire. Compared with normative data, TC survivors reported: small but statistically significant increases in mean levels of anxiety and depression; a greater prevalence of moderate to extremely severe anxiety (19%) and depression (20%); and significant deficits to mostly mental aspects of generic HRQOL. The most problematic TC-specific HRQOL issues (e.g., fear of recurrence) were also more mental than physical. In multiple regression analyses, the strongest correlates of psychological distress and impaired generic HRQOL were psychosocial (e.g., helpless/hopeless coping and lower social support) rather than disease or treatment factors. Generally, TC survivors appear to experience mild psychological distress and HRQOL impairments, while a vulnerable subgroup experience more severe morbidity. There is a need to identify TC survivors at risk of poorer outcomes and for interventions to target the areas of greatest impairment (i.e., psychological distress and mental HRQOL).

  17. Clinical Correlates of Health Preference and Generic Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Colorectal Neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Carlos K. H.; Lam, Cindy L. K.; Poon, Jensen T. C.; Kwong, Dora L. W.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aims of the study were to assess the health preference and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with colorectal neoplasms (CRN), and to determine the clinical correlates that significantly influence the HRQOL of patients. METHODS: Five hundred and fifty-four CRN patients, inclusive of colorectal polyp or cancer, who attended the colorectal specialist outpatient clinic at Queen Mary Hospital in Hong Kong between October 2009 and July 2010, were included. Patients ...

  18. Correlation between risk factors, functional recovery, and the health-related quality of life of stroke survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective It has been estimated that 50% of strokes are preventable through the control of modifiable risk factors. The objective of the paper was to determine the correlation between the risk factors, functional status, and the health-related quality of life (HRQOL of stroke survivors. Method The prospective cohort study was used. The study included 136 patients 30–79 years old. Functional recovery was assessed using the Barthel index (BI and the Modified Rankin Scale (mRS. The HRQOL was evaluated by the generic Short Form 36 (SF-36 questionnaire. BI and mRS were determined at admission at the rehabilitation, one, three and six months after the stroke. The SF-36 was filled out at the same time. The analysis of the repeated measure variance (Repeated Measures ANOVA was applied, as well as the correlation analysis and Spearman’s coefficient of rank correlation. Results A total number of 136 patients [66 (48.5% male and 70 (51.5% female] completed the questionnaire. The average age of stroke survivors was 63.72 ± 8.73. At admission, mRS was 4.75 ± 0.55, and six months after the stroke onset it decreased to 2.60 ± 1.08. The average value of BI at admission was 25 ± 24.66, and within six months it increased to 83.75 ± 18.59 (p = 0.001. The ANOVA showed that the values of mRS significantly decreased (p < 0.001 and the values of BI significantly increased (ANOVA: p < 0.001. All domains of the SF-36 questionnaire, except for the pain domain, significantly increased (p < 0.001. The physical function (r = 0.238; p < 0. 01, physical role (r = 0.199; p < 0.05, and emotional role (r = 0.237; p < 0.01 were significantly lower among alcohol addicts (r = 0.199; p < 0.05. Mental health (r = 0.244; p < 0.01 and social relationships domains were significantly lower among smokers (r = 0.272; p < 0.01. The general health (r = -0.290; p < 001 and health condition change domains were significantly lower among smokers (r = 0.225; p < 0

  19. Correlates of mortality in elderly COPD patients: focus on health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli-Incalzi, Raffaele; Pedone, Claudio; Scarlata, Simone; Battaglia, Salvatore; Scichilone, Nicola; Forestiere, Francesco; Bellia, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    The Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) is widely used as a measure of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with COPD. This study tested whether the SGRQ predicts the survival of patients with COPD. The study recruited 238 patients with COPD who were participants in the multicentre Salute Respiratoria nell'Anziano (Sa.R.A.) study. Patients' sociodemographic, clinical and functional characteristics were assessed and the association between the SGRQ and mortality, corrected for potential confounders, was estimated. The mean age of study participants was 72.6 years. Over the 5-year observation period there were 88 deaths. After adjustment for potential confounders, the SGRQ score was associated with an increased risk of dying (hazard ratio (HR): 1.22 for four-point increments; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.45). There was no association between mortality and the Symptoms subscale (corrected HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 0.96-1.32), whereas each four-point increment of the Activity (HR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.00-1.43) and Impact (HR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.03-1.83) subscale scores were associated with increased mortality. Higher FEV(1) relative to predicted (HR: 0.73 for each 5% increment; 95% CI: 0.58-0.91) and better performance at the 6-min walking test relative to predicted (HR: 0.93 for each 5% increment; 95% CI: 0.89-0.97) were associated with lower mortality. In elderly COPD patients, the SGRQ can improve prognostic models based on classical indicators of disease severity.

  20. Relationship of the perceived social and physical environment with mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults: mediating effects of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Teychenne, Megan; McNaughton, Sarah A; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Salmon, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Mental health conditions are among the leading non-fatal diseases in middle-aged and older adults in Australia. Proximal and distal social environmental factors and physical environmental factors have been associated with mental health, but the underlying mechanisms explaining these associations remain unclear. The study objective was to examine the contribution of different types of physical activity in mediating the relationship of social and physical environmental factors with mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults. Baseline data from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL) study were used. WELL is a prospective cohort study, conducted in Victoria, Australia. Baseline data collection took place in 2010. In total, 3,965 middle-aged and older adults (55-65 years, 47.4% males) completed the SF-36 Health Survey, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and a questionnaire on socio-demographic, social and physical environmental attributes. Mediation analyses were conducted using the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients test. Personal safety, the neighbourhood physical activity environment, social support for physical activity from family or friends, and neighbourhood social cohesion were positively associated with mental health-related quality of life. Active transportation and leisure-time physical activity mediated 32.9% of the association between social support for physical activity from family or friends and mental health-related quality of life. These physical activity behaviours also mediated 11.0%, 3.4% and 2.3% respectively, of the relationship between the neighbourhood physical activity environment, personal safety and neighbourhood social cohesion and mental health-related quality of life. If these results are replicated in future longitudinal studies, tailored interventions to improve mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults should use a combined strategy, focusing on

  1. Relationship of the perceived social and physical environment with mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults: mediating effects of physical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfien Van Dyck

    Full Text Available Mental health conditions are among the leading non-fatal diseases in middle-aged and older adults in Australia. Proximal and distal social environmental factors and physical environmental factors have been associated with mental health, but the underlying mechanisms explaining these associations remain unclear. The study objective was to examine the contribution of different types of physical activity in mediating the relationship of social and physical environmental factors with mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults.Baseline data from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL study were used. WELL is a prospective cohort study, conducted in Victoria, Australia. Baseline data collection took place in 2010. In total, 3,965 middle-aged and older adults (55-65 years, 47.4% males completed the SF-36 Health Survey, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and a questionnaire on socio-demographic, social and physical environmental attributes. Mediation analyses were conducted using the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients test.Personal safety, the neighbourhood physical activity environment, social support for physical activity from family or friends, and neighbourhood social cohesion were positively associated with mental health-related quality of life. Active transportation and leisure-time physical activity mediated 32.9% of the association between social support for physical activity from family or friends and mental health-related quality of life. These physical activity behaviours also mediated 11.0%, 3.4% and 2.3% respectively, of the relationship between the neighbourhood physical activity environment, personal safety and neighbourhood social cohesion and mental health-related quality of life.If these results are replicated in future longitudinal studies, tailored interventions to improve mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults should use a combined strategy

  2. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) for individuals with self-reported chronic physical and/or mental health conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayliss, Martha; Rendas-Baum, Regina; White, Michelle K

    2012-01-01

    In the US, approximately 53% of adults have at least one chronic condition. Comorbid physical and mental health conditions often have an incremental negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Primary study objectives were to quantify the impact on HRQL of a) ≥ 1 physical condition...

  3. Health-related quality of life and mental health problems after a disaster: are chronically ill survivors more vulnerable to health problems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, B. van den; Velden, P.G. van der; Yzermans, C.J.; Stellato, R.K.; Grievink, L.

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown that the chronically ill are at higher risk for reduced health-related quality of life (HRQL) and for mental health problems. A combination with traumatic events might increase this risk. This longitudinal study among 1216 survivors of a disaster examines whether chronically ill

  4. Health-related quality of life and mental health problems after a disaster: Are chronically ill survivors more vulnerable to health problems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Bellis van den; Velden, Peter G van der; Yzermans, C Joris; Stellato, Rebecca K; Grievink, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown that the chronically ill are at higher risk for reduced health-related quality of life (HRQL) and for mental health problems. A combination with traumatic events might increase this risk. This longitudinal study among 1216 survivors of a disaster examines whether chronically ill

  5. Correlation between oral health-related quality of life and clinical dysfunction index in patients with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Naichuan; Liu, Yan; Yang, Xianrui; Shen, Jiefei; Wang, Hang

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the correlation between oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and the Helkimo clinical dysfunction index (HDI) in patients with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ OA). Clinical data and scores for the Chinese version of the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-C14) were recorded and analyzed for 541 patients with TMJ OA. Each patient was assigned an HDI score of 1 to 25, which was used to classify severity into three categories. OHRQoL was assessed by using OHIP-C14 score, which ranged from 0 to 56. Both HDI score and severity were significantly correlated with total OHIP-C14 score (P < 0.001 for both comparisons). The scores for all HDI domains except function impairment (P = 0.205) were significantly correlated with OHIP-C14 score. The scores for all seven OHIP-C14 domains were significantly correlated with HDI score and severity. Several correlations between OHIP-C14 domains and HDI domain scores were significant. HDI score and severity were correlated with OHIP-C14 score in TMJ OA patients. As compared with function-related domains, pain-related HDI domains were more strongly inversely related to OHRQoL.(J Oral Sci 58, 483-490, 2016).

  6. Psychological theory in an interdisciplinary context: psychological, demographic, health-related, social, and environmental correlates of physical activity in a representative cohort of community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sniehotta, Falko F; Gellert, Paul; Witham, Miles D; Donnan, Peter T; Crombie, Iain K; McMurdo, Marion E T

    2013-09-08

    Physical activity (PA) in older adults is influenced by a range of environmental, demographic, health-related, social, and psychological variables. Social cognitive psychological models assume that all influences on behaviour operate indirectly through the models constructs, i.e., via intention and self-efficacy. We evaluated direct, indirect, and moderating relationships of a broad range of external variables with physical activity levels alongside intention and self-efficacy. We performed a cross-sectional survey of a representative and stratified (65-80 and 80+ years; deprived and affluent) sample of 584 community-dwelling people, resident in Scotland. Objectively measured physical activity and questionnaire data were collected. Self-efficacy showed unique relationships with physical activity, controlling for demographic, mental health, social, environmental, and weather variables separately, but the relationship was not significant when controlling for physical health. Overall, results indicating support for a mediation hypothesis, intention and self-efficacy statistically mediate the relationship of most domain variables with physical activity. Moderation analyses show that the relationship between social cognitions and physical activity was stronger for individuals with better physical health and lower levels of socio-economic deprivation. Social cognitive variables reflect a range of known environmental, demographic, health-related and social correlates of physical activity, they mediate the relationships of those correlates with physical activity and account for additional variance in physical activity when external correlates are controlled for, except for the physical health domain. The finding that the social cognition-physical activity relationship is higher for participants with better health and higher levels of affluence raises issues for the applicability of social cognitive models to the most disadvantaged older people.

  7. Psychological predictors of mental health and health-related quality of life after bariatric surgery: a review of the recent research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmelmann, Cathrine L; Dela, Flemming; Mortensen, Erik L

    2014-01-01

    Improvement of mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important success criterion for bariatric surgery. In general, mental health and HRQOL improve after surgery, but some patients experience negative psychological reactions postoperatively and the influence of pre-surgical psychological factors on mental wellbeing after surgery is unclear. The aim of the current article therefore is to review recent research investigating psychological predictors of mental health and HRQOL outcome. We searched PubMed, PsycInfo and Web of Science for studies investigating psychological predictors of either mental health or HRQOL after bariatric surgery. Original prospective studies published between 2003 and 2012 with a sample size >30 and a minimum of 1 year follow-up were included. Only 10 eligible studies were identified. The findings suggest that preoperative psychological factors including psychiatric symptoms, body image and self-esteem may be important for mental health postoperatively. Predictors of postoperative HRQOL seem to include personality, severe psychiatric disorder at baseline and improvement of depressive symptoms. In addition, psychiatric symptoms that persist after surgery and inappropriate eating behaviour postoperatively are likely to contribute to poor health-related quality of life outcome. Certain psychological factors appear to be important for mental health and HRQOL after bariatric surgery. However, the literature is extremely sparse and further research is highly needed. Copyright © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The relationship between gambling expenditure, socio-demographics, health-related correlates and gambling behaviour-a cross-sectional population-based survey in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrén, Sari; Kontto, Jukka; Alho, Hannu; Salonen, Anne H

    2018-01-01

    To investigate gambling expenditure and its relationship with socio-demographics, health-related correlates and past-year gambling behaviour. Cross-sectional population survey. Population-based survey in Finland. Finnish people aged 15-74 years drawn randomly from the Population Information System. The participants in this study were past-year gamblers with gambling expenditure data available (n = 3251, 1418 women and 1833 men). Expenditure shares, means of weekly gambling expenditure (WGE, €) and monthly gambling expenditure as a percentage of net income (MGE/NI, %) were calculated. The correlates used were perceived health, smoking, mental health [Mental Health Inventory (MHI)-5], alcohol use [Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)-C], game types, gambling frequency, gambling mode and gambling severity [South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS)]. Gender (men versus women) was found to be associated significantly with gambling expenditure, with exp(β) = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.29, 1.52 and P gambling behaviour correlates were associated significantly with WGE and MGE/NI: gambling frequency (several times a week versus once a month/less than monthly, exp(β) = 30.75, 95% CI = 26.89, 35.17 and P gambling severity (probable pathological gamblers versus non-problem gamblers, exp(β) = 2.83, 95% CI = 2.12, 3.77 and P gambling (on-line and land-based versus land-based only, exp(β) = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.24, 1.47 and P gambling expenditure and monthly gambling expenditure related to net income. People in Finland with lower incomes contribute proportionally more of their income to gambling compared with middle- and high-income groups. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Mental health-related quality of life and the timing of motherhood: a 16-year longitudinal study of a national cohort of young Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Hockey, Richard; Ware, Robert S; Lee, Christina

    2018-01-16

    We examine timing of motherhood in a longitudinal cohort of young Australian women, and its relationship with mental health-related quality of life (SF-36 MHI-5), and with sociodemographic, health behaviour and health-related variables. We analysed longitudinal self-report data from a nationally representative cohort of 10,332 Australian women born 1973-1978, surveyed 6 times between 1996 (aged 18-23) and 2012 (aged 34-39). Group-based trajectory modelling identified four groups. Normative Mothers (46%, mean age at motherhood 30.5 years) made the transition to motherhood close to the Australian median age. Early Mothers (25%, 25.2 years) and Very Early Mothers (7%, 20.0 years) made this transition earlier; Not Mothers (22%) had not given birth. Generalised linear mixed models showed that all groups improved mean MHI-5 scores over time. Patterns of group differences were complex: Normative and Early Mothers scored consistently highest; Very Early Mothers scored lowest at most surveys; Not Mothers' scores increased relative to others over time. Most effects disappeared after adjustment for confounders. Early and Very Early Mothers showed multiple indicators of social disadvantage, while Not Mothers had very low rates of marriage. Timing of motherhood is embedded in sociodemographic and personal contexts. Women with socioeconomic advantages were characterised by higher mental health-related quality of life and later transition to motherhood, but adjustment for relative advantage attenuated differences in mental health-related quality of life. The overall findings suggest a pattern of positive adaptation to circumstances, with mental health-related quality of life improving through early adulthood regardless of timing of motherhood.

  10. Correlates of perceived health related quality of life in obese, overweight and normal weight older adults: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Bevilacqua, Roberta; Felici, Elisa; Gagliardi, Cristina; Marcellini, Fiorella; Boscaro, Marco; De Robertis, Marco; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Faloia, Emanuela; Tirabassi, Giacomo

    2014-01-15

    Obesity is a complex multifactorial disease, which also has an impact on quality of life. The aim of this paper is to identify the correlates of perceived health related quality of life in obese, overweight and normal weight Italians older adults. 205 subjects at the age ≥ 60 yrs. were recruited into the Division of Endocrinology of the Polytechnic University of Marche Region, Ancona (Italy). A protocol of questionnaires was constructed for data collection, and included domains such as physical activity, quality of life, socio-psychological aspects. The association of the latter variables with SF-36 Health Survey physical component (PCS-36) were evaluated in the whole sample. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the effect of independent variables on PCS-36 and the physical subscales of SF-36. PCS-36 showed a lower score in the obese and overweight subjects than the normal weight group (post-hoc test, p obesity in the elderly.

  11. Musculoskeletal disorders and mental health-related issues as occupational hazards among dental practitioners in Salem city: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita D Revankar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Like in any other profession, dental surgeons are also afflicted by many occupational health hazards such as Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD and mental health related issues. Aims: To assess the distribution of MSD and mental health related issues amidst dentists in Salem City according to age, sex and number of working hours per week. Objectives: A survey was organized to check the rate of occurrence of these occupational health hazards among dental practitioners in Salem city. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among one hundred and fifty dentists practicing in Salem City in the form of questionnaire. Dentists were asked about any occupational disease that they suffered related to a musculo–skeletal pain and its location whether in the back, upper limbs or lower limbs. In addition to this,dentists were asked about mental stress that they had experienced. Results: MSD showed higher rate of prevalence compared to mental health related issues. Conclusion: The application of preventive measures is necessary, in view of the high rate of these disorders in the society of dental practitioners.

  12. Correlations between gross motor functions and health-related quality of life in Thai children with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritipsukho, Paskorn; Mahasup, Namfon

    2014-08-01

    The motor disorders of cerebral palsy (CP) may not only affect children sfunctional capacities, but also their health-related quality of life (HR QOL). The purpose ofthis study is to examine the correlation between gross motor functions andHRQOL of Thai children with spastic diplegia. Fifty children with spastic diplegia were recruited from an outpatient department of Thammasat University Hospital and Rajanukul Hospital. All participants were measured for gross motor functions by the gross motor function measure (GMFM-66) and their HRQOL by reports of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL). Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were used to determine the correlations between dimensional scores of GMFM-66 and PedsQL. Forty-five of 50 children with spastic diplegia were completely undertaken for both GMFM-66 and PedsQL mea- sures. The total HRQOL scale score had a fairly significant degree of relationship with the total GMFMscore (r = 0.48, pspastic diplegia, especially with regard to the physical aspects of the HRQOL.

  13. Self-reported physical activity: its correlates and relationship with health-related quality of life in a large cohort of colorectal cancer survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurien M Buffart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA is suggested to be an important non-pharmacologic means to improve health-related outcomes among cancer survivors. We aimed to describe the PA level, its correlates, and association with health-related quality of life (HRQoL in colorectal cancer (CRC survivors. METHODS: CRC survivors identified from the Eindhoven Cancer Registry treated between 1998 and 2007 were included. Survivors completed validated questionnaires on PA, distress, fatigue, and HRQoL. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA levels were calculated by summing the time spent on walking, bicycling, gardening and sports (≥3 MET. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to study which socio-demographic and clinical factors were associated with MVPA. Furthermore, we examined associations between MVPA and physical and mental HRQoL, and whether these associations were mediated by fatigue and distress. RESULTS: Cross-sectional data of 1371 survivors (response: 82% were analysed. Participants were 69.5 (SD 9.7 years old, 56% were male, and survival duration was 3.9 (SD 2.5 years. Participants self-reported on average 95.5 (SD 80.3 min on MVPA per day. Younger age, male sex, being employed, non-smoking, lower BMI, colon cancer (vs. rectal cancer, chemotherapy treatment and having no co-morbidities were associated with higher MVPA (p<0.05. MVPA was positively associated with physical HRQoL (regression coefficient of total association (c = 0.030; se = 0.004 after adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical factors. Fatigue mediated this association between MVPA and physical HRQoL (44% mediated. The association between MVPA and mental HRQoL was not statistically significant after adjusting for socio-demographic and cancer-related factors (c = 0.005; se = 0.004. CONCLUSION: In CRC survivors, clinical factors including the absence of co-morbidity, tumour site and chemotherapy treatment were associated with higher MVPA, in

  14. Differences between Slovak and Dutch patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft surgery regarding clinical and psychosocial predictors of physical and mental health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baz, Noha; Ondusova, Daniela; Studencan, Martin; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P; Middel, Berrie

    2018-04-01

    Differences in health-related quality of life in coronary artery disease patients and associated factors between patients of central and western European descent are rarely investigated. We aim to test differences between Dutch and Slovak health-related quality of life, whether nationality predicted health-related quality of life and if standardised beta weights of health-related quality of life determinants differ across countries. An observational multicentre study at university cardiac centres in the Netherlands and Slovakia. In 226 coronary artery disease patients, health-related quality of life was measured by the Short Form Health Survey 36, anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and type D personality was assessed with the 14-item Type D Scale. Multivariate analysis was used to explore the effect of patient characteristics on the physical and mental component summaries. Estimates of each predictor's beta value of the physical and mental component summaries in the Slovak and Dutch patient sample were separately calculated using the Cummings criterion for comparison of two independent betas. Stronger predictors of physical health-related quality of life in Slovak patients were educational level, current smoking, poor functional status, history of diabetes and amount of social support. In Dutch patients, only more symptoms of depression was a stronger predictor ( Pquality of life, stronger predictors were educational level, current smoking and amount of social support. Female gender, history of myocardial infarction and more symptoms of depression were stronger predictors in Dutch patients ( Pquality of life should be considered while planning care, follow-up, health education and rehabilitation.

  15. The Effect of Preoperative Type 2 Diabetes and Physical Fitness on Mental Health and Health-Related Quality of Life after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Cathrine L.; Lund, Michael T.; Hansen, Merethe

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the predictive value of type 2 diabetes and lack of physical activity for mental health and health-related quality of life after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Method: Forty severely obese patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were included in the GASMITO study....... Information about physiological and psychological factors was prospectively assessed at four time points, two times prior to surgery and two times after surgery. Measures included oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests, VO2max test, Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90), Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36), Body...... to physical fitness, mental distress, health-related quality of life, and weight-related body image (). The interaction between follow-up time and type 2 diabetes at baseline significantly predicted six of the thirteen psychological subscales () and, across the follow-ups, physical fitness level made modest...

  16. A canonical correlation analysis on the relationship between functional fitness and health-related quality of life in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Pak-Kwong; Zhao, Yanan; Liu, Jing-Dong; Quach, Binh

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between the functional fitness (FF) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in older adults, and to identify the key subdimensions of FF and HRQoL influencing their overall relationship. This cross-sectional study was performed among 851 independent community members (65-84 years; men=402). The Senior Fitness Test and the Short Form 36 Health Survey were used to measure FF and HRQoL, respectively. A canonical correlation analysis was conducted using seven fitness variables as predictors of eight HRQoL variables to examine the relationship between FF and HRQoL. The overall FF was positively correlated with the overall HRQoL in both men (canonical correlation=0.350) and women (canonical correlation=0.456). The up-and-go and 2-min step contributed the most to FF, and physical functioning contributed the most to HRQOL among men. Conversely, the up-and-go and 30-s chair stand contributed the most to FF, and physical functioning contributed the most to HRQoL in women. There were positive and moderate relationships between overall FF and overall HRQOL in older adults. The FF has a significant influence on HRQoL, particularly physical functioning. The main FF components influencing the relationship between FF and HRQoL in men are balance and agility and aerobic endurance, whereas in women they are balance and agility and lower extremity muscle strength. Results from this study facilitate comprehensively understanding the relationship between FF and HRQoL, and generating critical insight into HRQoL improvement from the perspective of FF enhancement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Problem drinking by race and nativity: what is learned from social structural and mental health-related data of US-born and immigrant respondents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Celia C; Howell, Rebecca J; Cheng, Tyrone C

    2012-11-01

     Although heavy drinking is considered a health risk, research demonstrates that some adults turn to alcohol in an effort to manage disabling stress or mental health problems. Race and nativity may be associated with such decisions to "self-medicate" with alcohol. This study identified and compared links between problem drinking and social structural and mental health-related factors for four race-nativity groups.  Using data from the 2009 National Health Interview Survey, the final sample comprised 7,905 US-born Whites, 390 foreign-born Whites, 2,110 US-born Blacks, and 193 foreign-born Blacks. Investigated were the social structural variables of demographic factors (age, gender), socioeconomic status (employment, income, education), and social integration factors (family size, living with a partner). Mental health-related variables included chronic mental illness and access to and use of mental health services.  Overall, both types of variables were found to be associated with large-quantity drinking and frequent binging, with the strength of association varying-for some factors-by race and/or nativity. Further, the findings indicated that, in the presence of chronic mental illness, both US- and foreign-born Black Americans engaged in relatively frequent binge-drinking when health-care variables were controlled.  These results underscore the need for mental health professionals to identify co-occurring mental illness and alcohol abuse among Black clients and, where it is found, to seek the root causes of the persistent stress that tends to accompany this co-occurrence. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  18. Self-Efficacy and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Heart Failure Patients in Singapore: A Descriptive Correlational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Rajasekaram; Wang, Wenru; Koh, Karen W L; Shorey, Shefaly; Lopez, Violeta

    2017-07-01

    Heart failure (HF) accounts for 30% of all global deaths and Asians are likely to suffer from HF 10 years earlier than their Western counterparts. Low self-efficacy and poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) have been reported in patients with HF. A descriptive correlational design was adopted to investigate the associations between self-efficacy and HRQoL in 91 patients with HF in Singapore. Patients with HF demonstrated moderately good self-efficacy ( M = 3.05, SD = 0.61) and HRQoL ( M = 22.48, SD = 18.99). Significant differences were found between total self-efficacy scores and education levels ( p = .05), and between overall HRQoL and smoking status ( p Self-efficacy was not significantly correlated to HRQoL. Smoking status, HF classification, and self-efficacy in maintaining function predicted HRQoL. Health care professionals should assess each patient's demographics, smoking status, and clinical condition before delivering individualized education to enhance their self-efficacy and, in turn, overall HRQoL.

  19. Change in depressive symptoms and mental health-related quality of life in northeast Germany between 1997-2001 and 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Sebastian E; Schomerus, Georg; Schmidt, Carsten-Oliver; Möckel, Franz; van den Berg, Neeltje; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Völzke, Henry; Grabe, Hans J

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about changes in depression and quality of life in East Germany. We examined changes in the prevalence of lifetime and current depressive symptoms and mental health-related quality of life among adults in northeast Germany between 1997-2001 and 2008-2012. Population-based data were drawn from two repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted 11 years apart within the Study of Health of Pomerania project (Ns of 4,228 and 4,251). Assessments included screening items for lifetime depressive symptoms from the Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI), the Depression and Exhaustion Scale (DEEX), and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). Lifetime depressive symptoms rose from 13.2 to 27.8%. The increase was stronger in men than in women and in individuals aged 35-64 years. No substantial changes occurred in the overall prevalence of current depressive symptoms (DEEX) and mental health-related quality of life (SF-12). A small decrease in current depressive symptoms was observed in middle-aged men and older women and small improvements in mental health-related quality of life in young adults. Higher reporting of lifetime depressive symptoms might reflect methodological influences as well as lower stigmatization and higher awareness, while the current burden seems similar.

  20. Oral hygiene and number of oral mucosal lesion correlate with oral health-related quality of life in elderly communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Agustina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quality of life assessment mostly is based on general health. Deterioration of physiologic condition, polypharmacy and the high occurrence of chronic disease in elderly may manifest in oral cavity that can affect oral function, in turn it will affect quality of life of elderly. Purpose: This study was aimed to determine the correlation of oral health status and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL in elderly communities of Yogyakarta city. Method: Seventy three elders were subjects of this study. Data of OHRQoL and oral health status were obtained from modification of questionnaire of Dental Impact of Daily Living (DIDL Index and from intraoral examination, respectively. Intraoral examination comprised oral mucosal lesion amount, oral hygiene, DMFT index and periodontal tissue status. The data then were analyzed statistically using Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Result: The results showed that mean of DMFT index was 16.9 and 63% of subjects were found with gingivitis, most subject had moderate oral hygiene and each subject at least had two oral mucosal lesions. Mean score of quality of life was 27.2 and classified as satisfying. Oral hygiene and number of oral mucosal lesion had correlation with OHRQoL with r were -0.236 (Sig. : 0.045 and -0.288 (Sig. : 0.013, respectively. Conclusion: The study suggested that oral hygiene and number of oral mucosal lesion correlate with oral health related-quality of life in elderly communities of Yogyakarta city.Latar belakang: Penilaian kualitas hidup terutama didasarkan pada kesehatan umum. Memburuknya kondisi fisiologis, polifarmasi dan tingginya kejadian penyakit kronis pada lansia dapat termanifestasi di dalam rongga mulut sehingga dapat mempengaruhi fungsi mulut yang pada gilirannya akan mempengaruhi kualitas hidup lansia. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti hubungan antara status kesehatan mulut dan kualitas hidup berdasarkan kesehatan mulut pada masyarakat lanjut

  1. The Effect of Preoperative Type 2 Diabetes and Physical Fitness on Mental Health and Health-Related Quality of Life after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine L. Wimmelmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the predictive value of type 2 diabetes and lack of physical activity for mental health and health-related quality of life after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Method. Forty severely obese patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were included in the GASMITO study. Information about physiological and psychological factors was prospectively assessed at four time points, two times prior to surgery and two times after surgery. Measures included oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests, VO2max test, Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90, Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36, Body Image Questionnaire, and a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic factors and medical status. Results. Mean % excess weight loss was 65% (±12 at 18-month follow-up and 50% of the participants with diabetes experienced total remission. Also, significant improvements were observed with regard to physical fitness, mental distress, health-related quality of life, and weight-related body image (p<0.05. The interaction between follow-up time and type 2 diabetes at baseline significantly predicted six of the thirteen psychological subscales (p<0.05 and, across the follow-ups, physical fitness level made modest contributions to variations in mental symptoms and HRQOL but not weight-related body image. Conclusion. The results suggest that baseline difference in mental symptoms and physical HRQOL between diabetic and nondiabetic patients declines across follow-ups and resolves around the time of surgery.

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life after Bariatric Surgery and its Correlation with Glycaemic Status in Hong Kong Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Enoch; Luk, Andrea; Wong, Simon K H; So, Wing-Yee; Kong, Alice; Chow, Francis; Zhang, Yuying; Lam, Candice; Ng, Enders K W

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) following bariatric surgery and its correlation with different glycaemic status in Hong Kong Chinese adults. In 2002-2008, obese Chinese adults were recruited for bariatric surgery, undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Patients were invited to complete the Chinese Hong Kong Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) at baseline and at 1-year post operation. Sixty patients (60 % female) completed baseline and 1-year follow-up HRQOL assessments. Mean age was 38 years and mean BMI was 41.6 kg/m(2). At baseline, 30.0 % of patients had diabetes and 31.7 % prediabetes. Mean absolute weight reduction 1 year after bariatric surgery was 19.8 kg. Statistically significant improvements in SF-36 scores were demonstrated in all physical domains and in three of the four psychological domains. Greater body weight reduction was associated with greater improvements in certain physical domains postoperatively. After adjusting for co-variables, abnormal glucose tolerance was associated with greater improvements in five of the eight HRQOL domains. Bariatric surgery resulted in significant gains in HRQOL as well as significant reductions in body weight in obese Chinese adults. This study suggests that bariatric surgery offers greater HRQOL improvements in patients with prediabetes and diabetes compared with normoglycaemic individuals.

  3. Post-traumatic growth in stomach cancer survivors: Prevalence, correlates and relationship with health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Bo Yun; Lee, Young Whee; Kim, Hwasoon; Kim, Soo Hyun

    2015-06-01

    Post-traumatic growth (PTG) is defined as positive psychological changes experienced as a result of struggle with highly challenging life circumstances. Interest in PTG has increased in cancer survivorship care; however, little is known about PTG among stomach cancer survivors. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and correlates of PTG, and to identify relationships between PTG and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Cross-sectional descriptive design. In total, 122 stomach cancer survivors were recruited from one university hospital in South Korea. Measurements included the Korean version of the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy--General Population. Over half (53.3%) of the participants experienced moderate to high levels of PTG. 'Change of self-perception' was the most common growth domain, followed by 'relating to others', 'new possibilities' and 'spiritual change'. Older age, low socio-economic status (i.e. low education level and low monthly income) and lack of religion were associated with lower levels of PTG. Survivors with higher levels of PTG had better social/family well-being (P stomach cancer survivors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mental and physical health-related functioning mediates between psychological job demands and sickness absence among nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne; van Rhenen, Willem; Schaufeli, Wilmar; van der Klink, Jac; Mageroy, Nils; Moen, Bente; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Pallesen, Stale

    Aims. To investigate whether health-related functioning mediates the effect of psychological job demands on sickness absence in nurses. Background. Nurses face high job demands that can have adverse health effects resulting in sickness absence. Design. Prospective cohort study with 1-year follow-up.

  5. Mental and physical health-related functioning mediates between psychological job demands and sickness absence among nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Rhenen, van W.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Klink, van der J.J.L.; Magerøy, B.; Moen, B.; Bjorvatn, B.; Pallesen, S.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether health-related functioning mediates the effect of psychological job demands on sickness absence in nurses. Nurses face high job demands that can have adverse health effects resulting in sickness absence. Prospective cohort study with 1-year follow-up. Data for 2964 Norwegian

  6. Association between mental health-related stigma and active help-seeking: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, Nina; Panczak, Radoslaw; Groth, Nicola; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke

    2017-04-01

    Background Mental disorders create high individual and societal costs and burden, partly because help-seeking is often delayed or completely avoided. Stigma related to mental disorders or mental health services is regarded as a main reason for insufficient help-seeking. Aims To estimate the impact of four stigma types (help-seeking attitudes and personal, self and perceived public stigma) on active help-seeking in the general population. Method A systematic review of three electronic databases was followed by random effect meta-analyses according to the stigma types. Results Twenty-seven studies fulfilled eligibility criteria. Participants' own negative attitudes towards mental health help-seeking (OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.73-0.88) and their stigmatising attitudes towards people with a mental illness (OR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.69-0.98) were associated with less active help-seeking. Self-stigma showed insignificant association (OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.76-1.03), whereas perceived public stigma was not associated. Conclusions Personal attitudes towards mental illness or help-seeking are associated with active help-seeking for mental problems. Campaigns promoting help-seeking and fighting mental illness-related stigma should target these personal attitudes rather than broad public opinion. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  7. Correlation of health-related quality of life with other disease severity indices in Indian chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher DJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Seema Aziyakath Shavro1, Punitha Ezhilarasu1, Jebamani Augustine1, Joel J Bechtel2, Devasahayam J Christopher31College of Nursing, Christian Medical College, Vellore, South India; 2Pulmonologist and Critical Care Physician, Grand Junction, CO, 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Christian Medical College, Vellore, South IndiaBackground: Improvement in quality of life (QOL has become a focus for the management of incurable chronic diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This study investigates factors influencing the QOL of patients with COPD in India.Methods: Seventy-three consecutive COPD patients visiting an outpatient pulmonary clinic underwent health-related QOL (HRQOL assessment using the World Health Organization’s QOL abbreviated questionnaire and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ. Symptom severity and grade of dyspnea were estimated by the Chronic Lung Disease Severity Index (CLD and Medical Research Council assessments, and patient demographic data were collected. Spirometry and 6-minute walk tests were performed to assess lung function and functional status.Results: Patients with COPD showed significantly reduced HRQOL when measured by the World Health Organization’s QOL abbreviated questionnaire and the SGRQ. CLD estimate for severity of lung disease (P < 0.001, Medical Research Council assessment for dyspnea (P < 0.01, and duration of illness (P < 0.05 showed close correlation with HRQOL. Worsening forced expiratory volume in 1 second and 6-minute walk test results closely correlated with poorer HRQOL (P < 0.01. No association between QOL and age, quantum of smoking, education, comorbid illnesses, or occupational exposure was found.Conclusion: This study showed that Indian patients with COPD had reduced HRQOL. Longer disease duration, patient perception of disease severity, and worsening dyspnea impacted negatively on HRQOL.Keywords: quality of life, COPD, disease severity, India, questionnaire

  8. Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Correlates for Mental Illness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates for mental illness among inmates at Lusaka Central Prison, Zambia. Design: Cross sectional study. Main outcome measure: Mental illness. Results: Of the 206 inmates in Lusaka, 63.1% had current mental illness. Among the factors considered in the ...

  9. Correlation between Family APGAR scores and health-related quality of life of Filipino elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Anne T C; Manching, James; Penserga, Ester G

    2012-08-01

    This study aims to describe the clinical profile of Filipino patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and correlate their health-related quality of life (HrQoL) with perceived family support. This is a cross-sectional, analytical study of patients seen at the Philippine General Hospital Arthritis Clinic diagnosed with knee OA using the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria. Questionnaires for the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) v.3.1 and Family APGAR (Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection and Resolve) were self-administered. Pearson's correlation, analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests were applied. Ninety patients with 3 : 1 female-to-male ratio, mean age of 70.14 years qualified for the study. Mean body mass index was 23.3. Mean duration of symptoms was 5.9 years. Fifty-three considered their family to be highly functional, 28 moderately dysfunctional and nine severely dysfunctional. Analysis showed that Family APGAR is moderately and inversely correlated with pain (r = -0.3373; P = 0.0002), stiffness (r = -0.3642; P = 0.0004), function (r = -0.3646; P = 0.0004) and total WOMAC scores (r = -0.3880; P = 0.0002). Likewise, there were significant differences of total WOMAC scores in the pain, stiffness and function subscales (P = 0.0076, P = 0.0032, P = 0.0165 and P = 0.0159, respectively) between patients in highly functional and severely dysfunctional families, and between highly and moderately functional families. As Family APGAR scores increased, there was significant decrease in all WOMAC subscales. We described the clinical profile of 90 elderly patients with knee OA and the relationship of HrQoL to Family APGAR scores. This paper concludes that higher Family APGAR scores in this population correlated with better HrQoL. © 2012 The Authors International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases © 2012 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Impact of mental disorders and chronic physical conditions in health-related quality of life among primary care patients: results from an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Meza, Alejandra; Fernández, Anna; Fullana, Miquel Angel; Haro, Josep Maria; Palao, Diego; Luciano, Juan Vicente; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni

    2009-10-01

    To estimate the comorbidity of mental disorders with chronic physical conditions and to assess their independent and combined effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Face-to-face cross-sectional survey of adult attendants to public primary care (PC) centres from Catalonia (Spain). A total of 3,815 out of 5,402 selected patients provided data for this study. We report frequency of chronic physical conditions among participants with mental disorders and the contribution of each mental disorder and chronic physical condition to HRQOL. Chronic pain is the most frequent condition among those with mental disorders (74.54%). The effect of chronic physical conditions on HRQOL is rather minor when compared to the effect of mental disorders (especially mood disorders). However, chronic pain plays an important role in HRQOL loss. Mood disorders and chronic pain negatively affect HRQOL of PC patients. Especial efforts should be made to detect and treat mental disorders and chronic pain at this level.

  11. Gender differences in the impact of mental disorders and chronic physical conditions on health-related quality of life among non-demented primary care elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladón, Luisa; Rubio-Valera, Maria; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Palao, Diego J; Fernández, Ana

    2016-06-01

    This paper aims to estimate the comorbidity of mental disorders and chronic physical conditions and to describe the impact of these conditions on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a sample of older primary care (PC) attendees by gender. Cross-sectional survey, conducted in 77 PC centres in Catalonia (Spain) on 1192 patients over 65 years old. Using face-to-face interviews, we assessed HRQoL (SF-12), mental disorders (SCID and MINI structured clinical interviews), chronic physical conditions (checklist), and disability (Sheehan disability scale). We used multivariate quantile regressions to model which factors were associated with the physical component summary-short form 12 and mental component summary-short form 12. The most frequent comorbidity in both men and women was mood disorder with chronic pain and arthrosis. Mental disorders mainly affected 'mental' QoL, while physical disorders affected 'physical' QoL. Mental disorders had a greater impact on HRQoL than chronic physical conditions, with mood and adjustment disorders being the most disabling conditions. There were some gender differences in the impact of mental and chronic physical conditions on HRQoL. Anxiety disorders and pain had an impact on HRQoL but only in women. Respiratory diseases had an effect on the MCS in women, but only affected the PCS in men. Mood and adjustment disorders had the greatest impact on HRQoL. The impact profile of mental and chronic physical conditions differs between genders. Our results reinforce the need for screening for mental disorders (mainly depression) in older patients in PC.

  12. Correlation of clinical and neurophysiological findings with health related quality of life in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukojević Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Diabetic polyneuropathy is defined as the presence of clinical or subclinical symptoms and/or signs of peripheral nerve damage in patients with diabetes mellitus in the absence of the other causes of peripheral neuropathy. The aim of this study was to assess healthrelated quality of life (HRQoL in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy and its correlation with clinical and neurophysiological findings. Methods. This study comprised 60 patients with distal, symmetric, sensorimotor diabetic polyneuropathy and type 2 diabetes mellitus. For evaluation of clinical findings the following scales were used: Medical Research Council strenth score (MRC sum score, Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT disability scale (arm disability and leg disability scales, INCAT sensory sum score, Hamilton depression and anxiety rating scales. Nerve conduction study (NCS was performed on the motor part of the median and peroneal nerves, the sensory part of the median nerve and sural nerve. All the patients completed the Serbian version of the SF-36 questionnaire as a measure of HRQoL. Results. Our results showed mild to moderate QoL impairment in the patients with diabetic polyneuropathy with no difference in physical and mental composite scores (p > 0.05. The age of the patients, mean MRC sum score, arm disability scale score, leg disability scale score and mean INCAT sensory sum score correlated with scores in the SF-36 questionnaire (p < 0.01. The patients with higher scores of anxiety and depression had significantly worse health perception for all QoL domains, for both composite scores and for the total SF-36 score (p < 0.01. Both motor and sensory NCS parameters of the median nerve showed significant correlations with QoL scores (p < 0.05. Conclusion. Our results showed mild to moderate QoL impairment in the patients with diabetic polyneuropathy. HRQoL significantly correlated with the age of the patients, muscle strength, disability

  13. Impact of health literacy on depressive symptoms and mental health-related: quality of life among adults with addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Alisa; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Cheng, Debbie M; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine; Caruso, Christine; Saitz, Richard; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2006-08-01

    Health literacy has been linked to health status in a variety of chronic diseases. However, evidence for a relationship between health literacy and mental health outcomes is sparse. We hypothesized that low literacy would be associated with higher addiction severity, higher levels of depressive symptoms, and worse mental health functioning compared with those with higher literacy in adults with alcohol and drug dependence. The association of literacy with multiple mental health outcomes was assessed using multivariable analyses. Measurement instruments included the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale, the Mental Component Summary scale of the Short Form Health Survey, and the Addiction Severity Index for drug and alcohol addiction. Subjects included 380 adults recruited during detoxification treatment and followed prospectively at 6-month intervals for 2 years. Based on the REALM, subjects were classified as having either low ( or = 9th grade) literacy levels. In longitudinal analyses, low literacy was associated with more depressive symptoms. The adjusted mean difference in CES-D scores between low and high literacy levels was 4 (Paddiction severity. In people with alcohol and drug dependence, low literacy is associated with worse depressive symptoms. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between literacy and mental health outcomes should be explored to inform future intervention efforts.

  14. Predicting health-related quality of life in people living with HIV in Nepal: mental health disorders and substance use determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Khem N; Sharma, Vidya D; Shibanuma, Akira; Pokhrel, Kalpana G; Mlunde, Linda B; Jimba, Masamine

    2017-09-01

    HIV-positive people often experience mental health disorders and engage in substance use. Such conditions tend to impair their health-related quality of life (QOL). Evidence, however, is limited about the influence of mental health disorders and substance use on QOL by gender. Also, little is known about the influences of anxiety and high levels of stress on QOL. We recruited 682 HIV-positive people in Nepal and measured their depression, anxiety, stress levels, substance use, and QOL. Multiple linear regressions assessed the association of mental health disorders and substance use with QOL. Presence of depressive symptoms was negatively associated with all domains of QOL including the physical (men: β = -0.68, p = 0.037; women: β = -1.37, p mental health disorders and substance use had negative associations with QOL. Attention should be given to addressing the mental health care needs of HIV-positive people to improve their QOL.

  15. Examining the relationship between health-related need and the receipt of care by participants experiencing homelessness and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Lauren B; Patterson, Michelle L; Moniruzzaman, Akm; McCandless, Lawrence C; Somers, Julian M

    2014-09-18

    People experiencing homelessness and mental illness face multiple barriers to care. The goal of this study was to examine the association between health service use and indicators of need among individuals experiencing homelessness and mental illness in Vancouver, Canada. We hypothesized that those with more severe mental illness would access greater levels of primary and specialist health services than those with less severe mental illness. Participants met criteria for homelessness and current mental disorder using standardized criteria (n = 497). Interviews assessed current health status and involvement with a variety of health services including specialist, general practice, and emergency services. The 80th percentile was used to differentiate 'low health service use' and 'high health service use'. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we analyzed associations between predisposing, enabling and need-related factors with levels of primary and specialist health service use. Twenty-one percent of participants had high primary care use, and 12% had high use of specialist services. Factors significantly (p ≤ 0.05) associated with high primary care use were: multiple physical illnesses [AOR 2.74 (1.12, 6.70]; poor general health [AOR 1.68 (1.01, 2.81)]; having a regular family physician [AOR 2.27 (1.27, 4.07)]; and negative social relationships [AOR 1.74 (1.01, 2.99)]. Conversely, having a more severe mental disorder (e.g. psychotic disorder) was significantly associated with lower odds of high service use [AOR 0.59 (0.35, 0.97)]. For specialist care, recent history of psychiatric hospitalization [AOR 2.53 (1.35, 4.75)] and major depressive episode [AOR 1.98 (1.11, 3.56)] were associated with high use, while having a blood borne infectious disease (i.e., HIV, HCV, HBV) was associated with lower odds of high service use. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found that individuals with greater assessed need, including more severe mental disorders, and

  16. Differences in Health-related Quality of Life and Mental Health by Living Arrangement among Korean Elderly in the KNHANES 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yeunhee; Chung, Haekyung; Kim, Yoonjung

    2017-11-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between types of living arrangements, quality of life, and mental health of the Korean elderly. We used secondary data analysis from the data of 4248 elderly people aged 65 yr or older that completed the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012). Data concerning participants' demographic characteristics, living arrangements, quality of life, and mental health were used. Data were analyzed using the SAS survey procedure. The living arrangements were as follows: living alone=18.3%, living with a spouse only =44.5%, living with family without a spouse =13.4%, and living with family including a spouse=23.8%. Mobility, self-care, usual activity, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression significantly differed by living arrangement. In the final model corrected for covariance, for the elderly living with their families without a spouse compared to the elderly living with a spouse only, the odds ratios were the following: stress =1.40 (95% CI: 1.03-1.91), depression=1.48 (95% CI: 1.07-2.04), and suicidal ideation=1.48 (95% CI: 1.10-2.00). The odds ratio of suicidal ideation of elderly living alone compared to the elderly living with a spouse only was 1.32 (95% CI: 1.01-1.72). Finally, the elderly living with family without a spouse or living alone had an increased risk of stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. In addition, they had decreased health-related quality of life. Health-related quality of life and mental health differ by living arrangement in elderly adults. Therefore, interventions to improve quality of life and mental health for the elderly who are living without a spouse are necessary.

  17. Comparing dementia caregivers and healthy controls in mental health and health related quality of life in Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenna Posner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de que los cuidadores de personas con demencia están en riesgo de sufrir estrés, depresión y múltiples consecuencias negativas para la salud, en América Latina se han realizado pocos estudios que hayan investigado el alcance de estos problemas. El propósito de este estudio fue comparar la salud mental y la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS de un grupo de cuidadores de personas con demencia con un grupo de personas sanas de Cali (Colombia. Noventa cuidadores de personas con demencia y 51 personas sanas completaron una serie de cuestionarios que medía depresión, satisfacción con la vida, estrés y CVRS. A pesar de que se planteó la hipótesis de que los cuidadores de personas con demencia obtendrían niveles más bajos de salud mental y CVRS en comparación con el grupo de personas sanas, los cuidadores sólo reportaron mayores índices de depresión. Estos resultados sugieren que los cuidadores de demencia de esta región, a pesar tener acceso a los servicios de salud, necesitan servicios de salud mental y otros recursos de cuidado. Este tipo de ayudas e intervenciones probablemente ayudarían a mejorar su salud mental y la calidad de cuidado que pueden ofrecer a las personas que sufren demencia.

  18. Comparing dementia caregivers and healthy controls in mental health and health related quality of life in Cali, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Brenna Posner; Megan Sutter; Paul B. Perrin; Guillermo Ramirez Hoyos; Jacqueline Arabia Buraye; Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla

    2015-01-01

    A pesar de que los cuidadores de personas con demencia están en riesgo de sufrir estrés, depresión y múltiples consecuencias negativas para la salud, en América Latina se han realizado pocos estudios que hayan investigado el alcance de estos problemas. El propósito de este estudio fue comparar la salud mental y la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS) de un grupo de cuidadores de personas con demencia con un grupo de personas sanas de Cali (Colombia). Noventa cuidadores de personas ...

  19. Prevalence And Correlates Of Mental Distress Among Regular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student integration in Universities is usually difficult and involves many factors which are potentially stressing. Objective: To assess the prevalence of mental distress (Common mental disorders) among regular undergraduate students of Hawassa University, and to study its correlates Method: This cross sectional study was ...

  20. Associations of hair cortisol concentration with self-reported measures of stress and mental health-related factors in a pooled database of diverse community samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Samantha; Tremblay, Paul F; Flynn, Andrea; Russell, Evan; Kennedy, James; Rehm, Jürgen; Van Uum, Stan; Koren, Gideon; Graham, Kathryn

    2014-07-01

    A pooled database from diverse community samples was used to examine the associations of hair cortisol concentration (HCC) with self-reported stress and stress-linked mental health measures, including depression, anxiety, alcohol and drug use, disability and experiences with aggression. As part of innovative research using a mobile laboratory to study community mental health, data were pooled from five sub-studies: a random sample of the general population (n = 70), people who had received treatment for a mental health and/or substance use problem (n = 78), family members of people treated for mental health and/or substance use problems (n = 49), community volunteers who sometimes felt sad or blue or thought they drank too much (n = 83) and young adults in intimate partner relationships (n = 44). All participants completed a computerized questionnaire including standard measures of perceived stress, chronic stress, depression, anxiety, hazardous drinking, tobacco use, prescription drug use, illicit drug use, disability and intimate partner aggression. HCC was significantly associated with use of antidepressants, hazardous drinking, smoking and disability after adjusting for sub-study and potential confounders (sex, body-mass index, use of glucocorticoids and hair dyed). In addition, preliminary analyses suggest a significant curvilinear relationship between HCC and perceived stress; specifically, HCC increased with higher perceived stress but decreased at the highest level of stress. Overall, HCC was associated with mental health-related variables mainly reflecting substance use or experiencing a disability. The relationship between HCC and self-reported stress is unclear and needs further research.

  1. Measuring the health-related quality of life of children with impaired mobility: examining correlation and agreement between children and parent proxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Nathan; Noyes, Jane; Harris, Nigel; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor

    2017-08-10

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the validity of proxy health-related quality of life measures in the context of paediatric mobility impairment. Accurate health-related quality of life data is essential for quality-adjusted life year calculation; a key outcome in economic evaluation. Thirteen child-parent dyads (13 children with mobility impairments, 13 parent proxies) were asked to complete a range of outcome measures (EQ-5D-Y, VAS and HUI2/3) relating to the child's health. The relationship between respondent outcomes was examined using tests of respondent type effect (Wilcoxon signed-rank), correlation (Spearman's rank-order) and agreement (Bland-Altman plots). Parent proxies significantly undervalued the health-related quality of life of their mobility-impaired children: children rated their health-related quality of life higher than their parents by proxy on all measures. The VAS had the highest overall mean score for children and proxies (79.50 [SD = 15.01] and 75.77 [SD = 14.70] respectively). Child and proxy results were significantly different (p < 0.05) for all measures besides the VAS (p = 0.138). Strong correlation and acceptable agreement were observed for equivalent child/proxy VAS and HUI measures. The EQ-5D-Y exhibited the least agreement between children and proxies. Sufficient association between child/proxy VAS and HUI measures indicated a degree of interchangeability.

  2. Effect of a Primary Care Management Intervention on Mental Health-Related Quality of Life Among Survivors of Sepsis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Konrad; Worrack, Susanne; Von Korff, Michael; Davydow, Dimitry; Brunkhorst, Frank; Ehlert, Ulrike; Pausch, Christine; Mehlhorn, Juliane; Schneider, Nico; Scherag, André; Freytag, Antje; Reinhart, Konrad; Wensing, Michel; Gensichen, Jochen

    2016-06-28

    Survivors of sepsis face long-term sequelae that diminish health-related quality of life and result in increased care needs in the primary care setting, such as medication, physiotherapy, or mental health care. To examine if a primary care-based intervention improves mental health-related quality of life. Randomized clinical trial conducted between February 2011 and December 2014, enrolling 291 patients 18 years or older who survived sepsis (including septic shock), recruited from 9 intensive care units (ICUs) across Germany. Participants were randomized to usual care (n = 143) or to a 12-month intervention (n = 148). Usual care was provided by their primary care physician (PCP) and included periodic contacts, referrals to specialists, and prescription of medication, other treatment, or both. The intervention additionally included PCP and patient training, case management provided by trained nurses, and clinical decision support for PCPs by consulting physicians. The primary outcome was change in mental health-related quality of life between ICU discharge and 6 months after ICU discharge using the Mental Component Summary (MCS) of the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 [range, 0-100; higher ratings indicate lower impairment; minimal clinically important difference, 5 score points]). The mean age of the 291 patients was 61.6 years (SD, 14.4); 66.2% (n = 192) were men, and 84.4% (n = 244) required mechanical ventilation during their ICU stay (median duration of ventilation, 12 days [range, 0-134]). At 6 and 12 months after ICU discharge, 75.3% (n = 219 [112 intervention, 107 control]) and 69.4% (n = 202 [107 intervention, 95 control]), respectively, completed follow-up. Overall mortality was 13.7% at 6 months (40 deaths [21 intervention, 19 control]) and 18.2% at 12 months (53 deaths [27 intervention, 26 control]). Among patients in the intervention group, 104 (70.3%) received the intervention at high levels of integrity. There was no

  3. Health-Related Quality of Life, Mental Health and Psychotherapeutic Considerations for Women Diagnosed with a Disorder of Sexual Development: Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey M. Brooks

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQL and mental health outcomes for women diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, a disorder of sex development. Though recommendations for therapists exist, no research has empirically investigated women's experiences in therapy or their recommendations for therapy. Thus the purpose of the study was to investigate HRQL, mental health concerns of women with CAH, and patients' recommendations for therapists. A qualitative methodology, consensual qualitative research, was used to answer these questions. Eight women with CAH participated in the study. Results from their interviews revealed six domains: physical functioning, psychological functioning, interpersonal processes and relationships, healthcare experiences of women with CAH, recommendations for health care professionals, and systemic considerations. Domains were further broken down into categories with results yielding implications for both medical and mental health professionals and shedding light on issues related to normalcy, concerns both related and unrelated to CAH, sex, and gender, and highlighting effective supports and therapeutic interventions.

  4. The relationship among mental health status (GHQ-12), health related quality of life (EQ-5D) and health-state utilities in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro; Ramallo-Fariña, Yolanda; Trujillo-Martín, Maria del Mar; Muñoz-Navarro, Sergio Raul; Perestelo-Perez, Lilisbeth; de las Cuevas-Castresana, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    To assess the relationship between mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in the general population, and to map GHQ-12 as a screening test for population psychological distress to a generic health state measure (EQ-5D) in order to estimate health state values and allow deriving quality-adjusted life years. Relationship between mental health and HRQL was examined from the 2004 Canary Islands' Health Survey. Participants were classified as probable psychiatric cases according to GHQ-12. HRQL was measured by the EQ-5D index. Multivariate lineal regression analysis was used to examine the association between mental health and HRQL adjusting by socio-demographic variables and comorbidities. A multivariate regression model was built from EQ-5D to estimate health states values using GHQ-12 as exposure. EQ-5D index scores decreased as the GHQ-12 scores increased. Clinical and socio-demographic factors influenced HRQL without changing the overall trend for this negative relationship. The regression equation explained 43% of the variance. For estimation of utility scores, the model showed a high predictive capacity, with a mean forecast errors of 16%. HRQL progressively decreased when the probability of being a psychiatric case increased. Findings enable health state values to be derived from GHQ-12 scores for populations where utilities has not or cannot be measured directly.

  5. A Disproportionate Burden of Care: Gender Differences in Mental Health, Health-Related Quality of Life, and Social Support in Mexican Multiple Sclerosis Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Perrin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS rates in Latin America are increasing, and caregivers there experience reduced mental and physical health. Based on rigid gender roles in Latin America, women more often assume caregiving duties, yet the differential impact on women of these duties is unknown. Methods. This study examined gender differences in mental health (Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Zarit Burden Inventory, health-related quality of life (HRQOL; Short Form-36, and social support (Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12 in 81 (66.7% women Mexican MS caregivers. Results. As compared to men caregivers, women had lower mental health (p=0.006, HRQOL (p<0.001, and social support (p<0.001. This was partially explained by women caregivers providing care for nearly twice as many hours/week as men (79.28 versus 48.48, p=0.018 and for nearly three times as many months (66.31 versus 24.30, p=0.002. Conclusions. Because gender roles in Latin America influence women to assume more substantial caregiving duties, MS caregiver interventions in Latin America—particularly for women caregivers—should address the influence of gender-role conformity on care and psychosocial functioning.

  6. Evaluation of health-related quality-of-life and dyspnea scales in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Correlation with pulmonary function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanakis, Nikolaos; Samiou, Maria; Lambiri, Irini; Antoniou, Katerina; Siafakas, Nikolaos; Bouros, Demosthenes

    2005-04-01

    BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has a profound impact on the functional status of patients. We sought to determine whether the health-related quality of life is affected in patients with IPF. METHODS: A total of 25 patients with IPF (aged 41-72 years) and 30 healthy subjects were evaluated in a cross-sectional study. All subjects were asked to complete three dyspnea scales-the Borg (BORG), the oxygen-cost diagram (OCD) and the modified MRC questionnaire-as well as a number of health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) questionnaires, i.e., the Saint-George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), the Quality of Well-Being (QWB) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire (HAD). Pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gas measurements at rest and during exercise, chest radiographs and the duration of disease were used for correlation. RESULTS: The mean total values of all of the scales used were near the lower best values of each scale in IPF patients and were significantly different from values in the control group. Lung volumes (FVC and TLC) correlated significantly with the SGRQ. All dyspnea scales (BORG, OCD and MRC) showed a significant correlation with diffusing capacity and blood oxygenation at rest and during exercise. The duration of the disease correlated with all dyspnea scales used and with the SGRQ and HAD Questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that dyspnea scales and the SGRQ are sensitive tools for assessing health-related quality of life in patients with IPF.

  7. Sleep Patterns and Mental Health Correlates in US Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jihui; Paksarian, Diana; Lamers, Femke; Hickie, Ian B; He, Jianping; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2017-03-01

    To investigate systematically the associations of sleep patterns with a range of mental disorders and other outcomes among a nationally representative sample of US adolescents. Using the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 10 123 US adolescents 13-18 years of age, we assessed associations between adolescent-reported sleep patterns (tertiles of weeknight bedtime, weeknight sleep duration, weekend bedtime delay, and weekend oversleep) and past-year mental disorders based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, smoking, injury, suicidality, and perceived mental and physical health, assessed via direct diagnostic interview. The average weeknight bedtime was at 22:37 and sleep duration was 7.72 hours. Average weekend bedtime delay was 1.81 hours and average weekend oversleep was 1.17 hours. Later weeknight bedtime, shorter weeknight sleep duration, greater weekend bedtime delay, and both short and long periods of weekend oversleep were associated with increased odds of mood, anxiety, substance use, and behavioral disorders, as well as suicidality, tobacco smoking, and poor perceived mental and physical health. ORs ranged from 1.27 to 2.15. The only outcomes not associated with any sleep patterns were past-year injury and eating disorder. Suboptimal sleep patterns were associated with an array of mental disorders and other health-related outcomes among adolescents. Abnormal sleep patterns may serve as markers of prodromal or untreated mental disorders among adolescents, and may provide opportunities for prevention and intervention in mental disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Correlation between health literacy and health-related quality of life in patients with hypertension, in Tehran, Iran, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Ahmad Johari; Naderiravesh, Nadereh; Bayat, Zahra Safavi; Shakeri, Nezhat; Matbouei, Mahsa

    2017-11-01

    Hypertension is considered an important public health problem in developed and developing countries. This disease is closely associated with the quality of life of patients, and it seems that health literacy plays a role in this regard. Due to lack of information on the role of health literacy on the quality of life in patients with hypertension, this study has aimed to determine the correlation between health literacy and health-related quality of life in patients with hypertension. This study is cross-sectional. The sample consisted of 400 patients with hypertension who were enrolled if available. To collect data, a demographic questionnaire (SF-36), Short Form Health Survey, and Health Literacy for Iranian Adults (HELIA) Inventory were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 21 for descriptive and inferential statistics (e.g., mean, standard deviation, t-test, and Pearson correlation coefficient). The mean and standard deviation scores of health literacy and health-related quality of life were, respectively, 68.66 (±13.56) and 52.94 (±15.20). There was positive and significant correlation between health literacy and health-related quality of life (p<0.01, r=0.30). According to research findings, there was a significant positive correlation between health literacy and health-related quality of life. Given the importance of health literacy in the quality of life in patients with hypertension, it seems essential that nursing officials and policymakers take steps to promote patients' health and quality of life by using training programs appropriate for the patients' health literacy level.

  9. Parental mental health moderates the efficacy of exercise training on health-related quality of life in adolescents with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulfer, Karolijn; Duppen, Nienke; Van Dijk, Arie P J; Kuipers, Irene M; Van Domburg, Ron T; Verhulst, Frank C; Van der Ende, Jan; Helbing, Willem A; Utens, Elisabeth M W J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the moderating influence of parental variables on changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents with Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) or a Fontan circulation after participation in standardized exercise training. A multicenter randomized controlled trail in which 56 patients, aged 10-15, were randomly allocated (stratified by age, gender, and congenital heart disease) to a 12-week period with either: (a) 3 times per week standardized exercise training or (b) care-as-usual (randomization ratio 2:1). Adolescents and their parents filled in online questionnaires at baseline and at 12-week follow-up. In this randomized controlled trail, primary analyses involved influence of parental mental health and parental social support for exercise on changes in the TNO/AZL Child Quality of Life Questionnaire Child Form at follow-up. Secondary analyses concerned comparing levels of parental characteristics with normative data. Compared with controls, adolescents in the exercise group reported a decrease in social functioning when their parents had more anxiety/insomnia or severe depression themselves. Adolescents also reported a decrease in social functioning when their parents showed poorer overall mental health themselves. Parents reported comparable or even better mental health compared with normative data. The effect of a standardized exercise program on HRQoL changes in adolescents with ToF or a Fontan circulation is moderated by parental mental health, more specifically by parental anxiety/insomnia and severe depression. The trial registration number of this article is NTR2731 ( www.trialregister.nl ).

  10. Clinical, laboratory and health-related quality of life correlates of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Responder Index response: a post hoc analysis of the phase 3 belimumab trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furie, Richard; Petri, Michelle A; Strand, Vibeke; Gladman, Dafna D; Zhong, Z John; Freimuth, William W

    2014-01-01

    Correlates of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) Responder Index (SRI) response with clinical trial end points were examined using pooled data from the Study of Belimumab in Subjects with SLE (BLISS) trials (N=1684). Changes in clinical, laboratory and health-related quality of life measures from baseline at 52 weeks were compared between SRI responders (n=761) and non-responders (n=923). More SRI responders than non-responders had ≥4-point (100% vs 3.8%) and ≥7-point (40.3% vs 1.3%) Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment-Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index reductions, no new British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) A and ≤1 new B scores (91.9% vs 35.9%), and a 25% reduction in corticosteroid dose decrease of 25% from >7.5 mg/d to ≤7.5 mg/d (25.5% vs 13.9%), and fewer had a corticosteroid increase from ≤7.5 mg/d to >7.5 mg/d (4.1% vs 21.3%; all p<0.001). More responders than non-responders had improved organ domains: Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment-Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (mean 1.45 vs 0.40), BILAG (2.00 vs 0.39), and greater improvement in Physician's Global Assessment (all p<0.001). Risks for developing any SLE flare or severe flare were reduced in responders by 42% and 87%, respectively (p<0.001). Responders reported greater improvements in Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form version 2 Physical and Mental Components and all domain scores, and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue score compared with non-responders (all p<0.001). Overall, SRI response in patients with active, autoantibody-positive SLE was associated with improvements in clinical, laboratory and patient-reported outcome measures, indicating that SRI response was associated with a global benefit. NCT00424476; NCT00410384.

  11. Are generic and disease-specific health related quality of life correlated? The case of chronic lung disease due to sulfur mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the two most commonly used generic and disease specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL measures in patients with chronic lung disease due to SM: Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Item (SF-36 and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ.
    • METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of Iranian Chemical Warfare Victims Health Assessment Study (ICWVHAS during October 2007 in Isfahan, Iran. In that survey, conducted in an outpatient setting, 292 patients with chronic lung disease due to SM were selected from all provinces in Iran. The total score and sub scores of correlations of SGRQ and SF-36 were assessed. Correlation of quality-of-life scores were evaluated using Pearson’s coefficient.
    • RESULTS: Samples were 276 patients who were selected for our analysis. No significant correlation was found between the total score or sub scores of SF-36 and the total score or sub scores of SGRQ (p > 0.05.
    • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic lung disease due to SM, the SF-36 and SGRQ assess different aspects of HRQoL. Therefore applying both of them together, at least in the research setting is suggested.
    • KEYWORDS: Chronic Lung Disease, Health Related Quality of Life, Generic Health Related Quality of Life, Disease Specific Health Related Quality of Life, Sulfur Mustard.

  12. The effect of parental mental health on proxy reports of health-related quality of life in children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panepinto, Julie A; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Pajewski, Nicholas M

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate factors that influence agreement between parent-proxy and child self-report of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in sickle cell disease. We hypothesized that the mental health of the parent, parental HRQL and child characteristics would affect agreement. In a cross-sectional study of children with sickle cell disease, HRQL of the child and the parent's HRQL and mental health were assessed. The effect of parent and child characteristics on agreement between parent-proxy and child self-report of HRQL were determined. Rates of agreement between parent-proxy and child self-report of HRQL ranged between 42% and 49%. Parents with increased symptoms of distress had an increased odds of reporting a worse physical (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.12) and psychosocial HRQL (OR 1.10) compared to the child's self-report. Severe sickle cell disease was associated with an increased odds of the parent reporting the child's physical HRQL was worse, (OR 4.68) compared to the child's self-report. Greater symptoms of distress in the parent are associated with worse parent-proxy report of the child's HRQL. Severe sickle cell disease is associated with greater disagreement between parent-proxy and child self-report of HRQL. These findings broaden our understanding of factors that influence proxy-reporting of a child's HRQL. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Chronic Pain After Stroke: A Hospital-Based Study of Its Profile and Correlation with Health-Related Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Chronic pain is one of the most troublesome sequelae of stroke. The correlation between post-stroke pain and patients’ quality of life has not been extensively studied. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate certain profiles of post-stroke chronic pain and evaluate its correlation with health-related quality of life. Methods The study involved 118 participants with stroke comprising 72 (61.0% males and 46 (39.0% females. A convenience sampling technique was used to recruit the subjects for the study. Socio-demographic data of the participants were taken. Data on chronic pain and health-related quality of life (HRQoL were collected using the brief pain inventory (BPI and short form health survey (SF-36, respectively. Independent t-test was used to compare HRQoL between participants with and without chronic pain. The correlation of chronic pain with HRQoL was investigated using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. The level of significance was P ≤ 0.05. Results Chronic pain was reported by 88 (72% out of the 118 participants. Musculoskeletal pain was the most common type of pain. The upper limb was the most reported site of pain (63.6%. Participants with chronic pain had poorer HRQoL than those without chronic pain (P = 0.001. There were significant correlations between chronic pain and all domains of HRQoL (P < 0.05 with r values ranging from 0.181 to 0.309. Conclusions The study showed that the majority of patients with stroke had chronic pain. The pain had a significant impact on all domains of health-related quality of life among the patients.

  14. What is the impact of mental health-related stigma on help-seeking? A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, S; Schauman, O; Graham, T; Maggioni, F; Evans-Lacko, S; Bezborodovs, N; Morgan, C; Rüsch, N; Brown, J S L; Thornicroft, G

    2015-01-01

    Individuals often avoid or delay seeking professional help for mental health problems. Stigma may be a key deterrent to help-seeking but this has not been reviewed systematically. Our systematic review addressed the overarching question: What is the impact of mental health-related stigma on help-seeking for mental health problems? Subquestions were: (a) What is the size and direction of any association between stigma and help-seeking? (b) To what extent is stigma identified as a barrier to help-seeking? (c) What processes underlie the relationship between stigma and help-seeking? (d) Are there population groups for which stigma disproportionately deters help-seeking? Five electronic databases were searched from 1980 to 2011 and references of reviews checked. A meta-synthesis of quantitative and qualitative studies, comprising three parallel narrative syntheses and subgroup analyses, was conducted. The review identified 144 studies with 90,189 participants meeting inclusion criteria. The median association between stigma and help-seeking was d = - 0.27, with internalized and treatment stigma being most often associated with reduced help-seeking. Stigma was the fourth highest ranked barrier to help-seeking, with disclosure concerns the most commonly reported stigma barrier. A detailed conceptual model was derived that describes the processes contributing to, and counteracting, the deterrent effect of stigma on help-seeking. Ethnic minorities, youth, men and those in military and health professions were disproportionately deterred by stigma. Stigma has a small- to moderate-sized negative effect on help-seeking. Review findings can be used to help inform the design of interventions to increase help-seeking.

  15. Health-related quality of life 6 months after burns among hospitalized patients: Predictive importance of mental disorders and burn severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmu, Raimo; Partonen, Timo; Suominen, Kirsi; Saarni, Samuli I; Vuola, Jyrki; Isometsä, Erkki

    2015-06-01

    Major burns are likely to have a strong impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We investigated the level of and predictors for quality of life at 6 months after acute burn. Consecutive acute adult burn patients (n=107) admitted to the Helsinki Burn Centre were examined with a structured diagnostic interview (SCID) at baseline, and 92 patients (86%) were re-examined at 6 months after injury. During follow-up 55% (51/92) suffered from at least one mental disorder. The mean %TBSA was 9. TBSA of men did not differ from that of women. Three validated instruments (RAND-36, EQ-5, 15D) were used to evaluate the quality of life at 6 months. All the measures (RAND-36, EQ-5, 15D) consistently indicated mostly normal HRQoL at 6 months after burn. In the multivariate linear regression model, %TBSA predicted HRQoL in one dimension (role limitations caused by physical health problems, p=0.039) of RAND-36. In contrast, mental disorders overall and particularly major depressive disorder (MDD) during follow-up (p-values of 0.001-0.002) predicted poor HRQoL in all dimensions of RAND-36. HRQoL of women was worse than that of men. Self-perceived HRQoL among acute burn patients at 6 months after injury seems to be mostly as good as in general population studies in Finland. The high standard of acute treatment and the inclusion of small burns (%TBSAburn itself on HRQoL. Mental disorders strongly predicted HRQoL at 6 months. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of posttraumatic symptoms and comorbid mental disorders on the health-related quality of life in treatment-seeking PTSD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagotto, Luiz Felipe; Mendlowicz, Mauro Vitor; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Luz, Mariana Pires; Araujo, Alexandre Xavier; Berger, William

    2015-04-01

    There is a dearth of literature dealing with the impact of the severity of posttraumatic symptoms and of comorbid mental disorders on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of victims of civilian violence with a primary diagnosis of PTSD. To investigate the influence of the severity of posttraumatic symptoms and of presence of comorbid mental disorders on the HRQOL of treatment-seeking outpatients with PTSD. A sample of 65 PTSD patients was recruited in a specialized outpatient clinic. The volunteers had the diagnoses of PTSD and of comorbid mental disorders established with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). The severity of posttraumatic, depression and anxiety symptoms was measured with the PCL-C, BDI and BAI, respectively. HRQOL was assessed by means of the SF-36, a 36-item self-administered scale that measures eight domains of quality of life: vitality, physical functioning, bodily pain, general health perceptions, physical role functioning, emotional role functioning, social role functioning, and mental health. Multiple linear regression models were fitted to investigate the relationship between the severity of posttraumatic, mood, and anxiety symptoms; the presence of specific current comorbid disorders and of psychotic symptoms, and the number of current comorbid conditions for each of the eight domains of HRQOL, after adjusting for the effect of sociodemographic characteristics. The severity of PTSD symptoms predicted worse HRQOL in all eight domains of SF-36, even after controlling for the severity of depression and anxiety symptoms, the presence of panic disorder, OCD, specific and social phobia, psychotic symptoms, and the number of comorbid disorders. The strongest negative association between PTSD symptoms severity and HRQOL was found in the Social Functioning domain. Although the inclusion of the depressive symptoms in the models led to a reduction of the magnitude of the negative association between the

  17. Yoga for improving health-related quality of life, mental health and cancer-related symptoms in women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Holger; Lauche, Romy; Klose, Petra; Lange, Silke; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav J

    2017-01-03

    Breast cancer is the cancer most frequently diagnosed in women worldwide. Even though survival rates are continually increasing, breast cancer is often associated with long-term psychological distress, chronic pain, fatigue and impaired quality of life. Yoga comprises advice for an ethical lifestyle, spiritual practice, physical activity, breathing exercises and meditation. It is a complementary therapy that is commonly recommended for breast cancer-related impairments and has been shown to improve physical and mental health in people with different cancer types. To assess effects of yoga on health-related quality of life, mental health and cancer-related symptoms among women with a diagnosis of breast cancer who are receiving active treatment or have completed treatment. We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Specialised Register, MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 1), Indexing of Indian Medical Journals (IndMED), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) search portal and Clinicaltrials.gov on 29 January 2016. We also searched reference lists of identified relevant trials or reviews, as well as conference proceedings of the International Congress on Complementary Medicine Research (ICCMR), the European Congress for Integrative Medicine (ECIM) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). We applied no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials were eligible when they (1) compared yoga interventions versus no therapy or versus any other active therapy in women with a diagnosis of non-metastatic or metastatic breast cancer, and (2) assessed at least one of the primary outcomes on patient-reported instruments, including health-related quality of life, depression, anxiety, fatigue or sleep disturbances. Two review authors independently collected data on methods and results. We expressed outcomes as standardised mean differences (SMDs

  18. Self-reported financial burden of cancer care and its effect on physical and mental health-related quality of life among US cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Hrishikesh P; Carroll, Norman V

    2016-04-15

    Cancer-related financial burden has been linked to cancer survivors (CS) forgoing/delaying medical care, skipping follow-up visits, and discontinuing medications. To the authors' knowledge, little is known regarding the effect of financial burden on the health-related quality of life of CS. The authors analyzed 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data. Financial burden was present if one of the following problems was reported: borrowed money/declared bankruptcy, worried about paying large medical bills, unable to cover the cost of medical care visits, or other financial sacrifices. The following outcomes were evaluated: Physical Component Score (PCS) and Mental Component Score (MCS) of the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12), depressed mood, psychological distress, and worry related to cancer recurrence. The authors also assessed the effect of the number of financial problems on these outcomes. Of the 19.6 million CS analyzed, 28.7% reported financial burden. Among them, the average PCS (42.3 vs 44.9) and MCS (48.1 vs 52.1) were lower for those with financial burden versus those without. In adjusted analyses, CS with financial burden had significantly lower PCS (β = -2.45), and MCS (β = -3.05), had increased odds of depressed mood (odds ratio, 1.95), and were more likely to worry about cancer recurrence (odds ratio, 3.54). Survivors reporting ≥ 3 financial problems reported statistically significant and clinically meaningful differences (≥3 points) in the mean PCS and MCS compared with survivors without financial problems. Cancer-related financial burden was associated with lower health-related quality of life, increased risk of depressed mood, and a higher frequency of worrying about cancer recurrence among CS. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  19. Mental health and health-related quality of life among adult Latino primary care patients living in the United States with previous exposure to political violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, David P; Gelberg, Lillian; Liu, Honghu; Shapiro, Martin F

    2003-08-06

    Although political violence continues in parts of Central America, South America, and Mexico, little is known about its relationship to the health of Latino immigrants living in the United States. To determine (1) rates of exposure to political violence among Latino adult primary care patients who have immigrated to the United States from Central America, South America, and Mexico and its impact on mental health and health-related quality of life and (2) frequency of disclosure of political violence to primary care clinicians. Two-stage cluster design survey of a systematic sample of Latino immigrant adults in 3 community-based primary care clinics in Los Angeles, conducted from July 2001 to February 2002. Reports of exposure to political violence in home country before immigrating to the United States and communication with clinicians about political violence; self-reported measures of health-related quality of life using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (MOS SF-36); symptoms of depression, anxiety, and alcohol disorders using the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD); and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C). A total of 638 (69%) of 919 eligible patients participated. The nonresponse rates did not differ by age, sex, recruitment sites, or clinic sessions. In weighted analyses, 54% of participants reported political violence experiences in their home countries, including 8% who reported torture. Of those exposed to political violence, 36% had symptoms of depression and 18% had symptoms of PTSD vs 20% and 8%, respectively, among those not exposed to political violence. Controlling for age, sex, country, years lived in the United States, acculturation, income, health insurance status, and recruitment site in a subsample of 512 participants (56%), those who reported political violence exposure were more likely to meet symptom criteria for PTSD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.4; 95

  20. Prevalence and correlates of internalizing mental health symptoms among CSHCN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandour, Reem M; Kogan, Michael D; Blumberg, Stephen J; Perry, Deborah F

    2010-02-01

    This study provides nationally representative prevalence estimates of internalizing mental health symptoms among children with special health care needs (CSHCN) and identifies significant covariates of these symptoms by using multivariate regression. Internalizing symptoms include feeling anxious and depressed. Data were obtained from the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, a nationally representative, parent-reported, cross-sectional survey of 40 465 CSHCN. The presence of internalizing mental health symptoms was assessed by using 2 binary items capturing whether a child had or experienced difficulty with depression, anxiety, disordered eating, or other emotional problems. The odds of experiencing internalizing symptoms were assessed by using multivariate regression, controlling for sociodemographic, health-related, and burden-related covariates. A total of 31.9% of CSHCN 3 to 17 years of age experienced internalizing mental health symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression showed internalizing symptoms to be strongly associated with female gender, older age, and frequent activity limitations, as well as externalizing mental health symptoms and conditions with behavioral components. Children with behavior problems had 6 times the odds of internalizing symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 5.95 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.30-6.69]), whereas children with autism spectrum disorder had 3 times the odds (aOR: 3.00 [95% CI: 2.39-3.77]). Increased odds of symptoms also were associated with frequent headaches (aOR: 1.76 [95% CI: 1.45-2.13]) and chronic pain (aOR: 1.46 [95% CI: 1.22-1.75]). Odds of symptoms were greater for children living in households that experienced employment changes or financial burdens resulting from the children's needs. Internalizing mental health symptoms are common among CSHCN. Findings may help caregivers focus screening and prevention efforts for high-risk groups in this heterogeneous population.

  1. Leptin level correlates with obesity and health related quality of life in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Abhishek; Kant, Surya; Tiwari, Sunita; Agarwal, Sarita; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2015-04-01

    Leptin takes part in regulation of energy balance, neuronal functions, pain and mood. It may act as intermediary marker for various components of HRQOL in patients of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. To document the correlation among leptin levels, obesity and HRQoL in OSAS patients. A tertiary care hospital based cross-sectional study was done in 224 subjects aged 18-65 years, after taking informed consent. Subjects with previous history of smoking, Liver disease, COPD, CHD, T2 DM, asthma, cancer, end stage renal disease, heart failure, any endocrine disorder including Cushing syndrome, thyroid, on systemic steroid or any continuous medication for last 6 months, on dieting or suffering from any disability condition (other than obesity and OSAS) affecting their HRQoL were excluded from the study. All subjects underwent Polysomnography. Leptin assay was done by ELISA method. Hindi version of HRQoL tool SF-36 was used to evaluate HRQoL. SPSS 20 was used to analyse data. Three groups (AHI 15) were compared. Significant differences were observed in BMI, NC, WC, WHR and ESS. Differences were not significant in sleep architecture and Leptin level. SF-36 HRQoL, scores were observed decreased with increase in severity of disease. Leptin level was found significantly correlated with "Role limitations due to physical health problems", "Social functioning", Hypopnea and obesity indices. In these subjects Obesity indices are the most important correlates of Leptin level. Oxygen desaturation indices with exception of Hypopnea and HRQoL may not be exclusively correlated to leptin levels. Copyright © 2015 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mental health correlates of past homelessness in Latinos and Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hans Y; DeVylder, Jordan E

    2014-11-01

    Mental illness and addiction are strongly associated with homelessness, yet few studies have shown how these relationships vary across ethnic categories that are underrepresented in the homeless population. This study draws from the National Latino and Asian American Survey to examine mental health and substance abuse correlates of homelessness amongst Latinos and Asians living in the United States. Clinical and institutional factors associated with homelessness varied by ethnicity. Among Latinos, alcohol abuse or dependence, conduct disorder and intermittent explosive disorder were risk factors for homelessness, while attending a religious service more than once a week was a protective factor. Among Asians, mood disorder was a risk factor as were health problems and receiving welfare in the past. Understanding ethnicity-specific correlates of homelessness may guide culturally nuanced mental health prevention and intervention efforts.

  3. The role of intimate partner violence and other health-related social factors on postpartum common mental disorders: a survey-based structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Lopes, Claudia Souza; Lobato, Gustavo

    2014-05-05

    Although studies suggest the relevance of intimate partner violence (IPV) and other health-related social characteristics as risk factors for postpartum mental health, literature lacks evidence about how these are effectively connected. This study thus aims to explore how socio-economic position, maternal age, household and marital arrangements, general stressors, alcohol misuse and illicit drug abuse, and especially psychological and physical IPV relate in a framework leading to postpartum common mental disorder (CMD). The study was carried out in five primary health care units of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and included 810 randomly selected mothers of children up to five postpartum months waiting for pediatric visits. The postulated pathways between exposures and outcome were based on literature evidence and were further examined using structural equation models. Direct pathways to postpartum CMD arose from a latent variable depicting socio-economic position, a general stressors score, and both IPV variables. Notably, the effect of psychological IPV on postpartum CMD ran partly through physical IPV. The effect of teenage pregnancy, conjugal instability and maternal burden apparently happens solely through substance use, be it alcohol misuse, illicit drug abuse or both in tandem. Moreover, the effect of the latter on CMD seems to be entirely mediated through both types of IPV. Although the theoretical model underlying the analysis still requires in-depth detailing, results of this study may have shed some light on the role of both psychological and physical IPV as part of an intricate network of events leading to postpartum CMD. Health initiatives may want to make use of this knowledge when designing preventive and intervention approaches.

  4. 1. Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Correlates for Mental Illness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    INTRODUCTION. Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Correlates for. Mental Illness Among Inmates at Lusaka Central. Prison, Zambia. 1. 2*. Mweene Tembalami Nseluke , S Siziya. 1 Clinical Care Department, Chainama Hills College Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. 2 Public Health Unit, Clinical Sciences Department, School of ...

  5. Associations between illness duration and health-related quality of life in specified mental and physical chronic health conditions: results from a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busija, Lucy; Tan, Jeretine; Sanders, Kerrie M

    2017-10-01

    We compared health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in incident (≤1 year since diagnosis), mid-term (>1-5 years since diagnosis), and long-term (>5 years since diagnosis) cases of mental and physical chronic illness with the general population and assessed the modifying effects of age and gender on the association between HRQOL and illness duration. Data from the 2007 Australian National Health and Mental Wellbeing Survey were used. HRQOL was captured by the Assessment of Quality of Life Scale 4D. Multivariable linear regression analyses compared HRQOL of individuals with different duration of illnesses with those who did not have the condition of interest. The 8841 survey respondents were aged 16-85 years (median 43 years, 50.3% female). For the overall sample, worse HRQOL was associated with incident (P = 0.049) and mid-term (P = 0.036) stroke and long-term depression (P < 0.001) and anxiety (P = 0.001). Age had moderating effect on the associations between HRQOL and duration of asthma (P < 0.001), arthritis (P = 0.001), diabetes (P = 0.004), stroke (P = 0.009), depression (P < 0.001), bipolar disorder (P < 0.001), and anxiety (P < 0.001), but not heart disease (P = 0.102). In older ages, the greatest loss in HRQOL was associated with incident asthma, depression, and bipolar disorder. In younger ages, the greatest loss in HRQOL was associated with arthritis (any duration) and incident diabetes and anxiety. Additionally, gender moderated the association between HRQOL and arthritis, with worse HRQOL among men with incident arthritis (P = 0.047). Loss of HRQOL associated with longer duration of chronic illness is most apparent in stroke and mental illness and differs between age groups.

  6. Ecological correlations of dietary food intake and mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Jordan; Fogel, Joshua; Van Voorhees, Benjamin

    2017-03-01

    This paper examines the ecological association of dietary food intake with mental health outcomes on the group level across countries. Published data from the World Mental Health Survey were used to compare lifetime prevalence of four categories of mental health disorders (anxiety disorders, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, and substance use disorders) with a country's fish/seafood and sugar/sweetener supply quantity using the Spearman rank correlation. Data were compared for 17 countries across the world. Sugar and sweetener supply quantity was significantly and positively associated with anxiety disorders (rho=0.75, p=0.001), mood disorders (rho=0.75, p=0.001), impulse control disorders (rho=0.78, p=0.001), and substance use disorders (rho=0.68, p=0.007). Fish and seafood supply quantity had no significant association with any mental health disorders. Mental health disorders represent a significant health problem around the world. Public health measures aimed at improving the quality and availability of a nation's food supply could have a significant positive impact on mental health. Further randomized studies are needed to further validate the study findings. Copyright © 2016 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Deep pain sensitivity is correlated with oral-health-related quality of life but not with prosthetic factors in complete denture wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Martins COSTA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Low pressure Pain Threshold (PPT is considered a risk factor for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD and is influenced by psychological variables. Objectives To correlate deep pain sensitivity of masticatory muscles with prosthetic factors and Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL in completely edentulous subjects. Material and Methods A total of 29 complete denture wearers were recruited. The variables were: a Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT of the masseter and temporalis; b retention, stability, and tooth wear of dentures; c Vertical Dimension of Occlusion (VDO; d Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP adapted to orofacial pain. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the Pearson Product-Moment correlation coefficient, the Spearman Rank correlation coefficient, the Point-Biserial correlation coefficient, and the Bonferroni correction (α=1% were applied to the data. Results The mean age (standard deviation of the participants was of 70.1 years (9.5 and 82% of them were females. There were no significant correlations with prosthetic factors, but significant negative correlations were found between the OHIP and the PPT of the anterior temporalis (r=-0.50, 95% CI-0.73 to 0.17, p=0.005. Discussion The deep pain sensitivity of masticatory muscles in complete dentures wearers is associated with OHRQoL, but not with prosthetic factors.

  8. Global tilt and lumbar lordosis index: two parameters correlating with health-related quality of life scores-but how do they truly impact disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissière, Louis; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Bourghli, Anouar; Vital, Jean-Marc; Pellisé, Ferran; Alanay, Ahmet; Yilgor, Caglar; Acaroglu, Emre; Perez-Grueso, Francisco Javier; Kleinstück, Frank; Obeid, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    Many radiological parameters have been reported to correlate with patient's disability including sagittal vertical axis (SVA), pelvic tilt (PT), and pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis (PI-LL). European literature reports other parameters such as lumbar lordosis index (LLI) and the global tilt (GT). If most parameters correlate with health-related quality of life scores (HRQLs), their impact on disability remains unclear. This study aimed to validate these parameters by investigating their correlation with HRQLs. It also aimed to evaluate the relationship between each of these sagittal parameters and HRQLs to fully understand the impact in adult spinal deformity management. A retrospective review of a multicenter, prospective database was carried out. The database inclusion criteria were adults (>18 years old) presenting any of the following radiographic parameters: scoliosis (Cobb ≥20°), SVA ≥5 cm, thoracic kyphosis ≥60° or PT ≥25°. All patients with complete data at baseline were included. Health-related quality of life scores, demographic variables (DVs), and radiographic parameters were collected at baseline. Differences in HRQLs among groups of each DV were assessed with analyses of variance. Correlations between radiographic variables and HRQLs were assessed using the Spearman rank correlation. Multivariate linear regression models were fitted for each of the HRQLs (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], Scoliosis Research Society-22 subtotal score, or physical component summaries) with sagittal parameters and covariants as independent variables. A pindex, past surgery, and surgical or non-surgical candidate were significant predictors of ODI score. The likelihood ratio tests for the addition of the sagittal parameters showed that SVA, GT, T1 sagittal tilt, PI-LL, and LLI were statistically significant predictors for ODI score even adjusted for covariates. The differences of R 2 values from Model 1 were 1.5% at maximum, indicating that the addition

  9. Pre-event trajectories of mental health and health-related disabilities, and post-event traumatic stress symptoms and health: A 7-wave population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Peter G; Bosmans, Mark W G; van der Meulen, Erik; Vermunt, Jeroen K

    2016-12-30

    It is unknown to what extent classes of trajectories of pre-event mental health problems (MHP) and health-related disabilities (HRD), predict post-event traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), MHP and HRD. Aim of the present 7-wave study was to assess the predictive values using a representative sample of adult Dutch (N=4052) participating in three health-surveys in November-December 2009 (T1), 2010 (T2), 2011 (T3). In total, 2988 out of 4052 also participated in trauma-surveys in April(T4), August(T5) and December(T6) 2012 and a fourth health-survey in November-December 2012 (T7). About 10% (N=314) was confronted with potentially traumatic events (PTE) in the 4 months before T4 or T5. Latent class analyses among 4052 respondents identified four classes of pre-event MHP and HRD. Series of multivariate logistic regression analyses with class membership, peri-traumatic stress, type of event, gender, age and education as predictors, showed that classes with high levels of MHP or HRD, were more at risk for high levels of PTSS at baseline and follow-ups at 4 and 8 months, than classes with low levels of MHP or HRD. These classes were very strong predictors for high levels of post-event MHP and HRD: no differences were found between non-affected and affected respondents with different levels of peri-traumatic stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Health-related quality of life and mental health indicators in adolescents with HIV compared to a community sample in the Southeastern US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sim Yin; Bradley-Klug, Kathy; Chenneville, Tiffany

    2017-02-01

    Although many studies have investigated the impact of HIV on cognitive, physical, academic, and psychosocial functioning, little is known about the self-perception of health-related quality of life (HRQOL), subjective well-being (SWB), social-emotional well-being, and psychopathology risks of adolescents with HIV. This study aimed to address gaps in the literature by exploring the psychosocial outcomes of adolescents with HIV from a strength-based assessment approach, as opposed to a traditional deficit-based approach. Specifically, we explored the relationship between HRQOL, SWB, social-emotional strengths, and psychopathology symptoms to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the physical and psychological well-being of adolescents with HIV (n = 42) compared to a community-based sample (n = 42) in the Southeastern US. Participants completed self-report measures, and data were analyzed for significant correlations, group differences between adolescents with HIV and a community-based sample, and social-emotional predictors of physical functioning and SWB. For adolescents with HIV, several HRQOL indicators were positively correlated with life satisfaction and social-emotional strengths indicators and negatively correlated with negative affect and psychopathology symptoms. Additionally, there was a significant main effect of parents' marital status on participants' perceptions of their social functioning and psychopathology symptoms. When differences in parents' marital status were controlled for, the overall mean ratings of participants' HRQOL, SWB, social-emotional strengths, and psychopathology risks did not significantly differ between groups. Furthermore, parents' marital status and self-rated empathy skills significantly predicted physical functioning of adolescents with HIV, but no significant or meaningful variables were found to predict their SWB. These findings highlight the need for further research on the use of a comprehensive assessment

  11. The impact of forced displacement in World War II on mental health disorders and health-related quality of life in late life - a German population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Simone; Braehler, Elmar; Schmidt, Silke; Glaesmer, Heide

    2013-02-01

    Long-term effects of World War II experiences affect psychological and physical health in aged adults. Forced displacement as a traumatic event is associated with increased psychological burden even after several decades. This study investigates the contribution of forced displacement as a predictor for mental health disorders and adds the aspect of health-related quality of life (QoL). A sample of 1,659 German older adults aged 60-85 years was drawn from a representative survey. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), somatoform symptoms, depressive syndromes, and health-related QoL were assessed as outcome variables. Chi-square and t-test statistics examined differences between displaced and non-displaced people. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the impact of forced displacement on mental health disorders and QoL. Displaced people reported higher levels of PTSD, depressive and somatoform symptoms, and lower levels of health-related QoL. Displacement significantly predicted PTSD and somatoform symptoms in late life, but not depressive disorders. Health-related QoL was predicted by forced displacement and socio-demographic variables. Forced displacement is associated with an elevated risk for PTSD and somatoform symptoms and lowered health-related QoL in aged adults. Its unique impact declines after including socio-demographic variables. Long-term consequences of forced displacement need further investigations and should include positive aspects in terms of resilience and protective coping strategies.

  12. An Evil Backstage Manipulator: Psychological Factors Correlated with Health-Related Quality of Life in Chinese Patients with Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (HRQoL is recommended as one of essential parameters to evaluate treatment effect and clinical outcome in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD. Recent studies reported that psychological factors might play a role in HRQoL in Western and American CD patients. Sufficient evidences in Chinese CD patients are still unavailable. This study is dedicated to investigate the correlation of various psychological factors with HRQoL in Chinese CD patients. We prospectively collected 40 active and 40 quiescent CD patients in China and found that psychological factors, especially neuroticism and anxiety, significantly correlate with and affect HRQoL in both active and quiescent CD groups. This is the first report revealing correlation between psychological factors and HRQoL in Chinese CD patients. Therefore, we assume that our results can contribute to a better understanding of etiology and tailoring of management in Chinese patients with Crohn’s disease and are beneficial to our colleagues to compare the heterogeneous characteristics of Crohn’s disease in different ethnic groups.

  13. Correlation between parameters of self-monitoring of blood glucose and the perception of health-related quality of life in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Juliana Santos; Braga, Letícia Dinis; Moreira, Rodrigo Oliveira; Kupfer, Rosane

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how different parameters of short-term glycemic control would correlate with the perception of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). A total of 50 T1D patients aged 18 to 50 years were evaluated with the questionnaires Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) scale and Diabetes Quality of Life (DQOL) measure after 30 days of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Glycemic control was evaluated using glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), mean glucose levels (MGL) in the prior month's data from SMBG (Accu-Check 360o), number of hypoglycemic episodes (glucose glucose < 50 mg/dL). After multiple linear regression, only MGL remained independently related to PAID scores. DQOL scores had a positive correlation with MGL (r = 0.45; p = 0.001), but not with HbA1c (r = 0.23; p = 0.09), GV (r = 0.20; p = 0.16), or number of hypoglycemic episodes (r = 0.06 p = 0.68). In T1D patients, MGL, but not HbA1c or number hypoglycemic episodes, was the glycemic control parameter that best correlated with short-term perception of HRQoL.

  14. Evaluation of correlation of BODE index with health-related quality of life among patients with stable COPD attending a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Samir Kumar; Basuthakur, Sumitra; Das, Sibes K; Das, Anirban; Das, Soumya; Choudhury, Sabyasachi; Datta, Samadarshi

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by progressive deterioration of respiratory function along with systemic effects which have a great impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Classification of severity of airflow limitation in COPD does not represent the clinical consequences of COPD. Hence, combined COPD assessment should be preferred. BODE index (Body mass index, Airflow obstruction, Dyspnea and Exercise capacity) has recently been proposed to provide useful prognostic information. To find out correlations between the BODE index and HRQoL, and between GOLD classification of COPD severity and HRQoL in stable COPD patients, and to compare between these two correlations. A longitudinal observational study was carried out with 114 stable COPD patients recruited over 10 months at the outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata, India. Patients were classified according to GOLD classification of severity of airflow limitation after performing spirometry. BODE index was calculated for each patient. Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) was used to assess the HRQoL. BODE scores were categorized into four quartiles, quartile one to four with scores of 0-2, 3-4, 5-6 and 7-10, respectively. Higher BODE quartiles were associated with higher total SGRQ scores and SGRQ subscale scores (symptom, activity and impact). Very strong correlations were found between BODE quartiles and total SGRQ scores (P = 0.914; P < 0.01). In contrast, GOLD classes showed moderate correlation with total SGRQ scores (P = 0.590; P < 0.01). BODE index was strongly correlated with the HRQoL in stable COPD patients and it was better than GOLD classes of COPD severity to reflect the health status in patients with stable COPD.

  15. Evaluation of correlation of BODE index with health-related quality of life among patients with stable COPD attending a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Kumar Sarkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by progressive deterioration of respiratory function along with systemic effects which have a great impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Classification of severity of airflow limitation in COPD does not represent the clinical consequences of COPD. Hence, combined COPD assessment should be preferred. BODE index (Body mass index, Airflow obstruction, Dyspnea and Exercise capacity has recently been proposed to provide useful prognostic information. Objectives: To find out correlations between the BODE index and HRQoL, and between GOLD classification of COPD severity and HRQoL in stable COPD patients, and to compare between these two correlations. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal observational study was carried out with 114 stable COPD patients recruited over 10 months at the outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata, India. Patients were classified according to GOLD classification of severity of airflow limitation after performing spirometry. BODE index was calculated for each patient. Saint George′s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ was used to assess the HRQoL. Results: BODE scores were categorized into four quartiles, quartile one to four with scores of 0-2, 3-4, 5-6 and 7-10, respectively. Higher BODE quartiles were associated with higher total SGRQ scores and SGRQ subscale scores (symptom, activity and impact. Very strong correlations were found between BODE quartiles and total SGRQ scores (P = 0.914; P < 0.01. In contrast, GOLD classes showed moderate correlation with total SGRQ scores (P = 0.590; P < 0.01. Conclusions: BODE index was strongly correlated with the HRQoL in stable COPD patients and it was better than GOLD classes of COPD severity to reflect the health status in patients with stable COPD.

  16. Impact of Health-Promoting Educational Intervention on Lifestyle (Nutrition Behaviors, Physical Activity and Mental Health) Related to Vaginal Health Among Reproductive-Aged Women With Vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsapure, Roxana; Rahimiforushani, Abbas; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Montazeri, Ali; Sadeghi, Roya; Garmarudi, Gholamreza

    2016-10-01

    Vaginitis is one of the most common diseases in reproductive-aged women (15 - 49 years of age). Side effects of vaginitis can affect other aspects of health, which could be prevented by promoting a healthy lifestyle related to vaginal health. This study aimed at determining the impact of health-promoting educational intervention on lifestyle (nutrition behaviors, physical activities, and mental health) related to vaginal health among reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. The data set was collected as part of an experimental study conducted on 350 reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. Participants were selected through a stratified two-stage clustered sampling and simple randomization from 10 attending health centers affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in five regions (North, South, East, West, and Center) of Kermanshah (a city in western Iran) in 2015. Two clinics in each region were selected; patients from the first center were chosen as the intervention group and patients from the second center made up the control group. To collect data, a questionnaire including socio-demographic and lifestyle questions was used. The questionnaire was designed and validated via the psychometric process. Educational intervention was performed over twenty sessions of 25 to 35 minutes. The intervention group was followed up with face-to-face education, a pamphlet, phone contact, and by social media. The control group continued the routine treatment without contacting the intervention group. Data were collected from both groups before the intervention and six months after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the SPSS-20 package, using the independent t-test, paired t-test, chi-square test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test. The confidence interval was 95% and P lifestyle related to vaginal health in the intervention group (28.48 ± 0.38) and control group (23.65 ± 1.23) was significant (P lifestyle in the intervention group (P lifestyle scores

  17. Socio-demographic, health-related, and individual correlates of diagnostic self-testing by lay people: Results from a representative survey in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Kuecuekbalaban

    Full Text Available A broad range of self-tests (testing for e.g. HIV, cancer, hepatitis B/C have become available and can be conducted by lay consumers without the help of a health professional. The aims of this study were to (a investigate the prevalence of self-testing, (b identify the most frequently used self-tests, and (c explore the associations between socio-demographic, health-related and individual factors with self-testing.A face-to-face plus paper-pencil cross-sectional survey was conducted. The sample consisted of 2.527 respondents who were representative of the German population in terms of the age, sex, and residence. Basic descriptive statistics and univariate logistic regression analyses were performed.8.5% of the participants reported having used one or more self-tests in the past, totalling 363 self-tests, with a mean of 1.7 (min. = 1, max. = 6. The three self-tests most frequently indicated were for detecting diabetes, bowel cancer, and allergies. Self-testers were older (Nagelkerke R2 = .006, p < .01, had a higher BMI (Nagelkerke R2 = .013, p < .001 and displayed more physical and mental fatigue (Nagelkerke R2 = .031, p < .001 than non-testers. Self-testers also reported higher global life satisfaction values (Nagelkerke R2 = .008, p < .01 and a higher educational level (Nagelkerke R2 = .015, p < .01.Self-testing is fairly prevalent in Germany Given the current shortage of physicians in Germany, especially in rural areas, and recent studies on the use of self-medication, the topic of self-testing has a great practical and socio-political relevance. Future studies should investigate further predictors of self-testing (e.g. contextual, situational and individual factors as well as the emotional consequences of testing as a layperson without the attendance of a health professional.

  18. Correlation between cardio-pulmonary exercise test variables and health-related quality of life among children with congenital heart diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amedro, P; Picot, M C; Moniotte, S; Dorka, R; Bertet, H; Guillaumont, S; Barrea, C; Vincenti, M; De La Villeon, G; Bredy, C; Soulatges, C; Voisin, M; Matecki, S; Auquier, P

    2016-01-15

    Health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) stands as a determinant "patient-related outcome" and correlates with cardio-pulmonary exercise test (CPET) in adults with chronic heart failure or with a congenital heart disease (CHD). No such correlation has been established in pediatric cardiology. 202 CHD children aged 8 to 18 performed a CPET (treadmill n=96, cycle-ergometer n=106). CHD severity was stratified into 4 groups. All children and parents filled out the Kidscreen HR-QoL questionnaire. Peak VO2, anaerobic threshold (AT), and oxygen pulse followed a downward significant trend with increasing CHD severity and conversely for VE/VCO2 slope. Self-reported and parent-reported physical well-being HR-QoL scores correlated with peak VO2 (respectively r=0.27, p<0.0001 and r=0.43, p<0.0001), percentage of predicted peak VO2 (r=0.28, p=0.0001 and r=0.41, p<0.0001), and percentage of predicted VO2 at AT (r=0.22, p<0.01 and r=0.31, p<0.0001). Significant correlations were also observed between several HR-QoL dimensions and dead space to tidal volume ratio (VD/VT), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), oxygen pulse but never with VE/VCO2 slope. The strongest correlations were observed in the treadmill group, especially between peak VO2 and physical well-being for parents (r=0.57, p<0.0001) and self (r=0.40, p<0.0001) reported HR-QoL. Peak VO2 and AT are the two CPET variables that best correlated with HR-QoL in this large pediatric cohort, parents' reports being more accurate. If HR-QoL is involved as a "PRO" in a pediatric cardiology clinical trial, we suggest using parents related physical well-being HR-QoL scores. ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT01202916). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fracture severity of distal radius fractures treated with locking plating correlates with limitations in ulnar abduction and inferior health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsitsilonis, Serafim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/background: The operative treatment of distal radius fractures has significantly increased after the introduction of locking plates. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of health-related quality of life, functional and radiological outcome of patients with distal radius fractures treated with the locking compression plate (LCP.Materials and methods: In the present study 128 patients (130 fractures that were operatively treated with the LCP (2.4 mm/3.5 mm, Synthes were retrospectively evaluated. Mean follow-up was (SD 10.6. The fractures were radiographically evaluated (radial inclination, palmar tilt, ulnar variance pre-, postoperatively and at the last follow-up visit. Range of motion (ROM was documented. Grip strength was assessed with the use of a JAMAR dynamometer. The score for disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH and the Gartland-Werley score (GWS were evaluated. Health-associated quality of life was assessed with use of SF-36 Health Survey.Results: Postoperative reduction was excellent; at the last follow-up visit only minimal reduction loss was observed. Except for pronation, a statistically significant decrease of ROM was present; in most cases that was not disturbing for the patients. The injured side achieved 83.9% of grip strength of the intact side. Mean DASH was 18.9 and mean GWS was 3.5. Health-associated quality of life was generally not compromised. However, limitations in ulnar abduction correlated with inferior quality of life. Fracture severity correlated with inferior quality of life, despite the absence of correlation with the functional and radiological outcome. Complication rate was low.Conclusions: Fracture severity seems to affect ulnar abduction and therefore patient quality of life, despite almost anatomical reduction; the objective and subjective scores were in most cases excellent. Modern everyday activities, such as keyboard typing, could be associated with the present results.

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life in Parkinson disease: Correlation between Health Utilities Index III and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS in U.S. male veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleiner-Fisman Galit

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To apply a scaled, preference-based measure to the evaluation of health-related quality of life (HRQoL in Parkinson's disease (PD; to evaluate the relationship between disease-specific rating scales and estimated HRQoL; and to identify predictors of diminished HRQoL. Background Scaled, preference-based measures of HRQoL ("utilities" serve as indices of impact of disease, and can be used to generate quality-adjusted estimates of survival for health-economic evaluations. Evaluation of utilities for PD and their correlation with standard rating scales have been limited. Methods Utilities were generated using the Health Utilities Index Mark III (HUI-III on consecutive patients attending a PD Clinic between October 2003 and June 2006. Disease severity, medical, surgical (subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS, and demographic information were used as model covariates. Predictors of HUI-III utility scores were evaluated using the Wilxocon rank-sum test and linear regression models. Results 68 men with a diagnosis of PD and a mean age of 74.0 (SD 7.4 were included in the data analysis. Mean HUI-III utility at first visit was 0.45 (SD 0.33. In multivariable models, UPDRS-II score (r2 = 0.56, P Conclusions Poor self-care in PD reflected by worsening UPDRS-II scores is strongly correlated with low generic HRQoL. HUI-III-based health utilities display convergent validity with the UPDRS-II. These findings highlight the importance of measures of independence as determinants of HRQoL in PD, and will facilitate the utilization of existing UPDRS data into economic analyses of PD therapies.

  1. Correlation of mental illness and HIV/AIDS infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anousheh Safarcherati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in world. There are more than 35 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world. Although the annual incidence of HIV infection is decreasing globally, HIV prevalence is rising due to development of more effective treatment and higher survival. Iran suffers from concentrated HIV epidemics among injecting and non-injecting drug users. There are more than 27 thousand registered cases of HIV infection and it is estimated that there are above seventy eight thousand cases in the country. Regarding the burden of disease, it is projected that HIV/AIDS will have the highest growth during the next 10 years. The outcome of this epidemics will be determined by human behavior. HIV, psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are closely correlated and are accompanied by similar risk factors. They also share common consequences such as stigma and discrimination. Correlation of psychiatric disorders, as one of the most influential determinants of our behavior, and HIV/AIDS infection is reviewed in this narrative article. Psychiatric disorders are associated with greater risk of HIV acquisition. Substance use disorders, both injecting and non-injecting, as well as severe mental illnesses put the individual at higher risk of acquiring HIV infection. Impaired judgment, diminished inhibition and control over behaviors, lack of insight and poor self-care have been proposed as the underlying mechanisms. On the other hand, HIV infection may put the individual at greater risk of developing a mental illness. Coping with a chronic and life-threatening illness, fear of stigma and discrimination, CNS invasion of the virus as well as the adverse neuropsychiatric side effects of anti-retroviral medications may all contribute to establishment of a psychiatric disorder. Although there exists a bi-directional correlation between mental health problems and HIV/AIDS infection, this reciprocity goes beyond

  2. Parental mental health moderates the efficacy of exercise training on health-related quality of life in adolescents with congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulfer, Karolijn; Duppen, Nienke; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Kuipers, Irene M.; van Domburg, Ron T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan; Helbing, Willem A.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the moderating influence of parental variables on changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents with Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) or a Fontan circulation after participation in standardized exercise training. A multicenter randomized controlled trail in which 56 patients,

  3. Symptoms of common mental disorders and their correlates Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: To comply with its new mental health bill, Ghana needs to integrate mental health within other health and social services. Mental disorders represent 9% of disease burden in Ghana. Women are more affected by common mental disorders, and are underrepresented in treatment settings. This study examines ...

  4. Improvement in Body Image, Perceived Health, and Health-Related Self-Efficacy Among People With Serious Mental Illness: The STRIDE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H; Leo, Michael C; Yarborough, Micah T; Stumbo, Scott; Janoff, Shannon L; Perrin, Nancy A; Green, Carla A

    2016-03-01

    The authors examined secondary outcomes of STRIDE, a randomized controlled trial that tested a weight-loss and lifestyle intervention for individuals taking antipsychotic medications. Hierarchical linear regression was used to explore the effects of the intervention and weight change at follow-up (six, 12, and 24 months) on body image, perceived health, and health-related self-efficacy. Participants were 200 adults who were overweight and taking antipsychotic agents. Weight change × study arm interaction was associated with significant improvement in body image from baseline to six months. From baseline to 12 months, body image scores of intervention participants improved by 1.7 points more compared with scores of control participants; greater weight loss was associated with more improvement. Between baseline and 24 months, greater weight loss was associated with improvements in body image, perceived health, and health-related self-efficacy. Participation in STRIDE improved body image, and losing weight improved perceived health and health-related self-efficacy.

  5. Behavioral and Mental Health Correlates of Youth Stalking Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E.; Smith-Darden, Joanne P.; Kernsmith, Poco D.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Although recognized as a public health problem, little attention has been paid to the problem of stalking among youth. Latent profile analysis was used to identify latent groups of adolescent stalking victims and their behavioral and mental health correlates. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 1,236 youths were randomly selected from 13 schools stratified by community risk level (i.e., low, moderate, and high risk) and gender. Students completed surveys assessing behavioral indicators of stalking victimization, as well as substance use, sexual behavior, dating violence, and psychiatric symptoms. Data were collected in 2013 and data analyses were performed in 2015. Results Analysis indicated the presence of a non-victim class, a minimal exposure class, and a victim class for boys and girls alike. Approximately 14% of girls and 13% of boys were in the stalking victim class. Adolescents in the victim class reported more symptoms of post-traumatic stress, mood disorder, and hopelessness, as well as more instances of alcohol use, binge drinking, and physical dating violence victimization. Girls in the victim class also reported engaging in sexting behaviors and oral sex with significantly more partners than their non-victim peers. Conclusions These findings provide valuable knowledge of the prevalence and pertinent health correlates of stalking victimization in adolescence. The data suggest a substantial proportion of adolescents are victims of stalking and are likewise at risk for a number of deleterious health outcomes. As such, this population merits further attention by prevention researchers and practitioners. PMID:27743623

  6. Correlates of mental health services utilization 18 months and almost 4 years postdisaster among adults with mental health problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, Peter G.; Yzermans, C. Joris; Kleber, Rolf J.; Gersons, B. P. R.

    2007-01-01

    The authors assess the correlates of mental health services utilization (MHS) after a disaster among adults with mental health problems. Data of a three-wave longitudinal study among adult survivors of a fireworks disaster (T1: 2-3 weeks, T2: 18 months, T3: almost 4 years postdisaster) were linked

  7. Domestic violence and its mental health correlates in Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shuba; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Suresh, Saradha; Ahuja, Ramesh Chandra

    2005-07-01

    Domestic spousal violence against women has far-reaching mental health implications. To determine the association of domestic spousal violence with poor mental health. In a household survey of rural, urban non-slum and urban slum areas from seven sites in India, the population of women aged 15-49 years was sampled using probability proportionate to size. The Self Report Questionnaire was used to assess mental health status and a structured questionnaire elicited spousal experiences of violence. Of 9938 women surveyed, 40% reported poor mental health. Logistic regression showed that women reporting 'any violence' -- 'slap', 'hit', 'kick' or 'beat' (OR 2.2, 95% CI 2.0-2.5) -- or 'all violence' -- all of the four types of physically violent behaviour (OR 3.5, 95% CI 2.94-3.51) -- were at increased risk of poor mental health. Findings indicate a strong association between domestic spousal violence and poor mental health, and underscore the need for appropriate interventions.

  8. Mental health and clinical correlates in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Derbyshire, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of mental health disorders and their clinical correlates in a university sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) students.......This study examined the prevalence of mental health disorders and their clinical correlates in a university sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) students....

  9. Prevalence, correlates and treatment of nightmares in secondary mental healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schagen, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nightmares are associated with psychopathology. The prevalence of nightmares in the general population is 2-5%. However, the impact of nightmares when comorbid mental disorders are present is unknown. We investigated the prevalence of nightmares in a population with diverse mental disorders. Over

  10. Strengthening the Paediatricians Project 2: The effectiveness of a workshop to address the Priority Mental Health Disorders of adolescence in low-health related human resource countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Paul SS

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paediatricians can be empowered to address the Priority Mental Health Disorders at primary care level. To evaluate the effectiveness of a collaborative workshop in enhancing the adolescent psychiatry knowledge among paediatricians. Methods A 3-day, 27-hours workshop was held for paediatricians from different regions of India under the auspices of the National Adolescent Paediatric Task Force of the Indian Academy of Paediatrics. A 5-item pretest-posttest questionnaire was developed and administered at the beginning and end of the workshop to evaluate the participants' knowledge acquisition in adolescent psychiatry. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed on an intention-to-participate basis. Results Forty-eight paediatricians completed the questionnaire. There was significant enhancement of the knowledge in understanding the phenomenology, identifying the psychopathology, diagnosing common mental disorder and selecting the psychotropic medication in the bivariate analysis. When the possible confounders of level of training in paediatrics and number of years spent as paediatrician were controlled, in addition to the above areas of adolescent psychiatry, the diagnostic ability involving multiple psychological concepts also gained significance. However, both in the bivariate and multivariate analyses, the ability to refer to appropriate psychotherapy remained unchanged after the workshop. Conclusions This workshop was effective in enhancing the adolescent psychiatry knowledge of paediatricians. Such workshops could strengthen paediatricians in addressing the priority mental health disorders at the primary-care level in countries with low-human resource for health as advocated by the World Health Organization. However, it remains to be seen if this acquisition of adolescent psychiatry knowledge results in enhancing their adolescent psychiatry practice.

  11. Correlates of Mental Health Among Latino Farmworkers in North Carolina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, R.; Grzywacz, J.G.; Swantes, Melody

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Latino farmworkers are a vulnerable population who confront multiple threats to their mental health. Informed by the stress-process model of psychiatric disorder, the goal of this paper is to determine primary and context-specific stressors of poor mental health among Latino farmworkers....... Methods: Structured interview data were obtained from farmworkers (N = 69) in 6 counties in eastern and western North Carolina. Findings: Results indicated that a substantial number of farmworkers have poor mental health, as indicated by elevated depressive symptoms (52.2%) and anxiety (16.4%). Results...... also indicated that each mental health outcome had different predictors. Conclusion: Addressing the mental health issues of farmworkers requires a comprehensive, multifaceted approach....

  12. Impact of perceived social support on the mental health and health-related quality of life in cancer patients: results from a nationwide, multicenter survey in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Chun-Sick; Shin, Dong Wook; Kim, So Young; Yang, Hyung Kook; Jo, Heui Sug; Kweon, Sun Seog; Kang, Yune Sik; Kim, Jong-Heun; Cho, Be-Long; Park, Jong-Hyock

    2013-06-01

    We investigated whether and how perceived social support is associated with depression and quality of life among patients with various cancer diagnoses. Data were collected from 1930 cancer patients treated at the National Cancer Center and nine regional cancer centers across Korea. The Duke-UNC functional social support scale was used to measure the perceived social support, and the PHQ-9 and the EORTC QLQ-C30 were used to measure the cancer patients' depression levels and quality of life, respectively. Subjects with low perceived social support reported significantly higher levels of depression, lower scores on all functional scales, higher scores on all three symptom scales, lower global health/quality of life scale scores, and higher scores on most single items than subjects with high perceived social support. There was no interaction between potential stressors and perceived social support, supporting the main effect model as the mechanism that the perceived social support reduce the adverse psychological outcomes. Perceived social support was associated with mental health and quality of life in cancer patients, through direct effect rather than stress-buffering effect. Interventions to enhance perceived social support might be helpful for improving mental health and QOL in cancer patients. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Electrophysiological correlates of mental navigation in blind and sighted people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kober, Silvia Erika; Wood, Guilherme; Kampl, Christiane; Neuper, Christa; Ischebeck, Anja

    2014-10-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate functional reorganization of the occipital cortex for a mental navigation task in blind people. Eight completely blind adults and eight sighted matched controls performed a mental navigation task, in which they mentally imagined to walk along familiar routes of their hometown during a multi-channel EEG measurement. A motor imagery task was used as control condition. Furthermore, electrophysiological activation patterns during a resting measurement with open and closed eyes were compared between blind and sighted participants. During the resting measurement with open eyes, no differences in EEG power were observed between groups, whereas sighted participants showed higher alpha (8-12Hz) activity at occipital sites compared to blind participants during an eyes-closed resting condition. During the mental navigation task, blind participants showed a stronger event-related desynchronization in the alpha band over the visual cortex compared to sighted controls indicating a stronger activation in this brain region in the blind. Furthermore, groups showed differences in functional brain connectivity between fronto-central and parietal-occipital brain networks during mental navigation indicating stronger visuo-spatial processing in sighted than in blind people during mental navigation. Differences in electrophysiological parameters between groups were specific for mental navigation since no group differences were observed during motor imagery. These results indicate that in the absence of vision the visual cortex takes over other functions such as spatial navigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mental Health-Related Outcomes of Robin Williams' Death: The Role of Parasocial Relations and Media Exposure in Stigma, Help-Seeking, and Outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffner, Cynthia A; Cohen, Elizabeth L

    2017-10-19

    This study explores responses to the death of actor/comedian Robin Williams, focusing on the role of celebrity attachment and exposure to media coverage following his suicide. A total of 350 respondents recruited on Mechanical Turk completed an online survey. Participants who had a stronger parasocial relationship with Williams reported lower social distance from people with depression, greater willingness to seek treatment for depression, and more frequent outreach to other people with depression or suicidal thoughts following his death. Exposure to media coverage of suicide/depression - both informational and stigmatizing - was associated with more frequent outreach to others, but only informational coverage was related to greater willingness to seek treatment. Stigmatizing media exposure was related to greater depression stereotypes. Seeing more media stories celebrating Williams' life and career was associated with reduced depression stigma but also with less willingness to seek treatment for depression and less outreach to others. Implications of the findings for media and mental health are discussed.

  15. Positive affect and negative affect correlate differently with distress and health-related quality of life in patients with cardiac conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Denollet, Johan; Kruse, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The Global Mood Scale (GMS), assessing negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), is sensitive to tapping treatment-related changes in patients with cardiac conditions. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish GMS and the influence of NA and PA on distress and health-related qual......-related quality of life (HRQL).......The Global Mood Scale (GMS), assessing negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), is sensitive to tapping treatment-related changes in patients with cardiac conditions. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish GMS and the influence of NA and PA on distress and health...

  16. Gender Differences in Symptoms, Health-Related Quality of Life, Sleep Quality, Mental Health, Cognitive Performance, Pain-Cognition, and Positive Health in Spanish Fibromyalgia Individuals: The Al-Ándalus Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Estévez-López, Fernando; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Aparicio, Virginia A

    2016-01-01

    Objective . To test the gender differences in tenderness, impact of fibromyalgia, health-related quality of life, fatigue, sleep quality, mental health, cognitive performance, pain-cognition, and positive health in Spanish fibromyalgia patients and in age-matched nonfibromyalgia individuals from the same region. To test the optimal cut-off score of the different tender points for women and men. Methods . A total of 405 (384 women) fibromyalgia versus 247 (195 women) nonfibromyalgia control participants from southern Spain (Andalusia) took part in this cross-sectional study. The outcomes studied were assessed by means of several tests. Results . In the fibromyalgia group, men showed better working memory than women (all, P fibromyalgia-related symptoms. However, it seems that detriment of some symptoms (especially pain) in fibromyalgia men compared with their nonfibromyalgia counterparts is greater than those of fibromyalgia women compared with their nonfibromyalgia peers.

  17. Gender Differences in Symptoms, Health-Related Quality of Life, Sleep Quality, Mental Health, Cognitive Performance, Pain-Cognition, and Positive Health in Spanish Fibromyalgia Individuals: The Al-Ándalus Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C.; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To test the gender differences in tenderness, impact of fibromyalgia, health-related quality of life, fatigue, sleep quality, mental health, cognitive performance, pain-cognition, and positive health in Spanish fibromyalgia patients and in age-matched nonfibromyalgia individuals from the same region. To test the optimal cut-off score of the different tender points for women and men. Methods. A total of 405 (384 women) fibromyalgia versus 247 (195 women) nonfibromyalgia control participants from southern Spain (Andalusia) took part in this cross-sectional study. The outcomes studied were assessed by means of several tests. Results. In the fibromyalgia group, men showed better working memory than women (all, P fibromyalgia-related symptoms. However, it seems that detriment of some symptoms (especially pain) in fibromyalgia men compared with their nonfibromyalgia counterparts is greater than those of fibromyalgia women compared with their nonfibromyalgia peers. PMID:27867309

  18. Mental health-related stigma and pathways to care for people at risk of psychotic disorders or experiencing first-episode psychosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronholm, P C; Thornicroft, G; Laurens, K R; Evans-Lacko, S

    2017-08-01

    Stigma associated with mental illness can delay or prevent help-seeking and service contact. Stigma-related influences on pathways to care in the early stages of psychotic disorders have not been systematically examined. This review systematically assessed findings from qualitative, quantitative and mixed-methods research studies on the relationship between stigma and pathways to care (i.e. processes associated with help-seeking and health service contact) among people experiencing first-episode psychosis or at clinically defined increased risk of developing psychotic disorder. Forty studies were identified through searches of electronic databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, Medline, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts) from 1996 to 2016, supplemented by reference searches and expert consultations. Data synthesis involved thematic analysis of qualitative findings, narrative synthesis of quantitative findings, and a meta-synthesis combining these results. The meta-synthesis identified six themes in relation to stigma on pathways to care among the target population: 'sense of difference', 'characterizing difference negatively', 'negative reactions (anticipated and experienced)', 'strategies', 'lack of knowledge and understanding', and 'service-related factors'. This synthesis constitutes a comprehensive overview of the current evidence regarding stigma and pathways to care at early stages of psychotic disorders, and illustrates the complex manner in which stigma-related processes can influence help-seeking and service contact among first-episode psychosis and at-risk groups. Our findings can serve as a foundation for future research in the area, and inform early intervention efforts and approaches to mitigate stigma-related concerns that currently influence recognition of early difficulties and contribute to delayed help-seeking and access to care.

  19. Correlation of general and oral health-related quality of life in malocclusion patients treated with a combined orthodontic and maxillofacial surgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamme, Johannes Alexander; Rohnen, Michael; Gaßling, Volker; Ciesielski, Robert; Fischer-Brandies, Helge; Wiltfang, Jörg; Koos, Bernd

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to collect information about the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) after combined orthodontic and maxillofacial surgical treatment as well as its influence on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The study includes data from a total of 130 subjects, 65 of whom (21 male, 44 female, mean age at baseline: 24 years, mean age at the time of surgery: 26 years) were compared with control subjects matched on the basis of gender and age. The set of questionnaires used consisted of a questionnaire advanced by the authors including 35 general and treatment-specific questions, and the German version of the validated "Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire" (OQLQ) to analyze the specific OHRQoL, and the SF-36 to measure HRQoL. The main reason for treatment was most often a combination of esthetic and functional complaints. In most cases, the treatment results met the expectations of subjects well or very well, particularly in the areas of aesthetics and masticatory function. Postoperative numbness or paresthesia were present in 59% of patients, especially in the chin and lower lip areas. In all, 20% of subjects considered the temporary restriction of mouth opening as very bothersome. A decrease in HRQoL was noted as compared with the control group in the subscales of "role physical" (p oral function" (p maxillofacial surgical treatment. However, even after combined orthodontic and maxillofacial surgical treatment of malocclusion patients, it is possible to detect smaller limitations with regard to the specific OHRQoL, which may have a negative impact on HRQoL. Based on the results, a participatory decision-making process focusing on the individual therapy-related expectations, desires, and psychological factors of the patient concerning the improvements effected by the treatment appears to be advisable. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neural correlates underlying mental calculation in abacus experts: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanakawa, Takashi; Honda, Manabu; Okada, Tomohisa; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Shibasaki, Hiroshi

    2003-06-01

    Experts of abacus operation demonstrate extraordinary ability in mental calculation. There is psychological evidence that abacus experts utilize a mental image of an abacus to remember and manipulate large numbers in solving problems; however, the neural correlates underlying this expertise are unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared the neural correlates associated with three mental-operation tasks (numeral, spatial, verbal) among six experts in abacus operations and eight nonexperts. In general, there was more involvement of neural correlates for visuospatial processing (e.g., right premotor and parietal areas) for abacus experts during the numeral mental-operation task. Activity of these areas and the fusiform cortex was correlated with the size of numerals used in the numeral mental-operation task. Particularly, the posterior superior parietal cortex revealed significantly enhanced activity for experts compared with controls during the numeral mental-operation task. Comparison with the other mental-operation tasks indicated that activity in the posterior superior parietal cortex was relatively specific to computation in 2-dimensional space. In conclusion, mental calculation of abacus experts is likely associated with enhanced involvement of the neural resources for visuospatial information processing in 2-dimensional space.

  1. Health-related quality of life and its correlates among Chinese migrants in small- and medium-sized enterprises in two cities of Guangdong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Lu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQOL status and associated factors among rural-to-urban migrants in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 856 rural-to-urban migrants working at small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs in Shenzhen and Zhongshan City in 2012. Andersen's behavioral model was used as a theoretical framework to exam the relationships among factors affecting HRQOL. Analysis was performed using structural equation modeling (SEM. RESULTS: Workers with statutory working hours, higher wages and less migrant experience had higher HRQOL scores. Need (contracting a disease in the past two weeks and perception of needing health service had the greatest total effect on HRQOL (β = -0.78, followed by enabling (labor contract, insurance purchase, income, physical examination during work and training (β = 0.40, predisposing (age, family separation, education (β = 0.22 and health practices and use of health service (physical exercise weekly, health check-up and use of protective equipments (β = -0.20. CONCLUSIONS: Priority should be given to satisfy the needs of migrant workers, and improve the enabling resources.

  2. HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, and gender discrimination: Pathways to physical and mental health-related quality of life among a national cohort of women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Wang, Ying; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Wagner, Anne C; Kaida, Angela; Conway, Tracey; Webster, Kath; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Loutfy, Mona R

    2018-02-01

    Social inequities compromise health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) among women living with HIV (WLWH). Little is known about health impacts of intersecting stigma based on HIV status, race and gender among WLWH or potential mechanisms to promote HR-QoL. We tested pathways from multiple types of stigma (HIV-related, racial, gender) to physical and mental HR-QoL utilizing baseline survey data from a national cohort of WLWH in Canada (2013-2015). Structural equation modeling was conducted using maximum likelihood estimation methods to test the direct effects of HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, and gender discrimination on HR-QoL and indirect effects via social support and economic insecurity, adjusting for socio-demographic factors. Among 1425 WLWH (median age: 43years [IQR=35-50]), HIV-related stigma and gender discrimination had significant direct effects on mental HR-QoL. Social support mediated the relationship between HIV-related stigma and mental HR-QoL, accounting for 22.7% of the effect. Social support accounted for 41.4% of the effect of gender discrimination on mental HR-QoL. Economic insecurity accounted for 14.3% of the effect of HIV-related stigma, and 42.4% of the effect of racial discrimination, on physical HR-QoL. Fit indices suggest good model fit (χ 2 [1]=3.319, p=0.069; CFI=0.998; RMSEA=0.042 (90% CI: 0-0.069); SRMR=0.004). Findings reveal complex relationships between intersecting stigma and HR-QoL. Strategies that address intersecting stigma and economic insecurity among WLWH may prevent the harmful impacts of HIV-related stigma and gender discrimination on physical HR-QoL. Increasing social support may mitigate the impacts of stigma on mental health. Findings can inform multi-level interventions to promote health and wellbeing among WLWH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mental health correlates of drug treatment among women who use methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rade, Candalyn B; Desmarais, Sarah L; Van Dorn, Richard A; Lutnick, Alexandra; Kral, Alex H; Lorvick, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    Women comprise over one-third of people who use methamphetamine in the United States and have a higher prevalence of negative mental health consequences of methamphetamine use than men. Yet, few studies have investigated the mental health correlates of drug treatment among this population. We examined the relationship between mental disorders, mental health treatment, and drug treatment among women who use methamphetamine. We used respondent-driven sampling to recruit women who use methamphetamine (N = 322) for a survey about mental disorders, mental health treatment, drug use and treatment, and sociodemographic factors. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. Bivariate analyses indicated that race/ethnicity, mental health treatment, and presence and number of mental disorders were associated with drug treatment. Multivariable analyses revealed that women who reported mental health treatment during a 6-month period had almost twice the odds of also reporting drug treatment than other women (AOR = 1.90; 95% CI = 1.11, 3.25), after controlling for mental disorders and race/ethnicity. Among women who use methamphetamine, participation in one service system (mental health treatment) is a key factor in increasing the odds of participation in another service system (drug treatment). Further research should establish the temporal association between mental health and drug treatment. The present study demonstrates the association between mental health treatment and drug treatment, above and beyond presence or number of mental disorders, and provides direction for drug treatment providers seeking to improve treatment entry and participation among women who use methamphetamine. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  4. Correlates of mental health service use and type among Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Emily S; Chae, David H; Cummings, Janet R; Lee, Sunmin

    2014-07-01

    This study uses data from the National Latino and Asian American Study to investigate correlates of mental health service use among Asian Americans with mental health needs. Our study contributes to the extant literature by: (1) differentiating between mental health service use types; and (2) examining a broader swatch of Asian Americans with mental health needs, ranging from mild to severe cases. Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed heterogeneity in service use patterns by ethnicity, age, marital status, English proficiency, and generation status. Unmet mental health needs continue to be a problem despite treatments that could improve the quality of life of Asian Americans. Our study provides a more nuanced understanding of mental health service utilization patterns in this understudied population.

  5. Correlation between pain response and improvements in patient-reported outcomes and health-related quality of life in duloxetine-treated patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogawa K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kei Ogawa,1 Shinji Fujikoshi,2 William Montgomery,3 Levent Alev1 1Medical Science, 2Statistical Science, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 3Global Patient Outcomes and Real World Evidence, Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia Objective: We assessed whether quality of life (QoL improvement in duloxetine-treated patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP correlates with the extent of pain relief.Methods: Pooled data from three multicountry, double-blind, 12-week, placebo-controlled trials of duloxetine-treated (duloxetine 60 mg once daily; total number =335 patients with DPNP were analyzed. Based on improvement in 24-hour average pain scores, patients were stratified into four groups. Improvement in QoL, which was measured as the change from baseline in two patient-reported health outcome measures (Short Form [SF]-36 and five-dimension version of the EuroQol Questionnaire [EQ-5D], was evaluated and compared among the four groups. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the correlation between improvement in pain scores and improvement in QoL.Results: The group with more pain improvement generally showed greater mean change from baseline in all of the SF-36 scale scores and on the EQ-5D index. Pearson’s correlation coefficients ranged from 0.114 to 0.401 for the SF-36 scale scores (P<0.05, and it was 0.271 for the EQ-5D (P<0.001.Conclusion: Improvement in pain scores was positively correlated with improvement in QoL and patient-reported outcomes in duloxetine-treated patients. Keywords: diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, duloxetine, efficacy, function, quality of life

  6. Health-related factors correlate with behavior trends in physical activity level in old age: longitudinal results from a population in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ribeiro Manoel CSA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity in leisure time is common among elderly in Brazil and this finding is particularly alarming considering that this population is greatly affected by chronic diseases. The identification of health factors that influence physical activity level (PAL will help in the development of strategies for increasing PAL older adults. The current research aimed to identify variables that independently affect behavior trends in PAL over the course of two years among elderly. Methods A survey entitled the Epidoso Project ("Epidemiology of aging" studied 1,667 community-based older individuals in São Paulo city, Brazil over the course of two years. Physical activity level was determined through questions about frequency and duration of physical activities. Body Mass Index was calculated; functional capacity was assessed through the ADL (activities of daily living scale; cognition was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination; and mental health was assessed through the Dysthymia Screening. Experiences of falls and fractures were also assessed. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their self-report of Physical Activity Level: a - Regularly Active; b - Insufficiently Active and c - Physically Inactive. Behavior trends in PAL were also measured after two years. Multivariate regression model methodology was used to test associations longitudinally. Results Results from the final model demonstrated that the risk of a not favorable behavior trend in PAL, which included the group who remained physically inactive and the group that displayed decreased PAL, in this cohort of older adults was significantly increased if the individual was female (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 1.60-3.89; P , older (80 y vs. 65 y, OR = 6.29, 95% CI = 2.69-14.67; P , dependent on help from others for activities in the ADL scale (moderate-severe = 4-7+ vs. 0 ADLs (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.20-4.21; P or had experienced a history of falls with

  7. The relationship between gambling expenditure, socio-demographics, health-related correlates and gambling behavioura cross-sectional population-based survey in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Castren, Sari; Kontto, Jukka; Alho, Hannu; Salonen, Anne H.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Aims To investigate gambling expenditure and its relationship with socio‐demographics, health‐related correlates and past‐year gambling behaviour. Design Cross‐sectional population survey. Setting Population‐based survey in Finland. Participants Finnish people aged 15–74 years drawn randomly from the Population Information System. The participants in this study were past‐year gamblers with gambling expenditure data available (n = 3251, 1418 women and 1833 men). Measurements Expenditu...

  8. Dietary correlates associated with the mental foramen in primates: implications for interpreting the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchlinski, Magdalena N; Deane, Andrew S

    2016-07-01

    The mandibular nerve is a sensory and motor nerve that innervates the muscles of mastication, the lower dentition, and the lower lip and surrounding structures. Although this nerve contains both efferent and afferent fibers, the mental nerve, a terminal branch of the mandibular nerve, is a strictly sensory nerve that exits the mental foramen and innervates the lower lip, the skin overlaying the mandible, and the oral mucosa around the mandible. Osteological foramina are often used as proxies for nerve cross section area and they often correlate well with some aspect of a primate's ecology (e.g., optic foramen and visual acuity). The primary objective of this study is to explore the correlation between the mental foramen and dietary preference among primates. The mental foramen of 40 primate species (n = 180) was measured from 3-D surface models of the mandible. Both conventional and phylogenetic tests indicate that although frugivores have larger mental foramina than folivores, the differences were not significant. These results show that while structures like the infraorbital foramen correlate well with diet and touch sensitivity, the mental foramen does not. Based on these findings, the mental foramen is not a suggested morphological character for interpreting of the fossil record. J. Morphol. 277:978-985, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Mental health in senior housing: racial/ethnic patterns and correlates of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Julie; Schensul, Jean J; Coman, Emil; Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Radda, Kim E; Gaztambide, Sonia; Disch, William B

    2009-09-01

    Mental health problems are associated with disability, overuse of medical care, higher rates of mortality and suicide as well as personal suffering for older adults. Residents of urban, low-income senior housing may face increased risk of a variety of mental health problems, including depression. This study identified the prevalence of multiple mental health problems in older residents of low-income senior housing and explored correlates of major depressive disorder for the two largest ethnic groups: black and Latino. In-person diagnostic interviews identified rates of mental illness in a sample of 635 residents of 13 low-income senior housing buildings in a medium-sized northeastern city. Applying George's Social Antecedent Model of Depression, logistic regression analyses identified shared and unique correlates of depression for Latino and black participants. This population had high rates of major depressive disorder (26%), generalized anxiety disorder (12%) and other mental health problems that varied significantly by ethnic and racial group. Separate multivariate models for Latino and black people showed that younger age, more chronic conditions and social distress were related to major depressive disorder for both ethnic groups. Perceived environmental stress, shorter tenure in the building, poorer perceived health, higher life stress and fewer leisure activities were associated with depression for Latinos only. Mental health screening and treatment services are needed in senior housing to address these high rates of mental illness. Unique constellations of correlates of depression for different ethnic groups underscore a need for culturally competent approaches to identification and treatment.

  10. Epidemiology of Firesetting in Adolescents: Mental Health and Substance Use Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Sherri; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Henderson, Joanna; Marton, Peter; Adlaf, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Despite high rates of firesetting among community adolescents, little is known about its correlates. This study identifies the mental health and substance use correlates of four firesetting levels in an epidemiological sample of adolescents. Methods: Three thousand, nine hundred and sixty-five (3,965) students in grades 7 to 12 were…

  11. Predisposing, enabling and need correlates of mental health treatment utilization among homeless men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Harmony; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Tucker, Joan S; Kennedy, David P; Ewing, Brett

    2014-11-01

    There is significant unmet need for mental health treatment among homeless men, but little is known about the correlates of treatment utilization in this population. Within the framework of the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations, this study examines predisposing, enabling and need factors that may be associated with mental health care utilization. Participants were a representative sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men utilizing meal programs in the Skid Row region of LA. Logistic regression examined the association between predisposing, enabling and need factors and past 30 day mental health service utilization on Skid Row. Results indicated that while need, operationalized as positive screens for posttraumatic stress disorder or depression, was associated with recent mental health care utilization, predisposing and enabling factors were also related to utilization. African-American homeless men, and those men who also reported substance abuse treatment and drop-in center use, had increased odds of reporting mental health care utilization.

  12. On the investigation of the neurophysiological correlates of knowledge worker mental fatigue using the EEG signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okogbaa, O G; Shell, R L; Filipusic, D

    1994-12-01

    Technological trends and advances in automation have underscored the importance of task performance of certain jobs requiring mental functions such as information processing and decision analyses. Most experts agree that such work environments produce increased mental activities, with profound implications for mental fatigue and stress. Consequently, productivity measurement and improvement for white collar or 'knowledge worker' occupations remains a major challenge and concern. This investigation defines an experimental approach that examines the neurophysiological correlates of white collar worker mental fatigue using the EEG signal. A 6 h laboratory experiment was conducted to simulate work output. The methods of assessing fatigue employed were mental tests and physiological measurements. The experiment involved reading of standardized texts, finding solutions to arithmetic-logical problems and a combination of both task types. Two primary performance measures were obtained, work output and brain waves. Fast Fourier transform and correlation analyses are used to quantify the relationship between certain brain waves and mental fatigue. This research is a major step towards the development of a model that explores the relationship between mental fatigue and factors associated with output performance, optimal recuperation periods and related variables. Such a model would be useful in human reliability prediction based on task parameters and worker profiles.

  13. Operational Stress and Correlates of Mental Health Among Joint Task Force Guantanamo Bay Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb-Murphy, Jennifer A; De La Rosa, Gabriel M; Schmitz, Kimberly J; Vishnyak, Elizabeth J; Raducha, Stephanie C; Roesch, Scott C; Johnston, Scott L

    2015-12-01

    Military personnel deployed to Joint Task Force Guantanamo Bay (JTF-GTMO) faced numerous occupational stressors. As part of a program evaluation, personnel working at JTF-GTMO completed several validated self-report measures. Personnel were at the beginning, middle, or end of their deployment phase. This study presents data regarding symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol abuse, depression, and resilience among 498 U.S. military personnel deployed to JTF-GTMO in 2009. We also investigated individual and organizational correlates of mental health among these personnel. Findings indicated that tenure at JTF-GTMO was positively related to adverse mental health outcomes. Regression models including these variables had R2 values ranging from .02 to .11. Occupation at JTF-GTMO also related to mental health such that guards reported poorer mental health than medical staff. Reluctance to seek out mental health care was also related to mental health outcomes. Those who reported being most reluctant to seek out care tended to report poorer mental health than those who were more willing to seek out care. Results suggested that the JTF-GTMO deployment was associated with significant psychological stress, and that both job-related and attitude-related variables were important to understanding mental health symptoms in this sample. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  14. Correlation between MRI findings, blood pressure and mental ability in patients with multiple lacunar infarcts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Shotai; Okada, Kazunori; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1991-01-01

    We studied the association between mental ability as rated by Hasegawa's scale, the severity of hypertension, the severity of brain atrophy, and the severity of lesions in the cerebral white matter on magnetic resonance imaging in 34 patients with multiple cerebral infarcts but without obvious cortical lesions. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. The patients having both marked brain atrophy and severe white matter lesions showed an impairment of mental ability. Brain atrophy was correlated with aging and the severity of white matter lesions. There was a significant positive correlation between the diastolic blood pressure and the severity of white matter lesions. These findings suggest that the white matter lesions in patients with multiple cerebral infarcts are correlated with brain atrophy and mental deterioration, and that uncontrolled hypertension is an important risk factor in exacerbating the lesions in the cerebral white matter. (author)

  15. Prevalence of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases and their impact on health-related quality of life, physical function and mental health in Portugal: results from EpiReumaPt– a national health survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Jaime C; Rodrigues, Ana M; Gouveia, Nélia; Eusébio, Mónica; Ramiro, Sofia; Machado, Pedro M; da Costa, Leonor Pereira; Mourão, Ana Filipa; Silva, Inês; Laires, Pedro; Sepriano, Alexandre; Araújo, Filipe; Gonçalves, Sónia; Coelho, Pedro S; Tavares, Viviana; Cerol, Jorge; Mendes, Jorge M; Carmona, Loreto

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the national prevalence of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) in the adult Portuguese population and to determine their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), physical function, anxiety and depression. Methods EpiReumaPt is a national health survey with a three-stage approach. First, 10 661 adult participants were randomly selected. Trained interviewers undertook structured face-to-face questionnaires that included screening for RMDs and assessments of health-related quality of life, physical function, anxiety and depression. Second, positive screenings for ≥1 RMD plus 20% negative screenings were invited to be evaluated by a rheumatologist. Finally, three rheumatologists revised all the information and confirmed the diagnoses according to validated criteria. Estimates were computed as weighted proportions, taking the sampling design into account. Results The disease-specific prevalence rates (and 95% CIs) of RMDs in the adult Portuguese population were: low back pain, 26.4% (23.3% to 29.5%); periarticular disease, 15.8% (13.5% to 18.0%); knee osteoarthritis (OA), 12.4% (11.0% to 13.8%); osteoporosis, 10.2% (9.0% to 11.3%); hand OA, 8.7% (7.5% to 9.9%); hip OA, 2.9% (2.3% to 3.6%); fibromyalgia, 1.7% (1.1% to 2.1%); spondyloarthritis, 1.6% (1.2% to 2.1%); gout, 1.3% (1.0% to 1.6%); rheumatoid arthritis, 0.7% (0.5% to 0.9%); systemic lupus erythaematosus, 0.1% (0.1% to 0.2%) and polymyalgia rheumatica, 0.1% (0.0% to 0.2%). After multivariable adjustment, participants with RMDs had significantly lower EQ5D scores (β=−0.09; p<0.001) and higher HAQ scores (β=0.13; p<0.001) than participants without RMDs. RMDs were also significantly associated with the presence of anxiety symptoms (OR=3.5; p=0.006). Conclusions RMDs are highly prevalent in Portugal and are associated not only with significant physical function and mental health impairment but also with poor HRQoL, leading to more health resource consumption. The Epi

  16. Relationship between mental health and spiritual wellbeing among hemodialysis patients: a correlation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Bertolaccini Martinez

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The stress of living with a terminal disease has a negative impact on the mental health of hemodialysis (HD patients. Spirituality is a potential coping mechanism for stressful experiences. Studies on the relationship between spirituality and mental health among HD patients are scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between mental health and spiritual well-being among HD patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional observational study on hemodialysis patients at a single center in Brazil, between January and December 2011. METHODS : Mental health was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire and spiritual wellbeing was assessed using the Spiritual Wellbeing Scale; 150 HD patients participated in the study. RESULTS : A significant correlation was found between mental health and spiritual wellbeing (P = 0.001. Spiritual wellbeing was the strongest predictor of mental health, psychological distress, sleep disturbance and psychosomatic complaints. CONCLUSION: Poor mental health was associated with lower spiritual wellbeing. This has important implications for delivery of palliative care to HD patients.

  17. Epidemiological patterns and correlates of mental disorders among orphans and vulnerable children under institutional care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N Mutiso, Victoria; W Musyimi, Christine; Tele, Albert; Ndetei, David M

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, comorbidity and socio-demographic correlates of common mental disorders among orphan and vulnerable children (OVCs) in residential care. The Youth Self Report (YSR) instrument was adapted for use and administered to 630 OVCs aged 10-18 years in four institutions operating within the Eastern province of Kenya. We estimated the prevalence of YSR syndromes and used logistic regression analyses to examine socio-demographic factors associated with each disorder. The prevalence of any mental disorder according to YSR syndrome scale was 30.8% (95% CI 27.1-34.6). Female gender and older children were less likely to be associated with risk of scoring in the clinical range of the mental disorders. The presence of multiple mental problems was seen among 16.7% of the children. Of the 16.7%, 5.6% had one comorbid mental disorder and 11.1% had three to eight mental disorders. We found a high prevalence of mental disorders and co-occurring disorders among the OVCs in residential institutions in Kenya. There is need for an alternative approach that can reach out to critical numbers of children for screening and public health, rather than purely clinical approach. The capacity for these institutions should also be regulated and more efforts focusing on improving the quality of care in the facilities taken into account at all times.

  18. Socio-demographic, health-related and psychosocial correlates of fear of falling and avoidance of activity in community-living older persons who avoid activity due to fear of falling

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    Delbaere Kim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fear of falling and avoidance of activity are common in old age and are suggested to be (public health problems of equal importance to falls. Earlier studies of correlates of fear of falling and avoidance of activity did hardly differentiate between severe and mild levels of fear of falling and avoidance of activity which may be relevant from clinical point of view. Furthermore, most studies focused only on socio-demographics and/or health-related variables and hardly incorporated an extensive range of potential correlates of fear of falling including psychosocial variables. This study analyzes the univariate and multivariate associations between five socio-demographic, seven health-related and six psychosocial variables and levels of fear of falling and avoidance of activity in older persons who avoid activity due to fear of falling. Methods Cross-sectional study in 540 community-living older people aged ≥ 70 years with at least mild fear of falling and avoidance of activity. Chi-squares, t-tests and logistics regression analyses were performed to study the associations between the selected correlates and both outcomes. Results Old age, female sex, limitations in activity of daily living, impaired vision, poor perceived health, chronic morbidity, falls, low general self-efficacy, low mastery, loneliness, feelings of anxiety and symptoms of depression were identified as univariate correlates of severe fear of falling and avoidance of activity. Female sex, limitations in activity of daily living and one or more falls in the previous six months correlated independently with severe fear of falling. Higher age and limitations in activity of daily living correlated independently with severe avoidance of activity. Conclusion Psychosocial variables did not contribute independently to the difference between mild and severe fear of falling and to the difference between mild and severe avoidance of activity due to fear of falling

  19. Interpersonal Interactions in the Marital Pair and Mental Health: A Comparative and Correlational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleiber Couto Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractInterpersonal interactions as social processes reflect and influence individuals' mental health. The aim of the study was to verify how marital interactions relate to mental health, and to investigate evidence for the validity of the Checklist for Interpersonal Transactions II (CLOIT-II. Participants were 169 couples from the southeast of the Brazilian state of Goiás, aged between 18 and 55 years ( M = 21; SD = 5.48. They responded to a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and the CLOIT-II. Participants with low mental health problem scores in the GHQ (asymptomatic participants tended to occupy interpersonal positions in the range between Deference/Trust and Affective warmth/Friendliness. In the group with high scores (symptomatic participants, interactions were defined by Coldness/Hostility.Mental health problems were positively correlated with mistrust, coldness and hostility and negatively correlated with positions of Affiliation. These results, in addition to supporting the validity of the CLOIT-II, indicate that the study of interpersonal relationships is relevant for the understanding of mental health.

  20. Attitudes to Mental Illness and Its Demographic Correlates among General Population in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Abdin, Edimansyah; Picco, Louisa; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Shahwan, Shazana; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Shafie, Saleha; Tay, Jenny; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Background Public attitudes to mental illness could influence how the public interact with, provide opportunities for, and help people with mental illness. Aims This study aims to explore the underlying factors of the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the general population in Singapore and the socio-demographic correlates of each factor. Methods From March 2014 to April 2015, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey on mental health literacy with 3,006 participants was conducted in Singapore. Results Factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure for the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the Singapore general population, namely social distancing, tolerance/support for community care, social restrictiveness, and prejudice and misconception. Older age, male gender, lower education and socio-economic status were associated with more negative attitudes towards the mentally ill. Chinese showed more negative attitudes than Indians and Malays (except for prejudice and misconception). Conclusions There is a need for culture-specific interventions, and the associated factors identified in this study should be considered for future attitude campaigns. PMID:27893796

  1. Perceived mental effort correlates with changes in tonic arousal during attentional tasks

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    Stein Dan J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that perceived mental effort reflects changes in arousal during tasks of attention. Such changes in arousal may be tonic or phasic, and may be mediated by the locus-coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE system. We hypothesized that perceived mental effort during attentional tasks would correlate with tonic changes in cortical arousal, as assessed by relative electroencephalogram (EEG band power and theta/beta ratio, and not with phasic changes in cortical arousal, assessed by P300 amplitude and latency. Methods Forty-six healthy individuals completed tasks that engage the anterior and posterior attention networks (continuous performance task, go/no-go task, and cued target detection task. During completion of the three attentional tasks a continuous record of tonic and phasic arousal was taken. Cortical measures of arousal included frequency band power, theta/beta ratios over frontal and parietal cortices, and P300 amplitude and latency over parietal cortices. Peripheral measures of arousal included skin conductance responses, heart rate and heart rate variance. Participants reported their perceived mental effort during each of the three attentional tasks. Results First, changes in arousal were seen from rest to completion of the three attentional tasks and between the attentional tasks. Changes seen between the attentional tasks being related to the task design and the attentional network activated. Second, perceived mental effort increased when demands of the task increased and correlated with left parietal beta band power during the three tasks of attention. Third, increased mental effort during the go/no-go task and the cued target detection task was inversely related to theta/beta ratios. Conclusion These results indicate that perceived mental effort reflects tonic rather than phasic changes in arousal during tasks of attention. We suggest that perceived mental effort may reflect in part tonic activity of

  2. Disclosure in traumatic deaths as correlates of differential mental health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelman, William; Cerel, Julie; Sanford, Rebecca

    2017-10-06

    This analysis addresses the controversial question of whether disclosure of a significant other's traumatic death cause is associated with mental health outcomes. Consistent with the limited previous research, this data, collected from 131 suicide bereaved, 10 exclusively drug death bereaved, and six other bereaved respondents, showed fewer grief difficulties and better self-rated mental health among those inclined to openly disclose a significant other's death cause, compared to those who feared incurring shame and embarrassment from doing so. Regression analyses suggested that the tendency to openly discuss the death was the single most powerful correlate to explaining variations in grief difficulties.

  3. Differences between children and adolescents in treatment response to atomoxetine and the correlation between health-related quality of life and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder core symptoms: Meta-analysis of five atomoxetine trials

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    Schacht Alexander

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To explore the influence of age on treatment responses to atomoxetine and to assess the relationship between core symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL outcomes. Data Sources Data from five similar clinical trials of atomoxetine in the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD were included in this meta-analysis. Study Selection Atomoxetine studies that used the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS and the Child Health and Illness Profile Child Edition (CHIP-CE as outcome measures were selected. Interventions Treatment with atomoxetine. Main Outcome Measures Treatment group differences (atomoxetine vs placebo in terms of total score, domains, and subdomains of the CHIP-CE were compared across age groups, and correlations between ADHD-RS scores and CHIP-CE scores were calculated by age. Results Data of 794 subjects (611 children, 183 adolescents were pooled. At baseline, adolescents showed significantly (p Conclusions Atomoxetine was effective in improving some aspects of HR-QoL in both age groups. Correlations between core symptoms of ADHD and HR-QoL were low to moderate.

  4. The correlation of social support with mental health: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harandi, Tayebeh Fasihi; Taghinasab, Maryam Mohammad; Nayeri, Tayebeh Dehghan

    2017-09-01

    Social support is an important factor that can affect mental health. In recent decades, many studies have been done on the impact of social support on mental health. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect size of the relationship between social support and mental health in studies in Iran. This meta-analysis was carried out in studies that were performed from 1996 through 2015. Databases included SID and Magiran, the comprehensive portal of human sciences, Noor specialized magazine databases, IRANDOC, Proquest, PubMed, Scopus, ERIC, Iranmedex and Google Scholar. The keywords used to search these websites included "mental health or general health," and "Iran" and "social support." In total, 64 studies had inclusion criteria meta-analysis. In order to collect data used from a meta-analysis worksheet that was made by the researcher and for data analysis software, CMA-2 was used. The mean of effect size of the 64 studies in the fixed-effect model and random-effect model was obtained respectively as 0.356 and 0.330, which indicated the moderate effect size of social support on mental health. The studies did not have publication bias, and enjoyed a heterogeneous effect size. The target population and social support questionnaire were moderator variables, but sex, sampling method, and mental health questionnaire were not moderator variables. Regarding relatively high effect size of the correlation between social support and mental health, it is necessary to predispose higher social support, especially for women, the elderly, patients, workers, and students.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of probable adolescent mental health problems reported by parents in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstadter, Ananda B; Richardson, Lisa; Meyer, Alicia; Sawyer, Genelle; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Tran, Trinh Luong; Trung, Lam Tu; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Gaboury, Mario; Acierno, Ron

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of probable mental health problems in an epidemiologic study of Vietnamese adolescents. A secondary aim was to examine the correlates of probable mental health caseness. Interviewers visited 1,914 households that were randomly selected to participate in a multi-agency study of mental health in select provinces of Vietnam. Semi-structured interviews assessed adolescent mental health problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) parent informant version, and additionally the interviewers collected information on demographic variables (age, gender, ethnic group, religious affiliation, social capital). The final sample included data on 1,368 adolescents (aged 11-18 years). The average score on the total problem composite of the SDQ scale was 6.66 (SD=4.89), and 9.1% of the sample was considered a case (n=124). Bivariate analyses were conducted to determine which demographic variables were related to the SDQ case/non-case score. All variables except gender were significant in bivariate analyses, and therefore were entered into a logistic regression. Results indicated that age, religion, and wealth remained significant predictors of probable caseness. Overall, prevalence estimates of mental health problems generated by the SDQ were consistent with those reported in the US and other Western and non-Western samples. Results of the current study suggest some concordance of risk and protective factors between Western and Vietnamese youth (i.e., age and SES).

  6. Correlation between Mental Well-Being and Marital Life Quality of Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahsiah M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The most important reason in couples′ marital conflict is their expectancy of their roles in the family. The couples get married by presumptions and different prejudices about emotional subjects and life activities which are the mental well-being.the purpose of this research is the study of mental well-being and marital life quality of couples. Methods: The method is cluster sampling in which 50 couples are selected from clinical and health centers of Sirjan. The research method is descriptive- correlation and all data were gathered by Golombok-Rust′ marital quality, PANAS scale for positive and negative affect and Debz′s life satisfaction questionnaire. All data were analyzed by correlation, regression and variance in SPSS.Results: The results show that there is a positive relationship between marital quality and life satisfaction as a rate of 0.435 (p>0.001, marital quality and positive affect as a rate of 0.322 (p>0.05, life satisfaction and positive affect as a rate of 0.754 (p>0.001. However, there is a negative relationship between positive affect and negative affect as a rate of 0.205 (p>0.05, and marital quality and negative affect 0.036 (p>0.05.Conclusion: Since mental well-being increase can anticipate marital life quality; couples′ mental well-being strength is a suitable method for marital satisfaction improvement and marital quality which should be studied.

  7. Social correlates of mental, neurological, and substance use disorders in China and India: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui G; Shidhaye, Rahul; Charlson, Fiona; Deng, Fei; Lyngdoh, Tanica; Chen, Shengnan; Nanda, Sharmishtha; Lacroix, Kimberly; Baxter, Amanda; Whiteford, Harvey

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the epidemiological profiles of mental, neurological, and substance use disorders provides opportunities for the identification of high-risk population subgroups and for the development of effective country-specific prevention and intervention strategies. Guided by the Conceptual Framework for Action on the Social Determinants of Health by WHO we reviewed the literature to examine the association between a range of social correlates (eg, sex, age, education, income, urbanicity, marital status, and regional differences) and mental, neurological, and substance use disorders in China and India, the most populous countries in the world. We looked for papers on mental, neurological, and substance use disorders with location identifiers and socioeconomic correlates published between 1990 and 2015 and our search found 65 relevant studies from China and 29 from India. Several association patterns between social correlates and mental, neurological, and substance use disorders were not consistent with those reported in high-income countries, including a high concentration of middle-aged men with alcohol use disorders in China and to a lesser extent in India, and a positive association between being married and depression among women in India. Consistent with previous global reports, low education and poverty were associated with higher occurrence of dementia in both China and India, although there is evidence of an interaction between education and income in the risk for dementia in China. Large variations across regions and ethnic groups were consistently documented in China. These unique correlation patterns for mental, neurological, and substance use disorders identified in China and India emphasise the importance of understanding the local social context when planning targeted strategies to reduce the burden of these disorders. High-quality, up-to-date information about the constantly changing pattern of societal factors correlated with mental, neurological

  8. Mental Task Classification Scheme Utilizing Correlation Coefficient Extracted from Interchannel Intrinsic Mode Function

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    Md. Mostafizur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of recent increase of brain computer interface (BCI based applications, the importance of efficient classification of various mental tasks has increased prodigiously nowadays. In order to obtain effective classification, efficient feature extraction scheme is necessary, for which, in the proposed method, the interchannel relationship among electroencephalogram (EEG data is utilized. It is expected that the correlation obtained from different combination of channels will be different for different mental tasks, which can be exploited to extract distinctive feature. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD technique is employed on a test EEG signal obtained from a channel, which provides a number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs, and correlation coefficient is extracted from interchannel IMF data. Simultaneously, different statistical features are also obtained from each IMF. Finally, the feature matrix is formed utilizing interchannel correlation features and intrachannel statistical features of the selected IMFs of EEG signal. Different kernels of the support vector machine (SVM classifier are used to carry out the classification task. An EEG dataset containing ten different combinations of five different mental tasks is utilized to demonstrate the classification performance and a very high level of accuracy is achieved by the proposed scheme compared to existing methods.

  9. Mental and Reproductive Health Correlates of Academic Performance among Debre Berhan University Female Students, Ethiopia: The Case of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Sisay Mulugeta; Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie; Haile, Yohannes Gebreegziabhere

    2017-01-01

    Globally 3 to 8% of reproductive age women are suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Several mental and reproductive health-related factors cause low academic achievement during university education. However, limited data exist in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to investigate mental and reproductive health correlates of academic performance. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted with 667 Debre Berhan University female students from April to June 2015. Academic performance was the outcome variable. Mental and reproductive health characteristics were explanatory variables. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test of association was applied to examine group difference in academic performance. Among 529 students who participated, 49.3% reported mild premenstrual syndrome (PMS), 36.9% reported moderate/severe PMS, and 13.8% fulfilled PMDD diagnostic criteria. The ANOVA test of association revealed that there was no significant difference in academic performance between students with different level of PMS experience ( F -statistic = 0.08, p value = 0.93). Nevertheless, there was a significant difference in academic performance between students with different length of menses ( F -statistic = 5.15, p value = 0.006). There was no significant association between PMS experience and academic performance, but on the other hand, the length of menses significantly associated with academic performance.

  10. Neural correlates of serial abacus mental calculation in children: a functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feiyan; Hu, Zhenghui; Zhao, Xiaohu; Wang, Rui; Yang, Zhenyan; Wang, Xiaolu; Tang, Xiaowei

    2006-07-31

    Abacus experts have demonstrated extraordinary potential of mental calculation by using an imaginary abacus. But the neural correlates of abacus mental calculation and the imaginary abacus still remain unclear. Here, we report, respectively, the analysis of fMRI images of abacus experts and non-experts in response to the performance of simple and complex serial calculation by visual stimuli as well as the images of the abacus experts with performance of the same tasks by auditory stimuli. We found that activated areas were quite different between two groups. In experts, enhanced activations were mainly observed in fronto-temporal circuit (lateral premotor cortex (LPMC) and posterior temporal areas) in simple addition, but in fronto-parietal circuit (lateral premotor cortex (LPMC) and posterior superior parietal lobe (PSPL)) in complex one. By contrast, in controls, the activated areas were almost similar in both simple and complex tasks, including bilateral inferior parietal lobule, prefrontal and premotor cortices. Furthermore, visual and auditory stimuli generated almost similar activations in experts. These observations reveal that (1) abacus mental calculation induces special patterns of brain response, and simple and complex tasks are sustained by dissociated brain circuits between the temporal and parietal cortices, respectively; (2) the abacus mental calculation may rely on neural resources of visuospatial representations with a super-modal form of abacus beads; (3) the posterior temporal areas and PSPL may be recruited for imaginary abacus.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of criminal victimization among new admissions to outpatient mental health services in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisanti, Annette S; Frueh, B Christopher; Archambeau, Olga; Steffen, John J; Wolff, Nancy

    2014-04-01

    Adults with serious mental illness (SMI) experience criminal victimization at rates higher than the general population whether they reside in the community or correctional settings. This study examines the past-six month prevalence and correlates of criminal victimization among a large community sample (N = 2,209) of consumers with SMI newly admitted to outpatient mental health services during 2005 through 2008. A cross-sectional design was used with self-report and clinical data collected from administrative records. Victimization was determined by responses to direct questions about experiences in the previous 6 months with respect to victimization of a non-violent and/or violent crime. Socio-demographic, clinical and criminal correlates of victimization were abstracted from a quality of life survey and clinical assessment interview conducted at admission. Overall, 25.4 % of consumers reported being a victim of any crime (violent or non-violent) in the past 6 months, with 20.3 % reporting non-violent and 12.3 % violent victimization. The risk of victimization was elevated for those who were female, White, not taking atypical psychotropic medication, not feeling safe in their living arrangement, and were arrested or homeless in the six-months prior to engaging in mental health outpatient treatment. Policy and practice implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Depression and health related quality of life in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardebil, M. D.; Bouzari, Z.; Shenas, M. H.; Keighobadi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of depression in women with breast cancer and relate it to their health-related quality of life. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Imam Khomeini Hospital in Iran between January and December 2009, and comprised 60 women with breast cancer with a mean age of 43.8+-47.12 years. In order to assess the health-related quality of life, the study used the parameters of the Iranian version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for Breast Cancer. To identify expressive symptoms, the Beck Depression Inventory was used. General linear model regression and SPSS 14 were used to analyse the data. Results: Significant differences in the prevalence of depression between treatment types was found. The presence of depression was significantly correlated with poorer overall health-related quality of life and the four subscales of the protocol. The patients reported statistically significant effects of depression in the overall category (p= 0.001). Participants with depression were more likely to have a poorer overall health-related quality of life, the exception being the social/family well-being subscale. Conclusions: Depression affects health-related quality of life in breast cancer patients. Although further studies are necessary to confirm our findings, but our results emphasise the necessity for better mental health strategies for such patients. (author)

  13. Correlation between Mental Well-Being and Marital Life Quality of Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shahsiah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: The most important reason in couples′ marital conflict is their expectancy of their roles in the family. The couples get married by presumptions and different prejudices about emotional subjects and life activities which are the mental well-being.

    the purpose of this research is the study of mental well-being and marital life quality of couples.

     

    Methods: The method is cluster sampling in which 50 couples are selected from clinical and health centers of Sirjan. The research method is descriptive- correlation and all data were gathered by Golombok-Rust′ marital quality, PANAS scale for positive and negative affect and Debz′s life satisfaction questionnaire. All data were analyzed by correlation, regression and variance in SPSS.

     

    Results: The results show that there is a positive relationship between marital quality and life satisfaction as a rate of 0.435 (p>0.001, marital quality and positive affect as a rate of 0.322 (p>0.05, life satisfaction and positive affect as a rate of 0.754 (p>0.001. However, there is a negative relationship between positive affect and negative affect as a rate of 0.205 (p>0.05, and marital quality and negative affect 0.036 (p>0.05.

     

    Conclusion: Since mental well-being increase can anticipate marital life quality; couples′ mental well-being strength is a suitable method for marital satisfaction improvement and marital quality which should be studied.

  14. Subjective Mental Workload and Its Correlation With Musculoskeletal Disorders in Bank Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Ebrahim; Maleki, Afshin; Giahi, Omid; Akbarzadeh, Arash

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of subjective mental workload (SMWL) and its correlation with musculoskeletal disorders among bank staff members in Kurdistan Province located in western Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 bank staff members in Kurdistan Province, Iran. The mental workload was assessed using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) computerized version. NASA-TLX is a multidimensional rating procedure that derives an overall workload score based on a weighted average of ratings on 6 subscales. These subscales include Mental Demands, Physical Demands, Temporal Demands, Performance, Effort, Effectiveness, and Frustration. The musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) were documented with the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and generic body diagram. Of the staff members, 78.5% experienced pain at least once during the past year in 1 of their 9 musculoskeletal body regions. The highest frequencies of pain were in the neck and lower back. The NASA-TLX estimated the Effort and Performance scales with mean ± SD of 72.8 ± 25.2 and 36 ± 22.6, respectively, as the maximal and minimal scores among the 6 subscales of SMWL. The statistical analysis of the data revealed that there was a significant correlation between the overall mental workload score and also among the 6 subscales of SMWL separately with MSDs (P < .05). SMWL appears to be a risk factor in the incidence of MSDs, so that the odds of MSDs increased by 11% with each additional 1-point increase in SMWL score. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Correlation between social support, personality traits and mental health in antiaircraft artillerymen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin TIAN

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To quantitatively assess the mental health status and analyze the relationship between social support, personality traits and mental health in antiaircraft artillery personnel. Methods One hundred and forty-five antiaircraft artillerymen were tested with the Social Support Scale, the Symptom Checklist 90(SCL-90, and the Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale for Chinese (EPQ-RSC. The questionnaires were returned by 143 artillerymen and the data were processed by t-test, pearson correlation analysis and regression analysis. Results Every factor score of SCL-90 was significantly higher than that of civilian cohorts (P < 0.001. The total score(151.88±38.39, P < 0.05 and the scores of somatization (1.63±0.48, P < 0.05, obsessive-compulsiveness (1.95±0.59, P < 0.001, anxiety (1.67±0.51, P < 0.01 and hostility (1.78±0.62, P < 0.01 of SCL-90 were significantly higher than the norm of those of Chinese army men. The utilization of social support showed significant negative correlation with total score (r=-0.205, P < 0.05, interpersonal sensitivity (r=-0.182, P < 0.05, depression (r=-0.200, P < 0.05, paranoid ideation (r=-0.263, P < 0.01, and neuroticism in personality traits (r=-0.241, P < 0.01. There was significant positive correlation between the utilization of social support and EPQ-E (r=0.339, P < 0.01. Every factor of SCL-90 except hostility (r=-0.202 to -0.393, P < 0.05, P < 0.01 showed significant negative correlation with EPQ-E. There was significant positive correlation between most factors of SCL-90 and EPQ-P (except obsessive-compulsive and somatization, r=0.167-0.246, P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and EPQ-N (r=0.386-0.584, P < 0.01. Conclusions The mental health of antiaircraft artillerymen is not so optimistic, and it should be taken care seriously. In addition, we should also pay attention to the effect of utilization of social support and personality trait in improving mental health.

  16. Disordered eating behavior and mental health correlates among treatment seeking obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, M; Rossi, G; Aquilano, P; De Fazio, P; Segura-Garcia, C; Rossetti, M; Petrone, A; Lo Russo, T; Vendemiale, G; Bellomo, A

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has suggest that obesity is associated with increased risk for psychopathological disorders, however, little is known about which obese patients are most vulnerable to psychopathological disorders. We therefore investigated 126 treatment-seeking obese women to describe eating disorder pathology and mental health correlates, and to identify disordered eating behaviors that may place obese at increased risk for psychopathological disorders. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) was used to identify Eating Disorders (ED). A battery of psychological tests, including the Anxiety Scale Questionnaire (ASQ,) Clinical Depression Questionnaire (CDQ), Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) scales and structured clinical interview were administered to all the patients. We analyzed the link between psychopathological disorders and eating attitudes by using both multiple regression analysis and non-parametric correlation. Disordered eating behaviors and emotional behavioral aspects related to Anorexia Nervosa, such as ineffectiveness, are strongly linked to the depression and anxiety in obese subjects. No correlation was found between psychopathological disorders and age or anthropometric measurements. Findings corroborate earlier work indicating that psychological distress is elevated in obese treatment seeking, bolstering the need for mental health assessment of such individuals. The feeling of ineffectiveness constitutes the major predictor of psychopathological aspects. This is an important result which may inform the development of effective interventions for obese patients and prevention of psychopathological disorders.

  17. Mental disorder recovery correlated with centralities and interactions on an online social network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinpei Ma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has established both a theoretical basis and strong empirical evidence that effective social behavior plays a beneficial role in the maintenance of physical and psychological well-being of people. To test whether social behavior and well-being are also associated in online communities, we studied the correlations between the recovery of patients with mental disorders and their behaviors in online social media. As the source of the data related to the social behavior and progress of mental recovery, we used PatientsLikeMe (PLM, the world’s first open-participation research platform for the development of patient-centered health outcome measures. We first constructed an online social network structure based on patient-to-patient ties among 200 patients obtained from PLM. We then characterized patients’ online social activities by measuring the numbers of “posts and views” and “helpful marks” each patient obtained. The patients’ recovery data were obtained from their self-reported status information that was also available on PLM. We found that some node properties (in-degree, eigenvector centrality and PageRank and the two online social activity measures were significantly correlated with patients’ recovery. Furthermore, we re-collected the patients’ recovery data two months after the first data collection. We found significant correlations between the patients’ social behaviors and the second recovery data, which were collected two months apart. Our results indicated that social interactions in online communities such as PLM were significantly associated with the current and future recoveries of patients with mental disorders.

  18. Living with schizophrenia: Health-related quality of life among primary family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Lee, Chun-Te; Lu, Huei-Lan; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2017-12-01

    To examine influencing factors of health-related quality of life in primary family caregivers of people with schizophrenia receiving inpatient psychiatric rehabilitation services. Families, particularly primary family caregivers, have become more important than ever in mental health care. Yet, research on health-related quality of life among primarily family caregivers is limited. A correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 122 primary family caregivers participated in the study. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics, Pearson's product-moment correlation, t test, one-way analysis of variance and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Primary family caregivers who were parents, older, less educated, and had a lower monthly household income, increased affiliate stigma and decreased quality of family-centred care experienced poor health-related quality of life. Particularly, monthly household income, affiliate stigma and quality of family-centred care appeared to be the most critical determinants of health-related quality of life. Efforts to enhance satisfaction of life should focus on reducing affiliate stigma as well as increasing monthly household income and strengthening the quality of family-centred care. Findings may assist in the development of culturally integrated rehabilitation programmes to decrease affiliate stigma and increase family engagement as a means of promoting quality of life for primary family caregivers living with people who have schizophrenia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and oral health related quality of life, the Limpopo - Arusha school health project (LASH: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbawalla Hawa S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Promoting oral health of adolescents is important for improvement of oral health globally. This study used baseline-data from LASH-project targeting secondary students to; 1 assess frequency of poor oral hygiene status and oral impacts on daily performances, OIDP, by socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, 2 examine whether socio-economic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and OIDP differed by gender and 3 examine whether socio-demographic disparity in oral health was explained by oral health-related behaviours. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 using one-stage cluster sampling design. Total of 2412 students (mean age 15.2 yr completed self-administered questionnaires, whereas 1077 (mean age 14.9 yr underwent dental-examination. Bivariate analyses were conducted using cross-tabulations and chi-square statistics. Multiple variable analyses were conducted using stepwise standardized logistic regression (SLR with odds ratios and 95% Confidence intervals (CI. Results 44.8% presented with fair to poor OHIS and 48.2% reported any OIDP. Older students, those from low socio-economic status families, had parents who couldn't afford dental care and had low educational-level reported oral impacts, poor oral hygiene, irregular toothbrushing, less dental attendance and fewer intakes of sugar-sweetened drinks more frequently than their counterparts. Stepwise logistic regression revealed that reporting any OIDP was independently associated with; older age-groups, parents do not afford dental care, smoking experience, no dental visits and fewer intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Behavioural factors accounted partly for association between low family SES and OIDP. Low family SES, no dental attendance and smoking experience were most important in males. Low family SES and fewer intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks were the most important correlates in females. Socio-behavioural factors

  20. Correlates of poor mental health in early pregnancy in obese European women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sattler, Matteo C; Jelsma, Judith G M; Bogaerts, Annick

    2017-01-01

    and Lifestyle Intervention for gestational diabetes mellitus prevention) study were analyzed. Maternal mental health was assessed with the World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5). Women were classified as having a low (WHO-5 ≤ 50) or high wellbeing. RESULTS: A total of 735 pregnant women were...... included. The prevalence of having a low wellbeing was 27.2%, 95% CI [24.0, 30.4]. Multivariate analysis showed independent associations between low wellbeing and European ethnicity, OR = .44, 95% CI [.25, .77], shift work, OR = 1.81, 95% CI [1.11, 2.93], insufficient sleep, OR = 3.30, 95% CI [1.96, 5...... in European overweight/obese pregnant women. The identified correlates might help in early recognition and subsequent treatment of poor mental health problems during pregnancy. This is important to reduce the unfavorable effects of poor mental health on pregnancy outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN70595832...

  1. Lifetime rates and correlates of crime victimisation in young people with mental ill-health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Rosemary; Harrigan, Susy

    2017-04-01

    Research on crime victimisation in the mentally ill has focused on middle aged cohorts with long-standing illness and functional disability. The rates and correlates of victimisation in young cohorts is largely unknown. Participants ( n=776) were aged 12-25 years attending headspace centres in Australia, who consented to a clinical interview and provided self-reported data regarding lifetime victimisation. A quarter of the sample (24.5%) reported crime victimisation, including 18.5% who experienced violent victimisation (mainly physical or sexual assault) and 14.1% non-violent crime. Both forms of victimisation were associated with illicit substance use, sexual orientation, and young adult age, while male gender was specifically associated with non-violent victimisation. Participants who reported violent victimisation were significantly more impaired both functionally and clinically than those reporting non-violent victimisation or no victimisation. Young people with mental ill-health are vulnerable to criminal victimisation, particularly violent assaults, although the lifetime rates of victimisation are substantially lower than those observed in older cohorts with serious mental illness. Effective, early intervention to address modifiable factors may reduce the risk of further victimisation.

  2. Parenting style, parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjeong; Walton-Moss, Benita

    2012-07-01

    Parental guidance is critical to the development of children's health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between parenting factors, including parenting style and parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors. In this descriptive, correlational study, 284 parents of preschool children were interviewed using the Child Rearing Questionnaire and the Korean Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Parent distress, authoritative and permissive parenting styles, family income, and mother's education were significantly associated with children's health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that higher levels of warmth, characteristics of both parenting styles, may be a critical factor in the development of health-related behaviors.

  3. Correlation of Radiographic Mental Foramen Position and Occulusion in Three Different Indian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, P; Bansal, N; Khosa, R; Verma, K G; Sachdev, S K; Patwardhan, N; Garg, S

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of the position of the mental foramen (MF) is important for administering local anaesthesia for diagnostic, surgical or operative procedures. To determine the shape, position, symmetry of MF and its continuity with the inferior dental canal (IDC) on a digital panoramic view and to find its correlation with Angle's molar relations in three Indian subpopulations. The study also determines the correlation of inter-foramen distance in both genders of three Indian subpopulations. One hundred and twenty digital panoramic radiographs were evaluated from three Indian subpopulations (Punjab, Rajasthan and Northeast [NE]). The assessment of occlusion was based on Angle's molar relationships. The data obtained were statistically analysed. The commonest position of the MF in the Rajasthan and NE populations was position 4 bilaterally, while in the Punjab population, it was position 3 on the right and position 4 on the left side. The majority of the MF was round in shape followed by oval. The mean distance between two MF was highest among the Punjab male population and least among the NE female population. The most frequent pattern of MF continuity with IDC was diffuse in Rajasthan population, separated in NE and continuous in Punjab. Correlation between Angle's molar relation with MF position was significant for Classes I and II but not for Class III. Correlation of inter-foramen distance between genders was highly significant in the NE and Punjab populations. The commonest MF position was aligned with the 1st premolar and between the 1st and 2nd premolar.

  4. Health-related quality of life and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Alishiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study sought to 1 investigate the degrees of correlations between different disease activity scores (DASs and health-related quality of life (HRQoL, and 2 determine if DASs correlate with either physical or mental HRQoL. Methods: Eighty patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA were assessed for different DASs, measured with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR or C-reactive protein (CRP, namely DAS4-ESR, DAS-3 ESR, DAS4-CRP, DAS3-CRP, DAS4-28 ESR, DAS3-28 ESR, DAS4-28 CRP, and DAS3-28 CRP, and Simplified Disease Activity Indexes namely SDAI-ESR, and SDAI-CRP. Physical and mental HRQoL were measured using the SF-36. The Pearson correlation test was employed to examine the correlations between HRQoL and different DAS indices. PASS 2000 (Power Analysis and Sample Size software was utilized to find significant differences between the correlations. Results: SF-36 total score showed a significant inverse correlation with the DAS4-ESR, DAS-3 ESR, DAS4-CRP, DAS3-CRP, DAS4-28 ESR, DAS3-28 ESR, DAS4-28 CRP, and DAS3-28 CRP, with correlation coefficients of -0.320, -0.314, -0.330, -0.323, -0.327, -0.318, -0.360 and -0.348, respectively (P < 0.01 for all. The correlation coefficients between different DAS indices and the HRQoL score were not significantly different. In addition, all DASs showed significant correlations with physical HRQoL, but not with mental HRQoL. Conclusions: Among patients with RA, disease severity indices are associated with physical, but not mental HRQoL. However this study failed to show any differences between various DASs in their clinical use.

  5. Neural Correlates in Exceptional Mental Arithmetic--About the Neural Architecture of Prodigious Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Thorsten; Weber, Jochen; Willmes, Klaus; Herrmann, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Prodigies are individuals with exceptional mental abilities. How is it possible that some of these people mentally calculate exponentiations with high accuracy and speed? We examined CP, a mental calculation prodigy, and a control group of 11 normal calculators for moderate mental arithmetic tasks. CP has additionally been tested for exceptionally…

  6. Evaluating the Correlation Between Burnout Syndrome Dimensions and Mental Health of Cashiers in State Banks of Golestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Mazloomy Mahmoudabad

    2015-07-01

    Results: On the whole, using the MBI subscale, we found low levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and high levels of reduced sense of personal accomplishment in frequency . The wo variables of burnout and poor mental health were related significantly(p<0.001. Conclusions: Our results suggest that there is a strong correlation between poor mental health and burnout to show that care should be taken to ameliorate the stressful conditions that cashiers face

  7. Correlative Evaluation of Mental and Physical Workload of Laparoscopic Surgeons Based on Surface Electromyography and Eye-tracking Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Yang; Liu, Sheng-Lin; Feng, Qing-Min; Gao, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-09-11

    Surgeons' mental and physical workloads are major focuses of operating room (OR) ergonomics, and studies on this topic have generally focused on either mental workload or physical workload, ignoring the interaction between them. Previous studies have shown that physically demanding work may affect mental performance and may be accompanied by impaired mental processing and decreased performance. In this study, 14 participants were recruited to perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) procedures in a virtual simulator. Surface electromyography (sEMG) signals of the bilateral trapezius, bicipital, brachioradialis and flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) muscles and eye-tracking signals were acquired during the experiment. The results showed that the least square means of muscle activity during the LC phases of surgery in an all-participants mixed effects model were 0.79, 0.81, and 0.98, respectively. The observed muscle activities in the different phases exhibited some similarity, while marked differences were found between the forearm bilateral muscles. Regarding mental workload, significant differences were observed in pupil dilation between the three phases of laparoscopic surgery. The mental and physical workloads of laparoscopic surgeons do not appear to be generally correlated, although a few significant negative correlations were found. This result further indicates that mental fatigue does markedly interfere with surgeons' operating movements.

  8. Gender, Family, and Community Correlates of Mental Health in South Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Nausheen; Okazaki, Sumie; Takeuchi, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Nationally representative data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (Alegría et al., 2004) was used to examine both disorder prevalence rates and correlates of distress for the South Asian American subgroup (n = 164). South Asian Americans generally appeared to have lower or comparable rates of lifetime and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders when compared with the overall Asian American sample. A multiple-regression model fitted to predict recent psychological distress, with 12-month diagnosis as a covariate, found gender differences. For women, lack of extended family support was related to higher levels of distress, whereas for men, greater conflict with family culture, and a lower community social position (but higher U.S. social position) predicted higher distress scores. Findings suggest that mental health services consider a broad framework of psychological functioning for South Asian Americans that reflect their gendered, familial, and sociopolitical realities. PMID:19594255

  9. Interpretation of illness in cancer survivors is associated with health-related variables and adaptive coping styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Julia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A patient's interpretation of illness may have an influence on the choice of coping strategies and decision making. We intended to analyze the meaning German cancer survivors would attribute to their disease, and investigated intercorrelations between the respective interpretations, health-related variables and adaptive coping strategies. Methods In an anonymous cross-sectional survey, we analyzed the interpretations of disease (according to Lipowski's eight 'meaning of illness' categories in 387 patients with cancer (81% breast cancer. To make statements about their conceptual relationships with health-related variables, we correlated the 8 items of the 'Interpretation of Illness' questionnaire (IIQ with health-related quality of life, anxiety/depression, fatigue, life satisfaction, and adaptive coping strategies. Results Most cancer survivors regarded their disease as a challenge (52%, others as value (38% or even an interruption of life (irreparable loss; 35%; weakness/failure (5% and punishment (3% were rated the lowest. The fatalistic negative interpretations 'interruption/loss' and 'enemy/threat' were inversely correlated with mental health-related quality of life and life satisfaction, and positively with an escape-avoidance strategy, depression and anxiety. In contrast, positive disease interpretations (i.e., 'challenge' and 'value' correlated only with adaptive coping strategies. Physical health correlated with none of the disease interpretations. Conclusion Despite conceptual limitations, the 8-item schema could be regarded as a useful screening approach to identify patients at risk for reduced psychosocial functioning.

  10. Prevalence, correlates of major depression: A mental health survey among undergraduates at a mainland Chinese university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjun; Meng, Xiangfei; Xu, Ziqi; Yu, Qiong; Shi, Jieping; Yu, Yaqin; D'Arcy, Carl; Huang, Yueqin; Kou, Changgui

    2016-09-01

    This cross-sectional survey among Chinese university students aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of major depressive disorder (MDD) among undergraduates, in order to provide basic information for the prevention and treatment of depression among the college-aged population. A total of 2,046 undergraduates were interviewed face to face using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (WHO-CIDI, version 3.0). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) criteria were used to diagnose MDD. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between MDD and selected correlates. The survey response rate was 90.1% (N = 1,843). The prevalence rates of MDD were 3.9% (lifetime), 2.4% (12 months) and 0.4% (30 days). No significant gender or age differences were found in prevalence rates. No sociodemographic characteristics were related to the lifetime prevalence of MDD. In contrast, family structure and environment factors specifically being from a single-parent family (odds ratio [OR] = 2.513, confidence interval [CI] = 1.404-2.500), parents having mental problems (OR = 1.809, CI = 1.104-2.964), and physical punishment (OR = 1.789, CI = 1.077-3.001) were associated with higher lifetime prevalence of MDD. These findings showed a relatively lower prevalence of DSM-IV/CIDI MDD in this sample of Chinese undergraduates than that reported for students in other countries. However, the prevalence rate for university students was higher than that reported for general Chinese population. Family structure and socio-environmental factors in the student's family of origin significantly correlated with the lifetime prevalence of MDD. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder in a Community Mental Health Clinic: Prevalence, Comorbidity and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew J; Youngstrom, Eric A; Youngstrom, Jennifer K; Findling, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    The revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5) added a new diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) to depressive disorders. This study examines the prevalence, comorbidity, and correlates of the new disorder, with a particular focus on its overlap with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), with which DMDD shares core symptoms. Data were obtained from 597 youth 6-18 years of age who participated in a systematic assessment of symptoms offered to all intakes at a community mental health center (sample accrued from July 2003 to March 2008). Assessment included diagnostic, symptomatic, and functional measures. DMDD was diagnosed using a post-hoc definition from item-level ratings on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children that closely matches the DSM-5 definition. Caregivers rated youth on the Child Behavior Checklist. Approximately 31% of youth met the operational definition of DMDD, and 40% had Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) diagnoses of ODD. Youth with DMDD almost always had ODD (odds ratio [OR] = 53.84) and displayed higher rates of comorbidity with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder than youth without DMDD. Caregivers of youth with DMDD reported more symptoms of aggressive behavior, rule-breaking, social problems, anxiety/depression, attention problems, and thought problems than all other youth without DMDD. Compared with youth with ODD, youth with DMDD were not significantly different in terms of categorical or dimensional approaches to comorbidity and impairment. The new diagnosis of DMDD might be common in community mental health clinics. Youth with DMDD displayed more severe symptoms and poorer functioning than youth without DMDD. However, DMDD almost entirely overlaps with ODD and youth with DMDD were not significantly different than youth with ODD. These findings raise concerns

  12. Mental and Reproductive Health Correlates of Academic Performance among Debre Berhan University Female Students, Ethiopia : The Case of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alemu, Sisay Mulugeta; Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie; Haile, Yohannes Gebreegziabhere

    2017-01-01

    Background. Globally 3 to 8% of reproductive age women are suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Several mental and reproductive health-related factors cause low academic achievement during university education. However, limited data exist in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to

  13. Correlation of Radiographic Mental Foramen Position and Occlusion in Three Different Indian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, P; Bansal, N; Khosa, R; Verma, KG; Sachdev, SK; Patwardhan, N; Garg, S

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The knowledge of the position of the mental foramen (MF) is important for administering local anaesthesia for diagnostic, surgical or operative procedures. Aims: To determine the shape, position, symmetry of MF and its continuity with the inferior dental canal (IDC) on a digital panoramic view and to find its correlation with Angle's molar relations in three Indian subpopulations. The study also determines the correlation of inter-foramen distance in both genders of three Indian subpopulations. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and twenty digital panoramic radiographs were evaluated from three Indian subpopulations (Punjab, Rajasthan and Northeast [NE]). The assessment of occlusion was based on Angle's molar relationships. The data obtained were statistically analysed. Results: The commonest position of MF in Rajasthan and NE populations was position 4 bilaterally, while in the Punjab population, it was position 3 on the right and position 4 on the left side. The majority of the MF was round in shape, followed by oval. The mean distance between two MF was highest among the Punjab male population and least among the NE female population. The most frequent pattern of MF continuity with IDC was diffuse in Rajasthan population, separated in NE and continuous in Punjab. Correlation between Angle's molar relation with the MF position was significant for Classes I and II but not for Class III. Correlation of inter-foramen distance between genders was highly significant in the NE and Punjab populations. Conclusion: The commonest MF position was aligned with the 1st premolar and between the 1st and 2nd-premolar. PMID:26426182

  14. MRI in spastic cerebral palsy - correlations with motor development and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulal, W.; Sobaniec, W.; Kubas, B.

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of magnetic resonance (MR) has improved our understanding of the pathophysiology and early diagnosis of cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this study was to evaluate types of lesions on MR in children with CP in correlations with motor development, cognitive impairment and risk factors. Twenty-two children aged 4-17 years (boys 12, girls 10) with CP diplegia - 16 and tetraplegia - 6 were studied. Routine MR images were performed in all children. Results: All patients had periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) in MR findings. In addition three different degrees of MRI lesion patterns were defined: a mild pattern (nucleus lentiformis and thalamus) moderate (nucleus lentiformis, thalamus and pericentral region)and a severe pattern (nucleus lentiformis , thalamus, pericentral region and hippocampus). Significant correlations of the MR findings with the motor development and mental retardation were found. No significant relationships between the MR findings and the etiological factors (prematurity, low birthweight, Apgar score, sepsis, seizures, pre-eclamsia , and gestational age) were noted. MR imaging is useful in the evaluation structural abnormalities in the brains in the children with spastic diplegia and tetraplegia. (author)

  15. Selected factors correlated to athletic performance in adults with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciosi, Emanuele; Baldari, Carlo; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Guidetti, Laura

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the contribution of selected factors to the athletic performance in adults with mental retardation (MR) and to analyze the correlation of each factor with subjects' MR levels. Twenty-nine trained athletes with MR aged 20-45 years were recruited. The fundamental factors included anthropometric measurements, flexibility, muscular strength and endurance, explosive leg power, cardiovascular endurance, and motor coordination. The athletic performances were as follows: 60 m, 300 m, 400 m in walking, standing long jump, and vortex throw (Level I) or 100-m run, shot put, and long jump (Level II). Motor coordination and body weight had significant contributions to 60 m (p jump (p shot put (p jump (p < 0.05). MR level was positively correlated to motor coordination (p < 0.05) and negatively to abdominal muscular strength and endurance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results showed the possibility to determine the contributions of selected factors to the athletic performance. This should be addressed in athletics training to help athletes with MR to perform successfully in their competitions.

  16. Mental Health Correlates of Cigarette Use in LGBT Individuals in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Christopher F; Lopez, Eliot J; Griffin, James A; Toomey, Thomas M; Eldridge, Elizabeth D; Stepleman, Lara M

    2018-05-12

    Smoking prevalence for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals is higher than for heterosexual, cisgender individuals. Elevated smoking rates have been linked to psychiatric comorbidities, substance use, poverty, low education levels, and stress. This study examined mental health (MH) correlates of cigarette use in LGBT individuals residing in a metropolitan area in the southeastern United States. Participants were 335 individuals from an LGBT health needs assessment (mean age 34.7; SD = 13.5; 63% gay/lesbian; 66% Caucasian; 81% cisgender). Demographics, current/past psychiatric diagnoses, number of poor MH days in the last 30, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) 2 depression screener, the Three-Item Loneliness Scale, and frequency of cigarette use were included. Analyses included bivariate correlations, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and regression. Multiple demographic and MH factors were associated with smoker status and frequency of smoking. A logistic regression indicated that lower education and bipolar disorder were most strongly associated with being a smoker. For smokers, a hierarchical regression model including demographic and MH variables accounted for 17.6% of the variance in frequency of cigarette use. Only education, bipolar disorder, and the number of poor MH days were significant contributors in the overall model. Conclusions/Importance: Less education, bipolar disorder, and recurrent poor MH increase LGBT vulnerability to cigarette use. Access to LGBT-competent MH providers who can address culturally specific factors in tobacco cessation is crucial to reducing this health disparities.

  17. Neural correlates of mental effort evaluation--involvement of structures related to self-awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, Tobias; Zijlstra, Fred R H; Goebel, R.

    Mental effort is a limited resource which must be invested to perform mental tasks. The amount of mental effort investment that an individual experiences during task performance can be measured afterwards with the help of self-rating scales. Earlier research suggests that integration of information

  18. Suicidality, bullying and other conduct and mental health correlates of traumatic brain injury in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ilie

    Full Text Available Our knowledge on the adverse correlates of traumatic brain injuries (TBI, including non-hospitalized cases, among adolescents is limited to case studies. We report lifetime TBI and adverse mental health and conduct behaviours associated with TBI among adolescents from a population-based sample in Ontario.Data were derived from 4,685 surveys administered to adolescents in grades 7 through 12 as part of the 2011 population-based cross-sectional Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS. Lifetime TBI was defined as head injury that resulted in being unconscious for at least 5 minutes or being retained in the hospital for at least one night, and was reported by 19.5% (95%CI:17.3,21.9 of students. When holding constant sex, grade, and complex sample design, students with TBI had significantly greater odds of reporting elevated psychological distress (AOR = 1.52, attempting suicide (AOR = 3.39, seeking counselling through a crisis help-line (AOR = 2.10, and being prescribed medication for anxiety, depression, or both (AOR = 2.45. Moreover, students with TBI had higher odds of being victimized through bullying at school (AOR = 1.70, being cyber-bullied (AOR = 2.05, and being threatened with a weapon at school (AOR = 2.90, compared with students who did not report TBI. Students with TBI also had higher odds of victimizing others and engaging in numerous violent as well as nonviolent conduct behaviours.Significant associations between TBI and adverse internalizing and externalizing behaviours were found in this large population-based study of adolescents. Those who reported lifetime TBI were at a high risk for experiencing mental and physical health harms in the past year than peers who never had a head injury. Primary physicians should be vigilant and screen for potential mental heath and behavioural harms in adolescent patients with TBI. Efforts to prevent TBI during adolescence and intervene at an early stage may

  19. Interrelationship among the health-related and subjective quality of life, daily life activities, instrumental activities of daily living of community-dwelling elderly females in orthopedic outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemasa, Seiichi; Nakagoshi, Ryoma; Uesugi, Masayuki; Inoue, Yuri; Gotou, Makoto; Naruse, Susumu; Nanba, Yoshihumi

    2017-05-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the health-related and subjective quality of life of community-dwelling elderly females in orthopedic outpatients, and also examined how such quality of life correlate with their daily life activities and instrumental activities of daily living. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 27 community-dwelling elderly females in orthopedic outpatients (mean age: 76.3 ± 7.4 years). Their health-related quality of life and subjective quality of life, life-space assessment, frenchay activities index were researched. [Results] For the relationships between the total subjective quality of life scores and health-related quality of life scores, significant positive correlations were observed for body pain, general health, vitality, social functions and mental health. The correlations were not statistically significant between the subjective quality of life scores and the life-space assessment and frenchay activities index scores. The correlations were statistically significant between some health-related quality of life scores and the life-space assessment and frenchay activities index scores. [Conclusion] The results suggest that supporting community-dwelling elderly females in orthopedic outpatients to improve their sense of physical and mental well-being, and prevent and reduce their depression and physical pain, is required in order to improve their QOL.

  20. Health Correlates of Insomnia Symptoms and Comorbid Mental Disorders in a Nationally Representative Sample of US Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blank, M.; Zhang, J.H.; Lamers, F.; Taylor, A.D.; Hickie, I.B.; Merikangas, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and health correlates of insomnia symptoms and their association with comorbid mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States. Design: National representative cross-sectional study. Setting: Population-based

  1. Neural correlates of mental effort evaluation--involvement of structures related to self-awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Tobias; Zijlstra, Fred R H; Goebel, Rainer

    2014-03-01

    Mental effort is a limited resource which must be invested to perform mental tasks. The amount of mental effort investment that an individual experiences during task performance can be measured afterwards with the help of self-rating scales. Earlier research suggests that integration of information about somatic state changes is crucial for the self-evaluation of mental effort investment. Damage to the pathways which convey information about somatic state changes can lead to an inability to self-evaluate mental effort investment, while conceptually similar evaluations of task difficulty can still be performed. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activation, while subjects rated their mental effort investment and the difficulty of a previously performed task. Our results show stronger activation of the left anterior insular cortex (aIC) during evaluation of mental effort. Additionally, the activity in left aIC during task performance was modulated by changes in task demand in a similar way as the self-ratings of mental effort. We argue that aIC does not only play a role in the integration of self-related information during self-evaluation of mental effort investment, but that left aIC might also be involved in the experience of mental effort during task performance.

  2. Correlations between subjective well-being – psychopathology and coping with stress of people with different forms of mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Konrad Olszewski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the author referred to the complete mental health model by Keyes and Lopez. In this model quality different forms of psychical health are distinguished. They are based on such dimensions as psychopathology (which indicator is higher level of anxiety and well-being (life satisfaction. The author also concentrates on coping with stress. The aim of this study is to show the relation between quality different forms of mental health and the type of coping with stress. The author investigated English and Polish philology students of Maria Curie-Skłodowska University. They were 22-42 years old. Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI and Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced (COPE were used in this study. The results indicates that it is possible to distinguish groups of people with different forms of mental health. There are two groups with two main forms of mental health: “prosperous” and “fearful” people. In the group of “fearful” people there is correlation between factors that decide about the form of mental health (life satisfaction and the level of anxiety and the ways of coping with stress. In the group of “prosperous” people factors that decide about mental health are not connected with the ways of coping.

  3. Correlates of perceived helpfulness of mental health professionals following disclosure of sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzynski, Laura L; Ullman, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    A diverse sample of more than 365 adult sexual assault survivors, recruited from college and community sources, was surveyed about sexual assault experiences, post-assault factors, and perceived helpfulness of and satisfaction with mental health professionals. Regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with perceived helpfulness of and satisfaction with mental health professionals. Older age, higher posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), greater control over recovery, and more emotional support reactions were associated with positive perceptions of mental health professionals. Stranger offenders, greater resistance during assault, high victim post-assault upset, and blaming social reactions from others were associated with negative perceptions of mental health professionals.

  4. Health Correlates of Insomnia Symptoms and Comorbid Mental Disorders in a Nationally Representative Sample of US Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Madeleine; Zhang, Jihui; Lamers, Femke; Taylor, Adrienne D.; Hickie, Ian B.; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and health correlates of insomnia symptoms and their association with comorbid mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States. Design: National representative cross-sectional study. Setting: Population-based sample from the US adolescents. Measurements and Results: A total of 6,483 individuals aged between 13–18 y in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) with both individual and parental reports of mental health were included in this study. Participants were classified with insomnia symptoms if they reported difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and/or early morning awakening, nearly every day for at least 2 w in the past year. Nearly one-third of adolescents reported insomnia symptoms for at least 2 w during the previous year. Hispanic and black youth were significantly more likely to report insomnia symptoms (42.0% and 41.3%, respectively) than non-Hispanic white youth (30.4%). Adolescents with insomnia symptoms were at a higher risk for all classes of mental disorders {odds ratio [OR] (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4 (2.9–4.0)} including mood, anxiety, behavioral, substance use, and eating disorders, suicidality [OR (95% CI): 2.63 (1.34–5.16)], poor perceived mental health [OR (95% CI): 2.01 (1.02–3.96)], chronic medical conditions [OR (95% CI): 1.94 (1.55–2.43)], smoking [OR (95% CI: 2.60 (1.00–6.72)], and obesity [OR (95% CI: 1.46 (1.10–1.93)] than those without insomnia symptoms. Adolescents with insomnia symptoms and comorbid mental disorders manifested even greater rates of these indicators of negative health behaviors and disorders than those with mental disorders alone (P Insomnia symptoms are reported by one-third of adolescents in the general population. Insomnia symptoms, even in the absence of concomitant depression or other mental disorders, are associated with serious health conditions, risk factors

  5. Impact of cardiac rehabilitation on health related quality of life.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Riaz, A

    2012-02-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs are recognized as integral part of the comprehensive care of patients with cardiovascular disease and are recommended as useful and effective (Class I) by the American Heart Association (AHA). In this study we used serial administration of the short form 36 (SF36) to evaluate patient\\'s response to CR in terms of improvement in Health related Quality of Life. A total of 49 patients were included in the analysis. There was a significant improvement observed after CR in the Physical Capacity Score (42.3 vs 49.9 p = 0.0005). There was no significant improvement in the Mental Capacity Score (54.8 vs 54.9 p = 0.96). We conclude that Cardiac Rehabilitation Program causes a significant improvement in the health related quality of life of patients by improving their physical health and well being but does not improve the mental capacity which is already at a healthy level before CR.

  6. Depression and health related quality of life in adolescent survivors of a traumatic brain injury: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Di Battista

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury is (TBI a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in youth. Adult survivors of a severe pediatric TBI are vulnerable to global impairments, including greater employment difficulties, poor quality of life (HRQoL and increased risk of mental health problems. When estimating the health related quality of life in adolescents, the presence of anxiety and depression and the quality of social relationships are important considerations, because adolescents are entrenched in social development during this phase of maturation. The influence of anxiety, depression and loneliness on health related quality of life in adolescent survivors of TBI has not been documented. This pilot study aimed to identify and measure the relationship between anxiety, depression and loneliness and perceived health related quality of life in adolescent survivors of a TBI.mixed method/cohort pilot study (11 adolescents, mild to severe TBI; 9 parents, using self-report and proxy-report measures of anxiety, depression, health related quality of life, loneliness and clinical psychiatric interviews (adolescent only.Self-reported depression was significantly correlated with self-reported HRQoL (rs [11] = -0.88, p<0.001. Age at injury was significantly correlated with self-reported HRQoL (rs [11] = -0.68, p = 0.02. Self-reported depression predicted self-reported HRQoL (R2 = 0.79, F [1, 10] = 33.48, p<0.001, but age at injury did not (R2 = 0.19, F [1, 10] = 2.09, p = 0.18.Our results suggest that depression is a predictor of health related quality of life in youth post-TBI. The possibility of using targeted assessment and therapy for depression post-TBI to improve health related quality of life should be explored.

  7. Lifestyle and Mental Health Correlates of Psychological Distress in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hackman, Christine L.; Sharma, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Objective: College students are at an increased risk of mental distress. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mental and lifestyle factors differed according to self-reported levels of psychological distress. Design and setting: A self-report questionnaire comprising the Kessler-6 Psychological Distress Scale, Revised Life…

  8. Competitive Performance Correlates of Mental Toughness in Tennis: A Preliminary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowden, Richard G

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated relationships between mental toughness and measures of competitive performance in tennis. Forty-three male (N = 25) and female (N = 18) players (M age = 13.6 years, SD = 2.4) completed the mental toughness inventory, and the point-by-point outcomes recorded during a competitive tennis match (singles) were used to generate performance indices for each athlete. The results indicated that mental toughness was associated with several, but not all, macro, micro, and critical moment performance indices. The findings suggest mental toughness may contribute to successful performance during tennis competition, although the importance of the construct appears to depend depend on specific match situations. Future mental toughness research should consider a range of factors related to sport performance, including athletes' and opponents' physical, technical, and tactical abilities. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. A Meta-Analytic Approach to Examining the Correlation Between Religion/Spirituality and Mental Health in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsman, John M.; Pustejovsky, James E.; Jim, Heather S.L.; Munoz, Alexis R.; Merluzzi, Thomas V.; George, Login; Park, Crystal L.; Danhauer, Suzanne C.; Sherman, Allen C.; Snyder, Mallory A.; Fitchett, George

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Religion and spirituality (R/S) are patient-centered factors and often resources for managing the emotional sequelae of the cancer experience. Studies investigating the relationship between R/S (e.g., beliefs, experiences, coping) and mental health (e.g., depression, anxiety, well-being) in cancer have used very heterogeneous measures, with correspondingly inconsistent results. A meaningful synthesis of these findings has been lacking; thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of the research on R/S and mental health. Methods Four electronic databases were systematically reviewed and 2,073 abstracts met initial selection criteria. Reviewer pairs applied standardized coding schemes to extract correlational indices of the relationship between R/S and mental health. A total of 617 effect sizes from 148 eligible studies were synthesized using meta-analytic generalized estimating equations; subgroup analyses were performed to examine moderators of effects. Results The estimated mean correlation (Fisher z) was 0.19 (95% CI 0.16–0.23), which varied as a function of R/S dimension: affective, z=0.38 (95% CI 0.33-0.43); behavioral, z=0.03 (95% CI -0.02-0.08); cognitive, z=0.10 (95% CI 0.06-0.14); and ‘other,’ z=0.08 (95% CI 0.03-0.13). Aggregate, study-level demographic and clinical factors were not predictive of the relationship between R/S and mental health. There was little indication of publication or reporting biases. Conclusions The relationship between R/S and mental health is generally a positive one. The strength of that relationship is modest and varies as a function of R/S dimensions and mental health domains assessed. Identification of optimal R/S measures and more sophisticated methodological approaches are needed to advance research. PMID:26258536

  10. The relationship between problem gambling and mental and physical health correlates among a nationally representative sample of Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Cox, Brian J; Martens, Patricia J; Sareen, Jitender; Enns, Murray W

    2010-01-01

    Gambling has become an increasingly common activity among women since the widespread growth of the gambling industry. Currently, our knowledge of the relationship between problem gambling among women and mental and physical correlates is limited. Therefore, important relationships between problem gambling and health and functioning, mental disorders, physical health conditions, and help-seeking behaviours among women were examined using a nationally representative Canadian sample. Data were from the nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.2 (CCHS 1.2; n = 10,056 women aged 15 years and older; data collected in 2002). The statistical analysis included binary logistic regression, multinomial logistic regression, and linear regression models. Past 12-month problem gambling was associated with a significantly higher probability of current lower general health, suicidal ideation and attempts, decreased psychological well-being, increased distress, depression, mania, panic attacks, social phobia, agoraphobia, alcohol dependence, any mental disorder, comorbidity of mental disorders, chronic bronchitis, fibromyalgia, migraine headaches, help-seeking from a professional, attending a self-help group, and calling a telephone help line (odds ratios ranged from 1.5 to 8.2). Problem gambling was associated with a broad range of negative health correlates among women. Problem gambling is an important public health concern. These findings can be used to inform healthy public policies on gambling.

  11. A meta-analytic approach to examining the correlation between religion/spirituality and mental health in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsman, John M; Pustejovsky, James E; Jim, Heather S L; Munoz, Alexis R; Merluzzi, Thomas V; George, Login; Park, Crystal L; Danhauer, Suzanne C; Sherman, Allen C; Snyder, Mallory A; Fitchett, George

    2015-11-01

    Religion and spirituality (R/S) are patient-centered factors and often are resources for managing the emotional sequelae of the cancer experience. Studies investigating the correlation between R/S (eg, beliefs, experiences, coping) and mental health (eg, depression, anxiety, well being) in cancer have used very heterogeneous measures and have produced correspondingly inconsistent results. A meaningful synthesis of these findings has been lacking; thus, the objective of this review was to conduct a meta-analysis of the research on R/S and mental health. Four electronic databases were systematically reviewed, and 2073 abstracts met initial selection criteria. Reviewer pairs applied standardized coding schemes to extract indices of the correlation between R/S and mental health. In total, 617 effect sizes from 148 eligible studies were synthesized using meta-analytic generalized estimating equations, and subgroup analyses were performed to examine moderators of effects. The estimated mean correlation (Fisher z) was 0.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16-0.23), which varied as a function of R/S dimensions: affective R/S (z = 0.38; 95% CI, 0.33-0.43), behavioral R/S (z = 0.03; 95% CI, -0.02-0.08), cognitive R/S (z = 0.10; 95% CI, 0.06-0.14), and 'other' R/S (z = 0.08; 95% CI, 0.03-0.13). Aggregate, study-level demographic and clinical factors were not predictive of the relation between R/S and mental health. There was little indication of publication or reporting biases. The correlation between R/S and mental health generally was positive. The strength of that correlation was modest and varied as a function of the R/S dimensions and mental health domains assessed. The identification of optimal R/S measures and more sophisticated methodological approaches are needed to advance research. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  12. The correlation of mentoring and job satisfaction: a pilot study of mental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheryl D; del Carmen Montiel, Eliette

    2011-08-01

    A pilot study examined the relationship between job satisfaction and perceived mentoring among 56 mental health supervisors and practitioners in a county mental health agency. Participants completed the Alleman Mentoring Activities Questionnaires and the Job Descriptive Index and Job in General Scale. Practitioners who perceived they were involved in mentoring relationships with supervisors were more satisfied with their jobs than those who perceived that they were not involved in mentoring relationships. The mentoring functions of sponsoring, assigning challenging tasks, and demonstrating trust predicted job satisfaction. Recommendations include incorporating mentoring functions in supervisory training to increase mental health professionals' job satisfaction.

  13. Environmental correlates of mental health measures for women in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Emily Jane; Magalhães, Ricardo Jorge Soares; Speldewinde, Peter; Weinstein, Philip; Dobson, Annette

    2014-12-01

    A recent study in Western Australia identified area level associations between soil salinisation and hospital admissions for depression. Our study assessed the quantitative relationship between mental health measures at the individual level and location specific environmental measurements on salinity, as well as two other indicators of environmental degradation and change: land surface temperature and normalised difference vegetation index, a proxy for rainfall. Location-specific environmental measurements were linked to individual mental health scores of women in three age cohorts from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health using a geographic information system. Bayesian geostatistical linear regression models were developed to assess associations between environmental exposures and mental health scores of women. In contrast to previous studies using area level measures, our study found no associations between individual level measurements of mental health scores for women in south-west Western Australia and salinity, LST or NDVI.

  14. Correlation between Mental Well-Being and Marital Life Quality of Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Shahsiah M; Bahrami F; Mohebi S.; Tabarrai Y

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The most important reason in couples′ marital conflict is their expectancy of their roles in the family. The couples get married by presumptions and different prejudices about emotional subjects and life activities which are the mental well-being.the purpose of this research is the study of mental well-being and marital life quality of couples. Methods: The method is cluster sampling in which 50 couples are selected from clinical and health centers of Sirjan. The re...

  15. Health correlates of insomnia symptoms and comorbid mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Madeleine; Zhang, Jihui; Lamers, Femke; Taylor, Adrienne D; Hickie, Ian B; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and health correlates of insomnia symptoms and their association with comorbid mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States. National representative cross-sectional study. Population-based sample from the US adolescents. A total of 6,483 individuals aged between 13–18 y in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) with both individual and parental reports of mental health were included in this study. Participants were classified with insomnia symptoms if they reported difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and/or early morning awakening, nearly every day for at least 2 w in the past year. Nearly one-third of adolescents reported insomnia symptoms for at least 2 w during the previous year. Hispanic and black youth were significantly more likely to report insomnia symptoms (42.0% and 41.3%, respectively) than non-Hispanic white youth (30.4%). Adolescents with insomnia symptoms were at a higher risk for all classes of mental disorders {odds ratio [OR] (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4 (2.9–4.0)} including mood, anxiety, behavioral, substance use, and eating disorders, suicidality [OR (95% CI): 2.63 (1.34–5.16)], poor perceived mental health [OR (95% CI): 2.01 (1.02–3.96)], chronic medical conditions [OR (95% CI): 1.94 (1.55–2.43)], smoking [OR (95% CI: 2.60 (1.00–6.72)], and obesity [OR (95% CI: 1.46 (1.10–1.93)] than those without insomnia symptoms. Adolescents with insomnia symptoms and comorbid mental disorders manifested even greater rates of these indicators of negative health behaviors and disorders than those with mental disorders alone (P Insomnia symptoms are reported by one-third of adolescents in the general population. Insomnia symptoms, even in the absence of concomitant depression or other mental disorders, are associated with serious health conditions, risk factors, and suicidality. Comorbid mental disorders potentiate the

  16. Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and oral health related quality of life, the Limpopo - Arusha school health project (LASH): A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mbawalla, Hawa S; Masalu, Joyce R; ?str?m, Anne N

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Promoting oral health of adolescents is important for improvement of oral health globally. This study used baseline-data from LASH-project targeting secondary students to; 1) assess frequency of poor oral hygiene status and oral impacts on daily performances, OIDP, by socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, 2) examine whether socio-economic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and OIDP differed by gender and 3) examine whether socio-demographic disp...

  17. Mental health and behaviour of students of public health and their correlation with social support: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíró, Eva; Adány, Róza; Kósa, Karolina

    2011-11-16

    Future public health professionals are especially important among students partly because their credibility in light of their professional messages and activities will be tested daily by their clients; and partly because health professionals' own lifestyle habits influence their attitudes and professional activities. A better understanding of public health students' health and its determinants is necessary for improving counselling services and tailoring them to demand. Our aim was to survey public health students' health status and behaviour with a focus on mental health. A cross-sectional study was carried out among public health students at 1-5-years (N = 194) with a self-administered questionnaire that included standardized items on demographic data, mental wellbeing characterized by sense of coherence (SoC) and psychological morbidity, as well as health behaviour and social support. Correlations between social support and the variables for mental health, health status and health behaviour were characterized by pairwise correlation. The response rate was 75% and represented students by study year, sex and age in the Faculty. Nearly half of the students were non-smokers, more than one quarter smoked daily. Almost one-fifth of the students suffered from notable psychological distress. The proportion of these students decreased from year 1 to 5. The mean score for SoC was 60.1 and showed an increasing trend during the academic years. 29% of the students lacked social support from their student peers. Significant positive correlation was revealed between social support and variables for mental health. Psychological distress was greater among female public health students than in the same age female group of the general population; whereas the lack of social support was a more prevalent problem among male students. Health status and behaviour of public health students is similar to their non-students peers except for their worse mental health. Future public health

  18. Prevalence and correlates of common mental disorders among mothers of young children in Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline G Uriyo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although poor maternal mental health is a major public health problem, with detrimental effects on the individual, her children and society, information on its correlates in low-income countries is sparse. AIMS: This study investigates the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD among at-risk mothers, and explores its associations with sociodemographic factors. METHODS: This population-based survey of mothers of children aged 0-36 months used the 14-item Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ. Mothers whose response was "yes" to 8 or more items on the scale were defined as "at risk of CMD." RESULTS: Of the 1,922 mothers (15-48 years, 28.8% were at risk of CMD. Risk of CMD was associated with verbal abuse, physical abuse, a partner who did not help with the care of the child, being in a polygamous relationship, a partner with low levels of education, and a partner who smoked cigarettes. Cohabiting appeared to be protective. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results indicate the significance of the quality of relations with one's partner in shaping maternal mental health. The high proportion of mothers who are at risk of CMD emphasizes the importance of developing evidence-based mental health programmes as part of the care package aimed at improving maternal well-being in Tanzania and other similar settings.

  19. Unhealthy lifestyle, poor mental health, and its correlation among adolescents: a nationwide cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanihata, Takeo; Kanda, Hideyuki; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Ohida, Takashi; Minowa, Masumi; Wada, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Hayashi, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between mental health and lifestyles of adolescents using samples representative of Japanese adolescents nationwide. The survey was conducted between December 2004 and January 2005 among students enrolled in randomly selected junior and senior high schools. Self-administered questionnaires addressed lifestyles, sleeping habits, and mental health status. Of 103 650 questionnaires collected, 85 158 were analyzed. Population characteristics associated with poor mental health were being female, being a senior high school student, skipping breakfast, not participating in extracurricular activities, not consulting parents about personal matters, parental smoking, students' smoking or alcohol use, poor subjective sleep assessment, and short or long sleeping duration. Smoking and anxiety disorders are associated with an elevation in acculturative stress in adolescents. Prepossessing adolescents are in subclinical depression. Results suggest that lifestyles approaches in preventions that target students can be effective in reaching high-risk populations. © 2012 APJPH.

  20. Mental Rotational Ability Is Correlated with Spatial but Not Verbal Working Memory Performance and P300 Amplitude in Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Gregory J.; Cook, Charles M.; Ward, Brian J.; Tata, Matthew S.; Sutherland, Janice; Sutherland, Robert J.; Saucier, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how both sex and individual differences in a mental rotation test (MRT) influence performance on working memory (WM). To identify the neural substrate supporting these differences, brain electrical activity was measured using the event-related potential technique. No significant sex differences were observed in a test of verbal WM, however males were significantly faster than females to respond to probe stimuli in a test of spatial WM. This difference was no longer significant after controlling for differences in MRT score, suggesting that rotational ability mediates performance in the spatial memory task for both sexes. A posterior P300 was observed in both tasks as participants encoded information into memory, however the amplitude of the P300 correlated with RT in the spatial task but not in the verbal task. Individual differences in the MRT also correlated with RT and with the amplitude of the P300, but again only in the spatial task. After splitting the analysis by sex, partial correlations controlling for MRT revealed that for males, individual differences in rotational ability completely mediated the correlation between the P300 and RT in the spatial task. This mediating effect was not observed for the female participants. The results therefore suggest a relatively stronger association in males between innate mental rotational ability, spatial memory performance, and brain electrophysiological processes supporting spatial memory. PMID:23437381

  1. Motivation-Hygiene Correlates of Mental Health: An Examination of Motivational Inversion in a Clinical Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Frederick; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This article presents two investigations of the motivational inversion hypothesis derived from the motivation-hygiene theory. The major hypothesis of this article is that the higher the degree of mental disorder, the higher the degree of motivational inversion. (Author/EK)

  2. Correlates of Mental Well-Being among Turkish Health Care Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersanli, Ercümend; Korkut, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate whether the mental well-being of health care workers associated with gender, age and marital status. Data were collected from 115 health care workers (doctors, physiotherapist, nurses, etc.) from a Turkish Medical Research and Application Center. They completed a demographic information form and the…

  3. Physical and mental health correlates of adverse childhood experiences among low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambron, Christopher; Gringeri, Christina; Vogel-Ferguson, Mary Beth

    2014-11-01

    The present study used secondary data gathered from a statewide random sample of 1,073 adult women enrolled in Utah's single-parent cash assistance program and logistic regression to examine associations between self-reported physical, emotional, and sexual abuse during childhood and later life physical and mental health indicators. Results demonstrated significant associations between low-income women's self-reports of physical, emotional, or sexual abuse in childhood, and current and lifetime anxiety disorder, domestic violence, current posttraumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, physical health or mental health issues, and any mental health diagnosis. These results build on previous research to paint a fuller picture of the associations between childhood abuse and physical and mental health for low-income women in Utah. Consistent with research by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, findings suggest the applicability of conceptualizing childhood abuse as a public health issue. Social workers can play an integral role in promoting and implementing broader screening practices, connecting affected individuals with long-term interventions, and applying research findings to the design and provision of services within a public health model.

  4. Prevalence and Clinical Correlates of Hypothyroidism in a School for Children with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswal, Shivani; Kaur, Jasbinder; Chavan, B. S.; Gupta, Seema; Kaur, Harjeet

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Pediatrician is the first contact in the Pathway to Care in children with Mental retardation (MR). Following the recent advancements in the area of molecular genetics, understanding of specific conditions of MR or Developmental Delay (DD) is expanding. Hypothyroidism is a treatable metabolic/endocrinological cause of MR. The aim of this…

  5. Correlation Between Critical Thinking Disposition and Mental Self-Supporting Ability in Nursing Undergraduates: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Defang; Luo, Yang; Liao, Xinyu

    2017-02-01

    There is universal agreement on the essential role of critical thinking in nursing practice. Most studies into this topic have provided descriptive statistical information and insights on related external factors such as educational environment and teaching strategies. However, there has been limited research into the psychological factors that may predict the disposition of students toward critical thinking. This study explored the relationship between the disposition of nursing students toward critical thinking and their mental self-supporting ability to obtain a profile and determine the psychological predictors of critical thinking. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 2013 using a convenience sample from four nursing schools. Four hundred six Chinese nursing undergraduates completed two questionnaires including (a) the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (Chinese version) and (b) the Mental Self-Supporting Questionnaire for University Students. Pearson's correlation and linear regression analysis were used to investigate the relationship between these two variables and the predicted positive psychological qualities for the critical thinking disposition of participants. Average participant scores for critical thinking disposition and mental self-supporting were 280.91 ± 28.43 and 76.40 ± 8.47, respectively. Positive correlations were observed between these two variables (r = .583, p thinking disposition (R = .435, p thinking and mental self-supporting abilities.The four factors that had a major influence on critical thinking disposition included self-decision, self-cognition, self-confidence, and self-responsibility. Nursing educators should focus on improving the critical thinking ability of their students in these four aspects.

  6. Personality, mental health and demographic correlates of hoarding behaviours in a midlife sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet K. Spittlehouse

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the Temperament and Character Inventory personality traits, demographic features, physical and mental health variables associated with hoarding behaviour in a random community sample of midlife participants in New Zealand. A sample of 404 midlife participants was recruited to a study of ageing. To assess hoarding behaviours participants completed the Savings Inventory-Revised (SI-R, personality was assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory and self-reported health was measured by the Short Form-36v2 (SF-36v2. Other measures were used to assess socio-demographic variables and current mental disorders. Participants were split into four groups by SI-R total score (scores: 0–4, 5–30, 31–41 and >41. Those who scored >41 on the SI-R were classified as having pathological hoarding. Trend tests were calculated across the four hoarding groups for socio-demographic, personality, mental and physical health variables. SI-R scores ranged from 0 to 58. The prevalence of pathological hoarding was 2.5% and a further 4% reported sub-clinical symptoms of hoarding. Higher hoarding behaviour scores were related to higher Temperament and Character Inventory scores for Harm Avoidance and lower scores for Self-directedness. Persistence and Cooperativeness scores were lower too but to a lesser extent. Trend analysis revealed that those with higher hoarding behaviour scores were more likely to be single, female, unemployed, receive income support, have a lower socio-economic status, lower household income and have poorer self-reported mental health scores. Current depression rates were considerably higher in the pathological hoarding group. Increasing SI-R hoarding behaviour scores were associated with higher scores of negative affect (Harm Avoidance and lower scores of autonomy (Self-directedness. Those with pathological hoarding or sub-clinical symptoms of hoarding also reported widespread mental and socio-economic problems. In this study

  7. Cognitive and social functioning correlates of employment among people with severe mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra, Javier; López, Marcelino; González, Sergio; Arias, Samuel; Crawford, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We assess how social and cognitive functioning is associated to gaining employment for 213 people diagnosed with severe mental illness taking part in employment programs in Andalusia (Spain). We used the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status and the Social Functioning Scale and conducted two binary logistical regression analyses. Response variables were: having a job or not, in ordinary companies (OCs) and social enterprises (SEs), and working in and OC or not. Th...

  8. Affect regulation, mental health disorders, and maladaptive brain responses in music listening : a correlational study

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Affect regulation may be defined as a process by which an individual maintains or modifies his or her mood or emotional state, by conscious or automatic processes. Adequate affect regulation may play an important role in mitigating or preventing mental illness, which is a widespread, inadequately treated and inadequately understood phenomenon. Music, which is known to express and induce emotions, may be used for affect regulation in a variety of ways, both self-directed and in therapeutic con...

  9. Sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse among university employees: prevalence and mental health correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J A; Rospenda, K M; Nawyn, S J; Flaherty, J A; Fendrich, M; Drum, M L; Johnson, T P

    1999-03-01

    This study hypothesized that interpersonal workplace stressors involving sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse are highly prevalent and significantly linked with mental health outcomes including symptomatic distress, the use and abuse of alcohol, and other drug use. Employees in 4 university occupational groups (faculty, student, clerical, and service workers; n = 2492) were surveyed by means of a mailed self-report instrument. Cross-tabular and ordinary least squares and logistic regression analyses examined the prevalence of harassment and abuse and their association with mental health status. The data show high rates of harassment and abuse. Among faculty, females were subjected to higher rates; among clerical and service workers, males were subjected to higher rates. Male and female clerical and service workers experienced higher levels of particularly severe mistreatment. Generalized abuse was more prevalent than harassment for all groups. Both harassment and abuse were significantly linked to most mental health outcomes for men and women. Interpersonally abusive workplace dynamics constitute a significant public health problem that merits increased intervention and prevention strategies.

  10. Internalized stigma and its psychosocial correlates in Korean patients with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo Jung; Song, Youn Joo; Ryu, Hyun-Sook; Ryu, Vin; Kim, Jae Min; Ha, Ra Yeon; Lee, Su Jin; Namkoong, Kee; Ha, Kyooseob; Cho, Hyun-Sang

    2015-02-28

    We aimed to examine internalized stigma of patients with mental illness in Korea and identify the contributing factors to internalized stigma among socio-demographic, clinical, and psychosocial variables using a cross-sectional study design. A total of 160 patients were recruited from a university mental hospital. We collected socio-demographic data, clinical variables and administered self-report scales to measure internalized stigma and levels of self-esteem, hopelessness, social support, and social conflict. Internalized stigma was identified in 8.1% of patients in our sample. High internalized stigma was independently predicted by low self-esteem, high hopelessness, and high social conflict among the psychosocial variables. Our finding suggests that simple psychoeducation only for insight gaining cannot improve internalized stigma. To manage internalized stigma in mentally ill patients, it is needed to promote hope and self-esteem. We also suggest that a relevant psychosocial intervention, such as developing coping skills for social conflict with family, can help patients overcome their internalized stigma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Visualising mental representations: a primer on noise-based reverse correlation in social psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, L|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/400417464; Todorov, Alexander; Dotsch, R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328554197

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, social psychologists have adopted the psychophysical method of reverse correlation. Reverse correlation is a data-driven method in which judgments of randomly varying stimuli are used to reconstruct participants' internal representation subtending those judgments. Here, we review

  12. Correlates of improvement in quality of life among homeless persons with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, J A; Rosenheck, R A

    2000-01-01

    Longitudinal data from 4,331 homeless mentally ill clients at 18 sites participating in the Access to Community Care and Effective Services and Supports program were used to assess participants' quality of life over a one-year period. At baseline higher quality of life was associated with less severe depressive and psychotic symptoms, less use of alcohol and drugs, and more social support. At 12 months improved quality of life was associated with decreased psychotic and depressive symptoms, reduced substance abuse, fewer days of homelessness, and increased social support, income, employment, and service use.

  13. Neural and psychophysiological correlates of human performance under stress and high mental workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrick, Kevin; Peysakhovich, Vsevolod; Rémy, Florence; Lepron, Evelyne; Causse, Mickaël

    2016-12-01

    In our anxiogenic and stressful world, the maintenance of an optimal cognitive performance is a constant challenge. It is particularly true in complex working environments (e.g. flight deck, air traffic control tower), where individuals have sometimes to cope with a high mental workload and stressful situations. Several models (i.e. processing efficiency theory, cognitive-energetical framework) have attempted to provide a conceptual basis on how human performance is modulated by high workload and stress/anxiety. These models predict that stress can reduce human cognitive efficiency, even in the absence of a visible impact on the task performance. Performance may be protected under stress thanks to compensatory effort, but only at the expense of a cognitive cost. Yet, the psychophysiological cost of this regulation remains unclear. We designed two experiments involving pupil diameter, cardiovascular and prefrontal oxygenation measurements. Participants performed the Toulouse N-back Task that intensively engaged both working memory and mental calculation processes under the threat (or not) of unpredictable aversive sounds. The results revealed that higher task difficulty (higher n level) degraded the performance and induced an increased tonic pupil diameter, heart rate and activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, and a decreased phasic pupil response and heart rate variability. Importantly, the condition of stress did not impact the performance, but at the expense of a psychophysiological cost as demonstrated by lower phasic pupil response, and greater heart rate and prefrontal activity. Prefrontal cortex seems to be a central region for mitigating the influence of stress because it subserves crucial functions (e.g. inhibition, working memory) that can promote the engagement of coping strategies. Overall, findings confirmed the psychophysiological cost of both mental effort and stress. Stress likely triggered increased motivation and the recruitment of additional

  14. Subjective food intake ability related to oral health-related quality of life and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S-H; Kim, J-S; Cha, J-Y; Lee, K-J; Yu, H-S; Hwang, C-J

    2016-09-01

    Reduced food intake ability can restrict an individual's choice of foods and might have a significant impact on the individual's quality of life and mental health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between self-reported masticatory ability and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) and psychological health. The study included 72 (26 men, 46 women) adults with a mean age of 26·4 ± 8·6 years. Each participant completed the key subjective food intake ability (KFIA) test for five key foods, the Korean version of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14K) and three questionnaires for measuring anxiety, depression and self-esteem. The participants were distributed into two groups by sex (a mean age of 23·9 ± 5·2 for men and 27·9 ± 9·8 for women) and by the median KFIA score. There were no significant differences in any of the variables according to sex. Thirty-two participants (12 men, 20 women) in the lower KFIA group had a higher total OHIP-14K (P food intake ability is associated with a poor oral health-related quality of life and higher depression level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Health Related Outcomes of Successful Development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kebza, V.; Šolcová, Iva; Kodl, M.; Kernová, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2016), s. 76-82 ISSN 1210-7778 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : successful development * longitudinal study * health-related variables Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.682, year: 2016

  16. NHRIC (National Health Related Items Code)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Related Items Code (NHRIC) is a system for identification and numbering of marketed device packages that is compatible with other numbering...

  17. Determinants of health-related lifestyles among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceijas, Carmen; Waldhäusl, Sabrina; Lambert, Nicky; Cassar, Simon; Bello-Corassa, Rafael

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate students' health-related lifestyles and to identify barriers and social determinants of healthier lifestyles. An online survey, two focus groups and three in-depth interviews across 2014/2015. A stratified by school size and random sample ( n = 468) of university students answered a 67-item questionnaire comprising six scales: Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity, Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for Patients-Short Version, CAGE, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale short version, and ad hoc scale for drug use/misuse. Stratified by gender, χ 2 tests were run to test associations/estimate risks and three multivariate Logistic Regression models were adjusted. A thematic approach guided the analysis of qualitative data. A total of 60% of the respondents were insufficiently physically active, 47% had an unbalanced diet and 30% had low mental wellbeing. Alcohol drinkers versus abstinent were almost equally distributed. A total of 42% of alcohol drinkers reported getting drunk at least once a month. Smokers accounted for 16% of the respondents. Identified risk factors for suboptimal physical activity were as follows: being a woman, not using the university gym and smoking. Risk factors for unbalanced diet were low mental wellbeing and drug use. Poor mental wellbeing was predicted by unbalanced diet, not feeling like shopping and cooking frequently, and a lack of help-seeking behaviour in cases of distress. Qualitative analysis revealed seven thematic categories: transition to new life, university environment and systems, finances, academic pressure, health promotion on campus and recommendations. This study provides robust evidence that the health-related lifestyles of the student population are worrying and suggests that the trend in chronic diseases associated with unhealthy lifestyles sustained over years might be unlikely to change in future generations. University students

  18. Mental health correlates of past homelessness in the National Comorbidity Study Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Greg A; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2010-11-01

    This study uses data from a nationally representative epidemiologic survey, the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, to investigate the association of mental health and substance use disorders, along with other factors, with past homelessness. Approximately 5% of the 5,251 adults reported having been homelessness. Multivariate analysis showed the strongest independent risk factors for past homelessness were past receipt of welfare payments (odds ratio [OR]=5.7), incarceration for 27 or more days (OR=3.9), exposure to personal violence (OR=2.7), lifetime substance use disorder (OR=2.4), and Black race (OR=2.1). Several non-substance use psychiatric disorders were also significantly, if less strongly (OR 1.4 to 1.6), associated with past homelessness. Past homelessness is associated with a broad array of sociodemographic, economic, and mental health problems. While the association of both substance use and psychiatric disorders with past homelessness was quite strong, non-substance use psychiatric disorders was not as strong an independent risk factor as substance abuse disorders.

  19. Visualising mental representations: a primer on noise-based reverse correlation in social psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkman, L; Todorov, Alexander; Dotsch, R

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, social psychologists have adopted the psychophysical method of reverse correlation. Reverse correlation is a data-driven method in which judgments of randomly varying stimuli are used to reconstruct participants' internal representation subtending those judgments. Here, we review the method and its findings within the context of social psychology, discussing its promises, achievements, and validity. Our review suggests that, even in these early stages, the technique has prove...

  20. [Health and health-related behaviors according to sexual attraction and behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Glòria; Martí-Pastor, Marc; Gotsens, Mercè; Bartoll, Xavier; Diez, Elia; Borrell, Carme

    2015-01-01

    to Describe perceived health, mental health and certain health-related behaviors according to sexual attraction and behavior in the population residing in Barcelona in 2011. Perceived health, mental health, chronic conditions and health-related behaviors were analyzed in 2675 people aged 15 to 64 years. The Barcelona Health Survey for 2011 was used, which included questions on sexual attraction and behavior. Multivariate robust Poisson regression models were fitted to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios. People feeling same-sex attraction reported a higher prevalence of worse perceived and mental health. These people and those who had had sex with persons of the same sex more frequently reported harmful health-related behaviors. Lesbian, gay, transgender and bisexual people may have health problems that should be explored in depth, prevented, and attended. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Sojourner readjustment: mental health of international students after one year's foreign sojourn and its psychosocial correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, T

    1997-04-01

    The problem of readjustment to the home culture among international students who have spent some time in a foreign culture has not received satisfactory empirical investigation in the literature. We present a longitudinal study of the readjustment of 199 Japanese adolescents who have been enrolled in 1-year placement with a host family in various countries of the world. The personality trait, coping style, social support, and emotional distress of the subjects were measured before departure, while abroad, and 6 months after return home. The students showed substantial emotional distress even 6 months after return from a foreign sojourn; neuroticism, emotion-oriented coping, and concurrently measured social support were found to significantly predict mental health during readjustment. Close attention is recommended not only for the adjustment of the international students while abroad but also for the readjustment process involved in the so-called reverse culture shock.

  2. Correlates of poor mental health in early pregnancy in obese European women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sattler, Matteo C; Jelsma, Judith G M; Bogaerts, Annick

    2017-01-01

    and Lifestyle Intervention for gestational diabetes mellitus prevention) study were analyzed. Maternal mental health was assessed with the World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5). Women were classified as having a low (WHO-5 ≤ 50) or high wellbeing. RESULTS: A total of 735 pregnant women were...... included. The prevalence of having a low wellbeing was 27.2%, 95% CI [24.0, 30.4]. Multivariate analysis showed independent associations between low wellbeing and European ethnicity, OR = .44, 95% CI [.25, .77], shift work, OR = 1.81, 95% CI [1.11, 2.93], insufficient sleep, OR = 3.30, 95% CI [1.96, 5...

  3. Cognitive and Social Functioning Correlates of Employment Among People with Severe Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Javier; López, Marcelino; González, Sergio; Arias, Samuel; Crawford, Paul

    2016-10-01

    We assess how social and cognitive functioning is associated to gaining employment for 213 people diagnosed with severe mental illness taking part in employment programs in Andalusia (Spain). We used the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status and the Social Functioning Scale and conducted two binary logistical regression analyses. Response variables were: having a job or not, in ordinary companies (OCs) and social enterprises, and working in an OC or not. There were two variables with significant adjusted odds ratios for having a job: "attention" and "Educational level". There were five variables with significant odds ratios for having a job in an OC: "Sex", "Educational level", "Attention", "Communication", and "Independence-competence". The study looks at the possible benefits of combining employment with support and social enterprises in employment programs for these people and underlines how both social and cognitive functioning are central to developing employment models.

  4. The prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Berglund, Patricia A.; Chiu, Wai Tat; Deitz, Anne C.; Hudson, James I.; Shahly, Victoria; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Benjet, Corina; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Haro, Josep Maria; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; O’Neill, Siobhan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sasu, Carmen; Scott, Kate; Viana, Maria Carmen; Xavier, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Background Little population-based data exist outside the United States on the epidemiology of binge eating disorder (BED). Cross-national data on BED are presented and compared to bulimia nervosa (BN) based on the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Methods Community surveys with 24,124 respondents (ages 18+) across 14 mostly upper-middle and high income countries assessed lifetime and 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Physical disorders were assessed with a chronic conditions checklist. Results Country-specific lifetime prevalence estimates are consistently (median; inter-quartile range) higher for BED (1.4%;0.8–1.9%) than BN (0.8%;0.4–1.0%). Median age-of-onset is in the late teens to early 20s for both disorders but slightly younger for BN. Persistence is slightly higher for BN (6.5 years; 2.2–15.4) than BED (4.3 years; 1.0–11.7). Lifetime risk of both disorders is elevated for women and recent cohorts. Retrospective reports suggest that comorbid anxiety, mood, and disruptive behavior disorders predict subsequent onset of BN somewhat more strongly than BED and that BN predicts subsequent comorbid psychiatric disorders somewhat more strongly than does BED. Significant comorbidities with physical conditions are due almost entirely to BN and BED predicting subsequent onset of these conditions, again with BN somewhat stronger than BED. Role impairments are similar for BN and BED. Fewer than half of lifetime BN or BED cases receive treatment. Conclusions BED represents a public health problem at least equal to BN. Low treatment rates highlight the clinical importance of questioning patients about eating problems even when not included among presenting complaints. PMID:23290497

  5. Health-related quality of life and disability in patients with acute unilateral peripheral vestibular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Petri

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Health-related quality of life is used to denote that portion of the quality of life that is influenced by the person's health. Objectives: To compare the health-related quality of life of individuals with vestibular disorders of peripheral origin by analyzing functional, emotional and physical disabilities before and after vestibular treatment. Methods: A prospective, non randomized case-controlled study was conduced in the ENT Department, between January 2015 and December 2015. All patients were submitted to customize a 36 item of health survey on quality of life, short form 36 health survey questionnaire (SF-36 and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory for assessing the disability. Individuals were diagnosed with acute unilateral vestibular peripheral disorders classified in 5 groups: vestibular neuritis, Ménière Disease, Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo, cochlear-vestibular dysfunction (other than Ménière Disease, or other type of acute peripheral vertigo (as vestibular migraine. Results: There was a statistical significant difference for each parameter of Dizziness Handicap Inventory score (the emotional, functional and physical between the baseline and one month both in men and women, but with any statistical significant difference between 7 days and 14 days. It was found a statistical significant difference for all eight parameters of SF-36 score between the baseline and one month later both in men and women; the exception was the men mental health perception. The correlation between the Dizziness Handicap Inventory and the SF-36 scores according to diagnostics type pointed out that the Spearman's correlation coefficient was moderate correlated with the total scores of these instruments. Conclusion: The Dizziness Handicap Inventory and the SF-36 are useful, proved practical and valid instruments for assessing the impact of dizziness on the quality of life of patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular

  6. The relationship between proxy reported health-related quality of life and parental distress: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E; Davies, B; Waters, E; Priest, N

    2008-11-01

    Although primary caregiver proxy reports of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are often used for healthcare decision making when child self-reports are unable to be collected (because of a variety of reasons such as child illness, disability or age), we have little understanding of the correlates of parent-proxy reports. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between parental depression and parent-proxy reported QOL for primary caregivers (mothers and fathers), using a multidimensional HRQOL instrument. It was hypothesized that maternal depression would be negatively correlated with maternal reported HRQOL, but that paternal depression would not be correlated with paternal reported HRQOL. Data were from parents of children aged 4-5 years (n = 4983) involved in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. A questionnaire assessing parental depression (Kessler-6) and proxy reported HRQOL (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory) was completed by the primary caregiver. For maternal primary caregivers, maternal depression was negatively correlated with all domains of maternal proxy reports of HRQOL (r = -0.24 to r = -0.36). For paternal primary caregivers, there was no relationship between paternal depression and paternal proxy reports of HRQOL. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that maternal depression was a significant predictor of total HRQOL, accounting for 12% of the variance. For paternal mental health, depression did not predict parent-proxy reported total HRQOL. These results highlight the importance of assessing maternal mental health when measuring proxy reported QOL. Further research is needed in this area to examine the relationship between parental depression and proxy reported HRQOL (including both mothers and fathers, where possible), as well as child self-reported HRQOL.

  7. Lifetime and current prevalence of common DSM-IV mental disorders, their demographic correlates, and association with service utilisation and disability in older Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Matthew; Anderson, Tracy M; Sachdev, Perminder S; Titov, Nickolai; Andrews, Gavin

    2015-02-01

    To describe lifetime and 12 month prevalence of common DSM-IV mental disorders, their demographic correlates, and association with service utilisation and disability in Australians aged 65-85 years of age. The sample included Australian residents aged 65-85 years who participated in the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being (n=1905). The prevalence of DSM-IV mental disorders was estimated using the lay-interviewer administered World Mental Health version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Eight percent had experienced an affective disorder, 10% an anxiety disorder, and 12% a substance use disorder at some point in their life. Sex, age, and marital status were significant correlates of any lifetime mental disorder. Approximately, 2%, 4%, and 1% of old age respondents met criteria for mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders in the past 12 months, respectively. The presence of physical disorder, disability, and greater treatment service use were associated with any mental disorder in the past 12 months. Prevalence of lifetime and 12 month disorders by age band revealed a decrease as age increased. A substantial number of community dwelling old age Australians have experienced a mental disorder in their lifetime. Demographic correlates of mental disorder were relatively consistent between lifetime and 12 month prevalence of disorders, although sex made less of an impact and the presence of physical disorders more of an impact in recent disorders. Twelve month prevalence data suggest that a high proportion of old age Australians still experience mental disorders, predominantly anxiety and major depression. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  8. Secondary traumatic stress among mental health providers working with the military: prevalence and its work- and exposure-related correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, Roman; Anderson, Valerie; Bock, Judith; Moore, Bret A; Peterson, Alan L; Benight, Charles C

    2013-11-01

    Our research assessed the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress (STS) among mental health providers working with military patients. We also investigated personal, work-related, and exposure-related correlates of STS. Finally, using meta-analysis, the mean level of STS symptoms in this population was compared with the mean level of these symptoms in other groups. Participants (N = 224) completed measures of indirect exposure to trauma (i.e., diversity, volume, frequency, ratio), appraisal of secondary exposure impact, direct exposure to trauma, STS, and work characteristics. The prevalence of STS was 19.2%. Personal history of trauma, complaints about having too many patients, and more negative appraisals of the impact caused by an indirect exposure to trauma were associated with higher frequency of STS symptoms. A meta-analysis showed that the severity of intrusion, avoidance, and arousal symptoms of STS was similar across various groups of professionals indirectly exposed to trauma (e.g., mental health providers, rescue workers, social workers).

  9. The Neural Correlates of Mental Rotation Abilities in Cannabis-Abusing Patients with Schizophrenia: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Potvin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that cannabis abuse/dependence is paradoxically associated with better cognition in schizophrenia. Accordingly, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study of visuospatial abilities in 14 schizophrenia patients with cannabis abuse (DD, 14 nonabusing schizophrenia patients (SCZ, and 21 healthy controls (HCs. Participants performed a mental rotation task while being scanned. There were no significant differences in the number of mistakes between schizophrenia groups, and both made more mistakes on the mental rotation task than HC. Relative to HC, SCZ had increased activations in the left thalamus, while DD patients had increased activations in the right supramarginal gyrus. In both cases, hyper-activations are likely to reflect compensatory efforts. In addition, SCZ patients had decreased activations in the left superior parietal gyrus compared to both HC and DD patients. This latter result tentatively suggests that the neurophysiologic processes underlying visuospatial abilities are partially preserved in DD, relative to SCZ patients, consistently with the findings showing that cannabis abuse in schizophrenia is associated with better cognitive functioning. Further fMRI studies are required to examine the neural correlates of other cognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia patients with and without comorbid cannabis use disorder.

  10. Assessing mental flexibility: neuroanatomical and neuropsychological correlates of the Trail Making Test in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterman, Joukje M; Vogels, Raymond L C; van Harten, Barbera; Gouw, Alida A; Poggesi, Anna; Scheltens, Philip; Kessels, Roy P C; Scherder, Erik J A

    2010-02-01

    The Trail Making Test part B (TMT-B) is highly sensitive to age-related changes in the brain and cognitive function. However, the precise contribution of periventricular hyperintensities (PVH), deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMH), and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) to task performance remains unspecified. Similarly, diminished performance may be due to deficient flexibility functions, but also to other age-related cognitive decline (e.g., mental slowing). The aim of the present study was to determine neuroanatomical (PVH, DWMH, MTA) and neuropsychological (working memory, executive function, speed and attention, episodic memory) predictors of TMT-B performance in elderly people. Results showed that MTA was the strongest predictor of TMT-B performance. The predictive value of the neuropsychological scores differed among the various TMT-B variables. For example, all neuropsychological domains predicted the TMT-B total completion time, whereas only executive function predicted the ratio score (TMT-B/A). We conclude that MTA is a very important predictor of TMT-B performance in elderly people. Furthermore, multiple cognitive functions are involved in TMT-B performance and a mild decline in any of these functions may result in diminished TMT-B performance. Therefore it is crucial to use the ratio score when one wishes to examine executive function ability.

  11. Mental health correlates of perceived discrimination among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, V M; Cochran, S D

    2001-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that lesbians and gay men are at higher risk for stress-sensitive psychiatric disorders than are heterosexual persons. We examined the possible role of perceived discrimination in generating that risk. The National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, a nationally representative sample of adults aged 25 to 74 years, surveyed individuals self-identifying as homosexual or bisexual (n = 73) or heterosexual (n = 2844) about their lifetime and day-to-day experiences with discrimination. Also assessed were 1-year prevalence of depressive, anxiety, and substance dependence disorders; current psychologic distress; and self-rated mental health. Homosexual and bisexual individuals more frequently than heterosexual persons reported both lifetime and day-to-day experiences with discrimination. Approximately 42% attributed this to their sexual orientation, in whole or part. Perceived discrimination was positively associated with both harmful effects on quality of life and indicators of psychiatric morbidity in the total sample. Controlling for differences in discrimination experiences attenuated observed associations between psychiatric morbidity and sexual orientation. Higher levels of discrimination may underlie recent observations of greater psychiatric morbidity risk among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals.

  12. Personality traits predict perceived health-related quality of life in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbo, Ignazio Roberto; Minacapelli, Eleonora; Falautano, Monica; Demontis, Silvia; Carpentras, Giovanni; Pugliatti, Maura

    2016-04-01

    Personality traits can affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in different disorders. In multiple sclerosis (MS), personality traits can determine patients' willingness to take on more risky treatment options, predispose to neuropsychiatric symptoms and affect coping strategies. We investigated the role of personality traits as possible predictors of HRQoL in a large cohort of persons with MS (PwMS). In total, 253 consecutively recruited PwMS were screened for intellectual deficits with Raven Colour Progressive Matrices (RCPM), state anxiety with STAI-X1 and major depression on a clinical basis. PwMS' self-perceived mental and physical health status was measured with the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the personality profile with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R). The correlation between HRQoL and personality traits was investigated by means of analysis of variance, adjusting for possible confounders. Of the 253 MS patients, 195 (F:M=2.75), aged 41.7±10.2 years were included in the analysis. The variance of SF-36 mental and physical composite score was largely explained by extraversion and neuroticism. Our data confirm that PwMS' HRQoL is largely influenced by personality traits, which may therefore act as predictors of perceived quality of life and should be included in clinical and experimental settings focusing on HRQoL. © The Author(s), 2015.

  13. Gender, Family, and Community Correlates of Mental Health in South Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Masood, Nausheen; Okazaki, Sumie; Takeuchi, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Nationally representative data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (Alegría et al., 2004) was used to examine both disorder prevalence rates and correlates of distress for the South Asian American subgroup (n = 164). South Asian Americans generally appeared to have lower or comparable rates of lifetime and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders when compared with the overall Asian American sample. A multiple-regression model fitted to predict recent psychological distress, with 12-...

  14. Incidence and correlates of delirium in a West African mental health clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Ola, B.A.; Crabb, J.; Krishnadas, R.; Erinfolami, A.R.; Olagunju, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective:\\ud \\ud \\ud To determine the incidence of delirium in those patients presenting to a psychiatric clinic in Nigeria and to examine if any demographic or clinical variables were correlated with this diagnosis.\\ud \\ud \\ud Method \\ud \\ud \\ud A prospective survey design; 264 consecutive new referrals to a psychiatric clinic in Nigeria were assessed for the presence of delirium using a standardised diagnostic scale. Data was analysed for normality and appropriate statistical test employed...

  15. Psychiatric comorbidity and severity of dependence on substance users: how it impacts on their health-related quality of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Óscar M; Rojas, Antonio J; Fernández Calderón, Fermín

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of psychiatric comorbidity and severity of dependence on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). One hundred and ninety-eight substance use disorder (SUD) patients were recruited from an outpatient center that provides treatment for SUD. The International Personality Disorder Examination Screening Questionnaire (IPDE-SQ), Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), Substance Dependence Severity Scale (SDSS) and Health-Related Quality of Life for Drug Abusers test (HRQoLDA test) were administered. Patients with psychiatric comorbidity evaluated their HRQoL more negatively than patients without psychiatric comorbidity. An analysis of the relationship between severity of dependence and HRQoL scores indicated significant correlations among alcohol-, cocaine-, heroin- and cannabis-dependent patients. According to multivariate analyses, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, severity of dependence on alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, paranoid, borderline and avoidant personality disorders (PDs) were observed to have a major impact on HRQoL. SUD (severity of dependence on alcohol, cannabis and cocaine) and other mental disorders (anxiety disorders; mood disorders; paranoid, borderline and avoidant PDs) are involved in the deterioration of the SUD patients' HRQoL. This study demonstrates the need for integrated treatment for SUD patients. Treating only a part of the problem (whether SUD or other mental disorders are present) is insufficient for improving quality of life.

  16. Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life for Caregivers of Alzheimer’s Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. Andreakou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alzheimer’s disease (AD dementia is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder that results in total cognitive impairment and functional decline. Family members are the most usual caregivers worldwide, resulting in a subsequent degradation of their quality of life. Methods. During November 2013–March 2014 in Athens, Greece, 155 AD patients’ family caregivers’ Health-Related Quality of Life and existence of depressive symptomatology were assessed. Results. A strong negative correlation between the dimensions of HRQoL and the scores of the depression scale was revealed. AD patients’ caregivers have a lower HRQoL almost in all dimensions compared to the Greek urban general population. The caregivers’ social role, the existence of emotional problems, and their mental health status led to this result. Furthermore significantly important differences in caregivers’ total HRQoL and depressive symptomatology were indicated in relation to their gender, hypertension existence, patient care frequency, cohabitation with the patient, disease aggravation, and economic status. Conclusions. Caring for relatives with AD strongly correlates with negative caregivers’ HRQoL scores and adversely affects their depressive symptomatology. This negative correlation is enhanced in the later stages of the disease, in greater frequency of care, through living with a patient, in poor financial status, and with the existence of a chronic illness.

  17. EEG correlates of a mental arithmetic task in patients with first episode schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garakh, Zhanna; Zaytseva, Yuliya; Kapranova, Alexandra; Fiala, Ondrej; Horacek, Jiri; Shmukler, Alexander; Gurovich, Isaac Ya; Strelets, Valeria B

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the spectral power of the cortical bands in patients with first episode schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder at rest and during the performance of a mental arithmetic task. We analyzed EEG spectral power (SP) in the resting state and subsequently while counting down from 200 in steps of 7, in 32 first episode schizophrenia patients (SZ), 32 patients with first episode schizoaffective disorder (SA) and healthy controls (HC, n=40). Behavioral parameters such as accuracy and counting speed were also evaluated. Both SZ and SA patients were slower in counting than HC, no difference was obtained in the accuracy and counting speed in the patient groups. In the resting state patients showed elevated midline theta power, off-midline anterior beta 2 power and decreased central/posterior alpha power. The SA group occupied an intermediate position between the schizophrenia patients and controls. In task performance patients lacked a typical increase of midline theta, left anterior beta 2, and anterior gamma power; however, schizoaffective patients demonstrated a growing trend of power in the gamma band in left anterior off-midline sites similar to HC. Moreover, alpha power was less inhibited in schizoaffective patients and more pronounced in schizophrenia patients indicating distinct inhibitory mechanisms in these psychotic disorders. Patients with SA demonstrate less alteration in the spectral power of bands at rest than SZ, and present spectral power changes during cognitive task performance close to the controls. Our study contributes to the present evidence on the neurophysiological distinction between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Health related quality of life among patients with chronic hepatitis C: a cross-sectional study of sociodemographic, psychopathological and psychiatric determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cópio Fábregas

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronic hepatitis C virus infection patients have higher rates of psychiatric disorders than the general population. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is known to be associated with impaired health related quality of life. To our knowledge, there is no previous research of health related quality of life in chronic hepatitis C patients that combined structured psychiatric interview and careful psychopathological evaluation, including depression, anxiety and fatigue instruments. The aim of this study was to evaluate health related quality of life of chronic hepatitis C patients and to investigate the association with sociodemographic, psychopathological and psychiatric factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-one individuals with chronic hepatitis C virus infection receiving care at a Brazilian public university-based outpatient service for infectious diseases were enrolled in the study. The World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Brief Version was used to assess health related quality of life. Standard psychiatric interview (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus was conducted to establish Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis I psychiatric diagnosis. Further instruments completed psychopathological investigation: Beck Depression Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Brief Fatigue Inventory, Hamilton Depression Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Scale. Pearson Chi-Square and Kruskal-Wallis were performed for categorical and continuous univariate analysis, respectively. Correlation between psychopathological and health related quality of life scores was performed according to Spearman's correlation. Multivariate analysis was performed according to stepwise forward ordinal logistic regression. The significance threshold was fixed at α = 0.05. RESULTS: Depressive disorders were associated with worse scores in overall health related quality of life and in all domains

  19. Health related quality of life among patients with chronic hepatitis C: a cross-sectional study of sociodemographic, psychopathological and psychiatric determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fábregas, Bruno Cópio; de Ávila, Renata Eliane; Faria, Marjore Novaes; Moura, Alexandre Sampaio; Carmo, Ricardo Andrade; Teixeira, Antonio Lúcio

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus infection patients have higher rates of psychiatric disorders than the general population. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is known to be associated with impaired health related quality of life. To our knowledge, there is no previous research of health related quality of life in chronic hepatitis C patients that combined structured psychiatric interview and careful psychopathological evaluation, including depression, anxiety and fatigue instruments. The aim of this study was to evaluate health related quality of life of chronic hepatitis C patients and to investigate the association with sociodemographic, psychopathological and psychiatric factors. Eighty-one individuals with chronic hepatitis C virus infection receiving care at a Brazilian public university-based outpatient service for infectious diseases were enrolled in the study. The World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Brief Version was used to assess health related quality of life. Standard psychiatric interview (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus) was conducted to establish Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis I psychiatric diagnosis. Further instruments completed psychopathological investigation: Beck Depression Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Brief Fatigue Inventory, Hamilton Depression Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Scale. Pearson Chi-Square and Kruskal-Wallis were performed for categorical and continuous univariate analysis, respectively. Correlation between psychopathological and health related quality of life scores was performed according to Spearman's correlation. Multivariate analysis was performed according to stepwise forward ordinal logistic regression. The significance threshold was fixed at α=0.05. Depressive disorders were associated with worse scores in overall health related quality of life and in all domains. Fatigue was associated with lower scores in physical and psychological

  20. Health-related quality of life following blind rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyk, Thomas; Liu, Lei; Elliott, Jeffry L; Grubbs, Hartley E; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald; Griffin, Russell L; Fuhr, Patti S

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of residential blind rehabilitation on patients' vision-targeted health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and general physical and mental function. The National Eye Institute 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ) plus appendix questions, the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12), Hope Scale and Coopersmith self-esteem inventory were administered to 206 legally blind veterans prior to their entering a residential (in-patient) blind rehabilitation program and again to 185 and 176 of the original cohort at 2 and 6 months after completion of the rehabilitation program, respectively. Data on visual acuity, visual field extent, contrast sensitivity and scanning ability were also collected. The duration of the in-patient rehabilitation programs ranged from 11 to 109 days. Questionnaire scores were compared pre-rehabilitation and post-rehabilitation. Following rehabilitation there was a significant improvement in nine of 11 NEI VFQ subscales and in a composite score at both the 2- and 6-month post-rehabilitation intervals. Mental health (SF-12) and self esteem also improved significantly although physical health ratings declined over the course of the study (approximately 10 months). Residential blind rehabilitation appears to improve patients' self-reported vision-targeted HRQOL, self-esteem and mental health aspects of generic HRQOL.

  1. Sociodemographic, psychosocial and physical health correlates of common mental disorder symptoms among mothers in Trinidad and Tobago: Examining ethnic variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Ambika; Narine, Lutchmie; Roopnarine, Jaipaul L; Logie, Carol

    2016-08-22

    Historical and cultural experiences have shaped the life experiences of cultural communities in Trinidad and Tobago. Using a cultural focus, the goal of this investigation was to examine ethnic variations both in the prevalence of common mental disorder (CMD) symptoms as well as in the associations between sociodemographic, psychosocial, physical health correlates and CMDs among mothers in Trinidad and Tobago. Participants included 1002 mothers (359 African-, 353 Indo- and 290 Mixed-Ethnic Trinidadian). Mean comparisons indicated similarities in the levels of depression, somatisation and anxiety across ethnic groups. The associations between physical ill health, experiences of pain and depression and between physical ill health and somatisation were stronger for Mixed-Ethnic Trinidadian than Indo-Trinidadian mothers. The relationship between early experiences of domestic violence and depression was stronger for Indo-Trinidadian than Mixed-Ethnic Trinidadian mothers. The associations between early experiences of domestic violence and depression and between experiences of pain and somatisation were stronger for African Trinidadian than Mixed-Ethnic Trinidadian mothers. Thus beyond the direct effects, mothers belonging to specific ethnic groups indicated greater or lesser vulnerabilities to CMDs depending on their exposure to specific correlates. Results have applicability for the development of culturally sensitive interventions for mothers experiencing CMDs. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. The neural correlates of mental arithmetic in adolescents: a longitudinal fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemenko, Christina; Soltanlou, Mojtaba; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Dresler, Thomas

    2018-03-10

    Arithmetic processing in adults is known to rely on a frontal-parietal network. However, neurocognitive research focusing on the neural and behavioral correlates of arithmetic development has been scarce, even though the acquisition of arithmetic skills is accompanied by changes within the fronto-parietal network of the developing brain. Furthermore, experimental procedures are typically adjusted to constraints of functional magnetic resonance imaging, which may not reflect natural settings in which children and adolescents actually perform arithmetic. Therefore, we investigated the longitudinal neurocognitive development of processes involved in performing the four basic arithmetic operations in 19 adolescents. By using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, we were able to use an ecologically valid task, i.e., a written production paradigm. A common pattern of activation in the bilateral fronto-parietal network for arithmetic processing was found for all basic arithmetic operations. Moreover, evidence was obtained for decreasing activation during subtraction over the course of 1 year in middle and inferior frontal gyri, and increased activation during addition and multiplication in angular and middle temporal gyri. In the self-paced block design, parietal activation in multiplication and left angular and temporal activation in addition were observed to be higher for simple than for complex blocks, reflecting an inverse effect of arithmetic complexity. In general, the findings suggest that the brain network for arithmetic processing is already established in 12-14 year-old adolescents, but still undergoes developmental changes.

  3. TMD pain: the effect on health related quality of life and the influence of pain duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenvergert Elisabeth M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives As impact of literature concerning this subject is scarce, the objectives of this study were to assess whether the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL is decreased in patients with painful temporomandibular disorders as compared to the HRQoL in the general population, and to evaluate to what extent pain duration affects HRQoL. Methods Data concerning physical and mental health were retrieved from patients with painful temporomandibular disorders. Assessment tools used were: the Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire (MFIQ, the Short-Form-36 (SF-36, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Schedule (HADS, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. In order to examine the influence of the duration of pain on HRQoL, the total sample was divided into three different subgroups. Subgroup 1 consisted of patients with complaints existing less than one year. Patients with complaints from 1 to 3 years were allocated to the second group. The 3rd subgroup included patients with complaints longer than 3 years. Results The total sample consisted of 95 patients (90 females and 5 males. On most physical and social functioning items, groups 2 and 3 scored significantly worse than the general population. On the other hand, none of the groups differed from the general population when comparing the mental items. Duration of pain was significantly correlated with SF-36 subscale physical functioning and the mandibular impairment. Conclusion Patients with TMD pain less than one year score better than compared to the population norm. With a longer duration of pain, mental health scores and role limitations due to emotional problems do not appear to be seriously affected by reduced physical health, while social functioning appears to be considerably affected.

  4. Health-related quality of life and aerobic fitness in people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Guelinckx, Hannes; Probst, Michel; Stubbs, Brendon; Rosenbaum, Simon; Ward, Philip B; De Hert, Marc

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether aerobic fitness contributes to the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in people with schizophrenia, while adjusting for other previously-established contributory factors. Thirty-four male (34.1 ± 12.0 years) and 13 female (34.3 ± 9.2 years) participants performed a submaximal Astrand-Rhyming cycle ergometer test and completed the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and the Psychosis Evaluation tool for Common Use by Caregivers. After controlling for age and sex, illness duration (12.4 ± 11.2 years, r(2) = 0.38, P fitness (34.5 ± 8.7 ml O2  min(-1) kg(-1), r(2) = 0.36, P = 0.001) were found to be independent significant predictors of physical HRQoL (mean score 66.6 ± 18.5). However, when all variables were included in the same regression model, only illness duration (P = 0.004) and positive symptoms (P = 0.045) remained significant predictors, while there was a trend (P fitness. The final model explained 54% of the variability in physical HRQoL. No significant correlates for mental HRQoL (54.9 ± 18.5) were found. People with schizophrenia might improve their physical HRQoL by improving their aerobic fitness. Mental health nurses should assist in facilitating improvements in aerobic fitness through facilitating physical activity participation in patients with schizophrenia. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  5. Development and Validation of a Novel Generic Health-related Quality of Life Instrument With 20 Items (HINT-20

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    Min-Woo Jo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Few attempts have been made to develop a generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL instrument and to examine its validity and reliability in Korea. We aimed to do this in our present study. Methods After a literature review of existing generic HRQoL instruments, a focus group discussion, in-depth interviews, and expert consultations, we selected 30 tentative items for a new HRQoL measure. These items were evaluated by assessing their ceiling effects, difficulty, and redundancy in the first survey. To validate the HRQoL instrument that was developed, known-groups validity and convergent/discriminant validity were evaluated and its test-retest reliability was examined in the second survey. Results Of the 30 items originally assessed for the HRQoL instrument, four were excluded due to high ceiling effects and six were removed due to redundancy. We ultimately developed a HRQoL instrument with a reduced number of 20 items, known as the Health-related Quality of Life Instrument with 20 items (HINT-20, incorporating physical, mental, social, and positive health dimensions. The results of the HINT-20 for known-groups validity were poorer in women, the elderly, and those with a low income. For convergent/discriminant validity, the correlation coefficients of items (except vitality in the physical health dimension with the physical component summary of the Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2 were generally higher than the correlations of those items with the mental component summary of the SF-36v2, and vice versa. Regarding test-retest reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient of the total HINT-20 score was 0.813 (p<0.001. Conclusions A novel generic HRQoL instrument, the HINT-20, was developed for the Korean general population and showed acceptable validity and reliability.

  6. Mental Status Test Scores are Inversely Correlated with Tremor Severity: A Study of 161 Elderly Essential Tremor Cases

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    Elan D. Louis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increasing awareness that patients with essential tremor (ET may exhibit non-motor features, including cognitive dysfunction. Yet there are surprisingly few data in ET on the association, if any, between cognitive dysfunction and motor dysfunction (i.e., tremor severity. Establishing links between the cognitive and motor features of ET would imply that the two share a common underlying pathogenic process. Recent neuroimaging data support this notion.Methods: ET cases were enrolled in a clinical–pathological study at Columbia University Medical Center, New York. The Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination (FMMSE and Modified Mini Mental Status Examination (mMMSE were administered. Action tremor was rated with a total tremor score (TTS.Results: There were 161 ET cases (mean age 83.9±5.7 years, median FMMSE 28, median mMMSE 50. The FMMSE and mMMSE were inversely correlated with the TTS (r = −0.22, p = 0.005; and r = −0.17, p = 0.029. The association, while statistically significant, was modest in magnitude. In linear regression models that adjusted for age, gender, and education, the association between cognitive test scores and TTS remained robust (p<0.001. After excluding 68 (42.2% cases taking ET medications with potential cognitive side effects, results remained unchanged.Conclusions: Each of the two cognitive test scores was associated with tremor severity such that greater cognitive dysfunction occurred in cases with more marked tremor. These data support recent imaging data, which suggest that the cerebellar neurodegeneration underlying ET may be involved in the expression of cognitive symptoms in ET.

  7. Better health-related quality of life (mental component summary, having a higher level of education, and being less than 75 years of age are predictors of hospital admission among cognitively intact nursing home residents: a 5-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drageset J

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jorunn Drageset,1,2 Geir Egil Eide,3,4 Anette Hylen Ranhoff5,6 1Department of Nursing, Faculty for Health and Social Science, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway; 2Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; 3Centre for Clinical Research, Western Norway Health Region Authority, Bergen, Norway; 4Research Group for Lifestyle Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; 5Kavli Research Centre for Ageing and Dementia, Haraldsplass Hospital, Bergen, Norway; 6Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway Objective: To study whether health-related quality of life (HRQOL, activities of daily living (ADL, and anxiety and depression symptoms affect the risk of hospital admission and potential interactions with having a cancer diagnosis.Methods: This study was a prospective observational study with 5-year follow-up and analyzed the follow-up data on hospital admissions until 2010 using baseline data from 227 cognitively intact nursing home (NH residents (60 of whom had cancer in 2004–2005. Data on HRQOL were collected by using the Short Form-36 Health Survey, divided into physical component summary (PCS and mental component summary (MCS, and symptoms of anxiety and depression were collected by using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. ADL were obtained from registered observation and sociodemographic variables, diagnoses, and hospital admissions from the NH records. Personal identification numbers were linked to the record systems of the hospitals, thereby registering all hospital admissions. We analyzed the time elapsing between inclusion and the first hospital admission.Results: Residents with higher HRQOL (MCS had significantly more hospital admissions after adjustment for age, sex, marital status, education, and comorbidity. HRQOL (PCS, ADL, depression, and anxiety symptoms were not associated with hospital admissions

  8. Religiousness and health-related quality of life of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Andrade Abdala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To examine whether religiousness mediates the relationship between sociodemographic factors, multimorbidity and health-related quality of life of older adults.METHODS This population-based cross-sectional study is part of the Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging (SABE. The sample was composed by 911 older adults from Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. Structural equation modeling was performed to assess the mediator effect of religiousness on the relationship between selected variables and health-related quality of life of older adults, with models for men and women. The independent variables were: age, education, family functioning and multimorbidity. The outcome variable was health-related quality of life of older adults, measured by SF-12 (physical and mental components. The mediator variables were organizational, non-organizational and intrinsic religiousness. Cronbach’s alpha values were: physical component = 0.85; mental component = 0.80; intrinsic religiousness = 0.89 and family APGAR (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve = 0.91.RESULTS Higher levels of organizational and intrinsic religiousness were associated with better physical and mental components. Higher education, better family functioning and fewer diseases contributed directly to improved performance in physical and mental components, regardless of religiousness. For women, organizational religiousness mediated the relationship between age and physical (β = 2.401, p CONCLUSIONS Organizational and intrinsic religiousness had a beneficial effect on the relationship between age, education and health-related quality of life of these older adults.

  9. Health-related quality-of-life scales in Parkinson's disease: critique and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; Lyons, Kelly E.; Rodriguez-Blazquez, C.; Selai, Caroline; Siderowf, Andrew; Welsh, Mickie; Poewe, Werner; Rascol, Oliver; Sampaio, Cristina; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Goetz, Christopher G.; Schrag, Anette

    2011-01-01

    Health-related quality of life is an important patient-reported outcome used in intervention trials and for monitoring the consequences of health status on physical, mental, and social domains. Parkinson's disease is a complex disorder that strongly affects patients' quality of life. Several

  10. Health-related quality of life outcome for oral cancer survivors after surgery and postoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Fu-Min; Chien, Chih-Yen; Wang, Chong-Jong; Tsai, Wen-Ling; Chiu, Herng-Chia

    2004-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) data are becoming an important supplement to information pertaining to treatment outcome for cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the HRQL outcome for oral cancer survivors after surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy (RT) and to investigate the variables associated with their HRQL. Sixty-six oral cancer patients with cancer-free survival after surgery plus postoperative RT of >2 years were enrolled. The Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire in the Taiwan Chinese version was self-reported by all participants at the clinics. The linear regression model was used to analyze the socio-demographic and medical-related variables correlated with the physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) in SF-36. The mean scores of the eight functional domains in the SF-36 were markedly lower for oral cancer survivors compared with the Taiwanese and US norms. Those with older age, lower annual family income, more advanced cancer stage and flap reconstruction had significantly worse PCS, and those with lower annual family income, unemployment and more advanced cancer stage reported significantly worse MCS. This model accounts for 63% of variance in PCS, and 51% in MCS. These results provided patient-reported evidence that oral cancer survivors lived with a worse HRQL compared with the general Taiwanese population. Socio-economic factors and cancer stage were important factors correlated with their HRQL. (authors)

  11. Health-related quality of life in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie Jason

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved outcomes with expanding treatment options for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension present the opportunity to consider additional end-points in approaching therapy, including factors that influence health-related quality of life. However, comparatively little is known about health-related quality of life and its determinants in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Methods Health-related quality of life was evaluated in a cross sectional study of 155 outpatients with pulmonary arterial hypertension using generic and respiratory-disease specific measurement tools. Most patients had either World Health Organization functional Class II or III symptoms. Demographic, hemodynamic and treatment variables were assessed for association with health-related quality of life scores. Results Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension suffered severe impairments in both physical and emotional domains of health-related quality of life. Patients with idiopathic ("primary" pulmonary arterial hypertension had the best, and those with systemic sclerosis the worst health-related quality of life. Greater six-minute walk distance correlated with better health-related quality of life scores, as did functional Class II versus Class III symptoms. Hemodynamic measurements, however, did not correlate with health-related quality of life scores. No differences in health-related quality of life were found between patients who were being treated with calcium channel antagonists, bosentan or continuously infused epoprostenol at the time of quality of life assessment. Conclusion Health-related quality of life is severely impaired in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and is associated with measures of functional status. Specific associations with impaired health-related quality of life suggest potential areas for targeted intervention.

  12. Health-related quality of life and ways of coping with stress in patients with migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladetić, Mirjana; Jančuljak, Davor; Butković Soldo, Silva; Kralik, Kristina; Buljan, Krunoslav

    2017-02-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between the mode of coping and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with migraine. We have also tried to examine the relationship of disease duration and the frequency of attacks with HRQoL and the ways of coping with stress. The research was done on a sample consisting of 106 participants (95 women and 11 men); mean age of 40 years (IQR 28-48) with the migraine lasting for 10 years (IRQ 5-20 years). The average number of attacks, over the last month, was two attacks (IRQ 1-3 attacks). Ways of coping questionnaire were used to estimate the mode of coping with stress and SF-36 questionnaire for HRQoL. The result showed the self-control as the most common way of coping with stress in patients with migraine. They also confirmed the existence of a significant connection of ways of coping with stress and HRQoL in people with migraine. There is a larger number of significant correlations of ways of coping connected with the domains of mental health than with the physical health. Escape/avoidance is significantly negatively correlated with the largest number of HRQoL domains, especially with existence of significant mental health (ρ = -0.447) and role limitation due to the emotional problems (ρ = -0.361). The number of migraine attacks has greater influence on HRQoL in patients with migraine than the disease duration. Our study showed the existence of significant correlations between the ways of coping with stress and HRQoL, especially with mental domains. In some domains, the correlation was even stronger than the one showing the disease duration and the number of attacks. The above-mentioned results suggest the directions in further formulation of psychological interventions that would be helpful for the additional treatment of migraine.

  13. Individual factors and perceived community characteristics in relation to mental health and mental well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAneney, Helen; Tully, Mark A; Hunter, Ruth F; Kouvonen, Anne; Veal, Philip; Stevenson, Michael; Kee, Frank

    2015-12-12

    It has been argued that though correlated with mental health, mental well-being is a distinct entity. Despite the wealth of literature on mental health, less is known about mental well-being. Mental health is something experienced by individuals, whereas mental well-being can be assessed at the population level. Accordingly it is important to differentiate the individual and population level factors (environmental and social) that could be associated with mental health and well-being, and as people living in deprived areas have a higher prevalence of poor mental health, these relationships should be compared across different levels of neighbourhood deprivation. A cross-sectional representative random sample of 1,209 adults from 62 Super Output Areas (SOAs) in Belfast, Northern Ireland (Feb 2010 - Jan 2011) were recruited in the PARC Study. Interview-administered questionnaires recorded data on socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behaviours, individual social capital, self-rated health, mental health (SF-8) and mental well-being (WEMWBS). Multi-variable linear regression analyses, with inclusion of clustering by SOAs, were used to explore the associations between individual and perceived community characteristics and mental health and mental well-being, and to investigate how these associations differed by the level of neighbourhood deprivation. Thirty-eight and 30 % of variability in the measures of mental well-being and mental health, respectively, could be explained by individual factors and the perceived community characteristics. In the total sample and stratified by neighbourhood deprivation, age, marital status and self-rated health were associated with both mental health and well-being, with the 'social connections' and local area satisfaction elements of social capital also emerging as explanatory variables. An increase of +1 in EQ-5D-3 L was associated with +1SD of the population mean in both mental health and well-being. Similarly, a

  14. The prevalence and correlates of abuse among children with autism served in comprehensive community-based mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, David S; Walrath, Christine M; Manteuffel, Brigitte; Sgro, Gina; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A

    2005-12-01

    To determine the demographic and psychosocial correlates of physical and sexual abuse among children with autism. Data collected from 1997 to 2000 through the national evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and their Families Program on 156 children with autism were used. Data included a baseline assessment of child and family psychosocial experiences and presenting problems associated with referral into system-of-care service, demographic information, and a clinical record review to obtain psychiatric diagnosis. Binary and multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the association of different characteristics of children who were abused compared with those who were not abused. Caregivers reported that 18.5% of children with autism had been physically abused and 16.6% had been sexually abused. Physically abused children more likely had engaged in sexual acting out or abusive behavior, had made a suicide attempt, or had conduct-related or academic problems. Sexually abused children more likely had engaged in sexual acting out or abusive behavior, suicidal or other self-injurious behavior, had run away from home, or had a psychiatric hospitalization. In adjusted multivariate models, the relationship between sexual abuse and sexual acting out, running away from home and suicidal attempts persisted. Based on the prevalence of abuse and its association with various behaviors, clinicians should be as attuned to the psychosocial histories of children with autism as they are for other children, and consider the potential of abuse when these behaviors are observed.

  15. Correlates of HIV transmission risk factors and considerations for interventions in homeless, chemically addicted and mentally ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levounis, Petros; Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen; Hamowy, Alexander; De Leon, George

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to ascertain correlates of HIV high risk behaviors and attitudes toward HIV. A questionnaire was administered to 103 men living in a modified therapeutic community (TC) for homeless, chemically addicted and mentally ill men. The psychiatric diagnoses of the sample population included psychotic disorders (48%), depressive disorders (36%), and bipolar disorders (16%). Forty-two percent reported that their primary substance of abuse was cocaine and another 40% named alcohol as the substance to which they were most addicted. Two logistic regression analyses were conducted, one with needle sharing as the outcome measure and one with endorsement of the need for lifestyle changes to reduce risk of HIV transmission. Cocaine users were 3.4 times more likely to have shared needles than the rest of the sample. Patients who had a history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were 17 times more likely to endorse the need for lifestyle changes. The level of HIV transmission knowledge was unrelated to HIV risk behaviors or attitudes.

  16. Mental Health and Family Relations: Correlated Reports from People Who Inject Drugs and their Family Members in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Farmer, Shu C.; Flore, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background This article explores the association of people who inject drugs and their family members in terms of mental health and family relations. The objective was to understand the family context and its impact on people who inject drugs in a family-oriented culture in Vietnam. Methods Cross-sectional assessment data were gathered from 83 people who inject drugs and 83 of their family members recruited from four communes in Phú Thọ province, Vietnam. Depressive symptoms and family relations were measured for both people who inject drugs and family members. Internalized shame and drug-using behavior were reported by people who inject drugs, and caregiver burden was reported by family members. Results We found that higher level of drug using behavior of people who inject drugs was significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower family relations reported by themselves as well as their family members. Family relations reported by people who inject drugs and their family members were positively correlated. Conclusion The findings highlight the need for interventions that address psychological distress and the related challenges faced by family members of people who inject drugs. The article has policy implication which concludes with an argument for developing strategies that enhance the role of families in supporting behavioral change of people who inject drugs. PMID:23910167

  17. The prevalence, age-of-onset and the correlates of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in the Tianjin Mental Health Survey (TJMHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H; Xu, G; Tian, H; Yang, G; Wardenaar, K J; Schoevers, R A

    2018-02-01

    To effectively shape mental healthcare policy in modern-day China, up-to-date epidemiological data on mental disorders is needed. The objective was to estimate the prevalence, age-of-onset (AOO) and sociodemographic correlates of mental disorders in a representative household sample of the general population (age ⩾ 18) in the Tianjin Municipality in China. Data came from the Tianjin Mental health Survey (TJMHS), which was conducted between July 2011 and March 2012 using a two-phase design. 11 748 individuals were screened with an expanded version of the General Health Questionnaire and 4438 subjects were selected for a diagnostic interview by a psychiatrist, using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - fourth edition (SCID). The lifetime and 1-month prevalence of any mental disorder were 23.6% and 12.8%, respectively. Mood disorders (lifetime: 9.3%; 1-month: 3.9%), anxiety disorders (lifetime: 4.5% 1-month: 3.1%) and substance-use disorders (lifetime: 8.8%; 1-month: 3.5%) were most prevalent. The median AOO ranged from 25 years [interquartile range (IQR): 23-32] for substance-use disorders to 36 years (IQR: 24-50) for mood disorders. Not being married, non-immigrant status (i.e. local 'Hukou'), being a farmer, having mental disorder. Results from the current survey indicate that mental disorders are steadily reported more commonly in rapidly-developing urban China. Several interesting sociodemographic correlates were observed (e.g. male gender and non-immigrant status) that warrant further investigation and could be used to profile persons in need of preventive intervention.

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Louise; Sørensen, Jan; Ostergaard, Mikkel

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare validity, reliability, and responsiveness of generic and disease specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Two samples of patients completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), EuroQol (EQ)-5D......, 15D, Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life Scale (RAQoL), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and visual analog scales (VAS) for pain, fatigue, and global RA. Validity (convergent, discriminant, and known-groups) was evaluated in a cross-section of 200 patients. Reliability was evaluated...

  19. The effect of service dogs on the improvement of health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Mai; Senda, Masuo; Takayanagi, Tomoko; Katayama, Yoshimi; Furusawa, Kazunari; Okutani, Tamami; Kataoka, Masaki; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2010-04-01

    To assess the effects of service dogs on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), we conducted a survey of 10 service dog owners using SF-36v2 (Medical Outcomes Study 36 Item Short-Form Health Survey Version 2.0) and compared it with a matched control group of people with physical disabilities who did not have service dogs but were eligible for one. The scores for mental health and role emotional of service dog owners were relatively high, and their mental component summary was higher than the general population norm. These results indicate that service dogs affect the mentality of their owners. The comparison with the control group indicated that service dogs alleviate the mental burden of daily activities, and subjectively improved the physical functioning of their owners. This study showed that service dogs have positive functional and mental effects on their disabled owners.

  20. High Concordance Between Mental Stress-Induced and Adenosine-Induced Myocardial Ischemia Assessed Using SPECT in Heart Failure Patients: Hemodynamic and Biomarker Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyniak, Andrew J; Dilsizian, Vasken; Krantz, David S; Harris, Kristie M; Smith, Mark F; Shankovich, Anthony; Whittaker, Kerry S; Rodriguez, Gabriel A; Gottdiener, John; Li, Shuying; Kop, Willem; Gottlieb, Stephen S

    2015-10-01

    Mental stress can trigger myocardial ischemia, but the prevalence of mental stress-induced ischemia in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients is unknown. We characterized mental stress-induced and adenosine-induced changes in myocardial perfusion and neurohormonal activation in CHF patients with reduced left-ventricular function using SPECT to precisely quantify segment-level myocardial perfusion. Thirty-four coronary artery disease patients (mean age±SD, 62±10 y) with CHF longer than 3 mo and ejection fraction less than 40% underwent both adenosine and mental stress myocardial perfusion SPECT on consecutive days. Mental stress consisted of anger recall (anger-provoking speech) followed by subtraction of serial sevens. The presence and extent of myocardial ischemia was quantified using the conventional 17-segment model. Sixty-eight percent of patients had 1 ischemic segment or more during mental stress and 81% during adenosine. On segment-by-segment analysis, perfusion with mental stress and adenosine were highly correlated. No significant differences were found between any 2 time points for B-type natriuretic peptide, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1b, troponin, vascular endothelin growth factor, IL-17a, matrix metallopeptidase-9, or C-reactive protein. However, endothelin-1 and IL-6 increased, and IL-10 decreased, between the stressor and 30 min after stress. Left-ventricular end diastolic dimension was 179±65 mL at rest and increased to 217±71 after mental stress and 229±86 after adenosine (Pmental stress (Pmental stress. Ejection fraction was 30±12 at baseline, 29±11 with mental stress, and 28±10 with adenosine (P=not significant). There was high concordance between ischemic perfusion defects induced by adenosine and mental stress, suggesting that mental stress is equivalent to pharmacologic stress in eliciting clinically significant myocardial perfusion defects in CHF patients. Cardiac dilatation suggests clinically important changes with both

  1. Tamarindus indica and its health related effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Kuru

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus [Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica], belongs to the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae, commonly known as Tamarind tree, is one of the fruit tree species that is used as traditional medicine. The aim of this article is to review the current literatue on health related effect of T. indica. Literature review about this plant was conducted between 2003 and 2014 through Pubmed and Google. The keywords Tamarind, T. indica were used for search. Only the health related articles selected. Tamarind tree is found especially in the Indian subcontinent, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria and most of the tropical countries. It is preferred to be used for abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, some bacterial infections and parasitic infestations, wound healing, constipation and inflammation. It is a rich source of most of the essential amino acids and phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antivenomic, antioxidant, antimalarial, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antiasthmatic, laxative and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. T. indica has ameliorative effects on many diseases. It can also be preferred as a nutritious support for malnourished patients as it is cheap and easy to access. Those effects should be clarified with further research.

  2. The Relationship Between Mutuality and Health-Related Quality of Life in Adult Child Caregivers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuqin; Jones, Patricia S; Pothier, Patricia

    2017-08-01

    The strain inherent in caregiving relationships between adult children and aging parents is a prominent issue in contemporary China due to a combination of demographic and socioeconomic changes. The purpose of this study was to explore how mutuality, a positive quality of caregiving relationships, contributes to the physical health and mental health (health-related quality of life [HRQoL]) of adult child caregivers [ACCs] of parent stroke survivors. A cross-sectional correlational study was conducted on a nonproportional quota sample of 126 ACCs, using questionnaires of demographics, the 15-item Mutuality Scale, and the Second Version of the Standard 12-Item Health Survey (SF-12v2). Higher mutuality was found to be correlated with better caregiver physical health and mental health. However, after adjusting for the covariates, mutuality significantly explained 4.6% of the variance of caregiver physical health (β = .22, ΔR 2 = .046, p filial piety can facilitate mutuality, socioeconomic changes and legislation that require adult children to care for aging parents appear to create high stress among family caregivers. Higher levels of mutuality contribute to better physical health in Chinese family caregivers. Therefore, culturally appropriate family nursing strategies and social policies in China could enhance caregiver mutuality and potentially promote their HRQoL, in particular physical health.

  3. Health-related quality of life in different stages of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, H K; Jain, D; Pawar, S; Yadav, R K

    2016-11-01

    Improved survival of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients has led to an increased focus on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for evaluating treatment effectiveness and assessing health outcomes of these patients. To evaluate HRQoL in patients in different stages of CKD and to explore possible correlating and influencing factors. Cross-sectional design with 200 patients from India in CKD stages 1-5 assessed for HRQoL through 36-item short-form together with biomarkers. Patients were divided into four groups according to their estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR); group A with GFR range > 90 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , group B with GFR range 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , group C with GFR range 15-29 ml/min/1.73 m 2 and group D with GFR stages. A statistically significant decreasing trend in physical composite summary and mental composite summary scores was found in patients from group A to D (Plife. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The impact of occupational stress on nurses' caring behaviors and their health related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafis, Pavlos; Rousaki, Eirini; Tsounis, Andreas; Malliarou, Maria; Lahana, Liana; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Niakas, Dimitris; Papastavrou, Evridiki

    2016-01-01

    Nursing is perceived as a strenuous job. Although past research has documented that stress influences nurses' health in association with quality of life, the relation between stress and caring behaviors remains relatively unexamined, especially in the Greek working environment, where it is the first time that this specific issue is being studied. The aim was to investigate and explore the correlation amidst occupational stress, caring behaviors and their quality of life in association to health. A correlational study of nurses ( N  = 246) who worked at public and private units was conducted in 2013 in Greece. The variables were operationalized using three research instruments: (1) the Expanded Nursing Stress Scale (ENSS), (2) the Health Survey SF-12 and (3) the Caring Behaviors Inventory (CBI). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Contact with death, patients and their families, conflicts with supervisors and uncertainty about the therapeutic effect caused significantly higher stress among participants. A significant negative correlation was observed amidst total stress and the four dimensions of CBI. Certain stress factors were significant and independent predictors of each CBI dimension. Conflicts with co-workers was revealed as an independent predicting factor for affirmation of human presence, professional knowledge and skills and patient respectfulness dimensions, conflicts with doctors for respect for patient, while conflicts with supervisors and uncertainty concerning treatment dimensions were an independent predictor for positive connectedness. Finally, discrimination stress factor was revealed as an independent predictor of quality of life related to physical health, while stress resulting from conflicts with supervisors was independently associated with mental health. Occupational stress affects nurses' health-related quality of life negatively, while it can also be considered as an influence on patient outcomes.

  5. What is the impact of nutritional status on health-related quality of life in hemodialysis patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haewook; Burrowes, Jerrilynn D; Houser, Robert; Chung, Mei-Chun; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2012-03-01

    To develop a nutrition-specific quality of life (NSQOL) questionnaire that combines the Appetite and Diet Assessment Tool and the Food Enjoyment in Dialysis tool, and to measure the association between nutritional status and both the NSQOL and the generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in hemodialysis patients. Cross-sectional study of 89 hemodialysis patients. Nutritional status was measured by subjective global assessment and biochemical indices, including serum albumin concentration. Adequacy of dialysis was also measured. To determine the correlation between quality of life and nutritional status, both the NSQOL and the HRQOL instruments were used. The mean NSQOL score for the entire cohort was 8.9 ± 4.5. The NSQOL was positively correlated with the mental component score (r = 0.52, P Nutritional status, as assessed by subjective global assessment, was positively correlated with the PCS (r = 0.33, P hemodialysis. This instrument correlated well with HRQOL indices in this cohort of hemodialysis patients. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Personality correlates of outpatient mental health service utilization: findings from the U.S. national comorbidity survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Lachlan A; Cox, Brian J; Enns, Murray W; Clara, Ian P

    2006-05-01

    The present paper investigated the relationships between several personality constructs and the use of outpatient mental health services. Respondents were from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) Part II data set and included those with a past-year mood, anxiety, alcohol/substance use disorder (n=1750). Bivariate logistic regressions were used to examine associations between participants' self-reports of personality traits and outpatient mental health service utilization. Similar multivariate analyses were used to investigate these associations after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and the presence of psychiatric disorders and their comorbidity. The bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed significant positive associations between outpatient mental health service utilization and both Powerful Others Locus of Control and Self-criticism. These findings suggest that personality traits may play a role in treatment seeking behaviors for mental health problems over and above the presence of psychiatric disorders alone. The assessment of relevant personality constructs has the potential to inform and improve treatment outreach efforts.

  7. Vitamin D Levels and Sociodemographic and Clinical Correlates in Individuals With Serious Mental Illness Admitted to an Acute Psychiatry Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekuri, Lakshminarayana; Thapa, Purushottam B; Turturro, Carolyn L; Mittal, Dinesh; Messias, Erick

    2015-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in psychiatric inpatients with serious mental illness. Associated clinical and sociodemographic factors are also explored. Data were collected using a retrospective review of medical records. Eligible subjects were individuals aged ≥ 18 years who were consecutively newly admitted to an adult inpatient teaching unit of a state psychiatric hospital from July 2012 through August 2013. The main outcome measure was prevalence rate of vitamin D deficiency in the target population. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a level deficiency. The high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency with all the attendant physical and mental health burdens in vulnerable populations such as individuals with serious mental illness requires further large research studies. In the meantime, it seems prudent to institute routine screening for vitamin D deficiency in individuals with mental illness, especially those who are hospitalized.

  8. Disturbed Mental Imagery of Affected Body-Parts in Patients with Hysterical Conversion Paraplegia Correlates with Pathological Limbic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Saj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients with conversion disorder generally suffer from a severe neurological deficit which cannot be attributed to a structural neurological damage. In two patients with acute conversion paraplegia, investigation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI showed that the insular cortex, a limbic-related cortex involved in body-representation and subjective emotional experience, was activated not only during attempt to move the paralytic body-parts, but also during mental imagery of their movements. In addition, mental rotation of affected body-parts was found to be disturbed, as compared to unaffected body parts or external objects. fMRI during mental rotation of the paralytic body-part showed an activation of another limbic related region, the anterior cingulate cortex. These data suggest that conversion paraplegia is associated with pathological activity in limbic structures involved in body representation and a deficit in mental processing of the affected body-parts.

  9. Comprehensively Measuring Health-Related Subjective Well-Being: Dimensionality Analysis for Improved Outcome Assessment in Health Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Marieke; Emons, Wilco H M; Plantinga, Arnoud; Pietersma, Suzanne; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Stiggelbout, Anne M; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske

    2016-01-01

    Allocation of inevitably limited financial resources for health care requires assessment of an intervention's effectiveness. Interventions likely affect quality of life (QOL) more broadly than is measurable with commonly used health-related QOL utility scales. In line with the World Health Organization's definition of health, a recent Delphi procedure showed that assessment needs to put more emphasis on mental and social dimensions. To identify the core dimensions of health-related subjective well-being (HR-SWB) for a new, more comprehensive outcome measure. We formulated items for each domain of an initial Delphi-based set of 21 domains of HR-SWB. We tested these items in a large sample (N = 1143) and used dimensionality analyses to find a smaller number of latent factors. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a five-factor model, which explained 65% of the total variance. Factors related to physical independence, positive affect, negative affect, autonomy, and personal growth. Correlations between the factors ranged from 0.19 to 0.59. A closer inspection of the factors revealed an overlap between the newly identified core dimensions of HR-SWB and the validation scales, but the dimensions of HR-SWB also seemed to reflect additional aspects. This shows that the dimensions of HR-SWB we identified go beyond the existing health-related QOL instruments. We identified a set of five key dimensions to be included in a new, comprehensive measure of HR-SWB that reliably captures these dimensions and fills in the gaps of the existent measures used in economic evaluations. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Common mental disorder and its socio-demographic correlates among married women residing in slum areas of Bhubaneswar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Ansuman; Panigrahi, Madhulita; Padhy, Aditya Prasad; Das, Sai Chandan

    2017-01-01

    The mental health of women residing in slum areas is a neglected and important public health concern. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken during 2012-2013 to assess frequently occurring mental disorders and associated factors among married women 15-45 years of age, residing in slum areas of Bhubaneswar, India. A multistage, cluster, random sampling design was applied to select the study areas. The presence of a mental disorder was determined using a validated, self-reported questionnaire, developed by the World Health Organization. Using a predesigned, pretested schedule, relevant data were collected from 362 eligible, willing women respondents. Eighty women (22.1%) had a mental disorder, 56 (70.0%) of whom never consulted a health-care provider. Results of multiple logistic regression indicated that presence of a mental disorder was positively associated with not being satisfied with managing household financial affairs, not having time to attend social obligations, attending religious services less than four times per month, addiction of a family member to alcohol or drugs, and misunderstandings or quarrels in the family. Policy makers should be encouraged to incorporate such determinants in schemes or programs intended to promote the mental health of married slum women.

  11. Health-related problems in a vulnerable population: pregnant teens and adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, J; Escoto-Lloyd, S

    1999-06-01

    Childbearing adolescents are susceptible to a myriad of health-related problems. For these youth, health-related problems include both physiological and psychological disease states that negatively impact both their own and their children's lives. Suicide attempts, parenting problems (including child abuse), domestic violence, poor birth outcomes, and sexually-transmitted diseases (including HIV) are just some of the problems encountered. This article focuses on the relationship between lack of social and environmental resources and the risk factors for health problems in adolescent mothers and provides recommendations for nursing assessment and intervention. The complex nature of the relationship between lack of resources and the many risk factors for health-related problems in the lives of childbearing adolescents makes comprehensive health care a requirement. Nurses in school-based clinics and community settings are in a unique position to provide access to the physical and mental health services necessary for pregnant adolescents and teen mothers.

  12. Health-related quality of life, adiposity, and sedentary behavior in patients with early schizophrenia: preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strassnig M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Martin Strassnig,1 Jaspreet S Brar,2 Rohan Ganguli31Department of Psychiatry, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaObjective: To examine adiposity and sedentary behavior in relation to health-related quality of life (QoL in patients with early schizophrenia.Methods: A cross-sectional study was used to assess adiposity by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, habitual physical activity and idle sitting time by the Short Form International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and health-related QoL by the RAND Medical Outcomes Study SF-36. QoL scores were compared with age-adjusted Canadian normative population data.Results: There were 36 participants with early schizophrenia, average age 25.1 (±3.6. Twenty-nine (72.5% were males. Mean illness duration was 30 (±18 months, and mean body mass index was 28.3 (±5. Females had higher body fat content than males (30.8 ± 6.9 vs 24.7 ± 10.6; t = −2.6, df = 34; P = 0.015. Total body fat (F = 14; P = 0.001, lean body mass (F = 10.2; P = 0.001, and sedentary behavior (F = 5; P = 0.013 significantly increased across body mass index categories. Total body fat was correlated with sedentary behavior (r = 0.62; P = 0.001, and total lean body mass was negatively correlated with sedentary behavior (r = 0.39; P = 0.03. Based on SF-36 scores, participants had significantly lower physical functioning (P = 0.0034, role physical (P = 0.0003, general health (P < 0.0001, vitality (P = 0.03, and physical component scores (P = 0.003 than Canadian population comparisons. Habitual sedentary behavior, more than activity or adiposity levels, was associated with health-related QoL in early schizophrenia.Conclusion: Health-related QoL is lower in early schizophrenia and is predominantly experienced in the physical

  13. Mental and physical health correlates among family caregivers of patients with newly-diagnosed incurable cancer: a hierarchical linear regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Kelly M; Jacobs, Jamie M; Nipp, Ryan D; Carr, Alaina; Jackson, Vicki A; Park, Elyse R; Pirl, William F; El-Jawahri, Areej; Gallagher, Emily R; Greer, Joseph A; Temel, Jennifer S

    2017-03-01

    Caregiver, relational, and patient factors have been associated with the health of family members and friends providing care to patients with early-stage cancer. Little research has examined whether findings extend to family caregivers of patients with incurable cancer, who experience unique and substantial caregiving burdens. We examined correlates of mental and physical health among caregivers of patients with newly-diagnosed incurable lung or non-colorectal gastrointestinal cancer. At baseline for a trial of early palliative care, caregivers of participating patients (N = 275) reported their mental and physical health (Medical Outcome Survey-Short Form-36); patients reported their quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General). Analyses used hierarchical linear regression with two-tailed significance tests. Caregivers' mental health was worse than the U.S. national population (M = 44.31, p regression analyses testing caregiver, relational, and patient factors simultaneously revealed that younger (B = 0.31, p = .001), spousal caregivers (B = -8.70, p = .003), who cared for patients reporting low emotional well-being (B = 0.51, p = .01) reported worse mental health; older (B = -0.17, p = .01) caregivers with low educational attainment (B = 4.36, p < .001) who cared for patients reporting low social well-being (B = 0.35, p = .05) reported worse physical health. In this large sample of family caregivers of patients with incurable cancer, caregiver demographics, relational factors, and patient-specific factors were all related to caregiver mental health, while caregiver demographics were primarily associated with caregiver physical health. These findings help identify characteristics of family caregivers at highest risk of poor mental and physical health who may benefit from greater supportive care.

  14. Health-Related Quality of Life of Rural Clients Seeking Telepsychology Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Tarlow

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty million US residents live in rural areas, but health policies and interventions developed from an urban mindset often fail to address the significant barriers to health experienced by these local communities. Telepsychology, or psychological services delivered by distance via technology, is an emerging treatment modality with special implications for underserved rural areas. This study found that a sample of rural residents seeking telepsychology services (n=94 had low health-related quality of life (HRQOL, often due to cooccurring physical and mental health diagnoses including high rates of depression. However, a brief telepsychology treatment delivered to rural clients (n=40 was associated with an improvement in mental health-related quality of life (d = 0.70,  P<.001. These results indicate that despite the complex health needs of these underserved communities, telepsychology interventions may help offset the disparities in health service access in rural areas.

  15. Health Related Aspects of Artificial Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansler, Richard; Kubulins, Vilnis; Carome, Edward

    2011-04-01

    It was long thought that the "sleep hormone," melatonin, is produced by the pineal gland only when the eyes are in darkness. Thus, in developed countries, due to the use of electric lighting after dark, melatonin production usually occurs only when one is asleep. For most people, this is substantially less than the 9 to 10 hour production time capability of the pineal gland. However, in 2001 it was discovered that not all light, but mainly a band of wavelengths in the blue portion of the spectrum, below 530nm, suppresses melatonin production. On learning this, and that melatonin is a very active cancer fighting antioxidant and has many other health promoting properties, it was decided to make available lighting products that can enhance melatonin production. Included are lamps that do not emit the offending blue wavelengths and eyeglasses that filter out the blue portion of the spectrum. These and other related products are meant to be used for several hours in the evening, before retiring, thus maximizing the pineal gland's production time. The effects of their use on sleep and several other health related conditions are discussed.

  16. Pregnancy context and women's health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariepy, Aileen; Lundsberg, Lisbet S; Vilardo, Nicole; Stanwood, Nancy; Yonkers, Kimberly; Schwarz, Eleanor B

    2017-05-01

    The objective was to quantify the association of pregnancy context and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). English- or Spanish-speaking women, aged 16-44, with pregnancies pregnancy "context," including timing, intention, wantedness, desirability, happiness, and planning (measured with the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy). HRQoL was measured using the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Global Short Form. Associations between measures of pregnancy context and HRQoL scores in the lowest tertile were examined using multivariable logistic regression to adjust for potential confounding variables. We enrolled 161 participants (mean age=27.2±6.6 years). Only 14% self-identified as White, non-Hispanic; 42% Hispanic; 37% Black, non-Hispanic; and 7% multiracial. Most (79%) participants were unmarried, and 75% were parenting. Mean gestational age was 9±4.6 weeks. In unadjusted models, women reporting mixed feelings about wanting to have a baby, an undesired pregnancy or feeling unhappy about learning of their pregnancy more frequently had low mental and physical HRQoL compared to women reporting wanted, desired, happy pregnancies. Women with an unplanned pregnancy or pregnancy occurring at the wrong time also had lower physical HRQoL than women reporting pregnancies that were planned or happened at the right time. However, after multivariate adjustment, including history of depression, pregnancy contexts were not associated with low mental or physical HRQoL. After adjusting for multiple confounders, pregnancy context is not significantly associated with HRQoL. The focus on pregnancy intention in public health programs may not sufficiently assess multidimensional aspects of pregnancy context and may not align with patient-centered outcomes such as HRQoL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of service dogs on the improvement of health-related quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Shintani, Mai; Senda, Masuo; Takayanagi, Tomoko; Katayama, Yoshimi; Furusawa, Kazunari; Okutani, Tamami; Kataoka, Masaki; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effects of service dogs on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), we conducted a survey of 10 service dog owners using SF-36v2 (Medical Outcomes Study 36 Item Short-Form Health Survey Version 2.0) and compared it with a matched control group of people with physical disabilities who did not have service dogs but were eligible for one. The scores for mental health and role emotional of service dog owners were relatively high, and their mental component summary was higher...

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life in Morphea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, N.K.; Shedd, A.D.; Bernstein, I.H.; Jacobe, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with morphea, and previous studies have yielded conflicting results. Objectives To determine the impact of morphea on HRQOL and clinical and demographic correlates of HRQOL in adults. Methods Cross sectional survey (n=73) of Morphea in Adults and Children (MAC) cohort. Results Morphea impairs HRQOL in adults. Patients were most impaired by emotional well-being and concerns that the disease will progress to their internal organs. Patients with morphea had worse skin-specific HRQOL than those with non-melanoma skin cancer, vitiligo, and alopecia (lowest P morphea have negative impact on HRQOL particularly if symptoms (pruritus and pain) or concerns regarding internal manifestations are present. Providers should be aware of this when evaluating and treating patients. PMID:25483169

  19. Financial Empowerment and Health Related Quality of Life in Family Scholar House Participants

    OpenAIRE

    Chelsey Franz

    2016-01-01

    Research demonstrates an association between poverty and health. Populations in poverty suffer from poor mental and physical health, and thus, poor health-related quality of life. Research also indicates people living in the lower socio-economic categories experience higher levels of stress that are associated with these health declines. Family Scholar House, a local community intervention designed to alleviate poverty and improve socio-economic status by providing college education and suppo...

  20. 'Painting a path to wellness': correlations between participating in a creative activity group and improved measured mental health outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddy, L; Crawford, F; Page, A C

    2012-05-01

    Responding to a call for quantitative outcome evidence about the therapeutic relationship between creative activity and mental health, this study examined the mental health outcomes of inpatients participating in art- and craft-based creative therapies at a private psychiatric hospital over a 5-year period. The creative activity group sample (n= 403) improved from admission to discharge across four different psychometric measures with moderate to strong mean effect sizes. Reductions from pre- to post-treatment in both self-reported and clinician-rated symptoms are clearly demonstrated for the creative activity group participant sample. Research findings establish that participation in creative activity has potential benefits for people experiencing mental health problems. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  1. Variables explaining health-related quality of life in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor-Glittenberg, Cecelia; Lehmann, Sara; Okada, Mari; Rosen, Danielle; Brewer, Kathryn; Bay, R Curtis

    2014-01-01

    Although health-related quality of life (HRQL) has been linked to numerous factors in older adults, limited or conflicting studies have investigated variables explaining HRQL in healthy, community-dwelling older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine whether physical activity, gait speed, balance, strength, endurance, and flexibility were associated with HRQL in healthy, community-dwelling older adults. Participants of this cross-sectional, correlational research design study included residents of a senior living community, aged 60 years and older who were independent in at least unlimited household ambulation. These residents participated in tests of physical activity, gait speed, balance, strength, endurance, flexibility, and HRQL (Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey, SF-36). The physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summary scores of the SF-36 were calculated. Data were collected on 84 participants (mean [SD] age = 78.6 (5.9) years, 54.8% women). Significant correlations were found between the PCS and fast gait speed (FGS) (r = 0.43; p Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (r = 0.44; p balance, and lower body strength were associated with the PCS of the SF-36; however, FGS was the only variable that uniquely contributed to the variance in the PCS. Body mass index was associated with the MCS; however, only balance uniquely contributed to the variance in the MCS. Physical activity was not associated with the PCS or MCS. The results of this study support the assessment of FGS in community-dwelling older adults to gain insight into physical health status. Interventions directed toward FGS, balance, and BMI may contribute to optimum HRQL in this population.

  2. Health related quality of life and influencing factors among welders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. METHODS: 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36 health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. RESULTS: Six dimensions including role-physical (RP, bodily pain (BP, general health (GH, validity (VT, social function (SF, and mental health (MH were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE, great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. CONCLUSIONS: Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL.

  3. Successful Cognitive Aging and Health-Related Quality of Life in Younger and Older Adults Infected with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Raeanne C.; Fazeli, Pariya L.; Jeste, Dilip V.; Moore, David J.; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Neurocognitive impairments commonly occur and adversely impact everyday functioning in older adults infected with HIV, but little is known about successful cognitive aging (SCA) and its health-related quality of life (HRQoL) correlates. METHOD Seventy younger (≤ 40 years) and 107 older (≥ 50 years) HIV+ adults, as well as age-matched seronegative comparison groups of younger (N=48) and older (N=77) subjects completed a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological, psychiatric, medical, and HRQoL assessments. SCA was operationalized as the absence of both performance-based neurocognitive deficits and self-reported symptoms (SCA-ANDS) as determined by published normative standards. RESULTS A stair-step decline in SCA-ANDS was observed in accordance with increasing age and HIV serostatus, with the lowest rates of SCA-ANDS found in the older HIV+ group (19%). In both younger and older HIV+ adults, SCA-ANDS was strongly related to better mental HRQoL. CONCLUSION HIV infection has additive adverse effects on SCA, which may play a unique role in mental well-being among HIV-infected persons across the lifespan. PMID:24633788

  4. Health-related quality of life and classroom participation of deaf and hard-of-hearing students in general schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintermair, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    A group of deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) students at mainstream schools (N = 212) was investigated in a questionnaire-based survey using the Inventory of Life Quality of Children and Youth (ILC) and the Classroom Participation Questionnaire. The ILC data for the D/HH sample are for the most part comparable with the data from a normative hearing sample. Item-total correlations showed that the domains of school and social activities with peers were more important for the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of the D/HH students than for that of the hearing students. The results also reveal differences in the HRQoL levels of the two samples, with the D/HH sample having higher scores for school experiences, physical and mental health, and overall HRQoL, though the effect sizes for the differences are small to moderate. Specific characteristics of the D/HH sample may be responsible for this result. There are also relationships between quality of life and perceived classroom participation in certain domains: Students who perceive classroom participation as satisfying have higher scores for quality of life in school, social contact with peers, and mental health. This also applied to the scores for global assessment and a summarized quality of life indicator.

  5. Prevalence and Mental Health Correlates of Harassment and Discrimination in the Workplace: Results from a National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.; Shannon, Candice A.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes past-year prevalence and effects on mental health and drinking outcomes for harassment and discrimination in the workplace (HDW) in a nationally representative random digit dial phone survey conducted in 2003-2004 (n = 2,151). HDW measures included experiences and perceptions of sexual harassment (SH) and generalized workplace…

  6. Mental Health Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence in Marital Relationships in a Nationally Representative Sample of Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O.; MacMillan, Harriet; Cox, Brian J.; Asmundson, Gordon J. G.; Stein, Murray B.; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-01-01

    It is important to understand the epidemiology of intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by both males and females. Data were drawn from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Replication. The relationships between physical IPV and child abuse, mental disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts among males and females were examined. The…

  7. Exploring the Sociodemographic, Organizational and Other Correlates Affecting the Promotion of Cultural and Linguistic Competence: Implications for Mental Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Karen Belinda

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cultural and linguistic competence is widely viewed as a strategy for addressing disparities in health and mental health care. Organizational activities towards the integration and implementation of cultural and linguistic competence span the gamut to include training, workforce development, policy development and standards that inform…

  8. Consumer-led health-related online sources and their impact on consumers: An integrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukka, Elina; Rantakokko, Piia; Suhonen, Marjo

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the review was to describe consumer-led health-related online sources and their impact on consumers. The review was carried out as an integrative literature review. Quantisation and qualitative content analysis were used as the analysis method. The most common method used by the included studies was qualitative content analysis. This review identified the consumer-led health-related online sources used between 2009 and 2016 as health-related online communities, health-related social networking sites and health-related rating websites. These sources had an impact on peer support; empowerment; health literacy; physical, mental and emotional wellbeing; illness management; and relationships between healthcare organisations and consumers. The knowledge of the existence of the health-related online sources provides healthcare organisations with an opportunity to listen to their consumers' 'voice'. The sources make healthcare consumers more competent actors in relation to healthcare, and the knowledge of them is a valuable resource for healthcare organisations. Additionally, these health-related online sources might create an opportunity to reduce the need for drifting among the healthcare services. Healthcare policymakers and organisations could benefit from having a strategy of increasing their health-related online sources.

  9. Oxytocin receptor polymorphism and childhood social experiences shape adult personality, brain structure and neural correlates of mentalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Hassloff, H; Straube, B; Jansen, A; Nuscheler, B; Wemken, G; Witt, S H; Rietschel, M; Kircher, T

    2016-07-01

    The oxytocin system is involved in human social behavior and social cognition such as attachment, emotion recognition and mentalizing (i.e. the ability to represent mental states of oneself and others). It is shaped by social experiences in early life, especially by parent-infant interactions. The single nucleotid polymorphism rs53576 in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene has been linked to social behavioral phenotypes. In 195 adult healthy subjects we investigated the interaction of OXTR rs53576 and childhood attachment security (CAS) on the personality traits "adult attachment style" and "alexithymia" (i.e. emotional self-awareness), on brain structure (voxel-based morphometry) and neural activation (fMRI) during an interactive mentalizing paradigm (prisoner's dilemma game; subgroup: n=163). We found that in GG-homozygotes, but not in A-allele carriers, insecure childhood attachment is - in adulthood - associated with a) higher attachment-related anxiety and alexithymia, b) higher brain gray matter volume of left amygdala and lower volumes in right superior parietal lobule (SPL), left temporal pole (TP), and bilateral frontal regions, and c) higher mentalizing-related neural activity in bilateral TP and precunei, and right middle and superior frontal gyri. Interaction effects of genotype and CAS on brain volume and/or function were associated with individual differences in alexithymia and attachment-related anxiety. Interactive effects were in part sexually dimorphic. The interaction of OXTR genotype and CAS modulates adult personality as well as brain structure and function of areas implicated in salience processing and mentalizing. Rs53576 GG-homozygotes are partially more susceptible to childhood attachment experiences than A-allele carriers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mental Health Problems in Children and Young People with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    We all have mental health. Mental health relates to how we think, feel, behave and interact with other people. At its simplest, good mental health is the absence of a mental disorder or mental health problem. Adults, children and young people with good mental health are likely to have high levels of mental wellbeing. The World Health Organisation…

  11. Health-related quality of life, ethnicity and perceived discrimination among immigrants and natives in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevillano, Verónica; Basabe, Nekane; Bobowik, Magdalena; Aierdi, Xabier

    2014-01-01

    The current study compares subjective mental and physical health among native Spaniards and immigrant groups, and examines the effects of ethnicity and perceived discrimination (PD) on subjective health in immigrants. Two random samples of 1250 immigrants to Spain from Colombia, Bolivia, Romania, Morocco, and Sub-Saharan Africa and 500 native Spaniards, aged between 18 and 65, were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Several hierarchical regression analyses of ethnicity and PD on subjective mental and physical health (assessed using the health-related quality of life items, HRQLSF-12) were carried out separately for men and women. Male immigrants from Colombia and Sub-Saharan Africa showed better physical health than natives, controlling for age and socioeconomic and marital status. The immigrants - except for the Colombians - had poorer mental health than natives, especially African men and Bolivian women. Socioeconomic status had no impact on these differences. Among immigrants, PD was the best predictor of physical and mental health (controlling for socio-demographic variables). African men, Bolivian women and women without legal status exhibited the poorest self-rated mental health. Clear differences in health status among natives and immigrants were recorded. The self-selection hypothesis was plausible for physical health of Colombians and Sub-Saharan African men. Acculturation stress could explain poorer mental health in immigrants compared with natives. The association between ethnicity and poor self-reported mental health appears to be partially mediated by discrimination.

  12. Health-related quality of life and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in the unemployed: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extremera, Natalio; Rey, Lourdes

    2014-11-29

    The loss of one's job has been conceptualized as a major stressful life event in an adult's life and has consistently been associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The role of cognitive emotion regulation strategies after the experience of stressful events has emerged as an important predictor of adverse psychological and health outcomes. However, the effect of these coping strategies on the HRQoL of unemployed people has not been examined until now. We aimed to study the associations of these cognitive emotion regulation strategies on HRQoL of unemployed people. Using cross-sectional data, 1,125 unemployed adults were assessed using a Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for cognitive coping and SF-12 to assess HRQoL. We studied the effect of cognitive emotion regulation strategies on mental and physical health composite separately, adjusting for gender, age, educational level and length of unemployment, using hierarchical regression analyses. Results showed unemployed men tended to express greater use of self-blame, other-blame, and catastrophizing, and lower use of perspective taking strategies when confronted with unemployment. Moreover, self-blame (for mental health composite only), blaming others, rumination, and catastrophizing negatively correlated, while positive reappraisal, putting into perspective, planning, and positive refocusing positively correlated with both mental and physical health composite in unemployed people. Further hierarchical regression analyses indicate that five strategies (a lower reported use of self-blame, rumination, and catastrophizing, as well as higher scores of positive reappraisal and positive refocusing) and three strategies (lower scores of catastrophizing and rumination and high scores in planning) have significant and independent contributions, beyond gender, age, educational level and length of unemployment, to the prediction of mental health and physical health composite, respectively

  13. Health related quality of life and psychological problems in Egyptian children with simple obesity in relation to body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman A. Abdel-Aziz

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: Obese children and adolescents have lower health-related QOL that correlated negatively with BMI, also they are more susceptible to anxiety and depression symptoms than non obese children.

  14. Financial Empowerment and Health Related Quality of Life in Family Scholar House Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsey Franz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research demonstrates an association between poverty and health. Populations in poverty suffer from poor mental and physical health, and thus, poor health-related quality of life. Research also indicates people living in the lower socio-economic categories experience higher levels of stress that are associated with these health declines. Family Scholar House, a local community intervention designed to alleviate poverty and improve socio-economic status by providing college education and support to single parents, combats these health outcomes by addressing the five social determinants of health (economic stability, education, social and community context, health care, and neighborhood and built environment. Quantitative analysis indicates an improvement in mental health among Family Scholar House participants: 0-12 month participants reported significantly more mentally unhealthy days than a control group; however, this difference is no longer significant at the end of participant’s time in the program. Qualitative analysis suggests this improvement may be due to stress reduction related to increased economic stability and financial security gained through an intentional implementation of a financial empowerment curriculum within the Family Scholar House program. Implementation of financial empowerment into community programs designed to alleviate poverty may improve mental health and thus health-related quality of life.

  15. Prevalence and Mental Health Correlates of Harassment and Discrimination in the Workplace: Results from a National Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.; Shannon, Candice A.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes past-year prevalence and effects on mental health and drinking outcomes for harassment and discrimination in the workplace (HDW) in a nationally-representative random-digit dial phone survey conducted in 2003–2004 (n=2,151). HDW measures included experiences and perceptions of sexual harassment and generalized workplace harassment, and perceived harassment or discrimination due to race/ethnicity. Prevalence was examined by sex, race, age, occupation, marital status, and e...

  16. The nature and correlates of paid and unpaid work among service users of London Community Mental Health Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Evans, B; Marwaha, S; Burns, T; Secker, J; Latimer, E; Blizard, R; Killaspy, H; Totman, J; Tanskanen, S; Johnson, S

    2013-06-01

    Aims. Little is known about how the rates and characteristics of mental health service users in unpaid work, training and study compare with those in paid employment. Methods. From staff report and patient records, 1353 mental health service users of seven Community Mental Health Teams in two London boroughs were categorized as in paid work, unpaid vocational activity or no vocational activity. Types of work were described using Standard Occupational Classifications. The characteristics of each group were reported and associations with vocational status were explored. Results. Of the sample, 5.5% were in paid work and 12.7% were in unpaid vocational activity, (including 5.3% in voluntary work and 8.1% in study or training). People in paid work were engaged in a broader range of occupations than those in voluntary work and most in paid work (58.5%) worked part-time. Younger age and high educational attainment characterized both groups. Having sustained previous employment was most strongly associated with being in paid work. Conclusions. Rates of vocational activity were very low. Results did not suggest a clear clinical distinction between those in paid and unpaid activity. The motivations for and functions of unpaid work need further research.

  17. Prevalence and mental health correlates of harassment and discrimination in the workplace: results from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rospenda, Kathleen M; Richman, Judith A; Shannon, Candice A

    2009-05-01

    This study describes past-year prevalence and effects on mental health and drinking outcomes for harassment and discrimination in the workplace (HDW) in a nationally representative random digit dial phone survey conducted in 2003-2004 (n = 2,151). HDW measures included experiences and perceptions of sexual harassment (SH) and generalized workplace harassment (GWH), and perceived harassment or discrimination because of race or ethnicity. Prevalence was examined by sex, race, age, occupation, marital status, and education. Effects of HDW were assessed controlling for demo-graphics and job and life stressors. Experiencing multiple types of HDW was common. SH was more prevalent among women, and Blacks and those of other or mixed race or ethnicity experienced the highest levels of HDW overall. HDW variables explained additional variance in problem drinking and mental health beyond life and job stressors, particularly for women. This study demonstrates that HDW is a prevalent problem associated with poor mental health and problem drinking in the U.S. workforce.

  18. Assessing childhood maltreatment and mental health correlates of disordered eating profiles in a nationally representative sample of English females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Műllerová, Jana; Fletcher, Shelley; Lagdon, Susan; Burns, Carol Rhonda; Robinson, Martin; Robinson, Jake

    2016-03-01

    Previous research suggests that childhood maltreatment is associated with the onset of eating disorders (ED). In turn, EDs are associated with alternative psychopathologies such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and with suicidality. Moreover, it has been reported that various ED profiles may exist. The aim of the current study was to examine the profiles of disordered eating and the associations of these with childhood maltreatment and with mental health psychopathology. The current study utilised a representative sample of English females (N = 4206) and assessed for the presence of disordered eating profiles using Latent Class Analysis. Multinomial logistic regression was implemented to examine the associations of childhood sexual and physical abuse with the disordered eating profiles and the associations of these with PTSD, depression and suicidality. Results supported those of previous findings in that we found five latent classes of which three were regarded as disordered eating classes. Significant relationships were found between these and measures of childhood trauma and mental health outcomes. Childhood sexual and physical abuse increased the likelihood of membership in disordered eating classes and these in turn increased the likelihood of adverse mental health and suicidal outcomes.

  19. Associations of Social Support, Friends Only Known Through the Internet, and Health-Related Quality of Life with Internet Gaming Disorder in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartberg, Lutz; Kriston, Levente; Kammerl, Rudolf

    2017-07-01

    Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has been included in the current edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5). In the present study, the relationship among social support, friends only known through the Internet, health-related quality of life, and IGD in adolescence was explored for the first time. For this purpose, 1,095 adolescents aged from 12 to 14 years were surveyed with a standardized questionnaire concerning IGD, self-perceived social support, proportion of friends only known through the Internet, and health-related quality of life. The authors conducted unpaired t-tests, a chi-square test, as well as correlation and logistic regression analyses. According to the statistical analyses, adolescents with IGD reported lower self-perceived social support, more friends only known through the Internet, and a lower health-related quality of life compared with the group without IGD. Both in bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models, statistically significant associations between IGD and male gender, a higher proportion of friends only known through the Internet, and a lower health-related quality of life (multivariate model: Nagelkerke's R 2  = 0.37) were revealed. Lower self-perceived social support was related to IGD in the bivariate model only. In summary, quality of life and social aspects seem to be important factors for IGD in adolescence and therefore should be incorporated in further (longitudinal) studies. The findings of the present survey may provide starting points for the development of prevention and intervention programs for adolescents affected by IGD.

  20. Insight among people with severe mental illness, co-occurring PTSD and elevated psychotic symptoms: Correlates and relationship to treatment participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanos, Philip T; Vayshenker, Beth; Pleskach, Pavel; Mueser, Kim T

    2016-07-01

    There is a dearth of research on what factors are predictive of insight among people with severe mental illness and co-occurring PTSD. Data were drawn from 146 participants with severe mental illness, co-occurring PTSD and elevated psychotic symptoms participating in a randomized controlled trial comparing two interventions for PTSD among people with severe mental illness. We examined the clinical and demographic correlates of insight at baseline, the relationship between baseline insight and treatment participation, the relationship between treatment participation and post-treatment insight, and the relationship between change in insight and change in other clinical variables. Impaired insight was relatively common, with roughly half the sample demonstrating mild or moderate impairment at baseline. Baseline insight was associated with fewer psychotic and disorganized symptoms, and greater emotional discomfort and PTSD knowledge, but was not associated with negative symptoms, PTSD symptoms, depression/anxiety, or treatment participation. Participation in PTSD treatment was associated with increased insight at post-treatment. Improved insight was associated with improvements in disorganization and negative symptoms, but not with knowledge of PTSD or positive symptoms. The findings suggest that engagement in treatment that includes educating people about PTSD may lead to improvements in insight and related improvements in other psychiatric symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Obesity, Blood Pressure and Health-Related Behaviour among German Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Christine; Jouck, Stefanie; Koch, Benjamin; Platschek, Anna-Maria; Arnold, Christiane; Bohm, Michael; Dordel, Sigrid; Tokarski, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To examine the prevalence of obesity and its correlation with blood pressure, waist circumference and other health related risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and TV/PC-screen time) in German youths. Material and methods: A cohort of 831 boys and 808 girls, fifth- to tenth-graders from 3 German high schools…

  2. The Association of Health-Related Fitness with Indicators of Academic Performance in Texas Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Gregory J.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Haskell, William H.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school…

  3. Stress and health related quality of life of Nepalese students studying in South Korea: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pratibha

    2012-03-13

    In recent years there has been a growing trend among students to travel for educational purposes to other countries where there is the possibility of experiencing considerable amounts of stress affecting their physical and mental functioning. The aims of the current study were to investigate the health related quality of life (HRQOL) of Nepalese students studying in South Korea to explore the relationship between HRQOL and perceived and acculturative stress, and to identify the determinants of HRQOL. One hundred and thirty students were enrolled in this study. HRQOL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Forms (SF-12) questionnaire. Perceived stress and acculturative stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale and Acculturative Stress Scale for international students, respectively. Pearson's correlation test and multiple regression analysis were performed. Perceived stress and acculturative stress were negatively correlated with HRQOL. The highest value in the HRQOL was reported for the vitality subscale and the lowest value was reported for the role-emotional. In the regression model, perceived stress, acculturative stress, relationship with advisor, and marital status accounted for a significant (p students studying in South Korea experience a considerable amount of perceived and acculturative stress, which is negatively related with their HRQOL. Provision of culture specific counseling and orientation programs may benefit the students. The determinants of HRQOL identified in this study were perceived stress, acculturative stress, relationship with advisor, and marital status.

  4. The Impact of Injury on Health-Related Quality of Life in College Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Megan N; Hoch, Johanna M; Van Lunen, Bonnie L; Hoch, Matthew C

    2017-09-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a broad term for the impact of injury or illness on physical, psychological, and social health dimensions. Injury has been associated with decreased HRQOL in athletes. However, the influence of injury history, participation status, time since last injury, and injury severity on HRQOL remains unclear. To compare HRQOL in collegiate athletes based on injury history, participation status, time since last injury, and injury severity and to examine relationships between HRQOL outcomes. Cross-sectional. 3 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions. 467 collegiate athletes (199 males, 268 females; 19.5 ± 1.3 y, 173.9 ± 10.5 cm, 71.9 ± 13.6 kg) were recruited from NCAA Division I (n = 299) and Division III (n = 168) institutions. Athletes were included regardless of participation status, which created a diverse sample of current and past injury histories. During a single session, participants completed an injury history form, the Disablement in the Physically Active Scale (DPA), and the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ). Dependent variables included DPA-Physical Summary Component (DPA-PSC), DPA-Mental Summary Component (DPA-MSC), and FABQ Scores. HRQOL differences were detected between groups based on injury history, participation status, and time since last injury. No differences were detected for injury severity. A moderate correlation was identified between the DPA-PSC and FABQ (r s = 0.503, P Injury negatively influenced HRQOL in athletes with a current injury. While those individuals participating injured reported better HRQOL than the athletes sidelined due to injury, deficits were still present and should be monitored to ensure a complete recovery. Identifying the patient's perception of impairment will help facilitate evidencebased treatment and rehabilitation strategies that target the physical and psychosocial aspects of health.

  5. Reduced health-related quality of life among Japanese college students with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Iguchi

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown detrimental effects of visual impairment on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), they were primarily conducted on elderly individuals with visual impairment. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate if HRQOL is impaired in young college students with visual impairment and to explore the relationships between HRQOL and other factors. It was hypothesized that visual impairment is not influential enough to lower the HRQOL of young people due to their better physical fitness and more flexible mentality. A total of 21 college students (mean age = 25 years old) with varying degrees of visual impairment completed the short form (SF)-36 health survey and questionnaires on daily physical activities. Subjects were grouped depending on the type of visual impairment: blind (n = 11) or severely impaired (n = 10). In addition, grip strength and single-leg standing balance were assessed. No between-group differences were found in the SF-36 scores. However, compared to the general Japanese standards (50.0 ± 10.0), the Vitality scores of the blind group were lower (41.9 ± 7.2, p = 0.004) and the Physical Function scores of the severely impaired group were higher (55.3 ± 2.4, p = 0.001). In addition, a negative correlation was found between standing balance (variability of foot center of pressure) and the Physical Component Summary score of the SF-36 (r(2) = 0.35, p = 0.005). These findings suggest that even among young people severe visual impairment leads to reductions in some components of HRQOL.

  6. Sleep in a large, multi-university sample of college students: sleep problem prevalence, sex differences, and mental health correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Jarrett, Matthew A; Luebbe, Aaron M; Garner, Annie A; Burns, G Leonard; Kofler, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    To (1) describe sleep problems in a large, multi-university sample of college students; (2) evaluate sex differences; and (3) examine the unique associations of mental health symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention [ADHD-IN], ADHD hyperactivity-impulsivity [ADHD-HI]) in relation to sleep problems. 7,626 students (70% female; 81% White) ages 18-29 years (M=19.14, SD=1.42) from six universities completed measures assessing mental health symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A substantial minority of students endorsed sleep problems across specific sleep components. Specifically, 27% described their sleep quality as poor, 36% reported obtaining less than 7 hours of sleep per night, and 43% reported that it takes >30 minutes to fall asleep at least once per week. 62% of participants met cut-off criteria for poor sleep, though rates differed between females (64%) and males (57%). In structural regression models, both anxiety and depression symptoms were uniquely associated with disruptions in most PSQI sleep component domains. However, anxiety (but not depression) symptoms were uniquely associated with more sleep disturbances and sleep medication use, whereas depression (but not anxiety) symptoms were uniquely associated with increased daytime dysfunction. ADHD-IN symptoms were uniquely associated with poorer sleep quality and increased daytime dysfunction, whereas ADHD-HI symptoms were uniquely associated with more sleep disturbances and less daytime dysfunction. Lastly, ADHD-IN, anxiety, and depression symptoms were each independently associated with poor sleep status. This study documents a high prevalence of poor sleep among college students, some sex differences, and distinct patterns of mental health symptoms in relation to sleep problems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Health related vulnerability due to chronic diseases: Impact on clinical services across emergency shelters in mass disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Yordanka Nikolova

    Chronic diseases are increasingly recognized as major contributors to the global burden of disease. Individuals with chronic disease are particularly vulnerable during mass emergencies as they may suffer an interruption in their therapeutic programs, leading to life-threatening conditions and complications. Based on the individual and community risk factors framework, three categories are defined as the most vulnerable to extreme natural events: physically, psychologically, and socially vulnerable. Complex emergencies that occurred in the recent decade have provided evidence that these groups suffer more pronounced effects than others. Individuals seeking community support during emergencies have been predominantly medically dependent, elderly, children, people with chronic health conditions, and lower socioeconomic status. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of health-related vulnerability on shelter operations, and to estimate the burden of chronic disease on community resources following catastrophic events. A comprehensive survey data collection conducted by the United States Public Health Service in 2005 was used to evaluate clinical services for populations with health conditions accommodated by Louisiana temporary disaster shelters. Correlation and multiple regression analyses determined the relationship between shelter characteristics and the factors predicting shelters' needs for short-term assistance. Significant predictors were identified in all three explored domains: structural shelter characteristics (sponsor, interpreter needed); clinical characteristics (access to health providers, clinic on site, staff had no days off); population characteristics (census, compromised mental health alone, or in combination with chronic conditions and diseases with epidemic potential). Shelters sponsored by faith-based organizations were less likely to be in risk of rapid resource depletion. Shelters with large census demonstrated association with

  8. Investigating quality of life and health-related quality of life in infertility: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachamovich, Juliana Rigol; Chachamovich, Eduardo; Ezer, Hélène; Fleck, Marcelo P; Knauth, Daniela; Passos, Eduardo P

    2010-06-01

    To review the findings on quality of life (QOL) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among infertile women, men and couples. Systematic review. Publications between January 1980 and July 2009 in Medline, PsycInfo, Embase and Health and Psychosocial Instruments were compiled using the following inclusion criteria: papers published in peer-reviewed journals; written in English, French, Spanish or Portuguese; presented original findings; assessed quality of life or health-related quality of life as an outcome; included infertile subjects without other clinical conditions; used validated measures. None. Quality of life and health-related quality of life. Fourteen studies were included in the review. Educational level, will to have children, poor marital relationship, previous in-vitro fertilisation attempt and duration of the infertility were predictors of lower mental health scores in infertile men. Women had significant lower scores on mental health, social functioning and emotional behaviour. Among infertile subjects, women had lower scores in several QOL or HRQOL domains in comparison to men. Evidences indicate important QOL or HRQOL impairments in infertile women. Among men, it does not appear to be intense. There is scarce knowledge regarding the impact of infertility on couples.

  9. A key role for experimental task performance: effects of math talent, gender and performance on the neural correlates of mental rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Christian; Fliessbach, Klaus; Stausberg, Sven; Stojanovic, Jelena; Trautner, Peter; Elger, Christian E; Weber, Bernd

    2012-02-01

    The neurophysiological mechanisms underlying superior cognitive performance are a research area of high interest. The majority of studies on the brain-performance relationship assessed the effects of capability-related group factors (e.g. talent, gender) on task-related brain activations while only few studies examined the effect of the inherent experimental task performance factor. In this functional MRI study, we combined both approaches and simultaneously assessed the effects of three relatively independent factors on the neurofunctional correlates of mental rotation in same-aged adolescents: math talent (gifted/controls: 17/17), gender (male/female: 16/18) and experimental task performance (median split on accuracy; high/low: 17/17). Better experimental task performance of mathematically gifted vs. control subjects and male vs. female subjects validated the selected paradigm. Activation of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was identified as a common effect of mathematical giftedness, gender and experimental task performance. However, multiple linear regression analyses (stepwise) indicated experimental task performance as the only predictor of parietal activations. In conclusion, increased activation of the IPL represents a positive neural correlate of mental rotation performance, irrespective of but consistent with the obtained neurocognitive and behavioral effects of math talent and gender. As experimental performance may strongly affect task-related activations this factor needs to be considered in capability-related group comparison studies on the brain-performance relationship. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Daily physical activity and its contribution to the health-related quality of life of ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rand Debbie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Participation in daily physical activity (PA post-stroke has not previously been investigated as a possible explanatory variable of health-related quality of life (HRQL. The aims were 1 to determine the contribution of daily PA to the HRQL of individuals with chronic stroke and 2 to assess the relationship between the functional ability of these individuals to the amount of daily PA. Methods The amount of daily PA of forty adults with chronic stroke (mean age 66.5 ± 9.6 years was monitored using two measures. Accelerometers (Actical were worn on the hip for three consecutive days in conjunction with a self-report questionnaire [the PA Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD]. The daily physical activity was measured as the mean total accelerometer activity counts/day and the PASIPD scores as the metabolic equivalent (MET hr/day. HRQL was assessed by the Physical and Mental composite scores of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36 in addition to the functional ability of the participants. Correlation and regression analyses were performed. Results After controlling for the severity of the motor impairment, the amount of daily PA, as assessed by the PASIPD and accelerometers, was found to independently contribute to 10-12% of the variance of the Physical Composite Score of the SF-36. No significant relationship was found between PA and the Mental Composite Score of the SF-36.The functional ability of the participants was found to be correlated to the amount of daily PA (r = 0.33 - 0.67, p Conclusion The results suggest that daily PA is associated with better HRQL (as assessed by the Physical composite score of the SF-36 for people living with stroke. Daily PA should be encouraged to potentially increase HRQL. Accelerometers in conjunction with a self-report questionnaire may provide important measures of PA which can be monitored and modified, and potentially influence HRQL.

  11. An Assessment of Health Related Quality of Life in a Male Prison Population in Greece Associations with Health Related Characteristics and Characteristics of Detention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos Togas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prisoners constitute a group with increased health and social care needs. Although implementing policies that aim at improving outcomes within this population should be a priority area, studies that attempt to assess health outcomes and health related quality of life (HRQoL in this population are limited. Aim. To assess HRQoL in a prison population in Greece and to explore the relationship between HRQoL and a set of individual sociodemographic and health related characteristics and characteristics of detention. Methods. A cross-sectional study involving 100 male prisoners was conducted in the prison of Corinth in Greece. HRQoL was assessed through the use of the SF-36 and the EQ-5D. Results. The mean physical and mental summary scores of the SF-36 were 55.33 and 46.82, respectively. The EQ-VAS mean score was 76.41%, while the EQ-5D index was 0.72. Multivariate analysis identified a statistical relationship between HRQoL and the conditions of detention, controlling for the effect of sociodemographic characteristics, morbidity, and mental problems. The use of narcotics in particular is significantly associated with lower HRQoL. Conclusions. Implementation of policies that aim at preventing the use of narcotics within the prison environment is expected to contribute to improved HRQoL in this population.

  12. An assessment of health related quality of life in a male prison population in Greece associations with health related characteristics and characteristics of detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togas, Constantinos; Raikou, Maria; Niakas, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Prisoners constitute a group with increased health and social care needs. Although implementing policies that aim at improving outcomes within this population should be a priority area, studies that attempt to assess health outcomes and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in this population are limited. To assess HRQoL in a prison population in Greece and to explore the relationship between HRQoL and a set of individual sociodemographic and health related characteristics and characteristics of detention. A cross-sectional study involving 100 male prisoners was conducted in the prison of Corinth in Greece. HRQoL was assessed through the use of the SF-36 and the EQ-5D. The mean physical and mental summary scores of the SF-36 were 55.33 and 46.82, respectively. The EQ-VAS mean score was 76.41%, while the EQ-5D index was 0.72. Multivariate analysis identified a statistical relationship between HRQoL and the conditions of detention, controlling for the effect of sociodemographic characteristics, morbidity, and mental problems. The use of narcotics in particular is significantly associated with lower HRQoL. Implementation of policies that aim at preventing the use of narcotics within the prison environment is expected to contribute to improved HRQoL in this population.

  13. [Gender differences in measures of mental health associated with a marital relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuko; Sagara, Junko

    2014-02-01

    This study examined gender differences for two measures of mental health as related to the quality of the marital relationship. Middle-aged respondents (221 female; 210 male) rated their marital satisfaction, affection, and communication. They also rated their psychological well-being and depression. The correlations between marital quality and mental health indicated that for males marital quality was more strongly associated with psychological well-being than with depression. Females showed no such difference, or their marital quality was associated with depression. This implies that for females, depression was a more sensitive measure of their mental health related to their husband-wife relationship. On the other hand, for males subjective well-being which was correlated with self-esteem was a more sensitive measure of their mental health.

  14. Problematic gaming behaviour and health-related outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männikkö, Niko; Ruotsalainen, Heidi; Miettunen, Jouko; Pontes, Halley M; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2017-11-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the interplay between problematic gaming behaviour and health-related outcomes at different developmental stages. A total of 50 empirical studies met the specified inclusion criteria, and a meta-analysis using correlation coefficients was used for the studies that reported adverse health implications regarding the impact of problematic gaming behaviour on depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder and somatisation. Overall, the results suggested that problematic gaming behaviour is significantly associated with a wide range of detrimental health-related outcomes. Finally, the limitations of this review alongside its implications were discussed and considered for future research.

  15. The concept of structure and content of health related trainings for higher educational establishments’ students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.A. Kopylov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: analysis of modern directions of physical culture education scientific and practical problems’ solution in higher educational establishment of health related orientation. Material: analysis of publications in scientific journals. Results: we have shown significance of student’s physical functioning as the basis of his motor, coordination and mental qualities’ development. Main difficulties of existing physical education practice have been cleared up. It has been found that prevailing training of physical qualities at physical culture classes does not solve the problem of students’ health strengthening. Ways to application of additional health related physical culture trainings have been shown. Transition to such trainings opens opportunities for creation a new concept, permits to effectively and relatively quickly implement its main ideas and principles in practice of HEE education. Conclusions: content of additional (health related physical culture training envisages prevailing orientation on health related, general developing and sport-recreational tasks. With it first attention shall be paid to formation of physical, psychic and social-moral health as well as to personality-oriented approach in system of individual choice of physical culture means.

  16. Modeling Mental Speed: Decomposing Response Time Distributions in Elementary Cognitive Tasks and Correlations with Working Memory Capacity and Fluid Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Schmitz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown an inverse relation between response times in elementary cognitive tasks and intelligence, but findings are inconsistent as to which is the most informative score. We conducted a study (N = 200 using a battery of elementary cognitive tasks, working memory capacity (WMC paradigms, and a test of fluid intelligence (gf. Frequently used candidate scores and model parameters derived from the response time (RT distribution were tested. Results confirmed a clear correlation of mean RT with WMC and to a lesser degree with gf. Highly comparable correlations were obtained for alternative location measures with or without extreme value treatment. Moderate correlations were found as well for scores of RT variability, but they were not as strong as for mean RT. Additionally, there was a trend towards higher correlations for slow RT bands, as compared to faster RT bands. Clearer evidence was obtained in an ex-Gaussian decomposition of the response times: the exponential component was selectively related to WMC and gf in easy tasks, while mean response time was additionally predictive in the most complex tasks. The diffusion model parsimoniously accounted for these effects in terms of individual differences in drift rate. Finally, correlations of model parameters as trait-like dispositions were investigated across different tasks, by correlating parameters of the diffusion and the ex-Gaussian model with conventional RT and accuracy scores.

  17. Health related quality of life among insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalto, A M; Uutela, A; Aro, A R

    1997-01-01

    This crossectional questionnaire study examined the associations of health factors and psychosocial factors with Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) in a sample of adult type I diabetic patients (n = 385). Health related quality of life was measured by the Finnish version of MOS SF-20...

  18. Health related quality of life of patients on maintenance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Health related quality of life is increasingly being recognised as a primary outcome measure in treatment of end-stage renal disease. The health related quality of life of patients on maintenance haemodialysis is reduced. Several interventions directed at modifiable risk factors have been shown to improve ...

  19. Relationship Between Spasticity and Health Related Quality of Life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is growing awareness of health related quality of life in cerebral palsy patients, though there is paucity of data in determining its relationship with spasticity in cerebral palsy patients. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between spasticity and health related quality of life in ...

  20. [Health related quality of life among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa M, Alfonso; Chirino, Alejandra; Valladares, Geraldine

    2011-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus may affect profoundly the quality of life of patients. To assess health related quality of life among patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The Diabetes Quality of Life (DQOL) questionnaire was applied to 296 patients with diabetes mellitus aged 63 ± lO years (201 women) seen in primary health care centers. The concern about the future effects of diabetes was the worst evaluated domain. Women perceived a lower health related quality of life than men. There was an inverse correlation between age and satisfaction with treatment, concern about vocational, social and future effects of the disease. Type 2 diabetes affects health related quality of life, especially in some specific domains such as perception of the future.

  1. The prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C; Berglund, Patricia A; Chiu, Wai Tat; Deitz, Anne C; Hudson, James I; Shahly, Victoria; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Benjet, Corina; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Maria Haro, Josep; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; O'Neill, Siobhan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sasu, Carmen; Scott, Kate; Viana, Maria Carmen; Xavier, Miguel

    2013-05-01

    Little population-based data exist outside the United States on the epidemiology of binge eating disorder (BED). Cross-national BED data are presented here and compared with bulimia nervosa (BN) data in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health Surveys. Community surveys with 24,124 respondents (ages 18+) across 14 mostly upper-middle and high-income countries assessed lifetime and 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Physical disorders were assessed with a chronic conditions checklist. Country-specific lifetime prevalence estimates are consistently (median; interquartile range) higher for BED (1.4%; .8-1.9%) than BN (.8%; .4-1.0%). Median age of onset is in the late teens to early 20s for both disorders but slightly younger for BN. Persistence is slightly higher for BN (6.5 years; 2.2-15.4) than BED (4.3 years; 1.0-11.7). Lifetime risk of both disorders is elevated for women and recent cohorts. Retrospective reports suggest that comorbid DSM-IV disorders predict subsequent onset of BN somewhat more strongly than BED and that BN predicts subsequent comorbid disorders somewhat more strongly than does BED. Significant comorbidities with physical conditions are due almost entirely to BN and to a somewhat lesser degree BED predicting subsequent onset of these conditions. Role impairments are similar for BN and BED. Fewer than half of lifetime BN or BED cases receive treatment. Binge eating disorder represents a public health problem at least equal to BN. Low treatment rates highlight the clinical importance of questioning patients about eating problems even when not included among presenting complaints. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Health-related quality of life of students from a private medical school in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando M; Menezes, Marta S; Porto-Silva, Larissa; Damasceno, Hannah

    2015-11-08

    To assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and to describe factors associated with its variation among undergraduate medical students at a Brazilian private medical school. A cross-sectional study in a sample (n=180) of medical students at a private medical school in Salvador, Brazil, stratified by year of medical course. Data about age, sex, year of course, physical activity, sleepiness, headaches, participation in a student loan program supported by the Brazilian government (FIES) and living arrangements were collected using a self-administered form. HRQOL was assessed by using a Brazilian Portuguese version of the SF-36 form. The eight domains of SF-36 and the Physical Component (PCS) and Mental Component (MCS) Summaries scales were calculated. The medical students showed poor HRQOL, mainly because of the mental component. Lower mean scores were found among those with FIES support, females, those suffering from sleepiness, headaches and lacking physical activity. No clear trend was observed in the variation of the SF-36 mean scores according to the year of medical school. However, students in the fifth year of the course had the highest HRQOL mean scores. Health-related quality of life of students at this private medical school was poor, mainly because of its mental component. Lower HRQOL was associated with FIES support, females, sleepiness, headaches and lack of regular physical activity. Higher scores were found among fifth year students.

  3. Health-related quality of life in the CDC Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Human Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brock; Rose, Charles E; Tokars, Jerome I; Martin, Stacey W; Keitel, Wendy A; Keyserling, Harry L; Babcock, Janiine; Parker, Scott D; Jacobson, Robert M; Poland, Gregory A; McNeil, Michael M

    2012-08-31

    After the Department of Defense implemented a mandatory anthrax vaccination program in 1998 concerns were raised about potential long-term safety effects of the current anthrax vaccine. The CDC multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA) Human Clinical Trial to evaluate route change and dose reduction collected data on participants' quality of life. Our objective is to assess the association between receipt of AVA and changes in health-related quality of life, as measured by the SF-36 health survey (Medical Outcomes Trust, Boston, MA), over 42 months after vaccination. 1562 trial participants completed SF-36v2 health surveys at 0, 12, 18, 30 and 42 months. Physical and mental summary scores were obtained from the survey results. We used Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) analyses to assess the association between physical and mental score difference from baseline and seven study groups receiving either AVA at each dose, saline placebo at each dose, or a reduced AVA schedule substituting saline placebo for some doses. Overall, mean physical and mental scores tended to decrease after baseline. However, we found no evidence that the score difference from baseline changed significantly differently between the seven study groups. These results do not favor an association between receipt of AVA and an altered health-related quality of life over a 42-month period. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Associations between physical activity and health-related fitness - volume versus pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaeps, Sara; Bourgois, Jan G; Charlier, Ruben; Mertens, Evelien; Lefevre, Johan

    2017-03-01

    Approximately 3.2 million people die of non-communicable diseases (NCD) each year due to insufficient physical activity. Physical activity guidelines are possibly perceived as too demanding and might thus pose a barrier. We addressed the question if a more stable physical activity pattern is associated with higher levels of health-related fitness than one with high and low intensities, regardless of the physical activity level (PAL). Physical activity was objectively measured in 296 men and women (53.7 ± 8.94 years) with the SenseWear Pro Armband ® . Using this data, the PAL and a Gini index were calculated to report the physical activity pattern. Health-related fitness was expressed as a fitness index. PAL was weakly correlated to health-related fitness (r = 0.38, P fitness index (r = 0.23, P health-related fitness than participants in quartile four, after adjustment for the Gini index. These results suggest that as long as the volume of physical activity is high, health-related fitness will be high as well, independent of the physical activity pattern or variability in intensities throughout the day.

  5. Consequences of maternal morbidity on health-related functioning: a systematic scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiyama, Kazuyo; Hirose, Atsumi; Cresswell, Jenny A; Barreix, Maria; Chou, Doris; Kostanjsek, Nenad; Say, Lale; Filippi, Véronique

    2017-06-30

    To assess the scope of the published literature on the consequences of maternal morbidity on health-related functioning at the global level and identify key substantive findings as well as research and methodological gaps. We searched for articles published between 2005 and 2014 using Medline, Embase, Popline, CINAHL Plus and three regional bibliographic databases in January 2015. Systematic scoping review PRIMARY OUTCOME: Health-related functioning RESULTS: After screening 17 706 studies, 136 articles were identified for inclusion. While a substantial number of papers have documented mostly negative effects of morbidity on health-related functioning and well-being, the body of evidence is not spread evenly across conditions, domains or geographical regions. Over 60% of the studies focus on indirect conditions such as depression, diabetes and incontinence. Health-related functioning is often assessed by instruments designed for the general population including the 36-item Short Form or disease-specific tools. The functioning domains most frequently documented are physical and mental; studies that examined physical, mental, social, economic and specifically focused on marital, maternal and sexual functioning are rare. Only 16 studies were conducted in Africa. Many assessments have not been comprehensive and have paid little attention to important functioning domains for pregnant and postpartum women. The development of a comprehensive instrument specific to maternal health would greatly advance our understanding of burden of ill health associated with maternal morbidity and help set priorities. The lack of attention to consequences on functioning associated with the main direct obstetric complications is of particular concern. CRD42015017774. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Somatic Symptoms as Mediating Factors between the Perceived Social Support and the Health-Related Quality of Life in North Korean Defectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Sung-Doo; Lee, So Hee; Kim, SeogJu; Jun, Jin Yong; Shin, Sang-Soo

    2017-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine the mediating effect of somatic symptoms between perceived social support and health-related quality of life among North Korean defectors living in South Korea. A total of 200 North Korean defectors were assessed using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Short-Form 8-Item Health Survey, the Patient Health Questionnaire 15, the PTSD Checklist Civilian Version and the Patient Health Questionnaire 9. Somatic symptoms accounted for physical health-related quality of life after controlling for PTSD and depressive symptoms, but did not for mental health-related quality of life. Moreover, somatic symptoms mediated the relationship between perceived social support and physical and mental health-related quality of life, indicating that perceived social support indirectly affects physical and mental health-related quality of life through somatic symptoms in North Korean defectors. The results of this study suggest that not only intervention for PTSD or depressive symptoms but also for somatic symptoms might be effective to improve physical and mental health-related quality of life for North Korean defectors, especially those who have a lack of perceived social support.

  7. The relationship between health-related fitness and quality of life in postmenopausal women from Southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Hsiu; Chen, Chi-lung; Kuo, Liang Tseng; Fan, Chun-Hao; Lee, Mel S; Hsu, Robert Wen-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Health-related fitness has been reported to be associated with improved quality of life (QoL) in the elderly. Health-related fitness is comprised of several dimensions that could be enhanced by specific training regimens. It has remained unclear how various dimensions of health-related fitness interact with QoL in postmenopausal women. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between the dimensions of health-related fitness and QoL in elderly women. A cohort of 408 postmenopausal women in a rural area of Taiwan was prospectively collected. Dimensions of health-related fitness, consisting of muscular strength, balance, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, muscle endurance, and agility, were assessed. QoL was determined using the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Differences between age groups (stratified by decades) were calculated using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple comparisons using a Scheffé test. A Spearman's correlation analysis was performed to examine differences between QoL and each dimension of fitness. Multiple linear regression with forced-entry procedure was performed to evaluate the effects of health-related fitness. A P-value of health-related fitness were shown for sit-ups, back strength, grip strength, side steps, trunk extension, and agility (Phealth-related fitness. Health-related fitness, as well as the physical component of QoL, declined with increasing age.

  8. Correlation between Mental Health and Incidence of Sudden Hearing Loss in Referred Patients to Otolaryngology Services of Hamadan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Farahani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: In recent years mental health attracts attention of many researchers, and severe emotional stress that can interfere in creation of different organic diseases is one of the most prominent of this aspects. Sudden hearing loss (S.H.L. is one of these disorders that could followed after stress and eventually may heal completely, relatively or lead to permanent deafness. S.H.L. could influence on interpersonal relationships and in this way could change quality of life negatively, so enough and appropriate attention is necessary. In this research by determination of level of stress we intended to study relationship between mental health and incidence of S.H.L.Materials & Methods: In this case – control study 65 patients that referred to otolaryngology services of Hamadan during 2005-2006 with S.H.L. (case group compared to 89 healthy subjects (control group. Control group were free from any systemic diseases and were matched from sex and age aspects to the case group. In case group after complete audiometric evaluation and confirmation of S.H.L, stress level was assessed using GHQ-28 questionnaire. This questionnaire contained 28 questions in 4 different fields: somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social problems and depression. Linkert scoring method was used for scoring of questionnaires and all data were analyzed using T-Test and chi-square test.Results: During 4 months incidence of S.H.L. in referred patients were 5.1%, significant statistical relationships between S.H.L. and level of stress (P<0.001 and severity of hearing loss and level of stress (P<0.05, r =0.34 were found. The most common audiometric pattern was downward slopping pattern (56.92%. Evaluation of level of stress between two sex groups did not show any significant difference (P<0.05.Conclusion: Stress can be known as one of the predisposing factors of S.H.L. and may be possible to control by paying more attention to the role of self-awareness and

  9. Stress on health-related quality of life in older adults: the protective nature of mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frias, Cindy M; Whyne, Erum

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined whether the link between stress and health-related quality of life was buffered by protective factors, namely mindfulness, in a sample of middle-aged and older adults. In this cross-sectional study, 134 healthy, community-dwelling adults (ages 50-85 years) were recruited from Dallas, TX. The participants were screened for depressive symptoms and severity (using the Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]). All participants completed measures of self-reported health status (i.e. SF36v2: mental and physical health composites), life stress (using the Elders Life Stress Inventory [ELSI]), and trait mindfulness (i.e. Mindful Attention Awareness Scale). Hierarchical regressions (covarying for age, gender, and education) showed that life stress was inversely related to physical and mental health. Mindfulness was positively related to mental health. The negative effect of life stress on mental health was weakened for those individuals with higher levels of trait mindfulness. The results suggest that mindfulness is a powerful, adaptive strategy that may protect middle-aged and older adults from the well-known harmful effects of stress on mental health.

  10. [Degree of dry mouth and factors influencing oral health-related quality of life for community-dwelling elders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myung Sook; Ryu, Se Ang

    2010-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the degree of dry mouth and oral health-related quality of life and to identify factors contributing to oral health-related quality of life for community-dwelling elders. A descriptive correlational study design was used. Participants were 156 older adults from two senior welfare centers. Data were collected on February 21, 22 and 29, 30, 2009 using structured questionnaires. Enter type multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing oral health-related quality of life according to general and oral health characteristics. There were significant differences in oral health-related quality of life according to living arrangement, insurance, smoking, number of natural teeth, and denture type. The oral health-related quality of life had significant correlations with the number of chronic disease, number of medications, and dry mouth. Factors influencing oral health-related quality of life for community-dwelling older adults were dry mouth, number of chronic disease, and medical aid, which explained about 47.9% of total variance. These results indicate that in order to promote oral health-related quality of life for older adults, prevention or management of chronic diseases as well as oral health and dry mouth are needed for this population, and especially economically poor elders.

  11. Improvement in health-related quality of life following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nina Beck; Gudex, Claire; Støving, René Klinkby

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study explored whether health-related quality of life (HRQOL) changes following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery were associated with identifiable socio-demographic or clinical characteristics, and it examined the impact on health outcomes of changes in the Danish criteria...... and hospital records. RESULTS: There was overall improvement on all SF-36 subscales and in the mean physical score (PCS) and mean mental score (MCS) (p = 0.001). A total of five patients had lower PCS and 13 patients had lower MCS after surgery, but we identified no particular characteristics associated...

  12. Health-related quality of life in long-term breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuckmann, Vera; Ekholm, Ola; Rasmussen, Niels Kristian

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of long-term breast cancer survivors (BCS) in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: An age-stratified random sample of 2,000 female BCS > or = 5 years after primary surgery without recurrence was drawn...... from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, which is representative regarding long-term BCS in Denmark, and compared with 3,104 women of the nationally representative Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2000. The Short Form-36 questionnaire assessed HRQOL and its association with BCS...... health" (P mental health" (P

  13. Health-related quality of life in a sample of iranian patients on hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakpour, Amir H.; Saffari, Mohsen; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed

    2010-01-01

    mass index, and comorbidity diseases suffered from a poorer physical health. Poor mental health was associated with a lower level of education, longer duration of hemodialysis, lower economic status, a lower degree of knowledge on disease, and comorbidity diseases. CONCLUSIONS: This study affirms......INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a sample of Iranian patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. The data were compared with the HRQOL for the Iranian general population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two-hundred and fifty patients undergoing hemodialysis......, the general level of education of the patients, as well as physician-patient communication....

  14. Cyberbullying among male adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: prevalence, correlates, and association with poor mental health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence rates and multilevel correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators among male adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were also examined. The experiences of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration in 251 male adolescents with ADHD were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were examined using multiple regression analysis. A total of 48 (19.1%) and 36 (14.3%) participants reported that they were cyberbullying victims or perpetrators, respectively. Those who had increased age and a higher parental occupational socioeconomic status, and reported more severe traditional passive bullying victimization were more likely to be cyberbullying victims. Those who had increased age and combined-type ADHD, and reported lower BAS reward responsiveness, more severe Internet addiction and more severe traditional passive bullying perpetration were more likely to be cyberbullying perpetrators. Cyberbullying victims reported more severe depression and suicidality than those who were not cyberbullying victims. A high proportion of male adolescents with ADHD are involved in cyberbullying. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents should monitor the possibility of cyberbullying involvement among male adolescents with ADHD who exhibit the cyberbullying correlates identified in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Health-related quality of life in patients undergoing hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljanović Gora

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Chronic renal disease is one of the growing problems all over the world. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL is an important indicator for those with a chronic disease, such as chronic renal disease, because it may serve as predictor of mortality and hospitalization. The aim of this study was to assess HRQoL in patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis (HD, and compare it with patients suffering from hypertension (HTA, and normal controls of the same age and gender (C. Methods. The study enrolled 224 males and females older than 18 years: 67 in the HD group, 78 in the HTA group, and 79 in the C group. HRQoL was assessed in all groups using 15-D questionnaire. Results. Significantly higher level of education was recorded in the HD group compared to other two groups. In the HD group there were significantly less employed persons (9% and significantly more retired (67.2%. All groups were similar regarding an average monthly income and marital status. We found significantly lower total HRQoL score in patients in the HD group, compared to normal controls (0.78 ± 0.16 vs. 0.89 ± 0.10 in the HTA and 0.95 ± 0.06 in the C group as well as specific scores in almost all investigated domains, except in speech, eating and mental functions. Patients in the HD and HTA groups had similar self-reported quality of life in additional 3 domains: hearing, elimination and distress, while the HD group reported significantly lower scores in remaining 9 domains: mobility, vision, breathing, sleeping, usual activities, discomfort and symptoms, depression, vitality and sexual activity. Patients in the HTA group had significantly lower scores than normal controls in 8 domains (hearing, sleeping, elimination, usual activities, discomfort and symptoms, depression, distress and vitality as well as in total quality of life, while in remaining 4 domains there was no significant difference (mobility, vision, breathing, sexual activity. Conclusion. Both

  16. Exploring health-related quality of life in eating disorders by a cross-sectional study and a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiano, Monica; Salvo, Pierandrea; Righetti, Pierluigi; Cereser, Lucia; Baldissera, Erika; Camponogara, Ilenia; Balestrieri, Matteo

    2014-06-04

    People with eating disorders (ED) often report poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL), which is explicitly correlated to illness' severity and its effects on cognitive performance. We aimed to analyze health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in subgroups of eating disorder (ED) patients by using the brief version of WHOQoL questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF) before treatment administration. Moreover, in order to compare our findings with other published data, we carried out a comprehensive review of the literature on HRQoL in ED patients. Our review was carried out by means of an accurate data mining of PsychInfo and Medline databases and other available sources. In our cross-sectional study, eighty female ED patients (26 with bulimia nervosa, 33 with anorexia nervosa, 7 with binge eating disorder and 14 with ED not otherwise specified) completed the WHOQoL-BREF. HRQoL scores were compared among ED subgroups and clinical information (presence of previous contacts, length of illness, psychiatric comorbidity) was considered in the analysis. Our review shows that with few exceptions ED patients have a poorer HRQoL than the healthy population of control and sometimes the mental component of HRQoL is the most involved dimension. Moreover, there are no differences in the HRQoL among ED groups, even if AN patients in some studies have a lower HRQoL scores. Furthermore, BED patients have a poorer HRQoL than obese patients who do not have binge episodes. Finally, all treatments were positively correlated with an improvement on general and specific QoL dimensions. In our sample, ED subgroups differed only for Psychological Health HRQoL scores (F = 4.072, df = 3; p = 0.01). No differences were found between inpatients and outpatients, treatment naïve and previously treated patients and patients with or without psychiatric comorbidity. Moreover, HRQoL scores were not correlated to length of illness within each ED subgroup. The analysis of the literature adds some

  17. Exploring health-related quality of life in eating disorders by a cross-sectional study and a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background People with eating disorders (ED) often report poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL), which is explicitly correlated to illness’ severity and its effects on cognitive performance. We aimed to analyze health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in subgroups of eating disorder (ED) patients by using the brief version of WHOQoL questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF) before treatment administration. Moreover, in order to compare our findings with other published data, we carried out a comprehensive review of the literature on HRQoL in ED patients. Methods Our review was carried out by means of an accurate data mining of PsychInfo and Medline databases and other available sources. In our cross-sectional study, eighty female ED patients (26 with bulimia nervosa, 33 with anorexia nervosa, 7 with binge eating disorder and 14 with ED not otherwise specified) completed the WHOQoL-BREF. HRQoL scores were compared among ED subgroups and clinical information (presence of previous contacts, length of illness, psychiatric comorbidity) was considered in the analysis. Results Our review shows that with few exceptions ED patients have a poorer HRQoL than the healthy population of control and sometimes the mental component of HRQoL is the most involved dimension. Moreover, there are no differences in the HRQoL among ED groups, even if AN patients in some studies have a lower HRQoL scores. Furthermore, BED patients have a poorer HRQoL than obese patients who do not have binge episodes. Finally, all treatments were positively correlated with an improvement on general and specific QoL dimensions. In our sample, ED subgroups differed only for Psychological Health HRQoL scores (F = 4.072, df = 3; p = 0.01). No differences were found between inpatients and outpatients, treatment naïve and previously treated patients and patients with or without psychiatric comorbidity. Moreover, HRQoL scores were not correlated to length of illness within each ED subgroup. Conclusions The

  18. Self-efficacy, physical activity and health-related quality of life in middle-aged meniscectomy patients and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Y B; Ringsberg, K; Dahlberg, L E

    2011-12-01

    Our purpose was to examine self-efficacy of knee function, physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in post-meniscectomy patients and controls as well as to explore the impact of gender and the association between outcomes. Ninety-nine post-meniscectomy patients (27% women), mean age 44.5 years, mean (range) of follow-up time 3 (1-5) years, and 94 controls (34% women), mean age 45 years, completed the following questionnaires: the Knee Self-Efficacy Scale (K-SES(ABC) ), the Physical Activity Scale (PAS) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36). Patients scored lower than controls in K-SES(ABC) and in the SF-36 subscales Physical Functioning and Bodily Pain (P≤0.002). Forty-six percent of the patients had resumed pre-injury PA, but current PA did not differ between the groups. In the patients, K-SES(ABC) correlated strongly with four physical SF-36 subscales and one mental scale (Vitality) (r(s) =0.56-0.85, Pself-efficacy of knee function, a sedentary lifestyle and poorer HRQoL. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Health-related internet habits and health anxiety in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karmpaul; Brown, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Health-related Internet use has grown rapidly, yet little research has considered how health anxious individuals use the Internet for this purpose. Our aim was to examine the relationships between health anxiety and the extent of, reasons for, and consequences of health-related Internet usage in university students (n = 255). Responses on a purpose-made Internet use questionnaire were correlated with health anxiety scores; multiple regression analyses controlling for depression and anxiety were also conducted. Health anxiety positively correlated with (all ps advantages perceived in health-related Internet use (r(s) = .183), heightened tension (r(s) = .364) and relief (r(s) = .174) post-search, and perceived doctor disadvantages (r(s) = .306), yet a greater likelihood to visit a doctor post-search (r(s) = .217). Health anxiety also correlated with six measures of possible addiction to using the Internet for health purposes (r(s) range = .171 to .366, all ps Internet use correlate with health anxiety. Research evaluating the possible role of Internet use in the development and maintenance of health anxiety is warranted.

  20. The Impact of Spiritual Intelligence, Gender and Educational Background on Mental Health Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Naveen; Srivastava, S K

    2017-11-30

    The present study is conducted on 300 PG-level college students in Haridwar, Uttarakhand (India). The aim of the present study is to examine the level of spiritual intelligence and mental health, to observe relationship between these two variables and also to identify the difference in spiritual intelligence and mental health across gender and educational background (arts and science). The purposive sampling technique is used to select 300 college students of both disciplines of arts and science from the four different government degree colleges/campuses in Haridwar. Integrated Spiritual Intelligence Scale and Mithila Mental Health Status Inventory are used to observe the level of these variables among college students. In the present study, correlational design is employed. All the statistical analyses are done with the help of computer software SPSS. To observe relationship Pearson correlation and to identify the difference t test are used. Findings of the study revealed that spiritual intelligence and mental health relate significantly among arts students, and male and female arts students separately have significant relationship between spiritual intelligence and mental health. Spiritual intelligence and mental health relate significantly among science students, and male and female science students separately have significant relationship between spiritual intelligence and mental health. No significant difference is found between male and female students in terms of spiritual intelligence. No significant difference is found between arts and science students in terms of spiritual intelligence. No significant difference is found between male and female students in terms of mental health. No significant difference is found between arts and science students in terms of mental health.

  1. Health-related quality of life in different stages of chronic kidney disease and at initiation of dialysis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagels Agneta A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL in patients in different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD up to initiation of dialysis treatment and to explore possible correlating and influencing factors. Methods Cross-sectional design with 535 patients in CKD stages 2–5 and 55 controls assessed for HRQoL through SF-36 together with biomarkers. Results All HRQoL dimensions deteriorated significantly with CKD stages with the lowest scores in CKD 5. The largest differences between the patient groups were seen in ‘physical functioning’, ‘role physical’, ‘general health’ and in physical summary scores (PCS. The smallest disparities were seen in mental health and pain. Patients in CKD stages 2–3 showed significantly decreased HRQoL compared to matched controls, with differences of large magnitude - effect size (ES ≥ .80 - in ‘general health’ and PCS. Patients in CDK 4 demonstrated deteriorated scores with a large magnitude in ‘physical function’, ‘general health’ and PCS compared to the patients in CKD 2–3. Patients in CKD 5 demonstrated deteriorated scores with a medium sized magnitude (ES 0.5 – 0.79 in ‘role emotional’ and mental summary scores compared to the patients in CKD 4. Glomerular filtration rate Conclusions Having CKD implies impaired HRQoL, also in earlier stages of the disease. At the time for dialysis initiation HRQoL is substantially deteriorated. Co-existing conditions, such as inflammation and cardiovascular disease seem to be powerful predictors of impaired HRQoL in patients with CKD. Within routine renal care, strategies to improve function and well-being considering the management of co-existing conditions like inflammation and CVD need to be developed.

  2. Health-related quality of life in different stages of chronic kidney disease and at initiation of dialysis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagels, Agneta A; Söderkvist, Birgitta Klang; Medin, Charlotte; Hylander, Britta; Heiwe, Susanne

    2012-06-18

    To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients in different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) up to initiation of dialysis treatment and to explore possible correlating and influencing factors. Cross-sectional design with 535 patients in CKD stages 2-5 and 55 controls assessed for HRQoL through SF-36 together with biomarkers. All HRQoL dimensions deteriorated significantly with CKD stages with the lowest scores in CKD 5. The largest differences between the patient groups were seen in 'physical functioning', 'role physical', 'general health' and in physical summary scores (PCS). The smallest disparities were seen in mental health and pain. Patients in CKD stages 2-3 showed significantly decreased HRQoL compared to matched controls, with differences of large magnitude - effect size (ES) ≥ .80 - in 'general health' and PCS. Patients in CDK 4 demonstrated deteriorated scores with a large magnitude in 'physical function', 'general health' and PCS compared to the patients in CKD 2-3. Patients in CKD 5 demonstrated deteriorated scores with a medium sized magnitude (ES 0.5 - 0.79) in 'role emotional' and mental summary scores compared to the patients in CKD 4. Glomerular filtration rate stages of the disease. At the time for dialysis initiation HRQoL is substantially deteriorated. Co-existing conditions, such as inflammation and cardiovascular disease seem to be powerful predictors of impaired HRQoL in patients with CKD. Within routine renal care, strategies to improve function and well-being considering the management of co-existing conditions like inflammation and CVD need to be developed.

  3. At-risk and problem gambling among Finnish youth: The examination of risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, mental health and loneliness as gender-specific correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgren Robert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - The aims were to compare past-year at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG and other at-risk behaviours (computer gaming, risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking by age and gender, and to explore how ARPG is associated with risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, poor mental health and loneliness in males and females. DESIGN - Data from respondents aged 15-28 (n = 822 were derived from a cross-sectional random sample of population-based data (n = 4484. The data were collected in 2011-2012 by telephone interviews. The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI, score≥2 was used to evaluate ARPG. Prevalence rates for risk behaviours were compared for within gender-specific age groups. Regression models were gender-specific. RESULTS - The proportion of at-risk and problem gamblers was higher among males than females in all age groups except among 18-21-year-olds, while frequent computer gaming was higher among males in all age groups. The odds ratio (95% CI of being a male ARPGer was 2.57 (1.40-4.74 for risky alcohol consumption; 1.95 (1.07-3.56 for tobacco smoking; 2.63 (0.96-7.26 for poor mental health; and 4.41 (1.20-16.23 for feeling lonely. Likewise, the odds ratio (95% CI of being a female ARPGer was 1.19 (0.45-3.12 for risky alcohol consumption; 4.01 (1.43-11.24 for tobacco smoking; 0.99 (0.18-5.39 for poor mental health; and 6.46 (1.42-29.34 for feeling lonely. All 95% CIs of ARPG correlates overlapped among males and females. CONCLUSIONS - Overall, past-year at-risk and problem gambling and computer gaming seem to be more common among males than females; however, for risky alcohol consumption similar gender differences were evident only for the older half of the sample. No clear gender differences were seen in correlates associated with ARPG.

  4. Cognitive Correlates of Different Mentalizing Abilities in Individuals with High and Low Trait Schizotypy: Findings from an Extreme-Group Design

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    Krisztina Kocsis-Bogár

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mentalizing or Theory of Mind (ToM deficits in schizophrenia have been studied to great extent, but studies involving samples of trait schizotypy yield ambiguous results. Executive functions like cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and agency are all prerequisites of mentalizing, and it is assumed that the impairment of these functions contributes to ToM deficits in schizophrenia. Whether these impairments influence the ToM performance of people with high trait schizotypy remains unclear. Although impaired self-agency has repeatedly been identified in people with schizotypy, its role in mentalizing is yet to be investigated. The main aim of this study was to explore whether deficits in cognitive and affective ToM can be found in high trait schizotypy, and to identify in what way these deficits are related to the positive and negative dimensions of schizotypy. The secondary aim was to examine whether these deficits correlate with executive functions. Based on the dimensional view of the schizophrenia spectrum, an extreme-group design was applied to non-clinical volunteers demonstrating high (N = 39 and low (N = 47 trait schizotypy. Affective and cognitive ToM were investigated using the Movie for Assessment of Social Cognition, a sensitive and video-based measurement. Cognitive inhibition was assessed using the Stroop Test, and cognitive flexibility was analyzed using the Trail-Making Test. Agency was measured using a computerized self-agency paradigm. Participants in the high-schizotypy group performed significantly worse in the affective ToM task (d = 0.79, and their overall ToM performance was significantly impaired (d = 0.60. No between-group differences were found with regards to cognitive ToM, executive functions, and self-agency. Cognitive flexibility correlated negatively with positive schizotypy, and contributed to a worse overall and affective ToM. Impaired cognitive inhibition contributed to undermentalizing-type errors. It

  5. Health-related economic costs of the Three-Mile Island accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, T W; Slaysman, K S

    1984-01-01

    On March 1979, a nuclear power station at Three-Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, had a major breakdown. During the two-week period of the accident, about 150,000 residents were evacuated for reasons associated with safety and health. Many residents during and after the accident, regardless of whether they left or stayed, made mental and physical adjustments due to this accident. This paper is to estimate the economic costs incurred by individuals or communities as a result of a change in physical or mental health status and/or a change in health care services due to the TMI accident. The findings indicate that stress symptoms caused by the accident did affect the health-related behaviors of area residents. Of the costs examined, the economic costs of work days lost and physician visits are the largest cost items. There were some increases in consumption of alcohol, cigarettes, and tranquilizers immediately following the accident.

  6. Health-related stigma as a determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Kapella

    Full Text Available Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 18-35 with narcolepsy (N = 122 and without narcolepsy (N = 93 were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ, Fife Stigma Scale (FSS, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (p<0.01. Health-related stigma was directly and indirectly associated with lower functioning through depressed mood. Fifty-two percent of the variance in functioning was explained by the final model in the young adults with narcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy.

  7. Correlates of Stress and Coping among Jordanian Nursing Students during Clinical Practice in Psychiatric/Mental Health Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzayyat, Abdulkarim; Al-Gamal, Ekhlas

    2016-10-01

    Training in psychiatric settings is stressful for nursing students. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlations between the students' characteristics, their stress degrees, stressors and types of coping strategies they experience during training in psychiatric course. A descriptive, correlational, longitudinal design was used. Sixty-five undergraduate nursing students were recruited randomly from five Jordanian universities. Self-report questionnaires were administered at the second semester of the 2012-2013 academic year. The findings showed that students who utilized avoidance or transference strategies reported high stress degrees. Moreover, the results showed that those students who were in the fourth year, with a low family income, who avoid extracurricular activities, with a low academic grade or who registered in other clinical course(s) reported high stress degrees. These findings present a worthy data for the clinical instructors that facilitate students training in psychiatric settings and promote their psychosocial well-being. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of probable common mental disorders in a population with high prevalence of HIV in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibanda, Dixon; Cowan, Frances; Gibson, Lorna; Weiss, Helen A; Lund, Crick

    2016-02-29

    In 2014 close to 10 million people living with HIV (PLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa were on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). The incidence of non-communicable diseases has increased markedly in PLWH as mortality is reduced due to use of HAART. Common mental disorders (CMD) are highly prevalent in PLWH. We aimed to determine factors associated with probable CMD and depression, assessed by 2 locally validated screening tools in a population with high prevalence of HIV in Harare, Zimbabwe. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of a systematic random sample of patients utilizing the largest primary health care facility in Harare. Adults aged ≥18 years attending over a 2-week period were eligible, excluding those who were critically ill or unable to give written informed consent. Two locally validated screening tools the Shona symptom questionnaire (SSQ-14) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were administered by trained research assistants to identify probable CMD and depression. Of the 264 participants, 165 (62.5 %) were PLWH, and 92 % of these were on HAART. The prevalence of probable CMD (SSQ14 > = 9) and depression (PHQ9 > = 11) were higher among people living with HIV than among those without HIV (67.9 and 68.5 % vs 51.4 and 47.2 % respectively). Multivariable analysis showed female gender and recent negative life events to be associated with probable CMD and depression among PLWH (gender: OR = 2.32 95 % CI:1.07-5.05; negative life events: OR = 4.14; 95 % CI 1.17-14.49) and with depression (gender: OR = 1.84 95 % CI:0.85-4.02; negative life events: OR = 4.93.; 95 % CI 1.31-18.50) CONCLUSION: Elevated scores on self-report measures for CMD and depression are highly prevalent in this high HIV prevalence population. There is need to integrate packages of care for CMD and depression in existing primary health care programs for HIV/AIDS.

  9. Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life for Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Andreakou, Maria I.; Papadopoulos, Angelos A.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Niakas, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder that results in total cognitive impairment and functional decline. Family members are the most usual caregivers worldwide, resulting in a subsequent degradation of their quality of life. Methods. During November 2013–March 2014 in Athens, Greece, 155 AD patients’ family caregivers’ Health-Related Quality of Life and existence of depressive symptomatology were assessed. Results. A strong negative correlation ...

  10. Sensitivity to change of oral and general health-related quality of life during prosthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickert, Melanie; John, Mike T; Schierz, Oliver; Hirsch, Christian; Aarabi, Ghazal; Reissmann, Daniel R

    2014-02-01

    The literature presents conflicting findings on whether health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures have sufficient evaluative properties to assess changes caused by dental interventions. The aim of our study was to compare sensitivity to change in HRQoL and OHRQoL in prosthodontic patients. In this prospective intervention study, a total of 165 consecutively recruited patients completed the Short Form-36 (SF-36) and the 49-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP), as self-administered questionnaires, before prosthodontic treatment and 1 month after treatment was finished. Differences in SF-36 and OHIP scores between baseline and follow up were tested for statistical significance using paired t-tests. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated. Health-related quality of life improved during prosthodontic treatment, indicated by a slight, but statistically significant, increase in the SF-36 physical component (difference: 1.0 points), whereas perceived mental health did not change substantially (difference: −0.5 points). Improvement in OHRQoL (difference in OHIP sum score: −6.7 points) was statistically significant. Although the OHIP effect size (of 0.2) was considered as small, according to guidelines, it was greater than for the SF-36 component scores (physical: 0.1; mental: 0.1). Sensitivity to change in quality of life measures was greater for OHRQoL than for HRQoL, limiting the usefulness of HRQoL as an outcome measure in dentistry.

  11. High concordance between mental stress-induced and adenosine-induced myocardial ischemia assessed using SPECT in heart failure patients : Hemodynamic and biomarker correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wawrzyniak, A.J.; Dilsizian, V.; Krantz, D.S.; Harris, K.M.; Smith, M.F.; Shankovich, A.; Whittaker, K.S.; Rodriguez, G.A.; Gottdiener, J.S.; Li, J.; Kop, W.J.; Gottlieb, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Mental stress can trigger myocardial ischemia, but the prevalence of mental stress–induced ischemia in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients is unknown. We characterized mental stress–induced and adenosine-induced changes in myocardial perfusion and neurohormonal activation in CHF patients with

  12. Prevalence and correlates of psychiatric disorders among residents of a juvenile Remand Home in Nigeria: implications for mental health service planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, O

    2012-01-01

    Research has established that psychiatric disorders are common among children and adolescents within thejuvenile justice system. However, the bulk of these researches had been from the developed countries, with very limited data from sub-Sahara Africa. In a region like sub-Sahara Africa with acute shortage of mental healthcare resources, availability of data on mental health needs of children within the juvenile justice system is about the only way to ensure that they are not excluded from needed services. This study aims to determine the pattern, prevalence and correlates of psychiatric disorders among the residents of a juvenile justice facility in Nigeria and to speculate appropriate policy responses. Using a cross-sectional comparative study design, 60 consecutive residents of the Ibadan juvenile Remand home and 60 randomly selected age- and gender-matched school going adolescents were evaluated for the presence of current and lifetime psychiatric disorders. The Kiddies Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia was used to assess psychiatric disorders. Logistic regression was done to determine sociodemographic variables that were independently associated with the presence of lifetime psychiatric disorders. Thirty eight (63%) of the Remand Home participants had at least one lifetime psychiatric disorder compared with 14 (23%) among the comparison group (p psychiatric disorders among the Remand Home residents. Indices of family disruption and inconsistency in caregivers were the key predictors of psychiatric disorders. Study has established further that psychiatric disorders are common among children within the juvenile justice system and that there is a need for appropriate policy response. Some policy directions were highlighted.

  13. Determinants of disease-specific health-related quality of life in Turkish stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaz, İsmail; Kesikburun, Serdar; Adigüzel, Emre; Yilmaz, Bilge

    2016-06-01

    Stroke is a worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality that affects health-related quality of life. In this study, our objective was to identify determinants of disease-specific health-related quality of life in Turkish stroke survivors. A total of 114 consecutive patients who experienced a stroke at least 6 months earlier were studied. Health-related quality of life was measured using Stroke-specific Quality of Life (SS-QoL) consisting of 12 domains. Demographic and clinical data were collected, including age, sex, marital status, years of education, time since stroke, whether the patient received rehabilitation before enrollment, stroke etiology, whether the dominant hand was affected or not, presence of vision defect, neglect, aphasia, and dysarthria. The patients were assessed by the functional independence measure (FIM) and the Mini-Mental State Examination. A multiple linear regression analysis was carried out using a stepwise method to determine the predictors of 12 domains and the total score of the SS-QoL. The domains of work, social roles, mobility, and self-care had the lowest SS-QoL scores, whereas the highest scores were for the domains of personality, thinking, language, and vision. The total SS-QoL score was explained by the total FIM and Mini-Mental State Examination. Among the 12 domains, the mobility domain was explained the best (R=0.50) by motor FIM, previously received rehabilitation, and age, followed by the language domain (R=0.37) explained by the presence of aphasia and dysarthria, and previously received rehabilitation. The domains of mood (R=0.13) and upper extremity (R=0.19) were explained the worst. The results indicated that functional independence, age, cognitive status, and receiving a rehabilitation program were the primary determinants of the SS-QoL.

  14. Relationship Between Unwanted Pregnancy And Health-related Quality Of Life In Pregnant Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between unwanted pregnancy and health-related quality of life in pregnant women. Study Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Community Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran, from October 2013 to July 2014. Methodology: Of the pregnant women who presented to primary healthcare centers of Kermanshah, Iran to receive prenatal care at 6 - 10 weeks of their pregnancy, those with unwanted pregnancy were selected as cases and those with wanted pregnancy were selected as control group. The selection process was done using multi-stage stratified random sampling. Frequency matching was applied to match the two groups. Quality of life was measured by the SF-36 questionnaire and was compared by the t-test. Relationship power between pregnancy type (wanted or unwanted pregnancy) and impairment of quality of life subscales as the outcome was assessed using odds ratio (OR). Result: Frequency distribution of matched variables was not statistically different between the two studied groups. Mean scores of mental component summary and physical component summary as well as eight subscales (physical functioning, role, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role emotional, and mental health) were lower in the unwanted pregnancy group compared to women with wanted pregnancy (p < 0.001). The highest high impairment odds ratio was highest for the mental component summary (MCS) (OR = 9.19; 95 percentage CI = 5.17- 16.32) and vitality subscale (OR = 5.2; 95 percentage CI = 2.89- 9.33). Conclusion: Mental health of the pregnant women with unwanted pregnancy is affected more than their physical health. Mental health in women with unwanted pregnancy is 9.19 times more likely to be reduced. Among mental health subscales, vitality (energy/fatigue) showed the highest decrease. (author)

  15. Health-related quality of life in patients with knee osteoarthritis attending two primary care clinics in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Zainal F

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL among patients with osteoarthritis (OA helps the health care provider to understand the impact of the disease in the patients' own perspective and make health services more patient-centered. The main aim of this study was to measure the quality of life among patients with symptomatic knee OA attending primary care clinic. We also aimed to ascertain the association between socio-demographic and medical status of patients with knee OA and their quality of life. Methods A clinic based, cross sectional study using the Short Form-36 (SF-36 questionnaire was conducted in two primary care health clinics in Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia over a period of 8 months. The nurses and medical assistants were involved in recruiting the patients while the family physicians conducted the interview. Results A total 151 respondents were recruited. The mean age was 65.6 ± 10.8 years with females constituted 119 (78.8% of the patients. The mean duration of knee pain was 4.07 ± 2.96 years. Half of the patients were overweight and majority, 138 (91.4%, had at least one co-morbidity, the commonest being hypertension. The physical health status showed lower score as compared to mental health component. The domain concerning mental health components showed positive correlation with age. There was a significant negative correlation between age and physical functioning (p Conclusions This study has shown that patients with knee OA attending primary care clinics have relatively poor quality of life pertaining to the physical health components but less impact was seen on the patients' mental health.

  16. Health-related quality of life of medical students in a Brazilian student loan programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Menezes, Marta Silva; Porto-Silva, Larissa; Damasceno, Hannah

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the health-related quality of life of medical students participating in a large Brazilian government loan programme for undergraduate students in private schools.A cross-sectional study in a stratified sample of students from a private medical school in Salvador, Brazil, evaluated their health-related quality of life by using a Brazilian Portuguese version of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36).Students supported by the loan programme consistently presented lower mean scores in all SF-36 domains and in the physical and mental component summary scores than those who were not in the programme. Students supported by the loan programme presented systematically lower physical and mental component mean scores, after stratification by age, gender, school year, physical activity, sleepiness, headache, having a car, having a housemaid, living with family, and living in a rented house.The loan programme has enabled less wealthy undergraduate students to attend private medical schools in Brazil. However, this support is insufficient to improve students' health-related quality of life during medical school, as compared with students who do not participate in the programme. Because of a poorer health-related quality of life, students supported by the loan programme deserve special attention from private medical schools.

  17. Demographic-Based Content Analysis of Web-Based Health-Related Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadah, Shouq A; Shahbazi, Moloud; Wiley, Matthew T; Hristidis, Vagelis

    2016-06-13

    An increasing number of patients from diverse demographic groups share and search for health-related information on Web-based social media. However, little is known about the content of the posted information with respect to the users' demographics. The aims of this study were to analyze the content of Web-based health-related social media based on users' demographics to identify which health topics are discussed in which social media by which demographic groups and to help guide educational and research activities. We analyze 3 different types of health-related social media: (1) general Web-based social networks Twitter and Google+; (2) drug review websites; and (3) health Web forums, with a total of about 6 million users and 20 million posts. We analyzed the content of these posts based on the demographic group of their authors, in terms of sentiment and emotion, top distinctive terms, and top medical concepts. The results of this study are: (1) Pregnancy is the dominant topic for female users in drug review websites and health Web forums, whereas for male users, it is cardiac problems, HIV, and back pain, but this is not the case for Twitter; (2) younger users (0-17 years) mainly talk about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression-related drugs, users aged 35-44 years discuss about multiple sclerosis (MS) drugs, and middle-aged users (45-64 years) talk about alcohol and smoking; (3) users from the Northeast United States talk about physical disorders, whereas users from the West United States talk about mental disorders and addictive behaviors; (4) Users with higher writing level express less anger in their posts. We studied the popular topics and the sentiment based on users' demographics in Web-based health-related social media. Our results provide valuable information, which can help create targeted and effective educational campaigns and guide experts to reach the right users on Web-based social chatter.

  18. The independent contribution of executive functions to health related quality of life in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Carlo A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognition is a multidimensional construct and to our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the independent contribution of specific domains of cognition to health related quality of life. To determine whether executive functions are independently associated with health related quality of life assessed using Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs calculated from the EuroQol EQ-5D (EQ-5D in older women after adjusting for known covariates, including global cognition. Therefore, we conducted a secondary analysis of community-dwelling older women aged 65-75 years who participated in a 12-month randomized controlled trial of resistance training. We assessed global cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and executive functions using the: 1 Stroop Test; 2 Trail Making Test (Part B and 3 Digits Verbal Span Backwards Test. We calculated QALYs from the EQ-5D administered at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Results Our multivariate linear regression model demonstrated the specific executive processes of set shifting and working memory, as measured by Trail Making Test (Part B and Digits Verbal Span Backward Test (p Conclusions Our study highlights the specific executive processes of set shifting and working memory were independently associated with QALYs -- a measure of health related quality of life. Given that executive functions explain variability in QALYs, clinicians may need to consider assessing executive functions when measuring health related quality of life. Further, the EQ-5D may be used to track changes in health status over time and serve as a screening tool for clinicians. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00426881.

  19. Assessing health-related resiliency in HIV+ Latin women: Preliminary psychometric findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Torres, Gladys J; Wojna, Valerie; Rosario, Ernesto; Hechevarría, Rosa; Alemán-Batista, Ada M; Matos, Miriam Ríos; Madan, Alok; Skolasky, Richard L; Acevedo, Summer F

    2017-01-01

    HIV-associated vulnerabilities-especially those linked to psychological issues-and limited mental health-treatment resources have the potential to adversely affect the health statuses of individuals. The concept of resilience has been introduced in the literature to shift the emphasis from vulnerability to protective factors. Resilience, however, is an evolving construct and is measured in various ways, though rarely among underserved, minority populations. Herein, we present the preliminary psychometric properties of a sample of HIV-seropositive Puerto Rican women, measured using a newly developed health-related resilience scale. The Resilience Scales for Children and Adolescents, an instrument with solid test construction properties, acted as a model in the development (in both English and Spanish) of the HRRS, providing the same dimensions and most of the same subscales. The present sample was nested within the Hispanic-Latino longitudinal cohort of women (HLLC), that is part of the NeuroAIDS Research Program at the University of Puerto Rico (UPR), Medical Sciences Campus (MSC). Forty-five consecutively recruited, HIV+ women from the HLLC completed a demographic survey, the HRRS, and the Beck Depression Inventory-I, Spanish version. The results demonstrate excellent overall internal consistency for the total HRRS score (α = 0.95). Each of the dimensional scores also evidenced acceptable internal consistency (α ≥ 0.88). All the dimensional and subscale content validity indices were above the 0.42 cut-off. Analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between the HRRS total score and BDI-I-S (r(45) = -0.453, p < 0.003). Albeit preliminary in nature, the present study provides support for the HRRS as a measure to assess resilience among individuals living with chronic medical conditions. Minority populations, especially non-English speaking ones, are understudied across the field of medicine, and when efforts are made to include these patient groups

  20. Assessing health-related resiliency in HIV+ Latin women: Preliminary psychometric findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys J Jimenez-Torres

    Full Text Available HIV-associated vulnerabilities-especially those linked to psychological issues-and limited mental health-treatment resources have the potential to adversely affect the health statuses of individuals. The concept of resilience has been introduced in the literature to shift the emphasis from vulnerability to protective factors. Resilience, however, is an evolving construct and is measured in various ways, though rarely among underserved, minority populations. Herein, we present the preliminary psychometric properties of a sample of HIV-seropositive Puerto Rican women, measured using a newly developed health-related resilience scale.The Resilience Scales for Children and Adolescents, an instrument with solid test construction properties, acted as a model in the development (in both English and Spanish of the HRRS, providing the same dimensions and most of the same subscales. The present sample was nested within the Hispanic-Latino longitudinal cohort of women (HLLC, that is part of the NeuroAIDS Research Program at the University of Puerto Rico (UPR, Medical Sciences Campus (MSC. Forty-five consecutively recruited, HIV+ women from the HLLC completed a demographic survey, the HRRS, and the Beck Depression Inventory-I, Spanish version.The results demonstrate excellent overall internal consistency for the total HRRS score (α = 0.95. Each of the dimensional scores also evidenced acceptable internal consistency (α ≥ 0.88. All the dimensional and subscale content validity indices were above the 0.42 cut-off. Analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between the HRRS total score and BDI-I-S (r(45 = -0.453, p < 0.003.Albeit preliminary in nature, the present study provides support for the HRRS as a measure to assess resilience among individuals living with chronic medical conditions. Minority populations, especially non-English speaking ones, are understudied across the field of medicine, and when efforts are made to include these patient

  1. Pain, psychological distress and health-related quality of life at baseline and 3 months after radical prostatectomy

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    Johansson Fannie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate management of postoperative pain is common, and postoperative pain is a risk factor for prolonged pain. In addition to medical and technical factors, psychological factors may also influence the experience of postoperative pain. Methods Pain was measured postoperatively at 24, 48, and 72 hr in hospital and after 3 months at home in 140 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP. Patients answered questionnaires about anxiety and depression (HAD scale and health-related quality of life (SF-36 at baseline and 3 months after surgery. Results In the first 3 postoperative days, mild pain was reported by 45 patients (32%, moderate pain by 64 (45%, and severe pain by 31 (22% on one or more days. High postoperative pain scores were correlated with length of hospital stay and with high pain scores at home. Forty patients (29% reported moderate (n = 35 or severe (n = 5 pain after discharge from hospital. Patients who experienced anxiety and depression preoperatively had higher postoperative pain scores and remained anxious and depressed 3 months after surgery. The scores for the physical domains in the SF-36 were decreased, while the mental health scores were increased at 3 months. Anxiety and depression were negatively correlated with all domains of the SF-36. Conclusion There is a need for nurses to be aware of the psychological status of RP patients and its impact upon patients' experience of postoperative pain and recovery. The ability to identify patients with psychological distress and to target interventions is an important goal for future research.

  2. Cognitive function is maintained in noninstitutionalized elderly Japanese requiring care with high levels of health-related quality of life.

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    Kitamura, Kaori; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Ueno, Kimiko; Nishiwaki, Tomoko

    2016-11-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has been reported to be associated with cognitive function; however, whether or not this relationship involves causality is uncertain. This study aimed to determine whether HRQOL levels are associated with subsequent changes in cognitive function in elderly people requiring care. Participants were 74 community-dwelling elderly people utilizing the long-term care service (69 % women) who underwent physical and psychological examinations at baseline and follow-up. The outcome was 2-year changes in Mini-Mental State Examination (∆MMSE) score. The potential predictor was HRQOL level assessed by the EuroQol 5 dimension (EQ-5D) score (utility value) at baseline; other variables were body mass index (BMI), Barthel index, grip strength, Geriatric Depression Scale, serum albumin, and serum hemoglobin. Associations between EQ-5D and ∆MMSE scores were assessed using correlation analysis, regression analysis, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Mean age, BMI, and Barthel index at baseline were 81.6 years [standard deviation (SD) 8.2], 21.1 kg/m 2 (SD 4.0), and 79 (SD 20), respectively; the mean ∆MMSE score was -2.2 (SD 5.1). EQ-5D was significantly correlated with ∆MMSE (partial r = 0.375, P = 0.0012). The mean ∆MMSE values of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd EQ-5D quartiles were -4.2 (adjusted P = 0.0050), -2.6 (adjusted P = 0.0476), and -2.4 (adjusted P = 0.0298), respectively, which were lower than the -0.1 of the reference 4th quartile. HRQOL as assessed by EQ-5D is associated with longitudinal cognitive decline in frail elderly people, and cognitive function may be maintained in individuals with high HRQOL levels.

  3. The relationship between frailty, anxiety and depression, and health-related quality of life in elderly patients with heart failure.

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    Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Gobbens, Robbert J J

    2015-01-01

    Elderly people constitute over 80% of the population of patients with heart failure (HF). Frailty is a distinct biological syndrome that reflects decreased physiologic reserve and resistance to stressors. Moreover, frailty can serve as an independent predictor of visits to the emergency department, hospitalizations, and mortality. The purpose of this paper was to assess the relationship between frailty, anxiety and depression, and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of elderly patients with HF. The study included 100 patients (53 men and 47 women) with a diagnosis of HF. Frailty was measured using the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI) scale. HRQoL was measured using the 36-Item Short Form Medical Outcomes Study Survey. To determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used. Frailty was found in 89% of the studied population. The study showed significant inverse correlations between the values of the physical component scale (PCS) domain results and TFI score, and a significant inverse correlation between the values of the mental component scale (MCS) domain and TFI score. When participants showed increased levels of frailty as measured by the TFI scale, there was also an increase in the levels of anxiety and depression. With increased anxiety and depression, there was deterioration in the quality of life of patients with HF. Frailty has a negative impact on the HRQoL results of elderly patients with HF. The assessment of frailty syndrome, and anxiety and depression should be taken into account when estimating risk and making therapeutic decisions for cardiovascular disease treatment and care.

  4. Changes in psychological health, subjective food intake ability and oral health-related quality of life during orthodontic treatment.

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    Choi, S-H; Cha, J-Y; Lee, K-J; Yu, H-S; Hwang, C-J

    2017-11-01

    Assessing changes in patient's psychological health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) over time during orthodontic treatment may help clinicians to treat patients more carefully. To evaluate changes in mental health, self-reported masticatory ability and OHRQoL during orthodontic treatment in adults, this prospective study included 66 adults (30 men, 36 women; mean age, 24·2 ± 5·2 years). Each patient completed the Korean versions of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, key subjective food intake ability (KFIA) test for five key foods and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14K) at baseline (T0), 12 months after treatment initiation (T1) and debonding (T2). All variables changed with time. Self-esteem and the total OHIP-14K score significantly decreased and increased, respectively, at T1, with a particular increase in the psychological and social disabilities scores. There were no significant differences in any questionnaire scores before and after treatment. The total OHIP-14K score was positively correlated with trait anxiety and depression, and negatively correlated with self-esteem and KFIA at T0, regardless of the treatment duration. Older patients showed a significant increase in the total OHIP-14K score at T1 and T2. OHRQoL worsened with an increase in the treatment duration. Our results suggest that OHRQoL temporarily deteriorates, with the development of psychological and social disabilities, during orthodontic treatment. This is related to the baseline age, psychological health and self-reported masticatory function. However, patients recover once the treatment is complete. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Baseline demographic profile and general health influencing the post-radiotherapy health related quality-of-life in women with gynaecological malignancy treated with pelvic irradiation

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    Sourav Sau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer specific survival and quality-of-life (QOL assessment are important in evaluating cancer treatment outcomes. Baseline demographic profiles have significant effects on follow-up health related QOL (HRQOL and affect the outcome of treatments. Materials and Methods: Post-operative gynaecological cancer patients required adjuvant pelvic radiation enrolled longitudinal assessment study. Patients had completed the short form-36 (SF-36 questionnaire before the adjuvant radiotherapy and functional assessments of cancer therapy-general module at 6 th month′s follow-up period to assess the HRQOL. Baseline variables were race, age, body mass index (BMI, education, marital status, type of surgery, physical composite scores (PCS and mental composite scores (MCS summary scores of the SF-36. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis used to determine the influence of these variables on post-radiotherapy HRQOL domains. Results: Baseline PCS, MCS, age, education and marital status had positively correlation with post-radiotherapy HRQOL while higher BMI had a negative impact in univariate analysis. In multivariate regression analysis, education and MCS had a positive correlation while higher BMI had a negative correlation with HRQOL domains. Conclusion: Enhance our ability to detect demographic variables and modify those factors and develops new treatment aimed at improving all aspect of gynaecological cancer including good QOL.

  6. Mental health among older married couples: the role of gender and family life.

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    Read, Sanna; Grundy, Emily

    2011-04-01

    As shared family context may be an important influence on mental health, and gender differences in mental health, in later life we investigated how gender, family-related variables and gender roles were associated with mental health in older married couples. Using data on a sample of 2,511 married couples born between 1923 and 1953 (drawn from the British Household Panel Survey) we analysed differences in the mental health of husbands and wives by fertility history, length of marriage, presence of co-resident children, reported social support, hours of household work, attitudes to gender roles and health of husband and wife. Mental health in 2001 was measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Multilevel modelling was used to assess effects in husbands and wives and variations between husbands and wives. Results showed that although the mental health of married couples was correlated, wives had poorer mental health than their husbands. The gender difference was smaller in couples who lived with a child aged 16 or more (and had no younger co-resident children) and in couples in which both spouses had experienced early parenthood. The influence of individual and family characteristics on mental health also differed between husbands and wives. For husbands, early fatherhood and co-residence with a child or children aged 16 or more increased the odds of poor mental health. For wives, having had a child when aged 35 or more appeared protective while having traditional gender role attitudes increased the odds of poorer mental health. The role of family characteristics in the shared marital context has complex associations with mental health, some of which seem gender specific. Although wives express more mental distress, husbands in general show poorer mental health related to family characteristics.

  7. Could hatha yoga be a health-related physical activity?

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    Grabara Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this review paper are (I the analysis based on previous studies of whether hatha yoga exercises fulfil the recommendation for the level of physical activity recommended by the WHO and ACSM; (II the recommendation for how to arrange weekly hatha yoga practice, which can be considered a health-related physical activity; and (III the analysis of the benefits of a regular hatha yoga workout in view of scientific studies, in particular regard to the prevention of diseases of civilization and improvement in health-related physical fitness.

  8. Consumer Health-Related Activities on Social Media: Exploratory Study.

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    Benetoli, Arcelio; Chen, Timothy F; Aslani, Parisa

    2017-10-13

    Although a number of studies have investigated how consumers use social media for health-related purposes, there is a paucity of studies in the Australian context. This study aimed to explore how Australian consumers used social media for health-related purposes, specifically how they identified social media platforms, which were used, and which health-related activities commonly took place. A total of 5 focus groups (n=36 participants), each lasting 60 to 90 minutes, were conducted in the Sydney metropolitan area. The group discussions were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were coded line-by-line and thematically analyzed. Participants used general search engines to locate health-related social media platforms. They accessed a wide range of social media on a daily basis, using several electronic devices (in particular, mobile phones). Although privacy was a concern, it did not prevent consumers from fully engaging in social media for health-related purposes. Blogs were used to learn from other people's experiences with the same condition. Facebook allowed consumers to follow health-related pages and to participate in disease-specific group discussions. Wikipedia was used for factual information about diseases and treatments. YouTube was accessed to learn about medical procedures such as surgery. No participant reported editing or contributing to Wikipedia or posting YouTube videos related to health topics. Twitter was rarely used for health-related purposes. Social media allowed consumers to obtain and provide disease and treatment-related information and social and emotional support for those living with the same condition. Most considered their participation as observational, but some also contributed (eg, responded to people's questions). Participants used a wide range of social media for health-related purposes. Medical information exchange (eg, disease and treatment) and social and emotional support were the cornerstones of their online

  9. Contributing factors to the use of health-related websites.

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    Hong, Traci

    2006-03-01

    This study explicates the influence of audience factors on website credibility and the subsequent effect that credibility has on the intention to revisit a site. It does so in an experimental setting in which participants were given two health-related search tasks. Reliance on the web for health-related information positively influenced website credibility in both searches. Knowledge was a significant predictor for the search task that required more cognitive ability. Of the credibility dimensions, trust/expertise and depth were significant predictors of intention to revisit a site in both searches. Fairness and goodwill were nonsignificant predictors in both searches.

  10. Comparative assessment of three different indices of multimorbidity for studies on health-related quality of life

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    Dubois Marie-France

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measures of multimorbidity are often applied to source data, populations or outcomes outside the scope of their original developmental work. As the development of a multimorbidity measure is influenced by the population and outcome used, these influences should be taken into account when selecting a multimorbidity index. The aim of this study was to compare the strength of the association of health-related quality of life (HRQOL with three multimorbidity indices: the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS, the Charlson index (Charlson and the Functional Comorbidity Index (FCI. The first two indices were not developed in light of HRQOL. Methods We used data on chronic diseases and on the SF-36 questionnaire assessing HRQOL of 238 adult primary care patients who participated in a previous study. We extracted all the diagnoses for every patient from chart review to score the CIRS, the FCI and the Charlson. Data for potential confounders (age, sex, self-perceived economic status and self-perceived social support were also collected. We calculated the Pearson correlation coefficients (r of the SF-36 scores with the three measures of multimorbidity, as well as the coefficient of determination, R2, while controlling for confounders. Results The r values for the CIRS (range: -0.55 to -0.18 were always higher than those for the FCI (-0.47 to -0.10 and Charlson (-0.31 to -0.04 indices. The CIRS explained the highest percent of variation in all scores of the SF-36, except for the Mental Component Summary Score where the variation was not significant. Variations explained by the FCI were significant in all scores of SF-36 measuring physical health and in two scales evaluating mental health. Variations explained by the Charlson were significant in only three scores measuring physical health. Conclusion The CIRS is a better choice as a measure of multimorbidity than the FCI and the Charlson when HRQOL is the outcome of interest. However

  11. The impact of drug related problems on health-related quality of life among hypertensive patients in Jordan

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    Abu Farha R

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is a major cause of cardiovascular diseases with a high prevalence in Jordan. No previous studies have been carried out to determine the effect of the presence of drug-related problems (DRPs on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL among hypertensive patients. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of different types of DRPs on the HRQOL of hypertensive patients. Methods: A total of 200 hypertensive patients were recruited in this cross-sectional correlation study that was conducted across the cardiac outpatient clinic at Jordan University Hospital. Ethical approval was obtained and patients were recruited using convenience sampling technique. During the study period, patients’ data was used to evaluate their quality of life using RAND-12 scale and to identify DRPs utilizing a systematic evidence based approach. Results: 200 hypertensive patients (mean age 59.7 years (SD=10.2 were recruited in this study. Patients showed a poor quality of life on both the physical and mental domains of the RAND-12 scale. The average number of DRPs was 5.1 (SD=2.3. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that among DRPs categories, non-adherence to medications, non-adherence to non-pharmacological therapies and inadequate knowledge about medications were among the main predictors of the poor physical domain of the RAND-12 (Beta= -0.149, -0.226 and -0.230 respectively, p-value < 0.05 for all. On the other hand, only non-adherence to medication and non-adherence to non-pharmacological therapies were significantly associated with poor mental domain of the RAND-12 (Beta= -0.208 and -0.191 respectively, p-value < 0.05 for both. Conclusion: Prevalence of DRPs among hypertensive patients is a concern that needs attention. These DRPs were associated with poor HRQOL on both the physical and mental domain of the RAND-12 scale. The pharmaceutical care service delivered by pharmacists is needed to identify

  12. Perceived discrimination and health-related quality-of-life: gender differences among older African Americans.

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    Coley, Sheryl L; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F; Ward, Earlise C; Barnes, Lisa L; Skarupski, Kimberly A; Jacobs, Elizabeth A

    2017-12-01

    Emerging data suggest that African-American women may fare worse than African-American men in health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL). Perceived discrimination is an important contributor to poor health overall among African Americans, but few studies examined the intersecting effects of perceived discrimination and gender in explaining HRQOL disparities. We investigated gender differences in HRQOL and tested whether perceived discrimination accounted for these differences. We examined data from the Chicago Health and Aging Project in which 5652 African-American adults aged 65 and older completed structured questionnaires about demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, HRQOL, perceived discrimination, and health-related variables. Logistic regression models were used to identify associations between perceived discrimination and gender differences in poor HRQOL outcomes (defined as 14+ unhealthy days in overall, physical, or mental health over the past 30 days) when controlling for the other variables. More women reported poor overall HRQOL than men (24 vs. 16% respectively). Higher perceived discrimination was significantly associated with worse overall HRQOL (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.08, 1.15), with stronger effects for women in overall and mental HRQOL. These gender disparities remained significant until controlling for potentially confounding variables. Perceived discrimination did not account for gender differences in poor physical HRQOL. Perceived discrimination is associated with poor HRQOL in older African Americans, with this association appearing stronger in women than men for mental HRQOL. These findings warrant further investigation of effects of perceived discrimination in gender disparities in overall health, and such research can inform and guide efforts for reducing these disparities.

  13. Health-related quality of life in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients in a Portuguese central public hospital

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    Sepúlveda E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Sepúlveda,1,2 Rui Poínhos,2,3 Miguel Constante,4,5 José Pais-Ribeiro,1,2 Paula Freitas,6,7 Davide Carvalho6,71Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; 2Associação de Prevenção e Apoio à Diabetes, Porto, Portugal; 3Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; 4Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, UK; 5Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Beatriz Ângelo, Loures, Portugal; 6Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Centro Hospitalar São João, Porto, Portugal; 7Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, PortugalBackground: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease, the prevalence of which has registered a considerable increase, mainly in adults and elderly. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between health-related quality of life in patients with diabetes and sex, body mass index, type of diabetes and treatment regimens (type 1 diabetes: intensive versus conventional treatment; type 2 diabetes: insulin use versus non-insulin use, and duration of diabetes.Methods: One hundred and twenty-four patients with diabetes were interviewed. Health-related quality of life was evaluated using the age-adjusted Short-Form 36 dimensions (physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional, and mental health, and related to demographic and clinical variables. Independent samples t-tests and One-Way Analysis of Variance were used to compare means of independent samples. The degree of association between pairs of variables was measured by Pearson’s (r or Spearman’s (rs correlation coefficients.Results: The mean age of the study population was 55.7±16.4 years; 54.8% were male, and 77.4% had type 2 diabetes. Females reported worse quality of life than males in all dimensions of the Short-Form 36, except for role-physical and bodily pain. Obese

  14. Psychometric limitations of the mini-mental state examination among nondemented older adults: an evaluation of neurocognitive and magnetic resonance imaging correlates.

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    Spencer, Robert J; Wendell, Carrington R; Giggey, Paul P; Katzel, Leslie I; Lefkowitz, David M; Siegel, Eliot L; Waldstein, Shari R

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Although many of the Mini-Mental State Examination's (MMSE) limitations are well accepted among geriatricians, neuropsychologists, and other interested clinicians and researchers, its continued use in psychometrically unsound ways suggests that additional investigation and dissemination of information are sorely needed. The authors aimed to describe the reliability and validity of the MMSE as a measure of cognitive function among healthy older adults. The authors examined MMSE performance in 124 stroke- and dementia-free, community-dwelling older adults (65% male; mean age = 66.5 years). All participants were administered an extensive neuropsychological battery composed of measures of attention, executive function, memory, and visuospatial function. A subset of 99 participants also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MMSE test-retest reliability was examined among 65 participants who underwent repeat MMSE testing over an average interval of 83.2 days. Spearman test-retest correlation for total MMSE scores was r S = .35 (p = .004), for Serial Sevens was r S = .40 (p = .001), and for Word Recall was r S = -.01 (p = .96). Total MMSE performance correlated significantly with a minority of neuropsychological tests and MRI-derived indices of white matter disease and brain atrophy. A subset of 17% of participants demonstrated inappropriate intrusion of MMSE Pentagon Copy during another test of visuospatial recall. Overall, MMSE scores exhibited ceiling effects, poor test-retest reliability, limited sensitivity to subtle brain abnormalities, and a high rate of intrusion elsewhere in the neuropsychological battery. Individual MMSE items demonstrated poor construct validity. These qualities illustrate the serious limitations of the MMSE in detecting individual differences in cognitive function among healthy older adults.

  15. Epidemiology of illicit drug use disorders in Iran: prevalence, correlates, comorbidity and service utilization results from the Iranian Mental Health Survey.

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    Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Sharifi, Vandad; Hajebi, Ahmad; Radgoodarzi, Reza; Mojtabai, Ramin; Hefazi, Mitra; Motevalian, Abbas

    2016-10-01

    Drug abuse is a significant social and public health problem in Iran. The present study aimed to provide prevalence estimates and information on correlates of illicit drug use disorder and opioid dependence, as well as service use for these disorders in Iran. This report is based on the Iranian household Mental Health Survey (IranMHS) conducted in 2011. A three-stage probability sampling was employed. Face-to-face interviews by trained psychologists were carried out with a nationally representative sample of 7841 individuals (3366 men and 4475 women) aged 15-64 years. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview and questionnaires for socio-demographic correlates and service use. The prevalence of 12-month use disorders for any illicit drug according to DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria were 2.09% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.70-2.47%] and 2.44% (95% CI = 2.03-2.85%), respectively. Opioid use disorders, and opium in particular, were the most common use disorder. The odds of drug use disorders were greater in men than in women, in previously married participants than in currently or never married participants, and in participants with lower socio-economic status than in those with higher socio-economic status (all P-values drug use disorders and 40% with opioid dependence had a 12-month unmet need for treatment. Self-help groups were the most common type of service used, followed by obtaining medication from pharmacies directly and outpatient treatment services. Opioid use disorders are the most common type of drug use disorders in Iran, setting Iran apart from many other countries. Patterns of service use suggest a large unmet need for drug use disorder treatment in Iran. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Perceived consequences, changeability and personal control of coronary heart disease are associated with health-related quality of life.

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    Sigurdardottir, Arun K; Sigurlásdóttir, Kolbrún; Ólafsson, Kjartan; Svavarsdóttir, Margrét Hrönn

    2017-11-01

    To explore changes in illness perception and health-related quality of life in patients with coronary heart disease following percutaneous coronary intervention from the time when patients were discharged from hospital and five months later and to investigate association between illness perception and physical and mental health-related quality of life at five-month follow-up. Illness perception is known to influence patients' motivation to engage in preventive behaviour. Prospective and comparative with two measurement points: at discharge from hospital (time 1) and five months later (time 2). Two self-administered questionnaires were used as follows: the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised measured illness perception and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) measured physical and mental health-related quality of life. The sample consisted of patients with coronary heart disease admitted to University Hospital between November 2011-April 2012. A total of 69 questionnaires were returned for both measurement times. Most responders were male (71%), mean age was 68·9 (SD 10·3) years. Health-related quality of life increased over time, and illness perception changed; five months after discharge, participants were more aware that the disease was chronic and could worsen suddenly, and they perceived that the disease had less of a consequence on their lives compared to when they were staying in the hospital. Associations between increased personal control, changeability of the disease, perceptions of less of a consequence of the disease on daily life and increased health-related quality of life were demonstrated at time 2. Perceptions of personal control, changeability and consequences of the disease should be assessed and discussed with cardiac patients, as these illness perceptions are related to physical and mental health-related quality of life. Increased understanding of consequences of the disease, personal control and perceived changeability of the illness

  17. Application of multidimensional scaling to quantify shape in Alzheimer's disease and its correlation with Mini Mental State Examination: a feasibility study.

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    Park, Hyunjin; Seo, Jongbum

    2011-01-15

    Today, high-resolution MRI scans are able to reveal even the fine details of brain structure. Several methods have been developed to quantify shape differences specific to scans of diseased brains. We have developed a novel method for quantifying shape information based on multidimensional scaling (MDS), a well-known statistical tool. Multidimensional scaling uses distance measures computed from pair-wise image registration of the training set. Image registration establishes spatial correspondence between scans in order to compare them in the same spatial framework. Our novel method has several advantages, including robustness to errors in registrations. Applying our method to 44 brain MRIs showed clear separation between normal and Alzheimer scans. Using our method as basis for classification between normal and Alzheimer scans yielded better performance results compared with using the volume of hippocampus as basis for classification. We also devised a simple measure derived from the MDS approach that was shown to correlate with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), a well-known cognitive test for Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychometric properties of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health-Related Quality of Life (CDC HRQOL items in adults with arthritis

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    DeVellis Robert

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring health-related quality of life (HRQOL is important in arthritis and the SF-36v2 is the current state-of-the-art. It is only emerging how well the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC HRQOL measures HRQOL for people with arthritis. This study's purpose is to assess the psychometric properties of the 9-item CDC HRQOL (4-item Healthy Days Core Module and 5-item Healthy Days Symptoms Module in an arthritis sample using the SF-36v2 as a comparison. Methods In Fall 2002, a cross-sectional study acquired survey data including the CDC HRQOL and SF-36v2 from 2 North Carolina populations of adult patients reporting osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and fibromyalgia; 2182 (52% responded. The first item of both the CDC HRQOL and the SF-36v2 was general health (GEN. All 8 other CDC HRQOL items ask for the number of days in the past 30 days that respondents experienced various aspects of HRQOL. Exploratory principal components analyses (PCA were conducted on each sample and the combined samples of the CDC HRQOL. The multitrait-multimethod matrix (MTMM was used to compute correlations between each trait (physical health and mental health and between each method of measurement (CDC HRQOL and SF36v2. The relative contribution of the CDC HRQOL in predicting the physical component summary (PCS and the mental component summary (MCS was determined by regressing the CDC HRQOL items on the PCS and MCS scales. Results All 9 CDC HRQOL items loaded primarily onto 1 factor (explaining 57% of the item variance representing a reasonable solution for capturing overall HRQOL. After rotation a 2 factor interpretation for the 9 items was clear, with 4 items capturing physical health (physical, activity, pain, and energy days and 3 items capturing mental health (mental, depression, and anxiety days. All of the loadings for these two factors were greater than 0.70. The CDC HRQOL physical health factor correlated with PCS (r = -.78, p 2

  19. Health-related and social factors predicting non-reemployment amongst newly unemployed

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    Skärlund Mikael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many researchers have examined the effect that mental health has on reemployment opportunities amongst the unemployed, but the results are inconclusive. Our aim in this study is to investigate the effects that different aspects of mental and physical health, as well as socio-demographic, social, and economic factors, have on reemployment. Methods A questionnaire was administered to 1,000 and answered by 502 newly registered unemployed Swedes, who were followed for one year using data from the Swedish National Labour Market Board. The differences between those reemployed and those not reemployed was analysed using stepwise logistic regression. Results General mental ill health amongst unemployed individuals measured by the General Health Questionnaire scale was associated with lower levels of reemployment after one year. This effect could not be explained by any of the scales measuring specific aspects of mental disease such as health-related level of function, rate of depression, burnout, or alcohol misuse. Instead being above 45, low control over one’s financial situation, being an immigrant, and visiting a physician during the last three months were better predictors of failure to be reemployed. Conclusion There are theoretical reasons to assume that psychological distress leads to a decreased reemployment rate amongst the unemployed. The results of this study partly endorse this hypothesis empirically, showing that general subjective mental distress decreases the rate of reemployment amongst newly unemployed individuals, although this effect was mediated by social and economic factors. Indicators of psychiatric disease had no significant effect on reemployment. The results of this study lead us to suggest the early introduction of financial counselling, psychological support, and other interventions for groups with lower reemployment rates.

  20. Health-related and social factors predicting non-reemployment amongst newly unemployed.

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    Skärlund, Mikael; Åhs, Annika; Westerling, Ragnar

    2012-10-23

    Many researchers have examined the effect that mental health has on reemployment opportunities amongst the unemployed, but the results are inconclusive. Our aim in this study is to investigate the effects that different aspects of mental and physical health, as well as socio-demographic, social, and economic factors, have on reemployment. A questionnaire was administered to 1,000 and answered by 502 newly registered unemployed Swedes, who were followed for one year using data from the Swedish National Labour Market Board. The differences between those reemployed and those not reemployed was analysed using stepwise logistic regression. General mental ill health amongst unemployed individuals measured by the General Health Questionnaire scale was associated with lower levels of reemployment after one year. This effect could not be explained by any of the scales measuring specific aspects of mental disease such as health-related level of function, rate of depression, burnout, or alcohol misuse. Instead being above 45, low control over one's financial situation, being an immigrant, and visiting a physician during the last three months were better predictors of failure to be reemployed. There are theoretical reasons to assume that psychological distress leads to a decreased reemployment rate amongst the unemployed. The results of this study partly endorse this hypothesis empirically, showing that general subjective mental distress decreases the rate of reemployment amongst newly unemployed individuals, although this effect was mediated by social and economic factors. Indicators of psychiatric disease had no significant effect on reemployment. The results of this study lead us to suggest the early introduction of financial counselling, psychological support, and other interventions for groups with lower reemployment rates.

  1. Health related quality of life and psychological variables among a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health related quality of life and psychological variables among a sample of asthmatics in Ile-Ife South-Western Nigeria. ... Sociodemographic and clinical variables were also obtained from the patients, the lung function was assessed using Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR). Results: Mean age of all the patients was 35.22 ...

  2. Health-related doctoral distance education programmes: A review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Doctoral distance education programmes enable students to obtain their qualifications without leaving their homes, jobs or countries. There is an increasing demand for health-related distance education doctoral programmes. The objective of this paper is to consider ethical scholarship issues that might impact on the quality ...

  3. Health related quality of life and psychological problems in Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eman A. Abdel-Aziz

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Health related quality of life and psychological problems in Egyptian children with simple obesity in relation to body mass index. Eman A. Abdel-Aziz, ... negative self-evaluation, decreased self-image, anxiety and depression [2]. While aspects of self-esteem may predict psy- chological ...

  4. Do health-related feared possible selves motivate healthy eating?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Noureddine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of what motivates individuals to assume healthy eating habits remains unanswered. The purpose of this descriptive survey is to explore health-related feared possible selves in relation to dietary beliefs and behavior in adults. A convenience sample of 74 middle-aged employees of a health maintenance organization completed self-administered questionnaires. Health-related feared selves, current health perception, knowledge of diet-health association, dietary self-efficacy, dietary intention and intake were measured. Health-related fears were the most frequently reported feared selves, but very few of those represented illnesses and none were related to dietary intake. The number of health and body weight related fears was significantly associated with lower dietary self-efficacy and weaker intention to eat in a healthy manner. Multivariate analysis showed self-efficacy to be the only significant predictor of dietary intention. These adults may not have perceived being at risk for diet-associated illnesses, and so their feared selves did not motivate them to eat in a healthy manner. Research on the effect of hoped for health related possible selves and the perceived effectiveness of diet in reducing health risk are recommended.

  5. The Health-Related Quality of Life of Custodial Grandparents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely-Barnes, Susan L.; Graff, J. Carolyn; Washington, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was explored in a sample of 119 custodial grandparents. A latent profile analysis identified three groups of grandparents along a continuum of good to poor HRQOL, with most custodial grandparents reporting Short Form-12 Health Survey (version 2) scores significantly below U.S. population means. Grandparent…

  6. ICHPER-SD Asia Youth Health Related Physical Fitness Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the International Council for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport, and Dance, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Presents necessary information for administering the ICHPER-SD Asia Youth Health Related Physical Fitness Test, including descriptions of and scoring for each test item, needed equipment, notes, and suggested preparations for test leaders. The test includes the endurance run, situps in 60 seconds, pullups, sit and reach test, and skinfold…

  7. Oral health related behaviour, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVES To determine oral health related behavior, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs among secondary school students in Iringa municipality. DESIGN Cross-sectional descriptive study. RESULTS All participants reported to brush their teeth at least once a day, only 24% brush twice a day. The use of plastic tooth brush ...

  8. A comparative overview of exercise and health related professions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The numerous employment opportunities being advertised internationally in exercise and health related professions are actively being pursued by many South African biokineticists. Therefore, the overlap in the scope of practice among the professions of athletic training, clinical exercise physiology and biokinetics needs to ...

  9. Poor Health-related Quality of Life After Severe Preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, Meeke; Berks, Durk; Vogel, Ineke; Franx, Arie; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Raat, Hein

    Background: Preeclampsia is a major complication of pregnancy associated with increased maternal morbidity and mortality, and adverse birth outcomes. The objective of this study was to describe changes in all domains of health-related quality of life between 6 and 12 weeks postpartum after mild and

  10. Health related quality of life among adolescents with sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Increased life expectancy due to recent medical advances has increased the need to understand more fully the quality of life (QoL) in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and factors predicting disease adaptation .The objectives of this study were to assess the impairment of health related quality of life ...

  11. South African metropolitan consumers' response to health-related

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    involved when consumers use information from previous experiences as well as new information acquired during problem solving (Jansson-Boyd,. 2010; Schiffman & Kanuk, 2010; Solomon,. 2011). Upon exposure to the sensory input from the health-related messages that are discussed, information processing needs to ...

  12. Monitoring health related quality of life in adolescents with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Wit, M; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Pouwer, F

    2007-01-01

    Particularly in chronic conditions, monitoring health related quality of life (HRQoL) of adolescents in clinical practice is increasingly advocated. We set out to identify and review the clinical utility of available generic and diabetes specific HRQoL questionnaires suitable for use in adolescents...

  13. Heritability of health-related quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Troels; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Hjelmborg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The present study aims to estimate the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors for health-related quality of life (HRQL) measured by the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Methods: The study was based on two Danish twin cohorts (46,417 twin individuals) originating from...

  14. Determinants of health-related quality of life among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that can cause significant impairment of Health-related Quality of Life (HRQOL). It is important to identify factors influencing HRQOL in PD patients among Nigerian Africans. Aim: To identify the sociodemographic and disease related variables ...

  15. Health-Related Effects of Creative and Expressive Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of some health-related effects of creative and expressive writing. Design/methodology/approach: Reviews some of the main research studies exploring links between expressive writing and aspects of health, including two new experimental studies showing effects of poetry on mood and immune…

  16. Health-related shame: an affective determinant of health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Luna; Lyons, Barry

    2017-01-01

    Despite shame being recognised as a powerful force in the clinical encounter, it is underacknowledged, under-researched and undertheorised in the contexts of health and medicine. In this paper we make two claims. The first is that emotional or affective states, in particular shame, can have a significant impact on health, illness and health-related behaviours. We outline four possible processes through which this might occur: (1) acute shame avoidance behaviour; (2) chronic shame health-related behaviours; (3) stigma and social status threat and (4) biological mechanisms. Second, we postulate that shame's influence is so insidious, pervasive and pernicious, and so critical to clinical and political discourse around health, that it is imperative that its vital role in health, health-related behaviours and illness be recognised and assimilated into medical, social and political consciousness and practice. In essence, we argue that its impact is sufficiently powerful for it to be considered an affective determinant of health, and provide three justifications for this. We conclude with a proposal for a research agenda that aims to extend the state of knowledge of health-related shame. PMID:28596218

  17. Dependency of Quality Education for Attaining the Health-related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Dependency of Quality Education for Attaining the Health-related. Sustainable Development Goals in Africa. Peter A. Okebukola. Chairman of Council, Crawford University, Igbesa,Ogun State, Nigeria; former Executive Secretary, National Universities. Commission, Nigeria; and Special Adviser to the Vice-Chancellor, ...

  18. Health-Related Fitness of Youths with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lauren J.; Byrne, Heidi; Mattern, Craig O.; Watt, Celia A.; Fernandez-Vivo, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the passing rates on five health-related fitness items on the Brockport Physical Fitness Test of youths aged 10-17 with visual impairments. It found that the youths had low passing rates on upper-body strength, cardiovascular endurance, and body composition. (Contains 2 tables.)

  19. Health-related mobile apps and behaviour change

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    Health-related mobile apps and behaviour change. While our knowledge about physical activity and health, physical performance and the risk of injury increases in leaps and bounds, the conversion of this information into action and changed behaviour lags behind. There seems to be a sticking point which often causes a ...

  20. [Socioeconomic differentials in health and health related behaviors: findings from the Korea Youth Panel Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Young-Ho; Cho, Sung-Il; Yang, Seungmi; Lee, Moo-Song

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the socioeconomic differentials for the health and health related behaviors among South Korean middle school students. A nationwide cross-sectional interview survey of 3,449 middle school second-grade students and their parents was conducted using a stratified multi-stage cluster sampling method. The response rate was 93.3%. The socioeconomic position indicators were based on self-reported information from the students and their parents: parental education, father's occupational class, monthly family income, out-of-pocket expenditure for education, housing ownership, educational expectations, educational performance and the perceived economic hardships. The outcome variables that were measured were also based on the self-reported information from the students. The health measures included self-rated health conditions, psychological or mental problems, the feelings of loneliness at school, the overall satisfaction of life and the perceived level of stress. The health related behaviors included were smoking, alcohol drinking, sexual intercourse, violence, bullying and verbal and physical abuse by parents. Socioeconomic differences for the health and health related behaviors were found among the eighth grade boys and girls of South Korea. However, the pattern varied with gender, the socioeconomic position indicators and the outcome measures. The prevalence rates of the overall dissatisfaction with life for both genders differed according to most of the eight socioeconomic position indicators. All the health measures were significantly different according to the perceived economic hardship. However, the socioeconomic differences in the self-rated health conditions and the psychosocial or mental problems were not clear. The students having higher socioeconomic position tended to be a perpetrator of bullying while those students with lower socioeconomic position were more likely to be a victim. The perceived economic hardships predicted the health

  1. The mediating factors in the relationship between lower urinary tract symptoms and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Weng-Yee; Choi, Edmond P H; Wan, Eric Y F; Lam, Cindy L K

    2017-11-23

    An earlier study found that mental health partially mediates the relationship between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) severity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). In other words, LUTS adversely affects mental health, which in turn adversely affects HRQOL. A major limitation of the previous study was its cross-sectional design. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether changes in mental health mediated the association between changes in the severity of LUTS and changes in HRQOL over 24 months by using Baron and Kenny's regression procedure and Preacher and Hayes's bootstrapping method. We found that changes in mental health were a mediator in the relationship between the change of LUTS severity and the change of LUTS-specific HRQOL. Changes in LUTS severity lead to changes in mental health, which in turn affects the change of LUTS-specific HRQOL. It was observed however that changes in mental health did not mediate the relationship between the change of LUTS severity and the change of the physical aspects of generic HRQOL. These findings suggest that in order to optimize LUTS-specific HRQOL, both LUTS severity and mental health may need to be addressed concurrently.

  2. Comparison of the Association of Excess Weight on Health Related Quality of Life of Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: An Age- and BMI-Matched Case Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Shishehgar

    Full Text Available It is assumed that obesity adversely affects the health related quality of life (HRQOL of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, not only due to the excess weight, but also due to several other obesity induced metabolic and reproductive consequences. We aimed to compare the effects of excess body weight on the HRQOL between women with PCOS and controls.This is a case control study of 142 women with PCOS and 140 age- and BMI- matched controls. The Iranian version of short form health survey 36 (SF 36 was used to assess HRQOL. Domains of SF 36 were compared in women with PCOS and controls using multivariate analysis of covariance. The Pearson correlation was used to assess the correlation between body mass index (BMI and domain scores of SF 36, and the differences between two correlations in cases and controls, using Fisher's Z test.Women with PCOS had significantly lower scores for both, the physical and the mental component summary scales, compared to controls. In the cases, a significant negative correlations were observed for BMI with physical function (r = - 0.301, P<0.001, bodily pain (r = - 0.23, P = 0.006, and physical summary score (r = -0.3, P = 0.007. In controls, significant correlation was seen for BMI with bodily pain (r = - 0.3, P<0.001 and physical summary score (r = - 0.27, P = 0.001. The differences between correlations of physical function with BMI in PCOS and controls were statistically significant (Z = -2.41, P = 0.008.Although the physical aspects of HRQOL are adversely affected by overweight in both PCOS and controls, these impaired effects are greater in women with PCOS.

  3. Impact of Job Satisfaction on Greek Nurses' Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Panagiotis; Katsikavali, Vassiliki; Galanis, Petros; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Papadatou, Danai; Sourtzi, Panayota

    2015-12-01

    Employee job satisfaction and its relationship with health and quality of life has been an issue of major concern over the past decades. Nurses experience difficult working conditions that affect their job satisfaction, health, and quality of life. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in three general hospitals and their respective health centers. Stratified random sampling by level of education was used, and 508 nurses and nursing assistants were included. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire, which included the Measure of Job Satisfaction, the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, as well as demographic details, education, and work conditions data, was used. Greek nurses were found to be dissatisfied with their job according to the total score of the job satisfaction scale, although personal satisfaction and satisfaction with support had had higher scores. Their general health was reported as average, because of physical and mental health problems, low vitality, low energy, and increased physical pain. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that males and those wishing to stay in the job had higher physical and mental health. Increased job satisfaction was related to increased physical and mental health. Although Greek nurses are not satisfied with their work, those with high levels of job satisfaction had better health-related quality of life. The findings suggest that improvement of the work environment would contribute to a healthier and more satisfied nursing workforce.

  4. Health-related quality of life among North Carolina adults with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubben, Deborah Patrick; Porterfield, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Previous research on health-related quality of life among people with diabetes used subgroups of diabetics who were not representative of a larger population and long questionnaires that are not practical for surveillance. To identify people with diabetes in North Carolina who are at risk for a poor quality of lift based on demographic and medical characteristics using surveillance data. Analysis of Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System data from North Carolina, years 1998 through 2001, to examine associations between demographic and medical characteristics among people with diabetes and four different health-related quality-of-life outcome indicators, including general health status, physically unhealthy mentally unhealthy and functionally limited days. The demographic and medical characteristics studiedwere age, sex, ethnicity marital status, education, income, health insurance, obesity duration of diabetes, and insulin use. These same characteristics were also tested for independent associations with functionally limited days. Ethnicity and gender were not associated with any of the quality-of-life measures among people with diabetes. Those younger than age 65 were more likely to have mentally unhealthy days, but age was not related to the other outcomes. A household income of less than 20,000 dollars was related to poor general health and greater than one week each of physically unhealthy mentally unhealthy and functionally limited days. Subjects with a high school education or less, no health insurance, and those not married or cohabiting had at least one poor health-related quality-of-life outcome. Obesity duration of diabetes often or more years, and insulin use were also associated with at least one poor quality-of-life outcome. The only characteristic that was independently related to the number of functionally limited days was income. People with diabetes of working age and with low incomes were more likely to have greater than one week of functionally

  5. Depression, anxiety, health-related quality of life and pain in patients with chronic fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormsen, Lise; Rosenberg, Raben; Bach, Flemming W; Jensen, Troels S

    2010-02-01

    Chronic pain is often associated with comorbidities such as anxiety and depression, resulting in a low health-related quality of life. The mechanisms underlying this association are not clear, but a disturbance in the pain control systems from the brain stem has been suggested. Thirty neuropathic pain (NP) patients, 28 patients with fibromyalgia (FM), and 26 pain-free age- and gender-matched controls were included and examined with respect to mental distress (self-rated Symptom Checklist-92), depression (doctor-rated Hamilton Depression Scale and self-rated Major Depression Inventory), and anxiety (doctor-rated Hamilton Anxiety Scale and self-rated Anxiety Inventory). In addition, patients assessed their health-related quality of life (SF-36). Chronic pain patients with FM and NP had significantly more mental distress including depression and anxiety than healthy controls both by self-rating and by a professional rating. However, these scores are low compared to other studies on mental distress in chronic pain patients. Only few chronic pain patients meet the diagnostic criteria for depression (NP 3.3%, FM 7.1%), and associations between pain and mental symptoms were only found in the FM group despite similar pain intensities. The findings suggest that different mechanisms are responsible for the development of mood disorders in the two patient groups.

  6. Impact of physical activity and bodyweight on health-related quality of life in people with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckert K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Katharina EckertInstitute of Exercise and Public Health, Faculty of Sport Science, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, GermanyPurpose: Increasing obesity prevalence rates in the general population are reflected in patients with type 2 diabetes. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL is negatively affected in patients who are overweight or have diabetes, but physical activity (PA is proven to have positive side effects on the perceived quality of life. Little is known about the relationship of PA with obesity, diabetes, and HRQoL. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between HRQoL and PA in type 2 diabetics in association with the severity of overweight.Methods: This was a cross-sectional multicenter cohort study involving 370 outpatients with type 2 diabetes. Participants completed the SF-36 Health Survey (SF-36® and the Freiburger Questionnaire for Physical Activity (FFkA. Endurance capacity was tested with a 2 km walking test. t-tests, analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation test, and multiple regression analyses were performed.Results: HRQoL is negatively affected by body mass index (BMI. The results show that patients with type 2 diabetes and grade II obesity (BMI > 35 have a lower HRQoL than overweight patients (BMI 25–29.99 and patients with grade I obesity (BMI 30–35. HRQoL decreases with decreasing PA in all dimensions of the SF-36. PA remains a significant predictor of physical composite summary (B = 0.09; β = 0.11; P < 0.05, physical function (B = 0.10; β = 0.13; P < 0.01, mental composite summary (B = 0.13; β = 0.20; P < 0.001, vitality (B = 0.15; β = 0.24; P < 0.001, and psychological well-being (B = 0.11; β = 0.18; P < 0.01 when controlling for age, sex, and BMI.Conclusion: Because of the strong association between being overweight/obese and several risk factors for morbidity and mortality, reversing the obesity epidemic is an urgent priority. Based upon the results of this study and

  7. Comorbidities and health-related quality of life in Spanish patients with moderate to severe psoriasis: a cross-sectional study (Arizona study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Carazo, Jose Luis; López-Estebaranz, Jose Luis; Guisado, Cristina

    2014-08-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic inflammatory immunologically mediated disease of the skin, showing a high prevalence of associated comorbidities, and strongly affecting patients' health-related quality of life (HR-QOL), with profound impact on the psychological aspect. We aimed to establish the correlation between HR-QOL and the associated comorbidities in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis in Spain. A cross-sectional, observational, epidemiological study was conducted at 68 dermatology-based centers across Spain. From October 2010 to June 2011, all adult patients diagnosed with moderate to severe psoriasis at least 6 months prior to the study visit and receiving or not receiving treatment for psoriasis were eligible for inclusion. A total of 1022 patients were included. The study population showed mean 36-item short-form (SF-36) physical and mental health scores and Dermatological Life Quality Index (DLQI) of 49.7, 46.2 and 5.3, respectively. The multiple linear regression models showed that patients with moderate to severe psoriasis and a diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis (PsA), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, sleep disturbances or obesity were found to have lower SF-36 health physical scores. Female patients with depression or anxiety disorders had lower SF-36 health mental scores. Patients diagnosed with moderate to severe psoriatic disease and associated anxiety disorder had greater DLQI scores. Moderate to severe psoriasis has a significant burden on the HR-QOL of patients. Regardless of sex, patients with several comorbidities such as PsA, hypertension or obesity were found to have worse scores in the physical component of the QOL questionnaire, whilst women were more affected in the mental health component than men. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  8. A survey of health-related activities on second life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Leslie; Wilson, Kumanan; Morra, Dante; Keelan, Jennifer

    2009-05-22

    Increasingly, governments, health care agencies, companies, and private groups have chosen Second Life as part of their Web 2.0 communication strategies. Second Life offers unique design features for disseminating health information, training health professionals, and enabling patient education for both academic and commercial health behavior research. This study aimed to survey and categorize the range of health-related activities on Second Life; to examine the design attributes of the most innovative and popular sites; and to assess the potential utility of Second Life for the dissemination of health information and for health behavior change. We used three separate search strategies to identify health-related sites on Second Life. The first used the application's search engine, entering both generic and select illness-specific keywords, to seek out sites. The second identified sites through a comprehensive review of print, blog, and media sources discussing health activities on Second Life. We then visited each site and used a snowball method to identify other health sites until we reached saturation (no new health sites were identified). The content, user experience, and chief purpose of each site were tabulated as well as basic site information, including user traffic data and site size. We found a wide range of health-related activities on Second Life, and a diverse group of users, including organizations, groups, and individuals. For many users, Second Life activities are a part of their Web 2.0 communication strategy. The most common type of health-related site in our sample (n = 68) were those whose principle aim was patient education or to increase awareness about health issues. The second most common type of site were support sites, followed by training sites, and marketing sites. Finally, a few sites were purpose-built to conduct research in SL or to recruit participants for real-life research. Studies show that behaviors from virtual worlds can

  9. Published criteria for evaluating health related web sites: review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul; Eng, Thomas R; Deering, Mary Jo; Maxfield, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    Objective To review published criteria for specifically evaluating health related information on the world wide web, and to identify areas of consensus. Design Search of world wide web sites and peer reviewed medical journals for explicit criteria for evaluating health related information on the web, using Medline and Lexis-Nexis databases, and the following internet search engines: Yahoo!, Excite, Altavista, Webcrawler, HotBot, Infoseek, Magellan Internet Guide, and Lycos. Criteria were extracted and grouped into categories. Results 29 published rating tools and journal articles were identified that had explicit criteria for assessing health related web sites. Of the 165 criteria extracted from these tools and articles, 132 (80%) were grouped under one of 12 specific categories and 33 (20%) were grouped as miscellaneous because they lacked specificity or were unique. The most frequently cited criteria were those dealing with content, design and aesthetics of site, disclosure of authors, sponsors, or developers, currency of information (includes frequency of update, freshness, maintenance of site), authority of source, ease of use, and accessibility and availability. Conclusions Results suggest that many authors agree on key criteria for evaluating health related web sites, and that efforts to develop consensus criteria may be helpful. The next step is to identify and assess a clear, simple set of consensus criteria that the general public can understand and use. Key messagesMany organisations and individuals have published criteria to evaluate health related information on the world wide webA literature and world wide web search found that the most frequently cited criteria were those dealing with content, design and aesthetics of site, disclosure of authors, sponsors, or developers, currency of information, authority of source, and ease of useCriteria related to confidentiality and privacy were only cited by one authorConsensus regarding critical criteria for

  10. Twelve-month use of herbal medicines as a remedy for mental health problems in Japan: A cross-national analysis of World Mental Health Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Mai; Iwanaga, Hiroo; Kawakami, Norito

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the frequencies and sociodemographic and other characteristics around use of herbal medicine as a remedy for mental health problems in Japan. Data from the World Mental Health Japan (WMHJ) Survey and US National Comorbidity Survey Replications were analyzed. The WMHJ was conducted in 2002 to 2006, with 4129 respondents. National Comorbidity Survey Replications was conducted in 2002 to 2003, with 9282 respondents. The interview asked the respondents about their use of several types of herbs for mental health problems. Frequencies of use of herbal medicine were compared between Japan and the United States. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine sociodemographic and mental health-related correlates of 12-month herbal medicine use. Relevant sampling weights were used to adjust for the sampling designs. The proportion for use of herbal medicines as a remedy for mental health problems in the past 12 months was lower (0.4%) in Japan than that in the United States (3.7%). Low education in both countries (P herbal medicine. Any anxiety disorder in Japan was significantly associated with herbal medicine use (P herbal medicine among patients with mental health problems in the past 12 months was much lower in Japan compared to the United States. Persons with high educational attainment and anxiety disorders used herbal medicine as a remedy for mental health problems more frequently in Japan. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Relationship between mental toughness and physical endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crust, Lee; Clough, Peter J

    2005-02-01

    This study tested the criterion validity of the inventory, Mental Toughness 48, by assessing the correlation between mental toughness and physical endurance for 41 male undergraduate sports students. A significant correlation of .34 was found between scores for overall mental toughness and the time a relative weight could be held suspended. Results support the criterion-related validity of the Mental Toughness 48.

  12. The relationship between health-related fitness and quality of life in postmenopausal women from Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu WH

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wei-Hsiu Hsu,1–3 Chi-lung Chen,2 Liang Tseng Kuo,2 Chun-Hao Fan,1 Mel S Lee,2 Robert Wen-Wei Hsu2 1Sports Medicine Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chia Yi, Chia Yi, Taiwan; 2Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chia Yi, Chia Yi, Taiwan; 3Department of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Tao Yuan, Taiwan Background: Health-related fitness has been reported to be associated with improved quality of life (QoL in the elderly. Health-related fitness is comprised of several dimensions that could be enhanced by specific training regimens. It has remained unclear how various dimensions of health-related fitness interact with QoL in postmenopausal women.Objective: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between the dimensions of health-related fitness and QoL in elderly women.Methods: A cohort of 408 postmenopausal women in a rural area of Taiwan was prospectively collected. Dimensions of health-related fitness, consisting of muscular strength, balance, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, muscle endurance, and agility, were assessed. QoL was determined using the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36. Differences between age groups (stratified by decades were calculated using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and multiple comparisons using a Scheffé test. A Spearman’s correlation analysis was performed to examine differences between QoL and each dimension of fitness. Multiple linear regression with forced-entry procedure was performed to evaluate the effects of health-related fitness. A P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Age-related decreases in health-related fitness were shown for sit-ups, back strength, grip strength, side steps, trunk extension, and agility (P<0.05. An age-related decrease in QoL, specifically in physical functioning, role limitation due to physical problems, and physical component score, was also

  13. Health-related quality of life and self-efficacy of managing behavior problems for family caregivers of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Min; Huang, Huei-Ling; Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Shyu, Yea-Ing L

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the differences in patients' behavioral problems and health outcomes of family caregivers of patients with vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). A secondary analysis of baseline data on a subsample of caregiver-dementia patient dyads in a randomized clinical trial. Family caregivers of VaD patients reported higher self-efficacy than caregivers of AD patients in handling verbally nonaggressive and verbally aggressive behaviors. Caregivers of VaD patients had poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL) than caregivers of AD patients considering role disability due to physical health problems, bodily pain, social function, and physical component summary. Greater self-efficacy was associated with better mental health-related outcomes for family caregivers of VaD patients, and better self-care ability of VaD patients was associated with better caregiver mental health-related outcomes. Caring for a patient with more severe dementia predicted poor physical health-related outcomes in role disability due to physical health problems, but better overall mental health (mental component summary) for caregivers. This study is the first to examine and compare the behavioral problems of AD and VaD patients in a Chinese population, along with their family caregivers' self-efficacy and health outcomes. Family caregivers of patients with VaD might warrant specific attention to their HRQoL, with interventions developed to enhance their self-efficacy.

  14. Conservative management and health-related quality of life in end-stage renal disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Bin; Chao, Chia-Ter; Chang, Ray-E; Hung, Kuan-Yu; COGENT Study Group

    2017-06-26

    Few studies have addressed health-related quality of life (QoL) in patients who chose conservative management over dialysis. This systematic review aims to better define the role of conservative management in improving health-related QoL in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Medline, Cochrane and EMBASE were searched for prospective or retrospective studies published until June 30, 2016, that examined QoL of ESRD patients. The primary outcome was health-related QoL. Four studies were included (405 patients received dialysis and 332 received conservative management). Two studies that used the Short Form-36 Survey (SF-36) showed that the dialysis group had higher physical component scores, but the conservative management group had similar, or better, mental component scores at the end of intervention. Another study using the SF-36 showed that the physical and mental component scores of the dialysis group did not significantly change after intervention. In the conservative management group, the physical component scores did not change, but the mental component scores increased significantly over time (0.12 ± 0.32, p management group. Although there are only a limited number of published articles, ESRD patients who receive conservative management may have improved mental health-related QoL when compared with those who receive dialysis.

  15. The Impact of Student Life Stress on Health Related Quality of Life Among Doctor of Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupchup, Gireesh V.; Borrego, Matthew E.; Konduri, Niranjan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between student-life stress and health related quality of life (HRQOL) among Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) students. Data were collected for 166 students in the first three years of a Pharm.D. curriculum. Student-Life Stress Inventory scores were significantly negatively correlated to mental…

  16. Exercise, Diet, and Stress Management as Mediators between Functional Disability and Health-Related Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Connie; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Bezyak, Jill; Chan, Fong; Muller, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the mediational and moderational effect of exercise, diet, and stress management on the relationship between functional disability and health-related quality of life. Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlation techniques was used. Participants were 215…

  17. Motivation of schoolchildren and students for health related tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Mulyk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of schoolchildren’s and students’ motivation for different kinds of health related tourism. Material: In the research 50 pupils of 5-9 forms and 50 first and forth year students participated. They were offered to attentively read 15 motives and assess their significance by 10-points scale. Results: questioning permitted to study schoolchildren’s and students’ motivation for tourism. It was found that with age priority of motivation for health related tourism changes. For example, motives of health as well as social ones are to larger extent intrinsic to students. At the same time emotional motives (enjoyment with trainings are important for schoolchildren. Conclusions: the highest motivation was found in wish to develop physical qualities (1217 points, pleasant spending of time (1135 points and enjoying with trainings (1240 points.

  18. Health-related physical fitness for children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltais, Désirée B.; Wiart, Lesley; Fowler, Eileen; Verschuren, Olaf; Damiano, Diane L.

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity are a global health concern for all children. Children with cerebral palsy have even lower physical activity levels than their typically developing peers. Low levels of physical activity, and thus an increased risk for related chronic diseases, are associated with deficits in health-related physical fitness. Recent research has provided therapists with the resources to effectively perform physical fitness testing and physical activity training in clinical settings with children who have cerebral palsy, although most testing and training data to date pertains to those who walk. Nevertheless, based on the present evidence, all children with cerebral palsy should engage, to the extent they are able, in aerobic, anaerobic and muscle strengthening activities. Future research is required to determine the best ways to evaluate health-related physical fitness in non-ambulatory children with cerebral palsy and foster long-term changes in physical activity behavior in all children with this condition. PMID:24820339

  19. Assessment of oral health related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen P

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Dentistry, as in other branches of Medicine, it has been recognised that objective measures of disease provide little insight into the impact of oral disorders on daily living and quality of life. A significant body of development work has been undertaken to provide health status measures for use as outcome measures in dentistry. In descriptive population studies, poor oral health related quality of life is associated with tooth loss. There is a less extensive literature of longitudinal clinical trials, and measurement of change and interpretation of change scores continues to pose a challenge. This paper reviews the literature regarding the development and use of these oral health related QoL measures and includes an appraisal of future research needs in this area.

  20. Clinical and mental health correlates and risk factors for intimate partner violence among HIV-positive women in an inner-city HIV clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illangasekare, Samantha; Tello, Monique; Hutton, Heidi; Moore, Richard; Anderson, Jean; Baron, Jillian; Chander, Geetanjali

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious health concern for women in the United States, and HIV-positive women experience more frequent and severe abuse compared with HIV-negative women. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence of IPV among HIV-infected women receiving care in an urban clinic and to determine the HIV clinical and mental health correlates of IPV among HIV-positive women. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 196 women visiting an inner-city HIV clinic. Women were eligible if they were 18 years of age or older, English speaking, and received both HIV primary and gynecologic care at the clinic. The survey queried demographics, drug and alcohol history, depressive symptoms, and IPV, using the Partner Violence Scale. Antiretroviral therapy (ART), CD4 cell count, HIV-1 RNA level, and appointment adherence were abstracted from clinical records. Overall, 26.5% of women reported experiencing IPV in the past year. There were no differences in sociodemographics, substance use, ART prescription, CD4 count, or HIV-1 RNA level between women who experienced IPV and those who had not. Women with mild and severe depressive symptoms were significantly more likely to report IPV compared with those without, with adjusted odds ratios of 3.4 and 5.5, respectively. Women who missed gynecologic appointments were 1.9 times more likely to report experiencing IPV. IPV is prevalent among women presenting for HIV care, and depressive symptoms or missed gynecologic appointments should prompt further screening for IPV. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mandibulo-osseous predictors of osteoporosis: A double-blind study on the correlation and comparison of mental index with bone mineral density in post-menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Waghray

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by microarchitectural deterioration in bone tissue leading to fractures, and is essentially a preventable disease when detected in the early stages. Novel methods for early identification of osteoporosis can have a great impact in combating this otherwise progressive disease. Aims: The present study was conducted with the objectives of evaluating the precision of a radiomorphometric index [mental index (MI] measured on a panoramic radiograph in early diagnosis of osteoporosis and finding its correlation with bone mineral density (BMD measured by digital X-ray radiogrammetry method. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 71 women who were in natural menopause. The MI was calculated by two investigators, with each investigator recording two sets of measurements. The BMD was assessed and the T-score was obtained by digital X-ray radiogrammetry method. Based on the T-score obtained, the patients were divided into three study groups of normal (n = 24, osteopenic (n = 30, and osteoporotic (n = 17. The values obtained were tabulated for statistical analysis. Results: In the present study, it was found that there was a statistically significant difference in the mean scores of MI among normal, osteopenic, and osteoporotic subjects. Normal subjects had significantly higher MI (P < 0.001 than the osteopenic subjects and, similarly, the osteopenic subjects had significantly higher MI (P < 0.001 than the osteoporotic subjects. The inter- and intra-investigator variability was found to be low. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that a simple radiomorphometric index (MI which is relatively easier to measure on a panoramic radiograph can be an indicator of osteoporosis and may aid in early detection and treatment planning of one of the most prevalent metabolic bone diseases.

  2. Health-related quality of life across all stages of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Daniel; Karlsson, Linda; Eklund, Oskar

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A limited number of studies have assessed health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Results to date have been conflicting and studies have generally focused on patients with later stages of the disease. This study aimed to assess...... stages 4-5 and patients on dialysis. Progressive disease predominately had an impact on physical health, whereas mental health showed less variation between stages of the disease. A substantial loss in quality of life was observed as patients progressed to CKD stages 4-5. CONCLUSIONS: Later stages...... HRQoL in ADPKD across all stages of the disease, from patients with early chronic kidney disease (CKD) to patients with end-stage renal disease. METHODS: A study involving cross-sectional patient-reported outcomes and retrospective clinical data was undertaken April-December 2014 in Denmark, Finland...

  3. Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life: General Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Guyatt, Gordon H

    1997-01-01

    Clinicians and policy makers recognize the importance of measuring health-related quality of life (HRQL) to make informed patient management and policy decisions. Self- or interviewer-administered questionnaires can be used to measure cross-sectional differences in quality of life among patients at a point in time (discriminative instruments) or longitudinal changes in HRQL within patients over time (evaluative instruments). Both discriminative and evaluative instruments must be valid (ie, me...

  4. Global health-related publications in otolaryngology are increasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Kyle J; Creighton, Francis; Abdul-Aziz, Dunia; Cheney, Mack; Randolph, Gregory W

    2015-04-01

    Determine trends in global health-related publication in otolaryngology. A review of research databases. A search of publications a