Berenice Scaletzky Knuth
Full Text Available AbstractThe scope of this article is to deter mine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD and Depression among Community Health Agents (CHA and employees of Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS. It is a cross-sectional descriptive study involving the target population of Community Health Workers and Psychosocial Care Center workers, linked to the Municipal Health Department of Pelotas in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul. The presence of common mental disorders was considered when the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ was > 7 and the occurrence of depression when BDI > 12. In total, 257 professionals participated in the study. Among mental health professionals (n = 119, the prevalence of CMDs was 25.2% and depression was 23.5%, while the prevalence of CMDs was 48.6% and depression was 29% among CHA (n = 138. The ratio of CMDs between the two groups of professionals was statistically different (p < 0.001. In this study, it was observed that the CAPS professionals are more adapted to work issues, with less perceived health problems arising from work and with a lower prevalence of mental disorders compared to CHA.
This paper discusses the use of bilingual workers who do not have formal mental health training as mediators and providers of mental health care for refugees. The introduction provides a background discussion of the need for refugee mental health services, the characteristics of bilingual mental health workers, and the work places and expectations…
Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen
Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…
Background: Studies on attitudes towards mental health in Nigeria have been mainly community-based surveys. Objective: To determine the knowledge and attitudes towards mental illness (MI) of health workers in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital. Methods: A stratified sample of 256 health workers completed an Attitude to ...
Shigemura, Jun; Nomura, Soichiro
The end of the Cold War has brought a dramatic change to the international political situation and the role of the United Nations peacekeeping operations (PKO) has drawn increased attention. While many reports on PKO have focused on political or sociologic considerations, the mental health of the peacekeepers themselves has received little attention and psychiatric problems that can have a negative impact on mission success have been largely ignored. Participation in PKO creates a number of stressors and serious psychiatric and/or physical disorders may result. Yet, there is little research on this topic, either domestically or globally, and the methodology for clinical intervention remains in an early stage of development. We have reviewed previous reports to determine how various stressors before, during and after deployment affect the participants. Research in associated fields (e.g. crisis workers and military personnel) are also reviewed and their application to peacekeeping psychiatry is discussed. It must be admitted that the significance of PKO is arguable and each PKO is unique in terms of the nature of its mission and the local situation. Yet, the relationship between the psychiatric status of the personnel and the characteristics of an individual mission has never been studied. At present, no clear consensus regarding a framework for psychiatric intervention exists. Studies that enhance the recognition and significance of peacekeeping psychiatry are likely to improve the efficacy of PKO.
van de Bovenkamp, H.; Trappenburg, M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/111650836
Objective To study the relationship between family members and mental health care workers to learn more about the support available to family members of mental health patients. Methods Eighteen interviews were conducted with family members, seven with professionals and two with patients.
Ezoe, S; Morimoto, K
Lifestyle factors, sometimes associated with physical health and mortality, have also been known to be associated with mental health status. This study seeks to correlate behavioral lifestyles with major components of mental health among Japanese factory workers. We administered the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and a questionnaire concerning eight personal health practices to 2,132 male and 668 female factory workers at a camera-manufacturing company in Japan. There were strong negative relationships of a higher total number of favorable lifestyles as indicated by the Health Practice Index (HPI) to psychological distress and its components: somatic symptoms, anxiety-insomnia, and social dysfunction. After controlling for the effects of confounding factors that included age, marital status, and somatic condition, multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that five of the eight health factors among male workers--mental stress, nutritional balance, eating breakfast regularly, physical exercise, and working hours--were significantly related to the grade of psychological distress or its three components. Among female workers, five health practices, i.e., mental stress, physical exercise, sleeping hours, working hours, and cigarette smoking, were significantly associated with the grade of psychological distress or its three components. Good health practices might be individually and as a whole associated with better mental health status in factory workers.
Eriksen, Kristin Ådnøy; Dahl, Hellen; Karlsson, Bengt; Arman, Maria
Practical wisdom, understood as knowing how to be or act in any present situation with clients, is believed to be an essential part of the knowledge needed to be a professional mental health worker. Exploring processes of adapting, extending knowledge and refining tacit knowledge grounded in mental health workers' experiences with being in practice may bring awareness of how mental health workers reflect, learn and practice professional 'artistry'. The aim of the article was to explore mental health workers' processes of development and learning as they appeared in focus groups intended to develop practical wisdom. The main research question was 'How might the processes of development and learning contribute to developing practical wisdom in the individual as well as in the practice culture?' The design was multi-stage focus groups, and the same participants met four times. A phenomenological hermeneutical method for researching lived experience guided the analysis. Eight experienced mental health workers representing four Norwegian municipalities participated. The research context was community-based mental health services. The study was reported to Norwegian Social Data Services, and procedures for informed consent were followed. Two examples of processes of re-evaluation of experience (Association, Integration, Validation, Appropriation and Outcomes and action) were explored. The health workers had developed knowledge in previous encounters with clients. In sharing practice experiences, this knowledge was expressed and developed, and also tested and validated against the aims of practice. Discussions led to adapted and extended knowledge, and as tacit knowledge was expressed it could be used actively. Learning to reflect, being ready to be provoked and learning to endure indecisiveness may be foundational in developing practical wisdom. Openness is demanding, and changing habits of mind is difficult. Reflection on, and confrontation with, set practices are
Full Text Available Background: There is a significant proportion of workers with mental disorders who either are struggling at work or who are trying to return to work from a disability leave. Objective: Using a population-based survey of working adults in Ontario, Canada, this paper examines the perceptions of workers towards mental disorders in the workplace. Methods: Data are from a sample of 2219 working adults identified through random digit dialing who either completed a telephone questionnaire administered by professional interviewers or a web-based survey. Results: A third of workers would not tell their managers if they experienced mental health problems. Rather than a single factor, workers more often identified a combination of factors that would encourage disclosure to their managers. One of the most identified disincentives was the fear of damaging their careers. The most pervasive reasons for concerns about a colleague with a mental health problem included safety and the colleague's reliability. Conclusion: Although critical for workers who experience a mental disorder and who find work challenging, a significant proportion do not seek support. One barrier is fear of negative repercussions. Organizations' policies can create safe environments and the provision of resources and training to managers that enable them to implement them. By making disclosure safe, stigma and the burden of mental disorders in the workplace can be decreased.
Dewa, C S
There is a significant proportion of workers with mental disorders who either are struggling at work or who are trying to return to work from a disability leave. Using a population-based survey of working adults in Ontario, Canada, this paper examines the perceptions of workers towards mental disorders in the workplace. Data are from a sample of 2219 working adults identified through random digit dialing who either completed a telephone questionnaire administered by professional interviewers or a web-based survey. A third of workers would not tell their managers if they experienced mental health problems. Rather than a single factor, workers more often identified a combination of factors that would encourage disclosure to their managers. One of the most identified disincentives was the fear of damaging their careers. The most pervasive reasons for concerns about a colleague with a mental health problem included safety and the colleague's reliability. Although critical for workers who experience a mental disorder and who find work challenging, a significant proportion do not seek support. One barrier is fear of negative repercussions. Organizations' policies can create safe environments and the provision of resources and training to managers that enable them to implement them. By making disclosure safe, stigma and the burden of mental disorders in the workplace can be decreased.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The lack of trained mental health workers is a primary contributor to the mental health treatment gap worldwide. Despite the great need to recruit and retain mental health workers in low-income countries, little is known about how these workers perceive their jobs and what drives them to work in mental health care. Using qualitative interviews, we aimed to explore factors motivating mental health workers in order to inform interventions to increase recruitment and retention. METHODS: We conducted 28 in-depth, open-ended interviews with staff in Ghana's three public psychiatric hospitals. We used the snowballing method to recruit participants and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis, with multiple members of the research team participating in data coding to enhance the validity and reliability of the analysis. The use of qualitative methods allowed us to understand the range and depth of motivating and demotivating factors. RESULTS: Respondents described many factors that influenced their choice to enter and remain in mental health care. Motivating factors included 1 desire to help patients who are vulnerable and in need, 2 positive day-to-day interactions with patients, 3 intellectual or academic interest in psychiatry or behavior, and 4 good relationships with colleagues. Demotivating factors included 1 lack of resources at the hospital, 2 a rigid supervisory hierarchy, 3 lack of positive or negative feedback on work performance, and 4 few opportunities for career advancement within mental health. CONCLUSIONS: Because many of the factors are related to relationships, these findings suggest that strengthening the interpersonal and team dynamics may be a critical and relatively low cost way to increase worker motivation. The data also allowed us to highlight key areas for resource allocation to improve both recruitment and retention, including risk pay, adequate tools for patient care, improved hospital work
Jack, Helen; Canavan, Maureen; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Taylor, Lauren; Bradley, Elizabeth
Introduction The lack of trained mental health workers is a primary contributor to the mental health treatment gap worldwide. Despite the great need to recruit and retain mental health workers in low-income countries, little is known about how these workers perceive their jobs and what drives them to work in mental health care. Using qualitative interviews, we aimed to explore factors motivating mental health workers in order to inform interventions to increase recruitment and retention. Methods We conducted 28 in-depth, open-ended interviews with staff in Ghana’s three public psychiatric hospitals. We used the snowballing method to recruit participants and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis, with multiple members of the research team participating in data coding to enhance the validity and reliability of the analysis. The use of qualitative methods allowed us to understand the range and depth of motivating and demotivating factors. Results Respondents described many factors that influenced their choice to enter and remain in mental health care. Motivating factors included 1) desire to help patients who are vulnerable and in need, 2) positive day-to-day interactions with patients, 3) intellectual or academic interest in psychiatry or behavior, and 4) good relationships with colleagues. Demotivating factors included 1) lack of resources at the hospital, 2) a rigid supervisory hierarchy, 3) lack of positive or negative feedback on work performance, and 4) few opportunities for career advancement within mental health. Conclusions Because many of the factors are related to relationships, these findings suggest that strengthening the interpersonal and team dynamics may be a critical and relatively low cost way to increase worker motivation. The data also allowed us to highlight key areas for resource allocation to improve both recruitment and retention, including risk pay, adequate tools for patient care, improved hospital work environment
Full Text Available Background: Call centre workers in BPO face unique occupational hazards - mental, physical and psychosocial. Material & Method: A sample 100 call centre workers of both sexes and from two cities Pune and Mumbai were surveyed by both qualitative and quantitative methods for the above health problems. Results: A high proportion of workers faced sleep disturbances and associated mental stress and anxiety. Sleep disturbance and anxiety was significantly more in international call centres compared to domestic. There was also disturbance in circadian rhythms due to night shift. Physical problems such as musculoskeletal disorders, obesity, eye, and hearing problems were also present. Psychosocial problems included disruption in family life, use of tobacco and alcohol, and faulty eating habits. Conclusion: Better personal management, health education and more research is indicated to study the health problems in this emerging occupation.
As the industrial world has transformed toward a service economy, a particular interest has developed in mental health problems at the workplace. The risk for burnout is significantly increased in certain occupations, notably for health care workers. Beyond the effects of an extensive workload, many working hours, or long night shifts, the medical field has specific stressors. Physicians work in emotionally demanding environments with patients, families, or other medical staff. They must make quick decisions while faced with a quite frequent information overload. All of these stressors have to be weighed against a rapidly changing organizational context within medicine. Today, economics objectives have priority over medical values in health care. In principal, mental health workers should experience similar work stressors and the same contextual factors as health professionals from other medical disciplines. However, several studies have identified stressors that are unique to the psychiatric profession. These challenges range from the stigma of this profession, to particularly demanding relationships with patients and difficult interactions with other mental health professionals as part of multidisciplinary teams to personal threats from violent patients. Other sources of stress are a lack of positive feedback, low pay, and a poor work environment. Finally, patient suicide is a major stressor, upon which a majority of mental health workers report post-traumatic stress symptoms.
Melissa Floyd Taylor
Full Text Available Involuntary treatment is often a reality in mental health social work. The current research examined 330 mental health social workers' involvement in and opinions about involuntary treatment as part of their primary job functions. Varieties of involuntary intervention and typical frequency were investigated. The most often cited areas of involuntary treatment experience proved to be mandated outpatient counseling and emergency hospitalization. In general, participants reported a high level of support for the existence of involuntary intervention, both in "idea" and "implementation." The study also explored the attitudes social workers have about these sometimes "ethically-complex" social work interventions and how these attitudes may have changed over the life of their practice careers due to practice experience and personal growth, job changes, and exposure to the reality of mental illness.
Full Text Available Manufacturing front-line workers were more likely to experience mental health problems. Personal resources and professional tasks were the major factors of workers’ mental health. Therefore, this study was to explore the interrelationship of these three key factors. A questionnaire including the revised Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI-R and the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90 covered 480 manufacturing front-line workers to measure their personal resources, professional tasks and mental health. Results showed that among manufacturing front-line workers, the status of mental health and professional tasks were below the national average level, and the personal resources were relatively deficient as well. Correlation analysis indicated a negative relation between the indicators of mental health and professional tasks (except responsibility, while personal resources and mental health were significantly positive correlation. These findings suggested that personal resources and professional tasks were highly related to mental health in manufacturing front-line workers.
Park, Soo Kyung; Rhee, Min-Kyoung; Barak, Michàlle Mor
Although nonregular workers experience higher job stress, poorer mental health, and different job stress dimensions relative to regular workers, little is known about which job stress dimensions are associated with poor mental health among nonregular workers. This study investigated the association between job stress dimensions and mental health among Korean nonregular workers. Data were collected from 333 nonregular workers in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province, and logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results of the study indicated that high job insecurity and lack of rewards had stronger associations with poor mental health than other dimensions of job stress when controlling for sociodemographic and psychosocial variables. It is important for the government and organizations to improve job security and reward systems to reduce job stress among nonregular workers and ultimately alleviate their mental health issues.
Mc Carthy, V J C; Cronly, J; Perry, I J
Adverse job characteristics have been linked with increased incidence of depression and anxiety in working populations. However, the association between job characteristics and mental health, in an older working population while controlling for personality traits, is less well known. To examine the association between job characteristics (job demands and job control) and mental health (depression and anxiety) for older workers while controlling for personality traits. A sample of workers aged 50-69 years were recruited from a primary health care clinic in Southern Ireland. Job characteristics were measured using the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire; demands (quantitative and cognitive) and control (influence at work and possibilities for development). Personality traits were measured using the Ten-Item Personality Inventory, depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale and anxiety was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Descriptive analysis, simple and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. The final sample size was 1025 with an initial 67% response rate. Multiple linear regression analysis showed job characteristics (in particular, job demands) to be significant positive predictors of symptoms of depression and anxiety. The inverse was true for job control variables and symptoms of depression. Neither possibilities for development nor influence at work were associated with symptoms of anxiety. Our findings indicate that despite potential confounders, higher demands at work can impact the worker's mental health negatively. Reducing job demands and encouraging role development may benefit the mental health of older workers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Melissa F. Taylor
Full Text Available Involuntary treatment is often a reality in mental health social work. The current research examined 330 mental health social workers’ involvement in and opinions about involuntary treatment as part of their primary job functions. Varieties of involuntary intervention and typical frequency were investigated. The most often cited areas of involuntary treatment proved to be mandated outpatient counseling and emergency hospitalization. In general, participants reported high level of support for the existence of involuntary intervention, both in “idea” and “implementation.” The study also explored the attitudes social workers have about these sometimes “ethically-complex” social work interventions and how these attitudes may have changed over the life of their practice careers due to practice experience and personal growth, job changes, and exposure to the reality of mental illness.
XU, Wenxin; CENG, Mengjuan; YAO, Jiwei; CHEN, Longfei
Background: Chinese medical workers suffer from a high incidence of mental health problems, resulting in reduced efficiency, increased medical malpractice, rising medical costs, and other issues. The effective alleviation of mental health problems among medical workers is therefore an important focus of research and social attention. Methods: The mental health of 842 medical workers from the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Me...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Unmet needs for mental health treatment in low income countries are pervasive. If mental health is to be effectively integrated into primary health care in low income countries like India then grass-roots workers need to acquire relevant knowledge and skills to be able to recognise, refer and support people experiencing mental disorders in their own communities. This study aims to provide a mental health training intervention to community health workers in Bangalore Rural District, Karnataka, India, and to evaluate the impact of this training on mental health literacy. Methods A pre-test post-test study design was undertaken with assessment of mental health literacy at three time points; baseline, completion of the training, and three month follow-up. Mental health literacy was assessed using the interviewer-administered Mental Health Literacy Survey. The training intervention was a four day course based on a facilitator's manual developed specifically for community health workers in India. Results 70 community health workers from Doddaballapur, Bangalore Rural District were recuited for the study. The training course improved participants' ability to recognize a mental disorder in a vignette, and reduced participants' faith in unhelpful and potentially harmful pharmacological interventions. There was evidence of a minor reduction in stigmatizing attitudes, and it was unclear if the training resulted in a change in participants' faith in recovery following treatment. Conclusion The findings from this study indicate that the training course demonstrated potential to be an effective way to improve some aspects of mental health literacy, and highlights strategies for strengthening the training course.
Ketelaar, Sarah M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Bolier, Linda; Smeets, Odile; Sluiter, Judith K.
Mental health complaints are quite common in health care employees and can have adverse effects on work functioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate an e-mental health (EMH) approach to workers' health surveillance (WHS) for nurses and allied health professionals. Using the waiting-list group
Audhoe, Selwin S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Hoving, Jan L.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
To evaluate the barriers to and solutions for return to work (RTW) from the perspective of unemployed workers who were sick-listed due to mental health problems. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 25 sick-listed unemployed workers with mental health problems. Qualitative data analysis was
Mutiso, Victoria N.; Musyimi, Christine W.; Nayak, Sameera S.; Musau, Abednego M.; Rebello, Tahilia; Nandoya, Erick; Tele, Albert K.; Pike, Kathleen; Ndetei, David M.
Background: The study was conducted in rural Kenya and assessed stigma in health workers from primary health facilities. Aims: This study compared variations in stigma-related mental health knowledge and attitudes between primary health workers (HWs) and community health volunteers (CHVs). Methods:
Sarah Moll León
Full Text Available The exploratory study aims to explore mental health representations in workers of two specialized institutions, through qualitative methodology. A total of ten members of two specialized institutions were selected, five from each, who comprise the interdisciplinary team in the area: A psychiatrist, a psychologist, a nurse, a nursing technician and a social worker. A semi-structured interview was developed to access the speech of the workers. Results show the representational world of the workers, their general conceptions about mental health, the factors that promote or interfere with it, as well as the reactions that a person that suffers mental illness generates, as well as expectations of improvement.
Harrigan, Nicholas M; Koh, Chiu Yee; Amirrudin, Amirah
While migration health studies traditionally focused on socioeconomic determinants of health, an emerging body of literature is exploring migration status as a proximate cause of health outcomes. Study 1 is a path analysis of the predictors of mental health amongst 582 documented migrant workers in Singapore, and shows that threat of deportation is one of the most important proximate social determinants of predicted mental illness, and a mediator of the impact of workplace conflict on mental health. Study 2 is a qualitative study of the narratives of 149 migrant workers who were in workplace conflict with their employers, and demonstrates that workers believed threats were used as a negotiating strategy during workplace conflicts. Findings suggest that migration status places workers who come into workplace conflict with their employers at heightened risk of mental illness because migration status can be used as a tool by employers in workplace negotiations.
Sage, C A M; Brooks, S K; Jones, N; Greenberg, N
TRiM (Trauma Risk Management) has been shown to improve mental health and attitudes towards mental health in high-risk occupational groups; however, there has been no research into how TRiM might work for railway workers. To assess whether attending a TRiM training course alters mental health and attitudes to mental health-related help-seeking in railway workers. Workers completed a survey assessing mental health and attitudes towards mental health and help-seeking, before and after a 2-day TRiM course; follow-up questionnaires were administered 4 months post-course. Fifty railway employees completed the questionnaires. Post-course scores for cohesion and mental health peer literacy (i.e. feeling able to recognize and discuss mental health symptoms with colleagues) and some aspects of stigma significantly improved, while there were non-significant improvements in common mental disorder and post-traumatic stress symptoms. The response rate for completing follow-up surveys was small (n = 8) but results from these subjects suggested mental health peer literacy scores remained significantly improved. This study provides a useful insight into attitudes of railway workers regarding stigma and their confidence in discussing trauma-related mental health. Significant improvements in cohesion and mental health peer literacy along with the general improvement in scores post-TRiM course provide some evidence of the potential benefits of TRiM training in railway workers. Follow-up results have limited reliability due to the small number of responders but suggest possible long-term benefits of attending a TRiM course. Further research is required to confirm this finding. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Ang, Jia Wei; Chia, Colin; Koh, Calvin J; Chua, Brandon W B; Narayanaswamy, Shyamala; Wijaya, Limin; Chan, Lai Gwen; Goh, Wei Leong; Vasoo, Shawn
Background Low-wage migrant workers are vulnerable to healthcare inequities. We sought to identify potential barriers to healthcare and risk factors for mental health issues in non-domestic migrant workers in Singapore, and identify high-risk subgroups. Methods A cross-sectional, interviewer-administered survey of 433 non-domestic migrant workers was conducted at subsidised clinics and a foreign worker dormitory from July to August 2016. Questions assessed healthcare usage patterns, affordabi...
Debyser, Bart; Duprez, Veerle; Beeckman, Dimitri; Vandewalle, Joeri; Van Hecke, Ann; Deproost, Eddy; Verhaeghe, Sofie
In a mental healthcare that embraces a recovery-oriented practice, the employment of mental health peer workers is encouraged. Although peer workers are increasingly working together with nurses, there is a lack of research that explores how nurses and peer workers perceive their role-related competences in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to clarify and understand these self-perceptions in order to identify the specificity and potential complementarity of both roles. This insight is needed to underpin a successful partnership between both vocations. A qualitative descriptive research design based on principles of critical incident methodology was used. Twelve nurses and eight peer workers from different mental healthcare organizations participated. A total of 132 reported cases were analysed. Rigour was achieved through thick description, audit trail, investigator triangulation and peer review. Nurses relate their role-related competences predominantly with being compliant with instructions, being a team player and ensuring security and control. Peer workers relate their role-related competences with being able to maintain themselves as a peer worker, building up a relationship that is supportive for both the patient and themselves, and to utilize their lived experience. Both nurses and peer workers assign a major role to the team in determining their satisfaction with their competences. Consequently, what is perceived as important for the team appears to overshadow their self-assessment of competences. The findings highlighted the importance of paying more attention to identity construction, empowerment and role competence development of nurses and peer workers in their respective education and ongoing training. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Ersanli, Ercümend; Korkut, Mustafa
The aim of present study was to investigate whether the mental well-being of health care workers associated with gender, age and marital status. Data were collected from 115 health care workers (doctors, physiotherapist, nurses, etc.) from a Turkish Medical Research and Application Center. They completed a demographic information form and the…
Koka, Betty E; Deane, Frank P; Lyons, Geoffrey Cb; Lambert, Gordon
Papua New Guinea is a developing country with limited resources for specialist mental health services. Little is known about the mental health and treatment services of Papua New Guinea. The aim of this study was to clarify the presenting mental health problems encountered by Papua New Guinean health workers and the common treatment approaches used. A total of 203 Papua New Guinean health workers completed a retrospective quantitative survey about their three most recent mental health patients. The survey asked about presenting symptomatology, diagnoses (including culture-bound diagnoses) and treatment approaches. The major presenting mental health problems for males included schizophrenia, substance use disorder, sorcery and spirit possession. Depression was the most common diagnoses for women, followed by sorcery and somatisation. Over 65% of patients were prescribed psychotropic medication, over 50% received some form of psychological intervention and 28% were receiving traditional treatments. Somatic symptoms are common among both male and female Papua New Guineans; however, males may be more likely to present with psychotic symptoms and females with mood-related problems. Schizophrenia and depression are commonly identified with substance use disorder more problematic among males. Culture-specific explanations and treatment are commonly used. © The Author(s) 2013.
Full Text Available Psychological strain in working life is gaining ever more attention. Health care workers are often under extreme emotional stress, which can become so overwhelming that they show signs of mental ill-health. This project aimed to develop a model for sustainable psychological support within a hospital clinic to prevent mental ill-health among employees. Mental strains at work and mental ill-health among clinic employees were mapped out, after which interventions for psychological support were designed in collaboration with employees. The interventions were conducted over one year and evaluated. Throughout the process the clinic received continuous feedback. Both questionnaires and interviews were used. The results of identifying mental strains and conducting interventions showed that employees experienced mental strain at work and perceived a need for support. Intervention evaluations showed that the project provided support, new insights, and an increased acceptance for long-term prevention of mental strain. Quantitative and qualitative methodologies supported the results. The conclusion was that increased legitimacy for mental strain at work and continuous feedback between clinic management and employees, as well as organizational circumstances are important factors when developing long-term intervention programs with various forms of psychological support.
He, Xuesong; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung
There are approximately 47.5 million female migrant workers living in major cities in China. Numerous studies have documented the marginalized living conditions confronting migrant workers in cities, such as employment difficulties, unjustifiably demanding working conditions, lack of medical insurance and social provision, poor housing conditions, unfavourable educational arrangements for migrant children, and discrimination by urban residents. In addition, female migrant workers may suffer from discrimination, exploitation and oppression. This study aimed to explore the difficulties and perceived meaningfulness of migration and their effect on the mental health status of female migrant workers in Shanghai, Kunshan, Dongguan and Shenzhen. A total of 959 female migrant workers from 12 factories completed the questionnaires, which included the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Migration Stress Scale and the Meaning in Migration Scale. The findings indicate that 24% of female migrant workers could be classified as having poor mental health and the percentage in Shenzhen (35%) was far greater than in the three other cities in China. 'Financial and employment-related difficulties', 'cultural differences', gender-specific stressors and 'better future for self and children' significantly accounted for the mental health outcomes of female migrant workers. Recommendations for policy change and service initiatives targeted at improving the mental health of female migrant workers are discussed.
Kranke, Derrick; Floersch, Jerry
This study investigated adolescents with a mental health diagnosis and their experience of stigma in schools. Forty adolescents between the ages of twelve and seventeen who met DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric illness and who were prescribed psychiatric medication were selected. The Teen Subjective Experience of Medication Interview was used to…
Norder-Kuper, Giny; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Bultmann, Ute; van der Klink, Jac J. L.
Objectives Epidemiological studies investigating mental-health-related sickness absence (SA) among shift workers are lacking. This 10-year observational study investigated the risk of mental health SA among shift compared with day workers. Methods The data of 5826 male production workers were used
Norder, Giny; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Bultmann, Ute; van der Klink, Jac J. L.
Objectives Epidemiological studies investigating mental-health-related sickness absence (SA) among shift workers are lacking. This 10-year observational study investigated the risk of mental health SA among shift compared with day workers. Methods The data of 5826 male production workers were used
Maybery, D; Goodyear, M; Reupert, A E; Grant, A
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Family focused practice leads to positive outcomes for parents and children. There are barriers and enablers for practitioners being family focused. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Worker skill, knowledge and confidence about family work are the most important factors associated with family focused practices. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Mental health nurses require specific skill training in family focused practices, time to engage with clients on parenting issues and that there are adequate services to refer family members to. Introduction Family focused practice is thought to lead to positive outcomes for all family members. However, there are multiple barriers and enablers in adult mental health services to practitioners undertaking these actions. Aim The aim of this study was to examine the relative importance of worker, workforce and family factors to predict family focused practices (FFPs) in adult mental health services. Method Three hundred and seven adult mental health workers completed a 45 items family focused practice measure of 16 family focused practices. Thesis It was found that worker skill and knowledge about family work and an ability to assess the degree of parental insight into the child's connections to other family members and the community were important predictors of FFP, along with the closely related-worker confidence. While aspects of the worker, workplace and family each contribute to FFPs, this study highlighted the importance of worker skill, knowledge and confidence as central issues for adult mental health workers. Implications for practice Study implications include the need for training in specific FFPs, the provision of time to engage with clients on parenting issues and the need 5 to ensure that there are adequate services for workers to refer family members to. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Xu, Wenxin; Ceng, Mengjuan; Yao, Jiwei; Chen, Longfei
Chinese medical workers suffer from a high incidence of mental health problems, resulting in reduced efficiency, increased medical malpractice, rising medical costs, and other issues. The effective alleviation of mental health problems among medical workers is therefore an important focus of research and social attention. The mental health of 842 medical workers from the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University in Fuzhou, China was evaluated between February 2016 and March 2016. Sixty-two workers with positive SCL-90 screening results were selected as the subjects to be investigated in the intervention experiment, with 31 in the intervention group and 31 in the control group. The control group did not participate in any regular physical exercise activity for the 4-month duration of the study, whereas the exercise-psychology adjustment mode was applied to the intervention group. Medical workers had a higher total SCL-90 score and number of positive items than the national norm ( P intervention, the SCL-90 score, number of positive results, somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, sensitivity, depression, anxiety, and hostility of the intervention group were significantly lower than they were before the intervention ( P psychology adjustment is an effective intervention mode for the mental health of medical workers.
Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bo; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Xu, Jinping; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita
Intimate partner violence is prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) in China, and it is significantly associated with mental health problems among FSWs. However, limited studies have explored the mechanisms/process by which violence affects mental health. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among partner violence, internalized stigma, and mental health problems among FSWs. Data were collected using a self-administered cross-sectional survey administered to 1,022 FSWs in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Guangxi), China during 2008-2009. We used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized relationships. Results indicated that violence perpetrated by either stable sexual partners or clients was directly and positively associated with mental health problems. Violence also had an indirect relation to mental health problems through stigma. Results highlight the need for interventions on counseling and care for FSWs who have experienced violence and for interventions to increase FSWs' coping skills and empowerment strategies.
van Hoffen, Marieke F. A.; Joling, Catelijne I.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Roelen, Corne A. M.
Background: Mental health problems are a leading cause of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Workers at risk of mental LTSA should preferably be identified before they report sick. The objective of this study was to examine mental health symptoms as predictors of future mental LTSA in non-sicklisted
Ting, Laura; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sanders, Sara
Mental health social workers are at increased risk of being confronted with fatal and nonfatal client suicidal behavior (CSB). Research has documented personal and professional reactions to CSB; however, empirical evidence describing the potential long-term effects is scarce. This study examined current reactions of perceived stress and continual…
Bercier, Melissa L.; Maynard, Brandy R.
Objective: A systematic review was conducted to examine effects of indicated interventions to reduce symptoms of secondary traumatic stress (STS) experienced by mental health workers. Method: Systematic review methods were employed to search, retrieve, select, and analyze studies that met study inclusion criteria. Results: Over 4,000 citations…
Full Text Available Background Evaluation and determination of different achievements of interventions in health care is one of the important responsibilities of the health system. Objectives The aim of present study was to evaluate the integration of mental health program in the primary health care (PHC system in rural areas of Dezful district in view of participants and health workers. Patients and Methods In this descriptive-cross sectional research, which was done in rural areas of Dezful during year 2014, the main indexes of mentioned integration such as knowledge, attitude and performance of physicians, health workers and participants were measured. The data collection instrument was valid and reliable questionnaires, which are often used by the mental health department of the health ministry. Validity and reliability of questionnaires have frequently been confirmed by researchers in different studies. The study population included all 19 rural physicians, 89 health workers and a random sample of 15 - 60 year-old participants in the health network of Dezful. Frequency of distribution and computation of central and distribution indexes were used for data analysis. Results The amount of physicians’ knowledge was about 50%, while the rate of health workers’ knowledge was 62%. The rate of health workers’ attitude was 92%, while the rate of participants’ knowledge was 50% and the rate of participants’ attitude was 19%. Consequently, the integration of mental health in primary health care system of rural areas of Dezful district has been relatively successful. Conclusions The integration of mental health into primary health care is an important priority in the Iranian health system. Monitoring and evaluation of this strategic project to remove its weaknesses is essential.
Mosaku, Kolawole S; Wallymahmed, Akhtar H
World Health Organization (WHO) recommends integration of mental health services into primary health services; however attitude of primary health care workers is one barrier to this. A cross sectional survey using the Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness (CAMI) was done. One hundred and twenty primary care workers were randomly selected from three local government areas. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in analyses. The results showed that most primary health care workers hold a benevolent (mean = 2.47, SD = 0.52) attitude towards the mentally ill. Workers with 10 years or more experience tend to have less authoritarian (t = 3.19, p = 0.01) and less social restrictive (t = 3.90, p = 0.01) attitudes towards the mentally ill. There were no significant differences in attitude by gender, marital status, or designation of health care workers. The study showed that primary care workers have attitudes similar to that seen in the general population.
Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Tekkel, Mare; Aluoja, Anu; Leinsalu, Mall
To study the long-term mental health consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident among cleanup workers from Estonia. In 2010, 614 Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers and 706 geographically and age-matched population-based controls completed a mail survey that included self-rated health, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL), alcohol symptoms (AUDIT), and scales measuring depressive, anxiety, agoraphobia, fatigue, insomnia, and somatization symptoms. Respondents were dichotomized into high (top quartile) and low symptom groups on each measure. Logistic regression analysis detected significant differences between cleanup workers and controls on all measures even after adjustment for ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The strongest difference was found for somatization, with cleanup workers being three times more likely than controls to score in the top quartile (OR = 3.28, 95% CI 2.39-4.52), whereas for alcohol problems the difference was half as large (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.16-1.99). Among cleanup workers, arrival at Chernobyl in 1986 (vs. later) was associated with sleep problems, somatization, and symptoms of agoraphobia. The toll of cleanup work was evident 24 years after the Chernobyl accident among Estonian cleanup workers indicating the need for focused mental health interventions.
Kemp, Philip; Gilding, Moorene; Seewooruttun, Khooseal; Walsh, Hannah
Background With a rise in the number of unqualified staff providing health and social care, and reports raising concerns about the quality of care provided, there is a need to address the learning needs of clinical support workers. This article describes a qualitative evaluation of a service improvement project that involved a work-based learning approach for clinical support workers on mental health inpatient wards. Aim To investigate and identify insights in relation to the content and process of learning using a work-based learning approach for clinical support workers. Method This was a qualitative evaluation of a service improvement project involving 25 clinical support workers at the seven mental health inpatient units in South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust. Three clinical skills tutors were appointed to develop, implement and evaluate the work-based learning approach. Four sources of data were used to evaluate this approach, including reflective journals, qualitative responses to questionnaires, three focus groups involving the clinical support workers and a group interview involving the clinical skills tutors. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings The work-based learning approach was highly valued by the clinical support workers and enhanced learning in practice. Face-to-face learning in practice helped the clinical support workers to develop practice skills and reflective learning skills. Insights relating to the role of clinical support workers were also identified, including the benefits of face-to-face supervision in practice, particularly in relation to the interpersonal aspects of care. Conclusion A work-based learning approach has the potential to enhance care delivery by meeting the learning needs of clinical support workers and enabling them to apply learning to practice. Care providers should consider how the work-based learning approach can be used on a systematic, organisation-wide basis in the context of budgetary
Tahara, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Tatsuji; Nagafuchi, Keiko; Shirakawa, Chie; Suzuki, Kiyomi; Mafune, Kosuke; Kubota, Shinya; Hiro, Hisanori; Mishima, Norio; Nagata, Shoji
To develop tools offering definite orientation for managers and employees to support their work improvement through occupational mental health. This research was a part of the Mental Health Improvement & Reinforcement Study (MIR study), conducted from October 2004 to March 2006. We developed a trial version named the Kaizen Check List (KCL) by referring to problem solving methods for quality management. Then we improved it for a formal version named MIR Research of Recognition (MIRROR). A feedback form named MIR Action Guidance (MIRAGe) was also developed. We analyzed data from 1,953 respondents at five manufacturing enterprises in Japan using MIRROR and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ) to determine whether or not the workers requesting work improvement had more stress than other workers. The KCL had 47 items, which indicated desirable working conditions for mental health at work, and four answer categories. MIRROR has 45 selected items and improved answer categories. MIRAGe displays the results of MIRROR and step-by-step guidance for work improvement. Respondents with request had significantly higher scores in stressor and lower scores in buffer factors compared with respondents without request in many items of MIRROR. A combinational use of MIRROR and stress scales is useful for finding worksites with high risk factors for mental health and for directing focus on work improvement at these worksites according to workers' requests.
Introduction. Studies on attitudes towards mentally ill persons (MIPs) have reported divergent views; but with a number showing psychiatrically ill people are stigmatized [1,2]. According to Erving Goffman (1963), stigma refers to any attribute, trait or disorder that marks an individual as being unacceptably different from the ...
Nakamura-Taira, Nanako; Izawa, Shuhei; Yamada, Kosuke Chris
Appropriately estimating stress levels in daily life is important for motivating people to undertake stress-management behaviors or seek out information on stress management and mental health. People who exhibit high stress underestimation might not be interested in information on mental health, and would therefore have less knowledge of it. We investigated the association between stress underestimation tendency and mental health literacy of depression (i.e., knowledge of the recognition, prognosis, and usefulness of resources of depression) in Japanese workers. We cross-sectionally surveyed 3718 Japanese workers using a web-based questionnaire on stress underestimation, mental health literacy of depression (vignettes on people with depression), and covariates (age, education, depressive symptoms, income, and worksite size). After adjusting for covariates, high stress underestimation was associated with greater odds of not recognizing depression (i.e., choosing anything other than depression). Furthermore, these individuals had greater odds of expecting the case to improve without treatment and not selecting useful sources of support (e.g. talk over with friends/family, see a psychiatrist, take medication, see a counselor) compared to those with moderate stress underestimation. These relationships were all stronger among males than among females. Stress underestimation was related to poorer mental health literacy of depression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jean D. Iyamuremye
Aim: To develop a comprehensive model to manage the effects of STS in mental health workers operating in Rwanda. Method: An action research project was initiated to develop this model and data for the model was collected through individual interviews with mental health workers (nurses, doctors, psychologists, trauma counsellors and social workers as well as a quantitative tool measuring secondary traumatic stress (Trauma Attachment Belief Scale in these health workers. Results: The Intervention Model to Manage Secondary Traumatic Stress (IMMSTS was synthesised from these findings and includes preventive, evaluative and curative strategies to manage STS in mental health workers in Rwanda at the individual, social and organisational levels. Conclusion: The model will offer mental health professionals an effective framework for addressing the issue of STS.
C. Tess Sheldon
Full Text Available This article examines the judicial treatment of complaints of discrimination from workers with mental health issues. Equality protections promise full inclusion in social, work and community life. The principle of inclusion is understood in three inter-related parts: inclusion in the workforce, inclusion in decision-making and, in the most broad and prospective sense, inclusion in Canadian society. The current framework of equality protections has not effectively addressed these core values of inclusion for workers with mental health issues. The workplace continues to be a site of discrimination and harassment. Barriers prevent workers with mental health issues from getting or keeping employment, discourage their participation in decision-making, and entrench the devaluation, isolation and exclusion of persons with mental health issues. Accommodative measures must be alive to the concrete and attitudinal barriers experienced by workers with mental health issues. Cet article examine l’attitude adoptée par les tribunaux à l’égard des plaintes de discrimination des travailleurs ayant des problèmes de santé mentale. Les protections en matière d’égalité garantissent la pleine inclusion dans la vie sociale et communautaire et dans le marché du travail. Le principe d’inclusion comporte trois volets intimement reliés : l’inclusion dans le marché du travail, l’inclusion dans la prise de décision et, au sens le plus large et prospectif, l’inclusion dans la société canadienne. Le système actuel de protections en matière d’égalité n’a pas convenablement tenu compte de ces valeurs essentielles de l’inclusion des travailleurs ayant des problèmes de santé mentale. La discrimination et le harcèlement sont encore présents sur le marché du travail. Des obstacles empêchent les travailleurs ayant des problèmes de santé mentale d’obtenir un emploi et de le conserver, les dissuadent de participer aux prises de d
Izawa, Shuhei; Nakamura-Taira, Nanako; Yamada, Kosuke Chris
Being appropriately aware of the extent of stress experienced in daily life is essential in motivating stress management behaviours. Excessive stress underestimation obstructs this process, which is expected to exert adverse effects on health. We prospectively examined associations between stress underestimation and mental health outcomes in Japanese workers. Web-based surveys were conducted twice with an interval of 1 year on 2359 Japanese male workers. Participants were asked to complete survey items concerning stress underestimation, depressive symptoms, sickness absence, and antidepressant use. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that high baseline levels of 'overgeneralization of stress' and 'insensitivity to stress' were significantly associated with new-onset depressive symptoms (OR = 2.66 [95 % CI, 1.54-4.59], p stress underestimation, including stress insensitivity and the overgeneralization of stress, could exert adverse effects on mental health.
Papathanasiou, Ioanna V; Kleisiaris, Christos F; Tsaras, Konstantinos; Fradelos, Evangelos C; Kourkouta, Lambrini
General satisfaction is a personal experience and sources of satisfaction or dissatisfaction vary between professional groups. General satisfaction is usually related with work settings, work performance and mental health status. The purpose of this research study was to investigate the level of general satisfaction of health care workers and to examine whether there were any differences among employees of medical and mental health sector. The sample consisted of employees from the medical and mental health sector, who were all randomly selected. A two-part questionnaire was used to collect data. The first section involved demographic information and the second part was a General Satisfaction Questionnaire (GSQ). The statistical analysis of data was performed using the software package 19.0 for Windows. Descriptive statistics were initially generated for sample characteristics. All data exhibited normal distributions and thus the parametric t-test was used to compare mean scores between the two health sectors. P values satisfaction for the employees in medical sector was 4.5 (5=very satisfied) and for the employees in mental health sector is 4.8. T-test showed that these results are statistical different (t=4.55, psatisfaction. Mental health employees appear to experience higher levels of general satisfaction and mainly they experience higher satisfaction from family roles, life and sexual life, emotional state and relations with patients.
Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.; Kleisiaris, Christos F.; Tsaras, Konstantinos; Fradelos, Evangelos C.; Kourkouta, Lambrini
Background: General satisfaction is a personal experience and sources of satisfaction or dissatisfaction vary between professional groups. General satisfaction is usually related with work settings, work performance and mental health status. Aim: The purpose of this research study was to investigate the level of general satisfaction of health care workers and to examine whether there were any differences among employees of medical and mental health sector. Methods: The sample consisted of employees from the medical and mental health sector, who were all randomly selected. A two-part questionnaire was used to collect data. The first section involved demographic information and the second part was a General Satisfaction Questionnaire (GSQ). The statistical analysis of data was performed using the software package 19.0 for Windows. Descriptive statistics were initially generated for sample characteristics. All data exhibited normal distributions and thus the parametric t-test was used to compare mean scores between the two health sectors. P values satisfaction for the employees in medical sector was 4.5 (5=very satisfied) and for the employees in mental health sector is 4.8. T-test showed that these results are statistical different (t=4.55, psatisfaction. Conclusions: Mental health employees appear to experience higher levels of general satisfaction and mainly they experience higher satisfaction from family roles, life and sexual life, emotional state and relations with patients. PMID:26543410
Conclusion: Lifestyle behaviors were significantly associated with mental health in rural-to-urban migrant workers, and these findings indicate the need to develop targeted psychological interventions to foster healthy lifestyles in migrants.
Jenkins, Rachel; Othieno, Caleb; Okeyo, Stephen; Aruwa, Julyan; Kingora, James; Jenkins, Ben
Health system weaknesses in Africa are broadly well known, constraining progress on reducing the burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease (Afr Health Monitor, Special issue, 2011, 14-24), and the key challenges in leadership, governance, health workforce, medical products, vaccines and technologies, information, finance and service delivery have been well described (Int Arch Med, 2008, 1:27). This paper uses focus group methodology to explore health worker perspectives on the challenges posed to integration of mental health into primary care by generic health system weakness. Two ninety minute focus groups were conducted in Nyanza province, a poor agricultural region of Kenya, with 20 health workers drawn from a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the impact of a mental health training programme for primary care, 10 from the intervention group clinics where staff had received the training programme, and 10 health workers from the control group where staff had not received the training). These focus group discussions suggested that there are a number of generic health system weaknesses in Kenya which impact on the ability of health workers to care for clients with mental health problems and to implement new skills acquired during a mental health continuing professional development training programmes. These weaknesses include the medicine supply, health management information system, district level supervision to primary care clinics, the lack of attention to mental health in the national health sector targets, and especially its absence in district level targets, which results in the exclusion of mental health from such district level supervision as exists, and the lack of awareness in the district management team about mental health. The lack of mental health coverage included in HIV training courses experienced by the health workers was also striking, as was the intensive focus during district supervision on HIV to the detriment of other
van Dijk Frank JH
Full Text Available Abstract Background Employees in health care service are at high risk for developing mental health complaints. The effects of mental health complaints on work can have serious consequences for the quality of care provided by these workers. To help health service workers remain healthy and productive, preventive actions are necessary. A Workers' Health Surveillance (WHS mental module may be an effective strategy to monitor and promote good (mental health and work performance. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a three arm cluster randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of a WHS mental module for nurses and allied health professionals. Two strategies for this WHS mental module will be compared along with data from a control group. Additionally, the cost effectiveness of the approaches will be evaluated from a societal perspective. Methods The study is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial consisting of three arms (two intervention groups, 1 control group with randomization at ward level. The study population consists of 86 departments in one Dutch academic medical center with a total of 1731 nurses and allied health professionals. At baseline, after three months and after six months of follow-up, outcomes will be assessed by online questionnaires. In both intervention arms, participants will complete a screening to detect problems in mental health and work functioning and receive feedback on their screening results. In cases of impairments in mental health or work functioning in the first intervention arm, a consultation with an occupational physician will be offered. The second intervention arm offers a choice of self-help e-mental health interventions, which will be tailored based on each individual's mental health state and work functioning. The primary outcomes will be help-seeking behavior and work functioning. Secondary outcomes will be mental health and wellbeing. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness in
Fung, Paul; Montague, Ros
This paper provides a qualitative evaluation of a series of leadership development workshops held at the New South Wales Institute of Psychiatry (NSWIOP) for mental health workers from Papua New Guinea, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Marshall Islands, and Palau. Fourteen mental health workers attended the week-long training focused on project management and partnership development skills. In-depth interviews were conducted with participants at the commencement and conclusion of the training, and questionnaires were completed. A focus group was conducted with the NSWIOP organisers. The data was analysed using qualitative techniques to identify emergent themes for both participants and NSWIOP project team. All Pacific Island participants responded positively to the training. All reported greater confidence in taking on formal or informal leadership roles in the workplace, developing project planning skills and interpersonal skills such as networking and partnerships. The NSWIOP organisers identified strengths and weaknesses in the delivery of this training. The strong partnerships developed between NSWIOP and the Ministry of Health in all four countries contributed to the success of the training. Leadership Development Programs are an important aspect of building capacity in the mental health services of Pacific Island Countries. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Liu, Xiaojun; Jiang, Dongdong; Hou, Zhaoxun; He, Meikun; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu
Prison medical workers (PMWs) are critically important, but they are also vulnerable to psychological problems. Currently, there is no study on examining PMWs' mental health conditions and possible influencing factors in China. Hence, we conducted this cross-sectional survey, aiming to understand the mental health status of the PMWs and related impact factors in Jiangxi province of China. We employed the Chinese version of the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) to assess the mental disorders and psychological health conditions of PMWs in Jiangxi. The t tests were used to compare the differences for the average score of SCL-90-R between the Chinese general population and targeted PMWs of this study. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the main factors associated with overall detection rate of PMWs' psychological health conditions. The scores of four dimensions (somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, anxiety, and paranoid ideation) were significantly higher than the Chinese national norm, and the total positive rate was 49.09% among the PMWs. Gender, marital status, age, and length of employment are identified to be the most significant predictors to affect PMWs' mental health. Positive correlations between each of the nine dimensions of the SCL-90-R have been verified. This study demonstrated for the first time that PMWs are facing mental health risk and suffering serious psychological problems with psychopathology symptoms, which has become a growing concern in China. Our current findings suggest a need for more in-depth studies on this subject going forward to validate our conclusions and also to identify more impact factors, since such studies and knowledge of PMWs' mental health and influencing factors are very limited in China.
Full Text Available Prison medical workers (PMWs are critically important, but they are also vulnerable to psychological problems. Currently, there is no study on examining PMWs’ mental health conditions and possible influencing factors in China. Hence, we conducted this cross-sectional survey, aiming to understand the mental health status of the PMWs and related impact factors in Jiangxi province of China. We employed the Chinese version of the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R to assess the mental disorders and psychological health conditions of PMWs in Jiangxi. The t tests were used to compare the differences for the average score of SCL-90-R between the Chinese general population and targeted PMWs of this study. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the main factors associated with overall detection rate of PMWs’ psychological health conditions. The scores of four dimensions (somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, anxiety, and paranoid ideation were significantly higher than the Chinese national norm, and the total positive rate was 49.09% among the PMWs. Gender, marital status, age, and length of employment are identified to be the most significant predictors to affect PMWs’ mental health. Positive correlations between each of the nine dimensions of the SCL-90-R have been verified. This study demonstrated for the first time that PMWs are facing mental health risk and suffering serious psychological problems with psychopathology symptoms, which has become a growing concern in China. Our current findings suggest a need for more in-depth studies on this subject going forward to validate our conclusions and also to identify more impact factors, since such studies and knowledge of PMWs’ mental health and influencing factors are very limited in China.
The author presents transcultural issues in the content, process, and group dynamics of consecutive meetings of a Balint clinical reflection group for community mental health workers at Inala, Australia. Balint work and the context and evolution of the group process are briefly described, as is the consultative research methodology. The process of a Balint group meeting is reported in detail, following the author's consultation with group members. The collaborative work of a culturally diverse team of mental health professionals is examined in the context of discussion of a practitioner-patient relationship in which transcultural, gender, and family conflicts were the focus of affective and cognitive dissonance. For mental health workers engaging with communities of cultural diversity, Balint reflection groups can facilitate insight into cultural countertransferences that adversely affect clinical work. The group served to support the caseworkers' engagement with patients of different cultures, and provided a safe environment for the creative consideration and exploration in fantasy of the emotional pressures and complex ethical dilemmas related to boundaries in transcultural client-practitioner relationships, including those in which open discussion would otherwise be avoided.
Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Leung, Grace
The study reported herein adopted a stress and coping framework to examine the functions of social support in protecting the mental health of migrant workers who experience migration stress during settlement in Shanghai, China. A total of 475 migrant workers from four major districts in Shanghai were recruited for a survey through multistage…
Graham Annette L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Australian General Practitioners have been beneficiaries of extensive training in mental health care delivery over the last few years but less so other workers who support those with mental illness. Training is needed as it is widely recognised that the most effective interventions to prevent and treat mental disorders are often not readily available. The Mental Health Aptitudes into Practice (MAP training package is a broad, innovative, interdisciplinary, general mental health training aimed at improving responses to individuals with depression and related disorders. The modular structure of this training program meant that such training could be targeted at those with varied backgrounds. Two hundred and seventy one days of free MAP training was delivered across Victoria in 2004/2005. The evaluation reported here assessed whether changes occurred in the trainees' confidence, mental health literacy, attitudes towards effective treatments, mental health knowledge and skills and community mental health ideology following training. Methods These elements were assessed using pen and paper tests prior, immediately following, 6 months after and then 12 months after the training. Trainees' confidence, mental health literacy and social distance were measured using scales that have been used in evaluations of Mental Health First Aid Training. Community mental health ideology was measured using a sub-scale of the Community Attitudes to the Mentally Ill (CAMI scale. The trainees' knowledge and skills were accessed using instrumentation specifically designed for this evaluation. Results Following training, participants had more confidence in their ability to work with those who have mental health issues and less desire for social distance from them. Participants' knowledge and skills in relation to the treatment of mental disorders increased. These changes were observed immediately after training. The limited existing evidence suggests
Ioneide de Oliveira Campos
Full Text Available This work is within the context of discussions on mental health and solidarity economy. It is an account of the experience lived at the Tabatinga II Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS in the Federal District, Brazil, where projects designed to generate employment and income in the mental health area reaffirm their ability, as tools for social inclusion, to incorporate the principles and values of solidarity economy aiming at the empowerment and autonomy of citizens in mental distress. This work intended to support and encourage reflections on the possibilities for social inclusion arising from the generation of jobs and income through collective and cooperative actions developed and elaborated with the participation of users, family members, and workers of this service. Emphasis on participatory methodology guided the development of the experience, and the proposition of triggering actions on mental health and solidarity economy at different times, under the coordination of the performing team, afforded, concurrently, the realization of two actions/interventions: a group activity designed to service users and their relatives who gathered to learn and reflect on collective work and supportive venture; and three monthly training sessions, from August to December 2013, on cooperativism, solidarity economy, and mental health addressed to the professionals of that CAPS. At the end of these interventions, it was possible to observe that the involvement of people under mental distress in these projects contributes to overcome their current state of subordination and weakness. It is worth mentioning that, in general, the development of these actions favored reflections on the world of collective work and aggregated methodological knowledge on solidarity ventures.
Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Canuto, Raquel; da Silva Garcez, Anderson; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Kawachi, Ichiro
Previous studies have investigated the relationship between workplace social capital and mental health, yet few have sought to examine the mediating mechanisms. We sought to explore the role of workplace social capital on health related behaviors and on mental health among female employees in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was undertaken with 553 women aged 28-50 years working in the production line of a poultry processing plant. We assessed workplace social capital, common mental disorders, stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and health related behaviors (physical activity, healthy eating habits and co-occurrence of risk behaviors). We used structural equation modeling to clarify relationships between exposures, outcomes, and mediating variables. Our model demonstrated a direct effect of social capital on the outcomes studied. Higher workplace social capital was associated with lower stress and common mental disorders as well as more favorable health-related behaviors. Our model also showed an indirect effect of social capital on mental health and on behaviors that was mediated by lower levels of perceived stress. Workplace social cohesion may play an important role in the promotion of mental health and healthy behaviors among women employees.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past years, cumulative evidence has convincingly demonstrated that the work environment is a critical determinant of workers' mental health. Nevertheless, much less attention has been dedicated towards understanding the pathways through which other pivotal life environments might also concomitantly intervene, along with the work environment, to bring about mental health outcomes in the workforce. The aim of this study consisted in conducting a systematic review examining the relative contribution of non-work determinants to the prediction of workers' mental health in order to bridge that gap in knowledge. Methods We searched electronic databases and bibliographies up to 2008 for observational longitudinal studies jointly investigating work and non-work determinants of workers' mental health. A narrative synthesis (MOOSE was performed to synthesize data and provide an assessment of study conceptual and methodological quality. Results Thirteen studies were selected for evaluation. Seven of these were of relatively high methodological quality. Assessment of study conceptual quality yielded modest analytical breadth and depth in the ways studies conceptualized the non-work domain as defined by family, network and community/society-level indicators. We found evidence of moderate strength supporting a causal association between social support from the networks and workers' mental health, but insufficient evidence of specific indicator involvement for other analytical levels considered (i.e., family, community/society. Conclusions Largely underinvestigated, non-work determinants are important to the prediction of workers' mental health. More longitudinal studies concomitantly investigating work and non-work determinants of workers' mental health are warranted to better inform healthy workplace research, intervention, and policy.
Hengartner, Michael P; Islam, Md Nazrul; Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf
To examine the mental health and functioning of female sex workers (FSW) in Chittagong, Bangladesh, a population that has commonly been neglected in mental health policy and research. We included 259 women in the study (M age: 23.2 years; range: 11-48). The comprehensive Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess their 12-month prevalence rates of DSM-IV mental disorders, and a comprehensive questionnaire was adapted to explore various factors, such as socio-demographics, working and living conditions, or experiences of abuse. On average, participants began their commercial sex work at 18.5 years old (range: 10-45). Their main motives for sex work were coercion (49.4%) and the necessity to financially support families (54.8%). In total, 224 FSW (86.5%) wanted to quit commercial sex work. A mental disorder within the past 12 months was reported by 100 FSW (38.6%), with drug abuse clearly being the most prevalent diagnosis (15.4%). Sexual, physical, and emotional abuse were very common among the FSW, and substance use disorders (SUD) were significantly more prevalent in persons who experienced emotional abuse (OR = 2.2). Prevalence rates of any mental disorder and SUD were higher in women who did sex work to support their family, whereas mood disorders were more frequent in those who needed the money to pay debts. Participants with any disorder were significantly older than those without (M age: 24.4 vs. 22.5 years) and had started significantly later in the sex business (M age: 19.7 vs. 17.7 years). Our study revealed that FSW in Chittagong are very vulnerable and highly impaired, as expressed by high rates of abuse and mental disorders. Coercion is very common and many FSW are required to work in the sex business because they need the money to support their families. FSW are a very marginalized population, especially in the developing countries where awareness for mental health is low and the availability of mental health services
Michael Pascal Hengartner
Full Text Available Aim: To examine the mental health and functioning of female sex workers (FSW in Chittagong, Bangladesh, a population that has commonly been neglected in mental health policy and research.Methods: We included 259 women in the study (M age: 23.2 years; range: 11-48. The comprehensive Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI was used to assess their 12-month prevalence rates of DSM-IV mental disorders and a comprehensive questionnaire was adapted to explore various factors such as socio-demographics, working and living conditions, or experiences of abuse. Results: On average, participants began their commercial sex work at 18.5 years old (range: 10-45. Their main motives for sex work were coercion (49.4% and the necessity to financially support families (54.8%. In total, 224 FSW (86.5% wanted to quit commercial sex work. A mental disorder within the past 12 months was reported by 100 FSW (38.6%, with drug abuse clearly being the most prevalent diagnosis (15.4%. Sexual, physical and emotional abuse were very common among the FSW, and substance use disorders (SUD were significantly more prevalent in persons who experienced emotional abuse (OR=2.2. Prevalence rates of any mental disorder and SUD were higher in women who did sex work to support their family while mood disorders were more frequent in those who needed the money to pay debts. Participants with any disorder were significantly older than those without (M age: 24.4 vs. 22.5 years and had started significantly later in the sex business (M age: 19.7 vs. 17.7 years. Conclusions: Our study revealed that FSW in Chittagong are very vulnerable and highly impaired, as expressed by high rates of abuse and mental disorders. Coercion is very common and many FSW are required to work in the sex business because they need the money to support their families. FSW are a very marginalized population, especially in developing countries where awareness for mental health is low and the availability of
Alfredsson, Maria; San Sebastian, Miguel; Jeghannathan, Bhoomikumar
Cambodia is a country where the resources for treating mental health disorders are far from sufficient. One strategy to narrow the treatment gap is to integrate mental health into primary health care (PHC). Understanding the knowledge and attitudes towards mental health integration that health-care workers have is important for assessing the challenges and opportunities when planning a potential integration project. The aim of this study was to assess these basic conditions in Lvea Em District, Cambodia. A structured self-reporting questionnaire regarding attitudes and knowledge about mental health and its integration into PHC was collected from 75 health-care workers in Lvea Em District, Cambodia in October 2015. Firstly, descriptive analyses were carried out, and secondly, linear regression analyses to assess the relationship between attitudes and socio-demographic variables were conducted. There was clear support towards integrating mental health services into PHC among these participants as 81.3% were interested in personally delivering mental health care at their units. Respondents who reported having received some kind of mental health-care training tended to have a more positive attitude towards mentally ill people (p = 0.005) and those who thought there was a high need for mental health care had a more favourable attitude towards the integration of mental health services (p = 0.007). The most important finding from this survey was the willingness and the acceptance of the need for integration of mental health care. This enhances the feasibility of integrating mental health services at the PHC level. Improving the competence of mental health care in these settings will likely help to reduce the treatment gap for mental, neurological and substance use disorders in Cambodia.
Siqueira, Sylvia Rosa Gonçalves; Abelha, Lúcia; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos; Sarução, Keli Rodrigues; Yang, Lawrence
As there are few studies about evaluation of attitudes of health care workers to people with mental disorders in Brazil, a cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the health professionals' attitudes working in a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro and also examine the proportion of negative and positive attitudes endorsed by healthcare professionals in Brazil towards people with mental illness in comparison with other parts of the world. Data were collected using the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill (CAMI) in a random sampling frame of health professionals (n = 246) working in a University Hospital in Rio de Janeiro between April 2013 and June 2013. The CAMI consists of four sub-scales: Authoritarianism, Benevolence, Social Restrictiveness and Community Mental Health Ideology. The results showed attitudes that range from neutral to positive, with the Benevolence and Social Restrictiveness sub-scales showing the least stigmatizing results. The following individual characteristics were associated with negative attitudes: lower levels of education and less clinical experience. In general, health workers attitudes towards service users are characterized as positive when compared with other international studies. However, educational programs for health workers should be reinforced to further promote pre-existing positive attitudes towards people with mental health and the implementation of Brazilian Mental Health Policies.
Sayers, Jan Maree; Cleary, Michelle; Hunt, Glenn E; Burmeister, Oliver K
To explore the experiences of mental health workers and perceptions of their role and the scope of their work. Qualitative design. Twenty interviews were conducted with mental health workers. Interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Three overarching themes were identified. In this paper the overarching theme of "dimensions of my role" is discussed. Subthemes were (a) information and education, (b) person-centered care, and (c) networking and partnerships. Professional development, networking, and partnerships underpin the provision of coordinated services and ultimately person-centered care. Enhancing staff capacity building may also enable sustainability of appropriate quality services. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Yang, Tingzhong; Xu, Xiaochao; Li, Mu; Rockett, Ian R H; Zhu, Waner; Ellison-Barnes, Alejandra
To explore mental health status and related characteristics in a sample of Chinese male rural-urban migrants. Subjects were 1,595 male rural-urban migrant workers selected though a multi-stage sample survey conducted in two cities (Hangzhou and Guangzhou). Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Both life and work stressors were examined. Stress and mental health status were measured by the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS) and the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ), respectively. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with probable mental disorders. There are approximately 120 million rural-urban migrants in China. The prevalence of probable mental disorders in the sample population was 24.4% (95% CI: 23.3-25.5%), which was higher than among urban residents (20.2%, 95% CI: 18.8-21.7%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that five characteristics were positively associated with risk for probable mental disorders: originating in the South (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.02, 4.00), higher life stress (OR = 7.63; 95% CI = 5.88, 10.00), staying in the city for 5-9 months each year (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.67, 3.85), higher work stress (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.96, 3.33), and separation from wife (OR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.61, 3.57). Employment in machinery and transportation (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.36, 0.81) and higher self-worth (OR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.28, 0.62) were negatively associated. Findings support an urgent need to develop specific policies and programs to address mental health problems among Chinese rural-urban migrants.
Bartolomei, Javier; Baeriswyl-Cottin, Rachel; Framorando, David; Kasina, Filip; Premand, Natacha; Eytan, Ariel; Khazaal, Yasser
We aimed to assess the opinion of primary care workers, social workers, translators and mental health caregivers who work with asylum seekers about the latter's unmet needs and barriers to access to mental healthcare. We used a Likert scale to assess the opinion of 135 primary care workers (general practitioners, nurses, social workers and translators) and mental health caregivers about the proportion of asylum seekers with psychiatric disorders, their priority needs and their main barriers to mental health services. Insufficient access to adequate financial resources, poor housing and security conditions, access to employment, professional training and legal aid were considered as priority needs, as were access to dental and mental healthcare. The main barriers to access to mental healthcare for asylum seekers included a negative representation of psychiatry, fear of being stigmatized by their own community and poor information about existing psychiatric services. We found a good correlation between the needs reported by healthcare providers and those expressed by the asylum-seeking population in different studies. We discuss the need for greater mobility and accessibility to psychiatric services among this population.
Ren, ZhengJia; Wang, HongTao; Zhang, Wei
The purpose of this study was to begin to generate an exploratory model of the disaster-related mental health education process associated with the training experiences of psychological relief workers active during the Sichuan earthquake in China. The data consisted of semi-structured interviews with 20 psychological relief workers from four different professions (social workers, psychiatric nurses, psychiatrists, and counsellors) regarding their experiences in training and ideas for improvement. The model explains the need to use a people-centred community interprofessional education approach, which focuses on role-modelling of the trainer, caring for relief workers, paying attention to the needs of the trainee, and building systematic interprofessional education strategies. The proposed model identifies areas for the comprehensive training of relief workers and aims to address the importance of people-centred mental health service provisions, ensure intentional and strategic training of relief workers using interprofessional concepts and strategies, and use culturally attuned and community-informed strategies in mental health training practices.
Cosgrave, Catherine; Maple, Myfanwy; Hussain, Rafat
Objective The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the job satisfaction and subsequent retention of Aboriginal mental health workers (AMHWs). Methods Five AMHWs working in New South Wales (NSW) for NSW Health in rural and remote community mental health (CMH) services participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews to understand how employment and rural living factors affected workers' decisions to stay or leave their CMH positions. Results Using a constructivist grounded theory analysis, three aspects negatively impacting the job satisfaction of AMHWs were identified: (1) difficulties being accepted into the team and organisation; (2) culturally specific work challenges; and (3) professional differences and inequality. Conclusions Policy and procedural changes to the AMHW training program may address the lower remuneration and limited career opportunities identified with regard to the Bachelor Health Sciences (Mental Health) qualification. Delivering training to increase levels of understanding about the AMHW training program, and cultural awareness generally, to CMH staff and NSW Health management may assist in addressing the negative team, organisational and cultural issues identified. What is known about the topic? The Bachelor Health Sciences (Mental Health) qualification and traineeship pathway undertaken by AMHWs differs significantly from that of other health professionals working in NSW Health's CMH services. The health workforce literature identifies that each health professional group has its own culture and specific values and that forming and maintaining a profession-specific identity is an extremely important aspect of job satisfaction for health workers. What does the paper add? AMHWs working in rural and remote NSW CMH services commonly experience low levels of job satisfaction, especially while undertaking the embedded training program. Of particular concern is the health sciences qualification not translating into NSW
Kobayashi, Yuka; Kaneyoshi, Akiko; Yokota, Atsuko; Kawakami, Norito
The Mental Health Action Checklist for a Better Workplace Environment (MHACL) is a tool for a worker participatory approach to improve work environments for worker mental health. The present study investigated the effects of an organizational intervention using the MHACL on reducing job stressors and the psychological distress of workers of a manufacturing enterprise in Japan with a controlled study design. Nine of 45 departments participated in a work environment improvement program, including planning workshops, implementation and monitoring, between July and December 2005 (intervention group, n=321). The remaining 36 departments served as the control group (n=750). Outcomes (job stressors, worksite support, psychological distress, etc.), measured using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire, as well as sick leave days taken from the company record, were recorded before and six months after the program for both groups. Among women, skill underutilization, supervisor and coworker support, psychological distress, and job satisfaction changed more favorably in the intervention group than in the control group (p<0.05). No significant favorable effect of the program was observed among men. Improvements in the outcomes were more prominent among departments with a 50% or higher rate of worker participation in the planning workshops and among departments with a 50% or higher rate of implemented vs. planned actions. A worker participatory organizational intervention using the MHACL seems effective for promoting mental health among Japanese white-collar women.
Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie
This study identified multiple socio-professional and team effectiveness variables, based on the Input-Mediator-Output-Input (IMOI) model, and tested their associations with job satisfaction for three categories of mental health professionals (nurses, psychologists/psychotherapists, and social workers). Job satisfaction was assessed with the Job Satisfaction Survey. Independent variables were classified into four categories: 1) Socio-professional Characteristics; 2) Team Attributes; 3) Team Processes; and 4) Team Emergent States. Variables were entered successively, by category, into a hierarchical regression model. Team Processes contributed the greatest number of variables to job satisfaction among all professional groups, including team support which was the only significant variable common to all three types of professionals. Greater involvement in the decision-making process, and lower levels of team conflict (Team Processes) were associated with job satisfaction among nurses and social workers. Lower seniority on team (Socio-professional Characteristics), and team collaboration (Team Processes) were associated with job satisfaction among nurses, as was belief in the advantages of interdisciplinary collaboration (Team Emergent States) among psychologists. Knowledge sharing (Team Processes) and affective commitment to the team (Team Emergent States) were associated with job satisfaction among social workers. Results suggest the need for mental health decision-makers and team managers to offer adequate support to mental health professionals, to involve nurses and social workers in the decision-making process, and implement procedures and mechanisms favourable to the prevention or resolution of team conflict with a view toward increasing job satisfaction among mental health professionals.
Sarah M. Ketelaar
Conclusion: The EMH approach to WHS improves the work functioning and mental health of nurses and allied health professionals. However, because we found small effects and participation in the offered EMH interventions was low, there is ample room for improvement.
Denton, Margaret A; Zeytinoğlu, Işk Urla; Davies, Sharon
The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of working in clients' homes on the mental health and well-being of visiting home care workers. This paper reports the results of a survey of 674 visiting staff from three non-profit home care agencies in a medium-sized city in Ontario, Canada. Survey results are also complimented by data from 9 focus groups with 50 employees. For purposes of this study, home care workers include visiting therapists, nurses, and home support workers. Mental health and well-being is measured by three dependent variables: stress; job stress; and intrinsic job satisfaction. Multiple least squared regression analyses show several structural, emotional, physical, and organizational working conditions associated with the health and well-being of visiting home care workers. Overall, results show that workload, difficult clients, clients who take advantage of workers, sexual harassment, safety hazards, a repetitious job, and work-related injuries are associated with poorer health. Being fairly paid, having good benefits, emotional labour, organizational support, control over work, and peer support are associated with better health. Results suggest that policy change is needed to encourage healthier work environments for employees who work in clients' homes.
Tuekpe, Mallet Korsi-ntumi; Todoriki, Hidemi; Zheng, Kui-Cheng; Kouadio, Kouame; Ariizumi, Makoto
This study investigated associations between lifestyle factors and selected aspects of mental health in a group of Japanese overseas workers and their accompanying spouses who were residing in and around Düsseldorf, Germany, in February 1994. Considering four aspects of mental health (depression, mental instability, nervousness and neurosis) and six lifestyle factors (alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, cigarette smoking, physical exercise, eating breakfast and eating snacks), a cross-sectional study involving 822 volunteers (486 workers and 336 spouses) was performed using the Todai Health Index (THI) for surveying self-perceived health and a lifestyle related self-administered questionnaire. Alcohol consumption had no associations with any of the four aspects of mental health, and only very weak inverse associations were found between the other five lifestyle factors and the four aspects of mental health in the workers group. In the spouses group, physical exercise was the only lifestyle factor significantly associated with mental health.
Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...
Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina S E
The mental health of men is an important issue with significant direct and indirect costs emerging from work-related depression and suicide. Although the merits of men's community-based and workplace mental health promotion initiatives have been endorsed, few programs are mandated or formally evaluated and reported on. Conspicuously absent also are gender analyses detailing connections between masculinities and men's work-related depression and suicide on which to build men-centered mental health promotion programs. This article provides an overview of four interconnected issues, (a) masculinities and men's health, (b) men and work, (c) men's work-related depression and suicide, and (d) men's mental health promotion, in the context of men's diverse relationships to work (including job insecurity and unemployment). Based on the review, recommendations are made for advancing the well-being of men who are in as well as of those out of work.
Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie
Background This study identified multiple socio-professional and team effectiveness variables, based on the Input-Mediator-Output-Input (IMOI) model, and tested their associations with job satisfaction for three categories of mental health professionals (nurses, psychologists/psychotherapists, and social workers). Methods Job satisfaction was assessed with the Job Satisfaction Survey. Independent variables were classified into four categories: 1) Socio-professional Characteristics; 2) Team At...
Chen, Li; Li, Wenhu; He, Jincai; Wu, Lanhua; Yan, Zheng; Tang, Wenjie
20 million migrant workers in China lost their jobs during the economic crisis of 2008. Both urban migration and unemployment have long been documented to be associated with vulnerability to mental problems. This study aims to examine the mental health of unemployed migrant workers in Eastern China and its relation to duration of unemployment and coping strategy during the recent economic crisis. The data were collected through interview-based survey with a sample of 210 unemployed migrant workers in Zhejiang Province of China from 2008 to 2009. Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, and seven short demographic questions were used. The majority of the unemployed migrant workers were found to be young male manufacturing industry workers with short-term unemployment and a relatively low education level. Nearly 50% of unemployed migrant workers were classified as mentally unhealthy and the most frequently reported symptom was depression. Compared with the adult norm of 1986, 2003, and 2007 in China, unemployed migrants had more mental problems. Long-term unemployed migrant workers had more psychiatric symptoms than the short-term unemployed workers and employed migrant workers. Unemployed migrant workers with immature coping strategies expressed significantly more psychiatric symptoms than those with mixed and mature coping strategies. Duration of unemployment and two coping strategies, problem-solving and self-blaming, predicted the mental problems of unemployed migrant workers. The results indicated that mental health status of unemployed migrant workers in Eastern China was poorer than the national adult norm. More psychiatric symptoms are evidenced among unemployed migrant workers who lost their jobs for a long term and who had immature coping strategies. These findings can be used for prevention and intervention of mental illness among unemployed migrant workers.
Jones, Martin; Kruger, Mellissa; Walsh, Sandra M
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: People diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder have a life expectancy 10-15 years less than the general population. In rural and remote Australia, there is a shortage of health care professionals to provide physical health care for people living with a serious mental illness (SMI). A large proportion of the care for people living with a SMI is provided by non-government organizations (NGOs), often employing workers without formal qualifications. There has been minimal research regarding the experiences of NGO workers who have been trained to complete health checks to help people living with SMI to access primary care services. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This is the first study to examine the experiences of preparing NGO workers to use the health improvement profile (HIP) to support the physical health of people with SMI. It builds on previous studies that examined the use of the HIP by trained/qualified staff. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: This study highlights that NGO employees may have an important role in helping people with a SMI to address their physical health. Engaging lay workers to use the HIP increases their awareness of the importance of providing good physical health care for people with SMI. The use of a tool, such as the HIP, prepares NGO workers to support the physical health needs and enables them to describe meaningful improvements in the health of people with a SMI. Background The life expectancy of people living with a serious mental illness (SMI) is up to 10-15 years less than the general population. They experience difficulties in accessing timely and appropriate physical health care. People with SMI living in regional Australia experience additional barriers to accessing services. This is in part due to the difficulties associated with recruiting and retaining health professionals in regional Australia. Aim To explore the regional non-government organization (NGO
Stellman, Jeanne Mager; Smith, Rebecca P; Katz, Craig L; Sharma, Vansh; Charney, Dennis S; Herbert, Robin; Moline, Jacqueline; Luft, Benjamin J; Markowitz, Steven; Udasin, Iris; Harrison, Denise; Baron, Sherry; Landrigan, Philip J; Levin, Stephen M; Southwick, Steven
The World Trade Center (WTC) attacks exposed thousands of workers to hazardous environmental conditions and psychological trauma. In 2002, to assess the health of these workers, Congress directed the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to establish the WTC Medical Monitoring and Treatment Program. This program has established a large cohort of WTC rescue, recovery, and cleanup workers. We previously documented extensive pulmonary dysfunction in this cohort related to toxic environmental exposures. Our objective in this study was to describe mental health outcomes, social function impairment, and psychiatric comorbidity in the WTC worker cohort, as well as perceived symptomatology in workers' children. Ten to 61 months after the WTC attack, 10,132 WTC workers completed a self-administered mental health questionnaire. Of the workers who completd the questionnaire, 11.1% met criteria for probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 8.8% met criteria for probable depression, 5.0% met criteria for probable panic disorder, and 62% met criteria for substantial stress reaction. PTSD prevalence was comparable to that seen in returning Afghanistan war veterans and was much higher than in the U.S. general population. Point prevalence declined from 13.5% to 9.7% over the 5 years of observation. Comorbidity was extensive and included extremely high risks for impairment of social function. PTSD was significantly associated with loss of family members and friends, disruption of family, work, and social life, and higher rates of behavioral symptoms in children of workers. Working in 9/11 recovery operations is associated with chronic impairment of mental health and social functioning. Psychological distress and psychopathology in WTC workers greatly exceed population norms. Surveillance and treatment programs continue to be needed.
Tsuchiya, Masao; Kawakami, Norito; Ono, Yutaka; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Fukao, Akira; Tachimori, Hisateru; Iwata, Noboru; Uda, Hidenori; Nakane, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Makoto; Oorui, Masashi; Naganuma, Yoichi; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Kobayashi, Masayo; Ahiko, Tadayuki; Takeshima, Tadashi; Kikkawa, Takehiko
Most studies that investigate the impact of mental disorders on work performance have been conducted in Western countries, but this study examines the impact of common mental disorders on sick leave and on-the-job work performance in a community sample of Japanese workers. Data from the World Mental Health Japan survey were analyzed. A subsample of 530 workers aged 20-60years were interviewed using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. The WHO Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, was used to assess sick days and on-the-job work performance for the previous 30days. Linear regression was used to estimate the impact of mental disorders on these indicators of work performance over 12months. Mood disorders, including major depressive disorder, and alcohol abuse/dependence were significantly associated with decreased on-the-job performance. There were no significant associations between mental disorders and sick/absent days. Consistent with previous studies, major depression has a great impact on on-the-job work performance in Japan. The lost productivity was estimated at approximately 28-30 lost days per year. A similar decrease in on-the-job work performance was found for alcohol abuse/dependence, which is stronger than that in other countries, probably attributable to greater tolerance of problematic drinking at Japanese worksites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reynolds, Julia; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Cunningham, John A; Bennett, Kylie; Bennett, Anthony
required for each model and the ways that e-mental health resources might be used by general practice doctors and nurses, pharmacists, psychologists, social workers, occupational therapists, counselors, and peer workers. The models proposed in the current paper provide a conceptual framework for policy-makers, researchers and clinicians interested in integrating e-mental health resources into primary care. Research is needed to establish the safety and effectiveness of the models in routine care and the best ways to support their implementation.
Tapp, Loren C; Baron, Sherry; Bernard, Bruce; Driscoll, Richard; Mueller, Charles; Wallingford, Ken
On September 11, 2001, 600-800 New York City transit (NYCT) workers were working near the World Trade Center (WTC) Towers. After the disaster, employees reported physical and mental health symptoms related to the event. Two hundred sixty-nine NYC transit employees were surveyed for mental and physical health symptoms 7(1/2) months after the WTC disaster. Workers in the dust cloud at the time of the WTC collapse had significantly higher risk of persistent lower respiratory (OR = 9.85; 95% CI: 2.24, 58.93) and mucous membrane (OR = 4.91; 95% CI: 1.53, 16.22) symptoms, depressive symptoms (OR = 2.48; 95% CI: 1.12, 5.51), and PTSD symptoms (OR = 2.91; 95% CI: 1.003, 8.16) compared to those not exposed to the dust cloud. Additional WTC exposures and potential confounders were also analyzed. Clinical follow up for physical and psychological health conditions should be provided for public transportation workers in the event of a catastrophic event.
Zhong, B L; Liu, T B; Chan, S S M; Jin, D; Hu, C Y; Dai, J; Chiu, H F K
Rural-to-urban migrant workers are a large marginalised population in urban China. Prevalence estimates of common mental health problems (CMHPs) in previous studies varied widely and very few studies have investigated migration-related factors of CMHPs in migrant workers. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of CMHPs among Chinese migrant workers. A random sample of 3031 migrant workers of ten manufacturing factories in Shenzhen, China, completed a standardised questionnaire containing socio-demographic and migration-related variables and the Chinese 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). A GHQ-12 score of three or higher was used to denote the presence of CMHPs. The prevalence of CMHPs was 34.4% in Chinese migrant workers. In multiple logistic regression, risk factors for CMHPs included being 16-25 years old (odd ratio [OR] 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28, 2.12), being 26-35 years old (OR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.75), low monthly income (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04, 1.92), poor living condition (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.22, 2.54), physical illness in the past 2 weeks (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.43, 2.05), having worked in many cities (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.03, 1.74), infrequently visiting hometown (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.22, 1.99), poor Mandarin proficiency (OR 1.51, 95%CI 1.13, 2.01), a low level of perceived benefits of migration (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.14, 1.55) and working more than 8 h/day (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.14, 1.70). CMHPs are very prevalent among Chinese migrant workers. Given the large number of Chinese migrant workers, there is an urgent need to address the mental health burden of China's migrant worker population.
Michishita, Ryoma; Jiang, Ying; Ariyoshi, Daisuke; Yoshida, Marie; Moriyama, Hideko; Yamato, Hiroshi
This study was designed to clarify the effects of active rest, with a focus on the practice of short-time group exercise by workplace units, on personal relationships, mental health, physical activity, and work ability among workers. Fifty-nine white-collar workers (40 males and 19 females) performed our active rest (short-time exercise) program, which consists of warm-up, cognitive functional training, aerobic exercise, resistance training and cool-down for 10 minutes per day, 3 times per week during their lunch breaks for 10 weeks. Participants from a workplace unit were randomly allocated to the intervention (five workplaces, n=29) or control groups (six workplaces, n=30). The participants' anthropometric measurements, and their Profile of Mood States (POMS) 2, Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ), physical activity levels and Work Ability Index were examined at the baseline and after the 10-week intervention. After 10 weeks, physical activity levels, especially the time spent in moderate and vigorous intensity, increased in the intervention group (pactivity" and "friendliness" improved in POMS 2, while "vigor," "interpersonal stress," "support from superiors, colleagues, and family/friends," and "job satisfaction" improved in BJSQ in the intervention group (pactivity" in POMS 2 (r=0.467, p=0.011). These results suggest that the practice of active rest by workplace units is important for improving personal relationships, mental health, and physical activity among workers.
Musyimi, Christine W; Mutiso, Victoria N; Nandoya, Erick S; Ndetei, David M
Qualitative evidence on dialogue formation and collaboration is very scanty in Kenya. This study thus aimed at the formation of dialogue and establishment of collaboration among the informal (faith and traditional healers) and formal health workers (clinicians) in enhancing community-based mental health in rural Kenya. Qualitative approach was used to identify barriers and solutions for dialogue formation by conducting nine Focus Group Discussions each consisting of 8-10 participants. Information on age, gender and role in health care setting as well as practitioners' (henceforth used to mean informal (faith and traditional healers) and formal health workers) perceptions on dialogue was collected to evaluate dialogue formation. Qualitative and quantitative data analysis was performed using thematic content analysis and Statistical Package Social Sciences (SPSS) software respectively. We identified four dominant themes such as; (i) basic understanding about mental illnesses, (ii) interaction and treatment skills of the respondents to mentally ill persons, (iii) referral gaps and mistrust among the practitioners and (iv) dialogue formation among the practitioners. Although participants were conversant with the definition of mental illness and had interacted with a mentally ill person in their routine practice, they had basic information on the causes and types of mental illness. Traditional and faith healers felt demeaned by the clinicians who disregarded their mode of treatment stereotyping them as "dirty". After various discussions, majority of practitioners showed interest in collaborating with each other and stated that they had joined the dialogue in order interact with people committed to improving the lives of patients. Dialogue formation between the formal and the informal health workers is crucial in establishing trust and respect between both practitioners and in improving mental health care in Kenya. This approach could be scaled up among all the
Sin, Gwen Li; Yeo, Donald; Koh, Hwan Jing; Lee, Jimmy; Ng, Li Ling
A significant proportion of older persons who require support or care services have mental health concerns. There is a need to equip frontline eldercare workers with the necessary skills in caring for older persons with mental illnesses. The Community Psychogeriatric Programme aims to support community eldercare providers with training and consultation. We sought to measure eldercare workers' perceived levels of stress and knowledge about caring for older persons with mental illness before (pre-workshop), immediately after (post-workshop) and three months after (three-month follow-up) they underwent standardised training workshops on dementia and depression. Participants who attended two four-hour workshops on dementia and depression were recruited for the study. Their knowledge of topics was evaluated pre-workshop, post-workshop and at three-month follow-up. Perceptions of working with older persons with mental health problems were rated pre-workshop and at three-month follow-up. A total of 71 staff members from various eldercare centres participated in the study, of which 51 (71.8%) were women. At three-month follow-up, there was a significant change in most measures on Ryden's Perception Scale (p Training of eldercare workers in mental healthcare is helpful for knowledge improvement and altering perceptions of caring for older persons. With continued support from mental health professionals, such training could contribute to better care for this vulnerable population. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association
Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Yuejiao
HIV risk and mental health problems are prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. The purpose of this research was to study age group differences in HIV risk and mental health problems in this population. In the current study, we divided a sample of 1022 FSWs into three age groups (≤ 20 years, 21-34 years, and ≥ 35 years). Results showed that among the three groups (1) older FSWs (≥ 35 years) were likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged (e.g., rural residency, little education, employment in low-paying venues, and low monthly income); (2) older FSWs reported the highest rates of inconsistent, ineffective condom use, and sexually transmitted diseases history; (3) younger FSWs (≤ 20 years) reported the highest level of depression, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts, regular-partner violence, and substance use; (4) all health-related risks except casual-partner violence were more prevalent among older and younger FSWs than among FSWs aged 21-34 years; and (5) age had a significant effect on all health indicators except suicide attempts after controlling for several key demographic factors. These findings indicate the need for intervention efforts to address varying needs among FSWs in different age groups. Specific interventional efforts are needed to reduce older FSWs' exposure to HIV risk; meanwhile, more attention should be given to improve FSWs' mental health status, especially among younger FSWs.
mohammad ali nadi
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between informal learning, job satisfaction, burn out and mental health among workers of Esfahan Steel Company. The research approach is typically descriptive and causal - solidarity and for data analysis and syntheses, descriptive statistics solution have been used including mean value, standard deviation and frequency percentages and the inferential statistics solutions included multiple correlation coefficient , Pearson correlation , multivariate analysis of variance and path analysis . In this study, the correlation between informal learning and job satisfaction and the correlation between burn out and job satisfaction level have been found significant at P 0.01. The correlation coefficient between burn out and mental health as well as mental health and job satisfaction have not been found as significant . Findings imply that burnout and informal learning can predict job satisfaction . Norelation ship has been observed between informal learning and burn out and between informal learning and mental health, while the relationships between informal learning and job satisfaction and between burn out and job satisfaction have been confirmed. The conceptual model of research has been evaluated using path analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis . Findings denote the direct effect of informal learning on job satisfaction and indirect effect of burn out on job satisfaction . Referring to the Structural Equation Modeling, among three main paths, the effect of informal learning and burn out on job satisfaction has been observed and it has been found that mental health has no effect on job satisfaction. Major limitation of this research is related to generalization of findings to other steel manufacturing companies, industries and public organizations.
Cayuela, Ana; Malmusi, Davide; López Jacob, María José; Gotsens, Mercè; Ronda-Pérez, Elena
There is limited evidence on the influence of social determinants on the self-perceived and mental health of immigrants settled at least 8 years in Spain. The aim of this study was to examine differences between workers related to migrant-status, self-perceived and mental health, and to assess their relationship to occupational conditions, educational level and occupational social class, stratified by sex. Using data from the Spanish National Health Survey of 2011/12, we computed prevalence, ...
Zeng, Zhi; Guo, Yan; Lu, Liming; Han, Lu; Chen, Wen; Ling, Li
Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) generate nearly 80% of the jobs in China, but the dangerous work environment often found in these enterprises poses a major concern for public health. Psychosocial pressure and mental health problems among the workers are also common in SMEs. However, mental health of workers in SMEs is largely neglected in occupational health research and practice in China. The purpose of this study is to assess mental health of the workers and to explore the associations between physical and psychosocial work environment and workers' mental health in SMEs in South China. Data were collected in 2012 through a cross-sectional survey among 1200 workers working in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Guangdong, China. Mental health was measured by psychological well-being in the current study. Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) model was used as a theoretical framework to examine the psychosocial factors associated with workers' psychological well-being. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 and analysis was performed using bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression. About three in ten workers (35.3%) in the sample had poor psychological well-being. Those who were men, younger in age, or migrant workers had worse psychological outcome in bivariate analyses. After controlling for individual variables (gender, age, marital status, and household registration), we found that longer weekly work hours (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.13 ~ 1.50), more exposure to hazardous work environment (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.10 ~ 1.44), higher job demands (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.12 ~ 1.49), and lower job autonomy (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.60 ~ 0.81) were significant associated with worse psychological well-being. The results were consistent with predictions of the JDCS model. The results indicate that the JDCS model is a useful framework in predicting psychological well-being among Chinese workers in SMEs. Future mental health promotion should focus on young
... NIH/National Institute of Mental Health – Division of AIDS Research SAMHSA – Behavioral Health and HIV/AIDS SAMHSA – Suicide ... Office of Adolescent Health OAR NIH Office of AIDS Research OCR HHS Office for Civil Rights OFBNP HHS ...
Gardner, Benjamin; Alfrey, Kristie-Lee; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Rebar, Amanda L
Fly-in fly-out (FIFO) work involves commuting long distances to the worksite and living in provided accommodation for 1-4 weeks while on shift. While the potentially detrimental impact of FIFO work on the health and well-being of workers has been documented, little attention has been paid to how workers, or their partners, cope with this impact. This study sought to investigate how workers and their partners negotiate the impact of FIFO on their mental health and well-being. The study design was qualitative. FIFO workers and partners responded to open-ended questions on concerns about the FIFO lifestyle and the support they use. Australian FIFO workers and partners responded to the questions via email. Participants were 34 FIFO workers (25 men, M age=41 years) and 26 partners of FIFO workers (26 women, M age=40 years). Participant-validated thematic analysis generated three main themes: managing multiple roles, impact on mental health and well-being, and social support needs. Results revealed difficulties in adjusting between the responsibilities of perceptually distinct on-shift and off-shift lives, and managing potential psychological distance that develops while workers are on site. Participants emphasised the importance of maintaining quality communication and support from family members. Workers and partners attempted to maintain mental health and well-being by regularly engaging with support networks, although many felt organisational support was tokenistic, stigmatised or lacking. Recommendations for enhancing support provided by FIFO organisations are offered. In particular, organisations should emphasise the importance of good mental health and well-being, maintain transparency regarding potential challenges of FIFO lifestyles, and offer professional support for managing multiple social roles and effective communication. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial
Posner, Zoe; Janssen, Jessica; Roddam, Hazel
Purpose- Burnout in mental health staff is acknowledged as a major problem. The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of mental health staff views on improving burnout and mental toughness in mental health staff.\\ud Design/methodology/approach-Ten participants from two mental health rehabilitation units across the North West of England took part in a Nominal Group Technique (NGT). Participants consisted of mental health workers from varied roles in order to\\ud capture views from a...
Hatanaka, Junko; Takasaki, Masako; Hatanaka, Michiyo
Occupational health staff and managers play important roles in supporting workers with mental health concerns and mutual co-operation among them is a necessary element. However, when co-operating with other professionals, several problems arise that often make such co-operation a challenge. Effective mutual actions are needed to promote such co-operation, and relationships must be formed for this purpose. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to clarify how occupational health nurses form relationships for facilitating co-operation with managers to provide support to workers with mental health concerns. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 11 occupational health nurses who provide individualized mental health support and who have at least 5 years of experience as occupational health nurses. Analysis of the recorded interviews was performed using a qualitative statistical method (KJ method). Six elements that constitute the formation of relationships were identified. When occupational health nurses form relationships for facilitating co-operation with a manager to provide support to workers, they "form relationships through strategic communication" with them and when co-operation is required, they form a relationship by "acting in a manner that suits the manager," such as his/her character and the situation. To support this relationship, occupational health nurses "provide mental support to the manager" by listening to his/her anxiety or real intention about supporting the subordinate with mental health concerns and provide relief while understanding their burdens during the co-operation. Occupational health nurses even "provide support to the manager in their activities," which assessed the situation at the workplace as the specialist and advised the manager to understand how to concern to the subordinate specifically. In addition, they "indirectly support the manager" which included coordinating with the concerned persons so as to not excessively
Moll, Sandra E
There is a high rate of stress and mental illness among healthcare workers, yet many continue to work despite symptoms that affect their performance. Workers with mental health issues are typically ostracized and do not get the support that they need. If issues are not addressed, however, they could become worse and compromise the health and safety, not only of the worker, but his/her colleagues and patients. Early identification and support can improve work outcomes and facilitate recovery, but more information is needed about how to facilitate this process in the context of healthcare work. The purpose of this study was to explore the key individual and organizational forces that shape early intervention and support for healthcare workers who are struggling with mental health issues, and to identify barriers and opportunities for change. A qualitative, case study in a large, urban healthcare organization was conducted in order to explore the perceptions and experiences of employees across the organization. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight healthcare workers who had experienced mental health issues at work as well as eight workplace stakeholders who interacted with workers who were struggling (managers, coworkers, union leaders). An online survey was completed by an additional 67 employees. Analysis of the interviews and surveys was guided by a process of interpretive description to identify key barriers to early intervention and support. There were many reports of silence and inaction in response to employee mental health issues. Uncertainty in identifying mental health problems, stigma regarding mental ill health, a discourse of professional competence, social tensions, workload pressures, confidentiality expectations and lack of timely access to mental health supports were key forces in preventing employees from getting the help that they needed. Although there were a few exceptions, the overall study findings point to many barriers to supporting
Background There is a high rate of stress and mental illness among healthcare workers, yet many continue to work despite symptoms that affect their performance. Workers with mental health issues are typically ostracized and do not get the support that they need. If issues are not addressed, however, they could become worse and compromise the health and safety, not only of the worker, but his/her colleagues and patients. Early identification and support can improve work outcomes and facilitate recovery, but more information is needed about how to facilitate this process in the context of healthcare work. The purpose of this study was to explore the key individual and organizational forces that shape early intervention and support for healthcare workers who are struggling with mental health issues, and to identify barriers and opportunities for change. Methods A qualitative, case study in a large, urban healthcare organization was conducted in order to explore the perceptions and experiences of employees across the organization. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight healthcare workers who had experienced mental health issues at work as well as eight workplace stakeholders who interacted with workers who were struggling (managers, coworkers, union leaders). An online survey was completed by an additional 67 employees. Analysis of the interviews and surveys was guided by a process of interpretive description to identify key barriers to early intervention and support. Results There were many reports of silence and inaction in response to employee mental health issues. Uncertainty in identifying mental health problems, stigma regarding mental ill health, a discourse of professional competence, social tensions, workload pressures, confidentiality expectations and lack of timely access to mental health supports were key forces in preventing employees from getting the help that they needed. Although there were a few exceptions, the overall study findings point to
The impact of violence on the mental health of women has been acknowledged but with limited exploration in resource-poor countries. Using critical ethnography and feminist methods, we analyzed the impact of violence on the mental health of a sample of Malawian women employed in domestic service. The analysis showed mental health as being situated in the context of poverty, inhumane treatment, social isolation, and the erosion of hope. We offer suggestions on how psychiatric nurses and other health care providers can promote the mental health of women employed in domestic service while acknowledging the limited mental health services in Malawi.
Agyapong, Vincent I O; Osei, Akwasi; Mcloughlin, Declan M; McAuliffe, Eilish
There is growing interest in the effectiveness of task shifting as a strategy for addressing expanding health care challenges in settings with shortages of qualified health personnel. The aim of this study is to examine the perception of stakeholders about the adequacy of training, supervision and support offered to community mental health workers (CMHWs) in Ghana. To address this aim we designed and administered self-completed, semi-structured questionnaires adapted to three specific stakeholder groups in Ghana. The questionnaires were administered to 11 psychiatrists, 29 health policy implementers/coordinators and 164 CMHWs, across Ghana, including 71 (43.3%) Community Psychiatric Nurses (CPNs), 19 (11.6%) Clinical Psychiatric Officers (CPOs) and 74 (45.1%) Community Mental Health Officers (CMHOs). Almost all the stakeholders believed CMHWs in Ghana receive adequate training for the role they are expected to play although many identify some gaps in the training of these mental health workers for the expanded roles they actually play. There were statistically significant differences between the different CMHW groups and the types of in-service training they said they had attended, the frequency with which their work was supervised, and the frequency with which they received feedback from supervisors. CPOs were more likely to attend all the different kinds of in-service training than CMHOs and CPNs, while CMHOs were more likely than CPOs and CPNs to report that their work is never supervised or that they rarely or never receive feedback from supervisors. There was disparity between what CMHWs said were their experiences and the perception of policy makers with respect to the types of in-service training that is available to CMHWs. There is a need to review the task shifting arrangements, perhaps with a view to expanding it to include more responsibilities, and therefore review the curriculum of the training institution for CMHWs and also to offer them regular in
Ayano, Getinet; Assefa, Dawit; Haile, Kibrom; Chaka, Asrat; Haile, Kelemua; Solomon, Melat; Yohannis, Kalkidan; Awoke, Akilew; Jemal, Kemal
Mental disorders are always remained a neglected public health problems in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), most people with mental disorders never receive effective care and there is a large treatment gap. In order to solve the problem integration of mental health into primary health care is recommended and in Ethiopia implementation of the scale of mental health services at primary health care level was started in 2014. For the success of the integration of mental health into primary health care, primary care health professionals are the key personnel who are responsible for the management of mental, neurologic and substance use disorders. However, proper training and education of primary care health professionals is mandatory for an optimal performance and success of integration. This interventional study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of mental health training course for scale up of mental health services at primary health care level in Ethiopia. This quasi-experimental pre- and post-study design was conducted in Ethiopia from October to December 2016 using quantitative data collection methods. A total of 94 primary health care professionals were included in the study. The intervention was conducted by psychiatry professionals using standardized World Health Organization (WHO) Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) guide prepared for scaling up of mental health care through integration into primary health care (PHC) and general medical services. Pre- and post intervention assessment was done for knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP); and statistically analyzed. A paired sample t test with p values was performed to test the differences between the pre- and post-test. In additions mean and standard deviation of the responses were calculated. Overall the response rate was 100% at the end of the intervention. The study resulted in a significant improvement in knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of PHC workers about all the four mental
... Mental Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Good mental health Nutrition and mental health Exercise and ... a friend. Return to top More information on Good mental health Read more from womenshealth.gov Action ...
Iheanacho, Theddeus; Kapadia, Daniel; Ezeanolue, Chinenye O; Osuji, Alice A; Ogidi, Amaka G; Ike, Anulika; Patel, Dina; Stefanovics, Elina; Rosenheck, Robert; Obiefune, Michael; Ezeanolue, Echezona E
Common mental disorders are prevalent in Nigeria. Due to stigma and a limited number of trained specialists, only 10% of adults with mental illness in Nigeria receive any care. The Healthy Beginning Initiative is a community-based maternal/child health program that includes screening for perinatal depression and was implemented by lay, volunteer, church-based health advisors (CHAs). The aim of the study was to assess the beliefs and attitudes about mental illness among the CHAs. The study used a cross-sectional survey of 57 CHAs, who completed a 43-item, self-administered questionnaire that assessed their beliefs and attitudes about mental illness. The response rate was 71%. Respondents were mostly female (79%), married (83%) and aged 40-49 years ( M = 41.16 SD = 10.48). Most endorsed possession by evil spirits (84%), traumatic events (81%) and witchcraft (60%) as causes of mental illness. A majority (69%) believed that people with mental illness were a nuisance, and less than half (46%) believed that mental disorders were illnesses like any other illness. It is concluded that stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about mental illness are common among the CHAs. Training for lay health workers in Nigeria should include education on the known bio-psycho-social basis of mental disorders and the role of social inclusion in recovery.
Roussy, Véronique; Thomacos, Nikos; Rudd, Annette; Crockett, Belinda
Stigma and judgemental assumptions by health workers have been identified as key barriers to accessing health care for people living with co-occurring mental health and substance use issues (dual diagnosis). To evaluate the effectiveness of consumer-led training by people with dual diagnosis in improving the knowledge, understanding and role adequacy of community health staff to work with this consumer group. A controlled before-and-after study design with four waves of quantitative data collection was used. Qualitative data were collected to explore participants' views about training. Participants were staff from two community health services from Victoria, Australia. Recruitment occurred across various work areas: reception, oral health, allied health, counselling and health promotion. At baseline, all participants attended a 4-h clinician-led training session. The intervention consisted of a 3-h consumer-led training session, developed and delivered by seven individuals living with dual diagnosis. Outcome measures included understanding of dual diagnosis, participants' feelings of role adequacy and role legitimacy, personal views, and training outcomes and relevance. Consumer-led training was associated with a significant increase in understanding. The combination of clinician-led and consumer-led training was associated with a positive change in role adequacy. Consumer-led training is a promising approach to enhance primary health-care workers' understanding of the issues faced by dual-diagnosis consumers, with such positive effects persisting over time. Used alongside other organizational capacity building strategies, consumer-led training has the potential to help address stigma and judgemental attitudes by health workers and improve access to services for this consumer group. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Munetsi, Epiphany; Simms, Victoria; Dzapasi, Lloyd; Chapoterera, Georgina; Goba, Nyaradzo; Gumunyu, Tichaona; Weiss, Helen A; Verhey, Ruth; Abas, Melanie; Araya, Ricardo; Chibanda, Dixon
Suicidal ideation may lead to deliberate self-harm which increases the risk of death by suicide. Globally, the main cause of deliberate self-harm is depression. The aim of this study was to explore prevalence of, and risk factors for, suicidal ideation among men and women with common mental disorder (CMD) symptoms attending public clinics in Zimbabwe, and to determine whether problem solving therapy delivered by lay health workers can reduce common mental disorder symptoms among people with suicidal ideation, using secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. At trial enrolment, the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ) was used to screen for CMD symptoms. In the intervention arm, participants received six problem-solving therapy sessions conducted by trained and supervised lay health workers, while those in the control arm received enhanced usual care. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify risk factors for suicidal ideation at enrolment, and cluster-level logistic regression to compare SSQ scores at endline (6 months follow-up) between trial arms, stratified by suicidal ideation at enrolment. There were 573 participants who screened positive for CMD symptoms and 75 (13.1%) reported suicidal ideation at baseline. At baseline, after adjusting for confounders, suicidal ideation was independently associated with being aged over 24, lack of household income (household income yes/no; adjusted odds ratio 0.52 (95% CI 0.29, 0.95); p = 0.03) and with having recently skipped a meal due to lack of food (adjusted odds ratio 3.06 (95% CI 1.81, 5.18); p suicidal ideation at enrolment experienced similar benefit to CMD symptoms from the Friendship Bench intervention (adjusted mean difference - 5.38, 95% CI -7.85, - 2.90; p suicidal ideation (adjusted mean difference - 4.86, 95% CI -5.68, - 4.04; p suicidal thoughts who attended primary care facilities in Zimbabwe. pactr.org ldentifier: PACTR201410000876178.
Jiang, Ting; Ge, Hua; Sun, Jian; Li, Rong; Han, Rui; Liu, Jiwen
At present, there is growing interest in research examining the relationship between occupational stress and mental health. Owing to the socioeconomic impact of occupational stress and the unique environment of petroleum workers in Xinjiang, a cross-sectional study was carried out between April and December 2015 to investigate the relationship between occupational stress, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR2A) genotype, and mental health. A total of 1485 workers were selected. The Symptom Checklist 90 was used to assess nine classes of psychological symptoms. Work-related stressors were evaluated using the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised Edition. Levels of 5-HTR2A (the Tl02C and A-1438G single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5-HTR2A gene) were measured by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The findings of the present study revealed a high prevalence rate of mental health problems (40.29%) in petroleum workers stationed in the arid desert, and suggested a strong correlation between occupational stress and mental health. The TC and CC genotype of Tl02C were found to be protective factors against mental health problems (odds ratio (OR) = 0.455, 95% confidence interval (CI): = 0.269-0.771, odds ratio (OR) = 0.340, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.162-0.716). AG and GG genotype of A-1438G [odds ratio (OR) 1 = 2.729, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.433-5.195; odds ratio (OR) 2 = 2.480, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.221-5.037] were revealed as risk factors. These data provide evidence that occupational stress and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphism contributes to the incidence of mental health problems.
Full Text Available At present, there is growing interest in research examining the relationship between occupational stress and mental health. Owing to the socioeconomic impact of occupational stress and the unique environment of petroleum workers in Xinjiang, a cross-sectional study was carried out between April and December 2015 to investigate the relationship between occupational stress, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR2A genotype, and mental health. A total of 1485 workers were selected. The Symptom Checklist 90 was used to assess nine classes of psychological symptoms. Work-related stressors were evaluated using the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised Edition. Levels of 5-HTR2A (the Tl02C and A-1438G single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5-HTR2A gene were measured by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. The findings of the present study revealed a high prevalence rate of mental health problems (40.29% in petroleum workers stationed in the arid desert, and suggested a strong correlation between occupational stress and mental health. The TC and CC genotype of Tl02C were found to be protective factors against mental health problems (odds ratio (OR = 0.455, 95% confidence interval (CI: = 0.269–0.771, odds ratio (OR = 0.340, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.162–0.716. AG and GG genotype of A-1438G [odds ratio (OR 1 = 2.729, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.433–5.195; odds ratio (OR 2 = 2.480, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.221–5.037] were revealed as risk factors. These data provide evidence that occupational stress and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphism contributes to the incidence of mental health problems.
Lawn, Sharon; Delany, Toni; Pulvirenti, Mariastella; Smith, Ann; McMillan, John
Mental health recovery involves acknowledging the importance of building the person's capacity for agency. This might be particularly important for patients on community treatment orders (CTOs - which involve enforced treatment for their mental illness), given limited international evidence for their effectiveness and underlying concerns about the use of coercion by workers and systems of care towards this population of people with mental illness. This study sought to understand how the meaning of CTOs is constructed and experienced, from the perspective of patients on CTOs and workers directly administering CTOs. Qualitative interviews were conducted with South Australian community mental health patients (n = 8) and mental health workers (n = 10) in 2013-14. During thematic analysis of data, assisted by NVIVO software, the researchers were struck by the language used by both groups of participants and so undertook an examination of the moral framings apparent within the data. Moral framing was apparent in participants' constructions and evaluations of the CTO experience as positive, negative or justifiable. Most patient participants appeared to use moral framing to: try to understand why they were placed on a CTO; make sense of the experience of being on a CTO; and convey the lessons they have learnt. Worker participants appeared to use moral framing to justify the imposition of care. Empathy was part of this, as was patients' positive right to services and treatment, which they believed would only occur for these patients via a CTO. Workers positioned themselves as trying to put themselves in the patients' shoes as a way of acting virtuously towards them, softening the coercive stick approach. Four themes were identified: explicit moral framing; best interests of the patient; lessons learned by the patient; and, empathy. Experiences of CTOs are multi-layered, and depend critically upon empathy and reflection on the relationship between what is done and
Akhter, Sadika; Rutherford, Shannon; Akhter Kumkum, Feroza; Bromwich, David; Anwar, Iqbal; Rahman, Aminur; Chu, Cordia
Traditionally, women in Bangladesh stayed at home in their role as daughter, wife, or mother. In the 1980s, economic reforms created a job market for poor, uneducated rural women in the ready-made garment industry, mostly located in urban areas. This increased participation in paid work has changed the gender roles of these women. Women's earnings support their family, but they are also separated from their children, with impacts on their mental health and well-being. This study explores the lived experience of women in Bangladesh working in the ready-made garment industry as they strive to be mothers and family providers, often in high-stress conditions. The study was conducted in two industrial areas of Dhaka over 8 months. Data collection included a literature review, 20 in-depth interviews with married female garment workers, and 14 key-informant interviews with officials from the Ministry of Labour and Employment, health-service providers within the garment factories, factory managers, and representatives of the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association. The data collected were analyzed thematically. Poverty was a key motivating factor for female migrant workers to move from rural areas. Their children stay in their village with their grandparents, because of their mothers' work conditions and the lack of childcare. The women reported stress, anxiety, restlessness, and thoughts of suicide, due to the double burden of work and separation from their children and family support. Further, they cannot easily access government hospital services due to their long work hours, and the limited medical services provided in the workplace do not meet their needs. In order to improve the health and well-being of female garment workers, steps should be taken to develop health interventions to meet the needs of this important group of workers who are contributing significantly to the economic development of the country.
Maria do Socorro Burity Dialectaquiz
Full Text Available En este artículo se enfoca la educación, la comunicación y las relaciones humanas como medios de prevención para la salud de los trabajadores, y como catalizadores para los cambios en el adulto. También se expone el análisis de principios de educación integral y autodescubrimiento, promocionando la acción de cambio, haciendo que el trabajador graduado tome conciencia de su conducta hacia él mismo y hacia otros trabajadores, lo que hace posible la reducción del sufrimiento mental.
En este artículo se enfoca la educación, la comunicación y las relaciones humanas como medios de prevención para la salud de los trabajadores, y como catalizadores para los cambios en el adulto. También se expone el análisis de principios de educación integral y autodescubrimiento, promocionando la acción de cambio, haciendo que el trabajador graduado tome conciencia de su conducta hacia él mismo y hacia otros trabajadores, lo que hace posible la reducción del sufrimiento mental.
Claudiana Maria da Silva Leal
Full Text Available En este artículo se enfoca la educación, la comunicación y las relaciones humanas como medios de prevención para la salud de los trabajadores, y como catalizadores para los cambios en el adulto. También se expone el análisis de principios de educación integral y autodescubrimiento, promocionando la acción de cambio, haciendo que el trabajador graduado tome conciencia de su conducta hacia él mismo y hacia otros trabajadores, lo que hace posible la reducción del sufrimiento mental.
Chen, Martin K.
One of the major problems in measuring community mental health status is the lack of consensus among mental health workers in psychiatry, psychology, sociology, and epidemiology as to what constitutes mental illness. Additionally, changing social mores preclude a definition of mental illness in behavioral terms. An operational definition of mental…
Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Nagami, Makiko; Yoshikawa, Toru; Kogi, Kazutaka; Kawakami, Norito
To explore the effect of participatory intervention for workplace improvement on mental health and job performance. Eleven assembly lines were randomly allocated to six intervention and five control lines (47 and 50 workers, respectively). The primary outcome was defined as the improvement in the following measures during the intervention period: General Health Questionnaire and WHO Health and Work Performance Questionnaire. General Health Questionnaire scores significantly deteriorated in the control lines, whereas the score remained at the same level in the intervention lines. Health and Work Performance Questionnaire scores increased in the intervention lines, but decreased in the control lines, yielding a significant intervention effect (P = 0.048). It is suggested that the participatory intervention for workplace improvement is effective against deterioration in mental health and for improving job performance.
Full Text Available Sadika Akhter,1,2 Shannon Rutherford,1 Feroza Akhter Kumkum,2 David Bromwich,1 Iqbal Anwar,2 Aminur Rahman,2 Cordia Chu1 1Centre for Environment and Population Health, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh Background: Traditionally, women in Bangladesh stayed at home in their role as daughter, wife, or mother. In the 1980s, economic reforms created a job market for poor, uneducated rural women in the ready-made garment industry, mostly located in urban areas. This increased participation in paid work has changed the gender roles of these women. Women’s earnings support their family, but they are also separated from their children, with impacts on their mental health and well-being. This study explores the lived experience of women in Bangladesh working in the ready-made garment industry as they strive to be mothers and family providers, often in high-stress conditions.Methods: The study was conducted in two industrial areas of Dhaka over 8 months. Data collection included a literature review, 20 in-depth interviews with married female garment workers, and 14 key-informant interviews with officials from the Ministry of Labour and Employment, health-service providers within the garment factories, factory managers, and representatives of the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association. The data collected were analyzed thematically.Results: Poverty was a key motivating factor for female migrant workers to move from rural areas. Their children stay in their village with their grandparents, because of their mothers’ work conditions and the lack of childcare. The women reported stress, anxiety, restlessness, and thoughts of suicide, due to the double burden of work and separation from their children and family support. Further, they cannot easily access government hospital services due to their long work hours, and the limited medical
Oshio, Takashi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Inoue, Akiomi
It is well known that job stress is negatively related to workers' mental health, but most recent studies have not controlled for unobserved time-invariant confounders. In the current study, we attempted to validate previous observations on the association between job stress and workers' mental health, by removing the effects of unobserved time-invariant confounders. We used data from three to four waves of an occupational Japanese cohort survey, focusing on 31,382 observations of 9741 individuals who participated in at least two consecutive waves. We estimated mean-centered fixed effects models to explain psychological distress in terms of the Kessler 6 (K6) scores (range: 0-24) by eight job stress indicators related to the job demands-control, effort-reward imbalance, and organizational injustice models. Mean-centered fixed effects models reduced the magnitude of the association between jobs stress and K6 scores to 44.8-54.2% of those observed from pooled ordinary least squares. However, the association remained highly significant even after controlling for unobserved time-invariant confounders for all job stress indicators. In addition, alternatively specified models showed the robustness of the results. In all, we concluded that the validity of major job stress models, which link job stress and workers' mental health, was robust, although unobserved time-invariant confounders led to an overestimation of the association. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mackenzie, Catherine R; Keuskamp, Dominic; Ziersch, Anna M; Baum, Fran E; Popay, Jennie
psychosocial protections to workers that enable them to make changes or complaints without detrimental repercussions (such as vilification or job loss) and increase access to welfare benefits and support services could improve mental health among people with paid work. These policies would have particularly important effects for those in lower socioeconomic status positions.
Iseselo, Masunga K; Ambikile, Joel Seme
Management of patients with mental disorders is inadequate in the majority of low and middle income countries. The main treatment modality for patients with severe mental disorders in these countries is mainly pharmacological approach. Patients face many challenges in meeting medication needs. In this context, high percentages of individuals who have severe mental disorders are not treated. Regular and adequate supplies of appropriate, safe and affordable medications are some of the important aspects required for provision of quality mental health services. Psychotropic medications are an important component of holistic care that provides treatment options for those suffering from mental illnesses. In Tanzania, mental health services face many challenges including inadequate mental health care providers, infrastructure, and medication supply. Relapse is a common problem among patients attending mental health facilities. This study is aimed at exploring views and experiences of patients, caregivers and mental health care providers on the psychotropic medication in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A qualitative study was conducted, involving two focus group discussions with seven and nine caregivers in each group. Eleven in-depth interviews with four patients and seven mental health care providers at Temeke Municipality, Dar es Salaam, were conducted. Convenient sampling procedure was used to select participants for the study. Discussion and interview guides were used during data collection. Interviews were audio-recorded in Kiswahili with all study participants. The recorded interviews were transcribed and qualitative content thematic analysis was used to analyze data after translation. Four themes were identified. These include attitudes of patients towards psychotropic medication, availability of psychotropic medications, financial concerns towards psychotropic medications, and coverage of free treatment policy. The availability and affordability of psychotropic
A main conclusion drawn from the investigation by the President's Commission was that the most serious health effect of the Three Mile Island nuclear accident was severe mental stress, which was short-lived. The highest levels of psychological distress were found among those living within 5 miles of Three Mile Island, in families with preschool children, and among the Three Mile Island nuclear workers. This report provides some understanding of how these conclusions were drawn, the methods used to obtain information of the experiences of mental stress and the behavioral effects and responses of the general population and the nuclear workers to the accident at Three Mile Island. In order to limit the scope of the discussion, information is taken from the Behavioral Effects Task Group Report [TMI79c] to the President's Commission, and thus from the labors of the many behavioral scientists
A main conclusion drawn from the investigation by the President's Commission was that the most serious health effect of the Three Mile Island nuclear accident was severe mental stress, which was short-lived. The highest levels of psychological distress were found among those living within 5 miles of Three Mile Island, in families with preschool children, and among the Three Mile Island nuclear workers. This report provides some understanding of how these conclusions were drawn, the methods used to obtain information of the experiences of mental stress and the behavioral effects and responses of the general population and the nuclear workers to the accident at Three Mile Island. In order to limit the scope of the discussion, information is taken from the Behavioral Effects Task Group Report (TMI79c) to the President's Commission, and thus from the labors of the many behavioral scientists.
El trabajador con problemas de salud mental: Pautas generales de detección, intervención y prevención Workers with mental health problems: General guidelines for detection, intervention and prevention
José Carlos Mingote Adán
Full Text Available Numerosos estudios han demostrado las relaciones entre condiciones psicosociales del trabajo y la salud mental de los empleados, y especialmente cómo la combinación de bajo control percibido y altas demandas laborales predicen determinados problemas de salud mental. Trastornos mentales tales como los de ansiedad y depresión tienen un efecto muy negativo sobre la calidad de vida y la capacidad funcional en el trabajo. Además, la salud mental del trabajador puede afectar a la percepción de las características del trabajo. Como consecuencia, es fundamental diseñar trabajos saludables, programas de reducción de estrés para los empleados y para la reincorporación laboral de empleados con trastornos mentales. El objetivo del presente artículo es revisar las principales líneas de prevención, detección e intervención en las organizaciones, que pueden promover políticas saludables para la atención e integración de los trabajadores con trastorno mental.Numerous studies have demonstrated the relationship between psychosocial work conditions and the mental health of employees, and especially the combination of low perceived control and high labor demands predicts mental health problems. Mental health disorders such us anxiety or depression have a big detrimental effect on the individual's quality of life and the ability to function in the workplace. Mental health may also affect the perception of work characteristics. As a consequence, it is essential to design healthy jobs, stress reduction programs and return to work programs for employees with mental disorders. The aim of this paper is to review the main lines of prevention, detection and intervention in organizations that can promote healthy policies for the care and integration of workers with mental disorder.
Tobin, Rochelle; Leavy, Justine; Jancey, Jonine
Office-based staff spend around three quarters of their work day sitting. People who sit for long periods while at work are at greater risk of adverse health outcomes. The pilot study aimed to determine the effect of sit-stand workstations on office-based staff sedentary and physical activity behaviors, work ability and self-reported physical and mental health outcomes. A two-group pre-post study design assessed changes in sedentary and physical activity behaviors (time spent sitting, standing and stepping and sit-stand transitions and number of steps taken) work ability and physical and mental health. Physical activity behaviors were measured using activPAL activity monitors and self-reported data on work ability and physical and mental health were collected using an online questionnaire. Relative to the controls (n=19), the intervention group (n=18) significantly decreased time spent sitting by 100 minutes (pwork ability when compared to lifetime best (p=0.008). There were no significant differences for all other sedentary behavior, other workability outcomes, physical health or mental health outcomes at follow-up. The Uprising Study found that sit-stand workstations are an effective strategy to reduce occupational sitting time in office-based workers over a one month period.
King, Richard V; Burkle, Frederick M; Walsh, Lauren E; North, Carol S
Competencies for disaster mental health are essential to domestic and international disaster response capabilities. Numerous consensus-based competency sets for disaster health workers exist, but no prior study identifies and discusses competency sets pertaining specifically to disaster mental health. Relevant competency sets were identified via MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and Google Scholar searches. Sixteen competency sets are discussed, some providing core competencies for all disaster responders and others for specific responder groups within particular professions or specialties. Competency sets specifically for disaster mental health professionals are lacking, with the exception of one set that focused only on cultural competence. The identified competency sets provide guidance for educators in developing disaster mental health curricula and for disaster health workers seeking education and training in disaster mental health. Valid, criterion-based competencies are required to guide selection and training of mental health professionals for the disaster mental health workforce. In developing these competencies, consideration should be given to the requirements of both domestic and international disaster response efforts.
Training needs and perspectives of community health workers in relation to integrating child mental health care into primary health care in a rural setting in sub-Saharan Africa: a mixed methods study.
Tilahun, Dejene; Hanlon, Charlotte; Araya, Mesfin; Davey, Basiro; Hoekstra, Rosa A; Fekadu, Abebaw
Community health workers can help to address the substantial unmet need for child mental health care in low and middle income countries. However, little is known about their training needs for this potential role. The aim of this study was to examine training needs and perspectives of community health extension workers (HEWs) in relation to providing child mental health care in rural Ethiopia. The study was conducted in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region of Ethiopia. A mixed methods approach was used. A total of 104 HEWs who had received training in child mental health using the Health Education and Training (HEAT) curriculum were interviewed using a structured survey. In-depth interviews were then conducted with 11 HEWs purposively selected on the basis of the administrative zone they had come from. A framework approach was used for qualitative data analysis. Most of the HEWs (88.5%; n = 93/104) reported that they were interested in the training provided and all respondents considered child mental health to be important. The perceived benefits of training included improved knowledge (n = 52), case identification (n = 14) and service provision (n = 22). While most of the participants had their training four months prior to the interview, over a third of them (35.6%; n = 37) had already organized mental health awareness-raising meetings. Participants in the qualitative interviews considered the problem of child mental disorders to be widespread and to cause a large burden to the family and the affected children. They reported that improving their competence and knowledge was important to address the problem and to tackle stigma and discrimination. Participants also listed some barriers for service provision, including lack of competence, stigma and institutional constraints. Opportunities mentioned included staff commitment, high levels of interest and a positive attitude towards providing the service. Although the HEAT training on
Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi
This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.
On March 28, 1979, an accident occurred at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant Unit No. 2 near Middletown, PA. A Presidential Commission was established to investigate the incident and was given the responsibility to evaluate the actual and potential impact of the events on the health and safety of the workers and the public. A main conclusion of the investigation was that the most serious health effect was severe, short-lived mental stress. This paper describes the study and the findings for four different study groups: (1) the general population of heads of households located within 20 miles of the plant; (2) mothers of preschool children from the same area; (3) teenagers in the 7th, 9th, and 11th grades from the area; and (4) nuclear workers employed at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant
On March 28, 1979, an accident occurred at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant Unit No. 2 near Middletown, PA. A Presidential Commission was established to investigate the incident and was given the responsibility to evaluate the actual and potential impact of the events on the health and safety of the workers and the public. A main conclusion of the investigation was that the most serious health effect was severe, short-lived mental stress. This paper describes the study and the findings for four different study groups: (1) the general population of heads of households located within 20 miles of the plant; (2) mothers of preschool children from the same area; (3) teenagers in the 7th, 9th, and 11th grades from the area; and (4) nuclear workers employed at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. (ACR)
The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area.
Kilpatrick, Emma; Keeney, Sinead; McCauley, Claire-Odile
The introduction of PSWs within mental health services has grown substantially both internationally and locally; however, no recognized studies have focused on the evolvement of this role within a Northern Ireland (NI) context. Research is increasingly focusing on service users' and PSWs perspectives on mental health service provision. Despite this, few studies exist which exclusively report staff views in relation to the PSW role. Results of the current study identified varying perspectives on the peer role. Some participants believed that the PSW role was tokenistic; others opposed these views, highlighting the value of this role. Clearly defined job descriptions and the importance of ensuring the PSW is a cohesive part of the team and not an "add on," was identified as imperative to avoid tokenistic practice. Provision of a flexible working environment, both sensitive and responsive to the peers' own mental health needs, was identified as significant in order for the peer to fulfil their role successfully. Services introducing PSWs within teams should engage with nursing staff at all organizational levels in the role development process to minimize the risk of tokenism, for example, the PSW role not integrated or valued within teams. Clearly defined job/role specifications for PSWs should be devised to ensure that both the PSW and the mental health nursing team have a shared understanding regarding this role. Aim Peer support worker (PSW) roles are gaining recognition internationally as a valuable component in mental health service delivery. The aim of this study was to explore the views of mental health voluntary sector staff regarding the emergence of this role. Method A qualitative research design was used. A purposive sample was employed. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 10 staff members in various positions in two voluntary mental health organizations. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically. Results Views varied on the PSW role with
Ofir-Eyal, Shani; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Bar-Kalifa, Eran; Kravetz, Shlomo; Lysaker, Paul H
Studies have showed that therapists and mental health workers of persons with schizophrenia tend to estimate their patients' social quality of life (SQoL) as poorer than the clients' own estimation. This study explores the hypothesis that this discrepancy is related to clients' social cognition and symptomatology. Cross-sectional assessment of both clients and their mental health workers. Ninety persons with schizophrenia and 12 persons who were formal care providers participated in the study. All responded to a parallel version (client and clinician) of social quality-of-life scales. Clients' emotion identification, theory of mind and symptoms were also assessed. Low social cognitive abilities of persons with schizophrenia, as well as negative symptomatology and having children, may be related to the negative bias of mental health workers, with regard to their client's SQoL. While more severe levels of negative symptoms and more deficits of social cognition were related to reduced levels of agreement, paradoxically, a relatively normative family life that includes parenting was also related to lower levels of agreement. Attention should be given to low agreement between clients with schizophrenia and clinicians with regard to the client's quality of life, as it is central to alliance and outcome. Clinicians tend to estimate clients' social quality of life as poorer than the clients' own estimation when those clients have low social cognition, high negative symptomatology and children. There is a need to identify additional factors that contribute to agreement and alliance in therapy. Longitudinal assessment during therapy can trace the process of construction of agreement. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
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... Health Promotion . Fact sheet no. 220. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Chronic Illness & Mental Health . Bethesda, MD: National Institutes ... of-onset distributions of mental disorders in the World Health Organization’s World Mental Health Survey Initiative. World Psychiatry. 2007; ...
Reducing stigma among healthcare providers to improve mental health services (RESHAPE): protocol for a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial of a stigma reduction intervention for training primary healthcare workers in Nepal.
Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D; Turner, Elizabeth L; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Luitel, Nagendra P; Rai, Sauharda; Singla, Daisy R; Lamichhane, Jagannath; Lund, Crick; Patel, Vikram
Non-specialist healthcare providers, including primary and community healthcare workers, in low- and middle-income countries can effectively treat mental illness. However, scaling-up mental health services within existing health systems has been limited by barriers such as stigma against people with mental illness. Therefore, interventions are needed to address attitudes and behaviors among non-specialists. Aimed at addressing this gap, RE ducing S tigma among H ealthc A re P roviders to Improv E mental health services (RESHAPE) is an intervention in which social contact with mental health service users is added to training for non-specialist healthcare workers integrating mental health services into primary healthcare. This protocol describes a mixed methods pilot and feasibility study in primary care centers in Chitwan, Nepal. The qualitative component will include key informant interviews and focus group discussions. The quantitative component consists of a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial (c-RCT), which will establish parameters for a future effectiveness study of RESHAPE compared to training as usual (TAU). Primary healthcare facilities (the cluster unit, k = 34) will be randomized to TAU or RESHAPE. The direct beneficiaries of the intervention are the primary healthcare workers in the facilities ( n = 150); indirect beneficiaries are their patients ( n = 100). The TAU condition is existing mental health training and supervision for primary healthcare workers delivered through the Programme for Improving Mental healthcarE (PRIME) implementing the mental health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP). The primary objective is to evaluate acceptability and feasibility through qualitative interviews with primary healthcare workers, trainers, and mental health service users. The secondary objective is to collect quantitative information on health worker outcomes including mental health stigma (Social Distance Scale), clinical knowledge (mh
Sarah M Ketelaar
Full Text Available To evaluate an e-mental health (EMH approach to workers' health surveillance (WHS targeting work functioning (WF and mental health (MH of healthcare professionals in a randomised controlled trial.Nurses and allied health professionals (N = 1140 were cluster-randomised at ward level to the intervention (IG or control group (CG. The intervention consisted of two parts: (a online screening and personalised feedback on impaired WF and MH, followed by (b a tailored offer of self-help EMH interventions. CG received none of these parts. Primary outcome was impaired WF (Nurses Work Functioning Questionnaire, assessed at baseline and after three and six months. Analyses were performed in the positively screened subgroup (i and in all participants (ii.Participation rate at baseline was 32% (NIG = 178; NCG = 188. Eighty-two percent screened positive for at least mild impairments in WF and/or MH (NIG = 139; NCG = 161. All IG-participants (N = 178 received part (a of the intervention, nine participants (all positively screened, 6% followed an EMH intervention to at least some extent. Regarding the subgroup of positively screened participants (i, both IG and CG improved over time regarding WF (non-significant between-group difference. After six months, 36% of positively screened IG-participants (18/50 had a relevant WF improvement compared to baseline, versus 28% (32/115 of positively screened CG-participants (non-significant difference. In the complete sample (ii, IG and CG improved over time but IG further improved between three and six months while CG did not (significant interaction effect.In our study with a full compliance rate of 6% and substantial drop-out leading to a small and underpowered sample, we could not demonstrate that an EMH-approach to WHS is more effective to improve WF and MH than a control group. The effect found in the complete sample of participants is not easily interpreted. Reported results may be useful for
... Important security updates for DBSAlliance.org. Read more... Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression Screening for Adult Depression Screening for ...
Prieto-Welch, Susan L.
This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.
Fong, Ted C T; Ho, Rainbow T H; Au-Yeung, Friendly S W; Sing, C Y; Law, K Y; Lee, L F; Ng, S M
Mental health care workers face heavy emotional demand and are prone to work burnout. Work burnout has been associated with poor mental health and work climate, which refers to individual perceptions about work setting. The purpose of this study was to examine whether intra-individual changes in work climate were associated with intra-individual changes in burnout and depression over two years. The present sample included Chinese mental health care workers (N = 312; mean age = 38.6, SD = 9.9) working in a psychosocial rehabilitation institution. The participants completed questionnaires on work climate, work burnout and depression at seven time points across two years. Parallel process latent growth modeling was used to analyze the associations of change between work climate and burnout and depression. Work climate displayed a logarithmic decreasing trend while burnout and depression displayed logarithmic increasing trends over two years. Baseline levels of work climate were negatively and moderately associated with baseline levels of burnout and depression (r = -.44 to -.60, p Changes in work climate were negatively and moderately associated with change in burnout (r = -.43, p change in depression (r = -.31, p Change in burnout was positively and strongly associated (r = .58, p change in depression. The current results support temporal relationships among changes in work climate, burnout and depression across time. Practical implications for future preventive work in burnout interventions were discussed within this population.
Chibanda, Dixon; Cowan, Frances; Verhey, Ruth; Machando, Debra; Abas, Melanie; Lund, Crick
There is growing evidence supporting the use of lay health workers (LHWs) to address the treatment gap for common mental disorders (CMD) through task-shifting. This study looks at the experience of LHWs delivering a problem solving therapy (PST) intervention for CMD for people living with HIV (PLWH) in a primary health care setting. Semi-structured interviews of LHWs (n = 7) and PLWH (10) who received PST were carried out using thematic content analysis. Over a 4 year period LHWs developed indigenous concepts of PST which were: Opening the mind (Kuvhura pfungwa), uplifting (kusimudzira), strengthening and strengthening further (kusimbisa and kusimbisisa) respectively. Using terms locally conceived through knowledge sharing amongst LHWs made it acceptable to deliver PST as part of their daily work. Indigenous terms conceived and developed by LWHs to describe components and processes of PST contribute to the therapy's acceptability and continued use in primary care facilities.
Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Jazayeri, Shima; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Solati, Zahra; Mohammadpour, Nakisa; Asemi, Zatollah; Adab, Zohre; Djalali, Mahmoud; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Hosseini, Mostafa; Eghtesadi, Shahryar
The aim of this study was to determine effects of probiotic yogurt and multispecies probiotic capsule supplementation on mental health and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in petrochemical workers. The present randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 70 petrochemical workers. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups to receive 100 g/day probiotic yogurt + one placebo capsule (n = 25) or one probiotic capsule daily + 100 g/day conventional yogurt (n = 25) or 100 g/day conventional yogurt + one placebo capsule (n = 20) for 6 weeks. Mental health parameters including general health questionnaire (GHQ) and depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS) scores were measured. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning and 6 weeks after the intervention to quantify hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. After 6 weeks of intervention, a significant improvement of GHQ was observed in the probiotic yogurt (18.0 ± 1.5 vs. 13.5 ± 1.9, P = 0.007) and in the probiotic capsule group (16.9 ± 1.8 vs. 9.8 ± 1.9, P = 0.001), as well as a significant improvement in DASS scores in the probiotic yogurt (23.3 ± 3.7 vs. 13.0 ± 3.7, P = 0.02) and the probiotic capsule group (18.9 ± 3.2 vs. 9.4 ± 4.0, P = 0.006). However, there was no significant improvement in the conventional yogurt group (P = 0.05 for GHQ and P = 0.08 for DASS). The consumption of probiotic yogurt or a multispecies probiotic capsule had beneficial effects on mental health parameters in petrochemical workers.
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Full Text Available Study on the theme of the protection right to mental health of the worker, with category of bibliographic research, with the objective of verifying the possible effectiveness of this right in the environments and contemporary work organizations, from the understanding of the modes of production and forms of execution of work, psychosocial risks and some consequential occupational diseases, the identification of outdating of the protection right to mental health of the workers that imply losses in the effective protection of mental health of such persons, and understanding of this right in the perspective of the fundamental rights and hermeneutical issues involved for their achievement, having the dialectic as method of approach, putting in conflict the concrete element seated in structuring the environment and working organization and its detrimental consequences to mental health worker, with the abstract element seated in the current norms of protection to mental health of the worker, related fundamental rights and involved hermeneutical questions, as a technical procedure, the bibliographic study of books, articles published in journals, handbooks, adding the use of legal documents.
Aims: The study aims to determine the perception of mental healthcare workers about the relevance of complementary and alternative mental healthcare (CAM) and their opinion on integrating CAM into the mainstream mental healthcare. Methods: One hundred and three mental healthcare workers at the Federal ...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To address the association between work and mental health from a gender perspective by investigating the combination of domestic work and adverse aspects of professional work (night shifts and psychosocial stress with regard to minor psychiatric disorders (MPD and poor recovery from work. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out at three public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2006 (n = 1 122. Data collection was based on a census of all female nurses, technicians, and auxiliary nurses. A multidimensional instrument containing information about health, professional work, and the domestic work was used. The domestic work hours (longer or shorter than 10 hours per week were combined with the work schedule (day or night shifts and with psychosocial stress (absence or presence of effort-reward imbalance [ERI]. These combinations were tested with regard to the association with MPD and poor recovery from work. The adjusted odds ratios (OR and their confidence intervals were calculated using multiple regression models. RESULTS: The combination of long domestic work hours with night work was significantly associated with MPD (OR = 1.94 and poor recovery (OR = 2.67. Long domestic work hours combined with the presence of ERI resulted in significantly higher odds ratios (OR = 4.37 and OR = 5.53, respectively. In all analyses, greater odds ratios were observed in groups with long domestic work hours, compared to short work hours. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that carrying out domestic activities over a certain number of hours can increase the detrimental consequences of professional work in regard to MPD and poor recovery. The interaction between professional and domestic work and its potential implications to mental suffering must be considered in discussions on health equity.
Cheng, Wan-Ju; Cheng, Yawen
Healthcare workers face multiple psychosocial work hazards intrinsic to their work, including heavy workloads and shift work. However, how contemporary adverse psychosocial work conditions, such as workplace justice and insecurity, may contribute to increased mental health risks has rarely been studied. This study aimed to search for modifiable psychosocial work factors associated with mental health disorders in Taiwanese healthcare workers. A total of 349 healthcare workers were identified from 19,641 employees who participated in a national survey of Taiwan. Minor mental disorder was assessed using the five-item brief symptom rating scale. We compared psychosocial work characteristics and the prevalence of minor mental disorder in healthcare workers with that in a sociodemographically matched sample, and examined the associations of psychosocial work conditions with mental health status. Healthcare workers were found to have a higher prevalence of minor mental disorder than general workers, and they were more likely to have longer working hours, heavier psychological job demands, higher job control, more workplace violence, and a higher prevalence of shift work. Among healthcare workers, experiences of workplace violence, lower workplace justice, heavier psychological job demands, and job insecurity were associated with a higher risk for minor mental disorder, even after controlling for working hours and shift work. Despite the fact that healthcare workers work longer hours and shift work, there were several modifiable psychosocial work conditions that should be targeted to improve their mental health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
vab, Vesna; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana
Mental health conceptualize a state of well-being, perceived self efficacy, competence, autonomy, intergenerational dependence and recognition of the ability to realize one's intellectual and emotional potential. Mental health care are services provided to individuals or communities by agents of the health services or professions to promote, maintain, monitor, or restore mental health. Students will become familiar with extensiveness of the problem, and levels of preventing it. It is illustra...
... to content Home Health Information Health Information Home Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental ... Gordon discusses NIMH priorities and future directions in mental health research. More Autism Awareness Month Autism Spectrum Disorder ( ...
Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter
In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....
Physiotherapy in mental health care and psychiatry is a recognized specialty within physiotherapy. It offers a rich variety of observational and evaluation tools as well as a range of interventions that are related to the patient’s physical and mental health problems based on evidence-based literature and a 50-year history. Physiotherapy in mental health care addresses human movement, function, physical activity and exercise in individual and group therapeutic settings. Additionally, it conne...
Okkels, Niels; Kristiansen, Christina Blanner; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl
areas include loneliness, violence, high crime rates, homelessness, noise and other pollutants, traffic accidents, drug abuse, and insufficiency of mental health services. Summary Urbanization is a global and growing phenomenon that pose significant challenges to mental health and mental health services....... Fast and unstructured urbanization, such as that seen in many developing countries, further exacerbates these challenges. There are promising initiatives emerging including initiatives to end homelessness, to improve access to green areas in urban environments, to provide emergency psychiatric services...
Bakker, H.; Gaillard, A.W.K.; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.
This study investigated mental health- and work-related problems of 67 rescue workers (police officers and medical emergency drivers) caused by the accumulation of critical incidents during their career. Using Hobfoll’s theory of conservation of resources, this is one of the first studies in The
Kaneko, Shin-Ya; Maeda, Takafumi; Sasaki, Akihiko; Sato, Akihiko; Tanaka, Kazuko; Kobayashi, Toshio; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Fukushima, Tetsuhito
This paper examines the effects of shift work on the mental state of factory workers. As an indicator of the workers' mental condition, the authors used a scoring system (referred to below as the 'depression tendency score') based on the SRQ-D investigative report. The depression tendency score of the men was higher among the shift worker group than among the regular day worker group (p workers was higher than that of the male regular day workers among skilled workers (p worker group and the shift worker group. However, the depression tendency score of the female two-shift workers was higher than that of the female regular day workers among skilled workers (p work and that of women is affected by two-shift work because of the difference in modern societal/home role between man and woman.
Mayeya, John; Chazulwa, Roy; Mayeya, Petronella Ntambo; Mbewe, Edward; Magolo, Lonia Mwape; Kasisi, Friday; Bowa, Annel Chishimba
traditionally the duty and responsibility of the extended family to look after the aged. Gender based violence (GBV) is another issue. Women, who are totally dependent on their spouses economically, are forced by circumstances to continue living in abusive relationships to the detriment of their mental well-being. In Zambia, the family is considered sacrosanct and the affairs of the family members, private. It is within this context that GBV is regarded as a family affair and therefore a private affair, yet spouse beating has led to depression and in some cases death. In terms of psychiatric services, there are close to 560 beds for psychiatric patients across the country. Common mental disorders found in Zambia are acute psychotic episodes, schizophrenia, affective disorders, alcohol related problems and organic brain syndromes. About 70-80% of people with mental health problems consult traditional health practitioners before they seek help from conventional health practitioners. Over time the number of frontline mental health workers and professional staff has been declining. This is due to the 'brain drain', retirement, death and low output from training institutions. For practicing psychiatrists, only one is available for the whole country. Other key mental health workers such as psychologists, social workers and occupational therapists are also in short supply. All in all, the mental health services situation in Zambia could be described as critical, requiring urgent attention.
Tanisho, Y; Shigemura, J; Kubota, K; Tanigawa, T; Bromet, E J; Takahashi, S; Matsuoka, Y; Nishi, D; Nagamine, M; Harada, N; Tanichi, M; Takahashi, Y; Shimizu, K; Nomura, S; Yoshino, A
The Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plant workers experienced multiple stressors as both victims and onsite workers after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent nuclear accidents. Previous studies found that disaster-related exposures, including discrimination/slurs, were associated with their mental health. Their long-term impact has yet to be investigated. A total of 968 plant workers (Daiichi, n = 571; Daini, n = 397) completed self-written questionnaires 2-3 months (time 1) and 14-15 months (time 2) after the disaster (response rate 55.0%). Sociodemographics, disaster-related experiences, and peritraumatic distress were assessed at time 1. At time 1 and time 2, general psychological distress (GPD) and post-traumatic stress response (PTSR) were measured, respectively, using the K6 scale and Impact of Event Scale Revised. We examined multivariate covariates of time 2 GPD and PTSR, adjusting for autocorrelations in the hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Higher GPD at time 2 was predicted by higher GPD at time 1 (β = 0.491, p < 0.001) and discrimination/slurs experiences at time 1 (β = 0.065, p = 0.025, adjusted R 2 = 0.24). Higher PTSR at time 2 was predicted with higher PTSR at time 1 (β = 0.548, p < 0.001), higher age (β = 0.085, p = 0.005), and discrimination/slurs experiences at time 1 (β = 0.079, p = 0.003, adjusted R 2 = 0.36). Higher GPD at time 2 was predicted by higher GPD and discrimination/slurs experience at time 1. Higher PTSR at time 2 was predicted by higher PTSR, higher age, and discrimination/slurs experience at time 1.
Ikeda, A; Tanigawa, T; Charvat, H; Wada, H; Shigemura, J; Kawachi, I
The Fukushima Nuclear Energy Workers' Support (NEWS) Project Study previously showed that experiences related to the Fukushima nuclear disaster on 11 March 2011 had a great impact on psychological states, including post-traumatic stress response (PTSR) and general psychological distress (GPD), among the Fukushima nuclear plant workers. To determine the causal relationship between disaster-related experiences and levels of psychological states, we conducted a 3-year longitudinal study from 2011 to 2014. PTSR and GPD of the nuclear plant workers were assessed by annual questionnaires conducted from 2011 to 2014. The present study included a total of 1417 workers who provided an assessment at baseline (2011). A total of 4160 observations were used in the present analysis. The relationship between disaster-related experiences and psychological states over time was analysed using mixed-effects logistic regression models. A declining influence of disaster-related experiences on PTSR over time was found. However, the impact on PTSR remained significantly elevated even 3 years after the disaster in several categories of exposure including the experience of life-threatening danger, experiences of discrimination, the witnessing of plant explosion, the death of a colleague and home evacuation. The associations between GPD and disaster-related experiences showed similar effects. The effects of disaster-related experiences on psychological states among the nuclear plant workers reduced over time, but remained significantly high even 3 years after the event.
Toran, Hasnah; Squires, Jane; Lawrence, Karen
The Infant Mental Health system in Malaysia is described, beginning with cultural and religious practices that influence mental health practices. Second, a description of the Malaysian mental health system, including historical influences, is given. Third, policy and services for young children with mental health problems are described. Finally, recommendations for future steps for developing an effective infant mental health system are presented, including the development of infant mental health policies by the government, increased personnel training, increased community mental health resources, integration of culture into the mental health system, and finally, development of appropriate screening and assessment instruments and systems. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Parameshvara Deva, M
severe shortages of other professionals such as clinical psychologists and social workers in mental health services. There are a few specialists, and specialized services in child, adolescent, forensic, rehabilitative, liaison or research fields of mental health. In the area of services for women and children, as well as the disabled in the community, there are strong efforts to improve the care and provide services that are in keeping with a caring society. New legislation on these are being passed every year and the setting up of a Ministry for Women's Affairs is one such move in recent years. Mental health in Malaysia has been slow in developing but has in the past decade seen important strides to bring it on par with other branches of medicine.
... Helping Children in Rural Areas Children's Mental Health Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Mental health in childhood means reaching developmental and emotional milestones, and learning healthy social skills and how to cope when ...
... for the individual. Covering issues including perinatal psychiatric disorders, depression, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and alcohol and drug abuse - from a female perspective - Women and Mental Health will prove a valuable tool for all those working in the fields of mental health. Dora Kohen is a Consultant Psychiatrist and an Honorary Senior...
Full Text Available Issues related to the mental health of women are a priority these days. Many international organisations working in the field of psychiatry are having sections on it now. This approach can go a long way in the improvement of the available mental health services for this population.
... and Family Members For Educators For Community and Faith Leaders Conversations in Your Community How To Get Help Get Immediate Help Help for Veterans and Their Families Health Insurance and Mental Health Services Participate in a ...
Ueda, Ikki; Sakuma, Atsushi; Takahashi, Yoko; Shoji, Wataru; Nagao, Ayami; Abe, Mikika; Suzuki, Yuriko; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Matsumoto, Kazunori
After a large-scale natural disaster, demand for social welfare services increases, and the mental health of local social welfare workers becomes a matter of great concern because of their dual role as support providers and disaster survivors. We examined whether work-related social stressors, including criticism by community people and poor workplace communication, were associated with increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, or psychological distress 20-22 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE; March 11, 2011) in local social welfare workers. Demographic characteristics, disaster-related risk factors (near-death experience, dead/missing family members, loss of housing), and work-related social risk factors (criticism, lack of communication) were obtained 20-22 months after the GEJE from 822 local workers. Questionnaires measured PTSD, depression, and psychological stress. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were applied. More local social welfare workers suffered from mental health problems than would be expected. Criticism by community people was significantly associated with probable PTSD and high psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio = 2.31 and 2.55, respectively). Furthermore, lack of workplace communication was associated with probable PTSD, depression, and high psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio = 3.97, 4.27, and 4.65, respectively). Almost 2 years after the disaster, local relief workers still suffered from mental health problems. Because post-disaster work-related social stressors constitute risk factors for these mental health problems, measures to improve working conditions and prevent and treat mental disorders should be a priority.
Full Text Available After a large-scale natural disaster, demand for social welfare services increases, and the mental health of local social welfare workers becomes a matter of great concern because of their dual role as support providers and disaster survivors. We examined whether work-related social stressors, including criticism by community people and poor workplace communication, were associated with increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression, or psychological distress 20-22 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE; March 11, 2011 in local social welfare workers. Demographic characteristics, disaster-related risk factors (near-death experience, dead/missing family members, loss of housing, and work-related social risk factors (criticism, lack of communication were obtained 20-22 months after the GEJE from 822 local workers. Questionnaires measured PTSD, depression, and psychological stress. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were applied. More local social welfare workers suffered from mental health problems than would be expected. Criticism by community people was significantly associated with probable PTSD and high psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio = 2.31 and 2.55, respectively. Furthermore, lack of workplace communication was associated with probable PTSD, depression, and high psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio = 3.97, 4.27, and 4.65, respectively. Almost 2 years after the disaster, local relief workers still suffered from mental health problems. Because post-disaster work-related social stressors constitute risk factors for these mental health problems, measures to improve working conditions and prevent and treat mental disorders should be a priority.
Shoji, Wataru; Nagao, Ayami; Abe, Mikika; Suzuki, Yuriko; Matsuoka, Hiroo
After a large-scale natural disaster, demand for social welfare services increases, and the mental health of local social welfare workers becomes a matter of great concern because of their dual role as support providers and disaster survivors. We examined whether work-related social stressors, including criticism by community people and poor workplace communication, were associated with increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, or psychological distress 20–22 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE; March 11, 2011) in local social welfare workers. Demographic characteristics, disaster-related risk factors (near-death experience, dead/missing family members, loss of housing), and work-related social risk factors (criticism, lack of communication) were obtained 20–22 months after the GEJE from 822 local workers. Questionnaires measured PTSD, depression, and psychological stress. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were applied. More local social welfare workers suffered from mental health problems than would be expected. Criticism by community people was significantly associated with probable PTSD and high psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio = 2.31 and 2.55, respectively). Furthermore, lack of workplace communication was associated with probable PTSD, depression, and high psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio = 3.97, 4.27, and 4.65, respectively). Almost 2 years after the disaster, local relief workers still suffered from mental health problems. Because post-disaster work-related social stressors constitute risk factors for these mental health problems, measures to improve working conditions and prevent and treat mental disorders should be a priority. PMID:29166390
Interviews with Native American mental health and social workers discuss how Native mental health problems are related to historical trauma and chronically inadequate mental health services. Elements of culturally relevant mental health services include locally delivered workshops, kinship foster care, tribal elders, spirituality, and Native care…
Conclusion: Despite the fact that healthcare workers work longer hours and shift work, there were several modifiable psychosocial work conditions that should be targeted to improve their mental health.
Sherwood, Jennifer A; Grosso, Ashley; Decker, Michele R; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Papworth, Erin; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou Maria; Ceesay, Nuha; Baral, Stefan
Female sex workers (FSW) are a vulnerable population for sexual violence and poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Sexual violence against FSW has not been widely studied in The Gambia. This study will report the prevalence of and evaluate the health issues correlated with forced sex perpetrated by clients against FSW in The Gambia, and will secondly aim to inform future research and efforts to improve health outcomes for survivors of violence. A cross-sectional survey was administered among 251 FSW accrued through a combination of chain referral and venue-based sampling in The Gambia. Eligibility criteria included being over 16 years old and having exchanged sex for money, goods, or favors in the past 12 months. There is a high prevalence of sexual violence against FSW in The Gambia, with 29% (n = 70) of participants reporting a client forced them to have sex in their lifetime. Women who reported forced sex by a client were more likely to report symptoms of depression (aOR 2.15, CI: 1.10-4.16 p < 0.05), unwanted pregnancy (aOR: 2.69, CI: 1.12-6.49 p < 0.05) and report "no", "difficult" or "somewhat difficult" access to condoms (aOR: 3.31, CI: 1.76-6.26 p < .01) compared to women who did not report forced sex. Client-perpetrated forced sex was also negatively associated with receiving any sexually transmitted infection (STI) test in the past 12 months (aOR: 0.49, CI: .26-.91 p < .05). FSW who experience sexual violence by a client are more likely to experience poor sexual, reproductive and mental health outcomes. Responding to sexual violence among FSW, including providing survivors with access to post-exposure prophylaxis, emergency contraception, and mental health services, must be a priority given the prevalence of forced sex and links with poor health outcomes. Efforts to reduce sexual violence against FSW is a vital strategy to improve the health and safety of FSW as well as impact the spread of HIV/STIs in The Gambia.
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Public Health Agency
This leaflet outlines the signs of poor mental health and suggests steps that people can take to promote good mental health. It advises people to talk to someone if they feel that they may have a mental health problem.
Bernoth, Maree; Burmeister, Oliver K; Morrison, Mark; Islam, Md Zahidul; Onslow, Fiona; Cleary, Michelle
This study describes and evaluates an innovative program designed to reduce functional decline among seniors, using a participatory care approach and integrated health teams. The evaluation provides older people and community support workers (CSWs) with the opportunity to share their experiences of being involved with an innovative program to reduce functional decline (mobility, skin integrity, nutrition, mental health, continence) of older, community dwelling adults implemented by a Nursing Service in a major capital city in Australia. As part of the program, CSWs were trained to provide care that aimed to reduce functional decline, and improve the quality of life for the care recipients. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with older people receiving care and a focus group (FG) was conducted with CSWs. Seven themes emerged during data analysis: 1) functionality/independence; 2) prevention; 3) confidence; 4) connection; 5) the approach; 6) care plans; and 7) the role of the CSWs. The relationship built between care giver and receiver and the mutual respect facilitated through adopting a participatory care approach was crucial. This relationship-focused care contributed to improved functionality and consequently quality of life for the older person, and for the CSW professional it contributed to their development, improved satisfaction with their role, and increased pride in the difference they make in the lives of their clients. Opportunities for improvement of the program included ensuring that participants understood the rationale for all aspects of the program, including regular reminders, as well as the use of regular reviews of individual outcomes.
Gigantesco, Antonella; Lega, Ilaria
One fifth of workers reports experiencing stress in the work environment in Europe. A number of studies show that psychosocial stressors in the workplace are associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes, including symptoms of anxiety and depression. The present paper: briefly describes the characteristics of occupational stress and the main psychosocial stressful risk factors in the work environment; reports the main results of studies on psychosocial risk factors in the work environment as risk factor for common mental disorders; presents findings from an Italian study aimed at assessing prevalence of common mental disorders and workplace psychosocial stressors in a sample of hospital employees; provides the "Working conditions Questionnaire", a validated self-administered instrument to assess perceived stress in the workplace; this questionnaire includes the assessment of organizational justice.
Vézina, M; Gingras, S
Analysis of the Quebec Health survey identified those Quebec industrial sectors and professions in which workers are at risk of higher psychological distress and lower psychological well-being. Risk levels were measured by odds ratio, controlling for: health status, sex, social support and stressful life events. Results show that those at risk are blue collar workers and less qualified workers of traditional sectors. Lower job latitude could explain those results. Results show that risk of mental health problems is significantly higher in the following industrial sectors: leather, chemicals, paint and varnish industries; urban bus transport and taxi; shoe, clothing and textile retail stores; department stores; restaurant services; insurance and public administration (excluding defence). Risk of mental health problems is higher in the following professions road transport (excluding truck drivers); textile, leather, fur manufacturing and repairing; housekeeping and maintenance; painters, tapestry-workers, insulation and waterproofing, food and beverages sector; data processors; editors and university professors.
Dingman, Robert L.
Discusses the effects of Hurricane Andrew on disaster workers, followed by some reported experiences of workers as well as victims. Background on natural disasters in general is given, along with information about crisis intervention. Discusses mental health interventions and various skills needed by disaster mental health counselors. (Author/KW)
Igumnov, S.A.; Lapanov, P.S.
This review deals with the latest information concerning the studies of the effect of the Chornobyl accident on the mental health of different population groups of Belarus. Observed the pathogenesis of mental disorders, develop ing in individuals living in the contaminated territories. Reviewed different factors affecting the mental health of such population group as the liquidators. Disclosed is a phenomenon of squatters ('samosely') - people who voluntarily returned to their homes in the exclusion zone after the forced relocation. The data studies, including its own, mental disorders in children, exposed to radioactive exposure in different periods of development
Bonelli, Raphael Maria
Since 1978, two systematic evidence-based reviews of the available data on religiosity and mental health in the field of psychiatry have been done. More than 70 % found a relationship between level of religious/spiritual involvement and less mental disorder (positive), some found mixed results (positive and negative), and only about 5 % reported more mental disorder (negative), as was originally suggested by Sigmund Freud. There is good evidence that religious involvement is correlated with better mental health in the areas of depression, substance abuse, and suicide; some evidence in stress-related disorders and dementia; insufficient evidence in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and no data in many other mental disorders. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Radiation workers are healthier than the average person in the general population and appear to be as healthy as workers in other ΣsafeΣ industries. It is, however, assumed that there is no safe dose of radiation and that any exposure to radiation will cause a small increase in the incidence of cancer, this increase being directly proportional to the total radiation dose. On the basis of the risk estimates given by ICRP, radiation exposures up to 1 rem per year for 47 years are predicted to cause fewer work-related deaths than expected for the average worker in Canadian industry. Radiation exposures of 5 rem per year from age 18 to 65 would result in predicted risk which is about four times higher than that for most workers in Canada and might increase the chances of death before age 75 to nearly the same level as for the average member of the general public. (auth)
Lindert, Jutta; Bilsen, Johan; Jakubauskiene, Marija
Public mental health (PMH) is a major challenge for public health research and practice. This article is organized in six parts. First, we will highlight the significance of PMH; second, we will define mental health and mental disorders; third, we identify and describe determinants of mental health and mental disorders on which we worked in the past 10 years since the establishment of the PMH section such as social determinants and violence. Fourth, we will describe the development of the EUPHA PMH section and provide details on vulnerable groups in the field of PMH, on violence as a main determinant and on suicide as an outcome which affects all countries in the European region. Fifth, we describe policy and practice implications of the development of PMH and highlight the European dimension of PMH. We will conclude this article by providing an outlook on potential further development of PMH as regards research and policy and practice. Finally, we hope that the EUPHA PMH section will contribute to public health in the next 25 years and we can contribute to improvement of PMH in Europe. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Elouyse Fernandes Leitão
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the health practices adopted by sex workers in their daily lives. Methods: A qualitative study that took place at bars where sex workers of Maceió –AL, Brazil, work. The universe of participant subjects was integrated by 15 female sex workers, aged between 20 and 39 years, assisted by the team of a Street Clinic. The research took place between August and October 2011 and women were randomly selected. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, which were all audio-recorded and transcribed for further analysis and interpretation. Results: Thematic analysis of the data produced and the theoretical framework of health promotion enabled the categorization of the health practices in daily life of these women, such as: prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, body care and aesthetics, physical activity, nutrition, leisure, interpersonal relationships, consumption of alcohol and others drugs, self-medication, and quest for health services. The ways they appropriate themselves of such practices are conditioned by the social vulnerability and economic and sociocultural context they are in. Conclusion: Despite the deficiencies found in the development of these practices, sex workers seek to preserve habits that improve their physical, social and mental health, as well as the pursuit of professional care and services to promote their health.
Mościcka, A; Makowska, Z; Merecz, D; Kolasa, W
The present study was undertaken with two objectives. First, to assess the prevalence of mental health disorders among primary health patients. All the subjects under study (n = 170) had at least part time job. The mental health status of the patients was assessed on the basis of standardized psychiatric interview, M-CIDI (computer version). More than a half of the study population (51.8%) had at least one diagnosis of mental health disorder. The following disorders were most common in the group: neurotic, stress-related and somaform disorders (32.9%), mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (26.5; 11.8%--nicotine dependence) and mood (affective) disorders (16.5%). Two or more mental health disorders were diagnosed in every second person. Second, to evaluate the usefulness of M-CIDI as a tool for assessing psychiatric problems. Taking into account the research experience, M-CIDI is a valuable and easy to use diagnostic tool for detecting mental health disorders. The most important advantage of this instrument relies on its standardization that allows to carry out examinations even by persons who have no knowledge of psychiatry. The computer version of the M-CIDI is little time-consuming, simple and easy to operate as compared to the paper-pencil version It also has a quick access to the data base with the stored information about patients and their diagnoses.
This article charts the historical development of the discipline of global mental health, whose goal is to improve access to mental health care and reduce inequalities in mental health outcomes between and within nations. The article begins with an overview of the contribution of four scientific foundations toward the discipline's core agenda: to scale up services for people with mental disorders and to promote their human rights. Next, the article highlights four recent, key events that are indicative of the actions shaping the discipline: the Mental Health Gap Action Programme to synthesize evidence on what treatments are effective for a range of mental disorders; the evidence on task shifting to nonspecialist health workers to deliver these treatments; the Movement for Global Mental Health's efforts to build a common platform for professionals and civil society to advocate for their shared goal; and the Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health, which has identified the research priorities that, within the next decade, can lead to substantial improvements in the lives of people living with mental disorders. The article ends by examining the major challenges for the field, and the opportunities for addressing them in the future.
Full Text Available The responsibilities of occupational health and safety workers are very hard to ensure other workers is safety. The responsibility make the workers of occupational health and safety has some affecting to their job. Some effect can cause over the mental workload. This research aims to determine the score of mental workload from three professions in occupational health and safety, i.e. safetyman contractor, safetyman field and safetyman officer. Six indicators in the NASA-TLX method, i.e. mental demand (MD, physical demand (PD, temporal demand (TD, performance (OP, effort (EF and frustration level (FR are used to determine the worker’s mental workload. The result shows mental demand (MD is the most dominant indicators affecting the mental workload between safetyman contractor, safetyman field and safety officer. The highest mental workload score among safety workers is on the safetyman field with WWL score at 62,38, because among the three types safety workers, the highest MD is on the safetyman field due to the responsibility.
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others
This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…
Noriega, Mariano; Gutiérrez, Guadalupe; Méndez, Ignacio; Pulido, Margarita
The relationships were studied between daily life, work, and mental disorders in female health workers from the Mexican Health Insurance Institute. The study sample (n = 170) included female physicians, nurses, laboratory workers, and medical assistants. Primary data were obtained through an interview which had been previously validated in a population of workers in Mexico. Relationships were found between mental disorders and all facets of women's lives. In relation to the domestic environment, women with higher rates of mental disorders were those who were mothers, had more children, did not have household help, and had husbands or partners. Prevalence of mental disorders in relation to paid work was associated with the length of the workday, absenteeism, and lack of job content. Skills development, job satisfaction, and creativity had a "protective" or preventive effect against mental disorders and fatigue. The main risks and conditions that functioned as stressors were heat, noise, physical effort, awkward positions, and intense, repetitive work.
Song, Insu; Yellowlees, Peter; Diederich, Joachim
This book introduces approaches that have the potential to transform the daily practice of psychiatrists and psychologists. This includes the asynchronous communication between mental health care providers and clients as well as the automation of assessment and therapy. Speech and language are particularly interesting from the viewpoint of psychological assessment. For instance, depression may change the characteristics of voice in individuals and these changes can be detected by a special form of speech analysis. Computational screening methods that utilise speech and language can detect subtle changes and alert clinicians as well as individuals and caregivers. The use of online technologies in mental health, however, poses ethical problems that will occupy concerned individuals, governments and the wider public for some time. Assuming that these ethical problems can be solved, it should be possible to diagnose and treat mental health disorders online (excluding the use of medication).
hospitalized, but to get inside the contemporary psychiatric institution and to participate in the social world of patients and professionals, I had to experiment with different ethnographic approaches. Ethnographies of mental health have become increasingly rare, and much research on language in psychiatric......In 2010, I began a PhD study to examine how professionals and patients talked to—and about—each other in mental health institutions in Denmark. One year later, I found myself chain-smoking, dressed in baggy clothing, and slouching on a sofa in a closed psychiatric ward. I had not myself been...... institutions is done by interview research. My study involved observing and participating in the day-to-day life at two mental health facilities: an outpatient clinic and an inpatient closed ward. The case study provides an account of some of the specific methodological problems and unanticipated events...
... violence (IPV) and women veterans More information on women veterans and mental health Recent research shows that about 25to 30 percent of veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan report symptoms of a mental disorder. Untreated mental ...
Health promotion is essential to improve the health status and quality of life of individuals. Promoting mental health at an individual, community and policy level is central to reducing the incidence of mental health problems, including self-harm and suicide. Men may be particularly vulnerable to mental health problems, in part because they are less likely to seek help from healthcare professionals. Although this article discusses mental health promotion and related strategies in general, th...
Fujino, Yoshihisa; Horie, Seichi; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Tsutsui, Takao; Tanaka, Yayoi
There is growing concern over the possible increase in mental health problems among Japanese workers. This trend is generally regarded as a reflection of Japan's prolonged economic depression and changes in working environment. In fact, claims for compensation for industrial accidents related to mental health diseases have been rapidly increasing in recent years. Working hours, personal-relationships, support from supervisors/co-workers, job demand, job control, and payment are known to affect workers mental health. In 2004, the Government announced a guideline to combat overwork and mental health problems at work places. This guideline articulates that long overtime working is a major indicator, and workers who work over 100 h overtime in a month should be encouraged to see an occupational physician. This guideline takes into account the practicalities of occupational health at work places and the empiric knowledge that long working hours might associate with workers mental health status. It may be reasonable to assume that long working hours affect workers health status both psychologically and physiologically, interacting with a variety of occupational factors, particularly job stress. However, the association between working hours and workers mental health status has not been fully clarified. The present article aimed to provide a systematic review of the association between working hours and mental health problems. The authors conducted a systematic review of the published literature on the association between working hours and mental health problems using PubMed. Of 131 abstracts and citations reviewed, 17 studies met the predefined criteria. Ten of these are longitudinal studies, and the others are cross-sectional studies. Seven of the 17 studies report statistically significant associations between working hours and mental health problems, while the others report no association. In addition, comparison among these studies is difficult because a variety of
Braithwaite, Scott; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne
This paper reviews the research on relationships and mental health. Individuals who are more mentally healthy are more likely to select into relationships, but relationships are also demonstrably associated with mental health. The type of relationship matters - evidence suggests that more established, committed relationships, such as marriage, are associated with greater benefits than less committed unions such as cohabitation. The association between relationships and mental health is clearly bidirectional, however, stronger effects are observed when mental health is the outcome and relationships are the predictor, suggesting that the causal arrow flows more strongly from relationships to mental health than vice versa. Moreover, improving relationships improves mental health, but improving mental health does not reliably improve relationships. Our review of research corroborates the view that relationships are a keystone component of human functioning that have the potential to influence a broad array of mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Islam, Farah; Khanlou, Nazilla; Macpherson, Alison; Tamim, Hala
To determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of past-year mental health consultation for Ontario's adult (18 + years old) immigrant populations. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2012 was used to calculate the prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation by service provider type. Characteristics associated with mental health consultation were determined by carrying out multivariable logistic regression analysis on merged CCHS 2008-2012 data. Adult immigrant populations in Ontario (n = 3995) had lower estimated prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation across all service provider types compared to Canadian-born populations (n = 14,644). Amongst those who reported past-year mental health consultation, 57.89% of Ontario immigrants contacted their primary care physician, which was significantly higher than the proportion who consulted their family doctor from Canadian-born populations (45.31%). The factors of gender, age, racial/ethnic background, education level, working status, food insecurity status, self-perceived health status, smoking status, alcohol drinking status, years since immigration, and age at time of immigration were significantly associated with past-year mental health consultation for immigrant populations. Ontario's adult immigrant populations most commonly consult their family doctor for mental health care. Potential exists for expanding the mental health care role of primary care physicians as well as efforts to increase accessibility of specialized mental health services. Integrated, coordinated care where primary care physicians, specialized mental health professionals, social workers, and community educators, etc. working together in a sort of "one-stop-shop" may be the most effective way to mitigate gaps in the mental health care system. In order to effectively tailor mental health policy, programming, and promotion to suit the needs of immigrant populations initiatives that focus on
SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia
Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.
Kari-Koskinen, O; Karvonen, P
With the present trend away from the designing of individual buildings and towards the systematic planning of whole residential communities, it should be possible to take mental health requirements into account at the planning stage. At present, sociologists are all too seldom consulted on matters of residential planning. When discussing the relationship between housing and mental health one cannot restrict oneself only to the external aspects of the house, but rather one must also consider the opportunities available for the members of the family to satisfy their own needs, both within the home and in its immediate surroundings. Factors which may affect residential requirements include geographical location, type and standard of dwelling and time and continuity of occupation. A move between two districts or groups representing different housing norms and values may lead to withdrawal symptoms in the individual. This may arise equally well from the remoteness of the country districts as from the conflicting pressures brought on by the abundance of contacts available in the large towns. Town life tends to heighten susceptibility to neuroses and personality conflicts. The character of a residential area may affect the mental health of its occupants. Faris & Dunham (4), in studying the incidence of various types of mental illness with an urban population, observed that schizophrenia was most common among people who were in some way isolated from social involvement. The striving for spaciousness in residential areas and the creation of a "summer city" or "garden city" image or a "family-centred way of life" may lead to unexpected problems and have a variety of social consequences. Mental health difficulties have been noted, for example, among housewives in "dormitory" towns or suburbs (11). The institutions required by a community may be grouped into four categories, representing the basic needs of its members. These are (1) economic institutions, (2) social and
Providing teacher candidates with a strong foundation in mental health literacy during their teacher education program is crucial in ensuring novice teachers are prepared to support the mental health needs of their students. In addition to responding to students, teacher candidates are typically at an age when mental health disorders are common…
Nakadaira, Hiroto; Yamamoto, Masaharu; Matsubara, Toh
This paper investigates the effects of tanshin funin, a posting without family, on the health of married male workers. A prospective study using the pair-matched method was performed. One hundred and twenty-nine married male tanshin funin workers in their 40s and 50s and as many matched workers living with their family (regular workers) participated. Fewer tanshin funin workers took breakfast everyday (OR=3.3, phealth problems, namely headache (OR=4.7, p=0.013) and gastric/duodenal ulcers (OR=8.7, pmental stress were thus important effects of tanshin funin. Tanshin funin workers should be provided with health and lifestyle education programs and mental health care before and during tanshin funin. Doctors and nurses in the healthcare departments of companies should play a leading role.
Gruebner, Oliver; Rapp, Michael A; Adli, Mazda; Kluge, Ulrike; Galea, Sandro; Heinz, Andreas
More than half of the global population currently lives in cities, with an increasing trend for further urbanization. Living in cities is associated with increased population density, traffic noise and pollution, but also with better access to health care and other commodities. This review is based on a selective literature search, providing an overview of the risk factors for mental illness in urban centers. Studies have shown that the risk for serious mental illness is generally higher in cities compared to rural areas. Epidemiological studies have associated growing up and living in cities with a considerably higher risk for schizophrenia. However, correlation is not causation and living in poverty can both contribute to and result from impairments associated with poor mental health. Social isolation and discrimination as well as poverty in the neighborhood contribute to the mental health burden while little is known about specific interactions between such factors and the built environment. Further insights on the interaction between spatial heterogeneity of neighborhood resources and socio-ecological factors is warranted and requires interdisciplinary research.
... Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... emotion as well as muscle movement. For years, mental health professionals have recognized that coping with a chronic ...
Kunugita, Naoki; Igari, Kazuyuki
People in Japan have expressed great anxiety about possible radiation and radioactivity after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company's (TEPCO), due to the great earthquake and tsunami in eastern Japan on 11 March 2011. A large number of workers were engaged in response and recovery operations, and they were possibly exposed to high doses of radiation as compared to the general population. In the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986, high doses of radiation to 134 plant staff and emergency personnel resulted in acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which proved fatal for 28 of them. In the Fukushima accident, six workers were exposed to more than 250 mSv of radiation during the initial response phase, but no one showed ARS. It is necessary to continue registration of radiation doses for all workers who were exposed to radiation to facilitate suitable healthcare management in the future. In addition to radiation exposure, a group of workers were also exposed to other health hazards. Frequent occurrence of heat disorders has been a concern for the workers wearing protective clothing with poor ventilation. A comprehensive program to prevent heat illness was implemented by TEPCO under the guidance of the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. It is important to provide effective systems not only for prevention of radiation exposure but also for general management of other health risks including heat disorders and infection. (author)
Elisa Ansoleaga M
Full Text Available There is growing evidence on the association between exposure to psychosocial risk at work and adverse health outcomes. Objective: to describe and analyze the presence of psychosocial risks at work and mental health symptoms in non-clinical workers from a public hospital. Methods: a crosssectional study was conducted at a public hospital in Santiago (Chile. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to assess exposure to psychosocial risks (demand-control and effort-reward imbalance models. The outcome variables were depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and psychotropic drug consumption. The analysis was descriptive and associative (Fisher’s exact test Results: 47% of the workers showed high psychological demands, 46% low autonomy, 61% low social support and 75% imbalance between effort expended and rewards received. The prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms in the total sample was 10% and 30% respectively, while 25% reported having used psychotropic drugs. The consumption of psychotropic drugs was significantly higher (p < 0.05 among those with low social support and effort-reward imbalance. Discussion: the consumption of psychotropic drugs was associated with low social support and imbalance between efforts expended and rewards received. This might have implications in the workers’ health and performance; therefore, further research is required, particularly on this kind of population, to understand this relationship and thus develop prevention programs in this regard.
The characteristic differences among the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries in terms of trade and investment, society and cultural values, medical information and technology, and the living and working environment have become major health problems in terms of mental disorders. The purpose of this article is to identify the gaps in those aspects, to propose mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs, and to recommend policies for policy makers and research investors. A comparative analysis and literature review of existing policy, including overviews of previous research were used to generate a synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs. The review results recommend mental health and mental disorder programs for policy makers, research investors, and stakeholders in order to strengthen the directions for implementing these programs in the future. The healthcare provision in each country will not be limited only to its citizens; the healthcare markets and target groups are likely to expand to the neighboring countries in the context of changes in domestic and international factors, which have both positive and negative impacts according to the political, economic, and social situations of the influencing countries.
Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including 4 General Practitioners to 35,000 population, compared with 1 GP per 1700 population in the UK. Methods We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1, which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad. Additional file 1 Public Perception of Mental Illness Questionnaire. Click here for file Results The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness. Conclusions This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.
Relationship between sickness presenteeism and awareness and presence or absence of systems for return to work among workers with mental health problems in Japan: an Internet-based cross-sectional study.
Doki, Shotaro; Sasahara, Shinichiro; Suzuki, Shun; Hirai, Yasuhito; Oi, Yuichi; Usami, Kazuya; Matsuzaki, Ichiyo
The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between sickness presenteeism and the degree of awareness of company regulations regarding financial compensation for absenteeism. An Internet-based survey of 258 full-time workers who had more than 28 days of sickness absence due to mental health problems was conducted. Workers were categorized as having either low or high sickness presenteeism, and awareness and presence or absence of systems for return to work and duration of financial compensation were compared between groups. The following factors were significantly related to high sickness presenteeism based on logistic regression analyses: working for a private company (odds ratio [OR]=2.57; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.10-5.99); recognition of a gradual resumption system (OR=3.89, 95% CI=1.02-14.81); and awareness regarding the duration of financial compensation (OR=1.04, 95% CI=1.01-1.07). No relationship was found between mental sickness presenteeism and presence or absence of systems for return to work in our multivariate analysis; however, a relationship was apparent between sickness presenteeism and characteristics of the workers' companies. These results are expected to contribute to research involving human resources and occupational health.
Crowe, Trevor P.; Kelly, Peter; Pepper, James; McLennan, Ross; Deane, Frank P.; Buckingham, Mark
A repeated measures design was used to evaluate a 12 month on-site counsellor internship programme aimed at training staff to support the recovery needs of people with co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders. Fifty-four interns completed measures of recovery knowledge, attitudes, confidence/competence, as well as identifying…
Leijten, F.R.M.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Beek, A.J. van der; Ybema, J.F.; Robroek, S.J.W.; Burdorf, A.
Purpose The goals of this study were to determine whether, among older employees, unfavourable physical and psychosocial work-related factors were associated with poorer mental and physical health and whether high work engagement buffered the associations between unfavourable work-related factors
de Graaf, R.; Kessler, R. C.; Fayyad, J.; ten Have, M.; Alonso, J.; Angermeyer, M.; Borges, G.; Demyttenaere, K.; Gasquet, I.; de Girolamo, G.; Haro, J. M.; Jin, R.; Karam, E. G.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and workplace consequences of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: An ADHD screen was administered to 18-44-year-old respondents in 10 national surveys in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative (n = 7075 in paid or
de Graaf, R.; Kessler, R.C.; Fayyad, J.; Ten Have, M.; Alonso, J.; Angermeyer, M.; Borges, G.; Demyttenaere, K.; Gasquet, I.; De Girolamo, G.; Haro, J.M.; Jin, R.; Karam, E.G.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and workplace consequences of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: An ADHD screen was administered to 18-44-year-old respondents in 10 national surveys in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative (n = 7075 in paid or
Adhikary, Pratik; Sheppard, Zoe; Keen, Steven; Van Teijlingen, Edwin
Purpose- Although South Asia is a growing supplier of migrant labour, there is a paucity of research on the health and wellbeing of male Nepalese migrant workers. This study assessed the health and mental wellbeing of Nepalese construction and factory workers employed in Malaysia, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia. Design- A structured questionnaire administered, in and around Nepal’s international airport, to 403 migrants who had worked for over six months in their host countries. Logistic regression ...
In the United Kingdom, contemporary mental health rehabilitation services evolved during the period of deinstitutionalisation. They focus on people with complex psychosis, a "low volume, high needs" group which is at risk of social exclusion. Without these specialist services, this group is at risk of becoming stuck in a hospital or in other facilities that do not enable them to achieve their optimal level of autonomy. When a "whole system" of rehabilitative care is provided, including specialist inpatient facilities and supported accommodation, the majority are able to progress in their recovery and live successfully in the community. Rehabilitation is a complex intervention; current and further research is needed to identify the specific aspects of treatment and support it delivers that are most effective in enabling recovery and social inclusion for those with the most complex and long-term mental health needs.
Cherry, Ralph, Comp.
Designed to acquaint social workers and other professionals in the mental health field with the basic terms necessary for professional discussions, paper presentations, and international correspondence, the English/Spanish-Spanish/English glossary lists 130 selected mental health terms. The glossary includes two sections: English to Spanish and…
It was decided to embark on an occupational health research program at Roessing Uranium Mine because there was a real need for a well-planned prospective epidemiological study which could contribute towards the better understanding of the etiology and natural history of occupational diseases. The main objective of this study is to correlate the respiratory health status in relation to occupational exposure and smoking in a uranium mining and milling environment
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…
Full Text Available The claim of health workers to the way they are outraged in the exercise of their profession has become reiterative. Let's start with the inadequate input of supplies to care agencies. Because of the dreadful 100 law, the poor working conditions in the different hospitals, especially public hospitals, are well known.
Essential information on the health protection of radiation workers which has accumulated since the advent of nuclear fission thirty years ago is presented in simple terms. Basic facts on ionizing radiation, its measurement, and dosimetry are presented. Acute and chronic somatic and genetic effects are discussed with emphasis on prevention. Radiation protection standards and regulations are outlined, and methods for maintaining these standards are described. Diagnosis and treatment of radiation injury from external radiation and/or internally deposited radionuclides is considered generally as well as specifically for each radioisotope. The medical supervision of radiation workers, radiation accidents, atomic power plants, and medicolegal problems is also covered. (853 references) (U.S.)
Background. A unique feature of mental health nurses' work involves exposure to clients' descriptions of and reactions to trauma, and these experiences may indirectly cause distress to the mental health worker. This phenomenon has been termed “secondary traumatic stress” (STS) (Perez, Jones, Englert & Sachau, 2010).
Erickson, Chris D.; Al-Timimi, Nada R.
This paper presents background information on the cultural sociopathology of the Arab American experience. It discusses how, in order to effectively deliver services, mental health workers need to be aware of their own biases. It explores ways to provide culturally relevant mental health services to Arab Americans. (JDM)
Siriwanarangsan, Porntep; Liknapichitkul, Dusit; Khandelwal, Sudhir K
Thailand, a constitutional monarchy, has undergone a rapid shift in its demography and economy in last two decades. This has put a great burden on the health services, including mental health care of the country. The current emphasis of the Ministry of Public Health is to change its role from health care provider to policymaker and regulator of standards, and to provide technical support to health facilities under its jurisdiction as well as in the private sector. The Department of Mental Health, established in 1994, has laid down a mental health policy that aims to promote mental health care within the community with the help of people's participation in health programmes. Focus has been placed on developing suitable and efficient technology by seeking cooperation both within and outside the Ministry of Public Health. Consequently, the Department of Mental Health has been receiving increasing budgetary allocations. Since there is a paucity of trained manpower, the emphasis is being laid on the utilization of general health care for mental health care. Some of the specific interventions are community services, prison services, psychiatric rehabilitation, and use of media in mental health operations. There have been active efforts towards international cooperation for developing technologies for specific programmes. Private and non-governmental organizations are supported and encouraged to provide mental health care to the marginalized sections of society. Efforts have also been made by the Department of Mental Health to inspect and raise the efficiency of its operations to result in quality service.
Mitchell, P; Malak, A; Small, D
This paper presents results from research that explored the roles of bilingual professionals in community mental health services in the Sydney metropolitan area of New South Wales. There were two main objectives to the research: (i) to identify and describe the roles of bilingual professionals that are important in improving the quality of community mental health services for clients from non-English-speaking backgrounds (NESB); and (ii) to identify and describe the factors that facilitate and inhibit the conduct of these roles. Data collection involved indepth interviews with bilingual professionals and team leaders in community mental health services and various other community health services; and various staff responsible for policy and service development with regard to cultural diversity. Bilingual mental health workers were found to have at least four critical roles. These were (i) direct clinical service provision to NESB clients; (ii) mental health promotion and community development; (iii) cultural consultancy; and (iv) service development. Respondents reported that the latter three roles were seriously underdeveloped compared to the clinical service provision role. It is critical that service managers implement strategies to make better use of the linguistic and cultural skills of bilingual professionals. In addition to their role in clinical service provision ways must be found to facilitate the community-focused, cultural consultancy and service development roles of bilingual professionals employed in mental health services.
This textbook is addressed to all those concerned with the protection of radiation workers. It provides full coverage of the implications of radiation in exposed workers, and, after a chapter outlining, in simple terms, the basic facts about radiation, deals with measurement of ionising radiation; radiation dosimetry; effectiveness of absorbed dose; general biological effects of ionising radiation; somatic effects of radiation; the acute radiation syndrome; other somatic effects; hereditary effects; radiation protection standards and regulations; radiation protection; medical supervision of radiation workers; general methods of diagnosis and treatment; metabolism and health problems of some radioisotopes; plutonium and other transuranium elements; radiation accidents; emergency plans and medical care; atomic power plants; medico-legal problems
Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.
Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…
Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace
Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.
Fried, E.; Tuerlinckx, F.; Borsboom, D.
The decision by the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to fund only research into the neurobiological roots of mental disorders (Nature 507, 288; 2014) presumes that these all result from brain abnormalities. But this is not the case for many people with mental-health issues and we fear
van Gastel, W.A.
Cannabis use has been implicated as a risk factor for mental health problems, (subclinical) psychotic symptoms in particular. If cannabis use was a cause of these problems, cessation would lead to improved public mental health. If cannabis use was a mere consequence of a predisposition for mental
Adelman, Howard S; Taylor, Linda
Health policy and practice call for health and mental health parity and for a greater focus on universal interventions to promote, prevent, and intervene as early after problem onset as is feasible. Those in the public health field are uniquely positioned to help promote the mental health of young people and to reshape how the nation thinks about and addresses mental health. And schools are essential partners for doing the work.
Background Mental health problems are prevalent and costly in working populations. Workplace interventions to address common mental health problems have evolved relatively independently along three main threads or disciplinary traditions: medicine, public health, and psychology. In this Debate piece, we argue that these three threads need to be integrated to optimise the prevention of mental health problems in working populations. Discussion To realise the greatest population mental health benefits, workplace mental health intervention needs to comprehensively 1) protect mental health by reducing work–related risk factors for mental health problems; 2) promote mental health by developing the positive aspects of work as well as worker strengths and positive capacities; and 3) address mental health problems among working people regardless of cause. We outline the evidence supporting such an integrated intervention approach and consider the research agenda and policy developments needed to move towards this goal, and propose the notion of integrated workplace mental health literacy. Summary An integrated approach to workplace mental health combines the strengths of medicine, public health, and psychology, and has the potential to optimise both the prevention and management of mental health problems in the workplace. PMID:24884425
LaMontagne, Anthony D; Martin, Angela; Page, Kathryn M; Reavley, Nicola J; Noblet, Andrew J; Milner, Allison J; Keegel, Tessa; Smith, Peter M
Mental health problems are prevalent and costly in working populations. Workplace interventions to address common mental health problems have evolved relatively independently along three main threads or disciplinary traditions: medicine, public health, and psychology. In this Debate piece, we argue that these three threads need to be integrated to optimise the prevention of mental health problems in working populations. To realise the greatest population mental health benefits, workplace mental health intervention needs to comprehensively 1) protect mental health by reducing work-related risk factors for mental health problems; 2) promote mental health by developing the positive aspects of work as well as worker strengths and positive capacities; and 3) address mental health problems among working people regardless of cause. We outline the evidence supporting such an integrated intervention approach and consider the research agenda and policy developments needed to move towards this goal, and propose the notion of integrated workplace mental health literacy. An integrated approach to workplace mental health combines the strengths of medicine, public health, and psychology, and has the potential to optimise both the prevention and management of mental health problems in the workplace.
Akol, Angela; Nalugya, Joyce; Nshemereirwe, Sylvia; Babirye, Juliet N; Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie Stadskleiv
Early identification and management of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) disorders helps to avert mental illness in adulthood but a CAMH treatment gap exists in Uganda. CAMH integration into primary health care (PHC) through in-service training of non-specialist health workers (NSHW) using the World Health Organisation (WHO) Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) Intervention Guide (IG) is a strategy to address this gap. However, results of such training are not supported by information on training development or delivery; and are undifferentiated by NSHW cadre. We aim to describe an in-service CAMH training for NSHW in Uganda and assess cadre-differentiated learning outcomes. Thirty-six clinical officers, nurses and midwives from 18 randomly selected PHC clinics in eastern Uganda were trained for 5 days on CAMH screening and referral using a curriculum based on the mhGAP-IG version 1.0 and PowerPoint slides from the International Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions (IACAPAP). The residential training was evaluated through pre- and post- training tests of CAMH knowledge and attitudes using the participants' post-test scores; and the difference between pre-test and post-test scores. Two-tailed t-tests assessed differences in mean pre-test and post-test scores between the cadres; hierarchical linear regression tested the association between cadre and post test scores; and logistic regression evaluated the relationship between cadre and knowledge gain at three pre-determined cut off points. Thirty-three participants completed both pre-and post-tests. Improved mean scores from pre- to post-test were observed for both clinical officers (20% change) and nurse/midwives (18% change). Clinical officers had significantly higher mean test scores than nurses and midwives (p training. Thus, an option for integrating CAMH into PHC in Uganda using the mhGAP-IG and IACAPAP PowerPoint slides is to proceed without cadre differentiation.
Smith, A P
The objective of the present investigation was to study the relationship between breakfast consumption and subjective reports of mental health and health-related behaviours in a general population sample (126 subjects aged between 20 and 79 years). Individuals who consumed a cereal breakfast each day were less depressed, less emotionally distressed and had lower levels of perceived stress than those who did not eat breakfast each day. Those who consumed breakfast had a healthier lifestyle than the others in that they were less likely to be smokers, drank less alcohol and had a healthier diet. However, the relationship between cereal breakfast consumption and mental health did not reflect these differences in the smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. In conclusion, there is an association between breakfast consumption and well-being which cannot entirely be accounted for by differences in other aspects of diet or smoking and alcohol consumption. Further intervention studies are now needed to establish whether causal relationships and mechanisms underlie the associations seen in this study.
Acute mental health care according to recent mental health legislation. Part II. Activity-based costing. ABR Janse van Rensburg1, W Jassat2. 1Division of Psychiatry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. 2School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Abstract.
Trabalhadores em saúde mental: contradições e desafios no contexto da reforma psiquiátrica Trabajadores del área de salud mental: contradicciones y desafíos en el contexto de la reforma psiquiátrica Mental health workers': contradictions and challenges in the psychiatric reform context
Leandro Barbosa de Pinho
cuidar de la locura en el servicio. Se espera que este estudio pueda ayudar en la problematización del movimiento de reforma psiquiátrica en el contexto brasileño.This study analyzes the mental health workers discourse, pointing directions, doubts and uncertainties about the formation of the community mental health service team. The corpus consists in interviews applied in 2006 to 17 of 25 mental health workers in a substitutive service in a city in southern Brazil. The methodological device which subsidizes the systematization of the data is the "axiological-discursive diagram", constructed from the Critical Discourse Analysis theoretical framework. It was found that the operational uncertainty that joins the team and its fragments at the same time, is related to a cascade of possibilities, which began operating in the very vagueness of the objects and instruments of work in mental health and ending on the difficulty of identifying who are the professionals who must take care of madness in the service. We hope this study can help in questioning the movement of psychiatric reform in the Brazilian context.
Stewart, Carmen López
This paper describes main facts about Chile starting with key socio-demographic, socio-economic, political, environmental, epidemiological, social support and social pathology aspects that characterize the context in which current mental and neurological policy and programmes have been put in place since 2000, as part of the National Health Plan and Health Sector Strategy Plan. The 'National Plan for Mental Health and Psychiatry', using a community psychiatry approach, has been partially implemented for people covered by the Public Health Insurance, which comprises 62% of the Chilean population (people with lower income). This paper also describes: the management, population needs and demands, financial resources, human resources in primary care, mental health specialist care and community-based care, physical capital, social capital, provision and processes, and outcomes of the plan. Strengths are analyzed, like the health reform, including its values and principles, the active participation of consumer and family groups as well as mental health NGOs, access to mental health services through primary care, quality assurance of the mental health services delivered to the population and progressive development of a culture of respect for human rights, including those of people with mental illnesses. Finally, difficulties for the advance of mental health care are also enumerated: the low priority still given to mental health compared with physical health by the country's leaders, the insufficient emphasis on mental health in both undergraduate and postgraduate professional training, the strong stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness in the general population and the advocacy by some mental health professionals of the traditional model of care (role of the psychiatric hospital).
Argentero, P; Bonfiglio, N S; Pasero, R
While diverse studies carried out in nursing and medical personnel have demonstrated that health workers can be subject to burnout, little effort has been focused on investigating burnout in volunteer hospital workers. The aim of the present study was to verify if burnout exists with volunteer auxiliary personnel and investigate what organizational conditions may favour it. The study was carried out on 80 volunteer workers of the Red Cross of Mortara (PV), subdivided into two categories: those performing emergency interventions and those performing routine services. For the evaluation of burnout, the Italian version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory was used, together with a qualitative type of methodology. A 5-factor multivariate analysis (sex x shift x team x seniority x role), having as dependent variables the three scales of the MBI, showed that the highest values of depersonalization and fulfillment are found in the emergency team, and that subjects with least seniority are those who are least satisfied or fulfilled. The category of team-leader resulted as that with the highest values of emotional burnout, while sex- and shift-based differences were restricted to routine service workers. Despite these differences, findings showed that subjects are minimally affected by problems linked to burnout, although some relational and organizational difficulties emerged with the medical staff that underlie a certain degree of professional dissatisfaction.
Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.
Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas
OBJECTIVES: One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participatio...... could not confirm that shift workers in general report a lower availability of and participation in workplace health promotion.......OBJECTIVES: One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participation...... in workplace health promotion. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from a large representative sample of all employed people in Denmark. We obtained information on the availability of and participation in six types of workplace health promotion. We also obtained information on working hours, ie...
Virginia Ross; Anoop Sankaranarayanan; Terry J. Lewin; Mick Hunter
AimMental Health workers bear responsibility for preventing suicide in their client group. Survey studies have indicated that staff can be seriously adversely affected when a client suicides. The aim of the current study is to describe and evaluate the effects on mental health (MH) workers of their ongoing role in managing suicidal behaviours and to identify the thoughts and feelings associated with this role.MethodA survey was administered to 135 MH workers via an on-line self-report vehicle...
Objective: This is the first of three reports on a follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). In this first part, qualitative and quantitative descriptions were made of the services and of demographic and clinical data on acute mental health care users managed at HJH, in a retrospective review of ...
Introduction. Reliable data is necessary to facilitate the effective planning, management and restructuring of mental health care facilities. Access to accurate information on clinical conditions, treatment outcomes and expenditure is essential to ensure accountability, quality and cost-effective mental health care. This article is ...
Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro
... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well- being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...
Although major mental disorders do not have a central position in many criminological theories, there seems to be an evident relationship between these disorders and criminal behavior. In daily practice police officers and mental health care workers work jointly to prevent nuisance and crime and to
Evil spirit possession and native charm/juju were incorrectly mentioned by half of the respondents as causes of mental illness while alcohol/drug abuse, emotional problems and marijuana smoking were correctly implicated by more than 70% of respondents. Although 90% of the primary health care workers preferred ...
Migrant workers are exposed to conditions of vulnerability throughout the migration cycle and often endure abuse, exploitation, violence, discrimination, work-related accidents and injuries, mental health problems, and nutrition and ... Visionnement du film Little Gandhi —The Lost Truth of the Syrian Uprising à New York.
Bronkhorst, B.A.C.; Tummers, L.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341028274; Steijn, A.J.; Vijverberg, D.
Background: In recent years, the high prevalence of mental health problems among health care workers has given rise to great concern. The academic literature suggests that employees’ perceptions of their work environment can play a role in explaining mental health outcomes. Purposes: We conducted a
Anakwenze, Ujunwa; Zuberi, Daniyal
Rapid urbanization globally threatens to increase the risk to mental health and requires a rethinking of the relationship between urban poverty and mental health. The aim of this article is to reveal the cyclic nature of this relationship: Concentrated urban poverty cultivates mental illness, while the resulting mental illness reinforces poverty. The authors used theories about social disorganization and crime to explore the mechanisms through which the urban environment can contribute to mental health problems. They present some data on crime, substance abuse, and social control to support their claim that mental illness reinforces poverty. The authors argue that, to interrupt this cycle and improve outcomes, social workers and policymakers must work together to implement a comprehensive mental health care system that emphasizes prevention, reaches young people, crosses traditional health care provision boundaries, and involves the entire community to break this cycle and improve the outcomes of those living in urban poverty.
Nizamie, S Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N A
Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health.
Gopalkrishnan, Narayan; Babacan, Hurriyet
Cultural diversity and its impact on mental health has become an increasingly important issue in a globalised world where the interactions between cultures continue to grow exponentially. This paper presents critical areas in which culture impacts on mental health, such as how health and illness are perceived, coping styles, treatment-seeking patterns, impacts of history, racism, bias and stereotyping, gender, family, stigma and discrimination. While cultural differences provide a number of challenges to mental health policy and practice they also provide a number of opportunities to work in unique and effective ways towards positive mental health. Ethno-specific approaches to mental health that incorporate traditional and community-based systems can provide new avenues for working with culturally diverse populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.
Full Text Available This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.
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Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree
Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…
Lucero, John A.
The goals of the School Mental Health Consultation Program, a cooperative effort of the Children and Youth Service at High Plains Mental Health Center and the Unified School District 489 in Hays, Kansas, are to evaluate students' behavioral problems, to assess how students' difficulties affect teachers, and to help the consultee assess the…
Duthie, Patricia; Hahn, Janet S.; Philippi, Evelyn; Sanchez, Celeste
For many years community health workers (CHW) have been important to the implementation of many of our health system's community health interventions. Through this experience, we have recognized some unique challenges in community health worker supervision and have highlighted what we have learned in order to help other organizations effectively…
Full Text Available Workplace stress can influence healthcare professionals’ physical and emotional well-being by curbing their efficiency and having a negative impact on their overall quality of life. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact that work environment in a local public general hospital can have on the health workers’ mental-emotional health and find strategies in order to cope with negative consequences. The study took place from July 2010 to October 2010. Our sample consisted of 200 healthcare professionals aged 21-58 years working in a 240-bed general hospital and the response rate was 91.36%. Our research protocol was first approved by the hospital’s review board. A standardized questionnaire that investigates strategies for coping with stressful conditions was used. A standardized questionnaire was used in the present study Coping Strategies for Stressful Events, evaluating the strategies that persons employ in order to overcome a stressful situation or event. The questionnaire was first tested for validity and reliability which were found satisfactory (Cronbach’s α=0.862. Strict anonymity of the participants was guaranteed. The SPSS 16.0 software was used for the statistical analysis. Regression analysis showed that health professionals’ emotional health can be influenced by strategies for dealing with stressful events, since positive re-assessment, quitting and seeking social support are predisposing factors regarding the three first quality of life factors of the World Health Organization Quality of Life -BREF. More specifically, for the physical health factor, positive re-assessment (t=3.370, P=0.001 and quitting (t=−2.564, P=0.011 are predisposing factors. For the ‘mental health and spirituality’ regression model, positive re-assessment (t=5.528, P=0.000 and seeking social support (t=−1.991, P=0.048 are also predisposing factors, while regarding social relationships positive re-assessment (t=4.289, P=0
To explore nurses' views of their role in the screening and monitoring of the physical care needs of people with serious mental illness in a mental health service provider. There is increasing awareness through research that people with serious mental illness disproportionately experience and die early from physical health conditions. Mental health nurses are best placed as front-line workers to offer screening, monitoring and interventions; however, their views on physical care interventions are not studied often. Qualitative exploratory study. The study was carried out in a mental health inpatient centre in England. Volunteer sampling was adopted for the study with a total target sample of (n = 20) nurses from three inpatient wards. Semistructured interviews were conducted with (n = 10) registered mental health nurses who had consented to take part in the study. Inductive data analysis and theme development were guided by a thematic analytic framework. Participants shared a clear commitment regarding their role regarding physical health screening and monitoring in mental health settings. Four themes emerged as follows: features of current practice and physical health monitoring; perceived barriers to physical health monitoring; education and training needs; and strategies to improve physical health monitoring. Nurses were unequivocal in their resolve to ensure good standard physical health monitoring and screening interventions in practice. However, identified obstacles have to be addressed to ensure that physical health screening and monitoring is integrated adequately in everyday clinical activities. Achieving this would require improvements in nurses' training, and an integrated multiservice and team-working approach. Attending to the physical health needs of people with serious mental illness has been associated with multiple improvements in both mental and physical health; nurses have a vital role to play in identifying and addressing causes of poor
Goetzel, Ron Z.; Roemer, Enid Chung; Holingue, Calliope; Fallin, M. Daniele; McCleary, Katherine; Eaton, William; Agnew, Jacqueline; Azocar, Francisca; Ballard, David; Bartlett, John; Braga, Michael; Conway, Heidi; Crighton, K. Andrew; Frank, Richard; Jinnett, Kim; Keller-Greene, Debra; Rauch, Sara Martin; Safeer, Richard; Saporito, Dick; Schill, Anita; Shern, David; Strecher, Victor; Wald, Peter; Wang, Philip; Mattingly, C. Richard
Objective To declare a call to action to improve mental health in the workplace. Methods We convened a public health summit and assembled an Advisory Council consisting of experts in the field of occupational health and safety, workplace wellness, and public policy to offer recommendations for action steps to improve health and well-being of workers. Results The Advisory Council narrowed the list of ideas to four priority projects. Conclusions The recommendations for action include developing a Mental Health in the Workplace 1) “How to” Guide, 2) Scorecard, 3) Recognition Program, and 4) Executive Training. PMID:29280775
Radovic, Ana; Vona, Pamela L; Santostefano, Antonella M; Ciaravino, Samantha; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D
Many adolescents and adults do not seek treatment for mental health symptoms. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist individuals with mental health concerns in alleviating symptoms or increasing understanding. This study seeks to characterize apps readily available to smartphone users seeking mental health information and/or support. Ten key terms were searched in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores: mental health, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, trauma, trauma in schools, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), child trauma, and bullying. A content analysis of the first 20 application descriptions retrieved per category was conducted. Out of 300 nonduplicate applications, 208 (70%) were relevant to search topic, mental health or stress. The most common purported purpose for the apps was symptom relief (41%; n = 85) and general mental health education (18%; n = 37). The most frequently mentioned approaches to improving mental health were those that may benefit only milder symptoms such as relaxation (21%; n = 43). Most app descriptions did not include information to substantiate stated effectiveness of the application (59%; n = 123) and had no mention of privacy or security (89%; n = 185). Due to uncertainty of the helpfulness of readily available mental health applications, clinicians working with mental health patients should inquire about and provide guidance on application use, and patients should have access to ways to assess the potential utility of these applications. Strategic policy and research developments are likely needed to equip patients with applications for mental health, which are patient centered and evidence based.
Tomov, Toma; Mladenova, Maya; Lazarova, Irina; Sotirov, Vladimir; Okoliyski, Mihail
The mental health profile of Bulgaria has been compiled and following analysis of both the factual findings and the process of data collection a report has been prepared. The subject of discussion in the paper concerns several major findings: the discrepancy between what the policy documents state and the actual situation in mental health; the organizational culture, which alienates; and the peculiarities of the process of change and how it is driven under political pressure from outside the country. Analysis extends to encompass the influence of the general health reform on the mental health sector, the deficits of the leadership and how they impact on the effectiveness of the system, and the interdependence between the country's economy and the health sector. A conclusion is made about the need to consolidate the public health approach using the lever of international collaboration in the field of mental health.
Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C.
Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ‘preventive medicine’ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ‘R’s such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073
Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C
Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health.
mental illness in the regional population HJH is supposed to serve. Therefore, only an analysis of trends for specific cohorts of in-patient users was possible. Both studies - the current review as well as the previous pilot, were retrospective descriptive clinical record reviews of mental health service delivery, training.
Department of Veterans Affairs — VAMC-level statistics on the prevalence, mental health utilization, non-mental health utilization, mental health workload, and psychological testing of Veterans with...
... dialing 1-800-273-8255 and pressing 1. Mental Health Concerns There are three primary mental health concerns ... care or call 911. How Will Asking for Mental Health Treatment Affect My Career? Military personnel have always ...
Lora, A.; Sharan, P.
Background. Information is needed for development of mental health (MH) services; and particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs), where the MH systems are relatively weak. World Health Organization (WHO) has worked intensively during the last 15 years for developing a strategy in the field of MH information. Methods. The paper analyzes WHO instruments developed in this area [MH Atlas series and WHO Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS)]. Results. Data from ...
legislation humane treatment for the mentally ill. In 1913 there was a .... way, the person leaves his village and his com- munity at a time when he is ..... fective treatment? How might we predict if an epileptic patient may commit murder? We have in our mental hospital population a number of people who have murdered while ...
Global health has been defined as an area of study, research, and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. This article provides an overview of some central issues in global mental health in three parts. The first part demonstrates why mental health is relevant to global health by examining three key principles of global health: priority setting based on the burden of health problems, health inequalities and its global scope in particular in relation to the determinants and solutions for health problems. The second part considers and addresses the key critiques of global mental health: (a) that the "diagnoses" of mental disorders are not valid because there are no biological markers for these conditions; (b) that the strong association of social determinants undermines the use of biomedical interventions; (c) that the field is a proxy for the expansion of the pharmaceutical industry; and (d) that the actions of global mental health are equivalent to "medical imperialism" and it is a "psychiatric export." The final part discusses the opportunities for the field, piggybacking on the surge of interest in global health more broadly and on the growing acknowledgment of mental disorders as a key target for global health action. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon
Objective Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organizations, countries, and regions: WHO, OECD, EU, United States, Australia, UK, and Scotland. Using Delphi method, we conducted two surveys of mental health indicators for experts in the field of mental health. The survey questionnaire included 5 domains: mental health status, mental health factor, mental health system, mental health service, and quality of mental health services. We considered 124 potential mental health indicators out of more than 600 from indicators of international organizations and foreign countries. Results We obtained the top 30 mental health indicators from the surveys. Among them, 10 indicators belong to the mental health system. The most important five mental health indicators are suicide rate, rate of increase in mental disorder treatment, burden caused by mental disorders, adequacy of identifying problems of mental health projects and deriving solutions, and annual prevalence of mental disorders. Conclusion Our study provides information about the process for indicator development and the use of survey results to measure the mental health status of the Korean population. The aim of mental health indicator development is to improve the mental health system by better grasping the current situation. We suggest these mental health indicators can monitor progress in efforts to implement reform policies, provide community services, and involve users, families and other stakeholders in mental health promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation. PMID:23251193
, retirement and brain drain to other countries mostly the UK, Saudi Arabia and South Africa. Training more health workers, training new but lower cadres of health workers not marketable to the outside world, improving the working conditions ...
Bromet, Evelyn J
The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental
B.A.C. Bronkhorst (Babette); L.G. Tummers (Lars); A.J. Steijn (Bram); D. Vijverberg (Dominique)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background: In recent years, the high prevalence of mental health problems among health care workers has given rise to great concern. The academic literature suggests that employees’ perceptions of their work environment can play a role in explaining mental
Hamid, Hamada I; Everett, Anita
As Iraq faces the challenge of securing a sustainable resolution to the current violence, the burden of mental illness is likely to increase dramatically. The impact of Saddam Hussein's dictatorship, the Iran-Iraq war, U.S.-led economic sanctions, the Persian Gulf wars, and the U.S. invasion and subsequent violent insurgency have devastated Iraq's governmental and social infrastructure. Health care delivery across sectors has suffered greatly. During the reconstruction phase, the United States and coalition forces allocated resources to restructure Iraq's health care system. Many multinational organizations, governments, and policy makers had the political will as well as the financial and human resources to greatly influence Iraq's mental health program. However, the lack of an existing mental health plan stifled these efforts. Applying Kingdon's model for policy development, which includes political analysis, problem defining, and proposal drafting, the authors describe the development of Iraq's current mental health policy.
Stilz, R; Madan, I
Worker beliefs and expectations influence their health and rehabilitation. However, little is known about worker expectations of occupational health (OH) consultations and if these are associated with their perceptions of health and work. To examine worker expectations of OH consultations, and whether the variability of worker expectations is associated with their perception of health and work and personal characteristics. A questionnaire on OH physicians' professional standards was developed from national guidance and validated by a survey of OH physicians. We explored 81 workers' expectations of professional standards along with their perception of health and work. Worker expectations were compared with the OH physician validation score. Associations of worker characteristics, their health and work perceptions and their expectations of professional standards were analysed by linear regression. Worker expectations of professional standards were lower when compared with the OH physician validation score (E = 3.9 versus 4.3, ΔE = 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.30-0.66). Perceived manager support and work apprehension were associated with worker expectations (ΔE = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.29-0.86 for least versus most support; ΔE = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.41-1.36 for least versus highest apprehension). Job title, previous OH consultations and recovery expectations were not associated with worker expectations. Worker expectations of OH physicians' professional standards were lower than the standards set by national guidance as validated by the sampled OH physicians. Workers who felt more supported by their manager, and workers who were more apprehensive about the health impact of work had higher expectations of OH physicians' standards.
Gwaikolo, Wilfred S; Kohrt, Brandon A; Cooper, Janice L
There are increasing efforts and attention focused on the delivery of mental health services in primary care in low resource settings (e.g., mental health Gap Action Programme, mhGAP). However, less attention is devoted to systematic approaches that identify and address barriers to the development and uptake of mental health services within primary care in low-resource settings. Our objective was to prepare for optimal uptake by identifying barriers in rural Liberia. The country's need for mental health services is compounded by a 14-year history of political violence and the largest Ebola virus disease outbreak in history. Both events have immediate and lasting mental health effects. A mixed-methods approach was employed, consisting of qualitative interviews with 22 key informants and six focus group discussions. Additional qualitative data as well as quantitative data were collected through semi-structured assessments of 19 rural primary care health facilities. Data were collected from March 2013 to March 2014. Potential barriers to development and uptake of mental health services included lack of mental health knowledge among primary health care staff; high workload for primary health care workers precluding addition of mental health responsibilities; lack of mental health drugs; poor physical infrastructure of health facilities including lack of space for confidential consultation; poor communication support including lack of electricity and mobile phone networks that prevent referrals and phone consultation with supervisors; absence of transportation for patients to facilitate referrals; negative attitudes and stigma towards people with severe mental disorders and their family members; and stigma against mental health workers. To develop and facilitate effective primary care mental health services in a post-conflict, low resource setting will require (1) addressing the knowledge and clinical skills gap in the primary care workforce; (2) improving physical
... tools and materials offering practical ways to help adolescent girls and adult women achieve better physical, mental, ... org Spanish-speaking operators available National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders 1-847-831-3438 9: ...
Repercussões da violência na saúde mental de trabalhadores do Programa Saúde da Família Repercusiones de la violência en la salud mental de trabajadores del Programa Salud de la Família Repercussions of violence on the mental health of workers of the Family Health Program
. Aprenden, en la experiencia acumulada, a detectar situaciones de riesgo evitando aquellas que consideran amenazantes.OBJECTIVE: To describe forms of external and indirect violence that affect the mental health of workers of the Programa Saúde da Família (Family Health Program, as well as the strategies developed by these workers to enable their work and to be psychologically protected. METHODS:Qualitative study on the Programa Saúde da Família work process, performed in the cities of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto and Embu (Southeastern Brazil in 2005. Theoretical approach of psychodynamics of work, which proposes the formation of reflection groups with workers, was employed. Subjective aspects of work, situations of psychological suffering and strategies used by workers to deal with suffering and continue to work were sought to be identified. RESULTS:The Program's work organization exposed workers to the following: situations of violence, invisible at times; feeling of impotence in the face of precarious situations; lack of acknowledgement of efforts made; lack of borders between professional and personal aspects; intense experiences of social and domestic violence; fear of risk of exposure; feeling of moral and physical integrity being threatened; and fear of reprisal. Situations of psychological suffering resulting from violence in the workplace were observed. These became more intense in the Programa Saúde da Família due to regular contact with situations of violence that cause fear and a feeling of vulnerability. CONCLUSIONS:Psychological repercussions caused by violence in the workplace, not always expressed in the form of psychological disorders, were observed in situations of intense suffering. Workers develop strategies to minimize suffering, protect themselves psychologically and continue to work; and seek to create solidarity and protection networks with the population, aiming to reduce vulnerability. With the experience gained, they learn to detect high
Meyer, Sarah R; Robinson, W Courtland; Chhim, Sotheara; Bass, Judith K
Labor migration is thought to have significant mental and physical health impacts, given the risks for exploitation and abuse of migrant workers, particularly among those in semiskilled and unskilled positions, although empirical data are limited. This qualitative study, conducted in July 2010 in Banteay Meanchey Province, Cambodia, focused on psychosocial and mental health signs and symptoms associated with labor migration among Cambodian migrant workers to Thailand. Two qualitative methods identified a number of mental health problems faced by Cambodian migrant workers in Thailand, including the presence of anxiety and depression-like problems among this population, described in local terminology as pibak chet (sadness), keut chreun (thinking too much), and khval khvay khnong chet (worry in heart). Key informants revealed the extent to which psychosocial well-being is associated with conditions of poverty, including debt and lack of access to basic services.
Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Kalaus, Katri-Evelin; Tekkel, Mare; Leinsalu, Mall
To assess, at a clinical level, the mental health of former Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia by comparing them with same-age controls. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was administered during 2011-2012 to 99 cleanup workers and 100 population-based controls previously screened for mental health symptoms. Logistic regression analysis showed that cleanup workers had higher odds of current depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.34, 7.01]), alcohol dependence (OR = 3.47, 95% CI [1.29, 9.34]), and suicide ideation (OR = 3.44, 95% CI [1.28, 9.21]) than did controls. Except for suicide ideation, associations with Chernobyl exposure became statistically nonsignificant when adjusted for education and ethnicity. A quarter of a century after the Chernobyl accident, Estonian cleanup workers were still at increased risk of mental disorders, which was partly attributable to sociodemographic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Mangala, R; Thara, R
Tamil cinema is a vibrant part of the lives of many in south India. A chequered history and a phenomenal growth have made this medium highly influential not only in Tamil Nadu politics, but also in the social lives of the viewers. This paper provides an overview of the growth of Tamil cinema, and discusses in detail the way mental health has been handled by Tamil films. Cinema can be used very effectively to improve awareness about mental health issues.
This study was aimed at identifying the health workers' knowledge and inappropriate practices that potentially contribute to missed immunization opportunities in children. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in August 2007 among Primary Health Care workers in Khana Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria ...
Full Text Available Numerous issues related to culture, occupation, gender, caste, and health, to name a few, have faced harshness of society from time immemorial. Reasons are debatable, ranging from somewhat understandable to completely unacceptable. There is no doubt that society is dynamic and it has changed its view on many of the issues with passing time. Mental health is one such issue which society has neglected for quite a long time. Even today, mental health and mentally ill people face stigma and discrimination in their family, society, and at their workplace. People do not feel comfortable talking about mental health, even if they know that there cannot be any health without a healthy mind. But, as Albert Einstein has said “learn from yesterday, live for today, and hope for tomorrow”, everything is not lost. The mentally ill patients who were once abandoned and left on their own have now started to get humane care and attention. This article discusses this very pertinent topic of changing society and mental health.
Integration of mental health into the basic nursing curricula provides an environment for and affords students an opportunity to learn how a client should be treated holistically. Nurses constitute the largest proportion of health workers in most countries of the world. They work in the remotest areas where there are hardly any ...
Since then, AMHF has been mentoring mental health researchers to carry out high-quality research on issues of relevance to the region, complete doctoral programs and research ... Health workers need research, leadership, and policy skills to help create programs that respond effectively to the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
Palermo, George B
The deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill which started in the 1960s greatly contributed to the overcrowding of judicial systems throughout the world. In the ensuing years, the actors involved in the adversarial system present in United States courts, a system that is primarily interested in assessing the culpability of the offender, have come to realize that the system is lacking therapeutic and reintegrative approaches to offenders, especially those who are mentally ill. Therapeutic jurisprudence, an interdisciplinary science, addresses this problematic situation of the mentally ill. It offers a fresh insight into the potentially beneficial and detrimental effects of legal decisions and views one of the roles of law as that of a healing agent. At present, many states have instituted mental health courts based on these concepts, incorporating previous drug court experiences. Their goal is to avoid the criminalization of the mentally ill and their recidivism through the creation of special programs. This article describes the mental health court programs of Washoe County and Clark County, Nevada, their organization, their therapeutic goals, and their success in keeping mentally ill offenders out of the correctional system, while improving their mental condition. In so doing, the program has lightened the load of the overburdened courts and has greatly diminished the financial burden incurred for court trials and jail and prison stays. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hewitt, J L
Mental health policy development in the UK has become increasingly dominated by the assumed need to prevent violence and alleviate public concerns about the dangers of the mentally ill living in the community. Risk management has become the expected focus of contemporary mental health services, and responsibility has increasingly been devolved to individual service professionals when systems fail to prevent violence. This paper analyses the development of mental health legislation and its impact on services users and mental health professionals at the micro level of service delivery. Historical precedence, media influence and public opinion are explored, and the reification of risk is questioned in practical and ethical terms. The government's newest proposals for compulsory treatment in the community are discussed in terms of practical efficacy and therapeutic impact. Dangerousness is far from being an objectively observable phenomenon arising from clinical pathology, but is a formulation of what is partially knowable through social analysis and unknowable by virtue of its situation in individual psychic motivation. Risk assessment can therefore never be completely accurate, and the solution of a 'better safe than sorry' approach to mental health policy is ethically and pragmatically flawed.
Page, Kathryn M; Milner, Allison J; Martin, Angela; Turrell, Gavin; Giles-Corti, Billie; LaMontagne, Anthony D
To examine whether positive mental health (PMH)-a positively focused well-being construct-moderates the job stress-distress relationship. Longitudinal regression was used to test two waves of matched, population-level data from a sample of older, working Australian adults (n = 3291) to see whether PMH modified the relationship between work stress and later psychological distress. Time 1 work stress was positively associated with distress at both time points. Positive mental health was negatively associated with work stress at both time points. Positive mental health modified the impact of work stress on psychological distress. This effect only occurred for those with the highest levels of PMH. Positive mental health may help protect workers from the effect of workplace stress but only in a small proportion of the population. Therefore, to improve workplace mental health, workplaces need to both prevent stress and promote PMH.
Full Text Available La Organización Mundial de la Salud ha establecido un programa especial denominado "Naciones unidas para la salud mental" con el fin de fomentar la salud mental en poblaciones subatendidas, con particular énfasis en las mujeres, los niños, los adolescentes, los refugiados y los pueblos indígenas. Uno de los objetivos del programa es crear una mayor conciencia entre el público y los gobiernos acerca del costo social y económico de los trastornos mentales y del abuso de sustancias. Un segundo objetivo es identificar y promover estrategias de colaboración para mejorar la salud mental que se puedan poner en práctica por medio de proyectos de cooperación técnica de nivel nacional dirigidos por las organizaciones del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en colaboración con otras organizaciones internacionales gubernamentales y no gubernamentales. Ya están en marcha varios proyectos de demostración y otros se están planificando.
Full Text Available La Organización Mundial de la Salud ha establecido un programa especial denominado "Naciones unidas para la salud mental" con el fin de fomentar la salud mental en poblaciones subatendidas, con particular énfasis en las mujeres, los niños, los adolescentes, los refugiados y los pueblos indígenas. Uno de los objetivos del programa es crear una mayor conciencia entre el público y los gobiernos acerca del costo social y económico de los trastornos mentales y del abuso de sustancias. Un segundo objetivo es identificar y promover estrategias de colaboración para mejorar la salud mental que se puedan poner en práctica por medio de proyectos de cooperación técnica de nivel nacional dirigidos por las organizaciones del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en colaboración con otras organizaciones internacionales gubernamentales y no gubernamentales. Ya están en marcha varios proyectos de demostración y otros se están planificando.
... 8255) . Health Topics and Resources Featured Health Topics Anxiety Disorders Depression Eating Disorders Bipolar Disorder (Manic-Depressive Illness) Schizophrenia Borderline Personality Disorder Suicide Prevention Attention Deficit ...
Current media campaigns, realized within national campaigns and actions on mental health prevention and promotion, are considered in this paper, in the context of expert public relation, as well as the whole society, towards mental health. Mental health promotion is determined as a range of activities by which individuals, community and society are being enabled to take control over mental health determinants and to improve it, but also as an action for improvement of mental health posi...
Bianco, Paolo; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Ieraci, Roberto; Anzelmo, Vincenza
In the last 20 years traveling workers abroad have increased markedly. This resulted in the need for standardized preventive tools available to protect workers-travelers in geographic areas with related additional risk factors. Health surveillance of these workers require a company organization that involves the components of the process prior: the occupational physician, safety service, administrative areas, travel clinic. The application phases of medical surveillance must be differentiated into two main phases: 1. pre-travel, in which successive stages also encoded by the SIMLII guidelines; 2. the return journey, where the paths are different for asymptomatic and symptomatic workers. The evaluation of fitness to perform the job abroad is based on general criteria that allow to correlate the health of the worker with respect to the destination area. The application methods actually available allow modulations of the health surveillance for companies of different dimension.
Mirick, Rebecca G.; Bridger, Joanna; McCauley, James; Berkowitz, Larry
Historically, graduate training programs have not taught suicide assessment and intervention skills in depth; therefore, the development of effective continuing education offerings is relevant and necessary for practicing social workers. Although the ability to increase knowledge and confidence is critical, a focus on competency-based education…
Repullo Junior, Rodolpho; Gomes, Jorge da Rocha
Many authors have emphasized the importance of worker strength through unionized organizations, in relation to the improvement of working procedures, and have reported on the decisiveness of labor movement actions in achieving modifications within the field of work and health. To describe the ways in which Brazilian unions have tried to intervene in health-illness and work processes, identifying the existence of commonality in union actions in this field. Qualitative study. Postgraduate Program, Environmental Health Department, Faculdade de Saúde Publica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Union health advisers and directors were interviewed. Documents relating to union action towards protecting workers' health were collected and analyzed. Unions articulate actions regarding workers' health of a technical and political nature that involve many aspects and high complexity. These have been divided into thematic categories for better analysis. Union actions regarding workers' health in Brazil are restricted to some unions, located mainly in the southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of the country. Nonetheless, the unions undertaking such actions represent many professions of great economic and political importance. The recent changes in health and safety at work regulations, recognition of professional diseases, creation of workers' health services and programs within the unified health system, and operational improvements in companies' specialized safety and occupational medicine services, all basically result from union action. There is commonality of union action in this field in its seeking of technical and political strengthening for all workers and their general and local representation. This has the objective of benefiting collective bargaining between employers and workers. Inter-institutional action on behalf of workers' rights guarantees and amplifies the improvement of health and working conditions.
Rodolpho Repullo Junior
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Many authors have emphasized the importance of worker strength through unionized organizations, in relation to the improvement of working procedures, and have reported on the decisiveness of labor movement actions in achieving modifications within the field of work and health. OBJECTIVE: To describe the ways in which Brazilian unions have tried to intervene in health-illness and work processes, identifying the existence of commonality in union actions in this field. TYPE OF STUDY: Qualitative study. SETTING: Postgraduate Program, Environmental Health Department, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Union health advisers and directors were interviewed. Documents relating to union action towards protecting workers' health were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Unions articulate actions regarding workers' health of a technical and political nature that involve many aspects and high complexity. These have been divided into thematic categories for better analysis. DISCUSSION: Union actions regarding workers' health in Brazil are restricted to some unions, located mainly in the southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of the country. Nonetheless, the unions undertaking such actions represent many professions of great economic and political importance. CONCLUSIONS: The recent changes in health and safety at work regulations, recognition of professional diseases, creation of workers' health services and programs within the unified health system, and operational improvements in companies' specialized safety and occupational medicine services, all basically result from union action. There is commonality of union action in this field in its seeking of technical and political strengthening for all workers and their general and local representation. This has the objective of benefiting collective bargaining between employers and workers. Inter-institutional action on behalf of workers' rights
Ryan, Brigid; Orotaloa, Paul; Araitewa, Stephen; Gaoifa, Daniel; Moreen, John; Kiloe, Edwin; Same, William; Goding, Margaret; Ng, Chee
The Solomon Islands face significant shortages and geographical imbalances in the distribution of skilled health workers and resources, which severely impact the delivery of mental health services. The government's Integrated Mental Health Service has emphasised the importance of greater community ownership and involvement in community-based mental health care, and of moving from centralised services to increased local and accessible care. From 2012 to 2014, the Solomon Islands Integrated Mental Health service worked with Asia-Australia Mental Health to build workforce capacity and deliver sustainable community mental health programs. Supported by the Australian Aid Program's Public Sector Linkages Program, this project shared resources and fostered links between public sector agencies in Australia, Fiji and the Solomon Islands. Key learning points from the collaboration included the critical need to establish partnerships with community stakeholders, the importance of sustaining a well-functioning mental health team, and optimising the strengths of the local resources in the Solomon Islands. Through this project, national policies, promotion and service delivery were strengthened, through the exchange of experiences and mobilisation of north-south (Australia-Solomon Islands) and south-south (Solomon Islands-other Pacific nations) technical expertise. This project demonstrates the potential for international partnerships to contribute to the development of culturally-appropriate and integrated mental health services. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
During a recession, cost-sharing of employer-sponsored health benefits could increase to reduce labor costs in the U.S. Using a variation in the severity of recession shocks across industries, I find evidence that the enrollment rate of high deductible health plans (HDHPs) among workers covered by employer-sponsored health benefits increased more among firms in industries that experienced severe recession shocks. As potential mechanisms, I study employer-side and worker-side mechanisms. I find that employers changed health benefit offerings to force or incentivize workers to enroll in HDHPs. But I find little evidence of an increase in workers' demand for HDHPs due to a reduction in income. These results suggest that the HDHP enrollment rate increased during the Great Recession, as employers tried to save costs of offering health benefits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gulsum Ozge Doganavsargil Baysal
Full Text Available Stigmatizasyon represent a chronic negative interaction with the environment that most of people with a of diagnosis mental disorders. Different types of stigma may have harmful effects. Poor psychological well being, poor quality of life and poor self esteem are related stigmatization. In this article, definition and mechanism of stigmatization, influenced factors and consequences of stigmatization are reviewed. Stigmatization is a modifiable environmental risk factor. Integrating approaches against stigma in treatment may represent cost-effective way to reduce the risk of relapse and poor outcome occasioned by chronic exposure to stigma. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 239-251
Oladeji, Bibilola D.; Gureje, Oye
The brain drain of medical professionals from lower-income to higher-income countries contributes to the current inequity that characterises access to mental healthcare by those in need across the world and hinders efforts to scale up mental health services in resource-constrained settings, especially in Nigeria and other West African countries. The migration of skilled workers is driven by a combination of the globalisation of the labour market and the ability of highly resourced countries t...
... Article: Readmission After Pediatric Mental Health Admissions. Article: Care Coordination for Youth With Mental Health Disorders in Primary... Article: Increased prescription rates of anxiolytics and hypnotics ...
Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the relations among mental disorders, physical discomfort, household work and farm work among women. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on the administration of a structured questionnaire to 182 female farm workers. The data were analyzed by means of Poisson regression, where the significance level was set to 5%. Results indicated that 111 (61% participants reported work-related mental disorders and physical discomfort was reported by 160 (87.9%. The participants with mental disorders and at least moderate levels of physical discomfort reported significantly higher levels of physical demand, time working (temporal demand, total effort and frustration with regard to farm work, in addition to significantly higher levels of frustration with regard to housework. Women with moderate or greater levels of both physical discomfort and frustration with farm work increased the chances of mental disorders. The results illustrate the complex challenge for health professionals in caring for women with mental disorders and physical discomforts related to their farm work, in the context of both the farm and domestic work demands these workers experience.
Objective: This is the second of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). Objectives for the review were to provide realistic estimates of cost for unit activities and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate cost centre management. Method: The study described ...
Introduction. To assess the use of space requires the review of activities performed and functions executed. The assessment of the use and structuring of space for acute mental health care necessitates the review of all operational areas and related activities incorporated in the care program. At the same time appropriate ...
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.
This comprehensive course from the Practical Nursing series of competency-based curricula is designed to prepare students for employment by systematically guiding the students' learning activities from the simple to the complex. These materials prepare health care practitioners to function effectively in the rapidly changing health care industry.…
Cachia, John M.;
Mental ill-health imposes a huge burden on individuals, their families, society, health systems and the economy. Mental health care remains a neglected area of health policy in too many countries. This statement by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD 2014) confirms the overall bleak assessment of the reaction to mental ill-health that prevails worldwide even in well-developed economies. Mental ill-health has accompanying costs in terms o...
Richard Frank; Thomas G. McGuire
Are many prisoners in jail or prison because of their mental illness? And if so, is mental health treatment a cost-effective way to reduce crime and lower criminal justice costs? This paper reviews and evaluates the evidence assessing the potential of expansion of mental health services for reducing crime. Mental illness and symptoms of mental illness are highly prevalent among adult and child criminal justice populations. The association between serious mental illness and violence and arrest...
Seib, Charrlotte; Fischer, Jane; Najman, Jackob M
Previous studies have reported poor mental health amongst sex workers without distinguishing the context in which commercial sex is provided. This study describes the self-reported mental and physical health of female sex workers in three industry sectors in Queensland, Australia. In 2003, cross-sectional convenience sampling was used to collect data from 247 female sex workers working in licensed brothels (n=102), as private sole operators (n=103) and illegally (n=42). The average age was 32 years (range 18-57), with most participants being born either in Australia or New Zealand. Overall, there were few differences in the physical health of women from different industry sectors. Illegal (and predominantly street-based) sex workers were four times more likely to report poor mental health with some of this difference attributable to the particular social background of this group. Much of the increased levels of poor mental health among illegal sex workers were associated with more negative experiences before, and subsequent to entering the sex industry. These patterns were not seen among women from the legal industry sectors. This research suggests that illegal, street-based sex workers, from whom many previous results have been derived, may show patterns of disadvantage, and health outcomes not seen in sex workers from other industry sectors.
... HealthPersistent Depressive Disorder (PDD)Managing Daily StressDepressionGrieving: Facing Illness, Death, and Other LossesTherapy and CounselingUnderstanding Your Teen’s Emotional HealthGeneralized Anxiety Disorder Home Prevention and Wellness Emotional Well-Being Mental ...
Abdul Rahim Rahman Hamzah
The medical problems encountered by the earlier pioneer workers in radiation at the turn of the century are well known. In the 1928, the ICRP (International Committee for Radiological Protection) was instituted and the ALARA principle of radiation protection was evolved. Occupational health care is about maintaining the health and safety of workers in their workplaces. This involves using medical, nursing and engineering practices to achieve its objectives. In certain occupations, including those where workers are exposed to ionising radiation, some of these principles are enshrined in the legislation and would require statutory compliance. Occupational health care of radiation workers seek to prevent ill health arising from exposure to radiation by consolidating the benefits of exposures control and dosimetry. This is via health surveillance for spillages, contamination and exposures to unsealed sources of radiation. It is unlikely that can plan and hope to cater for a Chernobyl type of disaster. However, for the multitude of workers in industry exposed to radiation, control models are available. These are from the more in industrialize countries with a nuclear based energy industry, and where radioactive gadgetry are used in places ranging from factories and farms to construction sites. These models involve statutory requirements on the standard of work practices, assessment of fitness to work and the monitoring of both the worker and the workplace. A similar framework of activity is present in Malaysia. This will be further enhanced with the development of her general health and safety at work legislation. (author)
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Oladeji, Bibilola D; Gureje, Oye
The brain drain of medical professionals from lower-income to higher-income countries contributes to the current inequity that characterises access to mental healthcare by those in need across the world and hinders efforts to scale up mental health services in resource-constrained settings, especially in Nigeria and other West African countries. The migration of skilled workers is driven by a combination of the globalisation of the labour market and the ability of highly resourced countries to attract and retain specialists from poorer countries. If we are to ameliorate the worldwide shortage of mental health professionals, we need to find innovative ways of attracting young doctors into psychiatric training in all countries. We must also introduce measures to improve health worker retention in low- and middle-income countries.
ISBN 978-92-837-2022-5 Single copies of this publication or of a part of it may be made for individual use only by those organisations or individuals...Health Status on Military Fitness, HFM-164/RTG on Psychological Aspects of Health Behaviours on Deployed Military Operations, HFM-175/RTG Medically...dstl.gov.uk Dr. R. (Roos) DELAHAIJ Research Scientist, Behavioural Societal Sciences TNO P.O. Box 23, Kampweg 5 3769 ZE, Soesterberg
Bovopoulos, Nataly; Jorm, Anthony F.; Bond, Kathy S.; LaMontagne, Anthony D.; Reavley, Nicola J.; Kelly, Claire M.; Kitchener, Betty A.; Martin, Angela
Background Mental health problems are common in the workplace, but workers affected by such problems are not always well supported by managers and co-workers. Guidelines exist for the public on how to provide mental health first aid, but not specifically on how to tailor one?s approach if the person of concern is a co-worker or employee. A Delphi consensus study was carried out to develop guidelines on additional considerations required when offering mental health first aid in a workplace con...
Somasundaram, D J; van de Put, W A
An effort is being made in Cambodia to involve grass-roots personnel in the integration of the care of the mentally ill into a broad framework of health services. This undertaking is examined with particular reference to the work of the Transcultural Psychosocial Organization.
Sipe, Theresa Ann; Finnie, Ramona K.C.; Knopf, John A.; Qu, Shuli; Reynolds, Jeffrey A.; Thota, Anilkrishna B.; Hahn, Robert A.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Hennessy, Kevin D.; McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Anderson, Clinton W.; Azrin, Susan; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Gelenberg, Alan J.; Vernon-Smiley, Mary E.; Nease, Donald E.
Context Health insurance benefits for mental health services typically have paid less than benefits for physical health services, resulting in potential underutilization or financial burden for people with mental health conditions. Mental health benefits legislation was introduced to improve financial protection (i.e., decrease financial burden) and to increase access to, and use of, mental health services. This systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of mental health benefits legislation, including executive orders, in improving mental health. Evidence acquisition Methods developed for the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to identify, evaluate, and analyze available evidence. The evidence included studies published or reported from 1965 to March 2011 with at least one of the following outcomes: access to care, financial protection, appropriate utilization, quality of care, diagnosis of mental illness, morbidity and mortality, and quality of life. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Evidence synthesis Thirty eligible studies were identified in 37 papers. Implementation of mental health benefits legislation was associated with financial protection (decreased out-of-pocket costs) and appropriate utilization of services. Among studies examining the impact of legislation strength, most found larger positive effects for comprehensive parity legislation or policies than for less-comprehensive ones. Few studies assessed other mental health outcomes. Conclusions Evidence indicates that mental health benefits legislation, particularly comprehensive parity legislation, is effective in improving financial protection and increasing appropriate utilization of mental health services for people with mental health conditions. Evidence is limited for other mental health outcomes. PMID:25998926
McKeown, M; Mercer, D
Mental health nurses have a critical stake in resisting the right-wing ideology of British fascism. Particularly concerning is the contemporary effort of the British National Party (BNP) to gain credibility and electoral support by the strategic re-packaging of a racist and divisive political manifesto. Evidence that some public sector workers are affiliated with the BNP has relevance for nursing at a series of levels, not least the incompatibility of party membership with a requirement of the Professional Code to avoid discrimination. Progressive advances, though, need to account for deep rooted institutionalized racism in the discourse and practice of healthcare services. The anomalous treatment of black people within mental health services, alongside racial abuse experienced by ethnic minority staff, is discussed in relation to the concept of race as a powerful social category and construction. The murder of the mentally ill and learning disabled in Nazi Germany, as an adjunct of racial genocide, is presented as an extreme example where professional ethics was undermined by dominant political ideology. Finally, the complicity of medical and nursing staff in the state sanctioned, bureaucratic, killing that characterized the Holocaust is revisited in the context of ethical repositioning for contemporary practice and praxis.
Deen, Tisha L.; Bridges, Ana J.; McGahan, Tara C.; Andrews, Arthur R., III
Purpose: Rural individuals utilize specialty mental health services (eg, psychiatrists, psychologists, counselors, and social workers) at lower rates than their urban counterparts. This study explores whether cognitive appraisals (ie, individual perceptions of need for services, outcome expectancies, and value of a positive therapeutic outcome) of…
Larson, Satu; Chapman, Susan; Spetz, Joanne; Brindis, Claire D
Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers (SBHCs) may be one strategy to decrease health disparities. Empirical studies between 2003 and 2013 of US pediatric populations and of US SBHCs were included if research was related to childhood trauma's effects, mental health care disparities, SBHC mental health services, or SBHC impact on academic achievement. Eight studies show a significant risk of mental health disorders and poor academic achievement when exposed to childhood trauma. Seven studies found significant disparities in pediatric mental health care in the US. Nine studies reviewed SBHC mental health service access, utilization, quality, funding, and impact on school achievement. Exposure to chronic childhood trauma negatively impacts school achievement when mediated by mental health disorders. Disparities are common in pediatric mental health care in the United States. SBHC mental health services have some showed evidence of their ability to reduce, though not eradicate, mental health care disparities. © 2017, American School Health Association.
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Olofsson, Sofia; Sebastian, Miguel San; Jegannathan, Bhoomikumar
While mental and substance use disorders are common worldwide, the treatment gap is enormous in low and middle income countries. Primary health care is considered to be the most important way for people to get mental health care. Cambodia is a country with a long history of war and has poor mental health and limited resources for care. The aim of this study was to conduct a situational analysis of the mental health services in the rural district of Lvea Em, Kandal Province, Cambodia. A cross-sectional situational analysis was done to understand the mental health situation in Lvea Em District comparing it with the national one. The Programme for improving mental health care (PRIME) tool was used to collect systematic information about mental health care from 14 key informants in Cambodia. In addition, a separate questionnaire based on the PRIME tool was developed for the district health care centres (12 respondents). Ethical approval was obtained from the National Ethics Committee for Health Research in Cambodia. Mental health care is limited both in Lvea Em District and the country. Though national documents containing guidelines for mental health care exist, the resources available and health care infrastructure are below what is recommended. There is no budget allocated for mental health in the district; there are no mental health specialists and the mental health training of health care workers is insufficient. Based on the limited knowledge from the respondents in the district, mental health disorders do exist but no documentation of these patients is available. Respondents discussed how community aspects such as culture, history and religion were related to mental health. Though there have been improvements in understanding mental health, discrimination and abuse against people with mental health disorders seems still to be present. There are very limited mental health care services with hardly any budget allocated to them in Lvea Em District and Cambodia
Norder, G.; Hoedeman, R.; de Bruin, J.; van Rhenen, W.; Roelen, C. A. M.
Background It is unclear when occupational health providers should re-evaluate workers after mental health-related absences from work. Aims To investigate the time to recurrence of mental health-related absences, stratified by International Classification of Diseases-Tenth Revision (ICD-10)
Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee
In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.
Li, Jie; Chang, Shu-Sen; Yip, Paul S F; Li, Juan; Jordan, Lucy P; Tang, Yunge; Hao, Yuantao; Huang, Xingmei; Yang, Ning; Chen, Chaoqi; Zeng, Qiaomei
There has been a dramatic increase in internal migrant workers in China over recent decades, and there is a recent concern of poor mental health particularly amongst younger or "new generation" migrants who were born in 1980 or later. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Guangzhou city between May and July in 2012. Mental wellbeing was measured using the World Health Organization Five-item Well-Being Index Scale and the 36 Item Short Form Health Survey mental health scale. Linear and logistic regression models were used to investigate the differences between migrant workers and their urban counterparts and between younger and older migrants. Migrant workers (n = 914) showed a small but significant advantage in mental wellbeing compared to their urban counterparts (n = 814). There was some evidence for age modification effect (p for interaction = 0.055-0.095); better mental wellbeing in migrants than urbanites were mainly seen in the older compared to the younger group, and the difference attenuated somewhat after controlling for income satisfaction. Older migrants showed better mental health than younger migrants. Factors that were independently associated with poor mental health in migrants included being male, longer working hours, and income dissatisfaction, whilst older age, factory job, high income, and increased use of social support resources were associated with reduced risk. Efforts to promote mental health amongst migrant workers may be usefully targeted on younger migrants and include measures aimed to improve working conditions, strengthen the social support network, and address age-specific needs.
Gulliver, Amelia; Banfield, Michelle; Reynolds, Julia; Miller, Sarah; Galati, Connie; Morse, Alyssa R
There is growing demand for peer workers (people who use their own lived experience to support others in their recovery) to work alongside consumers to improve outcomes and recovery. Augmenting the workforce with peer workers has strong capacity to enhance mental health and recovery outcomes and make a positive contribution to the workforce within mental health systems and to the peer workers themselves. Technology-based applications are highly engaging and desirable methods of service delivery. This project is an exploratory proof-of-concept study, which aims to determine if a peer worker-led electronic mental (e-mental) health recovery program is a feasible, acceptable, and effective adjunct to usual treatment for people with moderate to severe mental illness. The study design comprises a recovery app intervention delivered by a peer worker to individual consumers at an adult mental health service. Evaluation measures will be conducted at post-intervention. To further inform the acceptability and feasibility of the model, consumers will be invited to participate in a focus group to discuss the program. The peer worker, peer supervisor, and key staff at the mental health service will also be individually interviewed to further evaluate the feasibility of the program within the health service and further inform its future development. The program will be delivered over a period of approximately 4 months, commencing June 2017. If the peer worker-led recovery app is found to be feasible, acceptable, and effective, it could be used to improve recovery in mental health service consumers. ©Amelia Gulliver, Michelle Banfield, Julia Reynolds, Sarah Miller, Connie Galati, Alyssa R Morse. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 07.12.2017.
van Ours, J.C.; Williams, J.
This paper investigates whether cannabis use leads to worse mental health. To do so, we account for common unobserved factors affecting mental health and cannabis consumption by modeling mental health jointly with the dynamics of cannabis use. Our main finding is that using cannabis increases the
National Technical Assistance Center on Transition, 2016
Recently researchers have begun focusing on young adults with mental health disorders transitioning into adulthood. Research exploring the importance of mental health support in secondary transition have yielded positive outcomes. For example, strong collaboration between educational and mental health agencies ensuring academic, employment, and…
CONCLUSIONS: Health promoting behaviors were found to be in moderate level among cement factory workers. In our country, health protection and development programs at the national level would be useful to standardize for employees in the industrial sector. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 153-162
This project, a collaboration between the Bruyère Research Institute and Shirati KMT Council Designated Hospital, will complement a current project to build an enhanced cadre of community health workers in rural Tanzania by integrating a focus on the reproductive health needs of women. The project will train community ...
Ferguson, W. J.; Lemay, C. A.; Hargraves, J. L.; Gorodetsky, T.; Calista, J.
We designed, implemented and evaluated a 48-hour training program for community health workers (CHWs) deployed to diabetes care teams in community health centers (CHCs). The curriculum included core knowledge/skills with diabetes content to assist CHWs in developing patient self-management goals. Our qualitative evaluation included…
Kinman, G; Clements, A J; Hart, J
Research findings indicate that working as a prison officer can be highly stressful, but the aspects of work that predict their mental health status are largely unknown. To examine, using elements of the demands-resources model, the extent to which work pressure and several potential resources (i.e. control, support from managers and co-workers, role clarity, effective working relationships and positive change management) predict mental health in a sample of UK prison officers. The Health and Safety Executive Management Standards Indicator Tool was used to measure job demands and resources. Mental health was assessed by the General Health Questionnaire-28. The effects of demands and resources on mental health were examined via linear regression analysis with GHQ score as the outcome. The study sample comprised 1267 prison officers (86% male). Seventy-four per cent met 'caseness' criteria for mental health problems. Job demands, poor interpersonal relationships, role ambiguity and, to a lesser extent, low job control and poor management of change were key predictors of mental health status. The findings of this study can help occupational health practitioners and psychologists develop structured interventions to improve well-being among prison officers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
This discussion aims to consider the value of training educational professionals in mental health competencies. Primary Mental Health Workers working in the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service have traditionally used a consultation model when working with schools. In this article I consider moving the emphasis away from consultancy work,…
Stein, Dan J; Giordano, James
Global mental health is a relatively new field that has focused on disparities in mental health services across different settings, and on innovative ways to provide feasible, acceptable, and effective services in poorly-resourced settings. Neuroethics, too, is a relatively new field, lying at the intersection of bioethics and neuroscience; it has studied the implications of neuroscientific findings for age-old questions in philosophy, as well as questions about the ethics of novel neuroscientific methods and interventions. In this essay, we address a number of issues that lie at the intersection of these two fields: an emphasis on a naturalist and empirical position, a concern with both disease and wellness, the importance of human rights in neuropsychiatric care, and the value of social inclusion and patient empowerment. These different disciplines share a number of perspectives, and future dialogue between the two should be encouraged.
Bronkhorst, Babette; Tummers, Lars; Steijn, Bram; Vijverberg, Dominique
In recent years, the high prevalence of mental health problems among health care workers has given rise to great concern. The academic literature suggests that employees' perceptions of their work environment can play a role in explaining mental health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of the literature in order to answer the following two research questions: (1) how does organizational climate relate to mental health outcomes among employees working in health care organizations and (2) which organizational climate dimension is most strongly related to mental health outcomes among employees working in health care organizations? Four search strategies plus inclusion and quality assessment criteria were applied to identify and select eligible studies. As a result, 21 studies were included in the review. Data were extracted from the studies to create a findings database. The contents of the studies were analyzed and categorized according to common characteristics. Perceptions of a good organizational climate were significantly associated with positive employee mental health outcomes such as lower levels of burnout, depression, and anxiety. More specifically, our findings indicate that group relationships between coworkers are very important in explaining the mental health of health care workers. There is also evidence that aspects of leadership and supervision affect mental health outcomes. Relationships between communication, or participation, and mental health outcomes were less clear. If health care organizations want to address mental health issues among their staff, our findings suggest that organizations will benefit from incorporating organizational climate factors in their health and safety policies. Stimulating a supportive atmosphere among coworkers and developing relationship-oriented leadership styles would seem to be steps in the right direction.
Asher, Laura; Fekadu, Abebaw; Hanlon, Charlotte
Purpose of review\\ud The aim was to synthesise recent evidence on schizophrenia illness experience and outcomes and models of care in low and middle-income countries (LMIC).\\ud \\ud Recent findings\\ud There is a plurality of explanatory models for psychosis and increasing evidence that context influences experiences of stigma. People with schizophrenia in LMIC are vulnerable to food insecurity, violence and physical health problems, in addition to unmet needs for mental healthcare. Family supp...
Krishnaswamy, Saroja; Subramaniam, Kavitha; Indran, Tishya; Low, Wah-Yun
Disasters, natural or man-made, bring numerous health care challenges. In any crisis, mental health programs are a requirement during both the acute and postemergency phases. In the Asian tsunami on December 26, 2004, some of the northwestern coastal areas of Malaysia, particularly the island of Penang, were affected with devastating effects on the residents. Such disasters can predispose to mental health problems among the affected people. An early mental health intervention program was carried out in Balik Pulau, Penang, an area badly affected by the tsunami. The objective of the intervention program was to identify the victims, counsel them, make referrals if necessary, and provide help and resources to prevent the development of mental health problems. Penang residents identified as tsunami victims by the local health authorities were recruited. A group of health care workers, school teachers, village authorities, and volunteers were trained to carry out the crisis intervention program by health care workers experienced in crisis interventions. A total of 299 adults participated in the crisis intervention program, with follow-up assessments being made 4 to 6 weeks later. At the follow-up assessment, 1% of the victims had a problem and they were then referred for further medical assessment. This indicates that the intervention program in the first 2 weeks after the tsunami disaster with referrals to medical services may have helped stabilize the victims.
At the point of civilization where we find ourselves today, in the post-modernity conditions, the responsibility of civil society is a determining factor in the overall politic of mental health. More than ever we have to think of health and mental health in particular in terms of a social dynamics where the participation of social groups and individuals in the responsibility for collective health has priority over the structures of state and institutional interventions. The responsibilities of the state, the institutions and professionals are therefore displaced and redefined while new rights emerge and with them the need for more information and control for the users who pay for health services with their taxes. The concern to adapt a system now anachronistic can only increases the problems of a society responsible for its obsolescence. The social and human costs of the radical changes needed, will in the short term, be socially less burdensome than the consequences of illusory adaptations. In this area, we can expect that nothing will be effective without the mobilisation by the state of the collective responsabilities for a social involvement in public health.
Rantonen, O; Alexanderson, K; Pentti, J; Kjeldgård, L; Hämäläinen, J; Mittendorfer-Rutz, E; Kivimäki, M; Vahtera, J; Salo, P
Aims Social workers report high levels of stress and have an increased risk for hospitalisation with mental diagnoses. However, it is not known whether the risk of work disability with mental diagnoses is higher among social workers compared with other human service professionals. We analysed trends in work disability (sickness absence and disability pension) with mental diagnoses and return to work (RTW) in 2005-2012 among social workers in Finland and Sweden, comparing with such trends in preschool teachers, special education teachers and psychologists. Records of work disability (>14 days) with mental diagnoses (ICD-10 codes F00-F99) from nationwide health registers were linked to two prospective cohort projects: the Finnish Public Sector study, years 2005-2011 and the Insurance Medicine All Sweden database, years 2005-2012. The Finnish sample comprised 4849 employees and the Swedish 119 219 employees covering four occupations: social workers (Finland 1155/Sweden 23 704), preschool teachers (2419/74 785), special education teachers (832/14 004) and psychologists (443/6726). The reference occupations were comparable regarding educational level. Risk of work disability was analysed with negative binomial regression and RTW with Cox proportional hazards. Social workers in Finland and Sweden had a higher risk of work disability with mental diagnoses compared with preschool teachers and special education teachers (rate ratios (RR) 1.43-1.91), after adjustment for age and sex. In Sweden, but not in Finland, social workers also had higher work disability risk than psychologists (RR 1.52; 95% confidence interval 1.28-1.81). In Sweden, in the final model special education teachers had a 9% higher probability RTW than social workers. In Sweden, in the final model the risks for work disability with depression diagnoses and stress-related disorder diagnoses were similar to the risk with all mental diagnoses (RR 1.40-1.77), and the probability of RTW was 6% higher in
Saavedra Solano, Nayelhi; Berenzon Gorn, Shoshana; Galván Reyes, Jorge
To present the conditions that favour or limit the integration of mental health into health centres, based on the perceptions of health workers and on observations made by researchers. A study was conducted between April 2012 and February 2014 using a non-participant observation technique plus interviews with health professionals. Descriptive exploratory study conducted in 19 health centres in Mexico City. The selection of centres and participants was intentional, followed by the snowball technique in order to reach data saturation. Two guides were use, one for collecting information during the observation and the other one for interviews. The observations were registered in field notes, while the interviews were audio recorded. All collected information was stored in Word files. The analysis of field notes consisted of three levels of reading, and the interview analysis was based on "categorisation of meanings" proposed by Kvale (1996). The aspects that favour or limit the integration of mental health services involve three broad categories: a) programs and methods that organise services, b) infrastructure and material resources and, c) human and information resources. Actions targeted at including mental health into productivity reports and into already established goals, would contribute to the integration of mental health care, as well as promoting the idea that mental health is part of overall health, and to increase the public investment in health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
the reality of mixed marriage through intimate stories drawn from the lives of visibly different couples. The testimonies describe rich possibilities and bitter disappointments, offering lessons for services promoting mental health and wellbeing, and for improving psychosocial intervention. The book...... will be of interest to academics in anthropology, sociology, psychology and social work, as well as practitioners including psychologists, counsellors, school advisors, and health workers. Sociology Family, Relationships and Personal Life Race and Ethnicities Psychology Cultural and Cross Psychology of Relationships...
Hynan, M T; Steinberg, Z; Baker, L; Cicco, R; Geller, P A; Lassen, S; Milford, C; Mounts, K O; Patterson, C; Saxton, S; Segre, L; Stuebe, A
This article describes recommended activities of social workers, psychologists and psychiatric staff within the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). NICU mental health professionals (NMHPs) should interact with all NICU parents in providing emotional support, screening, education, psychotherapy and teleservices for families. NMHPs should also offer educational and emotional support for the NICU health-care staff. NMHPs should function at all levels of layered care delivered to NICU parents. M...
Angier, J J
Consumer health information as applied to mental health includes areas such as the diagnosis, management, and treatment of mental illness, as well as self-help, emotional wellness, and the relationship between life events, stress, and disease. This paper presents issues specific to the provision of mental health information to the layperson, e.g., confidentiality, literacy, competence, the social stigma of mental illness, the state of the art in psychiatry, popular psychology, and treatment f...
Wainer, J; Chesters, J
This paper explores the relationship between rural places and mental health. It begins with a definition of mental health and an outline of the data that have led to the current concern with promoting positive mental health. We then consider aspects of rural life and place that contribute to positive mental health or increase the likelihood of mental health problems. Issues identified include environment, place, gender identity, violence and dispossession and the influence of the effects of structural changes in rural communities. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the determinants of resilience in rural places, including social connectedness, valuing diversity and economic participation.
Full Text Available This article deals with questions of mental health among students of pedagogical universities. There were analysed differences in the level of mental health among sporting and non-sporting students. Two methods were used in the inquiry. Stepanov's questionnaire was used to estimate the level of mental health, Gundarov's questionnaire was used to evaluate psychical satisfaction. The sample consisted of 263 sporting students (athletes and 288 non-sporting students. Results have shown that the level of mental health among sporting students was higher than the level of mental health among non-sporting students.
Castillo, Richard J; Guo, Kristina L
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has made major changes in the way mental illness is conceptualized, assessed, and diagnosed in its new diagnostic manual, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), published in 2013, and has far reaching implications for health care organizations and mental health policy. This paper reviews the four new principles in DSM-5: 1) A spectrum (also called "dimensional") approach to the definition of mental illness; 2) recognition of the role played by environmental risk factors related to stress and trauma in predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating mental illness; 3) cultural relativism in diagnosis and treatment of mental illness; and 4) recognizing the adverse effects of psychiatric medications on patients. Each of these four principles will be addressed in detail. In addition, four major implications for health care organizations and mental health policy are identified as: 1) prevention; 2) client-centered psychiatry; 3) mental health workers retraining; and 4) medical insurance reform. We conclude that DSM- 5's new approach to diagnosis and treatment of mental illness will have profound implications for health care organizations and mental health policy, indicating a greater emphasis on prevention and cure rather than long-term management of symptoms.
Cobigo, Virginie; Stuart, Heather
Recent research on approaches to improving social inclusion for people with mental disabilities is reviewed. We describe four approaches (or tools) that can be used to improve social inclusion for people with mental disabilities: legislation, community-based supports and services, antistigma/antidiscrimination initiatives, and system monitoring and evaluation. While legislative solutions are the most prevalent, and provide an important framework to support social inclusion, research shows that their full implementation remains problematic. Community-based supports and services that are person-centered and recovery-oriented hold considerable promise, but they are not widely available nor have they been widely evaluated. Antistigma and antidiscrimination strategies are gaining in popularity and offer important avenues for eliminating social barriers and promoting adequate and equitable access to care. Finally, in the context of the current human rights and evidence-based health paradigms, systematic evidence will be needed to support efforts to promote social inclusion for people with mental disabilities, highlight social inequities, and develop best practice approaches. Tools that promote social inclusion of persons with mental disabilities are available, though not yet implemented in a way to fully realize the goals of current disability discourse.
Trombley, Janna; Chalupka, Stephanie; Anderko, Laura
: Climate change is an enormous challenge for our communities, our country, and our world. Recently much attention has been paid to the physical impacts of climate change, including extreme heat events, droughts, extreme storms, and rising sea levels. However, much less attention has been paid to the psychological impacts. This article examines the likely psychological impacts of climate change, including anxiety, stress, and depression; increases in violence and aggression; and loss of community identity. Nurses can play a vital role in local and regional climate strategies by preparing their patients, health care facilities, and communities to effectively address the anticipated mental health impacts of climate change.
Pien, Li-Chung; Chen, Duan-Rung; Chen, Chiou-Jong; Liang, Kuei-Min; Cheng, Yawen
Workplace violence is known to pose mental health risks. However, whether or not workplace violence in a surrounding area might further increase the risk of mental distress in workers has rarely been examined. The study subjects were 9,393 male and 7,716 female employees who participated in a nationwide survey in 2010. Their personal experiences of workplace violence over the past 1 year were ascertained by a standardized questionnaire. Also assessed were their psychosocial work characteristics and mental distress problems. Neighborhood-level workplace violence was computed based on aggregated data at the county level and was categorized into low-, medium-, and high-level categories. Multilevel logistic regression models were constructed to examine the associations between neighborhood-level workplace violence and individual-level mental distress problems, with adjustment of individual-level experience of workplace violence. The neighborhood-level prevalence of workplace violence ranged from 4.7 to 14.7% in men and from 6.4 to 14.8% in women across 22 counties. As compared with those who live in counties of the lowest tertile of workplace violence, female workers who lived in counties of the highest tertile of workplace violence had a 1.72-fold increased risk for mental distress problems after controlling for individual experience of workplace violence and other psychosocial work characteristics. Neighborhood-level workplace violence was associated with poor mental health in female workers. Preventative strategies targeting workplace violence should pay attention to neighborhood factors and gender-specific effects that might influence societal tolerance of abusive work practices and workers' vulnerability to mental health impacts of workplace violence.
Bransford, Cassandra L
This article examines how social workers may use their authority to create managed mental health care organizations that support the principles and values of professional social work practice. By exploring research and theoretical contributions from a multidisciplinary perspective, the author suggests ways that social workers may incorporate empowerment strategies into their organizational practices to create more socially responsible and humane mental health organizations. (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
Hepworth, Julie; Askew, Deborah; Foley, Wendy; Duthie, Deb; Shuter, Patricia; Combo, Michelle; Clements, Lesley-Ann
Introduction Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people experience higher levels of psychological distress and mental ill health than their non-Indigenous counterparts, but underuse mental health services. Interventions are required to address the structural and functional access barriers that cause this underuse. In 2012, the Southern Queensland Centre of Excellence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Primary Health Care employed a psychologist and a social worker to integrate mental ...
Smart, D; Pollard, C; Walpole, B
The aim of this study was to: (i) develop a triage scale consistent with the National Triage Scale (NTS) for patients with mental health problems attending emergency departments; and (ii) to reduce emergency waiting times, transit times and improve skills assessing mental health problems. We developed a Mental Health Triage Scale (MHTS) consistent with the NTS. The MHTS was then implemented using a structured education package, and evaluated from March to August 1994. Further evaluation occurred after 2 years. A four-tiered MHTS was produced: category 2, violent, aggressive or suicidal, danger to self or others or with police escort; category 3, very distressed or psychotic, likely to deteriorate, situational crisis, danger to self or others; category 4, long-standing semi-urgent mental health disorder, supporting agency present; and category 5, long-standing non-acute mental health disorder, no support agency present. Patients with illness, injury or self-harm were triaged using combined mental health and medical information. Mean emergency waiting times and transit times were reduced. More consistent triaging for mental health patients occurred, and more consistent admission rates by urgency. Reduced mental health 'did not waits' showed improved customer satisfaction. Mental Health Triage Scale was considered appropriate by liaison psychiatry and its use has continued at 2 years follow-up. A systematic approach to mental health triaging produced a workable scale, reduced waiting times, transit times, and provided effective and consistent integration of mental health patients into a general emergency department.
Christensen, Anne Illemann; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette
analysed by means of logistic regression models. Results: Men and women with poor mental health are characterized by being single, having a long-term illness, not being able to rely on help from others in case of illness and by feeling that family and friends demand too much of them. Men with poor mental...... health were further characterized by being a heavy smoker, and having a BMI below 25. Women with poor mental health were further characterized by being 16-44 years old and sedentary in leisure time. CONCLUSIONS THE PREVALENCE OF POOR MENTAL HEALTH IS HIGHER AMONG WOMEN THAN MEN, AND DIFFERENT FACTORS...... CHARACTERIZE MEN AND WOMEN WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH THE PRESENT FINDINGS SUPPORT THE NOTION THAT BOTH SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS AND LIFESTYLE FACTORS ARE INDEPENDENTLY RELATED WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH WE SUGGEST TAKING INTO ACCOUNT ALL THESE AREAS OF LIFE WHEN PLANNING ACTIVITIES TO PREVENT POOR MENTAL HEALTH AND WHEN...
Acharya, Lumeshor; Upadhya, Kapil Dev; Kortmann, Frank
To improve mental health care in Nepal, a National Mental Health Policy, Strategy and Plan of Action was approved by the Government in 1997. Nepal has high vulnerability to natural disasters compounded by a prolonged violent civil conflict affecting almost all districts of the country. Floods, landslides and earthquakes are the most regularly occurring disasters in Nepal. There is a Health Sector Emergency and Disaster Response Plan of the Ministry of Health, but mental health and psychosocial relief is not adequately addressed in this plan. In 2003 guidelines on best public health practices in emergencies for district health workers was developed in which the minimum standard and indicators include aspects of mental and social aspects of health. The experience of the complex emergency in April 2005 showed that in general the emergency preparedness plan has not been prepared well enough, but on the other hand the health system was able to cope quite well because of past training. Further strengthening of the mental health and psychosocial aspects of disaster preparedness is strongly recommended.
A team of Canadian and Chilean researchers examined workplace mental health in Chile. Chilean and Canadian researchers joined forces to investigate the impacts of paid and unpaid work on the mental health of Chilean workers, paying particular attention to gender issues. The researchers worked to encourage the ...
Norder, G.; Hoedeman, R.; de Bruin, J.; van Rhenen, W.; Roelen, C.A.M.
It is unclear when occupational health providers should re-evaluate workers after mental healthrelated absences from work. Aims: To investigate the time to recurrence of mental health-related absences, stratified by International Classification of Diseases-Tenth Revision (ICD-10) diagnostic
Rogers, Elizabeth A; Manser, Sarah Turcotte; Cleary, Joan; Joseph, Anne M; Harwood, Eileen M; Call, Kathleen T
Though evidence supports the value of community health workers (CHWs) in chronic disease self-management support, and authorities have called for expanding their roles within patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs), few PCMHs in Minnesota have incorporated these health workers into their care teams. We undertook a qualitative study to (1) identify facilitators and barriers to utilizing a CHW model among PCMHs in Minnesota, and (2) define roles played by this workforce within the PCMH team. We conducted 51 semistructured, key-informant interviews of clinic leaders, clinicians, care coordinators, CHWs, and staff from 9 clinics (5 with community health workers, 4 without). Qualitative analysis consisted of thematic coding aligned with interview topics. Four key conceptual themes emerged as facilitators and barriers to utilizing a CHW model: the presence of leaders with knowledge of CHWs who championed the model, a clinic culture that favored piloting innovation vs maintaining established care models, clinic prioritization of patients' nonmedical needs, and leadership perceptions of sustainability. These health care workers performed common and clinic-specific roles that included outreach, health education and coaching, community resource linkage, system navigation, and facilitating communication between clinician and patient. We identified facilitators and barriers to adopting CHW roles as part of PCMH care teams in Minnesota and documented their roles being played in these settings. Our findings can be used when considering strategies to enhance utilization and integration of this emerging workforce. © 2018 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Ho, Rainbow Tin Hung; Sing, Cheuk Yan; Fong, Ted Chun Tat; Au-Yeung, Friendly So Wah; Law, Kit Ying; Lee, Lai Fan; Ng, Siu Man
This study investigated the effects of burnout on the relationship between spirituality and mental health among healthcare workers in Hong Kong. Using a cross-sectional design, 312 healthcare workers (mean age=38.6, SD=9.9; 77.7% females) in a mental rehabilitation institution completed a self-administered questionnaire on anxiety, depression, burnout, and daily spiritual experiences. Multivariate regressions were used to test the effects of burnout on the relationships between daily spiritual experiences and anxiety and depression. After adjusting for age, education level, marital status, and staff ranking, higher levels of daily spiritual experience were associated with lower levels of burnout (β=-0.22, pspiritual experiences and depression (z=-2.99, pspiritual experiences and anxiety (z=-3.06, pspirituality and mental health is influenced by the level of burnout, thereby supporting the role of burnout as a potential mediator. Moreover, day-to-day spiritual practice was found to be potentially protective against burnout and mental health problems. Future interventions could incorporate spirituality training to reduce burnout so as to improve the well-being of healthcare workers.
Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender
Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738
... concept which is clearly differentiated from mental illness and psychopathology. The second part of the book focuses on the theory and practice of mental health promotion through applications to policy, assessment, consultation, and to education and training in mental health promotion. Drawing on a wealth of international literature Keith Tudor offe...
Learning can be hindered by students' mental health. Given the increased reports of mental health concerns among college students, it is imperative that we understand how best to provide supports to this population to help them learn and succeed. This is particularly significant given the body of research that demonstrates how mental illness may…
This book highlights a broad range of issues on mental health and illness in large cities. It presents the epidemiology of mental disorders in cities, cultural issues of urban mental health care, and community care in large cities and urban slums. It also includes chapters on homelessness, crime...
Ikegami, Kazunori; Tahara, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Tatsuji; Mafune, Kosuke; Hiro, Hisanori; Nagata, Shoji
We practiced interventional approaches for the promotion of occupational mental health in a manufacturing company with approximately 2,000 workers, between 2005 and 2007. We investigated the long-term effects of our mental health training program--including Active Listening (AL) training for managers--on perceived job stressors, stress reactions and social supports of workers, and mental sick leave. We conducted the mental health training program with AL training for all managers in order to improve their communication skills and support for workers. The investigation was conducted using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ). In addition, we surveyed the number of workers taking sick leave due to mental problems from 2003 to 2007. Among the categories of "job stressors" in the BJSQ, the scores for "quantitative workload," "qualitative workload" and "physical demands" improved significantly after our interventional approaches. The number of workers taking sick leave had been increasing gradually from 2003 to 2005, but this decreased by approximately half in 2006 and 2007. Our mental health training programs for managers were successful in decreasing some job stressors, stress reactions, and workers' sick leave due to mental problems.
Hamidreza Mokarami; Hosein Kakooei; Alireza Dehdashti; Younes Jahani; Hosein Ebrahimi
Background: Sleeping disturbances considered as a remarkable health problem among shift workers, which may lead to physical and mental disorders. This study aimed to examine the sleeping quality and its relationships with the general health among shift workers in a metal press workshop. Methods: Descriptive study was conducted and assists 196 subjects of shift workers who were working in press workshop in a car industry. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and Pittsburg sleep quality Index ...
Arandjelovic, Katarina; Eyre, Harris A; Forbes, Malcolm P; Bauer, Renee; Aggarwal, Shilpa; Singh, Ajeet B; Baune, Bernhard T; Everall, Ian; Berk, Michael; Ng, Chee
Socioeconomic trends herald what many describe as the Asian Century, whereby Asian economic, political and cultural influence is in global ascendency. Broadening relevant ties between Australia and Asia is evident and logical and may include strengthening alliances in mental health systems. We argue the importance of strengthening Asian mental health systems and some of the roles Australian mental health workers could have in promoting strengthening the Asian mental health system. This paper is a narrative review which sources data from reputable search databases. A well-articulated Australian strategy to support strengthening the mental health system in Asia is lacking. While there are active initiatives operating in this space, these remain fragmented and underdeveloped. Coordinated, collaborative and culturally respectful efforts to enhance health education, research, policy, leadership and development assistance are key opportunities. Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals have a unique opportunity to contribute to improved mental health outcomes in Asia. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Allevi, Liliana; Salvi, Giovanni; Ruggeri, Mirella
To start a process of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) in an Italian Community Mental Health Service by using a quality assurance questionnaire in a self audit exercise. The questionnaire was administered to 14 key workers and clinical managers with different roles and seniority. One senior manager's evaluation was used as a benchmark for all the others. Changes were introduced in the service practice according to what emerged from the evaluation. Meetings were scheduled to monitor those changes and renew the CQI process. There was a wide difference in the key workers' answers. Overall, the senior manager's evaluation was on the 60th percentile of the distribution of the other evaluations. Those areas that required prompt intervention were risk management, personnel development, and CQI. The CQI process was followed up for one year: some interventions were carried out to change the practice of the service. A self audit exercise in Community Mental Health Services was both feasible and useful. The CQI process was easier to start than to carry on over the long term.
Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena
One-fifth of Kazakhstan's population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N = 450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia.
East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C
The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations
The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations
... normal or healthy. For example, if you have bipolar disorder, you might think your mood swings are just ... patient-with-mental-symptoms. Accessed June 10, 2016. Bipolar disorder. The National Institute of Mental Health. https://www. ...
Boschman, J.S.; van der Molen, H.F.; van Duivenbooden, C.; Sluiter, J.K.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.
Dutch construction workers are offered periodic health examinations. This care can be improved by tailoring this workers health surveillance (WHS) to the demands of the job and adjust the preventive actions to the specific health risks of a worker in a particular job. To improve the quality of the
Aug 30, 2011 ... Short Communication. Health Workers' Knowledge of and Experience with Female ... associated with both short-term and long-term complications (Behrendt and Moritz, 2005). It is common in ..... Stress Disorder and Memory Problems after Female. Genital Mutilation. Am J Psychiatry. 162: 1000–1002.
Objective: To appraise the level of awareness about prenatal diagnosis among health workers in southwestern Nigeria and its utilization. Methodology: ... awareness about it, and upon which the right attitude of referral is developed. In our ... information on religion, location of practice, field of practice and years in practice.
In 1988 the Western Cape Regional Services Council (RSC) initiated a community health worker (CHW) project in Khayelitsha in order to extend its preventive services to people in the community and promote 'community upliftment'. An evaluation of this project was undertaken in 1991 and 1992 in order to examine the ...
Information regarding young children who experience barriers to the development of listening, language and learning is limited in the South African context. Health workers, in particular those involved in intervention with these children, such as medical practitioners, speech-language therapists and audiologists as well as ...
Abstract. Background: Community Health Workers (CHWs) have significantly contributed to the decrease of malaria prevalence and related mortality among under five children in Rwanda. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of CHWs about malaria prevention in a selected District of Rwanda.
Background: Community Health Workers (CHWs) have significantly contributed to the decrease of malaria prevalence and related mortality among under five children in Rwanda. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of CHWs about malaria prevention in a selected District of Rwanda. Methods: ...
Ip, Vitti; Chan, Fong; Chan, Jacob Yui-Chung; Lee, June Ka Yan; Sung, Connie; H Wilson, Emma
Transition from high school to college can be particularly difficult and stressful for Chinese college students because of parent expectations. The purpose of this study was to examine therapist variables influencing Chinese college students' preferences for mental health professionals using conjoint analysis. Two hundred fifty-eight community college students in Hong Kong were asked to rate the profile of 55 mental health professionals representing a combination of therapist characteristics (i.e., gender, age, race/ethnicity, professional background, and training institutions) from the most to least preferred therapist from whom to seek psychological counselling. Results indicated that students' preference formation was based largely on professional background and training institution of the mental health professionals. Clinical psychologists and clinical social workers were preferred over educational psychologists (school psychologists), counsellors, and psychiatrists. Mental health professionals who received training from more prestigious schools were preferred over those trained at less prestigious schools. Understanding clients' preference formation for choosing mental health professionals could be the first step to gain insights for developing effective educational and outreach strategies to promote help seeking behavior and mental health service utilization among Chinese college students.
Tilahun, Dejene; Fekadu, Abebaw; Tekola, Bethlehem; Araya, Mesfin; Roth, Ilona; Davey, Basiro; Hanlon, Charlotte; Hoekstra, Rosa A
There is a severe shortage of services for children with autism in Ethiopia; access to services is further impeded by negative beliefs and stigmatising attitudes towards affected children and their families. To increase access to services, care provision is decentralised through task-shifted care by community health extension workers. This study aimed to examine the impact of a brief training (Health Education and Training; HEAT) for Ethiopian rural health extension workers and comprised three groups: (1) health extension workers who completed a basic mental health training module (HEAT group, N = 104); (2) health extension workers who received enhanced training, comprising basic HEAT as well as video-based training on developmental disorders and a mental health pocket guide (HEAT+ group, N = 97); and (3) health extension workers untrained in mental health (N = 108). All participants completed a questionnaire assessing beliefs and social distance towards children with autism. Both the HEAT and HEAT+ group showed fewer negative beliefs and decreased social distance towards children with autism compared to the untrained health extension worker group, with the HEAT+ group outperforming the HEAT group. However, HEAT+ trained health extension workers were less likely to have positive expectations about children with autism than untrained health extension workers. These findings have relevance for task-sharing and scale up of autism services in low-resource settings worldwide.
Larson, Satu; Chapman, Susan; Spetz, Joanne; Brindis, Claire D.
Background: Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers…
Picos, Andrés Palacios; González, Ruth Pinedo; de la Iglesia Gutiérrez, Myriam
The aim of the researchers is to explore the causes and consequences of the psychological health of sex workers as well as provide an intervention model for the prevention of mental disorders in accordance with World Health Organization (WHO) levels. The study sample consisted of 146 sex workers from Spain. Loneliness and maltreatment have a negative influence on psychological health, while self-esteem has a protector role over psychological health. Psychological health has a positive impact on perceived quality of life and other health domains. On the contrary, psychological health has a negative impact on drug use and symptoms of anxiety. Data are discussed.
Abdolsattar Shahi; Ibrahim Ghaffari; Khalil Ghasemi
Background: Marital satisfaction is an important component of the marriage. Mental health as a component of the personal characteristic also related with marital satisfaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between mental health and marital satisfaction of couples.Methods: Three hundred couples from high-risk area of Gorgan – North of Iran were selected. Association between men's and women’s mental health level was measured using General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-...
A shotgun marriage - community health workers and government health . services. Qualitative evaluation of a community health worker project in Khayelitsha. C. Mathews, H. van der Wait, P. Barron. In 1988 the Western Cape Regional Services Council. (RSC) initiated a community health worker (CHW) project.
... for mental disorders is enormous 4. Primary care for mental health enhances access 5. Primary care for mental health promotes respect of human rights 6. Primary care for mental health is affordab...
Wang, Yukun; Zhan, Shuifen; Liu, Yan; Li, Yan
The aim of this article is to reduce the risk of occupational hazards and improve safety conditions by enhancing hazard knowledge and identification as well as improving safety behavior for freight port enterprises. In the article, occupational hazards to health and their prevention measures of freight port enterprises have been summarized through a lot of occupational health evaluation work, experience and understanding. Workers of freight port enterprises confront an equally wide variety of chemical, physical and psychological hazards in production technology, production environment and the course of labor. Such health hazards have been identified, the risks evaluated, the dangers to health notified and effective prevention measures which should be put in place to ensure the health of the port workers summarized. There is still a long way to go for the freight port enterprises to prevent and control the occupational hazards. Except for occupational hazards and their prevention measures, other factors that influence the health of port workers should also be paid attention to, such as age, work history, gender, contraindication and even the occurrence and development rules of occupational hazards in current production conditions.
Dawson, Chris; Veliziotis, Michail; Pacheco, Gail; Webber, Don J
Mental health status has an association with labour market outcomes. If people in temporary employment have poorer mental health than those in permanent employment then it is consistent with two mutually inclusive possibilities: temporary employment generates adverse mental health effects and/or individuals with poorer mental health select into temporary from permanent employment. We apply regression analyses to longitudinal data corresponding to about 50,000 observations across 8000 individuals between 1991 and 2008 drawn from the British Household Panel Survey. We find that permanent employees who will be in temporary employment in the future have poorer mental health than those who never become temporarily employed. We also reveal that this relationship is mediated by greater job dissatisfaction. Overall, these results suggest that permanent workers with poor mental health appear to select into temporary employment thus signalling that prior cross section studies may overestimate the influence of employment type on mental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Job satisfaction is very important factor of productivity and job quality, especially in health care workers. The aim of the paper was to assess some of the parameters of job satisfaction among heath care workers. The pilot cross-sectional study conducted in the Clinical Center Nis from February to June 2007. Instrument for investigation was MM-40 EA questionnaire (Örebo University, Sweden. Interviews of physicians and nurses were conducted by the Faculty of Medicine students. 770 health care workers (209 male, 561 female were polled, mean age 40.65±9.82 years. Most of the participants thought that their work is interesting and stimulating, but that they work too hard. The health care workers were not satisfied with their influence on the work organization, as well as on the working environment conditions. More than half of participants had very good experiences with teamwork. The investigations in this field should have high priority in the country in transition.
Because of the aging working population and the increasing age of retirement the number of workers with chronic illnesses and disabilities is growing. It is important that workers with health complaints receive efficient health care in order to remain fully or at least partly productive. To explore workers' opinions about the effectiveness of contact with health care providers in shortening sickness absence duration. Data come from a four-wave study from 2005 to 2008 among Dutch workers (n=1,424). Data were obtained on visits to health care providers, sickness absence and workers' opinions on whether and how their absence could have been shortened. A third of the workers were of the opinion that the health care provider (most often the general practitioner, GP) had played a role in preventing sickness absence and 35% were of the opinion that the health care provider had limited their absence. Most often the physical therapist (71%) and mental health therapist (61%) shortened sickness absence duration, in contrast to the occupational physician (OP, 25%) and GP (32%). The effectiveness of the health care providers' treatment was associated with the cause of sickness absence. Approximately 15% of the workers reported that their sickness absence could have been shortened if health care providers had provided the proper treatment and if waiting times had been reduced. Health care providers differ in their potential to shorten sickness absence duration. Health care providers can further reduce sickness absence and health care costs by providing the proper treatment and by reducing waiting times.
Warszewska-Makuch, Magdalena; Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota
The aim of this study was to show how authentic leadership is related to social support and exposure to workplace bullying and how these variables are related to mental health. For our sample of 820 office workers employed in different Polish organizations and sectors, social support from supervisors moderated the relationship between authentic leadership and workplace bullying. Social support from co-workers moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health and authentic leadership moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health.
Warszewska-Makuch, Magdalena; Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota
The aim of this study was to show how authentic leadership is related to social support and exposure to workplace bullying and how these variables are related to mental health. For our sample of 820 office workers employed in different Polish organizations and sectors, social support from supervisors moderated the relationship between authentic leadership and workplace bullying. Social support from co-workers moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health and authentic leadership moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health. PMID:26323771
Full Text Available Abstract Background Shortage of human resources is a major problem facing Malawi, where more than 50% of the population lives in rural areas. Most of the district health services are provided by clinical health officers specially trained to provide services that would normally be provided by fully qualified doctors or specialists. As this cadre and the cadre of enrolled nurses are the mainstay of the Malawian health service at the district level, it is important that they are supported and motivated to deliver a good standard of service to the population. This study explores how these cadres are managed and motivated and the impact this has on their performance. Methods A quantitative survey measured health workers' job satisfaction, perceptions of the work environment and sense of justice in the workplace, and was reported elsewhere. It emerged that health workers were particularly dissatisfied with what they perceived as unfair access to continuous education and career advancement opportunities, as well as inadequate supervision. These issues and their contribution to demotivation, from the perspective of both management and health workers, were further explored by means of qualitative techniques. Focus group discussions were held with health workers, and key-informant interviews were conducted with members of district health management teams and human resource officers in the Ministry of Health. The focus groups used convenience sampling that included all the different cadres of health workers available and willing to participate on the day the research team visited the health facility. The interviews targeted district health management teams in three districts and the human resources personnel in the Ministry of Health, also sampling those who were available and agreed to participate. Results The results showed that health workers consider continuous education and career progression strategies to be inadequate. Standard human resource
Full Text Available Objectives: Maladaptive cognitive schemas can lead to biases during clinical assessment or psychotherapeutic interventions. This study aimed to explore the cognitive schemas among mental health professionals. Materials and Methods: 100 mental health professionals, of both genders, equally divided between psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and psychiatric nurses, were approached and administered the Young Schema Questionnaire - Short Form after written informed consent. Results: Males had higher maladaptive schemas than female respondents across all schema domains, viz., disconnection/rejection, impaired autonomy, impaired limits, other-directedness, and overvigilance (P ≤ 0.05. Psychiatrists had higher maladaptive schemas than psychologists (P ≤ 0.05. Age was weakly but positively corelated with the schemas of self-sacrifice (P = 0.038 and unrelenting standards (P = 0.002 . Conclusions: Mental health professionals also may have maladaptive schemas, which needs to be addressed through schema therapy.
Full Text Available This article intends to develop a historical, theoretical and critical debate about mental health, as a social policy, resulting from the dialectical relationship between state and civil society. The adopted methodology is qualitative, consisting on a bibliographical and reflexive review, through which it aims to evaluate positions of various authors on the subject. A discussion of the historical development of the Mental Health policy in Brazil was made, emphasizing the presence of various social movements, such as the Workers in Mental Health Movement, the Sanitary Reform Movement, the Psychiatric Reform Movement and the Anti-Asylum Movement. Therefore, it is verified that society has great ability to fight for effective social policies, in order to mitigate the destructive effects of capitalism. It is concluded that, although social policy is incapable of overcoming the social order, it includes significant changes to the recognition and assurance of rights to the people deprived of wealth and power in society.
Wainberg, Milton L; Scorza, Pamela; Shultz, James M; Helpman, Liat; Mootz, Jennifer J; Johnson, Karen A; Neria, Yuval; Bradford, Jean-Marie E; Oquendo, Maria A; Arbuckle, Melissa R
Globally, the majority of those who need mental health care worldwide lack access to high-quality mental health services. Stigma, human resource shortages, fragmented service delivery models, and lack of research capacity for implementation and policy change contribute to the current mental health treatment gap. In this review, we describe how health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are addressing the mental health gap and further identify challenges and priority areas for future research. Common mental disorders are responsible for the largest proportion of the global burden of disease; yet, there is sound evidence that these disorders, as well as severe mental disorders, can be successfully treated using evidence-based interventions delivered by trained lay health workers in low-resource community or primary care settings. Stigma is a barrier to service uptake. Prevention, though necessary to address the mental health gap, has not solidified as a research or programmatic focus. Research-to-practice implementation studies are required to inform policies and scale-up services. Four priority areas are identified for focused attention to diminish the mental health treatment gap and to improve access to high-quality mental health services globally: diminishing pervasive stigma, building mental health system treatment and research capacity, implementing prevention programs to decrease the incidence of mental disorders, and establishing sustainable scale up of public health systems to improve access to mental health treatment using evidence-based interventions.
Hann, Katrina; Pearson, Heather; Campbell, Doris; Sesay, Daniel; Eaton, Julian
Mental health advocacy groups are an effective way of pushing the mental health agenda and putting pressure on national governments to observe the right to health; however, there is limited research that highlights best practices for such groups in low-resource settings. In an effort to improve the scaling up of mental health in Sierra Leone, stakeholders came together to form the country's first mental health advocacy group: the Mental Health Coalition - Sierra Leone. Since its inception, the group has worked towards raising the profile of mental health in Sierra Leone and developing as an advocacy organisation. The study's aim was to investigate views on enabling factors and barriers associated with mental health advocacy in a low-income country using a community-based participatory approach and qualitative methodology. Focus groups (N=9) were held with mental health stakeholders, and key informant interviews (N=15) were conducted with advocacy targets. Investigators analysed the data collaboratively using coding techniques informed by grounded theory. Investigators reveal viewpoints on key factors in networking, interacting with government actors, and awareness raising that enabled mental health advocacy aims of supporting policy, service delivery, service user rights, training for service delivery, and awareness raising. The investigators outline viewpoints on barriers for advocacy aims in framing the issue of mental health, networking, interacting with government actors, resource mobilization, and awareness raising. The findings outline enabling factors, such as networking with key stakeholders, and barriers, such as lack of political will, for achieving mental health advocacy aims within a low-resource setting, Sierra Leone. Stakeholder coalitions can further key policy development aims that are essential to strengthen mental health systems in low-resource settings.
Full Text Available Nosocomial infections are the major concern in tertiary hospitals. Health care workers and their belonging are known to act as vector in transmission of infections. In present study, the writing pen of health care workers was worked out for carrying infection. The swab from writing pen of health care workers were cultured for any growth of microorganism and compared with swab from pen of the non health care workers. It was found that the rate of growth of microorganism were more in pen of health care workers. Similarly the organism attributed to the nosocomial infection was grown from the pens of health care workers. These organisms might be transmitted from the hands of health care workers. The writing pen which health care worker are using became the vectors of transmission of infection. So to prevent it, the most important way is to wash the hands and pen properly after examining the patients.
Cook, R J; Ortega-Ortiz, A; Romans, S; Ross, L E
Where legal systems allow therapeutic abortion to preserve women's mental health, practitioners often lack access to mental health professionals for making critical diagnoses or prognoses that pregnancy or childcare endangers patients' mental health. Practitioners themselves must then make clinical assessments of the impact on their patients of continued pregnancy or childcare. The law requires only that practitioners make assessments in good faith, and by credible criteria. Mental disorder includes psychological distress or mental suffering due to unwanted pregnancy and responsibility for childcare, or, for instance, anticipated serious fetal impairment. Account should be taken of factors that make patients vulnerable to distress, such as personal or family mental health history, factors that may precipitate mental distress, such as loss of personal relationships, and factors that may maintain distress, such as poor education and marginal social status. Some characteristics of patients may operate as both precipitating and maintaining factors, such as poverty and lack of social support.
Campbell, Karen; Burns, Candace
Total Worker Health™ is defined as a "strategy integrating occupational safety and health protection with health promotion to prevent worker injury and illness and to advance worker health and well-being." This strategy aligns workplace safety with individual behaviors that support healthy lifestyles. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 presumes that incentive-oriented worksite health promotion provides a critical pathway to reduce group health costs. Because of their scientific and clinical backgrounds, professional nurses are well qualified to educate and assist individuals with healthy lifestyle choices. Occupational health nurses and patient advocates can shape wellness initiatives that best serve both employees and their employers. © 2015 The Author(s).
Rakesh Kumar Chadda
Full Text Available Community mental health refers to the treatment of persons with mental disorders in the community. In the earlier periods, treatment of patients with mental illness was limited to the mental hospitals or asylums. This paper traces the beginnings of community psychiatry in India from the time Dr. Vidya Sagar initiated his famous experiment of treating patients with mental illnesses along with family members in tents outside the mental hospital, Amritsar. It then discusses the role of the National Mental Health Program and the District Mental Health Program. The role of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability in leading onto the development of the current Mental Health Care Bill, 2013 is discussed. Authors critically evaluate some of the merits and drawbacks of the Bill as related to recent developments in community mental health in India.
Prieto Rodríguez, Adriana
Information regarding the mental health situation, both at global and national levels, is updated. In the first place, the basic concepts and problems regarding mental health are presented. The burden of disease is also presented, bearing in mind that in developed countries deeper depression occupies second place and in developing countries comes fourth. On the other hand, depressive disorders represent 17% of DALYs. The mental health situation in Colombia is also presented, including its epi...
Riek, Laurel D.
This chapter discusses the existing and future use of robotics and intelligent sensing technology in mental health care. While the use of this technology is nascent in mental health care, it represents a potentially useful tool in the practitioner's toolbox. The goal of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the field, discuss the recent use of robotics technology in mental health care practice, explore some of the design issues and ethical issues of using robots in this space, and fi...
Aghukwa Nkereuwem Chikaodiri
Full Text Available A few months from the time of this survey, the nearly completed inpatient psychiatric facility within the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital’s complex would be ready for admissions. Understanding the health workers’ level of experience of mental illness and their likely behavioural responses towards people with psychiatric illness, therefore, should be a good baseline to understanding their likely reactions towards admitting such patients within a general hospital setting. The study, which used a pre-tested and adapted attribution questionnaire, was prospective and cross-sectional. Randomly selected health workers in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital had their level of familiarity and attributions towards psychiatric patients assessed. The respondents showed a high level of experience with mental illness, with more than 3 in 5 of them having watched movies on mental illness before. More than half of them held positive (favorable attributions towards persons with mental illness on nine of the ten assessed attribution factors. Almost all held negative (unfavourable opinion towards intimate relationships with such persons. Attribution factors, “Responsibility, “Anger”, “Dangerousness”, “Fear” and “Segregation” were significantly related to the respondents’ level of education (P less than 0.05. Marital status of the respondents related significantly to “Pity” and “Avoidance” factors (P less than 0.05. Having watched movies on mental illness significantly related to “Responsibility” and “Fear” factors (P less than 0.05. Programs designed to improve the health workers mental health literacy, and increased positive professional contacts with mentally ill persons on treatment, would further enhance their perceived positive attributions towards them.
Jagger, C; Ritchie, K; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
The increase in life expectancy observed over the last decade has particular relevance for mental health conditions of old age, such as dementia. Although mental disorders have been estimated to be responsible for 60% of all disabilities, until recently population health indicators such as health...
The health impacts of climate change are being increasingly recognized, but mental health is often excluded from this discussion. In this issue we feature a collection of articles on climate change and mental health that highlight important directions for future research.
... psychiatric disorders, the biological and endocrinological concomitants of mental health, and eating disorders, perinatal psychiatric disorders, and the long term effects of abuse - helping readers...
Blue, I; Harpham, T
It is expected that the urban population in developing countries will double in the next 30 years. While urbanization is accompanied by health problems, population density can lower public health costs. Common mental disorders, such as anxiety, depression, insomnia, fatigue, irritability, and poor memory, account for 90% of all mental disorders, cause behavioral problems in offspring, and impede recovery from physical ailments. Those who suffer most from common mental disorders include women, those between 15 and 49 years old, and low-income populations. Strong links have been established between socioenvironmental factors and common mental disorders, and an urban environment has been associated with many possible risk factors for such disorders. Only a small percentage of people with mental disorders seek primary health care and even less receive secondary- or tertiary-level care. Common mental disorders place a large burden on primary health care services, however, but most of the patients suffering from mental disorders seek care for physical disorders that mask proper diagnosis and treatment. Thus, the World Health Organization advocates the introduction of mental health components in primary health care services in developing countries. In order to reach those who remain outside of the health care system, community-based interventions such as self-help groups or efforts to promote wider social changes or address poverty should be undertaken. Mental health in developing countries is gaining attention as the attendant loss in economic productivity of human capital has become apparent.
.... Exploring issues covering psychological, social, and cultural aspects of mental health problems, it looks at epidemiological data that shows increased frequency in different clinical aspects of many...
Full Text Available In this study, we compared immigrant workers with native workers on several factors related to their perception of their work identity anchored in their psychosocial work environment, and the result of these factors on work stress and subjective health. The data for the study came from 924 employees in the Norwegian food and beverage and among them were 84 immigrant workers. We found significant differences in levels of over-commitment, mental health and stress between native and immigrant workers. Immigrant workers perceived more over-commitment, more mental health problems and higher job stress than native workers did. The personal ambitions of the immigrants, measured as a higher level of over-commitment was seen as a driving force behind the pattern we found. This could have been a possible threat to an increased level of stress leading to mental health problems, but commitment to the firm they worked in was found to have a compensating effect in the final path analysis.
... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Worker health and safety. 300.150... PLAN Responsibility and Organization for Response § 300.150 Worker health and safety. (a) Response actions under the NCP will comply with the provisions for response action worker safety and health in 29...
expected that HIV prevalence among health workers will ... HIV I AIDS. In Malawi,' researchers reported that in 1999 2% of health care workers died of AIDS (60 deaths out of 2 979). Among female health care workers, the highest death rates were among ..... Ministry needs to conduct an in-depth investigation into the·.
There are many health and safety risks in occupational environment. These are causing occupational diseases and accidents that can directly affect individual’s health. One of the hazardous occupational places is health service area. Health workers are experienced with biological, chemical, physical, ergonomic and psycho-social risks in health service areas, especially in hospitals. Many researches from our country inform that these problems reached serious levels in last years and cause...
Lee, Hyo Jung; Ju, Young Jun; Park, Eun-Cheol
Despite the positive effect of community-based mental health centers, the utilization of professional mental health services appears to be low. Therefore, we analyzed the relationship between regional recognition of mental health centers and utilization of professional mental health services. We used data from the Community Health Survey (2014) and e-provincial indicators. Only those living in Seoul, who responded that they were either feeling a lot of stress or depression, were included in the study. Multiple logistic regression analysis using generalized estimating equations was performed to examine both individual- and regional-level variables associated with utilization of professional mental health services. Among the 7338 participants who reported depression or stress, 646 (8.8%) had consulted a mental health professional for their symptoms. A higher recognition rate of mental health centers was associated with more utilization of professional mental health services (odds ratio [OR]=1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03-1.07). Accessibility to professional mental health services could be improved depending on the general population's recognition and attitudes toward mental health centers. Therefore, health policy-makers need to plan appropriate strategies for changing the perception of mental health services and informing the public about both the benefits and functions of mental health centers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Sayers, Jan M; Cleary, Michelle; Hunt, Glenn E; Burmeister, Oliver K
Mental health is a major concern in Indigenous communities, as Indigenous people experience poorer health outcomes generally, and poorer social and emotional well-being throughout their lives, compared to non-Indigenous populations. Interviews were conducted with 20 mental health workers from a housing assistance programme for Indigenous clients with mental illness. Service and infrastructure needs identified to support clients were classified under the following overarching theme 'supports along the road to recovery'. Subthemes were: (i) It is OK to seek help; (ii) linking in to the local community; (iii) trusting the workers; and (iv) help with goal setting and having activities that support their achievement. This paper highlights the importance of targeted housing and accommodation support programmes for Indigenous people to prevent homelessness, and the essential services and infrastructure required to support Indigenous clients' mental health needs. These insights may inform service review, workforce development, and further research. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Murray, Michael; Ziegler, Friederike
Community health psychology is an approach which promotes community mobilisation as a means of enhancing community capacity and well-being and challenging health inequalities. Much of the research on this approach has been at the more strategic and policy level with less reference to the everyday experiences of community workers who are actively involved in promoting various forms of community change. This article considers the narrative accounts of a sample of 12 community workers who were interviewed about their lives. Their accounts were analysed in terms of narrative content. This revealed the tensions in their everyday practice as they attempted to overcome community divisions and management demands for evidence. Common to all accounts was a commitment to social justice. These findings are discussed with reference to opportunities and challenges in the practice of community work. © The Author(s) 2015.
Jagger, C; Ritchie, K; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
The increase in life expectancy observed over the last decade has particular relevance for mental health conditions of old age, such as dementia. Although mental disorders have been estimated to be responsible for 60% of all disabilities, until recently population health indicators such as health...... expectancies have concentrated on calculating disability-free life expectancy based on physical functioning. In 1994, a European Network for the Calculation of Health Expectancies (Euro-REVES) was established, one of its aims being the development and promotion of mental health expectancies. Such indicators...... may have an important role in monitoring future changes in the mental health of populations and predicting service needs. This article summarizes the proceedings and recommendations of the first European Conference on Mental Health Expectancy....
Stanojević Dragana Z.
Full Text Available The concept of positive mental health represents not merely the absence of mental disease but presence of high level of happiness and well-being. In this paper we mentioned shortly the earliest concept of mental health, presented by Marie Jahoda in the mid-twentieth century. After that, we described two traditions in understanding and researching of subjective well-being: hedonic and eudaimonic approach. First approach focuses on investigation of positive affects and happiness as emotional and life satisfaction as cognitive component of subjective well-being. Second tradition emphasizes potentials and competences that person develops to the highest level, in personal and social area. Both psychological and social well-being are core concept of positive mental health psychology, designated together as positive functioning. The psychological well-being comprises six dimensions: self-acceptance, positive relations with others, environmental mastery, autonomy, purpose of life and personal growth. Social well-being consists of five dimensions: social integration, social acceptance, social contribution, social actualization and social coherence. By integrating hedonic and eudaimonic well-being as well as absence of mental disease, Corey Keyes introduced concept of complete mental health. People with complete mental health have reported absence of disease during past year and presence of high level of emotional, psychological and social well-being (flourishing. People with incomplete mental health have also reported absence of mental disease but low level of positive functioning (languishing. Keyes thought there are people with complete and incomplete mental illness; both groups report presence of mental disease, but second group has high level of positive functioning. Models of positive mental health are widely used in research studies as well as in programs for prevention and promotion of mental health. .
Ryan, Brigid; Goding, Margaret; Fenner, Patricia; Percival, Steven; Percival, Wendy; Latai, Leua; Petaia, Lisi; Pulotu-Endemann, Fuimaono Karl; Parkin, Ian; Tuitama, George; Ng, Chee
To pilot an art and mental health project with Samoan and Australian stakeholders. The aim of this project was to provide a voice through the medium of art for people experiencing mental illness, and to improve the public understanding in Samoa of mental illness and trauma. Over 12 months, a series of innovative workshops were held with Samoan and Australian stakeholders, followed by an art exhibition. These workshops developed strategies to support the promotion and understanding of mental health in Samoa. Key stakeholders from both art making and mental health services were engaged in activities to explore the possibility of collaboration in the Apia community. The project was able to identify the existing resources and community support for the arts and mental health projects, to design a series of activities aimed to promote and maintain health in the community, and to pilot these programs with five key organizations. This project demonstrates the potential for art and mental health projects to contribute to both improving mental health and to lowering the personal and social costs of mental ill health for communities in Samoa. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Kutcher, S.; Gilberds, H.; Morgan, C.; Greene, R.; Hamwaka, K.; Perkins, K.
Background. Mental health literacy is foundational for mental health promotion, prevention, stigma reduction and care. Integrated school mental health literacy interventions may offer an effective and sustainable approach to enhancing mental health literacy for educators and students globally. Methods. Through a Grand Challenges Canada funded initiative called ?An Integrated Approach to Addressing the Issue of Youth Depression in Malawi and Tanzania?, we culturally adapted a previously demons...
Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, this study presents new evidence on the effects of job quality on the occurrence of severe acute conditions, the level of cardiovascular risk factors, musculoskeletal disorders, mental health, functional disabilities and self-assessed health among workers aged 50+. By combining intrinsic job quality with job insecurity and pay the study maps out multiple potential pathways through which work may affect health and well-being. Levering longitudinal data and external information on early retirement ages allows for accounting of unobserved heterogeneity, selection bias and reverse causality. The empirical findings suggest that inequities in health correlate with inequities in job quality, though a substantial fraction of these associations reflect time-constant unobserved heterogeneity. Still, there is evidence for genuine protective effects of better jobs on musculoskeletal disorders, mental health and general health. The effect could contribute to a substantial number of avoidable disorders among older workers, despite relatively modest effect sizes at the level of individuals. Mental health, in particular, responds to changes in job quality. Selection bias such as the healthy worker effect does not alter the results. But the influence of job quality on health may be transitional among older workers. An in-depth analysis of health dynamics reveals no evidence for persistence.
Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Bultmann, Ute; Christensen, Ulla; Diderichsen, Finn; Rugulies, Reiner
Introduction: The aims of this paper were to examine how disabled workers assess encounters with return-to-work (RTW) stakeholders during sickness absence due to common mental disorders (CMD) and to investigate gender differences in these assessments. Method: Data on contact with and assessment of
Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis
such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems...... and sychopathologies. In disadvantaged populations insecure and disorganized attachment are common, which points to the need of identifying early risk and effective methods of addressing such problems. This protocol describes an experimental evaluation of an indicated group-based parental educational program, Circle......, will be randomly allocated with a ratio of 2:1 into the COS-P intervention arm and into CAU. Data will be obtained at inclusion (baseline) and at follow-up when the child is 12–16 months. The primary outcome is maternal sensitivity. Secondary outcomes include quality of infant attachment, language, cognitive...
Wilson, Rhonda L; Wilson, G Glenn; Usher, Kim
The mental health of people in rural communities is influenced by the robustness of the mental health ecosystem within each community. Theoretical approaches such as social ecology and social capital are useful when applied to the practical context of promoting environmental conditions which maximise mental health helping capital to enhance resilience and reduce vulnerably as a buffer for mental illness. This paper explores the ecological conditions that affect the mental health and illness of people in rural communities. It proposes a new mental health social ecology framework that makes full use of the locally available unique social capital that is sufficiently flexible to facilitate mental health helping capital best suited to mental health service delivery for rural people in an Australian context.
Happell, Brenda; Wilson, Rhonda; McNamara, Paul
Mental Health First Aid training is designed to equip people with the skills to help others who may be developing mental health problems or experiencing mental health crises. This training has consistently been shown to increase: (1) the recognition of mental health problems; (2) the extent to which course trainees' beliefs about treatment align with those of mental health professionals; (3) their intentions to help others; and (4) their confidence in their abilities to assist others. This paper presents a discussion of the potential role of Mental Health First Aid training in undergraduate mental health nursing education. Three databases (CINAHL, Medline, and PsycINFO) were searched to identify literature on Mental Health First Aid. Although Mental Health First Aid training has strong benefits, this first responder level of education is insufficient for nurses, from whom people expect to receive professional care. It is recommended that: (1) Mental Health First Aid training be made a prerequisite of preregistration nurse education, (2) registered nurses make a larger contribution to addressing the mental health needs of Australians requiring care, and (3) current registered nurses take responsibility for ensuring that they can provided basic mental health care, including undertaking training to rectify gaps in their knowledge.
Tse, Wai S; Siu, Angela F Y; Wong, Tracy K Y
This study aims to explore the interrelationship among maternal oxytocin (OT) responsiveness, maternal mental health, maternal parenting behavior, and mental health of children under a free-play interaction. 61 mother-child dyads were recruited for the study. Maternal mental health problem and parenting self-efficacy were measured using self-reported questionnaires. The mental health problems of children were also evaluated using a mother-reported questionnaire. Furthermore, salivary OT was collected before and after a standardized 10min free-play interaction. Parenting behaviors, including eye gaze and touch, were measured during the free-play interaction. Maternal OT responsiveness was significantly associated with less maternal mental health problem, touch frequency, and mental health problem of children but not with parenting self-efficacy. In the multivariate linear regression analysis that considers maternal OT responsiveness and maternal and children's mental health problems, maternal OT responsiveness was not associated with the mental health problems of children. This result suggested that maternal mental health problem played a mediational role between maternal OT responsiveness and the mental health problem of children. Results supported the assertion that maternal OT responsiveness contributed to the increased risk of maternal mental health problems and, subsequently, the risk of mental health problems of their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
McCue Horwitz, Sarah; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Kerker, Bonnie D; Szilagyi, Moira; Garner, Andrew S; O'Connor, Karen G; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Green, Cori M; Foy, Jane M; Stein, Ruth E K
To assess the availability of on-site mental health professionals (MHPs) in primary care; to examine practice/pediatrician characteristics associated with on-site MHPs; and to determine whether the presence of on-site MHPs is related to pediatricians' comanaging or more frequently identifying, treating/managing, or referring mental health (MH) problems. Analyses included American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) members who participated in an AAP Periodic Survey in 2013 and who practiced general pediatrics (n = 321). Measures included sociodemographics, practice characteristics, questions about on-site MHPs, comanagement of MH problems, and pediatricians' behaviors in response to 5 prevalent MH problems. Weighted univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses were performed. Thirty-five percent reported on-site MHPs. Practice characteristics (medical schools, universities, health maintenance organizations, pediatricians usually identified, treated/managed, or referred 5 common child MH problems. Among the subset of pediatricians who reported comanaging, there was an association with comanagement when the on-site MHP was a child psychiatrist, substance abuse counselor, or social worker. On-site MHPs are more frequent in settings where low-income children are served and where pediatricians train. Pediatricians who comanage MH problems are more likely to do so when the on-site MHP is a child psychiatrist, substance abuse counselor, or social worker. Overall, on-site MHPs were not associated with comanagement or increased likelihood of pediatricians identifying, treating/managing, or referring children with 5 common child MH problems. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mancini, Michael A
This study explored the integration of peer services into community mental health settings through qualitative interviews with peer-providers and non-peer mental health workers. Results show peer job satisfaction was contingent upon role clarity, autonomy, and acceptance by non-peer coworkers. Mental health workers reported the need for organizational support for peer services and guidance about how to utilize peers, negotiate their professional boundaries and accommodate their mental health needs. Effective peer integration requires organizational readiness, staff preparation and clear policies and procedures. Consultation from consumer-based organizations, enhanced professional competencies, and professional development and career advancement opportunities for peers represent important resources.
Full Text Available -communicable diseases (NCDs) such as stroke, cancer, chronic respiratory conditions, heart disease, diabetes etc. . Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) were found to be the major cause of NCD deaths in 2008 and they account for more than 15 million deaths worldwide... pressure, heart rate and glucose readings. These reading closely related to most common NCDs. D. Feedback to health worker and the subject of care Community health workers are often not professionally trained on health. As a result they are not expected...
Mowbray, Orion; Campbell, Rosalyn Denise; Kim, Irang; Scott, Jessica A
Research on racial/ethnic differences in quitting mental health services has yet to examine the multiple forms of services offered and reasons why racial/ethnic groups quit. Data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) examined whether race/ethnicity was related to quitting nine types of mental health services within a multivariate framework, and whether any racial/ethnic differences emerged among 16 assessed reasons for quitting mental health services (N = 437). Odds of quitting mental health services provided by social workers, non-medical health professionals, counselors, psychiatrists, and psychologists varied significantly by race/ethnicity. The most common reasons for quitting services included individuals wanting to handle the problem on their own, getting better, or not needing help anymore. The increased likelihood of quitting services represents an underexplored area for mental health service disparities and calls for improved efforts to retain racial and ethnic minorities in the mental health system.
Booth, Alison; Scantlebury, Arabella; Hughes-Morley, Adwoa; Mitchell, Natasha; Wright, Kath; Scott, William; McDaid, Catriona
The police and others in occupations where they come into close contact with people experiencing/with mental ill health, often have to manage difficult and complex situations. Training is needed to equip them to recognise and assist when someone has a mental health issue or learning/intellectual disability. We undertook a systematic review of the effectiveness of training programmes aimed at increasing knowledge, changing behaviour and/or attitudes of the trainees with regard to mental ill health, mental vulnerability, and learning disabilities. Databases searched from 1995 onwards included: ASSIA, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials (CENTRAL), Criminal Justice Abstracts, Embase, ERIC, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Social Science Citation Index. Courses, training, or learning packages aimed at helping police officers and others who interact with the public in a similar way to deal with people with mental health problems were included. Primary outcomes were change in practice and change in outcomes for the groups of people the trainees come into contact with. Systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non- randomised controlled trials (non-RCTs) were included and quality assessed. In addition non-comparative evaluations of training for police in England were included. From 8578 search results, 19 studies met the inclusion criteria: one systematic review, 12 RCTs, three prospective non-RCTs, and three non-comparative studies. The training interventions identified included broad mental health awareness training and packages addressing a variety of specific mental health issues or conditions. Trainees included police officers, teachers and other public sector workers. Some short term positive changes in behaviour were identified for trainees, but for the people the trainees came into contact with there was little or no evidence of benefit. A variety of training programmes exist for non-mental health professionals who come into contact with
Li, Jie; Li, Juan; Huang, Yuanguang; Thornicroft, Graham
In order to reduce the huge treatment gap in mental health, WHO has called for integrating mental health into primary care. The purposes of this study are to provide a training course to improve the community mental health staff's knowledge of mental health and reduce stigma related to mental illness, as well as to evaluate the impact of this training on knowledge and stigma. The training intervention was a one day course for community mental health staff in Guangzhou, China. Evaluation questionnaires were given before and after the training session. Mental health knowledge was assessed using two vignettes. Stigma was evaluated by the Mental Illness: Clinicians' Attitudes Scale (MICA) and the Reported and Intended Behavior Scale (RIBS). A total of 99 community mental health staff from eight regions in Guangzhou, China were recruited for the study. The training course did not lead to a significant improvement of participants' levels of mental health knowledge. The mean score of MICA decreased from 47.92 ± 8.63 to 43.53 ± 9.61 after the training (t = 6.64, P training course is an effective way to improve community mental health staff's attitudes toward people with mental illness in the short term, as well as to lessen the social distance between staff and people with mental illness.
Mohamadi, Khosro; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Fathi Ashtiani, Ali; Azad Fallah, Parviz; Ebadi, Abbas; Yahaghi, Emad
Background: Promoting mental health and preventing mental disorders are of the main concerns for every country. Achieving these goals requires effective indexes for evaluating mental health. Therefore, to develop mental health enhancement programs in Iran, there is a need to measure the state of mental health in Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to select a set of mental health indicators that can be used to monitor the status of mental health in Iran. Materials and Methods: This research wo...
Full Text Available . To address this, community health workers (CHWs) have been utilised in the South African health system to provide basic health services in communities such as home visits, health education, maternal and child health support, communicable disease control...
Tarsitani, Lorenzo; Biondi, Massimo
Migration is an important risk factor for the development of common and severe mental disorders. Nevertheless, in Europe, immigrants are less likely to access community mental health care and to adhere to treatments, with consequent emergency referrals, involuntary admissions, and traumatic coercive measures. At a clinical level, changes in practices and cross-cultural skills of mental health professionals might be crucial in addressing this challenge.
Frances, Allen; Jones, K. Dayle
Up until now, social workers have depended on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM") as the primary diagnostic classification for mental disorders. However, the "DSM-5" revision includes scientifically unfounded, inadequately tested, and potentially dangerous diagnoses that may lead them…
Lal, Sham; Ndyomugenyi, Richard; Paintain, Lucy
Background Many malaria-endemic countries have implemented national community health worker (CHW) programmes to serve remote populations that have poor access to malaria diagnosis and treatment. Despite mounting evidence of CHWs’ ability to adhere to malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs...... artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and recognize symptoms in children that required immediate referral to the nearest health centre. Intervention arm CHWs had additional training on how to conduct an RDT; CHWs in the control arm used a presumptive diagnosis for malaria using clinical signs...
Jenkins, Rachel; Kiima, David; Njenga, Frank; Okonji, Marx; Kingora, James; Kathuku, Dammas; Lock, Sarah
Integration of mental health into primary care is essential in Kenya, where there are only 75 psychiatrists for 38 million population, of whom 21 are in the universities and 28 in private practice. A partnership between the Ministry of Health, the Kenya Psychiatric Association and the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London was funded by Nuffield Foundation to train 3,000 of the 5,000 primary health care staff in the public health system across Kenya, using a sustainable general health system approach. The content of training was closely aligned to the generic tasks of the health workers. The training delivery was integrated into the normal national training delivery system, and accompanied by capacity building courses for district and provincial level staff to encourage the inclusion of mental health in the district and provincial annual operational plans, and to promote the coordination and supervision of mental health services in primary care by district psychiatric nurses and district public health nurses. The project trained 41 trainers, who have so far trained 1671 primary care staff, achieving a mean change in knowledge score of 42% to 77%. Qualitative observations of subsequent clinical practice have demonstrated improvements in assessment, diagnosis, management, record keeping, medicine supply, intersectoral liaison and public education. Around 200 supervisors (psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses and district public health nurses) have also been trained. The project experience may be useful for other countries also wishing to conduct similar sustainable training and supervision programmes.
Bijari, Bita; Abassi, Ali
Essential primary health care is delivered through the public health center PHC network by public health workers (Behvarzs). Health workers are exposed to different types of stresses while working. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of burnout and associated factors among rural health workers in the health centers of Birjand University of Medical Sciences. All rural health workers of health centers under the coverage of the Birjand University of Medical Sciences selected through census sampling participated in this cross-sectional study. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, GHQ-12 questionnaire, and demographic questionnaire were completed by the participants. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15 using descriptive statistics, chi-square (χ 2 ), t-test, and ANOVA test. A total of 423 health workers participated in this study, and their mean age was 39 ± 8.4 years. Among the participants, 34.5% had moderate to severe levels of burnout. About 31.4% of the subjects had abnormal scores in emotional exhaustion, 16.8% in depersonalization, and 47% in the personal accomplishment subscales. The rate of abnormal mental health among the participants was 36.68%. The prevalence of mental disorders was 24.5% in subjects with low burnout or without burnout against 60.4% of subjects with moderate or severe burnout (P = 0.001). Age, education level, number of children, and years of employment were found to have a significant association with the burnout level of the participants (P Burnout was prevalent among health workers. Based on the high level of burnout among health workers, reducing job ambiguity/conflict, participating in planning new programs, and improving interaction with health authorities may help them to overcome their job-related pressure and to give a more desirable performance.
Katon, Jodie G; Lewis, Lacey; Hercinovic, Selma; McNab, Amanda; Fortney, John; Rose, Susan M
Purpose We describe results from a quality improvement project undertaken to address perinatal mental healthcare for women veterans. Description This quality improvement project was conducted in a single VA healthcare system between 2012 and 2015 and included screening for depressive symptoms with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) three times during the perinatal period, a dedicated maternity care coordinator (MCC), an on-site clinical social worker, and an on-site obstetrician/gynecologist (Ob/gyn). Information on prior mental health diagnosis was collected by the MCC or Ob/gyn. The prevalence of perinatal depressive symptoms and receipt of mental healthcare among those with such symptoms are reported by presence of a pre-pregnancy mental health diagnosis. Assessment Of the 199 women who used VA maternity benefits between 2012 and 2015, 56% (n = 111) had at least one pre-pregnancy mental health diagnosis. Compared to those without a pre-pregnancy mental health diagnosis, those with such a diagnosis were more likely to be screened for perinatal depressive symptoms at least once (61.5% vs. 46.8%, p = 0.04). Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 46.7% among those with a pre-pregnancy mental health diagnosis and 19.2% among those without. Among those with a pre-pregnancy mental health diagnosis and depressive symptoms (n = 35), 88% received outpatient mental healthcare and 77% met with the clinical social worker. Among those without a pre-pregnancy mental health diagnosis and depressive symptoms (n = 8), none received outpatient mental healthcare, but 77.8% met with the clinical social worker. Conclusion Improving perinatal mental healthcare for women veterans requires a multidisciplinary approach, including on-site integrated mental healthcare.
Okkels, Niels; Kristiansen, Christina Blanner; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl; Sartorius, Norman
To provide an update on urban mental health and highlight the challenges that require urgent attention. The majority of the world's population live in towns and urbanization is expected to increase in all areas of the world. Challenges to mental health in urban areas include loneliness, violence, high crime rates, homelessness, noise and other pollutants, traffic accidents, drug abuse, and insufficiency of mental health services. Urbanization is a global and growing phenomenon that pose significant challenges to mental health and mental health services. Fast and unstructured urbanization, such as that seen in many developing countries, further exacerbates these challenges. There are promising initiatives emerging including initiatives to end homelessness, to improve access to green areas in urban environments, to provide emergency psychiatric services, and to develop new forms of mental health services adjusted to urban settings. Regrettably there are no universally accepted guidelines that would help governments in structuring health services for people with mental illness in towns and help to prevent mental health problems related to rapid urbanization.
Stein, Dan J; He, Yanling; Phillips, Anthony; Sahakian, Barbara J; Williams, John; Patel, Vikram
Global mental health has emerged as an important specialty. It has drawn attention to the burden of mental illness and to the relative gap in mental health research and services around the world. Global mental health has raised the question of whether this gap is a developmental issue, a health issue, a human rights issue, or a combination of these issues-and it has raised awareness of the need to develop new approaches for building capacity, mobilising resources, and closing the research and treatment gap. Translational neuroscience has also advanced. It comprises an important conceptual approach to understanding the neurocircuitry and molecular basis of mental disorders, to rethinking how best to undertake research on the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of these disorders, with the ultimate aim to develop entirely new approaches to prevention and intervention. Some apparent contrasts exist between these fields; global mental health emphasises knowledge translation, moving away from the bedside to a focus on health systems, whereas translational neuroscience emphasises molecular neuroscience, focusing on transitions between the bench and bedside. Meanwhile, important opportunities exist for synergy between the two paradigms, to ensure that present opportunities in mental health research and services are maximised. Here, we review the approaches of global mental health and clinical neuroscience to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and intervention, and make recommendations for facilitating an integration of these two perspectives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The deaths of mentally ill patients transferred from Life. Esidimeni health facilities in Gauteng province, South. Africa to 27 unlicensed non- governmental organizations. (NGOs) is a sober reflection of how we as a society perceive and care for mentally ill people. As of 15 February 2017, the. Health ombudsman Professor.
The professionalization of psychology yielded many advantages, but also led to a main focus on psychopathology in mental health care. This thesis investigated an additional positive approach to mental health, focusing on positive feelings and life satisfaction (emotional well-being) and optimal
We want to learn from university students about your experiences and perspectives on mental health and well-being in the context of being a student. Your input can help us develop evidence-based intervention programs that can help address the mental health needs of students. This survey should take 15-20 minutes to complete.
Paul, Karsten I.; Moser, Klaus
The effect of unemployment on mental health was examined with meta-analytic methods across 237 cross-sectional and 87 longitudinal studies. The average overall effect size was d = 0.51 with unemployed persons showing more distress than employed persons. A significant difference was found for several indicator variables of mental health (mixed…
Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.
Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…
Iqbal, Naved; Singh, Archana; Aleem, Sheema
Although traditional meditation has been found to be effective in improving physical and mental health of subjects, there was a paucity of research of the effect of active or dynamic meditation on these variables. Therefore, the present study was aimed at studying the effect of dynamic meditation on mental health of the subjects. Total sample of the present study comprised 60 subjects, 30 each in experimental and control group. Subjects in experimental group were given 21-day training in dynamic meditation. Mental health of the experimental and control group subjects was measured in pre- and post-condition with the help of Mental Health Inventory developed by Jagadish and Srivastava (Mental Health inventory, Manovaigyanik Parikshan Sansthan, Varanasi, 1983). Obtained data were analyzed with the help of ANCOVA. In post-condition, experimental group scored better than control group on integration of personality, autonomy and environmental mastery. Effect sizes of dynamic meditation on these dimensions of mental health were large. However, experimental group and control group did not differ significantly on positive self-evaluation, perception of reality and group-oriented attitude dimensions of mental health in post-condition. Overall, dynamic meditation training was effective in improving mental health of the subjects.
Webster, Jeffrey Dean; Webster, J.D.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas
Objectives: The relationships between wisdom and age and between wisdom and mental health are complex with empirical results often inconsistent. We used a lifespan sample and broad, psychometrically sound measures of wisdom and mental health to test for possible age trends in wisdom and its
Husky, M.M.; Keyes, K.M.; Hamilton, A.; Stragalinou, A.; Pez, O.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Kovess-Masfety, V.
Background: Offspring of individuals with alcohol use disorders have been shown to have elevated risk for mental health problems. Objectives: To examine the association between maternal problem drinking and child mental health as assessed by three informants in three European countries. Methods:
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Healthcare Cost Report Information System (HCRIS) Dataset - Community Mental Health Center (CMHC). This data was reported on form CMS-2088-92. The data in this...
Grandjean Bamberger, Simon; Vinding, Anker Lund; Larsen, Anelia
Although limited evidence is available, organisational change is often cited as the cause of mental health problems. This paper provides an overview of the current literature regarding the impact of organisational change on mental health. A systematic search in PUBMED, PsychInfo and Web...... of Knowledge combining MeSH search terms for exposure and outcome. The criterion for inclusion was original data on exposure to organisational change with mental health problems as outcome. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were included. We found in 11 out of 17 studies, an association between...... organisational change and elevated risk of mental health problems was observed, with a less provident association in the longitudinal studies. Based on the current research, this review cannot provide sufficient evidence of an association between organisational change and elevated risk of mental health problems...
Williams, S S; Hewage, S N; Karandawala, I R
To review the number of research publications in the field of mental health in Sri Lanka from 1900 to 2009. A search of all publications in psychiatry and mental health from Sri Lanka was conducted using Pubmed, all medical journals published in Sri Lanka and researchers. The identified papers were reviewed for their content and categorised as research in psychiatry and mental health, based on strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 207 papers were identified. The first mental health research publication from Sri Lanka is in 1964. The last decade (2000-2009) accounted for 62% of the publications with the majority of the papers being published in indexed journals. The Ceylon Medical Journal carried the most number of papers and the topic on which most of the research was conducted was suicide and deliberate self harm. There is an increasing trend towards research in to psychiatry and mental health in Sri Lanka.
Masoe, Paula; Bush, Allister
This paper describes background to the development of the relatively new field of infant mental health and why this may be important for Pacific communities in Aotearoa/New Zealand (NZ) and elsewhere. There is a discussion of Samoan concepts and research that could inform infant mental health theory and practice. A Pacific home visiting programme based at Taeaomanino Trust in Porirua, Aotearoa/NZ has formed a collaboration with child and adolescent mental health service clinicians with an interest in infant mental health, to further develop infant mental health understandings and practices in this early intervention service. The benefits and practical application of this collaboration are discussed. The paper ends with a personal perspective from one of the authors on her Samoan reflection on the relevance of attachment ideas to her family relationships and work with Pacific infants, mothers and their families.
Madsen, Ida E H; Tripathi, Manisha; Borritz, Marianne
associated with a decreased level of mental health. This association was stronger for employees with poor baseline mental health and tended to be more pronounced among older employees. Among participants with poor baseline mental health, the association was explained by neither psychological demands nor...... decision latitude. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the prevention of unnecessary work tasks may benefit employee mental health, particularly among employees with pre-existing mental health problems.......OBJECTIVES: According to the "stress-as-offense-to-self" perspective, work tasks that are considered unnecessary or unreasonable - so-called "illegitimate work tasks" - are likely to elicit stress-reactions. Previous studies, mostly cross-sectional, have shown that illegitimate tasks are associated...
Motivation of health workers and availability of working equipments in Moshi rural is highest in religious health facilities, moderate in private health ... an internal as well as international migration of health workers (3)”. “Within a region is ... Qualified health personnel are not interested to work in rural areas due to poor.
Shearer, Jane; Graham, Terry E; Skinner, Tina L
The importance of ergonomics across several scientific domains, including biomechanics, psychology, sociology, and physiology, have been extensively explored. However, the role of other factors that may influence the health and productivity of workers, such as nutrition, is generally overlooked. Nutra-ergonomics describes the interface between workers, their work environment, and performance in relation to their nutritional status. It considers nutrition to be an integral part of a safe and productive workplace that encompasses physical and mental health as well as the long-term wellbeing of workers. This review explores the knowledge, awareness, and common practices of nutrition, hydration, stimulants, and fortified product use employed prior to physical employment standards testing and within the workplace. The influence of these nutra-ergonomic strategies on physical employment standards, worker safety, and performance will be examined. Further, the roles, responsibilities, and implications for the applicant, worker, and the employer will be discussed within the context of nutra-ergonomics, with reference to the provision and sustainability of an environment conducive to optimize worker health and wellbeing. Beyond physical employment standards, workplace productivity, and performance, the influence of extended or chronic desynchronization (irregular or shift work) in the work schedule on metabolism and long-term health, including risk of developing chronic and complex diseases, is discussed. Finally, practical nutra-ergonomic strategies and recommendations for the applicant, worker, and employer alike will be provided to enhance the short- and long-term safety, performance, health, and wellbeing of workers.
Anger, W Kent; Elliot, Diane L; Bodner, Todd; Olson, Ryan; Rohlman, Diane S; Truxillo, Donald M; Kuehl, Kerry S; Hammer, Leslie B; Montgomery, Dede
Total Worker Health (TWH) was introduced and the term was trademarked in 2011 by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to formally signal the expansion of traditional occupational safety and health (OSH) to include wellness and well-being. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, and other databases using keywords TWH, health promotion, health protection, and variants for articles meeting the criteria of (a) employing both occupational safety and/or health (OSH, or health protection) and wellness and/or well-being (health promotion, or HP) in the same intervention study, and (b) reporting both OSH and HP outcomes. Only 17 published studies met these criteria. All but 1 of the 17 TWH interventions improved risk factors for injuries and/or chronic illnesses, and 4 improved 10 or more risk factors. Several TWH interventions reported sustained improvements for over a year, although only 1 is readily available for dissemination. These results suggest that TWH interventions that address both injuries and chronic diseases can improve workforce health effectively and more rapidly than the alternative of separately employing more narrowly focused programs to change the same outcomes in serial fashion. These 17 articles provide useful examples of how TWH interventions can be structured. The promise of simultaneous improvements in safety, health, and well-being leads to the call to pursue TWH research to identify and disseminate best practices. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Perin, Dolores; And Others
This report documents the Workplace Literacy for Psychiatric Health Care Workers project, a partnership between a labor union and the City University of New York through which workplace literacy instruction was provided to mental hygiene therapy aides (MHTAs) employed in five state-operated psychiatric hospitals in New York City. Among the…
Full Text Available AimMental Health workers bear responsibility for preventing suicide in their client group. Survey studies have indicated that staff can be seriously adversely affected when a client suicides. The aim of the current study is to describe and evaluate the effects on mental health (MH workers of their ongoing role in managing suicidal behaviours and to identify the thoughts and feelings associated with this role.MethodA survey was administered to 135 MH workers via an on-line self-report vehicle. The survey comprised standardised measures of anxiety and burnout as well as a questionnaire developed for this study concerning perceptions and attitudes to suicide and suicide prevention.ResultsFactor analysis of 12 retained items of the questionnaire identified three factors: 1 preventability beliefs (beliefs about suicide being always and/or permanently preventable; 2 associated distress (stress/anxiety about managing suicidal behaviour; and 3 the prevention role (covering views about personal roles and responsibilities in preventing suicidal behaviours. Analysis of these factors found that many MH workers experience an elevation of stress/anxiety in relation to their role in managing suicidal behaviours. This distress was associated with the emotional exhaustion component of burnout. Measures showed adverse responses were higher for outpatient than inpatient workers; for those who had received generic training in suicide prevention: and for those who had experienced a workplace related client suicide.ConclusionThere is a need for the development of appropriate self-care strategies to alleviate stress in MH workers exposed to suicide.
Rr Dian Tristiana
Conclusion: Families whose members suffered from mental illness still experienced barriers in relation to mental health services even with universal health coverage. Improved mental health services are related to the health insurance coverage, affordability, availability of mental health services and stigma reduction in the health professionals and wide community.
This book highlights a broad range of issues on mental health and illness in large cities. It presents the epidemiology of mental disorders in cities, cultural issues of urban mental health care, and community care in large cities and urban slums. It also includes chapters on homelessness, crime...... and racism - problems that are increasingly prevalent in many cities world wide. Finally, it looks at the increasing challenges of mental disorders in rapidly growing cities. The book is aimed at an international audience and includes contributions from clinicians and researchers worldwide....
Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.
The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…
Seibt, Reingard; Spitzer, Silvia; Druschke, Diana; Scheuch, Klaus; Hinz, Andreas
Teaching profession is characterised by an above-average rate of psychosomatic and mental health impairment due to work-related stress. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mental health in female teachers. A sample of 630 female teachers (average age 47 ± 7 years) participated in a screening diagnostic inventory. Mental health was surveyed with the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. The following parameters were measured: specific work conditions (teacher-specific occupational history), scales of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire as well as cardiovascular risk factors, physical complaints (BFB) and personal factors such as inability to recover (FABA), sense of coherence (SOC) and health behaviour. First, mentally fit (MH(+)) and mentally impaired teachers (MH(-)) were differentiated based on the GHQ-12 sum score (MH(+): teachers showed evidence of mental impairment. There were no differences concerning work-related and cardiovascular risk factors as well as health behaviour between MH(+) and MH(-). Binary logistic regressions identified 4 predictors that showed a significant effect on mental health. The effort-reward-ratio proved to be the most relevant predictor, while physical complaints as well as inability to recover and sense of coherence were identified as advanced predictors (explanation of variance: 23%). Contrary to the expectations, classic work-related factors can hardly contribute to the explanation of mental health. Additionally, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour have no relevant influence. However, effort-reward-ratio, physical complaints and personal factors are of considerable influence on mental health in teachers. These relevant predictors should become a part of preventive arrangements for the conservation of teachers' health in the future.
Full Text Available Objective: Teaching profession is characterised by an above-average rate of psychosomatic and mental health impairment due to work-related stress. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mental health in female teachers. Material and Methods: A sample of 630 female teachers (average age 47±7 years participated in a screening diagnostic inventory. Mental health was surveyed with the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. The following parameters were measured: specific work conditions (teacher-specific occupational history, scales of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI Questionnaire as well as cardiovascular risk factors, physical complaints (BFB and personal factors such as inability to recover (FABA, sense of coherence (SOC and health behaviour. Results: First, mentally fit (MH+ and mentally impaired teachers (MH- were differentiated based on the GHQ-12 sum score (MH+: < 5; MH-: ≥ 5; 18% of the teachers showed evidence of mental impairment. There were no differences concerning work-related and cardiovascular risk factors as well as health behaviour between MH+ and MH-. Binary logistic regressions identified 4 predictors that showed a significant effect on mental health. The effort-reward-ratio proved to be the most relevant predictor, while physical complaints as well as inability to recover and sense of coherence were identified as advanced predictors (explanation of variance: 23%. Conclusion: Contrary to the expectations, classic work-related factors can hardly contribute to the explanation of mental health. Additionally, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour have no relevant influence. However, effort-reward-ratio, physical complaints and personal factors are of considerable influence on mental health in teachers. These relevant predictors should become a part of preventive arrangements for the conservation of teachers' health in the future.
Szmukler, G; Bach, M
Around the world, reports regularly expose persistent and systemic human rights violations of patients in mental health services and facilities, and of those who are unable to access needed supports. A number of factors contribute - political will; the range and quality of services available; public and professional attitudes to mental health; stigma; health professionals' training and expertise; and available resources. This paper examines one of the main determinants, the legal framework. This sets the parameters for mental health policies and services and for applicable human rights norms and standards that can be realized in practice. We provide an overview of international human rights instruments in relation to mental health disabilities, and of the major human rights violations in this area. Key implications for mental health law reform are drawn with a particular focus on discrimination and coercive interventions. The major challenges posed by the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006) are examined. Current mental health laws, to greater or lesser degrees, fail to meet the newly required standards. We discuss reforms based on 'generic law' and 'legal capacity' principles that seek to meet those standards. We outline some emergent and promising examples of reform. The role of civil society and the importance of the standing of those with mental health disabilities in this process is noted.
Meerding, W J; IJzelenberg, W; Koopmanschap, M A; Severens, J L; Burdorf, A
To assess the feasibility and validity of two instruments for the measurement of health-related productivity loss at work. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two occupational populations with a high prevalence of health problems: industrial workers (n=388) and construction workers (n=182). We collected information on self-reported productivity during the previous 2 weeks and during the last work day with the Health and Labor Questionnaire (HLQ) and the Quantity and Quality instrument (QQ), with added data on job characteristics, general health, presence of musculoskeletal complaints, sick leave, and health-care consumption. For construction workers, we validated self-reported productivity with objective information on daily work output from 19 work site observations. About half the workers with health problems on the last working day reported reduced work productivity (QQ), or 10.7% of all industrial workers and 11.8% of all construction workers, resulting in a mean loss of 2.0 hr/day per worker with reduced work productivity. The proportion of workers with reduced productivity was significantly lower on the HLQ: 5.3% of industrial workers and 6.5% of construction workers. Reduced work productivity on the HLQ and the QQ was significantly associated with musculoskeletal complaints, worse physical, mental and general health, and recent absenteeism. The QQ and HLQ questionnaires demonstrated poor agreement on the reporting of reduced productivity. Self-reported productivity on the QQ correlated significantly with objective work output (r=.48). Health problems may lead to considerable sickness presenteeism. The QQ measurement instrument is better understandable, and more feasible for jobs with low opportunities for catching up on backlogs.
Ghesquiere, Angela R; Pinto, Rogerio M; Rahman, Rahbel; Spector, Anya Y
Brazil has a unique mental health care system, characterized by universal coverage delivered by interdisciplinary teams both in the community and in specialized centros de atenção psicossocial (CAPS-psychosocial care centers). Provision of patient-centered mental health care is an important principle of Brazilian mental health care, but this topic has not been well-studied. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of 151 community health workers (CHWs), nurses, and physicians in Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Chi-squares, t-tests and multivariate regression analyses examined differences in socio-demographics, caseload, engagement in evidence-based practices (EBPs), and transdisciplinary collaboration between providers who reported providing high levels of patient-centered mental health care and those who did not. In multivariate regression models, components of transdisciplinary collaboration were significantly associated with providers' perceptions of patient-centered mental health care (p < 0.05). CHWs were also significantly more likely to report providing patient-centered care than physicians and nurses. EBP engagement and sociodemographics were not associated with perceptions. Results suggest that training efforts to improve patient-centered mental health care in Brazil could build upon CHWs' skills and focus on transdisciplinary collaboration. Findings may inform practice in other countries with similar health care systems.
Maulik, Pallab K; Kallakuri, Sudha; Devarapalli, Siddhardha; Vadlamani, Vamsi Krishna; Jha, Vivekanand; Patel, Anushka
About 25% of the Indian population experience common mental disorders (CMD) but only 15-25% of them receive any mental health care. Stigma, lack of adequate mental health professionals and mental health services account for this treatment gap, which is worse in rural areas. Our project evaluated task shifting and mobile-technology based electronic decision support systems to enhance the ability of primary care health workers to provide evidence-based mental health care for stress, depression, and suicidal risk in 30 remote villages in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. The Systematic Medical Appraisal Referral and Treatment (SMART) Mental Health project between May 2014 and April 2016 trained lay village health workers (Accredited Social Health Activists - ASHAs) and primary care doctors to screen, diagnose and manage individuals with common mental disorders using an electronic decision support system. An anti-stigma campaign using multi-media approaches was conducted across the villages at the outset of the project. A pre-post evaluation using mixed methods assessed the change in mental health service utilization by screen positive individuals. This paper reports on the quantitative aspects of that evaluation. Training was imparted to 21 ASHAs and 2 primary care doctors. 5007 of 5167 eligible individuals were screened, and 238 were identified as being positive for common mental disorders and referred to the primary care doctors for further management. Out of them, 2 (0.8%) had previously utilized mental health services. During the intervention period, 30 (12.6%) visited the primary care doctor for further diagnosis and treatment, as advised. There was a significant reduction in the depression and anxiety scores between start and end of the intervention among those who had screened positive at the beginning. Stigma and mental health awareness in the broader community improved during the project. The intervention led to individuals being screened for common mental
To assist in improving team working in Community Mental Health Teams (CMHTs), the Mental Health Commission formulated a user-friendly but yet-to-be validated 25-item Mental Health Team Development Audit Tool (MHDAT).
Potvin-Boucher, Jacqueline; Szumilas, Magdalena; Sheikh, Tabinda; Kutcher, Stan
Enhancement of mental health literacy is a mental health promotion strategy that may be effective at destigmatizing mental illness and increasing self-seeking behavior. Transitions is a mental health literacy program intended to heighten students' awareness and discussion of mental health problems and promote help-seeking behaviors. Transitions…
The origins and evolution of psychiatry as a medical discipline since the end of the 18th century have been influenced by society's beliefs about the 'nature of man', the dominant forms of social organisation, and the level of technology which could be mobilised to modify human behaviour. These are also the themes from which politics develop. Throughout the past two centuries and up to the present day, two distinct streams can be traced in the political history of psychiatry: first, psychiatry as social control of deviance; and secondly, psychiatry as advocacy of the 'right to be different'. The 'third psychiatric revolution' which is now in progress in many parts of the world has been inspired by the second set of beliefs. It has already produced positive effects on the quality of life of many patients but is also experiencing certain setbacks. The extent to which the new approach to mental health care delivery will benefit patients and society depends not so much on psychiatry as a discipline as on the perceptions and actions of politicians.
Full Text Available Background: Marital satisfaction is an important component of the marriage. Mental health as a component of the personal characteristic also related with marital satisfaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between mental health and marital satisfaction of couples.Methods: Three hundred couples from high-risk area of Gorgan – North of Iran were selected. Association between men's and women’s mental health level was measured using General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28. Marital satisfaction measured by Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire among married couples. Data was analyzed using multiple regression and analysis of variance modelling.Results: Results indicated that marital satisfaction was predicted by the person’s mental health level. Findings also showed that depression and anxiety were significantly associated with marital satisfaction. 52.5% of studied individuals had mental disorders at the clinical level (p≤0/05. Marital satisfaction in this population was 51.7%. Conclusions: The study confirmed that mental health is an important predictor of marital satisfaction. Improving mental health may lead to improve marital satisfaction.
Full Text Available This paper considers indications and obstacles for the development of primary mental health care practice in both developed and under-developed countries. Both are considered as this represents the South African reality. While a significant body of literature has documented the need for primary mental health care, the obstacles (especially in terms of the commodification of health to its fruition are seldom addressed.
Jessecae K. Marsh PhD; Amanda L. Romano BA
Background: Past research shows that people believe psychologically caused mental disorders are helped by different treatments than biologically caused mental disorders. However, it is unknown how people think about treatment when limited information is known to identify the disorder. Objective: Our objective was to explore how laypeople judged the helpfulness of treatments when a limited set of mental health symptoms is presented. Method: Across four experiments, Mechanical Turk and college ...
Nkonki, Lungiswa; Cliff, Julie; Sanders, David
Lay health workers are key to achieving universal health-care coverage, therefore measuring worker attrition and identifying its determinants should be an integral part of any lay health worker programme. Both published and unpublished research on lay health workers has largely focused on the types of interventions they can deliver effectively. This is an imperative since the main objective of these programmes is to improve health outcomes. However, high attrition rates can undermine the effectiveness of these programmes. There is a lack of research on lay health worker attrition. Research that aims to answer the following three key questions would help address this knowledge gap: what is the magnitude of attrition in programmes? What are the determinants of attrition? What are the most successful ways of reducing attrition? With community-based interventions and task shifting high on the United Nations Millennium Development Goals' policy agenda, research on lay health worker attrition and its determinants requires urgent attention.
Vives, Alejandra; Amable, Marcelo; Ferrer, Montserrat; Moncada, Salvador; Llorens, Clara; Muntaner, Carles; Benavides, Fernando G.; Benach, Joan
Background. Evidence on the health-damaging effects of precarious employment is limited by the use of one-dimensional approaches focused on employment instability. This study assesses the association between precarious employment and poor mental health using the multidimensional Employment Precariousness Scale. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 5679 temporary and permanent workers from the population-based Psychosocial Factors Survey was carried out in 2004-2005 in Spain. Poor mental health was defined as SF-36 mental health scores below the 25th percentile of the Spanish reference for each respondent's sex and age. Prevalence proportion ratios (PPRs) of poor mental health across quintiles of employment precariousness (reference: 1st quintile) were calculated with log-binomial regressions, separately for women and men. Results. Crude PPRs showed a gradient association with poor mental health and remained generally unchanged after adjustments for age, immigrant status, socioeconomic position, and previous unemployment. Fully adjusted PPRs for the 5th quintile were 2.54 (95% CI: 1.95–3.31) for women and 2.23 (95% CI: 1.86–2.68) for men. Conclusion. The study finds a gradient association between employment precariousness and poor mental health, which was somewhat stronger among women, suggesting an interaction with gender-related power asymmetries. Further research is needed to strengthen the epidemiological evidence base and to inform labour market policy-making. PMID:23431322
Soares, Amanda Gonçalves Simões; Estanislau, Gustavo; Brietzke, Elisa; Lefèvre, Fernando; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca
OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6%) showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools. PMID:26039397
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give a short description of the most important developments of mental health services in Finland during the 1990s, examine their influences on the organisation and provision of services, and describe shortly some national efforts to handle the new situation. The Finnish mental health service system experienced profound changes in the beginning of the 1990s. These included the integration of mental health services, being earlier under own separate administration, with other specialised health services, decentralisation of the financing of health services, and de-institutionalisation of the services. The same time Finland underwent the deepest economic recession in Western Europe, which resulted in cut-offs especially in the mental health budgets. Conducting extensive national research and development programmes in the field of mental health has been one typically Finnish way of supporting the mental health service development. The first of these national programmes was the Schizophrenia Project 1981–97, whose main aims were to decrease the incidence of new long-term patients and the prevalence of old long-stay patients by developing an integrated treatment model. The Suicide Prevention Project 1986–96 aimed at raising awareness of this special problem and decreasing by 20% the proportionally high suicide rate in Finland. The National Depression Programme 1994–98 focused at this clearly increasing public health concern by several research and development project targeted both to the general population and specifically to children, primary care and specialised services. The latest, still on-going Meaningful Life Programme 1998–2003 which main aim is, by multi-sectoral co-operation, to improve the quality of life for people suffering from or living with the threat of mental disorders. Furthermore, the government launched in 1999 a new Goal and Action Programme for Social Welfare and Health Care 2000–2003, in
Ponce, Allison N; Rowe, Michael
Citizenship is an approach to supporting the social inclusion and participation in society of people with mental illnesses. It is receiving greater attention in community mental health discourse and literature in parallel with increased awareness of social determinants of health and concern over the continued marginalization of persons with mental illness in the United States. In this article, we review the definition and principles of our citizenship framework with attention to social participation and access to resources as well as rights and responsibilities that society confers on its members. We then discuss our citizenship research at both individual and social-environmental levels, including previous, current, and planned efforts. We also discuss the role of community psychology and psychologists in advancing citizenship and other themes relevant to a citizenship perspective on mental health care and persons with mental illness. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.
Happell, Brenda; Platania-Phung, Chris; Scott, David
The wide-ranging benefits of physical activity for consumers with mental illness are acknowledged within the mental health nursing field; however, this is not commonly translated to practice. The primary aim of this paper is to argue that mental health nurses are well positioned to, and should, provide leadership in promoting physical activity to improve the quality of care for people with mental illness. Topics addressed in this paper include the relationship between physical activity and both physical and mental health, the views and experiences of consumers with physical activity, the efficacy of physical activity interventions, the attitudes of nurses to physical activity as a component of care, barriers to a physical activity focus in care for mental illness, and the role of mental health nurses in promoting physical activity. There is a clear and important relationship between physical activity and mental health. Mental health nurses are well positioned to encourage and assist consumers to engage in physical activity, although they might lack the educational preparation to perform this role effectively. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Liangas, Georgios; Athanasou, James A
It has been proposed that legislation for same-sex marriage has a positive mental health benefit. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the empirical and conceptual links between same-sex marriage and mental health. There are substantive methodological issues in the four surveys and comparisons undertaken. Difficulties with the validity of the evidence are discussed. Conceptual difficulties in the arguments relating to victimisation as well as the psychology of marriage are highlighted. It was concluded that it is premature to make claims of causality vis-a-vis same-sex marriage legislation and mental health. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
With approximately 1 in 6 adults likely to experience a significant mental health problem at any one time (Office for National Statistics), research into effective interventions has never been more important. During the past decade there has been an increasing interest in the role that sport and physical activity can play in the treatment of mental health problems, and in mental health promotion. The benefits resulting from physiological changes during exercise are well documented, including improvement in mood and control of anxiety and depression. Research also suggests that socio-cultural a
The emotional health and wellbeing of children and young people is of fundamental importance. Unmet mental health needs during childhood lead to difficulties in adolescence and problems in adulthood. The need to develop comprehensive prevention, early recognition and timely intervention services is essential. Despite this, many mental health problems go unnoticed or are only treated when advanced. Late intervention can often be associated with severe impairments for children and young people as well as their families. This article aims to improve nurses' understanding of children's emotional wellbeing and mental health, and identifies some of the risk and protective factors that combine to produce positive or negative outcomes. Individual and family-based psychological treatments that are available to support children are summarised. The learning activities offer nurses helpful interpersonal and practical strategies to promote emotional wellbeing and mental health in children.
Stotland, Nada Logan
Reproductive rights are essential to the recognition/treatment of women as full-fledged human beings/citizens. Barriers to reproductive rights pose a grave danger to women's well-being. This article explores the origins of these barriers, their nature, and their impact on mental health. The most controversial relationship is between induced abortion and mental health. Barriers, misinformation, and coercion affecting contraceptive, abortion, and pregnancy care are an ongoing danger to women's mental health and the well-being of their families. Mental health professionals are best qualified, and have an obligation, to know the facts, apply them, and provide accurate information to protect women's health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Treatment innovation in mental health is a major public-health priority. A specific sub-challenge underlying the development of new treatments is the use of digital technologies to support mental health interventions. In addition to the potential benefits of increased access to care and reduced
Most developing countries and indeed many African countries have been undertaking reforms of the mental health policies and strategies to improve access and equity for the community to mental health and psychiatric services. This has been in conformity with a health policy philosophy which emphasize decentralization ...
Childhood mental disorders affect between 13%-20% of children in the United States (US) annually and impact the child, family, and community. Literature suggests associations exist between environmental and children’s mental health such as air pollution with autism and ADHD...
rates of mental illness and low knowledge is arguably even more discordant. A South African study, that formed part of an international survey of mental health advocacy group members suffering from mood and anxiety disorders, revealed that most participants waited 3-5 years before seeking help and stated reasons such ...
Rocha, Kátia Bones; Muntaner, Carles; Solar, Orielle; Borrell, Carme; Bernales, Pamela; González, María José; Ibañez, Ciro; Benach, Joan; Vallebuona, Clélia
The objective of this study was to analyze the association between social class and psychosocial occupational risk factors and self-rated health and mental health in a Chilean population. A cross-sectional study analyzed data from the First National Survey on Employment, Work, Quality of Life, and Male and Female Workers in Chile (N = 9,503). The dependent variables were self-rated health status and mental health. The independent variables were social class (neo-Marxist), psychosocial occupational risk factors, and material deprivation. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. There were inequalities in the distribution of psychosocial occupational risk factors by social class and sex. Furthermore, social class and psychosocial occupational risk factors were associated with unequal distribution of self-rated health and mental health among the working population in Chile. Occupational health interventions should consider workers' exposure to socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors.
Tungpunkom, Patraporn; Maybery, Darryl; Reupert, Andrea; Kowalenko, Nick; Foster, Kim
Many people with a mental illness are parents caring for dependent children. These children are at greater risk of developing their own mental health concerns compared to other children. Mental health services are opportune places for healthcare professionals to identify clients' parenting status and address the needs of their children. There is a knowledge gap regarding Thai mental health professionals' family-focused knowledge and practices when working with parents with mental illness and their children and families. This cross -sectional survey study examined the attitudes, knowledge and practices of a sample (n = 349) of the Thai mental health professional workforce (nurses, social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists) using a translated version of the Family-Focused Mental Health Practice Questionnaire (FFMHPQ). The majority of clinicians reported no training in family (76.8%) or child-focused practice (79.7%). Compared to other professional groups, psychiatric nurses reported lower scores on almost all aspects of family-focused practice except supporting clients in their parenting role within the context of their mental illness. Social workers scored highest overall including having more workplace support for family-focused practice as well as a higher awareness of family-focused policy and procedures than psychiatrists; social workers also scored higher than psychologists on providing support to families and parents. All mental health care professional groups reported a need for training and inter-professional practice when working with families. The findings indicate an important opportunity for the prevention of intergenerational mental illness in whose parents have mental illness by strengthening the professional development of nurses and other health professionals in child and family-focused knowledge and practice.
Phoenix, Bethany J; Hurd, Manton; Chapman, Susan A
Expansion of health insurance coverage under the Accountable Care Act has meant that millions of people are now insured for mental health treatment, but with no significant increase in the mental health workforce. Services of psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners (PMHNPs) may be best utilized to improve access to and quality of public mental health services if the financial, political, scope of practice, and treatment model barriers that limit their ability or willingness to practice in these settings are better understood. This article reports qualitative results from a study that assessed barriers and best practices in the use of PMHNPs in county mental health services in California. Results indicate that PMHNPs are valued for their "whole person" perspective, collaborative approach, and interpersonal communication skills, but that significant knowledge gaps, regulatory constraints, and bureaucratic barriers in public mental health systems inhibit PMHNPs from practicing at the top of their scope.
New rapid growth economies, urbanization, health systems crises, and "big data" are causing fundamental changes in social structures and systems, including health. These forces for change have significant consequences for occupational and environmental medicine and will challenge the specialty to think beyond workers and workplaces as the principal locus of innovation for health and performance. These trends are placing great emphasis on upstream strategies for addressing the complex systems dynamics of the social determinants of health. The need to engage systems in communities for healthier workforces is a shift in orientation from worker and workplace centric to citizen and community centric. This change for occupational and environmental medicine requires extending systems approaches in the workplace to communities that are systems of systems and that require different skills, data, tools, and partnerships.
Wang, Jingyi; He, Yanling; Jiang, Qing; Cai, Jun; Wang, Weiling; Zeng, Qingzhi; Miao, Juming; Qi, Xuejun; Chen, Jianxin; Bian, Qian; Cai, Chun; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Ziqing; Zhang, Mingyuan
Background The recent adoption of China's new national mental health law provides a good opportunity to obtain baseline information about community mental health literacy in the country. Aim Assess knowledge and attitudes about mental disorders among residents in Shanghai. Methods A total of 1953 residents aged 15 or above selected from all 19 districts in Shanghai completed two self-report questionnaires – the Mental Health Knowledge Questionnaire (MHKQ) and the Case Assessment Questionnaire (CAQ). MHKQ total scores range from 0 to 20 (higher scores indicate better mental health literacy). The CAQ presents respondents with five case vignettes and possesses nine questions after each vignette measuring respondents' knowledge and attitudes towards these mental illnesses. Results Correct response rates for the 20 MHKQ items ranged from 26 to 98%, with a mean rate of 72%. The internal consistency (alpha) of the 20 items on the MHKQ was 0.69, but this decreased to 0.59 after removing four items about mental health promotion. A 5-factor model for the 20 items in the MHKQ was identified using exploratory factor analysis on one-half of the surveys, but the model was only partially validated in the confirmatory factor analysis using the second half of the surveys. On the CAQ, rates of correct recognition of mania, depression, schizophrenia with positive symptoms, schizophrenia with negative symptoms and anxiety were 42%, 35%, 30%, 19% and 21%, respectively. Work stress (37.3%), problems with thinking (30.0%) and negative life events (24.4%) were reported to be the three main causes of mental disorders. Seeing a counselor (34.2%) or a psychiatrist (33.3%) were the two most common suggestions for help-seeking. Higher education and younger age were related with better mental health literacy and higher rates of recognition of common mental disorders. Conclusions Mental health literacy in Shanghai appears to be increasing, but the reliability and validity of the instruments
Veale, Jaimie F; Watson, Ryan J; Peter, Tracey; Saewyc, Elizabeth M
This study documented the prevalence of mental health problems among transgender youth in Canada and made comparisons with population-based studies. This study also compared gender identity subgroups and age subgroups (14-18 and 19-25). A nonprobability sample of 923 transgender youth from Canada completed an online survey. Participants were recruited through community organizations, health care settings, social media, and researchers' networks. Mental health measures were drawn from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey and the Canadian Community Health Survey. Transgender youth had a higher risk of reporting psychological distress, self-harm, major depressive episodes, and suicide. For example, 65% of transgender 14- to 18-year olds seriously considered suicide in the past year compared with 13% in the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey, and only a quarter of participants reported their mental health was good or excellent. Transgender boys/men and nonbinary youth were most likely to report self-harm and overall mental health remained stable across age subgroups. Although a notable minority of transgender youth did not report negative health outcomes, this study shows the mental health disparities faced by transgender youth in Canada are considerable. Copyright Â© 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dawson, Suzanne; Gerace, Adam; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; O'Kane, Deb; Henderson, Julie; Lawn, Sharon; Fuller, Jeffrey
Manongi, Rachel N; Marchant, Tanya C; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian
In Tanzania access to urban and rural primary health care is relatively widespread, yet there is evidence of considerable bypassing of services; questions have been raised about how to improve functionality.The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of health workers working...... identified in the results and suggests that some of the preferences presented by the health workers be discussed at policy level with a view to adding value to most services with minimum additional resources....... in the primary health care facilities in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania, in terms of their motivation to work, satisfaction and frustration, and to identify areas for sustainable improvement to the services they provide.The primary issues arising pertain to complexities of multitasking in an environment of staff...
Full Text Available This article identifies unique mental health problems experienced by Chinese international students in the United States. The uniqueness of these problems suggests the need to address them independently from other Chinese and international student communities. First, an overview of the common sources of mental health problems and specific stressors these students face is provided. This article then develops culturally sensitive programming recommendations to improve collaborative efforts between health providers, mental health social workers, faculty, and academic staff within universities to serve these students more effectively.
Hatchery workers were at increased risk of compromised respiratory health due to dust exposure, particularly those who work in sorting rooms. Asthma and rhinitis were in excess in this population of workers. Thorough clinical examination of these workers should be performed and all exposures assessed.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Worker safety and health... Information and Protection of Worker Safety and Health” or “952.223-77, Conditional Payment of Fee or Profit—Protection of Worker Safety and Health” implement the requirements of section 234C of the Atomic Energy Act...
Full Text Available Employment and working conditions are key social determinants of health, yet current information is lacking regarding relationships between foreign background status, working conditions and health among workers in Sweden. This study utilized cross-sectional data from the 2010 Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU and the Level of Living Survey for Foreign Born Persons and their Children (LNU-UFB to assess whether or not health inequalities exist between native Swedish and foreign background workers and if exposure to adverse psychosocial and physical working conditions contributes to the risk for poor health among foreign background workers. A sub-sample of 4,021 employed individuals aged 18–65 was analyzed using logistic regression. Eastern European, Latin American and Other Non-Western workers had an increased risk of both poor self-rated health and mental distress compared to native Swedish workers. Exposure to adverse working conditions only minimally influenced the risk of poor health. Further research should examine workers who are less integrated or who have less secure labor market attachments and also investigate how additional working conditions may influence associations between health and foreign background status.
Okogbaa, O G; Shell, R L; Filipusic, D
Technological trends and advances in automation have underscored the importance of task performance of certain jobs requiring mental functions such as information processing and decision analyses. Most experts agree that such work environments produce increased mental activities, with profound implications for mental fatigue and stress. Consequently, productivity measurement and improvement for white collar or 'knowledge worker' occupations remains a major challenge and concern. This investigation defines an experimental approach that examines the neurophysiological correlates of white collar worker mental fatigue using the EEG signal. A 6 h laboratory experiment was conducted to simulate work output. The methods of assessing fatigue employed were mental tests and physiological measurements. The experiment involved reading of standardized texts, finding solutions to arithmetic-logical problems and a combination of both task types. Two primary performance measures were obtained, work output and brain waves. Fast Fourier transform and correlation analyses are used to quantify the relationship between certain brain waves and mental fatigue. This research is a major step towards the development of a model that explores the relationship between mental fatigue and factors associated with output performance, optimal recuperation periods and related variables. Such a model would be useful in human reliability prediction based on task parameters and worker profiles.
Blegen, Nina Elisabeth; Severinsson, Elisabeth
Mental health nurses are agents of change, and their leadership, management role and characteristics exist at many levels in health care. Previous research presents a picture of mental health nurses as subordinate and passive recipients of the leader's influence and regard leadership and management as distinct from the nurses' practical work. The aim was to provide a synthesis of the studies conducted and to discuss the relationship between nursing leadership and nursing management in the context of mental health nursing. A literature search was conducted using EBSCO-host, Academic Search Premier, Science Direct, CINAHL and PubMed for the period January 1995-July 2010. Leadership and management in the context of mental health nursing are human activities that imply entering into mutual relationships. Mental health nurses' leadership, management and transformational leadership are positively related in terms of effectiveness and nurses' skills. It is important to consider mental health nurses' management as a form of leadership similar to or as a natural consequence of transformational leadership (TL) and that ethical concerns must be constantly prioritized throughout every level of the organization. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Obembe, Taiwo Akinyode; Osungbade, Kayode Omoniyi; Ibrahim, Christianah
The primary health care model was declared as the appropriate strategy for ensuring health-for-all. However up till date, very few studies have assessed the services provided by primary health centres in terms of its basic components. This study aimed to appraise health services provided and to estimate the commitment of the health workers in selected primary health care centres within Abuja Nigeria. A cross sectional study was utilized to obtain information from 642 health workers across 6 area councils of the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. Data collection was performed using pre-tested, structured, interviewer-administered questionnaires and data were analyzed at 95% level of significance using SPSS version 17.0. Our study participants were largely females (58.6%), Christians (63.2%) and aged 30-39 years (40.0%). Health services offered in centres were adequate in all components of PHC except for mental health (23.7%) and care of the elderly (43.0%). Conduct of home visits was least practiced by health workers (83.8%) compared to the use of patient appointments (96.4%) and conducting staff outreach activities (94.9%). Commitment was three times more likely when service was related to health promotion and education (OR = 2.52; CI = 1.23-5.18); nutrition education (OR = 3.13; CI = 1.13-8.68). Health workers in primary health centres of the federal capital territory still provide sub-optimal services with respect to mental health and care of elderly. Concerted efforts and unrelenting political will to strengthen mental and geriatric health components are recommended.
Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Bermúdez-Tamayo, Clara; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel
Periods of financial crisis are associated with higher psychological stress among the population and greater use of mental health services. The objective is to analyse contextual factors associated with mental health among the Spanish population during the recession. Cross-sectional, descriptive study of two periods: before the recession (2006) and after therecession (2011-2012). The study population comprised individuals aged 16+ years old, polled for the National Health Survey. There were 25,234 subjects (2006) and 20,754 subjects (2012). The dependent variable was psychic morbidity. 1) socio-demographic (age, socio-professional class, level of education, nationality, employment situation, marital status), 2) psycho-social (social support) and 3) financial (GDP per capita, risk of poverty, income per capita per household), public welfare services (health spending per capita), labour market (employment and unemployment rates, percentage of temporary workers). Multilevel logistic regression models with mixed effects were constructed to determine change in psychic morbidity according to the variables studied. The macroeconomic variables associated with worse mental health for both males and females were lower health spending per capita and percentage of temporary workers. Among women, the risk of poor mental health increased 6% for each 100€ decrease in healthcare spending per capita. Among men, the risk of poor mental health decreased 8% for each 5-percentage point increase in temporary workers. Higher rates of precarious employment in a region have a negative effect on people's mental health; likewise lower health spending per capita. Policies during periods of recession should focus on support and improved conditions for vulnerable groups such as temporary workers. Healthcare cutbacks should be avoided in order to prevent increased prevalence of poor mental health.
Kokai, Masahiro; Fujii, Senta; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Edwards, Glen
The purpose of the present article was to review the literature on disaster mental health in relation to natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, typhoons and cyclones throughout Asia. Articles reviewed show that disaster psychiatry in Asia is beginning to emerge from and leave behind the stigma attached to mental health. The emergence of the acceptance of disaster mental health throughout Asia can be attributed in part to the acceptance of the notion of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This has allowed greater involvement of mental health professionals in providing ongoing support to survivors of natural disasters as well as providing greater opportunities for further research. Also, articles reviewed in the present paper commonly suggested the need for using standardized diagnostic tools for PTSD to appropriately interpret the discrepancy of results among studies. The importance of post-disaster support services and cultural differences is highlighted.