Mitchell, P; Malak, A; Small, D
This paper presents results from research that explored the roles of bilingual professionals in community mental health services in the Sydney metropolitan area of New South Wales. There were two main objectives to the research: (i) to identify and describe the roles of bilingual professionals that are important in improving the quality of community mental health services for clients from non-English-speaking backgrounds (NESB); and (ii) to identify and describe the factors that facilitate and inhibit the conduct of these roles. Data collection involved indepth interviews with bilingual professionals and team leaders in community mental health services and various other community health services; and various staff responsible for policy and service development with regard to cultural diversity. Bilingual mental health workers were found to have at least four critical roles. These were (i) direct clinical service provision to NESB clients; (ii) mental health promotion and community development; (iii) cultural consultancy; and (iv) service development. Respondents reported that the latter three roles were seriously underdeveloped compared to the clinical service provision role. It is critical that service managers implement strategies to make better use of the linguistic and cultural skills of bilingual professionals. In addition to their role in clinical service provision ways must be found to facilitate the community-focused, cultural consultancy and service development roles of bilingual professionals employed in mental health services.
Although qualitative research within the field of mental health is growing, few studies of everyday communication between service users and multidisciplinary professionals within mental health institutions exist. This study examines the everyday interactions between mental health professionals...... by discursive and narrative approaches, the aim of the study is to shed light on how the professionals and users construct patient identities. How are the users and the professionals positioned in their interactions? How are concepts such as psychiatric diagnosis and mental illness negotiated within...
Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.
The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…
Lee, Hyo Jung; Ju, Young Jun; Park, Eun-Cheol
Despite the positive effect of community-based mental health centers, the utilization of professional mental health services appears to be low. Therefore, we analyzed the relationship between regional recognition of mental health centers and utilization of professional mental health services. We used data from the Community Health Survey (2014) and e-provincial indicators. Only those living in Seoul, who responded that they were either feeling a lot of stress or depression, were included in the study. Multiple logistic regression analysis using generalized estimating equations was performed to examine both individual- and regional-level variables associated with utilization of professional mental health services. Among the 7338 participants who reported depression or stress, 646 (8.8%) had consulted a mental health professional for their symptoms. A higher recognition rate of mental health centers was associated with more utilization of professional mental health services (odds ratio [OR]=1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03-1.07). Accessibility to professional mental health services could be improved depending on the general population's recognition and attitudes toward mental health centers. Therefore, health policy-makers need to plan appropriate strategies for changing the perception of mental health services and informing the public about both the benefits and functions of mental health centers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Del Olmo-Romero, Francisco; González-Blanco, María; Sarró, Salvador; Grácio, Jaime; Martín-Carrasco, Manuel; Martinez-Cabezón, Ana C; Perna, Giampaolo; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Varandas, Pedro; Ballesteros-Rodríguez, Javier; Rebolleda-Gil, Carlos; Vanni, Giovanna; González-Fraile, Eduardo
Research shows that personnel working in mental health facilities may share some of the societal prejudices towards mental illness. This might result in stigmatizing behaviours towards people suffering from mental disorders, undermining the quality of their care. To describe and compare attitudes towards mental illness across a sample of professionals working in a wide range of mental health facilities in Spain, Portugal and Italy. We administered a survey to personnel including two questionnaires related to stigmatizing attitudes: The Community Attitudes toward the Mentally Ill (CAMI) and the Attribution Questionnaire (AQ-27). Data were compared according to professional category, work setting and country. 34.06% (1525) professionals of the surveyed population responded adequately. Psychologists and social therapists had the most positive attitudes, and nursing assistants the most negative, on most factors of CAMI and AQ-27. Community staff had more positive attitudes than hospital-based professionals in most factors on CAMI and in discriminatory responses on AQ-27. Globally, mental health professionals showed a positive attitude towards mental illness, but also a relative support to coercive treatments. There are differences in attitudes modulated by professional category and setting. Results can guide preventive strategies, particularly for the hospital-based and nursing staff.
Meffert, Susan M; Musalo, Karen; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L
Applying for asylum in the United States can be a strenuous process for both applicants and immigration attorneys. Mental health professionals with expertise in asylum law and refugee trauma can make important contributions to such cases. Not only can mental health professionals provide diagnostic information that may support applicants' claims, but they can evaluate how culture and mental health symptoms relate to perceived deficits in credibility or delays in asylum application. They can define mental health treatment needs and estimate the possible effects of repatriation on mental health. Mental health professionals can also provide supportive functions for clients as they prepare for testimony. Finally, in a consultative role, mental health experts can help immigration attorneys to improve their ability to elicit trauma narratives from asylum applicants safely and efficiently and to enhance their resilience in response to vicarious trauma and burnout symptoms arising from work with asylum seekers.
Pinderup, Pernille; Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten
To review evidence on the effects of training programs in dual diagnosis treatment for mental health professionals. Three databases were searched. Included studies were evaluated by an adapted version of Kirkpatrick’s Training Evaluation Model, which evaluates participant perception of training...... level showed mixed results. Training mental health professionals in dual diagnosis treatment may have a positive effect on professional competencies and clinical practice. Any conclusion regarding the overall training effect is premature due to limitations in study designs. Future studies on the effects...... of dual diagnosis training programs for mental health professionals should involve control groups, validated measures, follow-ups, and patient outcomes....
Roush, Jared F; Brown, Sarah L; Jahn, Danielle R; Mitchell, Sean M; Taylor, Nathanael J; Quinnett, Paul; Ries, Richard
Approximately 20% of suicide decedents have had contact with a mental health professional within 1 month prior to their death, and the majority of mental health professionals have treated suicidal individuals. Despite limited evidence-based training, mental health professionals make important clinical decisions related to suicide risk assessment and management. The current study aimed to determine the frequency of suicide risk assessment and management practices and the association between fear of suicide-related outcomes or comfort working with suicidal individuals and adequacy of suicide risk management decisions among mental health professionals. Mental health professionals completed self-report assessments of fear, comfort, and suicide risk assessment and management practices. Approximately one third of mental health professionals did not ask every patient about current or previous suicidal thoughts or behaviors. Further, comfort, but not fear, was positively associated with greater odds of conducting evidence-based suicide risk assessments at first appointments and adequacy of suicide risk management practices with patients reporting suicide ideation and a recent suicide attempt. The study utilized a cross-sectional design and self-report questionnaires. Although the majority of mental health professionals report using evidenced-based practices, there appears to be variability in utilization of evidence-based practices.
Ip, Vitti; Chan, Fong; Chan, Jacob Yui-Chung; Lee, June Ka Yan; Sung, Connie; H Wilson, Emma
Transition from high school to college can be particularly difficult and stressful for Chinese college students because of parent expectations. The purpose of this study was to examine therapist variables influencing Chinese college students' preferences for mental health professionals using conjoint analysis. Two hundred fifty-eight community college students in Hong Kong were asked to rate the profile of 55 mental health professionals representing a combination of therapist characteristics (i.e., gender, age, race/ethnicity, professional background, and training institutions) from the most to least preferred therapist from whom to seek psychological counselling. Results indicated that students' preference formation was based largely on professional background and training institution of the mental health professionals. Clinical psychologists and clinical social workers were preferred over educational psychologists (school psychologists), counsellors, and psychiatrists. Mental health professionals who received training from more prestigious schools were preferred over those trained at less prestigious schools. Understanding clients' preference formation for choosing mental health professionals could be the first step to gain insights for developing effective educational and outreach strategies to promote help seeking behavior and mental health service utilization among Chinese college students.
Peters, Michelle L.; Sawyer, Cheryl B.; Guzmán, Michele R.; Graziani, Cate
Latino individuals who prefer to communicate in Spanish lack linguistically and culturally proficient mental health professionals with whom they can communicate effectively. This study illustrates the components necessary to facilitate the overall success of Latino, Spanish-speaking students in attaining advanced degrees in mental health services…
... Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage Areas AGENCY: Health... facilities designated as primary medical care, mental health, and dental health professional shortage areas... primary care, dental, or mental health services in these HPSAs. NHSC health [[Page 38839
Gouttebarge, V.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.
In common with elite athletes from other sport disciplines, severe or recurrent injuries in professional footballers are considered to be major physical and psychosocial stressors, which may predispose to mental health problems during and after their career. To determine the prevalence of mental
... Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage Areas AGENCY: Health... care, mental health, and dental health professional shortage areas (HPSAs) as of September 1, 2011... 22, 1992 (57 FR 2473). Currently funded PHS Act programs use only the primary medical care, mental...
Full Text Available Similar to the general public, mental health professionals sometimes also have negative attitudes towards individuals with mental illness; which could ultimately affect the quality of care received by the patients. This study aims to explore attitudes to mental illness among mental health professionals in Singapore; make comparisons with the general population; and investigate the significant correlates.A cross-sectional design was used. Eligible participants were recruited from the Institute of Mental Health, Singapore. Attitudes to mental illness among the mental health professionals were measured using an adapted 26-item Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire (AMI. An earlier study amongst the general population in Singapore had used the same tool; however, factor analysis suggested a 20-item, 4-factor structure (AMI-SG was the best fit. This 4-factor structure was applied among the current sample of mental health professionals to allow comparisons between the professionals and the general population. Data were collected through an online survey tool 'Questionpro' from February to April 2016, and 379 participants were included in the current analysis. Attitudes to mental illness among these professionals were compared to those of the general population, which were captured as part of a national study conducted from March 2014 to April 2015.The 20-item, 4-factor structure AMI-SG derived from the general population was applicable among the mental health professionals in Singapore. Compared to the general population, mental health professionals had significantly more positive attitudes to mental illness; however their scores on 'social distancing' did not differ from the general population. Indian ethnicity was negatively associated with 'social distancing' and 'social restrictiveness' among the professionals; while higher education was negatively related to 'prejudice and misconception'. Compared to nurses, doctors showed significantly more
Cherry, Ralph, Comp.
Designed to acquaint social workers and other professionals in the mental health field with the basic terms necessary for professional discussions, paper presentations, and international correspondence, the English/Spanish-Spanish/English glossary lists 130 selected mental health terms. The glossary includes two sections: English to Spanish and…
Full Text Available Objectives: Maladaptive cognitive schemas can lead to biases during clinical assessment or psychotherapeutic interventions. This study aimed to explore the cognitive schemas among mental health professionals. Materials and Methods: 100 mental health professionals, of both genders, equally divided between psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and psychiatric nurses, were approached and administered the Young Schema Questionnaire - Short Form after written informed consent. Results: Males had higher maladaptive schemas than female respondents across all schema domains, viz., disconnection/rejection, impaired autonomy, impaired limits, other-directedness, and overvigilance (P ≤ 0.05. Psychiatrists had higher maladaptive schemas than psychologists (P ≤ 0.05. Age was weakly but positively corelated with the schemas of self-sacrifice (P = 0.038 and unrelenting standards (P = 0.002 . Conclusions: Mental health professionals also may have maladaptive schemas, which needs to be addressed through schema therapy.
This podcast highlights the role of school mental health professionals in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools. Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 1/20/2015.
Kenny, Maureen C; Abreu, Roberto L
Given the incidence of child sexual abuse in the United States, mental health professionals need training to detect, assess, and treat victims and should possess a clear understanding of the process of victimization. However, many mental health professionals who work with children and families have not been exposed to any training in child sexual abuse during their formal education. This article will examine the need for such training, suggest critical components of child sexual abuse training, and describe various methods of training (e.g., in person, Web-based, and community resources).
Mishra, N N; Bhatia, Triptish; Kumar, Nandini; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; Parker, Lisa S; Deshpande, Smita N
Mental health professionals have varied attitudes and views regarding informed consent and confidentiality protections in psychiatric research and clinical care. The present study was designed to understand the knowledge and views of mental health professionals (MHPs) regarding informed consent and confidentiality protection practices. Mental health professionals (n=121) who were members of the Delhi Psychiatric Society, were invited to participate in this questionnaire-based study of their knowledge and attitudes regarding informed consent and confidentiality. Half of them expressed willingness to discuss participation and gave initial oral consent (n=62); of these, 31 gave written informed consent to participate and completed the questionnaires. The questionnaires included both forced choice (yes / no / do not know) and open-ended questions. Questionnaires content reflected prominent guidelines on informed consent and confidentiality protection. Attitudes of the majority of the participants towards informed consent and confidentiality were in line with ethical principles and guidelines. All expressed the opinion that confidentiality should generally be respected and that if confidentiality was breached, there could be mistrust of the professional by the patient/participant. The mean knowledge scores regarding informed consent and confidentiality were 8.55 ± 1.46 and 8.16 ± 1.29, respectively. The participating mental health professionals appeared to have adequate knowledge of basic ethical guidelines concerning informed consent and confidentiality. Most respondents were aware of ethical issues in research. Given the small sample size and low response rate, the significance of the quantitative analysis must be regarded with modesty, and qualitative analysis of open-ended questions may be more valuable for development of future research. Increased efforts to involve mental health professionals in research on ethical concerns pertinent to their work must be made
Nicolas, C; Chawky, N; Jourdan-Ionescu, C; Drouin, M-S; Page, C; Houlfort, N; Beauchamp, G; Séguin, M
According to the World Health Organization, depression has become the leading cause of disability in the world, contributing significantly to the burden of health issues especially in the industrialized countries. This is a major public health problem, with potential impact on work climates, productivity at work and the continued existence of the organizations. Some recent studies have examined potential links between professional factors and common mental health disorders, but none have demonstrated a direct causal link. In the present study, we explored possible links between work-related stressors and common mental health disorders, with the objective of determining priority mental health prevention axes. The study used a life trajectory method. We compared professional stressors and difficulties present in other spheres of life in the last five years between two groups: a group of 29 participants with common mental health disorders during the last five years (depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, substance use disorders, pathological gambling), and a group of 29 participants who have not experienced a mental health disorder in the last five years. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with the participants using a life course analysis method. Each participant was interviewed during two or three meetings of two to three hour duration. Questions regarding difficulties in different spheres of life and mental health were asked. More precisely, data were collected with regards to the presence or absence of mental health disorders in the last five years and the nature of mental health disorders and difficulties. Moreover, we collected data pertaining to the most important positive and negative events in different spheres of life that were present in the last five years, including family life, romantic relationships, social life, academic difficulties, losses and separations, episodes of personal difficulties, financial difficulties as well as
Wasserman, Camilla; Postuvan, Vita; Herta, Dana; Iosue, Miriam; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir
The Youth Aware of Mental health (YAM) experience Youth stand at the core of much mental health promotion, yet little is written about their experiences of such efforts. We aimed to take this on by interviewing youth after they participated in Youth Aware of Mental Health (YAM), a universal mental health promotion program. YAM has a non-anticipatory methodology that provides youth with a safe space for reflection, role-play, and discussion. Addressing everyday mental health, YAM invites the experiences and issues relevant to the youth present to influence the program in a slightly different direction every time. The YAM instructor guides the participants but does not present the youth with given formulas on how to solve their problems. Like any mental health promotion, YAM appeals to some more than others in its intended audience and individuals engage with the program in many different ways. We set out to learn more about these experiences. Conversations about mental health Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15–17 year olds in Estonia, Italy, Romania and Spain. In these interviews, the researchers made an effort to discuss mental health in terms relevant to youth. Still, wide-ranging levels of motivation, ease with engaging in dialogue with mental health professionals, and comfort with the format and content of YAM were detected. The youth were clustered in five different groups relating to their positioning vis-à-vis the researcher during the interview. The following evocative labels were used: “interested”, “foot in the door”, “respect for authority”, “careful”, and “not my topic”. Corresponding labels were devised for their YAM experience: “engaged”, “initially hesitant”, “cautious”, “eager to please”, or “disengaged”. We also observed that the researchers brought their own expectations and employed a variety of approaches that led to anticipating answers, stating the obvious, or getting along
Gouttebarge, V; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K
In common with elite athletes from other sport disciplines, severe or recurrent injuries in professional footballers are considered to be major physical and psychosocial stressors, which may predispose to mental health problems during and after their career. To determine the prevalence of mental health problems and psychosocial difficulties in current and former professional footballers, and to explore the association between psychosocial stressors and the health conditions studied. Based on validated scales, a paper and electronic questionnaire was developed for current and former professional footballers and distributed by the World Footballers' Union (FIFPro) and players' unions in six countries. Prevalence was calculated and cross-sectional analyses were conducted. The response rate was 29% with 253 responses available for analysis. The prevalence of mental health complaints ranged from 5% (burnout) to 26% (anxiety/depression) in 149 current players and from 16% (burnout) to 39% (anxiety/depression) in 104 former footballers. The prevalence of psychosocial problems ranged from 3% (low self-esteem) to 26% (adverse nutrition behaviour) in current players and from 5% (low self-esteem) to 42% (adverse nutrition behaviour) in former footballers. In both current and former players, mental health problems were significantly associated with low social support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.1) and recent life events (OR = 1.4-1.6). In former players, previous surgery was significantly associated with smoking (OR = 1.9). The prevalence of mental health problems and/or psychosocial difficulties in current and former professional footballers was found to be high. The presence of mental health problems was associated with low social support and recent life events. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Manufacturing front-line workers were more likely to experience mental health problems. Personal resources and professional tasks were the major factors of workers’ mental health. Therefore, this study was to explore the interrelationship of these three key factors. A questionnaire including the revised Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI-R and the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90 covered 480 manufacturing front-line workers to measure their personal resources, professional tasks and mental health. Results showed that among manufacturing front-line workers, the status of mental health and professional tasks were below the national average level, and the personal resources were relatively deficient as well. Correlation analysis indicated a negative relation between the indicators of mental health and professional tasks (except responsibility, while personal resources and mental health were significantly positive correlation. These findings suggested that personal resources and professional tasks were highly related to mental health in manufacturing front-line workers.
Summers, Susan Janko, Ed.; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel, Ed.
Integrating infant mental health services into early education programs leads to better child outcomes and stronger parent-child relationships--the big question is how to do it appropriately and effectively. Clear answers are in this accessible textbook, created to prepare early childhood professionals and programs to weave best practices in…
Barron, Carla; Paradis, Nichole
Relationship-based infant mental health home visiting services for infants, toddlers, and their families intensify the connection between the personal and professional. To promote the therapeutic relationship and maximize the effectiveness of the intervention, home visitors must exercise good judgment, in the field and in the moment, to set and…
Hynan, M T; Steinberg, Z; Baker, L; Cicco, R; Geller, P A; Lassen, S; Milford, C; Mounts, K O; Patterson, C; Saxton, S; Segre, L; Stuebe, A
This article describes recommended activities of social workers, psychologists and psychiatric staff within the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). NICU mental health professionals (NMHPs) should interact with all NICU parents in providing emotional support, screening, education, psychotherapy and teleservices for families. NMHPs should also offer educational and emotional support for the NICU health-care staff. NMHPs should function at all levels of layered care delivered to NICU parents. M...
Chapman, Beth; Shankar, Rohit; Palmer, Joanne; Laugharne, Richard
The general public regard mass media as their main source of information about mental illness. Psychiatrists are reluctant to engage with the media. There is little understanding of why this is the case. The paper looks to explore attitudes of mental health clinicians and the media towards one another. Media and mental health clinicians in the southwest of England completed self-report surveys. Of 119 questionnaires returned 85 were mental health clinicians and 34 media professionals. Both groups agreed that stigma is a major issue and clinicians have a key role influencing media portrayal of mental illness. The media view their reporting to be more balanced than clinicians and lack awareness of clinician mistrust towards them. Those clinicians with media training (13%) felt significantly more comfortable talking to media and significantly less mistrustful of them. Clinicians who had experience of working with media felt more comfortable doing media work. Only 15% of media professionals had received mental health awareness training. Media training and experience are associated with an increased willingness of mental health professionals to engage with the media. Reciprocal awareness training between media and mental health professionals may be a simple intervention worth pursuing.
Wasserman, Camilla; Postuvan, Vita; Herta, Dana; Iosue, Miriam; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir
Youth stand at the core of much mental health promotion, yet little is written about their experiences of such efforts. We aimed to take this on by interviewing youth after they participated in Youth Aware of Mental Health (YAM), a universal mental health promotion program. YAM has a non-anticipatory methodology that provides youth with a safe space for reflection, role-play, and discussion. Addressing everyday mental health, YAM invites the experiences and issues relevant to the youth present to influence the program in a slightly different direction every time. The YAM instructor guides the participants but does not present the youth with given formulas on how to solve their problems. Like any mental health promotion, YAM appeals to some more than others in its intended audience and individuals engage with the program in many different ways. We set out to learn more about these experiences. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15-17 year olds in Estonia, Italy, Romania and Spain. In these interviews, the researchers made an effort to discuss mental health in terms relevant to youth. Still, wide-ranging levels of motivation, ease with engaging in dialogue with mental health professionals, and comfort with the format and content of YAM were detected. The youth were clustered in five different groups relating to their positioning vis-à-vis the researcher during the interview. The following evocative labels were used: "interested", "foot in the door", "respect for authority", "careful", and "not my topic". Corresponding labels were devised for their YAM experience: "engaged", "initially hesitant", "cautious", "eager to please", or "disengaged". We also observed that the researchers brought their own expectations and employed a variety of approaches that led to anticipating answers, stating the obvious, or getting along better with some of the youth. These modes of interaction were categorized under: "favoritism", "familiarity", "frustration
Full Text Available Youth stand at the core of much mental health promotion, yet little is written about their experiences of such efforts. We aimed to take this on by interviewing youth after they participated in Youth Aware of Mental Health (YAM, a universal mental health promotion program. YAM has a non-anticipatory methodology that provides youth with a safe space for reflection, role-play, and discussion. Addressing everyday mental health, YAM invites the experiences and issues relevant to the youth present to influence the program in a slightly different direction every time. The YAM instructor guides the participants but does not present the youth with given formulas on how to solve their problems. Like any mental health promotion, YAM appeals to some more than others in its intended audience and individuals engage with the program in many different ways. We set out to learn more about these experiences.Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15-17 year olds in Estonia, Italy, Romania and Spain. In these interviews, the researchers made an effort to discuss mental health in terms relevant to youth. Still, wide-ranging levels of motivation, ease with engaging in dialogue with mental health professionals, and comfort with the format and content of YAM were detected. The youth were clustered in five different groups relating to their positioning vis-à-vis the researcher during the interview. The following evocative labels were used: "interested", "foot in the door", "respect for authority", "careful", and "not my topic". Corresponding labels were devised for their YAM experience: "engaged", "initially hesitant", "cautious", "eager to please", or "disengaged". We also observed that the researchers brought their own expectations and employed a variety of approaches that led to anticipating answers, stating the obvious, or getting along better with some of the youth. These modes of interaction were categorized under: "favoritism", "familiarity
Wu, Qiuxia; Luo, Xiaoyang; Chen, Shubao; Qi, Chang; Long, Jiang; Xiong, Yifan; Liao, Yanhui; Liu, Tieqiao
Mental illness has brought great economic burden related to misdiagnosis by non-mental health professionals in general hospitals. The aim of this study was to explore non-mental health professionals' conceptions related to the identification of mental illness and perceived treatments, first aid and prognosis. In 2014-2015, we presented 1123 non-mental health professionals from six general hospitals in Hunan Province with one of three vignettes describing a person with schizophrenia, depression, or generalized anxiety disorder. Identification rates, beliefs about various interventions, best methods, and the prognosis with or without treatment were measured. Less than 60% of the non-mental health professionals could identify the mental disorders correctly. Psychiatrists and psychologists were considered to be the people who would be most helpful in all vignettes. Over 70% of participants identified the correct medication for each vignette. Participants gave higher ratings to lifestyle interventions than to psychological and medical interventions, especially in the depression and generalized anxiety disorder vignettes. For the question about how the person could best be helped, about half of the participants rated listening or talking with the person more highly than accompanying the person to professional help or encouraging the person to visit a psychiatrist or psychologist. Participants believed that, with professional help, the people in the vignettes would fully recover but that problems would probably reoccur and that, without professional help, the people described would get worse. The beliefs that non-mental health professionals hold about mental disorders are inadequate to provide appropriate help. There is an urgent need for mental health education campaigns to improve non-mental health professionals' mental health knowledge in mainland China in order to provide better support for mental health service users.
Lepièce, Brice; Reynaert, Christine; Jacques, Denis; Zdanowicz, Nicolas
Since 2010, the Belgian mental healthcare system has been involved in a structural reform: the main objective of this reorganisation is to foster the reintegration in the community of patients suffering from a mental health disorder. In parallel, the role of mental health professionals has evolved these last years: from a strictly clinical role, to the preoccupation with the rehabilitation of social competencies such as enhancing patients' abilities to return to work. The aim of this paper is to explore, specifically for patients hospitalized for a common mental health disorder, the predictive variables of returning to work within 6 months after hospitalization (RTW6). Our sample was extracted from routinely collected data during the patients' hospital stay (10 days) at the Psychosomatic Rehabilitation Day Centre of CHU Godinne. A sample of 134 patients participated in our study. Those patients were contacted 6 months after their hospitalization to assess resumption of work. We found that a patient's sociodemographicand socioeconomic variables, and depressive symptoms at the beginning of hospitalization were not predictive of return to work within 6 months (RTW6). On the other hand, duration of absence from work before hospitalization and the diagnosis of a major depression in particular were negatively associated with RTW6, whereas improvement of depressive symptoms during hospitalization stay was positively associated to RTW6. Our study identified the diagnosis of major depression and the duration of absence from work before hospitalization as two important risk factors impeding a fast return to work for patients hospitalised for a common mental health disorder. As the preoccupation with patients' abilities to return to work is now on the agenda of mental health professionals, special support and supervision should be dedicated to the more vulnerable patients.
Adjorlolo, Samuel; Abdul-Nasiru, Inusah; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Bambi, Laryea Efua
Mental health professionals' attitudes toward offenders with mental illness have significant implications for the quality of care and treatment rendered, making it imperative for these professionals to be aware of their attitudes. Yet, this topical issue has received little research attention. Consequently, the present study investigates attitudes toward offenders with mental illness (insanity acquittees) in a sample of 113 registered mental health nurses in Ghana. Using a cross-sectional survey and self-report methodology, the participants respond to measures of attitudes toward offenders with mental illness, attitudes toward mental illness, conviction proneness, and criminal blameworthiness. The results show that mental health nurses who reportedly practiced for a longer duration (6 years and above) were more likely to be unsympathetic, while the male nurses who were aged 30 years and above were more likely to hold offenders with mental illness strictly liable for their offenses. Importantly, the nurses' scores in conviction proneness and criminal blameworthiness significantly predict negative attitudes toward the offenders even after controlling for their attitudes toward mental illness. Yet, when the nurses' conviction proneness and criminal blameworthiness were held constant, their attitudes toward mental illness failed to predict attitudes toward the offenders. This initial finding implies that the nurses' views regarding criminal blameworthiness and conviction may be more influential in understanding their attitudes toward offenders with mental illness relative to their attitudes toward mental illness.
Hopia, Hanna; Raitio, Katja
The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study is to explore the perceptions and experiences that mental health service users (n = 10) and healthcare professionals (n = 32) have regarding the use of gamification in mental health care. Data was gathered by interviews. The mental health service users described promoting and retarding factors in the use of gamification, while professionals described the requirements for using gamification and changes occurring in the work culture. Additional research is needed on how game-playing elements could be integrated as a systematic part of mental health practice and how the digital skills of professionals could be effectively developed.
Wood, Susan; Harrison, Lesley K; Kucharska, Jo
Male professional footballers (soccer) represent an at-risk population of developing mental health difficulties and not accessing professional support. One in four current footballers report mental health difficulties. Higher prevalence is reported after retirement. This qualitative study aimed to provide in-depth insight into male professional footballers' lived experiences of mental health difficulties and help-seeking. Seven participants were interviewed. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. One superordinate theme emerged; 'Survival'. This related to survival in the professional football world, of mental health difficulties and after transition into the 'real world'. Six subordinate themes are explored alongside literature pertaining to male mental health, identity, injury, transition, and emotional development. Shame, stigma, fear and level of mental health literacy (knowledge of mental health and support) were barriers to help-seeking. Support for professional footballers' mental wellbeing requires improvement. Recommendations are made for future research, mental health education and support.
Volpe, U; Luciano, M; Palumbo, C; Sampogna, G; Del Vecchio, V; Fiorillo, A
Burnout is a stress-related syndrome that often affects mental health professionals (MHPs) and may have serious consequences on personal well-being as well as on the quality of provided psychiatric care. Established literature shows a high risk to develop burnout among MHPs. Few data are available on the incidence and on the clinical implications of the burnout syndrome in the early phases of MHP professional career. We confirmed the presence of burnout among early career MHPs: early career psychiatrists showed a lower sense of personal accomplishment, while non-medical MHPs tended to have more depersonalization and suffered from higher levels of depression. Specific programmes to identify the presence of the burnout syndrome and to cope with it should be taught within mental health training curricula. Burnout is a stress-related syndrome that often affects professionals working in emotionally loaded and highly interpersonal environments. Mental health professionals (MHPs) are long known to be at high risk to develop the burnout syndrome, but this has rarely been investigated in professionals in an early phase of career. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of the burnout syndrome and of depressive symptoms among early career psychiatrists and 'non-medical' MHPs. One hundred MHPs (including 50 psychiatrists and 50 non-medical MHPs) were screened for the presence of burnout and depression, with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory - revised, respectively. The relationships of burnout with socio-demographical and professional characteristics were also explored. We confirmed the presence of burnout among both groups of early career MHPs, but psychiatrists had a significantly higher degree of emotional exhaustion and a lower sense of personal accomplishment, while non-medical MHPs adopted more frequently depersonalization as a coping strategy and had higher scores for depression, which is associated with higher level of
This paper discusses the use of bilingual workers who do not have formal mental health training as mediators and providers of mental health care for refugees. The introduction provides a background discussion of the need for refugee mental health services, the characteristics of bilingual mental health workers, and the work places and expectations…
Bhoopathi, P S; Sheoran, R; Adams, C E
Learning in general can be been a passive process. This review is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of educational games as a teaching strategy in mental health professionals. We searched for all relevant randomised control trials (RCT) that compared educational games as teaching strategies with other methods of learning using electronic and reference searching, and by contacting trial authors. Data were extracted from selected trials and, individual person data was analysed using fixed effect Peto Odds Ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI). If appropriate, the number needed to treat (NNT) or number needed to harm (NNH) was estimated. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences. We identified one trial (n = 34) of an educational game for mental health nursing students which followed up participants only over a few hours. For an outcome we arbitrarily defined ('no academically important improvement [a 10% improvement in scores]'), those allocated to educational games fared considerably better than students in the standard education techniques group (OR 0.06 CI 0.01 to 0.27, NNT 3 CI 2 to 4). On average those in the games group scored six more points than the control students on a test of questions relevant to psychosis set to the standard of the mental health nursing curriculum of the day (WMD 6 CI 2.63 to 9.37). Current limited evidence suggests educational games could help mental health students gain more points in their tests; however this interesting study should be refined and repeated.
Lee, Eun-Jeong; Chan, Fong; Ditchman, Nicole; Feigon, Maia
Asian students comprise over half of all international students in the United States, yet little is known about their help-seeking behaviors and preferences for mental health professionals. The purpose of this study was to use conjoint analysis to examine characteristics of mental health professionals influencing Korean international students' preferences when choosing a mental health professional. Korean international students from three universities in the United States were recruited on a volunteer basis to participate in this study (N = 114). Results indicated that mental health professional characteristics, including ethnicity, age, professional identity, and training institution, were significant factors in students' preference formation; however, gender of the mental health professional was not found to be a significant factor in the present study. Ethnic similarity was the most powerful predictor of preference formation. Implications for promoting help-seeking and mental health service utilization among Asian international students are discussed.
Starzynski, Laura L; Ullman, Sarah E
A diverse sample of more than 365 adult sexual assault survivors, recruited from college and community sources, was surveyed about sexual assault experiences, post-assault factors, and perceived helpfulness of and satisfaction with mental health professionals. Regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with perceived helpfulness of and satisfaction with mental health professionals. Older age, higher posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), greater control over recovery, and more emotional support reactions were associated with positive perceptions of mental health professionals. Stranger offenders, greater resistance during assault, high victim post-assault upset, and blaming social reactions from others were associated with negative perceptions of mental health professionals.
Murray, Christine E; Davis, Justin; Rudolph, Lin; Graves, Kelly N; Colbert, Robin; Fryer, Maria; Mason, Anita; Thigpen, Bernetta
There is growing recognition of the interconnections between domestic violence and mental health, especially related to mental health concerns among those who have experienced domestic violence victimization. Despite high rates of mental health concerns among victims and survivors, many mental health professionals lack sufficient training to understand and address domestic violence in their clinical work. The North Carolina Governor's Crime Commission convened a task force to examine training experiences and needs among mental health professionals in the state. A statewide survey revealed that mental health professionals vary in their levels of training to address domestic violence. A key finding was that mental health professionals who had received any training in domestic violence reported engaging in more comprehensive assessment and intervention practices. Implications for future research, practice, and policy are discussed.
The aim of this pilot study was to determine the reasons why mental health professionals work in a community mental health service. A survey of psychiatrists and trainees (n = 13) and other mental health professionals (n = 67) was conducted in an Australian community mental health service with a socioeconomically deprived catchment population. Respondents were asked to list their main reasons for working and to complete measures of job design, well-being, social support, role clarity, teamwork and job satisfaction. The qualitative results were validated using focus groups. The response rate was 53.7% (43/80). Income (31/43), belonging (21/43), self-esteem (30/43) and self-actualization (9/43) were the main reasons given for working. Mental health professionals, who reported self-actualization as a reason for work, had significantly higher well-being and job satisfaction than other subjects. Mental health professionals who cited self-actualization as a reason for work perceived that their work was more significant and had higher task identity compared with other subjects. This study is limited by a small sample size and the inability to exclude confounding variables. Maslow's hierarchy of needs was a useful framework for categorizing reasons for work. Some practical approaches to meet the needs of the mental health workforce are discussed.
Zerbetto, Sonia Regina; Galera, Sueli Aparecida Frari; Ruiz, Bianca Oliveira
ABSTRACT Objective: To learn the perception of health professionals from the Psychosocial Attention Center for Alcohol and Other Drugs regarding the resilience attributes that are critical to family members of psychoactive substance dependents. Method: A qualitative descriptive study conducted from February to May 2016, using a focus group technique for data collection. In total, 15 professionals participated in the study: 13 health professionals and two administrative professionals. The st...
Porter, Gayle; Epp, Lawrence; Bryant, Sharronne
Explores the development of school-based mental health services and demonstrates how mental health professionals who work in schools can collaborate to increase school safety through programs designed to effect positive mental health in school youth. Argues that school counselors are in a unique position to facilitate the collaborative process…
Wilrycx, G.K.M.L.; Croon, M.A.; van den Broek, A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.
Objectives: To examine the effects of a recovery-oriented care training program for mental healthcare professionals on mental health consumer outcomes. Methods: The Mental Health Recovery Measure (MHRM) and the Recovery-Promoting Relationship Scale (RPRS) were administered to a sample of 142
Golden, Larry; O'Malley, Patrick
Data indicate that practice by unqualified personnel, financial exploitation, and sexual exploitation are the most frequent types of misconduct by mental health practitioners. Solutions to these problems lie in the areas of regulation, education of counselors-in-training, and education of consumers of mental health services. (Author)
This article provides a review of current research on human trafficking for mental health practitioners and scholars. In addition to an overview of definitions, causes and processes of trafficking, the article highlights mental health consequences of trafficking along with suggestions for treatment of survivors. Directions for counseling services,…
McCue Horwitz, Sarah; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Kerker, Bonnie D; Szilagyi, Moira; Garner, Andrew S; O'Connor, Karen G; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Green, Cori M; Foy, Jane M; Stein, Ruth E K
To assess the availability of on-site mental health professionals (MHPs) in primary care; to examine practice/pediatrician characteristics associated with on-site MHPs; and to determine whether the presence of on-site MHPs is related to pediatricians' comanaging or more frequently identifying, treating/managing, or referring mental health (MH) problems. Analyses included American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) members who participated in an AAP Periodic Survey in 2013 and who practiced general pediatrics (n = 321). Measures included sociodemographics, practice characteristics, questions about on-site MHPs, comanagement of MH problems, and pediatricians' behaviors in response to 5 prevalent MH problems. Weighted univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses were performed. Thirty-five percent reported on-site MHPs. Practice characteristics (medical schools, universities, health maintenance organizations, pediatricians usually identified, treated/managed, or referred 5 common child MH problems. Among the subset of pediatricians who reported comanaging, there was an association with comanagement when the on-site MHP was a child psychiatrist, substance abuse counselor, or social worker. On-site MHPs are more frequent in settings where low-income children are served and where pediatricians train. Pediatricians who comanage MH problems are more likely to do so when the on-site MHP is a child psychiatrist, substance abuse counselor, or social worker. Overall, on-site MHPs were not associated with comanagement or increased likelihood of pediatricians identifying, treating/managing, or referring children with 5 common child MH problems. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sercu, Charlotte; Bracke, Piet
The growing interest among scholars and professionals in mental health stigma is closely related to different mental health care reforms. This article explores professionals' perceptions of the dehospitalization movement in the Belgian context, paying particular attention to the meaning of stigma. Combined participant observation and semi-structured interviews were used to both assess and contextualize the perceptions of 43 professionals. The findings suggest that stigma may function as a structural barrier to professionals' positive evaluation of de-hospitalization, depending on the framework they are working in. It is important to move beyond a unilateral understanding of the relationship between stigma and de-hospitalization in order to attain constructive health care reform. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Happell, Brenda; Bennetts, Wanda; Platania-Phung, Chris; Tohotoa, Jenny
To explore factors impacting on the feasibility of academic and educator roles for consumers of mental health services. The supports required to facilitate these roles from the perspectives of mental health nurse academics and consumer educators/academics will also be explored. Involving consumers in the education of health professionals is becoming more common. Frequently this strategy is viewed as important to influence the attitudes of health professionals towards consumer participation in mental health services. There remains a paucity of research about these roles and the factors which promote and support their feasibility. Qualitative exploratory. In-depth telephone interviews were undertaken with 34 nurse academics and 12 consumer educators or academics. Participants included nurse academics coordinating undergraduate and postgraduate mental health subjects, and consumer academics and educators involved in teaching mental health nursing components. Interviews were 20-45 minutes in duration. Data were analysed thematically. Four subthemes were identified under the broad theme of feasibility and support: Reliability, support, vulnerability and seen to be griping. Significant barriers were identified by nurses and consumers to effective consumer involvement, largely reflecting the impact of mental health challenges. Despite this, there was little evidence of structured support being available to enhance the viability of these positions. Involving consumers in the education of health professionals through teaching, curriculum development, assessment and evaluation, is likely to enhance consumer participation in mental health services and ultimately improve service delivery. This involvement needs to be genuine to be effective. Consumers are often viewed as unreliable, vulnerable and using education to voice their own negative experiences. These issues and lack of support provided pose major barriers to successful roles, strategies to overcome barriers and
Greacen, Tim; Jouet, Emmanuelle; Ryan, Peter; Cserhati, Zoltan; Grebenc, Vera; Griffiths, Chris; Hansen, Bettina; Leahy, Eithne; da Silva, Ksenija Maravic; Sabić, Amra; De Marco, Angela; Flores, Paz
Although mental health promotion is a priority mental health action area for all European countries, high level training resources and high quality skills acquisition in mental health promotion are still relatively rare. The aim of the current paper is to present the results of the DG SANCO-funded PROMISE project concerning the development of European guidelines for training social and health care professionals in mental health promotion. The PROMISE project brought together a multidisciplinary scientific committee from eight European sites representing a variety of institutions including universities, mental health service providers and public health organisations. The committee used thematic content analysis to filter and analyse European and international policy documents, scientific literature reviews on mental health promotion and existing mental health promotion programmes with regard to identifying quality criteria for training care professionals on this subject. The resulting PROMISE Guidelines quality criteria were then subjected to an iterative feedback procedure with local steering groups and training professionals at all sites with the aim of developing resource kits and evaluation tools for using the PROMISE Guidelines. Scientific committees also collected information from European, national and local stakeholder groups and professional organisations on existing training programmes, policies and projects. The process identified ten quality criteria for training care professionals in mental health promotion: embracing the principle of positive mental health; empowering community stakeholders; adopting an interdisciplinary and intersectoral approach; including people with mental health problems; advocating; consulting the knowledge base; adapting interventions to local contexts; identifying and evaluating risks; using the media; evaluating training, implementation processes and outcomes. The iterative feedback process produced resource kits and
Lepiéce, Brice; Reynaert, Christine; Jacques, Denis; Zdanowicz, Nicolas
Social inequality as a social and economic phenomenon has become an issue of common interest in Europe and other societies worldwide, mainly after the recent global financial and economic crisis that occurred in 2008. The increasing gap observed between socioeconomically advantaged and disadvantaged people has caused intensive debates in politics, social sciences and in the field of public health. Today, poverty is considered as a major variable adversely influencing health. In this paper we will discuss the link between poverty and mental health. We conducted a literature search focusing on three main objectives: (I) to investigate the definition of "poverty"; (II) to determine the association between poverty and major mental health problems; and (III) to discuss the extent to which poverty could be both a cause and a consequence of mental health. We identified a total of 142 relevant papers, published between 1995 and 2014, only 32 were retained. Main findings are summarised in this paper. Poverty can be considered as a risk factor for mental illness. Yet the relation between poverty and mental health is complex, without direct causation, and bidirectional. As poverty has severe consequences not only on health but also on the whole society, combating poverty should be placed high on the political agenda.
Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa; Vasconcelos, Mardênia Gomes Ferreira; Junior, Euton Freitas de Castro; Barreto, Levi Alves; Rosa, Lianna Ramalho de Sena; de Lima, Leilson Lira
To aprehend the social representations about the solvability in mental health care with users of the Family Health Strategy and professionals of family health teams and of the Center for Psychosocial Care. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews for data collection, and the Alceste software for analysis. This software uses the Hierarchical Descending Classification based on the examination of lexical roots, considering the words as units and providing context in the corpus. The representations emerge in two opposing poles: the users require satisfaction with care and the professionals realize the need for improvement of health actions. Although the matricial support in mental health and the home visits are developed, the barriers related to investment in health, continuing education and organization of care persist. The different representations enable improvements in customer service, solvability of care and aggregate knowledge and practices in the expanded perspective of health needs in the family, social and therapeutic context.
To examine the application of the decision tree approach to collaborative clinical decision-making in mental health care in the United Kingdom (UK). While this approach to decision-making has been examined in the acute care setting, there is little published evidence of its use in clinical decision-making within the mental health setting. The complexities of dual diagnosis (schizophrenia and substance misuse in this case example) and the varied viewpoints of different professionals often hamper the decision-making process. This paper highlights how the approach was used successfully as a multiprofessional collaborative approach to decision-making in the context of British community mental health care. A selective review of the relevant literature and a case study application of the decision tree framework. The process of applying the decision tree framework to clinical decision-making in mental health practice can be time consuming and client inclusion within the process is not always appropriate. The approach offers a method of assigning numerical values to support complex multiprofessional decision-making as well as considering underpinning literature to inform the final decision. Use of the decision tree offers a common framework that can assist professionals to examine the options available to them in depth, while considering the complex variables that influence decision-making in collaborative mental health practice. Use of the decision tree warrants further consideration in mental health care in terms of practice and education.
Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Pardeller, Silvia; Kemmler, Georg; Hofer, Alex
Emotional Intelligence (EI) and resilience may be considered as prerequisites for mental health professionals caring for patients with serious mental illness (SMI), since they are often exposed to severe emotional stress during daily work. Accordingly, this cross-sectional study assessed both EI and resilience and their interrelationship in 61 individuals belonging to an assertive outreach team for patients suffering from SMI compared 61 control subjects without healthcare-related working conditions. EI was assessed by means of the German version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso-Emotional-Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), resilience was assessed using the German version of the Resilience Scale. Both groups showed an average level of EI in all categories of the MSCEIT and indicated high levels of resilience. They did not differ significantly from each other, neither in terms of EI nor resilience. Correlation analysis revealed a positive association between EI and resilience, albeit small in magnitude. Our results suggest that mental health professionals are not more resilient and therefore not more 'protected' from stressors than the general population. Though this finding warrants cautious interpretation, the positive correlation between EI and resilience suggests that EI may be a potential target for education and training in order to strengthen resilience even in healthy individuals and vice versa.
Tungpunkom, Patraporn; Maybery, Darryl; Reupert, Andrea; Kowalenko, Nick; Foster, Kim
Many people with a mental illness are parents caring for dependent children. These children are at greater risk of developing their own mental health concerns compared to other children. Mental health services are opportune places for healthcare professionals to identify clients' parenting status and address the needs of their children. There is a knowledge gap regarding Thai mental health professionals' family-focused knowledge and practices when working with parents with mental illness and their children and families. This cross -sectional survey study examined the attitudes, knowledge and practices of a sample (n = 349) of the Thai mental health professional workforce (nurses, social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists) using a translated version of the Family-Focused Mental Health Practice Questionnaire (FFMHPQ). The majority of clinicians reported no training in family (76.8%) or child-focused practice (79.7%). Compared to other professional groups, psychiatric nurses reported lower scores on almost all aspects of family-focused practice except supporting clients in their parenting role within the context of their mental illness. Social workers scored highest overall including having more workplace support for family-focused practice as well as a higher awareness of family-focused policy and procedures than psychiatrists; social workers also scored higher than psychologists on providing support to families and parents. All mental health care professional groups reported a need for training and inter-professional practice when working with families. The findings indicate an important opportunity for the prevention of intergenerational mental illness in whose parents have mental illness by strengthening the professional development of nurses and other health professionals in child and family-focused knowledge and practice.
Emerick, R E
Data from a national survey of 104 self-help groups for former mental patients were examined to assess actual and potential partnerships between these groups and mental health professionals. The groups' level of interaction with and attitudes toward professionals varied with the structure, affiliation, and service model of the groups. The majority were moderate "supportive" groups in which partnerships with professionals could occur but were problematic. Less common were radical "separatist" groups, with which professional partnerships were almost guaranteed to fail, and conservative "partnership" groups, with which partnerships were likely to succeed. Strong antipsychiatric attitudes throughout the mental patient movement suggest that mental health professionals who approach former-patient groups with narrow clinical conceptions of mental illness are likely to fail in establishing partnerships.
Hall, Ryan Chaloner Winton; Friedman, Susan Hatters
Since the recent shootings in Tucson, Arizona; Aurora, Colorado; and Newtown, Connecticut, there has been an ever-increasing state and national debate regarding gun control. All 3 shootings involved an alleged shooter who attended college, and in hindsight, evidence of a mental illness was potentially present in these individuals while in school. What appears to be different about the current round of debate is that both pro-gun control and anti-gun control advocates are focusing on mentally ill individuals, early detection of mental illness during school years, and the interactions of such individuals with physicians and the mental health system as a way to solve gun violence. This raises multiple questions for our profession about the apparent increase in these types of events, dangerousness in mentally ill individuals, when to intervene (voluntary vs involuntary), and what role physicians should play in the debate and ongoing prevention. As is evident from the historic Tarasoff court case, physicians and mental health professionals often have new regulations/duties, changes in the physician-patient relationship, and increased liability resulting from high-profile events such as these. Given that in many ways the prediction of who will actually commit a violent act is difficult to determine with accuracy, physicians need to be cautious with how the current gun debate evolves not only for ourselves (eg, increased liability, becoming de facto agents of the state) but for our patients as well (eg, increased stigma, erosion of civil liberties, and changes in the physician-patient relationship). We provide examples of potential troublesome legislation and suggestions on what can be done to improve safety for our patients and for the public. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arora, Prerna G.; Connors, Elizabeth H.; Biscardi, Krystin A.; Hill, Allison M.
Despite the well-documented need for interprofessional collaboration (IPC) between school mental health (SMH) professionals and pediatric primary care providers (PCPs), research on current collaborative practices of these professionals is limited. Accordingly, using survey methodology, this study investigated SMH professionals' previous training…
Hanafiah, Ainul Nadhirah; Van Bortel, Tine
Stigma of mental illness has been identified as a significant barrier to help-seeking and care. Basic knowledge of mental illness - such as its nature, symptoms and impact - are neglected, leaving room for misunderstandings on mental health and 'stigma'. Numerous researches have been conducted on stigma and discrimination of people with mental disorders. However, most of the literature investigates stigma from a cultural conception point of view, experiences of patients or public attitudes towards mental illness but little to none from the standpoint of mental health professionals. In Malaysia, this research on stigma is particularly limited. Therefore, the state of stigma and discrimination of people with mental illness was investigated from the perspectives of mental health professionals in Malaysia. In-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 mental health professionals from both government and private sectors including psychiatrists, psychologists and counsellors. The interviews were approximately 45-minutes long. The data was subsequently analysed using the basic thematic approach. Seven principal themes, each with their own sub-themes, emerged from the analysis of 'stigma of mental illness' from mental health professionals' point of view, including: (1) main perpetrators, (2) types of mental illness carrying stigma, (3) demography and geography of stigma, (4) manifestations of stigma, (5) impacts of stigma, (6) causes of stigma and (7) proposed initiatives to tackle stigma. Stigma of mental illness is widespread in Malaysia. This is most evident amongst people suffering from conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression. Stigma manifests itself most often in forms of labelling, rejection, social exclusion and in employment. Family, friends and workplace staff are reported to be the main perpetrators of discriminatory conducts. According to the perspectives of the mental health professionals, implications of
Dobie, Alana; Tucker, Alison; Ferrari, Madeleine; Rogers, Jeffrey M
Mental health professionals are particularly susceptible to occupational stress; however, there are limited formal programmes to address the problem. This paper discusses the preliminary results of a brief mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) programme for practising professionals in a public hospital mental health unit. A mixed-group of nine mental health professionals participated in eight weeks of daily 15-minute MBSR training interspersed with three 30-minute education sessions developed by the authors (AD and AT). Levels of psychological distress and mindfulness skill were measured before and immediately after participation. Following the brief MBSR programme, quantitative and qualitative participant feedback revealed a perceived reduction in psychological distress. A brief MBSR programme can be incorporated into the full-time workloads of practicing mental health professionals, potentially addressing a significant unmet workplace need. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Larkings, Josephine S; Brown, Patricia M
Viewing mental illness as an 'illness like any other' and promoting biogenetic causes have been explored as a stigma-reduction strategy. The relationship between causal beliefs and mental illness stigma has been researched extensively in the general public, but has gained less attention in more clinically-relevant populations (i.e. people with mental illness and mental health professionals). A systematic review examining whether endorsing biogenetic causes decreases mental illness stigma in people with mental illness and mental health professionals was undertaken using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Multiple databases were searched, and studies that explored the relationship between biogenetic causal beliefs and mental illness stigma in people with mental illness or mental health professionals were considered. Studies were included if they focussed on depression, schizophrenia, or mental illness in general, were in English, and had adult participants. The search identified 11 journal articles reporting on 15 studies, which were included in this review. Of these, only two provided evidence that endorsing biogenetic causes was associated with less mental illness stigma in people with mental illness or mental health professionals. The majority of studies in the present review (n = 10) found that biogenetic causal beliefs were associated with increased stigma or negative attitudes towards mental illness. The present review highlights the lack of research exploring the impacts of endorsing biogenetic causes in people with mental illness and mental health professionals. Clinical implications associated with these results are discussed, and suggestions are made for further research that examines the relationship between causal beliefs and treatment variables. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Full Text Available Workplace violence is present in many work sectors, but in the area of mental health, nurses have a higher risk due to the close relationship they have with users. This study analyzed hostile user statements against nursing professionals of Mental Health Services and Emergency Units in Health Service (MHS hospitals in Murcia, Spain, and determined the frequency of exposure to the different violent user behaviors. The study was carried out with a sample of 518 nursing professionals from four hospital services: Mental Health, Emergency Units, Medical Hospitalization, and Maternal-and-Child. The nursing staff of Mental Health and Emergency Units was the most exposed to violence. Non-physical violence was more frequent in Emergency Units, whereas physical violence was more frequent in Mental Health. Among the consequences of exposure to non-physical violence are workers’ emotional exhaustion and the presence of psychological distress.
Ennis, G; Happell, B; Reid-Searl, K
Clinical leadership is acknowledged as important to the nursing profession. While studies continue to identify its significance in contributing to positive outcomes for consumers, the role that clinical leadership has in enabling and supporting professional development in mental health nursing is poorly understood. This study utilized a grounded theory methodology to explore the characteristics clinicians consider important for clinical leadership and its significance for mental health nursing in day-to-day clinical practice. Individual face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nurses working in mental health settings. Participants described the important role that clinical leaders play in enabling professional development of others through role modelling and clinical teaching. They describe how nurses, whom they perceive as clinical leaders, use role modelling and clinical teaching to influence the professional development of nursing staff and undergraduate nursing students. Attributes such as professionalism and honesty were seen, by participants, as enablers for clinical leaders in effectively and positively supporting the professional development of junior staff and undergraduate nurses in mental health nursing. This paper examines clinical leadership from the perspective of mental health nurses delivering care, and highlights the important role of clinical leaders in supporting professional development in mental health nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Papageorgiou, Alexia; Loke, Yoon K; Fromage, Michelle
Research evidence suggests that both mental health professionals and people with severe mental health illness such as schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder find it difficult to communicate with each other effectively about symptoms, treatments and their side effects so that they reach a shared understanding about diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Effective use of communication skills in mental health interactions could be associated with increased patient satisfaction and adherence to treatment. To review the effectiveness of communication skills training for mental health professionals who work with people with severe mental illness. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Trials Register (latest search 17 February, 2016) which is compiled by systematic searches of major resources (including AMED, BIOSIS, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and registries of clinical trials) and their monthly updates, handsearches, grey literature, and conference proceedings. There are no language, date, document type, or publication status limitations for inclusion of records into the register. All relevant randomised clinical trials (RCTs) that focused on communication skills training (CST) for mental health professionals who work with people with severe mental illness compared with those who received standard or no training. We sought a number of primary (patient adherence to treatment and attendance at scheduled appointments as well as mental health professionals' satisfaction with the training programme) and secondary outcomes (patients' global state, service use, mental state, patient satisfaction, social functioning, quality of life). RCTs where the unit of randomisation was by cluster (e.g. healthcare facility) were also eligible for inclusion. We included one trial that met our inclusion criteria and reported useable data. We independently selected studies, quality assessed them and extracted data. For binary outcomes, we planned to calculate standard
Saidel, Maria Giovana Borges; Campos, Claudinei José Gomes
to understand the perceptions of healthcare professionals of the Psychosocial Care Centers regarding the family of older adults with mental disorders. study of a Qualitative Case conducted with 12 healthcare professionals from a Psychosocial Care Center, with a convenient and exhaustive sample. Conducting semi-structured interviews to collect data, which were analyzed with the Content Analysis technique. the following categories stood out: "Family exhaustion and deterioration in the perception of the healthcare professional" and "The abandonment of older adults by family members and their distancing in the perception of the healthcare professional." culpability of older adults and penalization of the family were verified by healthcare professionals. To bring awareness about the difficulties faced in the attempt to bring the family closer to the healthcare service, it is necessary to analyze the care given to the older adult and to overcome challenges in the effective construction of the bond between family, healthcare user and mental health service. compreender as percepções dos profissionais do Centro de Atenção Psicossocial acerca da família do idoso em sofrimento psíquico. estudo de Caso Qualitativo conduzido com 12 profissionais de um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial com amostra composta por intencionalidade e fechada por exaustão. Realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas para coleta de dados, analisados por meio da técnica de Análise de Conteúdo. destacaram-se as categorias "O cansaço e o desgaste familiar na percepção do profissional" e "O abandono e o afastamento do idoso pela família na percepção do profissional". verificou-se a culpabilização do idoso e a penalização da família pelos profissionais. Visando à conscientização das dificuldades em aproximar a família, é necessária a criação de espaços reflexivos sobre o cuidado a essa população, bem como a superação dos desafios na construção efetiva do vínculo entre
Souza, Jacqueline de; Almeida, Letícia Yamawaka de; Luis, Margarita Antonia Villar; Nievas, Andreia Fernanda; Veloso, Tatiana Maria Coelho; Barbosa, Sara Pinto; Giacon, Bianca Cristina Ciccone; Assad, Francine Baltazar
to analyze the management of mental health needs in primary care as perceived by Family Health Strategy professionals. this was a qualitative descriptive exploratory study developed within the coverage area of five family health teams. The data were collected using observation, group interviews, individual semi-structured interviews, and focus groups. Content analysis was conducted using text analysis software and interpretation was based on the corresponding analytical structures. numerous and challenging mental health demands occur in this setting, for which the teams identified care resources; however, they also indicated difficulties, especially related to the operationalization and integration of such resources. there is a need for a care network sensitive to mental health demands that are better coordinated and more effectively managed. analisar o manejo das necessidades de saúde mental na atenção primária à saúde de acordo com a percepção dos profissionais da Estratégia Saúde da Família. estudo qualitativo, descritivo exploratório, desenvolvido no território de abrangência de cinco equipes de saúde da família. Os participantes foram cinco enfermeiras, cinco coordenadores e 17 agentes comunitários de saúde. Os dados foram coletados utilizando observação, entrevistas grupais, entrevistas individuais semiestruturadas e grupos focais. Fez-se a análise de conteúdo com o auxílio de um Software de análise textual, e a interpretação baseou-se nas estruturas analíticas correspondentes. inúmeras e desafiadoras demandas de saúde mental têm sido acolhidas nesse setting, para as quais as equipes identificaram recursos de atendimento; no entanto, apontaram dificuldades, sobretudo relacionadas à operacionalização e integração destes recursos. destaca-se a necessidade de uma rede de cuidados sensível a tais demandas, mais articulada e gerida de modo eficaz.
Nieminen, I; Kaunonen, M
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Mental health service users (MHSUs) may experience disruptions in their education. However, education has been shown to have a positive influence on their recovery, potentially offering them broader employment opportunities. The literature suggests that providing support for MHSUs in their educational efforts may be beneficial and is wished for by the service users themselves. However, there is a lack of mental health professionals' views on the topic in the setting of a community mental health centre. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO THE EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: In the perception of mental health professionals, the predominance of disease in the life of MHSUs and their marginalization may form barriers to their success in education. Professionals can support MHSUs in their educational efforts by strengthening the MHSUs' internal resources and creating a supportive environment with professional expertise available. A service user-centred education might further help MHSUs to achieve their educational goals. Our findings confirm previous knowledge of a recovery-oriented approach to supporting MHSUs' education. This study explored the topic from the professionals' perspective in the context of community mental health centres, which is a fresh view in the research literature. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The findings suggest which types of support professionals perceive to be required for MHSUs to advance their studies. Knowledge of adequate forms of support can be applied in the mental health nursing practice to develop support measures for service users to advance in their studies. All levels of the community mental health centres should be aware of and adopt a recovery-oriented approach. MHSUs and professionals need to have a shared opinion on the definition of recovery orientation. This requires mutual discussion and the more active involvement of MHSUs in the design of their own rehabilitation process. Introduction Studies show
A phenomenological study explored occupational therapy students' experiences in psychiatric fieldwork. Of particular interest was students' understanding of professional behavior toward persons who use mental health services. Data were gathered from 16 informants via in-depth interviews and participant observation on multiple occasions during fieldwork affiliations. Emerging from informants' views of professional behavior were difficulties in their reconciling conflicting expectations with regard to emotional and social distance from persons who use mental health services. Additionally, the informants experienced a need to assume authority and maintain control in their dealings with service users. Students' encounters with such issues during fieldwork are indicative of challenges they may face as health professionals in a changing climate of mental health services. These data are stimuli for reflection on features of professional relationships with service users, particularly in response to expectations of persons with disabilities regarding control over their lives.
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino
To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep
Weine, Stevan M; Stone, Andrew; Saeed, Aliya; Shanfield, Stephen; Beahrs, John; Gutman, Alisa; Mihajlovic, Aida
New community-based initiatives being developed to address violent extremism in the United States are utilizing mental health services and leadership. This article reviews current approaches to preventing violent extremism, the contribution that mental illness and psychosocial problems can make to violent extremism, and the rationale for integrating mental health strategies into preventing violent extremism. The authors describe a community-based targeted violence prevention model and the potential roles of mental health professionals. This model consists of a multidisciplinary team that assesses at-risk individuals with comprehensive threat and behavioral evaluations, arranges for ongoing support and treatment, conducts follow-up evaluations, and offers outreach, education, and resources for communities. This model would enable mental health professionals in local communities to play key roles in preventing violent extremism through their practice and leadership.
Full Text Available Background: Mental health professionals are the main instrument for intervention in this area considered as a priority in Public Health and are subject to emotional exhaustion and stress that can negatively affect their quality of life. Aims: This study aims to assess the influence of job characteristics on health-related quality of life of health professionals.Methods: To address this it was decided to conduct a cross-sectional analytical study with a quantitative approach. SF-36v2 was used as a generic instrument for assessing quality of life, which is already validated for Portuguese population, complemented by a social and professional survey. Data collection took place from 28 January to 30 April 2013.Results and Conclusions: The sample comprised 201 mental health professionals in Portugal. Health-related quality of life shows statistically significant differences in the groups of studied professionals, according to the number of hours worked per week (p=0.04 and the degree of job satisfaction (p<0.001. The assessment of the quality of life of mental health professionals allows the implementation of changes in the organization of mental health services and may contribute to an improvement in the provision of healthcare services.
Strasser, Josef; Gruber, Hans
An important part of learning processes in the professional development of counselors is the integration of declarative knowledge and professional experience. It was investigated in-how-far mental health counselors at different levels of expertise (experts, intermediates, novices) differ in their availability of experience-based knowledge…
Francis, Perry C.
Mental health professionals are faced with increasingly complex ethical decisions that are impacted by culture, personal and professional values, and the contexts in which they and their clients inhabit. This article presents the reasons for developing and implementing multiple ethical decision making models and reviews four models that address…
Burke, Delia A; Koot, Hans M; de Wilde, Amber; Begeer, Sander
Early recognition of childhood mental-health problems can help minimise long-term negative outcomes. Recognition of mental-health problems, needed for referral and diagnostic evaluation, is largely dependent on health-care professionals' (HCPs) judgement of symptoms presented by the child. This
Meredith, Pamela; Yeates, Harriet; Greaves, Amanda; Taylor, Michelle; Slattery, Maddy; Charters, Michelle; Hill, Melissa
The application of sensory modulation approaches in mental health settings is growing in recognition internationally. However, a number of barriers have been identified as limiting the implementation of the approach, including workplace culture and a lack of accessible and effective sensory approaches training. The aim of this project was to investigate the efficacy of providing this training through a custom-designed e-learning package. Participants in the present study were predominately nurses and occupational therapists working in mental health settings in Queensland, Australia. Data were collected from 121 participants using an online survey. Significant improvements were found between pre- and post-training in participants' real and perceived levels of knowledge, their perceived levels of confidence, and their attitudes towards using sensory modulation approaches in mental health settings. The findings of the study suggest that the custom-designed sensory approaches e-learning package is an effective, accessible, acceptable, and usable method to train health professionals in sensory modulation approaches. As this study is the first to analyse the efficacy of an e-learning sensory approaches package, the results are considered preliminary, and further investigation is required. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Full Text Available Positive mental health (PMH is a combination of emotional, psychological and social well-being that is necessary for an individual to be mentally healthy. The current study aims to examine the socio-demographic differences of PMH among mental health professionals and to explore the association between job satisfaction and total PMH.Doctors, nurses and allied health staff (n = 462 completed the online survey which included the multidimensional 47-item PMH instrument as well as a single item job satisfaction question. Associations of PMH with job satisfaction were investigated via linear regression models.Significant differences in PMH total and domain specific scores were observed across socio-demographic characteristics. Age and ethnicity were significantly correlated with PMH total scores as well as various domain scores, while gender, marital and residency status and the staff's position were only significantly correlated with domain specific scores. Job satisfaction was also found to be a significantly associated with total PMH.The workplace is a key environment that affects the mental health and well-being of working adults. In order to promote and foster PMH, workplaces need to consider the importance of psychosocial well-being and the wellness of staff whilst providing an environment that supports and maintains overall health and work efficiency.
Rose, Jayln; Glass, Nel
The article reports on selected findings of a research study concerning emotional wellbeing and professional nursing practice (Rose 2002). It highlights the relationship between community mental health nurses' and emotional wellbeing, and their capacity to provide satisfying professional nursing practice (Rose 2002). The notion of emotional wellbeing, factors that impacted upon the participants' emotional wellbeing, and the relationship of emotional wellbeing to professional practice were revealed in the study. These findings were based on a qualitative critical feminist research inquiry and specifically, interviews with five women community mental health nurses in Australia. Whilst complex, emotional wellbeing was found to be both implicitly and explicitly linked to the participants intertwined personal and professional experiences. Four key components were identified: the nebulous notion; the stress relationship; the mind, body, spirit connection; and, inner sense of balance. In terms of emotional wellbeing and professional practice, three themes were revealed. These were: being able to speak out (or not); being autonomous (or not) and being satisfied (or not). The authors argue that the emotional wellbeing of nurses working in community mental health settings is critical to satisfying professional practice. Furthermore nursing work involves emotional work which impacts on one's emotional wellbeing and emotional wellbeing is integrally linked to professional practice. It is recommended that health organisations must be pro-active in addressing the emotional needs of nurses to ensure the delivery of health care that is aligned to professional practice. This approach will ensure nurses will feel more recognised and validated in terms of their nursing practice.
Peterson, Brennan; Boivin, Jacky; Norré, Jan; Smith, Cassandra; Thorn, Petra; Wischmann, Tewes
The practice of infertility counseling delivered by mental health and medical professionals has become more sophisticated and widespread over the past decade. This paper summarizes information presented at the second campus workshop of the Special Interest Group of Psychology and Counseling of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE). This group is dedicated to improving infertility services by creating meaningful connections between mental health and medical professi...
Lee, Cheryl D; del Carmen Montiel, Eliette
A pilot study examined the relationship between job satisfaction and perceived mentoring among 56 mental health supervisors and practitioners in a county mental health agency. Participants completed the Alleman Mentoring Activities Questionnaires and the Job Descriptive Index and Job in General Scale. Practitioners who perceived they were involved in mentoring relationships with supervisors were more satisfied with their jobs than those who perceived that they were not involved in mentoring relationships. The mentoring functions of sponsoring, assigning challenging tasks, and demonstrating trust predicted job satisfaction. Recommendations include incorporating mentoring functions in supervisory training to increase mental health professionals' job satisfaction.
Wahl, Otto; Aroesty-Cohen, Eli
A large body of research has documented public attitudes toward people with mental illness. The current attitudes of the people who provide services to those with psychiatric disorders are important to understand, as well. The authors review what studies over the past 5 years reveal about the attitudes of psychiatric professionals. Empirical…
Booth, Alison; Scantlebury, Arabella; Hughes-Morley, Adwoa; Mitchell, Natasha; Wright, Kath; Scott, William; McDaid, Catriona
The police and others in occupations where they come into close contact with people experiencing/with mental ill health, often have to manage difficult and complex situations. Training is needed to equip them to recognise and assist when someone has a mental health issue or learning/intellectual disability. We undertook a systematic review of the effectiveness of training programmes aimed at increasing knowledge, changing behaviour and/or attitudes of the trainees with regard to mental ill health, mental vulnerability, and learning disabilities. Databases searched from 1995 onwards included: ASSIA, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials (CENTRAL), Criminal Justice Abstracts, Embase, ERIC, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Social Science Citation Index. Courses, training, or learning packages aimed at helping police officers and others who interact with the public in a similar way to deal with people with mental health problems were included. Primary outcomes were change in practice and change in outcomes for the groups of people the trainees come into contact with. Systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non- randomised controlled trials (non-RCTs) were included and quality assessed. In addition non-comparative evaluations of training for police in England were included. From 8578 search results, 19 studies met the inclusion criteria: one systematic review, 12 RCTs, three prospective non-RCTs, and three non-comparative studies. The training interventions identified included broad mental health awareness training and packages addressing a variety of specific mental health issues or conditions. Trainees included police officers, teachers and other public sector workers. Some short term positive changes in behaviour were identified for trainees, but for the people the trainees came into contact with there was little or no evidence of benefit. A variety of training programmes exist for non-mental health professionals who come into contact with
Constantinidis, Teresinha Cid; de Andrade, Angela Nobre
This paper is a development of a doctoral thesis presented at the Federal University of Espírito Santo. It seeks to analyze the elucidation of needs, development of supply and demand in the provision of care and the relationship between mental health professionals and family members of people with mental disorders. A qualitative research approach was used as the method of choice to achieve the proposed objectives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with mental health professionals from two psychosocial care centers (CAPS) in the city of Vitória, Espírito Santo, and with family members of frequenters of these institutions. After thematic analysis of content, senses, meanings and values assigned to the needs, supplies and demands present in this relationship were revealed. It highlighted the disparity between supply and demand and the lack of awareness of the needs of family members and their demands related to the routines of mental institutions. Using ethics in the philosophy of Spinoza as a benchmark, the ramifications of this process are discussed in the meetings between mental health professionals and family members of people with mental disorders and the micropolitics of the provision of care in the context of these actors.
Stefanovics, Elina A; He, Hongbo; Cavalcanti, Maria; Neto, Helio; Ofori-Atta, Angelo; Leddy, Meaghan; Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Rosenheck, Robert
This study examines the intercorrelation of measures reflecting beliefs about and attitudes toward people with mental illness in a sample of health professionals (N = 902) from five countries: Brazil, China, Ghana, Nigeria, and the United States, and, more specifically, the association of beliefs in supernatural as contrasted with biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Factor analysis of a 43-item questionnaire identified four factors favoring a) socializing with people with mental illness; b) normalizing their roles in society; c) belief in supernatural causes of mental illness (e.g., witchcraft, curses); and d) belief in biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Unexpectedly, a hypothesized negative association between belief in supernatural and biopsychosocial causation of mental illness was not found. Belief in the biopsychosocial causation was weakly associated with less stigmatized attitudes towards socializing and normalized roles.
Meyer, Deborah; Hamel-Lambert, Jane; Tice, Carolyn; Safran, Steven; Bolon, Douglas; Rose-Grippa, Kathleen
Faculty from 5 disciplines (health administration, nursing, psychology, social work, and special education) collaborated to develop and teach a distance-learning course designed to encourage undergraduate and graduate students to seek mental health services employment in rural areas and to provide the skills, experience, and knowledge necessary for successful rural practice. The primary objectives of the course, developed after thorough review of the rural retention and recruitment literature, were to (1) enhance interdisciplinary team skills, (2) employ technology as a tool for mental health practitioners, and (3) enhance student understanding of Appalachian culture and rural mental health. Didactic instruction emphasized Appalachian culture, rural mental health, teamwork and communication, professional ethics, and technology. Students were introduced to videoconferencing, asynchronous and synchronous communication, and Internet search tools. Working in teams of 3 or 4, students grappled with professional and cultural issues plus team process as they worked through a hypothetical case of a sexually abused youngster. The course required participants to engage in a nontraditional manner by immersing students in Web-based teams. Student evaluations suggested that teaching facts or "content" about rural mental health and Appalachian culture was much easier than the "process" of using new technologies or working in teams. Given that the delivery of mental health care demands collaboration and teamwork and that rural practice relies increasingly more on the use of technology, our experience suggests that more team-based, technology-driven courses are needed to better prepare students for clinical practice.
Tamminen, Nina; Solin, Pia; Stengård, Eija; Kannas, Lasse; Kettunen, Tarja
In this study, we aimed to investigate what competencies are needed for mental health promotion in health sector practice in Finland. A qualitative study was carried out to seek the views of mental health professionals regarding mental health promotion-related competencies. The data were collected via two focus groups and a questionnaire survey of professionals working in the health sector in Finland. The focus groups consisted of a total of 13 professionals. Further, 20 questionnaires were received from the questionnaire survey. The data were analysed using the qualitative data analysis software ATLAS.ti Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin. A content analysis was carried out. In total, 23 competencies were identified and clustered under the categories of theoretical knowledge, practical skills, and personal attitudes and values. In order to promote mental health, it is necessary to have a knowledge of the principles and concepts of mental health promotion, including methods and tools for effective practices. Furthermore, a variety of skills-based competencies such as communication and collaboration skills were described. Personal attitudes and values included a holistic approach and respect for human rights, among others. The study provides new information on what competencies are needed to plan, implement and evaluate mental health promotion in health sector practice, with the aim of contributing to a more effective workforce. The competencies provide aid in planning training programmes and qualifications, as well as job descriptions and roles in health sector workplaces related to mental health promotion.
This discussion aims to consider the value of training educational professionals in mental health competencies. Primary Mental Health Workers working in the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service have traditionally used a consultation model when working with schools. In this article I consider moving the emphasis away from consultancy work,…
Full Text Available To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance and adverse health behaviours (adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutrition behaviour among professional soccer players, and to explore their associations with potential stressors (severe injury, surgery, life events and career dissatisfaction. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among male professional players. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours as well as stressors, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players’ unions in 11 countries from three continents. Prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players ranged from 4% for smoking and 9% for adverse alcohol behaviour to 38% for anxiety/depression and 58% for adverse nutrition behaviour. Significant associations were found for a higher number of severe injuries with distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance and adverse alcohol behaviour, an increased number of life events with distress, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking, as well as an elevated level of career dissatisfaction with distress, anxiety/depression and adverse nutrition behaviour. Statistically significant correlations (p<0.01 were found for severe injuries and career dissatisfaction with most symptoms of common mental disorders. High prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours was found among professional players, confirming a previous pilot-study in a similar study population.
Puig, Ana; Baggs, Adrienne; Mixon, Kacy; Park, Yang Min; Kim, Bo Young; Lee, Sang Min
This study aimed to determine the nature of the relationship between job burnout and personal wellness among mental health professionals. The authors performed intercorrelations and multivariate multiple regression analyses to identify the relationship between subscales of job burnout and personal wellness. Results showed that all subscales of job…
Yang, Suyi; Meredith, Pamela; Khan, Asaduzzaman
High levels of stress and burnout have been reported among mental health professionals worldwide, including Singapore, with concerning potential implications for the quality of patient care. Mindfulness has been associated with decreased stress and burnout; however, associations between mindfulness, stress, and burnout have not been examined in Singapore. The aim of this study was to investigate whether mindfulness is associated with stress and burnout among healthcare professionals working in a mental health setting in Singapore. A total of 224 Singaporean mental health professionals completed a cross-sectional survey which included measures of: mindfulness (observe, describe, act with awareness, non-judge, and non-react), stress, and burnout (exhaustion and disengagement). Using multiple regression, significant negative associations were found between each of the mindfulness facets and: stress, exhaustion, and disengagement, while controlling for years of experience. Of the five mindfulness facets, act with awareness demonstrated the strongest negative association with all three variables. This study showed that mental health professionals in Singapore who have higher levels of mindfulness also have lower levels stress and burnout (disengagement and exhaustion). Future longitudinal research is warranted to better understand the directionality of these associations, with implications for the development of interventions aimed to reduce stress and burnout within this population.
Scott, Lionel D.; McCoy, Henrika; Munson, Michelle R.; Snowden, Lonnie R.; McMillen, J. Curtis
We examined cultural mistrust of mental health professionals among Black males who are transitioning from the foster care system (N = 74) and its relationship to their level of satisfaction with child welfare services and the frequency of negative social contextual experiences. Results of hierarchical regression analysis showed that the level of…
Moriarity, Marlene Therese
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to discover how coach training experts define coaching and what they would identify to be the essential components of a coach training program for mental health professionals. Methods. A panel of nine experts, through an iterative Delphi process of responding to three rounds of questionnaires, provided…
Walley, Cynthia; Grothaus, Tim; Craigen, Laurie
With the array of challenges facing today's youth, school counselors are in a unique position to recognize and respond to the diverse mental health needs of students. After a brief examination of the challenges and some promising responses, this article will consider the use of advocacy, collaboration, and professional development to aid school…
In the everyday bustle of high school life, a student can have wounds--physical or emotional--that often go unnoticed. A lot of issues affect adolescents of all backgrounds. Two particularly serious issues among U.S. high school students are suicide and self-injury. This article discusses what school mental health professionals can do about…
Reviews literature concerned with the contribution of mental health professionals to the well-being of children of divorce. Topics include effects of divorce on children, divorce prevention, predivorce counseling, custody conflicts, postdivorce counseling, and changes in social and educational practices. (Author/DB)
Miller, Matthew J.; Yang, Minji; Hui, Kayi; Choi, Na-Yeun; Lim, Robert H.
In the present study, we tested a theoretically and empirically derived partially indirect effects acculturation and enculturation model of Asian American college students' mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Latent variable path analysis with 296 self-identified Asian American college students supported the…
Doll, Beth; Doll, Carol
This resource shows librarians and mental health professionals how to use the power of books as therapy when working with children and young adults. After defining "bibliotherapy," the book considers what skills and competencies are needed to qualify an individual to be a bibliotherapist. It then explores how bibliotherapy can be used to meet the…
O'Callaghan, Dana M.; Chandler, Cynthia K.
This study implemented an exploratory analysis to examine how a sample of mental health professionals incorporates specific animal-assisted techniques into the therapeutic process. An extensive review of literature related to animal-assisted therapy (AAT) resulted in the identification of 18 techniques and 10 intentions for the practice of AAT in…
Kane, Michael N; Green, Diane L; Jacobs, Robin J
Pastoral care professionals are cognizant of many forms of prejudice and discrimination in society and health care environments. Ageism is perhaps the least likely to be challenged as prejudice or discrimination. Ageist perception is suspicious of the health and cognitive ability of older persons; without consideration of emotional, spiritual, or social abilities. While positive and negative ageist attributions are culturally abundant, new and subtle versions of ageism offer convincing guidance about personal responsibility for health status and insist on personal social engagement. Older persons who are not free of disease or disability may be viewed as culpable for their failure to age well. Additionally, elders may be expected to maintain social involvement; especially through volunteerism. Elders who are unable or unwilling to engage in volunteerism may be viewed as selfish or irresponsible. If individuals are held responsible for their health as they age, then services and reimbursement for service may be limited to evidence-based medical interventions that result in complete recovery rather than life-quality improvement and only for "worthy" individuals. This paper seeks to heighten the awareness of pastoral care professionals to common ageist themes found in health and mental care service delivery.
Hercelinskyj, Gylo; Cruickshank, Mary; Brown, Peter; Phillips, Brian
In the context of a growing population of people experiencing mental illness worldwide, mental health nurses are a crucial workforce. Their recruitment and retention, however, is in decline. Drawing on qualitative data obtained from interviews with mental health nurses (MHN) in Victoria, Australia, the paper employs a range of concepts from role theory to explore professional identity within mental health nursing. The data highlight three key issues in relation to the future recruitment and retention of MHN: (i) the ambiguity of the MHN role; (ii) the weak definition and lack of understanding of the scope of the MHN role by nursing students; and (iii) a lack of communication about MHN as a profession to a wider audience. These findings indicate three avenues through which recruitment and retention in mental health nursing could be improved: (i) public communication; (ii) training and educating of the next generation of MHN; and (iii) more accurately defining the role of the MHN. © 2012 The Authors; International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Wilson, Coralie J.; Deane, Frank P.
The current study examined the relationship between belief-based barriers to seeking professional mental health care and help-seeking intentions in a sample of 1037 adolescents. From early adolescence to adulthood, for males and females, the need for autonomy was a strong barrier to seeking professional mental health care. Help-seeking fears were…
Strand, Jennifer; Olin, Elisabeth; Tidefors, Inga
As a consequence of the deinstitutionalisation of mental health services, family members have become an important part of the care system. However, little is known about mental health professionals' perceptions of these family members. The aim of this study was to explore professionals' views of one particular group, the parents of patients with psychotic disorders. Because sensitive issues such as professionals' perceptions of parents can be difficult to capture via interviews or self-report instruments, we conducted participant observation of 20 multi-professional team meetings. The observations were carried out during 2011 at a psychiatric care unit specialised in working with patients with psychosis. Approximately 10 inpatients and outpatients were discussed in each team meeting. All conversations about the patients' parents were documented with field notes that were later analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Through the analysis, a complex and multi-faceted image emerged of parents as seen by mental health professionals. Some parents were described as a helpful resource, but others were thought to hinder treatment. Conflicts between staff members and parents were commonly due to their differing views on the treatment, particularly the medical treatment, of the patient. Other parents were described as causing the patient emotional pain and some parents were perceived as neglectful or abusive. These findings highlight the crucial role mental health professionals play in identifying families' particular needs and capacities to provide interventions that effectively address each specific situation. Professionals should also recognise families with adverse experiences and help parents fulfil their potential to become resources for their children with psychosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Burgess, Rochelle Ann
How do practitioners respond to the mental distress of HIV-affected women and communities? And do their understandings of patients' distress matter? The World Health Organization (WHO) along with advocates from the Movement for Global Mental Health (MGMH) champion a primary mental health care model to address burgeoning mental health needs in resource-poor HIV-affected settings. Whilst a minority of studies have begun to explore interventions to target this group of women, there is a dearth of studies that explore the broader contexts that will likely shape service outcomes, such as health sector dynamics and competing definitions of mental ill-health. This study reports on an in-depth case study of primary mental health services in a rural HIV-affected community in Northern KwaZulu-Natal. Health professionals identified as the frontline staff working within the primary mental health care model (n = 14) were interviewed. Grounded thematic analysis of interview data highlighted that practitioners employed a critical and socially anchored framework for understanding their patients' needs. Poverty, gender and family relationships were identified as intersecting factors driving HIV-affected patients' mental distress. In a divergence from existing evidence, practitioner efforts to act on their understandings of patient needs prioritized social responses over biomedical ones. To achieve this whilst working within a primary mental health care model, practitioners employed a series of modifications to services to increase their ability to target the sociostructural realities facing HIV-affected women with mental health issues. This article suggests that beyond attention to the crucial issues of funding and human resources that face primary mental health care, attention must also be paid to promoting the development of policies that provide practitioners with increased and more consistent opportunities to address the complex social realities that frame the mental distress
Lloyd, Keith; Cella, Matteo; Tanenblatt, Michael; Coden, Anni
The first step in practising Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) has been described as translating clinical uncertainty into a structured and focused clinical question that can be used to search the literature to ascertain or refute that uncertainty. In this study we focus on questions about treatments for schizophrenia posed by mental health professionals and patients to gain a deeper understanding about types of questions asked naturally, and whether they can be reformulated into structured and focused clinical questions. From a survey of uncertainties about the treatment of schizophrenia we describe, categorise and analyse the type of questions asked by mental health professionals and patients about treatment uncertainties for schizophrenia. We explore the value of mapping from an unstructured to a structured framework, test inter-rater reliability for this task, develop a linguistic taxonomy, and cross tabulate that taxonomy with elements of a well structured clinical question. Few of the 78 Patients and 161 clinicians spontaneously asked well structured queries about treatment uncertainties for schizophrenia. Uncertainties were most commonly about drug treatments (45.3% of clinicians and 41% of patients), psychological therapies (19.9% of clinicians and 9% of patients) or were unclassifiable.(11.8% of clinicians and 16.7% of patients). Few naturally asked questions could be classified using the well structured and focused clinical question format (i.e. PICO format). A simple linguistic taxonomy better described the types of questions people naturally ask. People do not spontaneously ask well structured clinical questions. Other taxonomies may better capture the nature of questions. However, access to EBM resources is greatly facilitated by framing enquiries in the language of EBM, such as posing queries in PICO format. People do not naturally do this. It may be preferable to identify a way of searching the literature that more closely matches the way people
van Dijk Frank JH
Full Text Available Abstract Background Employees in health care service are at high risk for developing mental health complaints. The effects of mental health complaints on work can have serious consequences for the quality of care provided by these workers. To help health service workers remain healthy and productive, preventive actions are necessary. A Workers' Health Surveillance (WHS mental module may be an effective strategy to monitor and promote good (mental health and work performance. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a three arm cluster randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of a WHS mental module for nurses and allied health professionals. Two strategies for this WHS mental module will be compared along with data from a control group. Additionally, the cost effectiveness of the approaches will be evaluated from a societal perspective. Methods The study is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial consisting of three arms (two intervention groups, 1 control group with randomization at ward level. The study population consists of 86 departments in one Dutch academic medical center with a total of 1731 nurses and allied health professionals. At baseline, after three months and after six months of follow-up, outcomes will be assessed by online questionnaires. In both intervention arms, participants will complete a screening to detect problems in mental health and work functioning and receive feedback on their screening results. In cases of impairments in mental health or work functioning in the first intervention arm, a consultation with an occupational physician will be offered. The second intervention arm offers a choice of self-help e-mental health interventions, which will be tailored based on each individual's mental health state and work functioning. The primary outcomes will be help-seeking behavior and work functioning. Secondary outcomes will be mental health and wellbeing. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness in
Devilly, Grant J; Wright, Renee; Varker, Tracey
The aim of the present study was to perform an assessment for secondary traumatic stress (STS), vicarious trauma (VT) and workplace burnout for Australian mental health professionals involved in clinical practice. Recruited directly by mail, randomly selected participants were invited to submit a questionnaire by post or online. Of the 480 participants contacted, 152 mental health professionals completed the questionnaire, which contained measures of STS, VT and burnout. Exposure to patients' traumatic material did not affect STS, VT or burnout, contradicting the theory of the originators of STS and VT. Rather, it was found that work-related stressors best predicted therapist distress. These findings have significant implications for the direction of research and theory development in traumatic stress studies, calling into question the existence of secondary trauma-related phenomena and enterprises aimed at treating the consultants.
Frechette, Julie; Pugnaire Gros, Catherine; B Brewer, Barbara; Kramer, Marlene; Lavigne, Geneviève; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie
Quality organizational structures and nursing practices are key to positive patient outcomes. Whereas structures have been largely studied over the past few decades, less is known of the nursing practices that account for patient outcomes, such as patient satisfaction. This is especially true in psychiatric, mental health care settings. The aim of the present study is to determine the relative importance of eight Essential Professional Nursing Practices (EPNPs) on the satisfaction of hospitalized patients on mental health care units. A cross-sectional design was selected; 226 point-of-care mental health nurses completed the online EPNP questionnaire in Spring 2015. Statistical analyses included MANOVAs and a 2-step linear regression. A significant relationship was found between university preparation and scores on two EPNP subscales: autonomous decision-making and practicing with competent nurses. Scores on patient advocacy and control over practice subscales were significantly related to nurse-rated patient satisfaction. The findings reinforce the positive link between university education and the work of nurses and highlight the power dynamics that are salient in mental health care. The pertinence of EPNPs in psychiatric settings is brought to the fore, with practices of patient advocacy and nurse control over care examined in relation to empowerment. Implications for clinical and administrative leaders are addressed, with a focus on strategies for empowering patients and nurses. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Priebe, Stefan; Fakhoury, Walid K H; Hoffmann, Karin; Powell, Richard A
Morale and job perception of staff in community mental health care may influence feasibility and quality of care, and some research has suggested particularly high burnout of staff in the community. The aims of this study were to: a) assess morale, i. e. team identity, job satisfaction and burnout, in psychiatrists, community psychiatric nurses and social workers in community mental health care in Berlin and London; b) compare findings between the groups and test whether personal characteristics, place of working and professional group predict morale; and c) explore what tasks, obstacles, skills, enjoyable and stressful aspects interviewees perceived as important in their jobs. In all, 189 mental health professionals (a minimum of 30 in each of the six groups) responded to a postal survey and reported activities per week using pre-formed categories. Perception of professional role was assessed on the Team Identity Scale, job satisfaction on the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Scale, and burnout on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Seven simple open questions were used to elicit the main tasks, skills that staff did and did not feel competent in, aspects that they did and did not enjoy in their job, and obstacles and factors that caused pressure. Answers were subjected to content analysis using a posteriori formed categories. Weekly activities and morale varied between sites and professional groups. Some mean scores for groups in London exceeded the threshold for a burnout syndrome, and are particularly less favourable for social workers. Working in London predicted higher burnout, lower job satisfaction and lower team identity. Being a psychiatrist predicted higher team identity, whilst being a social worker was associated with higher burnout and lower job satisfaction. Male gender predicted lower burnout and higher team identity. However, professional group and site interacted in predicting burnout and job satisfaction. Psychiatrists in London had much more favourable
Kamp, Annette; Dybbroe, Betina
healthcare. It is based on an ethnographic study of a Danish child psychiatric unit, which ‘produces’ diagnoses and treatment/therapy for children and their families. We illustrate how the enforcement of standardization upsets the balance between the humanistic and medical aspects of psychiatry...... as a discipline and field of practice, and show how this development challenges professional identities, interdisciplinary collaboration and hierarchical relations. The development is however negotiated, reformulated, and opposed, in teams of mental health professionals. In this context of increasing...
Gleide Santos de Araújo
Full Text Available The present study aims at investigating the profile of nursing professionals assisted by the multidisciplinary mental health team. This is a quantitative study with 385 records of workers who were attended the university medical service by a team of mental health from July 2009 to December 2010, the averages were calculated using the chi-square test and with level of significance of 5% (p<0.05. It was observed that nursing professionals had, in the average, lower age (47.5±9.7, more absences (5.15±3.29 and were more days away from work (191.8±168.5 compared to other categories, respectively (53.7±12.7, (2.18±2.8 and (138±163. The majority was diagnosed with affective and mood disorders (65% and they were prescribed controlled medicine (96.8%, the differences were statistically significant in relation to other professionals. Although younger, the nursing staff stayed away longer, more frequently and had more mental health problems
Clarke, Aleisha M; Chambers, Derek; Barry, Margaret M
The increasing role of online technologies in young people's lives has significant implications for professionals' engagement with technologies to promote youth mental health and well-being. However, relatively little is known about professionals' views on the role of technologies in supporting youth mental health. This article outlines key findings from a needs assessment survey carried out in Ireland that sought to determine the views of professionals working with young people on the use of online technologies in supporting young people's mental health and well-being. A total of 900 professionals from across the education, health, and mental health professions completed an online survey. The findings demonstrate the importance of the internet as a resource for professionals working with young people, with over 98% of those surveyed expressing a readiness to use online resources to support young people's mental health. The nature of preferred online technologies differed according to professional groupings, however, 63% of overall respondents indicated they would look for help on a dedicated mental health website. Guidelines on working with young people and their parents on the promotion of positive mental were requested with the most frequency. Among the barriers identified were concerns about access to reliable information that was relevant to specific professional roles, and the need for organizational support of professionals' use of online evidence-based resources. Concerns were also expressed that online resources could replace face-to-face support services for young people, and the need for training professionals in their appropriate use. The results highlight the potential role of technology in assisting professionals through the provision of online training, reliable information, and practical resources on the promotion of positive youth mental health.
Jaeger, Matthias; Ketteler, Daniel; Rabenschlag, Franziska; Theodoridou, Anastasia
This pilot study aimed at investigating how mental health professionals on acute psychiatric wards recognize different levels of formal and informal coercions and treatment pressures as well as their attitude towards these interventions. An explorative cross-sectional survey among mental health professionals (N=39) was conducted using a questionnaire that consisted of 15 vignettes describing typical clinical situations on five different stages of the continuum of coercion. Low levels of coercion are recognized adequately while higher levels are grossly underestimated. The degree of coercion inherent to interventions comprising persuasion and leverage was underestimated by professionals with a positive attitude and overestimated by those with a negative attitude towards the respective interventions. No associations of the ability to recognize different levels of coercion with ward or staff related variables were found. Higher knowledge on ambiguous variations of coercive interventions seems to foster more balanced reflections about their ethical implications. Advanced understanding of influencing factors of professionals׳ attitudes towards coercion could lead to improved training of professionals in utilizing interventions to enhance treatment adherence in an informed and ethical way. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Boyd, Jennifer E; Zeiss, Antonette; Reddy, Shilpa; Skinner, Stephanie
Anecdotal reports and first-person accounts by psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and nurses with lived experience of mental illness ("prosumers") indicate that they can be effective in these roles, but little is known about the extent, nature, or contributions of this group. Competently functioning prosumers are in a unique position to increase hope for recovery and reduce stigma and discrimination across the mental health field, to the ultimate benefit of consumers. The study surveyed a convenience sample of 77 prosumers working for the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). We present descriptive productivity metrics such as publications, presentations, funding, initiating and leading programs, training and supervising other clinicians, and performing community work outside VHA. Very few have asked for accommodations at work. Two thirds have not disclosed their lived experience to any of their patients. On average, respondents have disclosed to only 16% of their colleagues, and about one third have not disclosed to any of their colleagues. Qualitative data show that participants see their lived experience as an asset, whether or not they disclose it. They advocate being conscientious about self-care to remain work-ready. Although the group sees many advantages to being open about their lived experience, and many are proud to stand up and be counted, others cite reasons to be cautious about disclosure. It is hoped that this survey will provide inspiration and encouragement to mental health workers with lived experience and that it will help foster a welcoming and inclusive work environment for this capable group of colleagues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Lederman, Oscar; Grainger, Kristine; Stanton, Robert; Douglas, Angela; Gould, Kirrily; Perram, Amy; Baldeo, Rishi; Fokas, Theodora; Nauman, Fiona; Semaan, Amanda; Hewavasam, Jude; Pontin, Louise; Rosenbaum, Simon
The aim is to identify the role and scope of Accredited Exercise Physiologist (AEP) services in the mental health sector and to provide insight as to how AEPs can contribute to the multidisciplinary mental health team. A modified Delphi approach was utilised. Thirteen AEPs with experience in mental health contributed to the iterative development of a national consensus statement. Six mental health professionals with expertise in psychiatry, mental health nursing, general practice and mental health research participated in the review process. Reviewers were provided with a template to systematically provide feedback on the language, content, structure and relevance to their professional group. This consensus statement outlines how AEPs can contribute to the multidisciplinary mental health team, the aims and scope of AEP-led interventions in mental health services and examples of such interventions, the range of physical and mental health outcomes possible through AEP-led interventions and common referral pathways to community AEP services. AEPs can play a key role in the treatment of individuals experiencing mental illness. The diversity of AEP interventions allows for a holistic approach to care, enhancing both physical and mental health outcomes. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Selvaggi, Gennaro; Giordano, Simona
Recent literature has raised an important ethical concern relating to the way in which surgeons approach people with gender dysphoria (GD): it has been suggested that referring transsexual patients to mental assessment can constitute a form of unjust discrimination. The aim of this paper is to examine some of the ethical issues concerning the role of the mental health professional in gender reassignment surgeries (GRS). The role of the mental health professional in GRS is analyzed by presenting the Standards of Care by the World Professional Association of Transgender Health, and discussing the principles of autonomy and non-discrimination. Purposes of psychotherapy are exploring gender identity; addressing the negative impact of GD on mental health; alleviating internalized transphobia; enhancing social and peer support; improving body image; promoting resilience; and assisting the surgeons with the preparation prior to the surgery and the patient's follow-up. Offering or requesting psychological assistance is in no way a form of negative discrimination or an attack to the patient's autonomy. Contrarily, it might improve transsexual patients' care, and thus at the most may represent a form of positive discrimination. To treat people as equal does not mean that they should be treated in the same way, but with the same concern and respect, so that their unique needs and goals can be achieved. Offering or requesting psychological assistance to individuals with GD is a form of responsible care, and not unjust discrimination. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
Markon, Marie-Pierre; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Chiocchio, François; Fleury, Marie-Josée
The worldwide burden of mental disorders is considerable, and on the rise, putting pressure on health care systems. Current reforms aim to improve the efficiency of mental health care systems by increasing service integration in communities and strengthening primary mental health care. In this context, mental health care professionals (MHPs) are increasingly required to work on interdisciplinary teams in a variety of settings. Little is known, however, about the profiles of MHPs in relation to their perceived work role performance. MHPs in Quebec (N = 315) from four local service networks completed a self-administered questionnaire eliciting information on individual and team characteristics, as well as team processes and states. Profiles of MHPs were created using a two-step cluster analysis. Five profiles were generated. MHPs belonging to profiles labelled senior medical outpatient specialized care MHPs and senior psychosocial outpatient specialized care MHPs perceived themselves as more performing than MHPs in other profiles. The profile labelled low-collaborators was significantly less performing than all other groups. Two other profiles were identified, positioned between the aforementioned groups in terms of the perceived performance of MHPs: the junior primary care MHPs and the diversified specialized care MHPs. Seniority within the team, delivering specialized type of care, and positive team processes were all features associated with profiles where perceived work performance was high. Overall, this study supports the case for initiatives aimed at improving stability and interdisciplinary collaboration in health teams, especially in primary care.
Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Calvert, Sarah J; Orlinsky, David E; Rooke, Sally; Ronan, Kevin; Merrick, Paul
Psychiatrists (n=26) and mental health nurses (n=18) engaged in the practice of psychotherapy were surveyed regarding their perceptions and engagement in professional development activities. Collaborative Research Network's (CRN) methodology was followed, and comparisons with CRN samples from Canada and the United States of America (USA) were undertaken. New Zealand psychiatrists reported perceived development across their careers, but their ratings were lower than those of nurses. Both professional groups rated their overall development lower their Canadian counterparts. However, New Zealand nurses reported more involvement in supervision than psychiatrists, and both groups reported rates that exceeded those reported in Canadian and USA samples. New Zealand subgroups reported low involvement in personal therapy in comparison to overseas samples. Supervision and personal therapy were highly regarded by New Zealand practitioners, but didactic training was rated as less important. New Zealand mental health professionals reported attainment of therapeutic mastery and skill acquisition. New Zealand psychiatrists reported less involvement in case supervision, but rated supervision as having the greatest influence to their development. The results highlight areas of need for continuing professional development for these professions.
Marriage, Amanda Lynn
This study reviewed how Neuro Emotional Technique (NET) is used in psychotherapeutic practice, and how it is understood and experienced by the practitioners who use it. Participants included 18 mental health professionals who have obtained the certification-level of training in NET and have incorporated NET into their professional practice. A qualitative method was used to explore NET providers' experiences through an online survey. Data from these surveys was analyzed using the constant comparative method. Six categories containing 18 themes emerged as a result of this analysis. These categories included: (1) practitioners currently employing NET; (2) technique utilization; (3) participant estimation of the efficacy of NET; (4) talking about NET; (5) clients most likely to benefit from NET; and (6) clients least likely to benefit from NET. The 18 themes that emerged within these categories represent important components of the integration of NET into psychological treatment. These themes were compared with existing literature to serve as valuable information for psychologists and other mental health professionals seeking to incorporate NET into their professional practices. This study helps to fill the current void in the area of research on NET as a psychological intervention, or more specifically, as a holistic mind-body approach to self-betterment and the amelioration of symptoms for humans who are healing from a broad spectrum of traumatic and stressful experiences.
Peterson, Brennan; Boivin, Jacky; Norré, Jan; Smith, Cassandra; Thorn, Petra; Wischmann, Tewes
The practice of infertility counseling delivered by mental health and medical professionals has become more sophisticated and widespread over the past decade. This paper summarizes information presented at the second campus workshop of the Special Interest Group of Psychology and Counseling of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE). This group is dedicated to improving infertility services by creating meaningful connections between mental health and medical professionals. The paper identifies key issues that infertility counselors must consider in their work with couples experiencing infertility. The use of supportive psychosocial interventions and treatments are highlighted. The paper also details the process for choosing the most appropriate type of infertility counseling, and the use of assessment tools that assist in understanding infertility related symptoms. Infertility counselors should also consider gender differences, the impact of infertility on a couple's sexual relationship,and the unique challenges couples face regarding third-party conception. Finally, the paper addresses specific recommendations for infertility counselors in mental health and medical settings.
Pek, Elaine; Subramaniam, Mythily; Vaingankar, Janhavi; Chan, Yiong Huak; Mahendran, Rathi
Mental health professionals can contribute to generating a strong evidence base for policy and practice in psychiatry. An insight into their perception of psychiatric research is important for planning support strategies. This study explored healthcare professionals' perceptions of barriers, benefits and concerns about psychiatric research in a Singapore psychiatric hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was employed to collect socio-demographic data and opinions on research. Likert scale was used for the responses and descriptive statistics and ordinal regression were used for data analysing. 93.8% respondents perceived "contribution to medical knowledge/public health" to be a major benefit of conducting research. 86.7% respondents felt that "learning experience" was important. "Prestige/publication" (52.7%) and "financial gain" (76%) were perceived to be unimportant. "Clinical load of patients", "lack of skilled personnel to assist in research" and "insufficient funding" were identified as important barriers by 72.4%, 70.6% and 68.9% respondents. "Time constraints", "patient and family readiness to research participation", "insufficient training" and "concerns about patient welfare" are major concerns while conducting research. To the study team's best knowledge, this is the only study of mental health professionals' perceptions on psychiatric research. It is useful for strategising research planning and enhancing the research culture in the hospital.
Full Text Available This article points out how recent public sector reforms under headings as New Public Management, Lean and Quality Reforms entail different forms for standardization, and examines how this development instigates a transformation of interdisciplinary and highly skilled emotional labor in mental healthcare. It is based on an ethnographic study of a Danish child psychiatric unit, which ‘produces’ diagnoses and treatment/therapy for children and their families. We illustrate how the enforcement of standardization upsets the balance between the humanistic and medical aspects of psychiatry as a discipline and field of practice, and show how this development challenges professional identities, interdisciplinary collaboration and hierarchical relations. The development is however negotiated, reformulated, and opposed, in teams of mental health professionals. In this context of increasing standardization, highly skilled emotional labor unfolds. We point out how acceleration and leaning of work procedures increases the emotional labor in relation to clients, partners, and colleagues. But paradoxically, at the same time, emotional labor becomes still more invisible as it is excluded from the standardized schemes. The study illustrates the crucial role of emotional labor in mental care work and points out how it is left to the professionals to negotiate paradoxes and make ends meet.
Yanchus, N J; Periard, D; Osatuke, K
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: When mental health professionals leave organizations, detrimental effects on quality of patient care occur. Reasons for leaving include incivility, lack of autonomy, perceptions of unfair treatment and feeling psychologically unsafe at work. This paper sought to investigate additional reasons why mental health professionals intend to quit or to cognitively withdraw from their jobs. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Past research on this topic is limited in its scope and data. Mainly fragmented evidence is available about predictors of job satisfaction and turnover intention (i.e. different mental health occupations examined in separate studies). Only two existing studies that examined broader mental health provider groups were limited by including few workforce settings, small sample sizes and insufficiently rigorous statistical analyses. We examined four occupations (mental health nurses, social workers, psychologists and psychiatrists), each represented through a large sample in multiple settings, all within one large healthcare network with complex patients. Our contribution is finding additional predictors (supervisory support, emotional exhaustion) of job satisfaction/turnover intention. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Organizations can consider using culture change initiatives to increase civility at work; this includes leadership support and role modelling of workplace behaviours. Leaders should monitor staffing levels and high workloads to pre-empt emotional exhaustion, which predicts turnover. Hiring and training supervisors should involve not only technical expertise, but also 'soft skills' necessary for creating civil and supportive work environments. Leaders and managers should use employee feedback data (e.g. organizational surveys) to learn about the workplace environments, and address areas of employees' concern. Introduction Given the global shortage of mental health professionals, high turnover
Hean, Sarah; Heaslip, Vanessa; Warr, Jerry; Staddon, Sue
Effective screening of mentally-ill defendants in the criminal court system requires cooperation between legal professionals in the criminal justice system (CJS), and health and social care workers in the mental-health service (MHS). This interagency working, though, can be problematic, as recognized in the Bradley inquiry that recommended joint training for MHS and CJS professionals. The aim of this study was to examine the experiences and attitudes of workers in the CJS and MHS to inform the development of relevant training. The method was a survey of mental-health workers and legal professionals in the court. The results showed that both agencies were uncertain of their ability to work with the other and there is little training that supports them in this. Both recognized the importance of mentally-ill defendants being dealt with appropriately in court proceedings but acknowledged this is not achieved. There is a shared willingness to sympathize with defendants and a common lack of willingness to give a definite, unqualified response on the relationship between culpability, mental-illness and punishment. Views differ around defendants' threat to security.Findings suggest there is scope to develop interprofessional training programs between the CJS and MHS to improve interagency working and eventually impact on the quality of defendants' lives. Recommendations are made on the type of joint training that could be provided.
Waugh, William; Lethem, Claudia; Sherring, Simon; Henderson, Claire
The literature suggests that many health professionals hold stigmatising attitudes towards those with mental illness and that this impacts on patient care. Little attention has been given to how these attitudes affect colleagues with a mental illness. Current research demonstrates that stigma and discrimination are common in the UK workplace and impact on one's decision to disclose mental illness. This study aims to explore health professionals' experiences of and attitudes towards mental illness and disclosure in the workplace. This qualitative study involved semi-structured interviews with 24 health professionals employed by an NHS (National Health Service) trust. 13 of these worked in mental health, and 11 in other health fields. Interviews were transcribed and thematic analysis was used to identify themes. Five key themes were identified from the data: personal experiences and their effect in changing attitudes; perceived stigmatising views of mental illness in other staff members; hypothetical disclosure: factors affecting one's decision; attitudes towards disclosure; support in the workplace after disclosure; and, applying only to those working outside of the mental health field, mental illness is not talked about. The results indicated that participants had a great deal of experience with colleagues with a mental illness and that support in the workplace for such illnesses is variable. Attitudes of participating health professionals towards colleagues with a mental illness appeared to be positive, however, they did report that other colleagues held negative attitudes. Deciding to disclose a mental illness was a carefully thought out decision with a number of advantages and disadvantages noted. In particular, it was found that health professionals' fear stigma and discrimination from colleagues and that this would dissuade participants from disclosing a mental illness. In many respects, this research supports the findings in other workplaces. Such findings
Smithson, Janet; Jones, Ray B; Ashurst, Emily
There is increasing interest in online collaborative learning tools in health education, to reduce costs, and to offer alternative communication opportunities. Patients and students often have extensive experience of using the Internet for health information and support, and many health organisations are increasingly trying out online tools, while many healthcare professionals are unused to, and have reservations about, online interaction. We ran three week-long collaborative learning courses, in which 19 mental health professionals (MHPs) and 12 mental health service users (MHSUs) participated. Data were analysed using a discursive approach to consider the ways in which participants interacted, and how this contributed to the goal of online learning about using Internet technologies for mental health practice. MHSUs and MHPs were able to discuss issues together, listening to the views of the other stakeholders. Discussions on synchronous format encouraged participation by service users while the MHPs showed a preference for an asynchronous format with longer, reasoned postings. Although participants regularly drew on their MHP or MHSU status in discussions, and participants typically drew on either a medical expert discourse or a "lived experience" discourse, there was a blurred boundary as participants shifted between these positions. The anonymous format was successful in that it produced a "co-constructed asymmetry" which permitted the MHPs and MHSUs to discuss issues online, listening to the views of other stakeholders. Although anonymity was essential for this course to 'work' at all, the recourse to expert or lay discourses demonstrates that it did not eliminate the hierarchies between teacher and learner, or MHP and MHSU. The mix of synchronous and asynchronous formats helped MHSUs to contribute. Moderators might best facilitate service user experience by responding within an experiential discourse rather than an academic one.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in online collaborative learning tools in health education, to reduce costs, and to offer alternative communication opportunities. Patients and students often have extensive experience of using the Internet for health information and support, and many health organisations are increasingly trying out online tools, while many healthcare professionals are unused to, and have reservations about, online interaction. Methods We ran three week-long collaborative learning courses, in which 19 mental health professionals (MHPs and 12 mental health service users (MHSUs participated. Data were analysed using a discursive approach to consider the ways in which participants interacted, and how this contributed to the goal of online learning about using Internet technologies for mental health practice. Results MHSUs and MHPs were able to discuss issues together, listening to the views of the other stakeholders. Discussions on synchronous format encouraged participation by service users while the MHPs showed a preference for an asynchronous format with longer, reasoned postings. Although participants regularly drew on their MHP or MHSU status in discussions, and participants typically drew on either a medical expert discourse or a "lived experience" discourse, there was a blurred boundary as participants shifted between these positions. Conclusions The anonymous format was successful in that it produced a "co-constructed asymmetry" which permitted the MHPs and MHSUs to discuss issues online, listening to the views of other stakeholders. Although anonymity was essential for this course to 'work' at all, the recourse to expert or lay discourses demonstrates that it did not eliminate the hierarchies between teacher and learner, or MHP and MHSU. The mix of synchronous and asynchronous formats helped MHSUs to contribute. Moderators might best facilitate service user experience by responding within an experiential
Deans, C; Soar, R
This paper identifies and describes the experiences of 13 rural mental health professionals who care for clients diagnosed with a mental illness and a coexisting alcohol and other drug disorder (dual diagnosis). Dual diagnosis is a common problem which is often poorly understood and managed by mental health professionals. The effect of excessive substance use on a person's mental well-being can present as a diagnostic challenge as each condition may mask symptoms of the other. The authors utilized a phenomenological approach to discover the experiences of a group of mental health professionals working in rural communities in Victoria, Australia. Caring for clients diagnosed with dual diagnosis was found to be a complex and stressful role that involved high levels of skill and knowledge. Despite the fact that health professionals in rural areas are expected to deliver the most appropriate care to individuals with a dual diagnosis, a number of these rural health professionals have limited preparation and experience in dealing with arising clinical diagnosis issues. Clinicians experience frustration, resentment and powerlessness in their attempt to understand their clients' drug misuse whilst simultaneously endeavouring to provide a quality mental health service.
Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Kerker, Bonnie D.; Szilagyi, Moira; Garner, Andrew S.; O’Connor, Karen G.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Green, Cori M.; Foy, Jane M.; Stein, Ruth E.K.
Objective The objectives were to: assess the availability of on-site mental health professionals (MHP) in primary care; examine practice/pediatrician characteristics associated with on-site MHPs; and determine whether presence of on-site MHPs is related to pediatricians’ co-managing or more frequently identifying, treat/managing or referring MH problems. Methods Analyses included AAP members who participated in an AAP Periodic Survey in 2013 and who practiced general pediatrics (N=321). Measures included socio-demographics, practice characteristics, questions on about on-site MHPs, co-management of MH problems and pediatricians’ behaviors in response to 5 prevalent MH problems. Weighted univariate, bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed. Results Thirty-five percent reported on-site MHPs. Practice characteristics (medical schools/universities/HMOs, pediatricians usually identified, treat/managed or referred 5 common child MH problems. Among the subset of pediatricians who reported co-managing there was an association with co-management when the on-site MHP was a child psychiatrist, SA counselor, or social worker. Conclusions On-site MHPs are more frequent in settings where low-income children are served and where pediatricians train. Pediatricians who co-manage MH problems are more likely to do so when the on-site MHP is a child psychiatrist, SA counselor, or social worker. Overall, on-site MHPs were not associated with co-management or increased likelihood of pediatricians identifying, treating/managing, or referring children with 5 common child MH problems. PMID:27064141
Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Chiocchio, François
Using a structural analysis, this study examines the relationship between job satisfaction among 315 mental health professionals from the province of Quebec (Canada) and a wide range of variables related to provider characteristics, team characteristics, processes, and emergent states, and organizational culture. We used the Job Satisfaction Survey to assess job satisfaction. Our conceptual framework integrated numerous independent variables adapted from the input-mediator-output-input (IMOI) model and the Integrated Team Effectiveness Model (ITEM). The structural equation model predicted 47% of the variance of job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was associated with eight variables: strong team support, participation in the decision-making process, closer collaboration, fewer conflicts among team members, modest knowledge production (team processes), firm affective commitment, multifocal identification (emergent states) and belonging to the nursing profession (provider characteristics). Team climate had an impact on six job satisfaction variables (team support, knowledge production, conflicts, affective commitment, collaboration, and multifocal identification). Results show that team processes and emergent states were mediators between job satisfaction and team climate. To increase job satisfaction among professionals, health managers need to pursue strategies that foster a positive climate within mental health teams.
Pileño, María Elena; Morillo, Javier; Morillo, Andrea; Losa-Iglesias, Marta
Health care institutions include workers who must operate in accordance with the requirements of the position, even though there are psychosocial influences that can affect the stability of the worker. To analyze the organizational culture of the team of professionals who work in the mental health network. A qualitative methodology was used to assess a sample of 55 mental health professionals who have been practicing for at least 5years. "Team" was the overall topic. The subtopics within "Team" were: getting along in the unit, getting along with the patient, personal resources for dealing with patients, adaptive resources of team members and, resources that the team uses in their group activities. It was observed that the team does not work with a common objective and needs an accepted leader to manage the group. The definition and acceptance of roles can result in conflict. By increasing the skill level of each worker, the multidisciplinary team would be more collaborative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Askell-Williams, Helen; Murray-Harvey, Rosalind
New policy initiatives, such as those concerned with promoting young children's positive mental health, highlight the need for good quality professional education in the early childhood education and care sector. However, although a wealth of literature exists from the school sector, little is known about professional education in early childhood…
Kollias, C; Kontaxakis, V; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Simmons, M B; Stefanis, N; Papageorgiou, C
There is increasing interest within the Greek psychiatric community in the early detection and prevention of psychotic disorders. To support this, there is a need for a valid and reliable tool to identify young people that may be at risk of developing a psychotic disorder. Our team has previously translated the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS). The validity of the CAARMS was ensured by the procedure of translation and the aim of the current study was to estimate the interrater reliability of the CAARMS Greek translation among residents in psychiatry and specialized mental health professionals. 43 mental health workers (27 residents in psychiatry and 16 specialized mental health professionals (i.e. 11 psychiatrists and 5 psychologist) participated in two seminars that covered theoretical information about the ultra high risk concept and training in the CAARMS. During the seminars, 10 vignettes with psychiatric history cases were presented, including healthy, ultra high risk and first episode psychosis. The mean correlated percentage of agreement with the correct answers regarding diagnosis of the presented history cases among all our subjects was 81.42, among specialized mental health professionals 77.88, and among residents 84.46. Intraclass correlation co-efficients were 0.994 for specialized mental health professionals and 0.997 for residents. The translated Greek version of CAARMS presents a satisfying interrater reliability when used by both residents and specialized mental health professionals. Residents declare even higher intraclass correlation co-efficients and mean correlated percentage of agreement than specialized mental health professionals, which indicate that residents are capable of using the CAARMS in early intervention units.
Research demonstrates that addressing mental health issues in children can yield both increased academic performance and better social-emotional skills. In the past, school-based mental health services for students have been implemented inconsistently and usually in combination with community partners. When school mental health interventions are…
Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...
Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Tehrani, Hedieh; Lin, Elizabeth; Lieff, Susan; Harris, Ilene; Soklaridis, Sophie
To explore the perspectives of leaders in psychiatry and continuing professional development (CPD) regarding the relationship, opportunities, and challenges in integrating quality improvement (QI) and CPD. In 2013-2014, the authors interviewed 18 participants in Canada: 10 psychiatrists-in-chief, 6 CPD leaders in psychiatry, and 2 individuals with experience integrating these domains in psychiatry who were identified through snowball sampling. Questions were designed to identify participants' perspectives about the definition, relationship, and integration of QI and CPD in psychiatry. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. An iterative, inductive method was used to thematically analyze the transcripts. To ensure the rigor of the analysis, the authors performed member checking and sampling until theoretical saturation was achieved. Participants defined QI as a concept measured at the individual, hospital, and health care system levels and CPD as a concept measured predominantly at the individual and hospital levels. Four themes related to the relationship between QI and CPD were identified: challenges with QI training, adoption of QI into the mental health care system, implementation of QI in CPD, and practice improvement outcomes. Despite participants describing QI and CPD as mutually beneficial, they expressed uncertainty about the appropriateness of aligning these domains within a mental health care context because of the identified challenges. This study identified challenges with aligning QI and CPD in psychiatry and yielded a framework to inform future integration efforts. Further research is needed to determine the generalizability of this framework to other specialties and health care professions.
Obando Medina, Claudia; Kullgren, Gunnar; Dahlblom, Kjerstin
BACKGROUND: Mental health problems among young peoples are a growing public health issue around the world. In low- income countries health systems are characterized by lack of facilities, human resources and primary health care is rarely an integrated part of overall health care services. This study aims at exploring how primary health care professionals in Nicaragua perceive young people's mental health problems, suicidal problems and help-seeking behaviour. METHODS: Twelve in-depth intervie...
Athié, Karen; Menezes, Alice Lopes do Amaral; da Silva, Angela Machado; Campos, Monica; Delgado, Pedro Gabriel; Fortes, Sandra; Dowrick, Christopher
Community-based primary mental health care is recommended in low and middle-income countries. The Brazilian Health System has been restructuring primary care by expanding its Family Health Strategy. Due to mental health problems, psychosocial vulnerability and accessibility, Matrix Support teams are being set up to broaden the professional scope of primary care. This paper aims to analyse the perceptions of health professionals and managers about the integration of primary care and mental health. In this mixed-method study 18 health managers and 24 professionals were interviewed from different primary and mental health care services in Rio de Janeiro. A semi-structured survey was conducted with 185 closed questions ranging from 1 to 5 and one open-ended question, to evaluate: access, gateway, trust, family focus, primary mental health interventions, mental health records, mental health problems, team collaboration, integration with community resources and primary mental health education. Two comparisons were made: health managers and professionals' (Mann-Whitney non-parametric test) and health managers' perceptions (Kruskall-Wallis non parametric-test) in 4 service designs (General Traditional Outpatients, Mental Health Specialised Outpatients, Psychosocial Community Centre and Family Health Strategy)(SPSS version 17.0). Qualitative data were subjected to Framework Analysis. Firstly, health managers and professionals' perceptions converged in all components, except the health record system. Secondly, managers' perceptions in traditional services contrasted with managers' perceptions in community-based services in components such as mental health interventions and team collaboration, and converged in gateway, trust, record system and primary mental health education. Qualitative data revealed an acceptance of mental health and primary care integration, but a lack of communication between institutions. The Mixed Method demonstrated that interviewees consider mental
Hanafiah, Ainul Nadhirah; Van, Bortel Tine
Background Stigma of mental illness has been identified as a significant barrier to help-seeking and care. Basic knowledge of mental illness - such as its nature, symptoms and impact - are neglected, leaving room for misunderstandings on mental health and ?stigma?. Numerous researches have been conducted on stigma and discrimination of people with mental disorders. However, most of the literature investigates stigma from a cultural conception point of view, experiences of patients or public a...
Karman, Pieter; Kool, Nienke; Gamel, Claudia; van Meijel, Berno
Nurses experience feelings of frustration, anger and fear when caring for patients who self-harm. Training programmes were developed that aimed to positively influence nurses' knowledge, attitudes and skills. The aim of this study was to investigate professional behavior of mental health nurses with positively changed attitudes after following a training program. Using grounded theory, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 mental health nurses. Participants reported using less restrictive interventions, being more patient oriented, and choosing a more empathic and exploratory approach after the training. A work environment conductive to making autonomous professional decisions with supportive colleagues enabled these changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ellegaard, Trine; Mehlsen, Mimi; Lomborg, Kirsten; Bliksted, Vibeke
In a patient-controlled admission (PCA) programme, the decision about hospital admission is made solely by the patient, with no gatekeeper function allocated to the mental health professionals (MHPs). Current knowledge about how MHPs experience and evaluate PCA is sparse. This Danish multi-centre study examined the MHP assessment of the PCA programme in daily clinical practice, and compared PCA evaluations made by MHPs and patients. A questionnaire was developed and a survey conducted over the course of a year at all Danish mental health units included in the PCA programme. MHPs made an overall evaluation of the PCA programme. At each unique PCA, both patient and MHP evaluated the specific admission when the patient entered the unit and at discharge. In total, 546 questionnaires were included in the survey, based on 252 unique MHPs. The MHPs rated the PCA programme positively. The MHPs believed that PCA helped patients receive early help and avoid long admissions. Overall, agreement was poor when comparing patients' and MHPs' evaluation of the same PCA. MHPs (and patients) seem to be in favour of implementing the PCA programme. However, results revealed that MHPs and patients have different views of what caused the patient to admit themselves and why patients were discharged. MHPs should be aware that patients might have other reasons for admitting and discharging themselves than what seems most obvious to the MHP.
Urbanization in developing countries involves changes in social support and life events which have been shown to affect mental health; mainly depression and anxiety, particularly among low income women. Although depressive and anxiety disorders have a high prevalence and account for a large proportion of visits to primary health services there is little international health research in this field. The determinants, extent and outcome of the association between urbanization and mental health requires multi-disciplinary research by social scientists, social psychiatrists and public health professionals. An appreciation of different conceptual models and associated methods is required before effective research can begin. Other issues such as the avoidance of environmental determinism; the separation of macro-social and micro-social variables; the weakness of urban/rural comparisons of mental health; the role of rural to urban migration; the debates about cross-cultural psychiatry; and the policy-relevance of research, all need consideration in the development of research into this rapidly emerging, but relatively neglected problem.
Gras, Laura M.; Swart, Marte; Slooff, Cees J.; van Weeghel, Jaap; Knegtering, Henderikus; Castelein, Stynke
This study compares stigmatizing attitudes of different healthcare professionals towards psychiatry and patients with mental health problems. The Mental Illness Clinicians Attitude (MICA) questionnaire is used to assess stigmatizing attitudes in three groups: general practitioners (GPs, n = 55),
Gras, L.M.; Swart, M.; Slooff, C.; van Weeghel, J.; Knegtering, H.; Castelein, S.
Purpose This study compares stigmatizing attitudes of different healthcare professionals towards psychiatry and patients with mental health problems. Methods The Mental Illness Clinicians Attitude (MICA) questionnaire is used to assess stigmatizing attitudes in three groups: general practitioners
Methley, Abigail; Campbell, Stephen; Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh; Chew-Graham, Carolyn
To explore perspectives and experiences of people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and health care professionals of mental health support for MS in the UK. 24 people with MS, 13 practice nurses, 12 general practitioners (GPs) and 9 MS specialist nurses were recruited through community groups and primary care practices across North West England. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, and data analyzed thematically using constant comparative analysis within and across the data sets. The theoretical framework of candidacy was used to interrogate data. Four themes were identified: candidates for care, management choices, defining roles, and permeability and responsiveness. Candidacy for care, and symptom management, depended on the framing of symptoms through a social or medical model of depression. Normalizing symptoms could prevent help-seeking by patients. Reported referral behavior varied by professional group, based on perceived remit, competency and training needs. GPs were perceived by patients and other professionals as central for management of mental health needs in MS, but may not perceive this role themselves, suggesting a need for increased knowledge, training, and improved access to specialist care. Implications for Rehabilitation Anxiety and depression are common in people with MS. Management of mental health needs in people with MS relies on complex decisions made by both people with MS and health care professionals. General practitioners may play a key role in the ongoing management of mental health needs of people with MS.
Essential learning tools for continuing medical education for physicians, geneticists, nurses, allied health professionals, mental health professionals, business administration professionals, and reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) fellows: the Midwest Reproductive Symposium International.
Collins, Gretchen G; Jeelani, Roohi; Beltsos, Angeline; Kearns, William G
Essential learning tools for continuing medical education are a challenge in today's rapidly evolving field of reproductive medicine. The Midwest Reproductive Symposium International (MRSi) is a yearly conference held in Chicago, IL. The conference is targeted toward physicians, geneticists, nurses, allied health professionals, mental health professionals, business administration professionals, and reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) fellows engaged in the practice of reproductive medicine. In addition to the scientific conference agenda, there are specific sessions for nurses, mental health professionals, and REI fellows. Unique to the MRSi conference, there is also a separate "Business Minds" session to provide education on business acumen as it is an important element to running a department, division, or private clinic.
Weise, Janelle; Fisher, Karen R; Trollor, Julian N
Generalist mental health professionals are inadequately equipped to meet the rights of people with intellectual disability. A better understanding of the attributes of effective professionals may assist in the development of workforce capacity in this area. Twenty-eight family/support persons of people with intellectual disability participated in four focus groups. Thematic analysis was undertaken applying the Intellectual Disability Mental Health Core Competencies Framework. Participants described attributes that aligned with current professional expectations such as working together and new attributes such as differentiating between behaviour and mental health. An unexpected finding was the need for professionals to be able to infer meaning by interpreting multiple sources of information. Participants also wanted professionals to acknowledge their professional limitations and seek professional support. Family/support persons identified a range of attributes of effective mental health professionals to support people with intellectual disability. Further research is necessary, particularly from the perspective of people with intellectual disability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fuss, Johannes; Briken, Peer; Klein, Verena
The psychiatric classification of "normal" versus disordered sexual behavior has been a subject of some dispute. Although atypical sexual interests have been viewed traditionally as typically male, epidemiological data indicate its presence in both genders. We examined how gender and sexual orientation influence whether or not atypical sexual behavior is classified as a mental disorder. Mental health professionals (N = 546) were presented with five case vignettes where subjects exhibit paraphilic behaviors; one case with psychotic symptoms served as the control condition. For each vignette we randomly changed the described subject's gender (male/female), sexual orientation (homosexual/heterosexual), and presented diagnostic criteria (fulfilled/ambiguous). Female subjects were significantly less pathologized and overall more stigmatized in terms of exhibitionistic, frotteuristic, sexual sadistic and pedophilic behavior. On the other hand, female sexual behavior that fulfilled diagnostic criteria for masochistic disorder was more pathologized. Our results demonstrate that nosologically irrelevant factors, which may be related to different sexual norms for men and women, affect clinicians' decisions regarding atypical sexuality.
Arons, Judith; Epstein, Ann; Sklan, Susan
The Infant Parent Training Institute (IPTI) at Jewish Family and Children's Service of Greater Boston offers integrated clinical and theoretical infant mental health training. The curriculum reflects the belief that nurturing and reflective relationships promote optimal learning and growth. A specialty in infant mental health requires knowledge…
PACER Center, 2004
In the fall of 2003, PACER Center's Parent Partnership Project for Children's Mental Health conducted a survey to better understand what parents and families need from the children?s mental health system in Minnesota. The research team developed a survey questionnaire, a telephone interview, and a focus group session directed at learning what was…
Virmani, Elita Farine Amini
The goal of this study was to examine the effect of early childhood mental health consultation on teacher sensitivity over time, taking into account specific characteristics of early childhood mental health consultation that contribute to change in teacher sensitivity. One-hundred and forty-one early childhood teachers, serving economically…
Blake, Jamilia; Banks, Courtney S.; Patience, Brenda A.; Lund, Emily M.
A sample of 483 school-based mental health professionals completed a survey about the training they have received related to conducting bullying assessments in schools, competence in conducting an assessment of bullying, and the bullying assessment methods they used. Results indicate that school counselors were usually informed about incidents of…
Karman, P.; Kool, N.; Gamel, C.; van Meijel, B.
Nurses experience feelings of frustration, anger and fear when caring for patients who self-harm. Training programmes were developed that aimed to positively influence nurses' knowledge, attitudes and skills. The aim of this study was to investigate professional behavior of mental health nurses with
Cunningham, Charles E.; Deal, Ken; Rimas, Heather; Chen, Yvonne; Buchanan, Don H.; Sdao-Jarvie, Kathie
We used discrete choice conjoint analysis to model the ways 645 children's mental health (CMH) professionals preferred to provide information to parents seeking CMH services. Participants completed 20 choice tasks presenting experimentally varied combinations of the study's 14 4-level CMH information transfer attributes. Latent class analysis…
Ganley, Anne L.
The purpose of this manual is to provide a written tool for those participating in a 3-day workshop designed to train mental health professionals from diverse settings and communities to counsel court-mandated batterers. The manual consists of: (1) an outline of the workshop; (2) an introduction; (3) six chapters/sections; (4) notes; and (5) three…
Clarke, Aleisha M.; Chambers, Derek; Barry, Margaret M.
The increasing role of online technologies in young people's lives has significant implications for professionals' engagement with technologies to promote youth mental health and well-being. However, relatively little is known about professionals' views on the role of technologies in supporting youth mental health. This article outlines key…
van Ramele, Serena; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Gouttebarge, Vincent
Objectives: The primary aim was to explore the incidence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD; distress, sleep disturbance, anxiety/depression, adverse alcohol use) in retired professional football players and to explore the association between adverse life events and the onset of symptoms of
Reavley, Nicola J; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Morgan, Amy J; Jorm, Anthony F
The aim of this paper was to explore attitudes towards people with mental disorders among Australian health professionals (psychiatrists, psychologists and general practitioners (GPs)) and to compare their attitudes with members of the general community. The study involved a postal survey of 518 GPs, 506 psychiatrists and 498 clinical psychologists and a telephone survey of 6019 members of the general community. Participants were given a case vignette describing a person with either depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, early schizophrenia, chronic schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or social phobia and two questionnaires to assess stigmatising attitudes (the Depression Stigma Scale and the Social Distance Scale). Exploratory structural equation modelling was used to elucidate the structure of stigma as measured by the two scales, to establish dimensions of stigma and to compare patterns of association according to gender, age, vignette and professional grouping. The measurement characteristics of stigmatising attitudes in health professionals were found to be comparable to those in members of the general community in social distance and also in personal and perceived attitude stigma, with each forming distinct dimensions and each comprising 'Weak-not-sick' and 'Dangerous/unpredictable' components. Among health professionals, female gender, age and being a GP were associated with higher scores on the personal stigma scales. Mental health professionals had lower scores on the personal 'Weak-not-sick' and 'Dangerous/unpredictable' scales than members of the general community, while there were no significant differences in the desire for social distance between health professionals and the general community. While mental health professionals have less stigmatising attitudes than the general public, the greater beliefs in dangerousness and personal weakness by GPs should be addressed.
Wangmo, Tenzin; Handtke, Violet; Elger, Bernice Simone
Ensuring confidentiality is the cornerstone of trust within the doctor-patient relationship. However, health care providers have an obligation to serve not only their patient's interests but also those of potential victims and society, resulting in circumstances where confidentiality must be breached. This article describes the attitudes of mental health professionals (MHPs) when patients disclose past crimes unknown to the justice system. Twenty-four MHPs working in Swiss prisons were interviewed. They shared their experiences concerning confidentiality practices and attitudes towards breaching confidentiality in prison. Qualitative analysis revealed that MHPs study different factors before deciding whether a past crime should be disclosed, including: (1) the type of therapy the prisoner-patient was seeking (i.e., whether it was court-ordered or voluntary), (2) the type of crime that is revealed (e.g., a serious crime, a crime of a similar nature to the original crime, or a minor crime), and (3) the danger posed by the prisoner-patient. Based on this study's findings, risk assessment of dangerousness was one of the most important factors determining disclosures of past crimes, taking into consideration both the type of therapy and the crime involved. Attitudes of MHPs varied with regard to confidentiality rules and when to breach confidentiality, and there was thus a lack of consensus as to when and whether past crimes should be reported. Hence, legal and ethical requirements concerning confidentiality breaches must be made clear and known to physicians in order to guide them with difficult cases.
... Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... emotion as well as muscle movement. For years, mental health professionals have recognized that coping with a chronic ...
Gao, Xiao; Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong; Liu, Yanmei; Wang, Ruiqiang; Qian, Mingyi; Huang, Xiting
This nationwide survey of professional training for mental health practitioners (i.e., psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses, clinical psychologists, and the counselors working in industry, prisons, and schools) investigated sociodemographic characteristics, training experiences, and training perceptions of mental health service providers in China. Participants included service providers recruited from hospitals, universities, high/middle schools, private mental health service organizations and counseling centers operated by government, prisons or corporations from 25 provinces and four cities directly under the Central Government in China. In order to obtain a broad and representative sample, stratified multi-stage sampling procedures were utilized. From a total of 2000 questionnaire packets distributed via regular mail, the final sample comprised of 1391 respondents (525 men, 866 women). About 70% of the sample had a bachelor's level education or lower degree, only 36.4% majored in psychology, and nearly 60% were employed part time. Fewer than half of participants were certified and nearly 40% reported no affiliation with any 'professional' association. Training and continuing education programs were reported to be primarily short term and theory-based with limited assessment and follow-up. A high proportion of respondents reported having received no supervision or opportunities for case conferences or consultations. With respect to perceptions of and satisfaction with training, many agreed that training had been very helpful to their work but quality of supervision and the capability of supervisors were common issues of concern. In light of these findings, three general recommendations were made to improve the quality of training among mental health service providers in China. First, increased input from professional organizations of various disciplines involving mental health service provision is needed to guide training and shape policy. Second, universities and
Lin, Shu-Ling; Huang, Ching-Ya; Shiu, Shau-Ping; Yeh, Shu-Hui
Mental health professionals experiencing work-related stress may experience burn out, leading to a negative impact on their organization and patients. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of yoga classes on work-related stress, stress adaptation, and autonomic nerve activity among mental health professionals. A randomized controlled trial was used, which compared the outcomes between the experimental (e.g., yoga program) and the control groups (e.g., no yoga exercise) for 12 weeks. Work-related stress and stress adaptation were assessed before and after the program. Heart rate variability (HRV) was measured at baseline, midpoint through the weekly yoga classes (6 weeks), and postintervention (after 12 weeks of yoga classes). The results showed that the mental health professionals in the yoga group experienced a significant reduction in work-related stress (t = -6.225, p stress adaptation (t = 2.128, p = .042). Participants in the control group revealed no significant changes. Comparing the mean differences in pre- and posttest scores between yoga and control groups, we found the yoga group significantly decreased work-related stress (t = -3.216, p = .002), but there was no significant change in stress adaptation (p = .084). While controlling for the pretest scores of work-related stress, participants in yoga, but not the control group, revealed a significant increase in autonomic nerve activity at midpoint (6 weeks) test (t = -2.799, p = .007), and at posttest (12 weeks; t = -2.099, p = .040). Because mental health professionals experienced a reduction in work-related stress and an increase in autonomic nerve activity in a weekly yoga program for 12 weeks, clinicians, administrators, and educators should offer yoga classes as a strategy to help health professionals reduce their work-related stress and balance autonomic nerve activities. © 2015 The Authors. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society
Marans, S; Berkowitz, S J; Cohen, D J
Coordinating responses through the Child Development-Community Policing Program has led to multiple changes in the delivery of clinical and police services. Mental health clinicians and police officers have developed a common language for assessing and responding to the needs of children and families who have been exposed to or involved in violence. Learning from each other, these unlikely partners have established close working relationships that improve and expand the range of interventions they are able to provide while preserving the areas of expertise and responsibilities of each professional group. The immediate access to witnesses, victims, and perpetrators of violent crimes through the consultation service provides a unique opportunity to expand the understanding of clinical phenomena from the acute traumatic moment to longer-term adaptation, symptom formation, and recovery. In turn, the initiative introduces the systematic study of basic psychological and neurobiologic functions involved in traumatization as well as the investigation of psychotherapeutic and pharmacologic therapies. Similarly, program involvement with juvenile offenders has led to a coordinated response from the police, mental health, and juvenile justice systems. This project provides an opportunity to develop detailed psychological profiles and typologies of children engaged in different levels of antisocial behavior as well as to determine the characteristics that might predict with whom community-based interventions might be most successful. A recent survey of New Haven public school students has yielded promising evidence that community policing and the program are having a positive impact on the quality of life. In a survey of sixth-, eighth-, and tenth-grade students there were substantial improvements in students' sense of safety and experience of violence between 1992 and 1996. When asked if they felt safe in their neighborhood, there was an increase in the percentage of positive
Bolier, Linda; Ketelaar, Sarah M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Smeets, Odile; Gartner, Fania R.; Sluiter, Judith K.
Objective Well-being is an important prerequisite for the mental health and work functioning of nurses and allied health professionals. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a workers' health surveillance (WHS) module that offers screening, tailored feedback and online
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as defined in DSM-V, can be relevant in a variety of ways to decision-making by courts and tribunals. This includes the family, disciplinary, discrimination and criminal law contexts. By reviewing decisions made by superior courts in a number of common law jurisdictions, this article identifies a pivotal role for mental health professionals closely familiar with both the disorder and forensic exigencies to educate courts about the inner world of those with ASD. Highlighting areas of criminality that court decisions have dealt with, especially in relation to persons with Asperger's Disorder, as defined by DSM-IV, it calls for further research on the connection between ASD, on the one hand, and conduct, capacities and skills, on the other hand. It urges enhancement of awareness of the forensic repercussions of the disorder so that expert evidence can assist the courts more humanely and informedly to make criminal justice and other decisions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... NIH/National Institute of Mental Health – Division of AIDS Research SAMHSA – Behavioral Health and HIV/AIDS SAMHSA – Suicide ... Office of Adolescent Health OAR NIH Office of AIDS Research OCR HHS Office for Civil Rights OFBNP HHS ...
Rasmussen, Philippa; Henderson, Ann; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear
Aspects of mental health nursing and its subspecialties are not easily defined. Child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) nursing is a subspecialty of mental health nursing, and some of its characteristics are tacit. This paper presents a deeper understanding of the meaning that CAMH nurses make of their role and work in the inpatient setting. The research was undertaken through a PhD candidature. The epistemological framework for the research was social constructionism. Interpretive enquiry was the methodology, as it allowed for the interpretation of multiple realities, which resulted in a rich description of the role and work of CAMH nurses. Methods of data collection were document analysis, focus group interviews, and individual interviews. Participants included nurses and multidisciplinary staff. Iterative and aggregative analyses were utilized for the documents. The focus group and individual interview data were analysed utilizing a thematic analysis process. This paper presents the findings of the combined analysis and the resultant holistic conceptual framework for the work of the CAMH nurse in the inpatient unit. The findings have contributed new knowledge to mental health nursing, specifically CAMH nursing, making the parameters of practice more explicit. Implications for practice, education, and research are identified. © 2013 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Mazurek Melnyk, Bernadette; Slevin, Caitlin; Militello, Lisa; Hoying, Jacqueline; Teall, Alice; McGovern, Colleen
Little is known about the physical health, lifestyle beliefs and behaviors, and mental health among first-year health professional graduate students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe these attributes as well as to explore the relationships among them. A descriptive correlational study was conducted on the baseline data from a wellness onboarding intervention study with 93 health sciences students from seven different colleges within a large public land grant university in the Midwest United States. Nearly 40% of the sample was overweight/obese, and 19% of students had elevated total cholesterol levels. Only 44% met the recommended 30 min of exercise 5 days per week. Forty-one percent reported elevated depressive symptoms and 28% had elevated anxiety. Four students reported suicidal ideation. Inverse relationships existed among depression/anxiety and healthy lifestyle beliefs/behaviors. Students entering health professional schools are at high risk for depression, anxiety, and unhealthy behaviors, which could be averted through screening and early evidence-based interventions. Assessing the physical health, lifestyle behaviors, and mental health of first-year health sciences professional students is important to identify health problems and modifiable at-risk behaviors so that early interventions can be implemented to improve outcomes. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Loukidou, E; Mastroyiannakis, A; Power, T; Craig, T; Thornicroft, G; Bouras, N
The Greek mental health system has been undergoing radical reforms for over the past twenty years. In congruence with trends and practices in other European countries, Greek mental health reforms were designed to develop a community-based mental health service system. The implementation of an extensive transformation became possible through the "Psychargos" program, a national strategic and operational plan, which was developed by the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity. The Psychargos program was jointly funded by the European Union by 75% of the cost over a period of 5 years and the Greek State. After the period of 5 years, the entire cost of the new services became the responsibility of the Greek National Budget. Over the years the Psychargos program became almost synonymous with the deinstitutionalisation of long term psychiatric patients with the development of a wide range of community mental health services. The Psychargos program ended in December 2009. This article presents the views of service providers and service users as part an ex-post evaluation of the Psychargos program carried out in 2010. Data derived for this part of the evaluation are from the application of the qualitative method of focus groups. The outcomes of the study identified several positive and noteworthy achievements by the reforms of the Greek mental health system as well as weaknesses. There was considerable similarity of the views expressed by both focus groups. In addition the service users' focus group emphasized more issues related to improving their mental health wellbeing and living a satisfying, hopeful, and contributing life.
Klock, Susan C
The end of treatment, whether initiated by the medical team or by the patient, represents a difficult transition for the patient. The mental health professional, as part of a multidisciplinary team, can offer important assistance and support to the patient as they move through the end of their infertility treatment. A description of the topics covered in exit counseling is provided, as well as indications for referral. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gehrs, Margaret; Strudwick, Gillian; Ling, Sara; Reisdorfer, Emilene; Cleverley, Kristin
Mental health and addictions services are integral to Canada's healthcare system, and yet it is difficult to recruit experienced nurse leaders with advanced practice, management or clinical informatics expertise in this field. Master's-level graduates, aspiring to be mental health nurse leaders, often lack the confidence and experience required to lead quality improvement, advancements in clinical care, service design and technology innovations for improved patient care. This paper describes an initiative that develops nursing leaders through a unique scholarship, internship and mentorship model, which aims to foster confidence, critical thinking and leadership competency development in the mental health and addictions context. The "Mutual Benefits Model" framework was applied in the design and evaluation of the initiative. It outlines how mentee, mentor and organizational needs can drive strategic planning of resource investment, mentorship networks and relevant leadership competency-based learning plans to optimize outcomes. Five-year individual and organizational outcomes are described. © 2017 Longwoods Publishing.
Bantjes, Jason; Swartz, Leslie; Niewoudt, Pieter
During the era of apartheid in South Africa, a number of mental health professionals were vocal about the need for socio-economic and political reform. They described the deleterious psychological and social impact of the oppressive and discriminatory Nationalist state policies. However, they remained optimistic that democracy would usher in positive changes. In this article, we consider how mental health professionals working in post-apartheid South Africa experience their work. Our aim was to describe the experience of mental health professionals working in prisons who provide care to suicidal prisoners. Data were collected from in-depth semi-structured interviews and were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Findings draw attention to the challenges mental health professionals in post-apartheid South Africa face when attempting to provide psychological care in settings where resources are scarce and where the environment is anti-therapeutic. Findings highlight the significant gap between current policies, which protect prisoners' human rights, and every-day practices within prisons. The findings imply that there is still an urgent need for activism in South Africa, particularly in the context of providing mental health care services in settings which are anti-therapeutic and inadequately resourced, such as prisons.
Health promotion is essential to improve the health status and quality of life of individuals. Promoting mental health at an individual, community and policy level is central to reducing the incidence of mental health problems, including self-harm and suicide. Men may be particularly vulnerable to mental health problems, in part because they are less likely to seek help from healthcare professionals. Although this article discusses mental health promotion and related strategies in general, th...
Reed, Geoffrey M; Roberts, Michael C; Keeley, Jared; Hooppell, Catherine; Matsumoto, Chihiro; Sharan, Pratap; Robles, Rebeca; Carvalho, Hudson; Wu, Chunyan; Gureje, Oye; Leal-Leturia, Itzear; Flanagan, Elizabeth H; Correia, João Mendonça; Maruta, Toshimasa; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luís; de Jesus Mari, Jair; Xiao, Zeping; Evans, Spencer C; Saxena, Shekhar; Medina-Mora, María Elena
To examine the conceptualizations held by psychiatrists and psychologists around the world of the relationships among mental disorders in order to inform decisions about the structure of the classification of mental and behavioral disorders in World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 11th Revision (ICD-11). 517 mental health professionals in 8 countries sorted 60 cards containing the names of mental disorders into groups of similar disorders, and then formed a hierarchical structure by aggregating and disaggregating these groupings. Distance matrices were created from the sorting data and used in cluster and correlation analyses. Clinicians' taxonomies were rational, interpretable, and extremely stable across countries, diagnostic system used, and profession. Clinicians' consensus classification structure was different from ICD-10 and the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition (DSM-IV), but in many respects consistent with ICD-11 proposals. The clinical utility of the ICD-11 may be improved by making its structure more compatible with the common conceptual organization of mental disorders observed across diverse global clinicians. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The article explores the telling of co-narrated atrocity stories in accomplishing professional identity. Building on previous work, it is argued that group membership is a prerequisite for such stories to be told. Extracts from empirical data from interviews with social work approved mental health professionals are analysed using an ethnomethodological approach. The findings show how atrocity stories can be co-narrated, not only by longstanding colleagues, but also by two unacquainted persons who share the same professional identity. The article concludes that the ethnomethodological concepts of vulgar competency, unique adequacy, indexicality and the documentary method of interpretation are key to understanding the accomplishment of co-narrated atrocity stories. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Prochaska, John D; Le, Vi Donna; Baillargeon, Jacques; Temple, Jeff R
This study examines results from three mental health screening measures in a cohort of adolescent public school students in seven public schools in Southeast Texas affiliated with the Dating it Safe study. We estimated the odds of receiving professional mental health treatment in the previous year given results from different mental health screening batteries: the CES-D 10 battery for depression screening, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, and the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder screen. Overall, students with higher scores on screening instruments for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and combinations of screening instruments were more likely to have sought past-year professional mental health treatment than non-symptomatic youth. However, the proportion of students screening positive and receiving professional treatment was low, ranging from 11 to 16 %. This study emphasizes the need for broader evaluation of population-based mental health screening among adolescents.
Starzynski, Laura L.; Ullman, Sarah E.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Long, LaDonna M.; Long, Susan M.
Although many sexual assault survivors seek support from mental health sources for adverse psychological symptoms due to sexual assault, many do not. A diverse sample of adult sexual assault survivors was surveyed about their sexual assault experiences, social reactions received when disclosing assault, attributions of blame, coping strategies,…
Coduti, Wendy A; Hayes, Jeffrey A; Locke, Benjamin D; Youn, Soo Jeong
Research has demonstrated that providing appropriate supports and services on campus can improve both mental health and academic outcomes for students with disabilities (Emerson, Honey, Madden, & Llewellyn, 2009; Stumbo, Martin, & Hedrick, 2009), but little is known about the specific mental health needs of this population. The purpose of this exploratory study, therefore, was to identify the mental health needs of college students with various types of disabilities. Researchers analyzed data, collected by the Center for Collegiate Mental Health, of 5,696 students with, and without, disabilities who utilized counseling services on campuses in the 2013-14 academic year. A nonclinical (students not in counseling) sample of 1,620 students with, and without, disabilities was also explored. Compared to students without disabilities, students with disabilities report more anxiety and academic-related distress, as well as higher rates of suicide ideation, suicide attempts, and nonsuicidal self-injury among both students in counseling and not in counseling. Although in certain areas students with disabilities show similar levels of distress as students without disabilities, students with disabilities have higher levels of distress in areas which could impact their academic success. Self-harming tendencies are higher for students with disabilities overall, but more so for specific disability types. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Goble, Carla B.; Laurin, Deborah E.
Infant-toddler teachers are often the first people outside of families to interact with infants on a daily basis. Through these interactions teachers can promote infant mental health, prevent problems, screen and identify infants experiencing difficulties, make referrals, and work as members of interdisciplinary intervention teams. However,…
Abe-Kim, Jennifer; Gong, Fang; Takeuchi, David
Data from structured interviews with 2,285 respondents for the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Survey (FACES) were used to examine help-seeking for emotional distress among Filipino Americans. The influence of religious affiliation, religiosity, and spirituality upon help-seeking from religious clergy and mental health professionals…
Valenti, Emanuele; Banks, Ciara; Calcedo-Barba, Alfredo; Bensimon, Cécile M; Hoffmann, Karin-Maria; Pelto-Piri, Veikko; Jurin, Tanja; Mendoza, Octavio Márquez; Mundt, Adrian P; Rugkåsa, Jorun; Tubini, Jacopo; Priebe, Stefan
Whilst formal coercion in psychiatry is regulated by legislation, other interventions that are often referred to as informal coercion are less regulated. It remains unclear to what extent these interventions are, and how they are used, in mental healthcare. This paper aims to identify the attitudes and experiences of mental health professionals towards the use of informal coercion across countries with differing sociocultural contexts. Focus groups with mental health professionals were conducted in ten countries with different sociocultural contexts (Canada, Chile, Croatia, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Norway, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom). Five common themes were identified: (a) a belief that informal coercion is effective; (b) an often uncomfortable feeling using it; (c) an explicit as well as (d) implicit dissonance between attitudes and practice-with wider use of informal coercion than is thought right in theory; (e) a link to principles of paternalism and responsibility versus respect for the patient's autonomy. A disapproval of informal coercion in theory is often overridden in practice. This dissonance occurs across different sociocultural contexts, tends to make professionals feel uneasy, and requires more debate and guidance.
Villani, Murielle; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane
In France, negative views on schizophrenia are pervasive, even among health professionals. Prior research suggests that the level of prejudice is lower when the illness is described with the example of a specific individual. This finding highlights the importance of designing local, targeted destigmatization campaigns. The present study aims to evaluate the benefits of a short intervention offering contact with psychiatric services users on reducing the stigma about mentally ill people, among a sample of Health Administrators and Students. Data were collected before (Time 0) and after (Time 1) a short training intervention program proposed to a sample of 121 Health Services Administrators and Students. This four-day workshop explained the multiple causes of mental illness, the clinical implications of psychosis and various mental disorders, the subjective experience of mental illness and the legal evolutions of users' rights. The intervention was strongly based on live testimonies from users. Using a French version of the Attitudes to Mental Illness scale, we compared attitudes before and after the training intervention among 58 trainees having answered our questionnaire at Time 0 and Time 1. After the training, a significantly lower endorsement of stigmatizing statements compared to baseline was found in one third (9 out of 27) of the items. These results plead for further research about the potential benefits of initiatives like this short intervention program on significantly reducing stigmatizing attitudes towards mentally ill people among Health Administrators and Students. The present study highlights the importance of further studying the effect of targeted interventions that offer first hand contact with persons with mental illness.
Dyrbye, Liselotte N; Harper, William; Moutier, Christine; Durning, Steven J; Power, David V; Massie, F Stanford; Eacker, Anne; Thomas, Matthew R; Satele, Daniel; Sloan, Jeff A; Shanafelt, Tait D
Although burnout is associated with erosion of professionalism and serious personal consequences, whether positive mental health can enhance professionalism and how it shapes personal experience remain poorly understood. The study simultaneously explores the relationship between positive mental health and burnout with professionalism and personal experience. The authors surveyed 4,400 medical students at seven U.S. medical schools in 2009 to assess mental health (categorized as languishing, moderate, and flourishing) and burnout. Additional items explored professional behaviors, beliefs, suicidal ideation, and serious thoughts of dropping out. A total of 2,682/4,400 (61%) responded. Prevalence of suicidal ideation (55/114 [48.2%], 281/1,128 [24.9%], and 127/1,409 [9.1%]) and serious thoughts of dropping out (15/114 [13.2%], 30/1,128 [2.7%], and 14/1,409 [1.0%]) decreased as mental health improved from languishing, moderate, and flourishing, respectively (all P burnout (all P students' altruistic beliefs regarding physicians' responsibility toward society improved. For example, 33/113 (29.2%), 426/1,120 (38.0%), and 718/1,391 (51.6%) of students with languishing, moderate, and flourishing mental health endorsed all five altruistic professional beliefs (P students with burnout, whereas fewer relationships were found among students without burnout. Findings suggest that positive mental health attenuates some adverse consequences of burnout. Medical student wellness programs should aspire to prevent burnout and promote mental health.
Reynolds, Julia; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Cunningham, John A; Bennett, Kylie; Bennett, Anthony
Research into e-mental health technologies has developed rapidly in the last 15 years. Applications such as Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy interventions have accumulated considerable evidence of efficacy and some evidence of effectiveness. These programs have achieved similar outcomes to face-to-face therapy, while requiring much less clinician time. There is now burgeoning interest in integrating e-mental health resources with the broader mental health delivery system, particularly in primary care. The Australian government has supported the development and deployment of e-mental health resources, including websites that provide information, peer-to-peer support, automated self-help, and guided interventions. An ambitious national project has been commissioned to promote key resources to clinicians, to provide training in their use, and to evaluate the impact of promotion and training upon clinical practice. Previous initiatives have trained clinicians to use a single e-mental health program or a suite of related programs. In contrast, the current initiative will support community-based service providers to access a diverse array of resources developed and provided by many different groups. The objective of this paper was to develop a conceptual framework to support the use of e-mental health resources in routine primary health care. In particular, models of clinical practice are required to guide the use of the resources by diverse service providers and to inform professional training, promotional, and evaluation activities. Information about service providers' use of e-mental health resources was synthesized from a nonsystematic overview of published literature and the authors' experience of training primary care service providers. Five emerging clinical practice models are proposed: (1) promotion; (2) case management; (3) coaching; (4) symptom-focused treatment; and (5) comprehensive therapy. We also consider the service provider skills
Pugh, Matthew A; Vetere, Arlene
Although empathy is considered by many to be fundamental to psychotherapeutic practice, little is known about how working with an interpreter may affect empathy in clinical work. Accordingly, the present study aims to provide an exploration of mental health professionals' experiences of empathy in clinical work with an interpreter. A qualitative methodology was utilized in order to provide a rich understanding of participants' shared experiences of empathy in work with an interpreter. Data were gathered using a semi-structured interviewing approach. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was chosen as the method of analysis as this would provide a highly descriptive and in-depth account of participants' experiences. Interviews were conducted with 10 mental health professionals regularly working with linguistic interpreters. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using IPA. The analysis yielded four major themes which described the effects of translation upon empathic dialogues with service-users; changes in the quality of empathic communication with service-users; the effects of cultural similarities and dissimilarities upon empathy within client-interpreter and client-professional dyads; and opportunities for the interpreter to enrich participants' understanding of service-users' perspectives. The difficulties participants encountered in work with an interpreter highlight a need for training in cross-language empathy for interpreters and mental health professionals, and encourage the use of transcultural models of psychotherapy in work with non-English speaking service-users. Some of the difficulties associated with adopting traditional humanistic models of empathy, which tend to centralize the therapist within empathic processes, when working with interpreters are also discussed.
Brekke, E; Lien, L; Biong, S
Recovery in co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders often involves relationships with professional helpers, yet little is known about how these are experienced by service users. The aim of this study was to explore and describe behaviour and attributes of professional helpers that support recovery, as experienced by persons with co-occurring disorders. Within a collaborative approach, in-depth individual interviews with eight persons with lived experience of co-occurring disorders were analysed using systematic text condensation. The analysis yielded four categories of recovery-supporting behaviour and attributes of professional helpers and the ability to build trust cuts across all of them: Building trust through (a) hopefulness and loving concern, (b) commitment, (c) direct honesty and expectation and (d) action and courage. Services should allow for flexibility and continuity, and training should recognise the importance of establishing trust in order to reach out to this group.
Ai, Amy L.; Rollman, Bruce L.; Berger, Candyce S.
On the basis of current epidemiological and clinical research, this article describes how mental health symptoms are associated with heart disease, a major chronic condition that occurs primarily in middle and late life. The article describes the culturally and historically important link between heart and mind. It then describes depression and…
Scholars across different disciplines use Twitter to promote research and to communicate with society. Most conferences nowadays have their unique hashtag in which participants can communicate in real time. Previous research has reported on conference participants' use of Twitter, but no such studies are available in the field of mental health nursing. Thus, the explicit aim of the present study was to examine conference participants' use of Twitter during the 42nd International Mental Health Nursing Conference. Freely-accessible data were mined via a social media platform under the hashtag #acmhn2016. The total dataset consisted of 1973 tweets, and was analysed with descriptive statistics and a directed content analysis. The results demonstrated that 37% of the tweets were original posts, and 63% were engagements. In total, 184 individual accounts engaged in Twitter during the conference, and 16.4 tweets were posted hourly. Most tweets were categorized as conference/session-related content, but Twitter was also used for socializing with other participants. The most frequently-used words mirror a clear connection to a person-centred approach, and deviate from the biomedical terminology. However, not all of the conference participants engaged on Twitter, and might thereby risk being excluded from this backchannel. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background we know very little about mental health practitioners' views on treatments to change sexual orientation. Our aim was to survey a representative sample of professional members of the main United Kingdom psychotherapy and psychiatric organisations about their views and practices concerning such treatments. Methods We sent postal questions to mental health professionals who were members of British Psychological Society, the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy, the United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy and the Royal College of Psychiatrists. Participants were asked to give their views about treatments to change homosexual desires and describe up to five patients each, whom they has treated in this way. Results Of 1848 practitioners contacted, 1406 questionnaires were returned and 1328 could be analysed. Although only 55 (4% of therapists reported that they would attempt to change a client's sexual orientation if one consulted asking for such therapy, 222 (17% reported having assisted at least one client/patient to reduce or change his or her homosexual or lesbian feelings. 413 patients were described by these 222 therapists: 213 (52% were seen in private practice and 117 (28% were not followed up beyond the period of treatment. Counselling was the commonest (66% treatment offered and there was no sign of a decline in treatments in recent years. 159 (72% of the 222 therapists who had provided such treatment considered that a service should be available for people who want to change their sexual orientation. Client/patient distress and client/patient autonomy were seen as reasons for intervention; therapists paid attention to religious, cultural and moral values causing internal conflict. Conclusion A significant minority of mental health professionals are attempting to help lesbian, gay and bisexual clients to become heterosexual. Given lack of evidence for the efficacy of such treatments, this is likely to be
Farzanfar, Ramesh; Locke, Steven E; Heeren, Timothy C; Stevens, Allison; Vachon, Louis; Thi Nguyen, Mai Khoa; Friedman, Robert H
Test the feasibility and impact of an automated workplace mental health assessment and intervention. Efficacy was evaluated in a randomized control trial comparing employees who received screening and intervention with those who received only screening. Workplace. 463 volunteers from Boston Medical Center, Boston University, and EMC and other employed adults, among whom 164 were randomized to the intervention (N = 87) and control (N = 77) groups. The system administers a panel of telephonic assessment instruments followed by tailored information, education, and referrals. The Work Limitation Questionnaire, the Medical Outcomes Questionnaire Short Form-12, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, question 10 from the Patient Health Questionnaire to measure functional impairment, and the Perceived Stress Scale-4 and questions written by study psychiatrists to measure emotional distress and social support respectively. The WHO-Five Well-being Index was administered to measure overall well-being. Independent sample t-tests and χ(2) tests as well as mean change were used to compare the data. No significant differences on 16 of the 20 comparisons at 3- and 6-month time points. The intervention group showed a significant improvement in depression (p ≤ .05) at 3 months and on two Work Limitation Questionnaire subscales, the Mental-Interpersonal Scale (p ≤ .05) and the Time and Scheduling Scale (p ≤ .05), at 3 and 6 months respectively with a suggestive improvement in mental health at 6 months (p ≤ .10). This is a potentially fruitful area for research with important implications for workplace behavioral interventions.
Taylor, Holly A; Wilfond, Benjamin S
This case looks at the question of how to consider obligations of confidentiality by a mental health professional who works for an institution and learns that a student has been using a drug intended for an animal research project. Dr. Paul Appelbaum, MD, a psychiatrist at Columbia University, examines the issue of the limits of confidentiality. Nicholas Steneck, PhD, a scholar in research misconduct at the University of Michigan, explores the obligations to report research misconduct. Walter Limehouse, MD, an ethicist at the Medical University of South Carolina, considers the systems issues raised by this case and offers some suggestions that might change the institutional environment.
Obando Medina, Claudia; Kullgren, Gunnar; Dahlblom, Kjerstin
Mental health problems among young peoples are a growing public health issue around the world. In low- income countries health systems are characterized by lack of facilities, human resources and primary health care is rarely an integrated part of overall health care services. This study aims at exploring how primary health care professionals in Nicaragua perceive young people's mental health problems, suicidal problems and help-seeking behaviour. Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with nurses and doctors working in primary health care services in León, Nicaragua. A qualitative research design was applied. Data was analysed using thematic analysis approach. This study revealed that doctors and nurses were reluctant to deal with young people presenting with suicidal problems at the primary health care. This was more likely to stem from feelings of incompetence rather than from negative attitudes. Other barriers in providing appropriate care to young people with mental health problems were identified such as lack of time, lack of privacy, lack of human resources, lack of trained professionals and difficulties in communicating with young people. The primary health care (PHC) professionals suggested different solutions to improve care for young people with suicidal problems. PHC doctors and nurses in Nicaragua felt that providing skilled mental health services to young people was a priority for them but they also identified a number of barriers to be able to do so. They discussed ways to improve young people's willingness to share sensitive issues with them and suggested ways to make PHC more appreciated by young people.
... Mental Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Good mental health Nutrition and mental health Exercise and ... a friend. Return to top More information on Good mental health Read more from womenshealth.gov Action ...
Milton, A C; Mullan, B; MacCann, C; Hunt, C
To examine health professionals' views and practices relating to the specific barriers to communication that arise at the time of mental health diagnosis, and the strategies used to support individuals throughout this process. An online survey of the beliefs and practices of 131 mental health clinicians working in different clinical settings across Australia was conducted. Exploratory factor analysis of the items relating to barriers to communication resulted in three latent factors ('stigma, diagnosis and risk'; 'service structure'; and 'individual circumstances' such as the person receiving the diagnosis being young, having a culturally and linguistically diverse background or being unwell at the time of conversation). Using linear regression it was found that variance in 'stigma, diagnosis and risk' was significantly explained by whether participating clinicians had medical training, their experience working with serious mental health problems, their confidence handling distress and attitude towards diagnosis. Variance in 'individual circumstances' was significantly explained by participating clinicians' confidence handling distress. The most frequently used strategies to support diagnostic discussions centred on the health professionals' communication skills, gauging the individual's perception of their circumstances, responding with empathy, following-up after discussion, addressing stigma concerns, using collaborative practice and setting up for the conversation. Three main areas for health professionals to reflect on, plan for and ultimately address when discussing news with the individual concerned emerged ('stigma, diagnosis and risk'; 'service structure'; and 'individual circumstances'). Variations in practice indicate that practitioners should be cognisant of their own beliefs and background and how this impacts their communication practice.
WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE SUBJECT?: The Advancing Recovery in Ireland (ARI) project (Health Service Executive, 2012) promotes recovery-orientated services. A previous study of Irish mental health practitioners (Cleary & Dowling ) identified the need to improve knowledge and attitudes towards recovery. To facilitate implementation of ARI and monitor progress, this study provided a \\'benchmark\\' of current knowledge and attitudes to recovery. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: The study provides important baseline information on recovery knowledge and attitudes which can be used to assess the impact of the ARI Project. It also provides valuable information that can be compared to recovery approaches employed in other countries. Despite the increased emphasis on recovery in Ireland, knowledge and attitudes of health care practitioners towards recovery remain relatively unchanged between 2007 and 2013. Working in dual settings, being a non-nurse, and training was associated with better RKI scores. Training appears to be the strongest factor in predicting better recovery knowledge. The findings suggest that knowledge levels and attitude changes following education may not be sustained over time and ongoing training may be required. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: There is considerable scope to improve recovery knowledge. Key recommendations include the need for more recovery training, evaluate whether training translates into clinical practice, using \\'Recovery Champions\\
hospitalized, but to get inside the contemporary psychiatric institution and to participate in the social world of patients and professionals, I had to experiment with different ethnographic approaches. Ethnographies of mental health have become increasingly rare, and much research on language in psychiatric......In 2010, I began a PhD study to examine how professionals and patients talked to—and about—each other in mental health institutions in Denmark. One year later, I found myself chain-smoking, dressed in baggy clothing, and slouching on a sofa in a closed psychiatric ward. I had not myself been...... institutions is done by interview research. My study involved observing and participating in the day-to-day life at two mental health facilities: an outpatient clinic and an inpatient closed ward. The case study provides an account of some of the specific methodological problems and unanticipated events...
Norheim, Astrid Berge; Grimholt, Tine K; Loskutova, Ekaterina; Ekeberg, Oivind
Attitudes toward suicidal behaviour can be essential regarding whether patients seek or are offered help. Patients with suicidal behaviour are increasingly treated by mental health outpatient clinics. Our aim was to study attitudes among professionals at outpatient clinics in Stavropol, Russia and Oslo, Norway. Three hundred and forty-eight (82 %) professionals anonymously completed a questionnaire about attitudes. Professionals at outpatient clinics in Stavropol (n = 119; 94 %) and Oslo (n = 229; 77 %) were enrolled in the study. The Understanding Suicidal Patients (USP) scale (11 = positive to 55 = negative) and the Attitudes Towards Suicide Scale (ATTS) (1 = totally disagree, 5 = totally agree) were used. Questions about religious background, perceived competence and experiences of and views on suicidal behaviour and treatment (0 = totally disagree, 4 = totally agree) were examined. All groups reported positive attitudes, with significant differences between Stavropol and Oslo (USP score, 21.8 vs 18.7; p Oslo reported significantly less experience with suicidal patients, courses in suicide prevention (15 % vs 79 %) guidelines in suicidal prevention (23 % vs 90 %), interest for suicide prevention (2.0 vs 2.7; p Oslo (3.6 vs 3.4; p = 0.001). Professionals reported positive attitudes towards helping suicidal patients, with significant differences between cities. A need for further education was reported in both cities, but education was less integrated in mental health care in Stavropol than it was in Oslo. In both cities, psychiatric disorders were considered the major reasons for suicide, and psychotherapy was the most important treatment measure.
Brooks, Helen L; Lovell, Karina; Bee, Penny; Sanders, Caroline; Rogers, Anne
It has been established that mental health-care planning does not adequately respond to the needs of those accessing services. Understanding the reasons for this and identifying whose needs care plans serve requires an exploration of the perspectives of service users, carers and professionals within the wider organizational context. To explore the current operationalization of care planning and perceptions of its function within mental health services from the perspectives of multiple stakeholders. Participants included 21 mental health professionals, 29 service users and 4 carers from seven Mental Health Trusts in England. All participants had experience of care planning processes within secondary mental health-care services. Fifty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants and analysed utilizing a qualitative framework approach. Care plans and care planning were characterized by a failure to meet the complexity of mental health needs, and care planning processes were seen to prioritize organizational agendas and risk prevention which distanced care planning from the everyday lives of service users. Care planning is recognized, embedded and well established in the practices of mental health professionals and service users. However, it is considered too superficial and mainly irrelevant to users for managing mental health in their everyday lives. Those responsible for the planning and delivery of mental health services should consider ways to increase the relevance of care planning to the everyday lives of service users including separating risk from holistic needs assessment, using support aids and utilizing a peer workforce in this regard. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Thabrew, Hiran; Sawyer, Adam; Eischenberg, Christiane
Patient-targeted Googling (PTG) describes the searching on the Internet by healthcare professionals for information about patients with or without their knowledge. Little research has been conducted into PTG internationally. PTG can have particular ethical implications within the field of mental health. This study was undertaken to identify the extent of PTG by New Zealand mental healthcare professionals and needs for further guidance regarding this issue. All (1,850) psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, and psychotherapists working in New Zealand were electronically surveyed about their experience of PTG and knowledge about the associated practice of therapist-targeted Googling (TTG) using a questionnaire that had previously been developed with a German sample. Due to ethics and advertising restrictions, only one indirect approach was made to potential participants. Eighty-eight clinicians (5%) responded to the survey invitation. More than half (53.4%, N = 47) of respondents reportedly being engaged in PTG, but only a minority (10.3%, N = 9) had ever received any education about the subject. Reasons for undertaking PTG included facilitating the therapeutic process, information being in the public domain, and mitigating risks. Reasons against undertaking PTG included impairment of therapeutic relationship, unethical invasion of privacy, and concerns regarding the accuracy and clinical relevance of online information. Two-thirds of participants reported being the subject of TTG. New Zealand psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, and psychotherapists are engaging in PTG with limited education and professional guidance. Further discussion and research are required, and so, PTG is undertaken in a manner that is safe and useful for patients and health practitioners.
Sutton, Marie; O'Keeffe, Donal; Frawley, Timothy; Madigan, Kevin; Fanning, Felicity; Lawlor, Elizabeth; Roche, Eric; Kelly, Aine; Turner, Niall; Horenstein, Arielle; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; Clarke, Mary
The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a psychosis information intervention for professionals in contact with young people in Ireland. A quasi-experimental pre- and post-intervention design was used. One thousand and thirty-two professionals received an information intervention designed to improve mental health literacy (MHL) and confidence in providing help to people with psychosis. Seven hundred and fifty-five participants completed the Psychosis Information and Confidence Questionnaire pre- and post-intervention. The information intervention significantly improved participants': (1) knowledge of psychosis; (2) ability to recognize signs and symptoms of psychosis; (3) awareness of how to access services; and (4) confidence in providing help to people experiencing psychosis. Findings provide promising support for the intervention's feasibility and acceptability. The intervention enhanced MHL regarding psychosis among professionals in contact with young people. Further research assessing if such improvements translate to the facilitation of appropriate help seeking, the enhanced early detection of psychosis and a reduction of the duration of untreated psychosis is required. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Pillay, Anthony L; Willows, Clive
With increasing numbers of juveniles accused of serious crimes international concern is growing around the procedural consequences for affected individuals within the context of the law and criminal justice. Issues of culpability in children and adolescents are often raised, with much deliberation and insufficient agreement among legal and child development experts. Exactly when and to what extent juveniles can be held responsible for their action is a matter requiring careful consideration to avoid substantial erring in either direction. Although some international guiding standards and principles have been established, these are rather broad and unable to provide specific prescriptions. In addition, the assessment of criminal capacity in juveniles is a complex task, and one that is not wholly without reliability and validity problems. As in the case of South Africa and a few other countries, mental health specialists are often tasked with conducting developmental assessments to provide courts with expert evidence regarding criminal capacity. This paper examines the concept of criminal capacity in the context of the theory, controversies and challenges that affect this area of psychological focus.
Mirick, Rebecca; McCauley, James; Bridger, Joanna; Berkowitz, Larry
This study examined the impact of a 1-day continuing education training for mental health professionals on knowledge and confidence around suicide assessment and intervention. Data on knowledge, confidence and the utility of information were collected through pretests and posttests at 12 trainings at local community agencies. Findings indicate that a continuing education workshop can increase knowledge and self-confidence. Several participant characteristics were associated with knowledge and confidence at pretest; only being trained as a mental health professional and previous training remained significant at posttest. Participants identified training components which were new and useful. Implications for training and education are discussed.
Buffel, V; Van de Velde, S; Bracke, P
This comparative study examines cross-national variation in gender differences in primary and specialized mental health care use in Europe. We investigate to what extent socioeconomic, family-related, and mental health factors explain the gender difference, and how the impact of these groups of determinants on gender differences in mental health care use varies between countries. Data from the Eurobarometer 248 (2005-2006) for 29 European countries is used and country-specific logistic regression analyses are performed. Gender differences in professional care seeking are largely need based. In almost one-third of the countries examined, the gender difference is mainly attributable to women's poorer mental health status. However, in some countries, family and socioeconomic characteristics also have an independent contribution to the gender difference in mental health care use. Women's higher likelihood of a lower socioeconomic position, might partly explain their higher primary care use, while in some countries, it restricts their specialized care use. In addition, some social conditions, as having children and being widowed, seem to function in a few countries as suppressors of women's care use. Our study has shown that the gender difference in mental health care use, with women having a higher care use, is not a consistent European phenomenon and is dependent on the type of care provider, with greater gender inequity in the use of primary health care. The social roles adopted by men and women have in some countries on top of the mental health status a relevant influence on the greater tendency among women to contact a care provider. How the socioeconomic and family characteristics moderate the relation between gender and mental health care use is not straightforward and country dependent.
Beurs, D.P. de; Groot, M.H. de; Keijser, J. de; Duijn, E. van; Winter, R.F.P. de; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.
Background: Randomised studies examining the effect on patients of training professionals in adherence to suicide guidelines are scarce. Aims: To assess whether patients benefited from the training of professionals in adherence to suicide guidelines. Method: In total 45 psychiatric departments were
Elger, Bernice Simone; Handtke, Violet; Wangmo, Tenzin
This manuscript presents mental health practitioners' (MHPs) practice, attitudes and justifications for breaching confidentiality when imprisoned patients disclose suicidal thoughts or abuse by others. 24 MHPs working in Swiss prisons shared their experiences regarding confidentiality practices. The data were analysed qualitatively and MHPs' attitudes and course of action were identified. Analysis revealed paternalistic breaches of confidentiality. When patients reported suicidal thoughts and abuse, MHPs believed that forgoing confidentiality is necessary to protect patients, providing several justifications for it. Patients were informed that such information will be transmitted without their consent to medical and non-medical prison personnel. With reference to suicidal attempts, MHPs resorted to methods that may reduce suicidal attempts such as transfer to hospital or internal changes in living arrangements, which would require provision of certain information to prison guards. In cases of abuse, some MHPs convinced patients to accept intervention or sometimes overrode competent patients' refusals to report. Also in the case of abuse, provision of limited information to other prison personnel was seen as an acceptable method to protect patients from further harm. Breaches of confidentiality, whether limited or full, remain unethical, when used for competent patients based solely on paternalistic justifications. Institutionalising ethical and legal procedures to address suicidal and abuse situations would be helpful. Education and training to help both medical and prison personnel to respond to such situations in an appropriate manner that ensures confidentiality and protects patients from suicide and abuse are necessary. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Measuring the Effectiveness of a Professional Development Workshop on Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills of Mental Health Professionals in Working with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (LGBTQ) Youth
McGravey, Katie Ann
Although LGBTQ youth are at risk for peer rejection, substance abuse, mental health disorders, and dropping out of school, research shows that most mental health training programs do not include a course on working with this population (Carroll & Gilroy,2001; Matthews, 2005; McCabe & Rubinson, 2008;Sherry, Whilde, & Patton, 2005;…
Surya, Mary; Jaff, Dilshad; Stilwell, Barbara; Schubert, Johanna
We call on humanitarian aid organizations to integrate proven mental health strategies to protect the mental health of their workforce and improve staff capacity to provide care for vulnerable populations. Such strategies could include: Pre-deployment training Art therapy Team building Physical exercise Mindfulness or contemplative techniques Mind-body exercises Narrative Exposure Therapy Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing
Full Text Available Aim of this study was to identify knowing-doing actions constituted the practice of Family Health (FH, in view of nurses in relation to the person and family care in mental distress in terms of professional knowledge of Le Boterf. Method: Descriptive exploratory qualitative study, to deepen contruction of nurse in FH. The survey was conducted in 3 Units FH. Result: Doing a thematic analysis, came to the following categories: “Knowing how to act and react with relevance”; “Knowing how to combine resources and mobilize them in a professional context”; “Knowing how to interact with multiple knowledges”; “Knowing how to transpose”; “Knowing how to learn and knowing how to learn to learn”; “Knowing how to engage”. Final considerations: the greatest difficulty was "be able to transpose," and that the daily demand of the FH teams requires a lot of this knowledge. Little transposition of knowing-doing in real situations has been verified.
Stewart, Carmen López
This paper describes main facts about Chile starting with key socio-demographic, socio-economic, political, environmental, epidemiological, social support and social pathology aspects that characterize the context in which current mental and neurological policy and programmes have been put in place since 2000, as part of the National Health Plan and Health Sector Strategy Plan. The 'National Plan for Mental Health and Psychiatry', using a community psychiatry approach, has been partially implemented for people covered by the Public Health Insurance, which comprises 62% of the Chilean population (people with lower income). This paper also describes: the management, population needs and demands, financial resources, human resources in primary care, mental health specialist care and community-based care, physical capital, social capital, provision and processes, and outcomes of the plan. Strengths are analyzed, like the health reform, including its values and principles, the active participation of consumer and family groups as well as mental health NGOs, access to mental health services through primary care, quality assurance of the mental health services delivered to the population and progressive development of a culture of respect for human rights, including those of people with mental illnesses. Finally, difficulties for the advance of mental health care are also enumerated: the low priority still given to mental health compared with physical health by the country's leaders, the insufficient emphasis on mental health in both undergraduate and postgraduate professional training, the strong stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness in the general population and the advocacy by some mental health professionals of the traditional model of care (role of the psychiatric hospital).
De Riggi, Melissa E.; Moumne, Samira; Heath, Nancy L.; Lewis, Stephen P.
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), the immediate and deliberate destruction of one's own body tissue, without suicidal intent, and not for purposes that are socially accepted, is a critical concern for youth in schools. Despite significant scholarly advances and increasing clinical awareness of NSSI, many school mental health professionals (MHPs)…
Askell-Williams, Helen; Murray-Harvey, Rosalind
Educators are at the heart of educational reforms, such as the introduction of mental health promotion initiatives into early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings. Good quality implementation of reforms requires educators to engage in high quality professional learning: If educators have not had opportunities to gain appropriate knowledge…
McNabb, David; Webster, Michael
Since the mid-1980s, health service restructuring in New Zealand has strengthened managerialism, arguably detracting from professional considerations. Professional leaders without line-management responsibilities have replaced social work departments headed by a professional social worker. An emerging social work contribution to interdisciplinary…
Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi
This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.
Dulcian Medeiros de Azevedo
Full Text Available Objetivo: investigar a percepção dos profissionais de saúde acerca da articulação entre os serviços de um mesmo território, na perspectiva do cuidado ao portador de transtorno mental. Métodos: Pesquisa descritiva, de abordagem qualitativa, desenvolvida no município de Caicó/RN, sendo entrevistados 12 profissionais de saúde em abril de 2011. O projeto foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa (Parecer nº 127/10. Resultados: A maioria dos sujeitos era do sexo feminino (75%, e 50% com idade entre 21 e 29 anos. Além disso, 75% afirmaram nunca ter trabalhado em outro serviço de saúde mental. Foram criadas três categorias: Apoio matricial sob a ótica do encaminhamento; A medicalização dos serviços de saúde mental e ESF; e Formação acadêmica e o processo de trabalho em saúde. Conclusão: Os serviços de saúde pesquisados desenvolvem um cuidado fragmentado e pouco articulado, além de não reconhecerem o matriciamento como prática do processo de trabalho em saúde.
Ho, Rainbow Tin Hung; Chan, Caitlin Kar Pui; Lo, Phyllis Hau Yan; Wong, Ping Ho; Chan, Cecilia Lai Wan; Leung, Pamela Pui Yu; Chen, Eric Yu Hai
Spirituality has received increased attention in the psychiatric literature; however, it remains underexplored on a global level. Knowledge about spirituality of persons with schizophrenia is often hampered by positive and negative symptoms, which limit their expression of spiritual needs and shift mental-health professionals' focus from spiritual care to symptom control. Differences in the ways that the two parties understand spirituality may create different expectations and further hinder the provision of high-quality holistic care. This study investigated the meaning and roles of spirituality from the perspectives of persons with schizophrenia and mental-health professionals. A qualitative design with semi-structured individual interviews was adopted. The analysis was based on data collected from interviews with 18 clients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 19 mental-health professionals from public hospitals and mental-health community rehabilitation centres in Hong Kong. Data were collected and analysed based on grounded theory principles. Both clients and professionals regarded spirituality as an inherent part of a person's well-being, clients' rehabilitation, and their lives in general. At the personal level, the clients' descriptions were more factual, concrete, short term, and affective, whereas the professionals' descriptions were more abstract, complex, and cognitive. At the communal level, both parties had a similar understanding of spirituality but different interpretations of its role in recovery from mental illness. The clients regarded spirituality as a source of giving and receiving love and care, whereas the professionals regarded it as a means of receiving support and managing symptoms. Building a common understanding on the concept of spirituality and the significant role it plays in rehabilitation between clients and mental-health professionals is an essential first step to support clients' spiritual health. Clients tend to seek for stability
Grundy, A C; Walker, L; Meade, O; Fraser, C; Cree, L; Bee, P; Lovell, K; Callaghan, P
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: There is consistent evidence that service users and carers feel marginalized in the process of mental health care planning. Mental health professionals have identified ongoing training needs in relation to involving service users and carers in care planning. There is limited research on the acceptability of training packages for mental health professionals which involve service users and carers as co-facilitators. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: A co-produced and co-delivered training package on service user- and carer-involved care planning was acceptable to mental health professionals. Aspects of the training that were particularly valued were the co-production model, small group discussion and the opportunity for reflective practice. The organizational context of care planning may need more consideration in future training models. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Mental health nurses using co-production models of delivering training to other mental health professionals can be confident that such initiatives will be warmly welcomed, acceptable and engaging. On the basis of the results reported here, we encourage mental health nurses to use co-production approaches more often. Further research will show how clinically effective this training is in improving outcomes for service users and carers. Background There is limited evidence for the acceptability of training for mental health professionals on service user- and carer-involved care planning. Aim To investigate the acceptability of a co-delivered, two-day training intervention on service user- and carer-involved care planning. Methods Community mental health professionals were invited to complete the Training Acceptability Rating Scale post-training. Responses to the quantitative items were summarized using descriptive statistics (Miles, ), and qualitative responses were coded using content analysis (Weber, ). Results Of 350 trainees, 310 completed the
Fraser, C; Grundy, A; Meade, O; Callaghan, P; Lovell, K
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: UK NHS policy highlights the importance of user and carer involvement in health professional training. We know little about service user and carer motivations and experiences of accessing training courses for delivering training to health professionals and how well such courses prepare them for delivering training to healthcare professionals. 'Involvement' in training has often been tokenistic and too narrowly focused on preregistration courses. There is limited data on how best to prepare and support potential service user and carer trainers. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study adds to the international literature by highlighting service user and carer motivations for accessing a training course for delivering training to health professionals. Service users and carers wanted to gain new skills and confidence in presentation/facilitation as well as to make a difference to healthcare practice. We also learned that service users desired different levels of involvement in training facilitation - some wanted to take a more active role than others. A one-size-fits-all approach is not always appropriate. Encountering resistance from staff in training was a previously unidentified challenge to service user and carers' experience of delivering training in practice and is a key challenge for trainers to address in future. Professional training involvement can be enhanced via specialist training such as the EQUIP training the trainers programme evaluated here. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: When training service users and carers to deliver training to mental health professionals, it is important that service users are equipped to deal with resistance from staff. It is important that service user and carer roles are negotiated and agreed prior to delivering training to healthcare professionals to accommodate individual preferences and allay anxieties. Training for service users and carers must be offered
Albright, Glenn; Bryan, Craig; Adam, Cyrille; McMillan, Jeremiah; Shockley, Kristen
Primary health care professionals are in an excellent position to identify, screen, and conduct brief interventions for patients with mental health and substance use disorders. However, discomfort in initiating conversations about behavioral health, time concerns, lack of knowledge about screening tools, and treatment resources are barriers. This study examines the impact of an online simulation where users practice role-playing with emotionally responsive virtual patients to learn motivational interviewing strategies to better manage screening, brief interventions, and referral conversations. Baseline data were collected from 227 participants who were then randomly assigned into the treatment or wait-list control groups. Treatment group participants then completed the simulation, postsimulation survey, and 3-month follow-up survey. Results showed significant increases in knowledge/skill to identify and engage in collaborative decision making with patients. Results strongly suggest that role-play simulation experiences can be an effective means of teaching screening and brief intervention.
Helfgott, Jacqueline B; Hickman, Matthew J; Labossiere, Andre P
The Seattle Police Department (SPD) recently enhanced their response to individuals in behavioral crisis through a pilot Crisis Response Team (CRT) consisting of dedicated Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) officers (OFC) paired with a Mental Health Professional (MHP). This study presents results of an incident-based descriptive evaluation of the SPD's CRT pilot program, implemented from 2010 to 2012. The purpose of the evaluation was to determine the value-added by the MHP in cases involving individuals in behavioral crisis as well as the effectiveness of the CRT program with regard to resolution time, repeat contacts, and referral to services. Data were collected from SPD general offense and supplemental reports for a 12-month segment of the program. Key variables included incident location, case clearance, repeat contacts, linkages to services, and case disposition. Results of analyses of general offense and supplemental reports are presented and implications for future development of the OFC/MHP partnership are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
King, Richard V; Burkle, Frederick M; Walsh, Lauren E; North, Carol S
Competencies for disaster mental health are essential to domestic and international disaster response capabilities. Numerous consensus-based competency sets for disaster health workers exist, but no prior study identifies and discusses competency sets pertaining specifically to disaster mental health. Relevant competency sets were identified via MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and Google Scholar searches. Sixteen competency sets are discussed, some providing core competencies for all disaster responders and others for specific responder groups within particular professions or specialties. Competency sets specifically for disaster mental health professionals are lacking, with the exception of one set that focused only on cultural competence. The identified competency sets provide guidance for educators in developing disaster mental health curricula and for disaster health workers seeking education and training in disaster mental health. Valid, criterion-based competencies are required to guide selection and training of mental health professionals for the disaster mental health workforce. In developing these competencies, consideration should be given to the requirements of both domestic and international disaster response efforts.
... NAMI About NAMI + x IN THIS SECTION La salud mental en la comunidad latina Share NAMI Share Home ... Support Diverse Communities Latinos IN THIS SECTION La salud mental en la comunidad latina Latino Mental Health Video ...
... Health Promotion . Fact sheet no. 220. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Chronic Illness & Mental Health . Bethesda, MD: National Institutes ... of-onset distributions of mental disorders in the World Health Organization’s World Mental Health Survey Initiative. World Psychiatry. 2007; ...
Profissionais de saúde mental: estresse e estressores ocupacionais stress e estressores ocupacionais em saúde mental Profesionales de la salud mental: estrés y estresores ocupacionalesestrés y estresores ocupacionales en salud mental Mental health professionals: stress and occupational stressors stress and occupational stressors of mental health
Ana Flávia de Oliveira Santos
ón en el trabajo fueron los factores más frecuentemente asociados a la percepción de estar bajo estrés. Se concluye que los profesionales vivencian estresores asociados a los cambios relativos al paradigma psicosocial de atención, apuntando a la necesidad de intervención dirigida al desarrollo de estrategias de enfrentamiento de las situaciones ocupacionales estresoras.Mental health professionals are particularly vulnerable to stress, considering the characteristics of the work they develop. The purpose of this study was to assess the manifestation of stress, self-perception of stress, and stressing work factors in substitutive mental health service professionals. Twenty-five workers, working for at least six months, took part in the study. The instruments employed were Lipp's Inventory of Stress Symptoms in Adults and a Complementary Script. Quantitative data were treated by descriptive statistics, and the remaining data were analyzed qualitatively. It was observed that 36.0% of the professional had stress manifestations, and 44.0% perceived they were under stress. Work conditions and relationships at work were the most frequent factors associated to the perception of being under stress. In conclusion, professionals experience stressors associated with the changes implied in the psychosocial paradigm of care. Thus, there is a need to make direct interventions toward the development of coping strategies in stressing occupational situations.
A cluster randomised controlled trial and process evaluation of a training programme for mental health professionals to enhance user involvement in care planning in service users with severe mental health issues (EQUIP): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
Bower, Peter; Roberts, Chris; O'Leary, Neil; Callaghan, Patrick; Bee, Penny; Fraser, Claire; Gibbons, Chris; Olleveant, Nicola; Rogers, Anne; Davies, Linda; Drake, Richard; Sanders, Caroline; Meade, Oonagh; Grundy, Andrew; Walker, Lauren; Cree, Lindsey; Berzins, Kathryn; Brooks, Helen; Beatty, Susan; Cahoon, Patrick; Rolfe, Anita; Lovell, Karina
Involving service users in planning their care is at the centre of policy initiatives to improve mental health care quality in England. Whilst users value care planning and want to be more involved in their own care, there is substantial empirical evidence that the majority of users are not fully involved in the care planning process. Our aim is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of training for mental health professionals in improving user involvement with the care planning processes. This is a cluster randomised controlled trial of community mental health teams in NHS Trusts in England allocated either to a training intervention to improve user and carer involvement in care planning or control (no training and care planning as usual). We will evaluate the effectiveness of the training intervention using a mixed design, including a 'cluster cohort' sample, a 'cluster cross-sectional' sample and process evaluation. Service users will be recruited from the caseloads of care co-ordinators. The primary outcome will be change in self-reported involvement in care planning as measured by the validated Health Care Climate Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include involvement in care planning, satisfaction with services, medication side-effects, recovery and hope, mental health symptoms, alliance/engagement, well-being and quality of life. Cost- effectiveness will also be measured. A process evaluation informed by implementation theory will be undertaken to assess the extent to which the training was implemented and to gauge sustainability beyond the time-frame of the trial. It is hoped that the trial will generate data to inform mental health care policy and practice on care planning. ISRCTN16488358 (14 May 2014).
Prieto-Welch, Susan L.
This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.
Jamilia J. Blake
Full Text Available African American males are at increased risk for experiencing disciplinary practices that exclude them from the school environment. It is believed that African American males’ overrepresentation in the receipt of these practices contributes to their involvement in the criminal justice system as they approach adolescence and enter adulthood. The connection of exclusionary discipline with incarceration rates is termed the School to Prison Pipeline. Although some scholars have identified school-wide initiatives as having potential in curtailing African American males’ overrepresentation in these punitive discipline practices, less discussion has focused on the role of school-based mental health professionals to address this issue. School-based mental health professionals possess a unique set of skills that may assist schools in decreasing African American males’ exposure to exclusionary discipline practices and consequently reducing their risk for adverse outcomes. The purpose of this review is to provide school-based mental health professionals with specific recommendations for reducing this negative educational experience.
East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C
The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations
The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations
Rr Dian Tristiana
Conclusion: Families whose members suffered from mental illness still experienced barriers in relation to mental health services even with universal health coverage. Improved mental health services are related to the health insurance coverage, affordability, availability of mental health services and stigma reduction in the health professionals and wide community.
Clarke, Aleisha M.; Chambers, Derek; Barry, Margaret M.
The increasing role of online technologies in young people’s lives has significant implications for professionals’ engagement with technologies to promote youth mental health and well-being. However, relatively little is known about professionals’ views on the role of technologies in supporting
Germundsson, Per; Hillborg, Helene; Danermark, Berth
There is an aspiration and policy within the European Union to fully involve persons with disabilities in the community; this implies an opportunity to gainful employment. A large percentage of disabled persons remain unemployed despite this policy, especially persons with mental health problems. This study aims at investigating how people with…
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C.
Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ‘preventive medicine’ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ‘R’s such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073
Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C
Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health.
Hewitt, J L
Mental health policy development in the UK has become increasingly dominated by the assumed need to prevent violence and alleviate public concerns about the dangers of the mentally ill living in the community. Risk management has become the expected focus of contemporary mental health services, and responsibility has increasingly been devolved to individual service professionals when systems fail to prevent violence. This paper analyses the development of mental health legislation and its impact on services users and mental health professionals at the micro level of service delivery. Historical precedence, media influence and public opinion are explored, and the reification of risk is questioned in practical and ethical terms. The government's newest proposals for compulsory treatment in the community are discussed in terms of practical efficacy and therapeutic impact. Dangerousness is far from being an objectively observable phenomenon arising from clinical pathology, but is a formulation of what is partially knowable through social analysis and unknowable by virtue of its situation in individual psychic motivation. Risk assessment can therefore never be completely accurate, and the solution of a 'better safe than sorry' approach to mental health policy is ethically and pragmatically flawed.
van de Bovenkamp, H.M.; Trappenburg, M.J.
Because family members take on caring tasks and also suffer as a consequence of the illness of the patient, communication between health-care professionals and family members of the patient is important. This review compares communication practices between these two parties in three different parts
vab, Vesna; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana
Mental health conceptualize a state of well-being, perceived self efficacy, competence, autonomy, intergenerational dependence and recognition of the ability to realize one's intellectual and emotional potential. Mental health care are services provided to individuals or communities by agents of the health services or professions to promote, maintain, monitor, or restore mental health. Students will become familiar with extensiveness of the problem, and levels of preventing it. It is illustra...
Groen, Simon P N; Richters, Annemiek; Laban, Cornelis J; Devillé, Walter L J M
Cultural identity in relation with mental health is of growing interest in the field of transcultural psychiatry. However, there is a need to clarify the concept of cultural identity in order to make it useful in clinical practice. The purpose of this study is to unravel the complexity and many layers of cultural identity, and to assess how stress and acculturation relate to (changes in) cultural identity. As part of a larger study about cultural identity, trauma, and mental health, 85 patients from Afghanistan and Iraq in treatment for trauma-related disorders were interviewed with a Brief Cultural Interview. The interviews were analysed through qualitative data analysis using the procedures of grounded theory. The analysis resulted in three domains of cultural identity: personal identity, ethnic identity and social identity. Within each domain relationships with stress and acculturation were identified. The results offer insight into the intensity of changes in cultural identity, caused by pre-and post-migration stressors and the process of acculturation. Based on the research findings recommendations are formulated to enhance the cultural competency of mental health workers.
... to content Home Health Information Health Information Home Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental ... Gordon discusses NIMH priorities and future directions in mental health research. More Autism Awareness Month Autism Spectrum Disorder ( ...
Perry, B L; Pullen, E; Pescosolido, B A
The therapeutic alliance is a critical determinant of individuals' persistence and outcomes in mental health treatment. Simultaneously, individuals' community networks shape decisions about whether, when, and what kind of treatment are used. Despite the similar focus on social relationship influence for individuals with serious mental illness, each line of research has maintained an almost exclusive focus on either 'inside' (i.e. treatment) networks or 'outside' (i.e. community) networks, respectively. For this study, we integrate these important insights by employing a network-embedded approach to understand the therapeutic alliance. Using data from the Indianapolis Network Mental Health Study (INMHS, n = 169, obs = 2206), we target patients experiencing their first major contact with the mental health treatment system. We compare patients' perceptions of support resources available through treatment providers and lay people, and ask whether evaluations of interpersonal dimensions of the therapeutic alliance are contingent on characteristics of community networks. Analyses reveal that providers make up only 9% of the whole social network, but are generally perceived positively. However, when community networks are characterized by close relationships and frequent contact, patients are significantly more likely to report that treatment providers offer useful advice and information. Conversely, when community networks are in conflict, perceptions of treatment providers are more negative. Community-based social networks are critical for understanding facilitators of and barriers to effective networks inside treatment, including the therapeutic alliance. Implications for community-based systems of care are discussed in the context of the USA and global patterns of deinstitutionalization and community reintegration.
Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter
In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....
Physiotherapy in mental health care and psychiatry is a recognized specialty within physiotherapy. It offers a rich variety of observational and evaluation tools as well as a range of interventions that are related to the patient’s physical and mental health problems based on evidence-based literature and a 50-year history. Physiotherapy in mental health care addresses human movement, function, physical activity and exercise in individual and group therapeutic settings. Additionally, it conne...
Okkels, Niels; Kristiansen, Christina Blanner; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl
areas include loneliness, violence, high crime rates, homelessness, noise and other pollutants, traffic accidents, drug abuse, and insufficiency of mental health services. Summary Urbanization is a global and growing phenomenon that pose significant challenges to mental health and mental health services....... Fast and unstructured urbanization, such as that seen in many developing countries, further exacerbates these challenges. There are promising initiatives emerging including initiatives to end homelessness, to improve access to green areas in urban environments, to provide emergency psychiatric services...
Concepções de profissionais da estratégia saúde da família sobre saúde mental Conceptos de profesionales sobre la Estratégia de Salud de la Familia con relación a la salud mental Conceptions concerning mental health held by professionals working within the Family Health Strategy
Tatiana Maria Coelho Veloso
Family Health Strategy (FHS understand mental health to be. This descriptive and exploratory study with a qualitative approach was conducted with 16 professionals from a FHS team in the city of Guaiúba, CE, Brazil. Data were collected during January and February 2011 through focal groups in which the dialogues were recorded and later transcribed for analysis. The following categories emerged from content analysis: "Talking about mental health vs. Thinking about mental disorder" and "Understanding mental health more broadly". Some professionals revealed restricted, mental disorder-centered conceptions, while others understood mental health more broadly, recognizing the dynamics of the health-disease continuum and identifying aspects that influence one's mental health.
Fernanda Barreto Mielke
Full Text Available Neste estudo qualitativo, subprojeto da pesquisa "Avaliação dos CAPSs da região sul do Brasil", temos o objetivo de conhecer as características do cuidado em saúde mental oferecido por um centro de atenção psicossocial (CAPS na perspectiva de seus profissionais. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de entrevistas individuais. Utilizou-se a análise temática, emergindo dos dados três temáticas. Neste artigo, destacamos a temática intitulada 'caracterização do cuidado em saúde mental prestado pelos profissionais do CAPS'. As características do cuidado em saúde mental advindas das entrevistas foram autonomia do usuário, que, juntamente com a questão da alta do serviço, deve ser mais desenvolvida; atendimento centrado especificamente na doença como herança do tratamento hospitalar; e preocupação da equipe com a implementação de práticas psicossociais inclusivas e cidadãs.In this qualitative study, a sub-project of the "Evaluation of CAPSs in Southern Brazil" research project, the goal is to get to know the characteristics of mental health care offered by a psychosocial care center (CAPS in view of its professionals. Data collection was conducted through individual interviews. Thematic analysis was used, and three themes stemmed from the data. In this article, we highlight the theme titled 'characterization of the mental health care provided by the CAPS professionals.' The characteristics of mental health care noticed in the interviews were user autonomy, which, together with the issue of discharge from the service, should be further developed; care focused specifically on the disease as a legacy of hospital care; and the team's concern with the implementation of inclusive psychosocial practices.
Ritblatt, Shulamit N; Hokoda, Audrey; Van Liew, Charles
This paper delineates a preventive approach to early childhood mental health by preparing the workforce to provide relational, sensitive care to young children ages 0-5. One of the most prevalent issues in early childhood is behavioral challenges and the inability of young children to regulate themselves. This leads to an expulsion rate in early childhood (3-4 times higher than K-12 expulsion rate) and future mental health issues. The Early Childhood Social-Emotional and Behavior Regulation Intervention Specialist (EC-SEBRIS) graduate level certificate program was created to strengthen early care and education providers with the knowledge and practice of how to support emotion and behavior regulation in young children in their groups. Evaluation data provide evidence that early care and education professionals increased in their perception of self-efficacy and in their sensitivity of care and skills to support behavioral health in young children. Results indicated that the children in their care showed less challenging behaviors and increased social competencies. This manuscript highlights the importance of prevention and the dire need to provide young children with high-quality, appropriate care to support their mental health.
Toran, Hasnah; Squires, Jane; Lawrence, Karen
The Infant Mental Health system in Malaysia is described, beginning with cultural and religious practices that influence mental health practices. Second, a description of the Malaysian mental health system, including historical influences, is given. Third, policy and services for young children with mental health problems are described. Finally, recommendations for future steps for developing an effective infant mental health system are presented, including the development of infant mental health policies by the government, increased personnel training, increased community mental health resources, integration of culture into the mental health system, and finally, development of appropriate screening and assessment instruments and systems. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Lund, Ole; Krogh Christensen, Mette; Mørcke, Anne Mette
Drawing on positioning theory, the purpose of this paper is to characterize the activities and positions of students and supervisors at workplaces and on-campus skills training sites across the higher health professional educations of medicine, sports science, and nursing. Furthermore, the study...... explored the impact of work-based learning (WBL) and skills training on students’ personal professional identity development....
... Helping Children in Rural Areas Children's Mental Health Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Mental health in childhood means reaching developmental and emotional milestones, and learning healthy social skills and how to cope when ...
... for the individual. Covering issues including perinatal psychiatric disorders, depression, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and alcohol and drug abuse - from a female perspective - Women and Mental Health will prove a valuable tool for all those working in the fields of mental health. Dora Kohen is a Consultant Psychiatrist and an Honorary Senior...
Full Text Available Issues related to the mental health of women are a priority these days. Many international organisations working in the field of psychiatry are having sections on it now. This approach can go a long way in the improvement of the available mental health services for this population.
Antunes, Ana; Frasquilho, Diana; Cardoso, Graça; Pereira, Nádia; Silva, Manuela; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; Ferrão, João
Economic recession periods can pose accentuated risks to population's mental health and well-being as well as additional threats to health systems. Users and health professionals are key stakeholders in care delivery; however, little attention has been given to their experiences of the crisis. This paper presents a qualitative study protocol to assess users' and health professionals' perceptions about the effects of the post-2008 economic recession on mental health and care delivery in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, Portugal. The methodology to assess perceived effects of the economic recession by primary care users and professionals on population mental health, well-being and provision of care is presented. Focus groups with users and semistructured interviews with health professionals will be carried out in three primary healthcare units in Lisbon areas especially affected by the crisis. Thematic analysis of full-transcribed interviews will be conducted using an iterative and reflexive approach. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of NOVA Medical School, NOVA University of Lisbon. The findings will be useful for other researchers and policy-makers to develop and implement the assessment of prevailing experiences of users and health professionals on the effects of the economic recession on mental health and quality of care in primary health context, promoting their involvement and contribution to services responsiveness. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available Professional quality of life (ProQOL reflects how individuals feel about their work as helpers. Psychiatric ward nurses cope with significant psychological and physical challenges, including exposure to verbal and physical violence. This study was based on two aspects of ProQOL, the positive compassion satisfaction, and the negative compassion fatigue, with the aim of investigating the relation of ProQOL to job stress and violence exposure at a large mental health center. Data were collected from 114 mental health nurses (49/63 M/F who completed a self-administered questionnaire examining violence exposure, ProQOL, and job stress. The results showed that during the last year, almost all nurses (88.6% experienced verbal violence, and more than half (56.1% experienced physical violence. Only 2.6% experienced no violence. ProQOL was not associated with violence exposure but was reduced by work stress and by previous exposure to violence; nurses who perceived their work as more stressful had lower satisfaction from their work. In conclusion, although most mental health nurses are exposed to physical and verbal violence, their ProQOL is more related to job stress than to workplace violence (WPV. Hospital managements should conduct work stress reduction intervention programs and promote strategizes to reduce WPV. Further exploration of (a factors affecting ProQOL and (b the effect of violence coping workshops on ProQOL is warranted.
... and Family Members For Educators For Community and Faith Leaders Conversations in Your Community How To Get Help Get Immediate Help Help for Veterans and Their Families Health Insurance and Mental Health Services Participate in a ...
The professionalization of psychology yielded many advantages, but also led to a main focus on psychopathology in mental health care. This thesis investigated an additional positive approach to mental health, focusing on positive feelings and life satisfaction (emotional well-being) and optimal
Hean, Sarah; Ødegård, Atle; Willumsen, Elisabeth
Purpose Interprofessional collaboration is necessary when supporting mentally ill offenders but little is understood of these interactions. The purpose of this paper is to explore prison officers' perceptions of current and desirable levels of interprofessional collaboration (relational coordination (RC)) to understand how collaboration between these systems can be improved. Design/methodology/approach Gittell's RC scale was administered to prison officers within the Norwegian prison system ( n=160) using an adaptation of the instrument in which actual and desired levels of RC are evaluated. This differentiates between prison officers' expectations of optimum levels of collaboration with other professional groups, dependent on the role function and codependence, vs actual levels of collaboration. Findings Prison officers reported different RC levels across professional groups, the lowest being with specialist mental health staff and prison doctors and highest with nurses, social workers and other prison officers. Significant differences between desired and actual RC levels suggest expertise of primary care staff is insufficient, as prison officers request much greater contact with mental health specialists when dealing with the mentally ill offender. Originality/value The paper contributes to limited literature on collaborative practice between prison and health care professionals. It questions the advisability of enforcing care pathways that promote the lowest level of effective care in the prison system and suggest ways in which mental health specialists might be better integrated into the prison system. It contributes to the continued debate on how mental health services should be integrated into the prison system, suggesting that the current import model used in Norway and other countries, may not be conducive to generating the close professional relationships required between mental health and prison staff.
A teacher's intention to refer students to mental health professionals is important to the early identification of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and prevention of further problems. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to determine the strongest belief-related predictors of a teacher's intentions to refer students with ADHD symptoms to a mental health professional in the U.S. and South Korea. Perceived stigma and knowledge of ADHD were additional predictors in examining the role of culture in a teacher's perceptions of the public's stigma toward ADHD and a teachers' knowledge of ADHD. Cross-cultural differences exist. U.S. teachers' (n = 235) intentions to refer were predicted by all TPB variables (i.e., attitudes about referral, beliefs about whether important others would approve of making a referral, and perceived behavioral control in making a referral). However, among South Korean teachers (n = 144), behavioral control and perceived stigma were the only predictors. The results imply the importance of considering the cultural context in understanding a teacher's referral behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Trabalho em saúde mental: vivências dos profissionais diante dos resultados Trabajo en salud mental: vivencias de profisionales delante los resultados Mental health work: professional's experiences facing the outcomes
Vinicius Carvalho de Vasconcellos
úan la concepción del trabajo a través de sus limitaciones intrínsecas como mecanismo que mitiga la frustración profesional y analiza las implicaciones de las vivencias de los profesionales en su relación con el trabajo.Considering the scenario of consolidation of Brazilian psychiatric reform, this paper investigated in the context of mental health workers, representations relating to the professional role, experiences before the results of assistance and the expectations of future career, addressing also the possible link between these elements. and analyzed mainly through the theoretical framework of the French Social Psychology. Overall, the results suggest that the experience of holding forth the results of the study is linked to the performance of the professional role, also indicating the connection between these latter elements and the career's expectations . In the discussion and conclusion, it emphasizes the conception of the work through its intrinsic limitations as a mechanism that mitigates the professional frustration and it also analyzes the implications of experiences concerning the results of subjective professional relationship with the work.
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Public Health Agency
This leaflet outlines the signs of poor mental health and suggests steps that people can take to promote good mental health. It advises people to talk to someone if they feel that they may have a mental health problem.
Parameshvara Deva, M
severe shortages of other professionals such as clinical psychologists and social workers in mental health services. There are a few specialists, and specialized services in child, adolescent, forensic, rehabilitative, liaison or research fields of mental health. In the area of services for women and children, as well as the disabled in the community, there are strong efforts to improve the care and provide services that are in keeping with a caring society. New legislation on these are being passed every year and the setting up of a Ministry for Women's Affairs is one such move in recent years. Mental health in Malaysia has been slow in developing but has in the past decade seen important strides to bring it on par with other branches of medicine.
Happell, Brenda; Wilson, Rhonda; McNamara, Paul
Mental Health First Aid training is designed to equip people with the skills to help others who may be developing mental health problems or experiencing mental health crises. This training has consistently been shown to increase: (1) the recognition of mental health problems; (2) the extent to which course trainees' beliefs about treatment align with those of mental health professionals; (3) their intentions to help others; and (4) their confidence in their abilities to assist others. This paper presents a discussion of the potential role of Mental Health First Aid training in undergraduate mental health nursing education. Three databases (CINAHL, Medline, and PsycINFO) were searched to identify literature on Mental Health First Aid. Although Mental Health First Aid training has strong benefits, this first responder level of education is insufficient for nurses, from whom people expect to receive professional care. It is recommended that: (1) Mental Health First Aid training be made a prerequisite of preregistration nurse education, (2) registered nurses make a larger contribution to addressing the mental health needs of Australians requiring care, and (3) current registered nurses take responsibility for ensuring that they can provided basic mental health care, including undertaking training to rectify gaps in their knowledge.
Tarsitani, Lorenzo; Biondi, Massimo
Migration is an important risk factor for the development of common and severe mental disorders. Nevertheless, in Europe, immigrants are less likely to access community mental health care and to adhere to treatments, with consequent emergency referrals, involuntary admissions, and traumatic coercive measures. At a clinical level, changes in practices and cross-cultural skills of mental health professionals might be crucial in addressing this challenge.
Barriers to the participation of people with psychosocial disability in mental health policy development in South Africa: a qualitative study of perspectives of policy makers, professionals, religious leaders and academics.
Kleintjes, Sharon; Lund, Crick; Swartz, Leslie
This paper outlines stakeholder views on environmental barriers that prevent people who live with psychosocial disability from participating in mental health policy development in South Africa. Fifty-six semi-structured interviews with national, provincial and local South African mental health stakeholders were conducted between August 2006 and August 2009. Respondents included public sector policy makers, professional regulatory council representatives, and representatives from non-profit organisations (NPOs), disabled people's organisations (DPOs), mental health interest groups, religious organisations, professional associations, universities and research institutions. Respondents identified three main environmental barriers to participation in policy development: (a) stigmatization and low priority of mental health, (b) poverty, and (c) ineffective recovery and community supports. A number of attitudes, practices and structures undermine the equal participation of South Africans with psychosocial disability in society. A human rights paradigm and multi-system approach is required to enable full social engagement by people with psychosocial disability, including their involvement in policy development.
Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; de Oliveira, Raquel Vasconcellos Carvalhaes
In this article, we analyze the physical and mental stress and illness of military and civil police force officers in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) due to their working conditions and professional activities. The same methodology was used for the study of two categories, namely a quantitative approach (simple random sampling by conglomerates, involving a total of 1,458 civil police officers and 1,108 military police officers, who answered questionnaires anonymously) and a qualitative approach (focal groups involving 143 professionals and 18 interviews with managers of both police forces). The data presented here are all original. Disorders identified were: overweight and obesity in both forces but mainly in the Military Police; low frequency of physical exercise and high levels of cholesterol, especially in the Civil Police. The main health complaints are neck, back or spinal cord pain, eyesight complaints and headaches/ migraines. Sixteen point two per cent of officers of both forces reported physical lesions that were more prevalent in the Military Police, among whom psychic suffering was also more frequent (SRQ20). The need for changes in the individual and professional dimensions and in institutional aspects regarding the conditions and organization of work and of health services is emphasized.
The manner in which the arts can enhance the practical, therapeutic concerns of mental health professionals is becoming well established in the health care literature. What gets discussed less frequently, however, are those aesthetic frameworks that propose to give an account of the possible 'meaning' and 'purpose' of art. In response, this paper will elucidate the aesthetic theory of the Hungarian philosopher Georg Lukács and will suggest that his concept of specific particularity enables an understanding of how art, and literature, poetry and drama in particular, can be employed as an educational resource that can contribute to the development of the 'emotional capabilities' of practitioners. However, insofar as Lukács' works are philosophically complex and challenging, his concept of specific particularity will be discussed within the context of Samuel Beckett's dramatic work Ohio Impromptu. In doing so, it will be suggested that Ohio Impromptu is not only productive for the elucidation of Lukács' aesthetics, but also illustrates how the arts provides practitioners with a valuable educative opportunity to engage with, and critically reflect upon, a multiplicity of affective dimensions, thereby enhancing the practitioner's ability to move towards achieving an empathic understanding of, and 'emotional resonance' with, those receiving mental health care. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.
Bonelli, Raphael Maria
Since 1978, two systematic evidence-based reviews of the available data on religiosity and mental health in the field of psychiatry have been done. More than 70 % found a relationship between level of religious/spiritual involvement and less mental disorder (positive), some found mixed results (positive and negative), and only about 5 % reported more mental disorder (negative), as was originally suggested by Sigmund Freud. There is good evidence that religious involvement is correlated with better mental health in the areas of depression, substance abuse, and suicide; some evidence in stress-related disorders and dementia; insufficient evidence in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and no data in many other mental disorders. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Mcluckie, Alan; Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Weaver, Cynthia
Background Enhancement of mental health literacy for youth is a focus of increasing interest for mental health professionals and educators alike. Schools are an ideal site for addressing mental health literacy in young people. Currently, there is limited evidence regarding the impact of curriculum-based interventions within high school settings. We examined the effect of a high-school mental health curriculum (The Guide) in enhancing mental health literacy in Canadian schools. Methods We cond...
Cook, R J; Ortega-Ortiz, A; Romans, S; Ross, L E
Where legal systems allow therapeutic abortion to preserve women's mental health, practitioners often lack access to mental health professionals for making critical diagnoses or prognoses that pregnancy or childcare endangers patients' mental health. Practitioners themselves must then make clinical assessments of the impact on their patients of continued pregnancy or childcare. The law requires only that practitioners make assessments in good faith, and by credible criteria. Mental disorder includes psychological distress or mental suffering due to unwanted pregnancy and responsibility for childcare, or, for instance, anticipated serious fetal impairment. Account should be taken of factors that make patients vulnerable to distress, such as personal or family mental health history, factors that may precipitate mental distress, such as loss of personal relationships, and factors that may maintain distress, such as poor education and marginal social status. Some characteristics of patients may operate as both precipitating and maintaining factors, such as poverty and lack of social support.
Full Text Available Abstract Background For people with dementia, patient-centred care should involve timely explanation of the diagnosis and its implications. However, this is not routine. Theoretical models of behaviour change offer a generalisable framework for understanding professional practice and identifying modifiable factors to target with an intervention. Theoretical models and empirical work indicate that behavioural intention represents a modifiable predictor of actual professional behaviour. We identified factors that predict the intentions of members of older people's mental health teams (MHTs to perform key behaviours involved in the disclosure of dementia. Design Postal questionnaire survey. Participants Professionals from MHTs in the English National Health Service. Methods We selected three behaviours: Determining what patients already know or suspect about their diagnosis; using explicit terminology when talking to patients; and exploring what the diagnosis means to patients. The questionnaire was based upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, and exploratory team variables. Main outcomes Behavioural intentions. Results Out of 1,269 professionals working in 85 MHTs, 399 (31.4% returned completed questionnaires. Overall, the TPB best explained behavioural intention. For determining what patients already know, the TPB variables of subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and attitude explained 29.4% of the variance in intention. For the use of explicit terminology, the same variables explained 53.7% of intention. For exploring what the diagnosis means to patients, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control explained 48.6% of intention. Conclusion These psychological models can explain up to half of the variation in intention to perform key disclosure behaviours. This provides an empirically-supported, theoretical basis for the design of interventions to improve disclosure practice by targeting relevant
Wanke, Eileen M; Schmidt, Mike; Leslie-Spinks, Jeremy; Fischer, Axel; Groneberg, David A
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the level of mental and physical workloads in professional dance teachers depending on the trained students' age, technique level, or dance style. A total number of 133 professional dance pedagogues responded to an online cross-sectional questionnaire survey on self-assessment of physical and mental workloads occurring during dance units. The majority of dance teachers estimated their level of physical and mental workload to be almost as high as that of their students, with differences in physical and mental workloads observed depending on dance style, age of students, and technical level. More than 60% of the teachers were convinced that their occupation implies positive effects on their own health in terms of self-realization (78.2%), musculoskeletal system (66.9%), and social relationships (61.7%). Of all respondents, 58.6% stated that their musculoskeletal system was jeopardized by the physically demanding activity. This is followed by the fear of financial insecurity (50.4%). The majority of all dance teachers (males 65.4%, females 63.9%) would like to obtain further education on prevention against or dealing with physical workload. Physical and mental workloads play an important role in dance teaching. Coping with or preventing these loads could be keys to a lifelong, healthy career as a professional dance teacher. Future trials should look at clinical parameters of physical and mental load.
Conclusion: We can conclude that the intervention was capable of enhancing positive mental health. However, due to a high attrition rate, especially in the intervention group, this result should be considered with caution. Improvement of the screening instrument, more use of persuasive technology within the interventions and individual guidance to support engagement and compliance may be recommended.
Waqas, Ahmed; Ahmad, Waqas; Haddad, Mark; Taggart, Frances M.; Muhammad, Zerwah; Bukhari, Muhammad Hamza; Sami, Shahzad Ahmed; Batool, Sayyeda Mehak; Najeeb, Fiza; Hanif, Ayesha; Rizvi, Zehra Ali; Ejaz, Sumbul
Background. There is growing awareness of the public health importance of mental well-being both in the general population and in specific groups. The well-being of health professionals is likely to influence the quality of the care they deliver. This study was carried out to examine the well-being of Pakistani healthcare professionals, and to evaluate the psychometric performance of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) in this population. \\ud \\ud Methods. A cross-sectional ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Moving a forensic mental health patient from one level of therapeutic security to a lower level or to the community is influenced by more than risk assessment and risk management. We set out to construct and validate structured professional judgement instruments for consistency and transparency in decision making Methods Two instruments were developed, the seven-item DUNDRUM-3 programme completion instrument and the six item DUNDRUM-4 recovery instrument. These were assessed for all 95 forensic patients at Ireland's only forensic mental health hospital. Results The two instruments had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.911 and 0.887. Scores distinguished those allowed no leave or accompanied leave from those with unaccompanied leave (ANOVA F = 38.1 and 50.3 respectively, p Conclusions The DUNDRUM-3 programme completion items distinguished significantly between levels of therapeutic security while the DUNDRUM-4 recovery items consistently distinguished those given unaccompanied leave outside the hospital and those in the lowest levels of therapeutic security. This data forms the basis for a prospective study of outcomes now underway.
Abstract Background Moving a forensic mental health patient from one level of therapeutic security to a lower level or to the community is influenced by more than risk assessment and risk management. We set out to construct and validate structured professional judgement instruments for consistency and transparency in decision making Methods Two instruments were developed, the seven-item DUNDRUM-3 programme completion instrument and the six item DUNDRUM-4 recovery instrument. These were assessed for all 95 forensic patients at Ireland\\'s only forensic mental health hospital. Results The two instruments had good internal consistency (Cronbach\\'s alpha 0.911 and 0.887). Scores distinguished those allowed no leave or accompanied leave from those with unaccompanied leave (ANOVA F = 38.1 and 50.3 respectively, p < 0.001). Scores also distinguished those in acute\\/high security units from those in medium or in low secure\\/pre-discharge units. Each individual item distinguished these levels of need significantly. The DUNDRUM-3 and DUNDRUM-4 correlated moderately with measures of dynamic risk and with the CANFOR staff rated unmet need (Spearman r = 0.5, p < 0.001). Conclusions The DUNDRUM-3 programme completion items distinguished significantly between levels of therapeutic security while the DUNDRUM-4 recovery items consistently distinguished those given unaccompanied leave outside the hospital and those in the lowest levels of therapeutic security. This data forms the basis for a prospective study of outcomes now underway.
... with Symptoms & Treatment Help with Relationships Support for Helpers Balanced Mind Parent Network Family Center I'm ... not a substitute for consultation with a health professional. Regardless of the results of a screen, if ...
Lindert, Jutta; Bilsen, Johan; Jakubauskiene, Marija
Public mental health (PMH) is a major challenge for public health research and practice. This article is organized in six parts. First, we will highlight the significance of PMH; second, we will define mental health and mental disorders; third, we identify and describe determinants of mental health and mental disorders on which we worked in the past 10 years since the establishment of the PMH section such as social determinants and violence. Fourth, we will describe the development of the EUPHA PMH section and provide details on vulnerable groups in the field of PMH, on violence as a main determinant and on suicide as an outcome which affects all countries in the European region. Fifth, we describe policy and practice implications of the development of PMH and highlight the European dimension of PMH. We will conclude this article by providing an outlook on potential further development of PMH as regards research and policy and practice. Finally, we hope that the EUPHA PMH section will contribute to public health in the next 25 years and we can contribute to improvement of PMH in Europe. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
van den Brink, Rob H. S.; Broer, Jan; Tholen, Alfons J.; Winthorst, Wim H.; Visser, Ellen; Wiersma, Durk
Background: The police are considered frontline professionals in managing individuals experiencing mental health crises. This study examines the extent to which these individuals are disconnected from mental health services, and whether the police response has an influence on re-establishing
Wechsler, Nick D.; Woodlock, Kelly K.
Many professionals who work with very young children and their families have not received training in infant mental health (IMH). The Ounce of Prevention Fund recognized this unmet need and formed a multidisciplinary support network for teams of home visitors, parent group facilitators, community program supervisors, and mental health clinicians.…
May 8, 2003 ... ing to Mental Health Care Users. The Act specifies and contextualizes various rights ... health status; Disclosure of information; Limitation on intimate adult relationships; Rights to representation; ... tion is provided - within the financial constraints available. If litigation is to be avoided, health professionals ...
Mayeya, John; Chazulwa, Roy; Mayeya, Petronella Ntambo; Mbewe, Edward; Magolo, Lonia Mwape; Kasisi, Friday; Bowa, Annel Chishimba
traditionally the duty and responsibility of the extended family to look after the aged. Gender based violence (GBV) is another issue. Women, who are totally dependent on their spouses economically, are forced by circumstances to continue living in abusive relationships to the detriment of their mental well-being. In Zambia, the family is considered sacrosanct and the affairs of the family members, private. It is within this context that GBV is regarded as a family affair and therefore a private affair, yet spouse beating has led to depression and in some cases death. In terms of psychiatric services, there are close to 560 beds for psychiatric patients across the country. Common mental disorders found in Zambia are acute psychotic episodes, schizophrenia, affective disorders, alcohol related problems and organic brain syndromes. About 70-80% of people with mental health problems consult traditional health practitioners before they seek help from conventional health practitioners. Over time the number of frontline mental health workers and professional staff has been declining. This is due to the 'brain drain', retirement, death and low output from training institutions. For practicing psychiatrists, only one is available for the whole country. Other key mental health workers such as psychologists, social workers and occupational therapists are also in short supply. All in all, the mental health services situation in Zambia could be described as critical, requiring urgent attention.
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others
This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…
Song, Insu; Yellowlees, Peter; Diederich, Joachim
This book introduces approaches that have the potential to transform the daily practice of psychiatrists and psychologists. This includes the asynchronous communication between mental health care providers and clients as well as the automation of assessment and therapy. Speech and language are particularly interesting from the viewpoint of psychological assessment. For instance, depression may change the characteristics of voice in individuals and these changes can be detected by a special form of speech analysis. Computational screening methods that utilise speech and language can detect subtle changes and alert clinicians as well as individuals and caregivers. The use of online technologies in mental health, however, poses ethical problems that will occupy concerned individuals, governments and the wider public for some time. Assuming that these ethical problems can be solved, it should be possible to diagnose and treat mental health disorders online (excluding the use of medication).
... violence (IPV) and women veterans More information on women veterans and mental health Recent research shows that about 25to 30 percent of veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan report symptoms of a mental disorder. Untreated mental ...
Background: The department of Mental Health Nursing (MHN) at the University of Rwanda was founded in 1998.Until that time, Rwanda had faced a huge shortage of mental health professionals; specifically, there were 1 psychiatrist, 3 mental health nurses and very few clinical psychologists (less than 5) in the country.
DeLoach, Kendra P.; Dvorsky, Melissa; Miller, Elaine; Paget, Michael
Students with emotional and behavioral challenges are significantly impacted by mental health issues. Teachers and other school staff need mental health knowledge to work more effectively with these students. Collaboration with mental health professionals and sharing of information is essential. [For complete volume, see ED539318.
Tramonte, Michael R.
The goals of this presentation were to help mental health professionals learn more about intervening in aviation disasters, learn about the uniqueness of disaster mental health, and share the presenter's mental health disaster experiences as they relate to aviation disasters. Survivors' emotional phases during the disaster recovery process are…
García-Moran, María de Carmen; Universidad de Zaragoza (España); Gil-Lacruz, Marta; Universidad de Zaragoza (España)
Stress among health professionals constitutes a significant problem, because of its strong impact both on them and their patients. This study finds that this syndrome varies according to gender, type of work and job role. We find that primary, secondary and tertiary prevention strategies are effective in minimizing this syndrome. These include better work management, an adjusted work schedule, a balance between work and family life, workforce personnel involvement, and improvement of employme...
Szmukler, G; Bach, M
Around the world, reports regularly expose persistent and systemic human rights violations of patients in mental health services and facilities, and of those who are unable to access needed supports. A number of factors contribute - political will; the range and quality of services available; public and professional attitudes to mental health; stigma; health professionals' training and expertise; and available resources. This paper examines one of the main determinants, the legal framework. This sets the parameters for mental health policies and services and for applicable human rights norms and standards that can be realized in practice. We provide an overview of international human rights instruments in relation to mental health disabilities, and of the major human rights violations in this area. Key implications for mental health law reform are drawn with a particular focus on discrimination and coercive interventions. The major challenges posed by the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006) are examined. Current mental health laws, to greater or lesser degrees, fail to meet the newly required standards. We discuss reforms based on 'generic law' and 'legal capacity' principles that seek to meet those standards. We outline some emergent and promising examples of reform. The role of civil society and the importance of the standing of those with mental health disabilities in this process is noted.
Braithwaite, Scott; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne
This paper reviews the research on relationships and mental health. Individuals who are more mentally healthy are more likely to select into relationships, but relationships are also demonstrably associated with mental health. The type of relationship matters - evidence suggests that more established, committed relationships, such as marriage, are associated with greater benefits than less committed unions such as cohabitation. The association between relationships and mental health is clearly bidirectional, however, stronger effects are observed when mental health is the outcome and relationships are the predictor, suggesting that the causal arrow flows more strongly from relationships to mental health than vice versa. Moreover, improving relationships improves mental health, but improving mental health does not reliably improve relationships. Our review of research corroborates the view that relationships are a keystone component of human functioning that have the potential to influence a broad array of mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia
Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.
Xie, Huiting; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jia; Joon, Kum Eng; Parasuram, Rajni; Gunasekaran, Jamuna; Poh, Chee Lien
With the evolution of education, there has been a shift from the use of traditional teaching methods, such as didactic or rote teaching, towards non-traditional teaching methods, such as viewing of role plays, simulation, live interviews and the use of virtual environments. Mental state examination is an essential competency for all student healthcare professionals. If mental state examination is not taught in the most effective manner so learners can comprehend its concepts and interpret the findings correctly, it could lead to serious repercussions and subsequently impact on clinical care provided for patients with mental health conditions, such as incorrect assessment of suicidal ideation. However, the methods for teaching mental state examination vary widely between countries, academic institutions and clinical settings. This systematic review aimed to identify and synthesize the best available evidence of effective teaching methods used to prepare student health care professionals for the delivery of mental state examination. This review considered evidence from primary quantitative studies which address the effectiveness of a chosen method used for the teaching of mental state examination published in English, including studies that measure learner outcomes, i.e. improved knowledge and skills, self-confidence and learners' satisfaction. A three-step search strategy was undertaken in this review to search for articles published in English from the inception of the database to December 2014. An initial search of MEDLINE and CINAHL was undertaken to identify keywords. Secondly, the keywords identified were used to search electronic databases, namely, CINAHL, Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid, PsycINFO and, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. Thirdly, reference lists of the articles identified in the second stage were searched for other relevant studies. Studies selected were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological
King, Alan; Grieves, Julie; Opp, Dean
In a brief survey, the authors solicited professional opinions regarding the probable impact of performing arts on adolescent mood stability using a hypothetical scenario where 20 moderately depressed 15-year-olds agreed to participate in a high school play, musical, or other singing performance. The results of the survey indicated that clinicians…
This article charts the historical development of the discipline of global mental health, whose goal is to improve access to mental health care and reduce inequalities in mental health outcomes between and within nations. The article begins with an overview of the contribution of four scientific foundations toward the discipline's core agenda: to scale up services for people with mental disorders and to promote their human rights. Next, the article highlights four recent, key events that are indicative of the actions shaping the discipline: the Mental Health Gap Action Programme to synthesize evidence on what treatments are effective for a range of mental disorders; the evidence on task shifting to nonspecialist health workers to deliver these treatments; the Movement for Global Mental Health's efforts to build a common platform for professionals and civil society to advocate for their shared goal; and the Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health, which has identified the research priorities that, within the next decade, can lead to substantial improvements in the lives of people living with mental disorders. The article ends by examining the major challenges for the field, and the opportunities for addressing them in the future.
Kari-Koskinen, O; Karvonen, P
With the present trend away from the designing of individual buildings and towards the systematic planning of whole residential communities, it should be possible to take mental health requirements into account at the planning stage. At present, sociologists are all too seldom consulted on matters of residential planning. When discussing the relationship between housing and mental health one cannot restrict oneself only to the external aspects of the house, but rather one must also consider the opportunities available for the members of the family to satisfy their own needs, both within the home and in its immediate surroundings. Factors which may affect residential requirements include geographical location, type and standard of dwelling and time and continuity of occupation. A move between two districts or groups representing different housing norms and values may lead to withdrawal symptoms in the individual. This may arise equally well from the remoteness of the country districts as from the conflicting pressures brought on by the abundance of contacts available in the large towns. Town life tends to heighten susceptibility to neuroses and personality conflicts. The character of a residential area may affect the mental health of its occupants. Faris & Dunham (4), in studying the incidence of various types of mental illness with an urban population, observed that schizophrenia was most common among people who were in some way isolated from social involvement. The striving for spaciousness in residential areas and the creation of a "summer city" or "garden city" image or a "family-centred way of life" may lead to unexpected problems and have a variety of social consequences. Mental health difficulties have been noted, for example, among housewives in "dormitory" towns or suburbs (11). The institutions required by a community may be grouped into four categories, representing the basic needs of its members. These are (1) economic institutions, (2) social and
Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including 4 General Practitioners to 35,000 population, compared with 1 GP per 1700 population in the UK. Methods We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1, which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad. Additional file 1 Public Perception of Mental Illness Questionnaire. Click here for file Results The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness. Conclusions This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.
Joseph, Carol; And Others
Describes the Mental Health Consultation Team at the Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center nursing home. The team is an interdisciplinary group of mental health professionals and primary care providers. Cooperation among these professionals has decreased the demands for formal psychiatry and psychology consultations while increasing mental…
Providing teacher candidates with a strong foundation in mental health literacy during their teacher education program is crucial in ensuring novice teachers are prepared to support the mental health needs of their students. In addition to responding to students, teacher candidates are typically at an age when mental health disorders are common…
Gruebner, Oliver; Rapp, Michael A; Adli, Mazda; Kluge, Ulrike; Galea, Sandro; Heinz, Andreas
More than half of the global population currently lives in cities, with an increasing trend for further urbanization. Living in cities is associated with increased population density, traffic noise and pollution, but also with better access to health care and other commodities. This review is based on a selective literature search, providing an overview of the risk factors for mental illness in urban centers. Studies have shown that the risk for serious mental illness is generally higher in cities compared to rural areas. Epidemiological studies have associated growing up and living in cities with a considerably higher risk for schizophrenia. However, correlation is not causation and living in poverty can both contribute to and result from impairments associated with poor mental health. Social isolation and discrimination as well as poverty in the neighborhood contribute to the mental health burden while little is known about specific interactions between such factors and the built environment. Further insights on the interaction between spatial heterogeneity of neighborhood resources and socio-ecological factors is warranted and requires interdisciplinary research.
At the point of civilization where we find ourselves today, in the post-modernity conditions, the responsibility of civil society is a determining factor in the overall politic of mental health. More than ever we have to think of health and mental health in particular in terms of a social dynamics where the participation of social groups and individuals in the responsibility for collective health has priority over the structures of state and institutional interventions. The responsibilities of the state, the institutions and professionals are therefore displaced and redefined while new rights emerge and with them the need for more information and control for the users who pay for health services with their taxes. The concern to adapt a system now anachronistic can only increases the problems of a society responsible for its obsolescence. The social and human costs of the radical changes needed, will in the short term, be socially less burdensome than the consequences of illusory adaptations. In this area, we can expect that nothing will be effective without the mobilisation by the state of the collective responsabilities for a social involvement in public health.
Islam, Farah; Khanlou, Nazilla; Macpherson, Alison; Tamim, Hala
To determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of past-year mental health consultation for Ontario's adult (18 + years old) immigrant populations. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2012 was used to calculate the prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation by service provider type. Characteristics associated with mental health consultation were determined by carrying out multivariable logistic regression analysis on merged CCHS 2008-2012 data. Adult immigrant populations in Ontario (n = 3995) had lower estimated prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation across all service provider types compared to Canadian-born populations (n = 14,644). Amongst those who reported past-year mental health consultation, 57.89% of Ontario immigrants contacted their primary care physician, which was significantly higher than the proportion who consulted their family doctor from Canadian-born populations (45.31%). The factors of gender, age, racial/ethnic background, education level, working status, food insecurity status, self-perceived health status, smoking status, alcohol drinking status, years since immigration, and age at time of immigration were significantly associated with past-year mental health consultation for immigrant populations. Ontario's adult immigrant populations most commonly consult their family doctor for mental health care. Potential exists for expanding the mental health care role of primary care physicians as well as efforts to increase accessibility of specialized mental health services. Integrated, coordinated care where primary care physicians, specialized mental health professionals, social workers, and community educators, etc. working together in a sort of "one-stop-shop" may be the most effective way to mitigate gaps in the mental health care system. In order to effectively tailor mental health policy, programming, and promotion to suit the needs of immigrant populations initiatives that focus on
The characteristic differences among the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries in terms of trade and investment, society and cultural values, medical information and technology, and the living and working environment have become major health problems in terms of mental disorders. The purpose of this article is to identify the gaps in those aspects, to propose mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs, and to recommend policies for policy makers and research investors. A comparative analysis and literature review of existing policy, including overviews of previous research were used to generate a synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs. The review results recommend mental health and mental disorder programs for policy makers, research investors, and stakeholders in order to strengthen the directions for implementing these programs in the future. The healthcare provision in each country will not be limited only to its citizens; the healthcare markets and target groups are likely to expand to the neighboring countries in the context of changes in domestic and international factors, which have both positive and negative impacts according to the political, economic, and social situations of the influencing countries.
In the United Kingdom, contemporary mental health rehabilitation services evolved during the period of deinstitutionalisation. They focus on people with complex psychosis, a "low volume, high needs" group which is at risk of social exclusion. Without these specialist services, this group is at risk of becoming stuck in a hospital or in other facilities that do not enable them to achieve their optimal level of autonomy. When a "whole system" of rehabilitative care is provided, including specialist inpatient facilities and supported accommodation, the majority are able to progress in their recovery and live successfully in the community. Rehabilitation is a complex intervention; current and further research is needed to identify the specific aspects of treatment and support it delivers that are most effective in enabling recovery and social inclusion for those with the most complex and long-term mental health needs.
Stotland, Nada Logan
Reproductive rights are essential to the recognition/treatment of women as full-fledged human beings/citizens. Barriers to reproductive rights pose a grave danger to women's well-being. This article explores the origins of these barriers, their nature, and their impact on mental health. The most controversial relationship is between induced abortion and mental health. Barriers, misinformation, and coercion affecting contraceptive, abortion, and pregnancy care are an ongoing danger to women's mental health and the well-being of their families. Mental health professionals are best qualified, and have an obligation, to know the facts, apply them, and provide accurate information to protect women's health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…
Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Chiocchio, François
This study had a dual purpose (1) to identify variables associated with perceived work role performance (WRP) among 315 mental health professionals (MHPs) in Quebec and (2) to compare variables related to WRP in MH primary care teams (PCTs) and specialized service teams (SSTs), respectively. WRP was measured using an adapted version of the work role questionnaire. Variables were organized within five areas: individual characteristics, perceived team attributes, perceived team processes, perceived team emergent states, and geographical and organizational context. Half of the WRP variables were linked to team processes. Knowledge sharing correlated with WRP in both MH PCTs and SSTs. Team attributes had more impact on MH PCTs, while team processes and team emergent states played a larger role among SSTs. The association between WRP and knowledge sharing confirms the need for a systematic training program to promote interdisciplinary collaboration. Integration strategies (e.g., service agreements) could improve collaboration between MH PCTs and SSTs and help MHPs perform more effectively within PCTs.
Li, Weihui; Zhang, Li; Luo, Xuerong; Liu, Bangshan; Liu, Zhipeng; Lin, Fang; Liu, Zhiling; Xie, Yuhuan; Hudson, Melissa; Rathod, Shanaya; Kingdon, David; Husain, Nusrat; Liu, Xudong; Ayub, Muhammad; Naeem, Farooq
The evidence for effectiveness of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is robust and the national organizations in the United Kingdom and the United States recommend its use. It is not utilized to its full potential in low and middle-income countries. Adaptation of CBT treatment to the target culture may facilitate its uptake. This study explored views of patients with schizophrenia, their caregivers, and mental health professionals for the purpose of cultural adaptation of CBT. The project was conducted in a teaching hospital in China. Systematic content and question analysis were the techniques we used to analyse the data generated in a series of qualitative interviews (N 45) in China. After identification of emerging themes and categories we compared and contrasted the themes across different interviews recursively. Triangulation of themes and concepts was undertaken to compare further and contrast the data from the different participating groups. This work highlighted the barriers in therapy as well as opportunities for use of CBT in that environment. Patients and their carers in China use a bio-psycho-spiritual-social model of illness. CBT is not commonly used to help those with schizophrenia in China. This study will facilitate the therapists using CBT for people with psychosis in China. These results require to be tested in clinical trials.
Gan, Yiqun; Gan, Tingting; Chen, Zhiyan; Miao, Miao; Zhang, Kan
This study investigated the role of social support in the complex pattern of associations among stressors, work-family interferences and depression in the domains of work and family. A questionnaire was administered to a nationwide sample of 11,419 Chinese science and technology professionals. Several structural equation models were specified to determine whether social support functioned as a predictor or a mediator. Using Mplus 5.0, we compared the moderation model, the independence model, the antecedent model and the mediation model. The results revealed that the relationship between work-family interference and social support was domain specific. The independence model fit the data best in the work domain. Both the moderation model and the antecedent model fit the family domain data equally well. The current study was conducted to answer the need for comprehensive investigations of cultural uniqueness in the antecedents of work-family interference. The domain specificity, i.e. the multiple channels of the functions of support in the family domain and not in the work domain, ensures that this study is unique and culturally specific. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ketelaar, Sarah M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Bolier, Linda; Smeets, Odile; Sluiter, Judith K.
Mental health complaints are quite common in health care employees and can have adverse effects on work functioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate an e-mental health (EMH) approach to workers' health surveillance (WHS) for nurses and allied health professionals. Using the waiting-list group
Berenice Scaletzky Knuth
Full Text Available AbstractThe scope of this article is to deter mine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD and Depression among Community Health Agents (CHA and employees of Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS. It is a cross-sectional descriptive study involving the target population of Community Health Workers and Psychosocial Care Center workers, linked to the Municipal Health Department of Pelotas in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul. The presence of common mental disorders was considered when the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ was > 7 and the occurrence of depression when BDI > 12. In total, 257 professionals participated in the study. Among mental health professionals (n = 119, the prevalence of CMDs was 25.2% and depression was 23.5%, while the prevalence of CMDs was 48.6% and depression was 29% among CHA (n = 138. The ratio of CMDs between the two groups of professionals was statistically different (p < 0.001. In this study, it was observed that the CAPS professionals are more adapted to work issues, with less perceived health problems arising from work and with a lower prevalence of mental disorders compared to CHA.
Siriwanarangsan, Porntep; Liknapichitkul, Dusit; Khandelwal, Sudhir K
Thailand, a constitutional monarchy, has undergone a rapid shift in its demography and economy in last two decades. This has put a great burden on the health services, including mental health care of the country. The current emphasis of the Ministry of Public Health is to change its role from health care provider to policymaker and regulator of standards, and to provide technical support to health facilities under its jurisdiction as well as in the private sector. The Department of Mental Health, established in 1994, has laid down a mental health policy that aims to promote mental health care within the community with the help of people's participation in health programmes. Focus has been placed on developing suitable and efficient technology by seeking cooperation both within and outside the Ministry of Public Health. Consequently, the Department of Mental Health has been receiving increasing budgetary allocations. Since there is a paucity of trained manpower, the emphasis is being laid on the utilization of general health care for mental health care. Some of the specific interventions are community services, prison services, psychiatric rehabilitation, and use of media in mental health operations. There have been active efforts towards international cooperation for developing technologies for specific programmes. Private and non-governmental organizations are supported and encouraged to provide mental health care to the marginalized sections of society. Efforts have also been made by the Department of Mental Health to inspect and raise the efficiency of its operations to result in quality service.
Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.
Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…
Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace
Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.
Fried, E.; Tuerlinckx, F.; Borsboom, D.
The decision by the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to fund only research into the neurobiological roots of mental disorders (Nature 507, 288; 2014) presumes that these all result from brain abnormalities. But this is not the case for many people with mental-health issues and we fear
van Gastel, W.A.
Cannabis use has been implicated as a risk factor for mental health problems, (subclinical) psychotic symptoms in particular. If cannabis use was a cause of these problems, cessation would lead to improved public mental health. If cannabis use was a mere consequence of a predisposition for mental
Kokai, Masahiro; Fujii, Senta; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Edwards, Glen
The purpose of the present article was to review the literature on disaster mental health in relation to natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, typhoons and cyclones throughout Asia. Articles reviewed show that disaster psychiatry in Asia is beginning to emerge from and leave behind the stigma attached to mental health. The emergence of the acceptance of disaster mental health throughout Asia can be attributed in part to the acceptance of the notion of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This has allowed greater involvement of mental health professionals in providing ongoing support to survivors of natural disasters as well as providing greater opportunities for further research. Also, articles reviewed in the present paper commonly suggested the need for using standardized diagnostic tools for PTSD to appropriately interpret the discrepancy of results among studies. The importance of post-disaster support services and cultural differences is highlighted.
Bayes, Marjorie; Neill, T. Kerby
Issues of changing positions and roles for paraprofessionals are considered in the context of the hierarchical structure and process of mental health organizations. Discussion focuses on problems arising when paraprofessionals are promoted in the functional hierarchy while continuing to occupy the lowest level in the professional caste system.…
Dusseldorp, R.L.C. van; Meijel, B.K.G. van; Derksen, J.J.L.
Aims. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the level of emotional intelligence of mental health nurses in the Netherlands. Background. The focus in research on emotional intelligence to date has been on a variety of professionals. However, little is known about emotional intelligence in
Adelman, Howard S; Taylor, Linda
Health policy and practice call for health and mental health parity and for a greater focus on universal interventions to promote, prevent, and intervene as early after problem onset as is feasible. Those in the public health field are uniquely positioned to help promote the mental health of young people and to reshape how the nation thinks about and addresses mental health. And schools are essential partners for doing the work.
Holder, Sharon M; Rogers, Kenneth; Peterson, Eunice; Shoenleben, Robbie; Blackhurst, Dawn
This study assessed improvement in the emergency department (ED) length of stay and costs after implementation of an ED program which added board-certified psychiatrists and trained psychiatric social workers to the pediatric ED. A retrospective medical record and administrative data review were conducted for all pediatric psychiatric visits of children aged 5 to 18 years who were seen and discharged from the Greenville Memorial Hospital ED between January 1, 2007, and June 31, 2013. These subjects were diagnosed by the ED physician at the time of the visit using codes ranging from 290.0 to 319.0 based on the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Ninth Revision codes. The mean (SD) age of children in the postprogram period (14.3 ± 3.1) was younger than during the preprogram period (14.9 ± 3.1) (P psychiatric hospital than during the pre-program period (18% vs 9%, respectively). After the initiation of the program, ED length of stay decreased significantly from 14.7 to 12.1 hours (P psychiatric pediatric patients in the ED improved after targeted training of ED staff and provision of these specialized services within the ED.
Smith, A P
The objective of the present investigation was to study the relationship between breakfast consumption and subjective reports of mental health and health-related behaviours in a general population sample (126 subjects aged between 20 and 79 years). Individuals who consumed a cereal breakfast each day were less depressed, less emotionally distressed and had lower levels of perceived stress than those who did not eat breakfast each day. Those who consumed breakfast had a healthier lifestyle than the others in that they were less likely to be smokers, drank less alcohol and had a healthier diet. However, the relationship between cereal breakfast consumption and mental health did not reflect these differences in the smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. In conclusion, there is an association between breakfast consumption and well-being which cannot entirely be accounted for by differences in other aspects of diet or smoking and alcohol consumption. Further intervention studies are now needed to establish whether causal relationships and mechanisms underlie the associations seen in this study.
Acute mental health care according to recent mental health legislation. Part II. Activity-based costing. ABR Janse van Rensburg1, W Jassat2. 1Division of Psychiatry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. 2School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Abstract.
Oates, J; Drey, N; Jones, J
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: 'Expertise by experience' has become an increasingly valued element of service design and delivery by mental health service providers. The extent and influence of mental health professionals' personal experience of mental ill health on clinical practice has seldom been interrogated in depth. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: We investigate how mental health nurses' own personal experience of mental ill health informs their mental health nursing practice with particular reference to direct work with service users. Participants said that personal experience could impact on work in three positive ways: to develop their relationship with service users, to enhance their understanding of service users and as a motivation for potential mental health nurses to join the profession. This study moves the discussion of the state of mental health nurses' mental health further towards the recovery and well-being focus of contemporary mental health care, where 'expertise by experience' is highly valued. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: We must address the taboo of disclosure within clinical nursing practice and debate the extent to which personal and professional boundaries are negotiated during clinical encounters. Introduction 'Expertise by experience' is a highly valued element of service delivery in recovery-oriented mental health care, but is unacknowledged within the mental health nursing literature. Aim To explore the extent and influence of mental health professionals' personal experience of mental ill health on clinical practice. Method Twenty-seven mental health nurses with their own personal experience of mental ill health were interviewed about how their personal experience informed their mental health nursing practice, as part of a sequential mixed methods study. Results The influence of personal experience in nursing work was threefold: first, through overt disclosure; second, through the 'use of the self as a tool
intervention, counseling, guidance, care coordination, and chronic illness management. Pediatric mental health care should be friendly to families and fully coordinated with the child's other health care. The presence of a child and adolescent psychiatrist and/or other mental health professionals in the primary care setting ...
Ahmedani, Brian K.
Mental health stigma operates in society, is internalized by individuals, and is attributed by health professionals. This ethics-laden issue acts as a barrier to individuals who may seek or engage in treatment services. The dimensions, theory, and epistemology of mental health stigma have several implications for the social work profession. PMID:22211117
Posner, Zoe; Janssen, Jessica; Roddam, Hazel
Purpose- Burnout in mental health staff is acknowledged as a major problem. The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of mental health staff views on improving burnout and mental toughness in mental health staff.\\ud Design/methodology/approach-Ten participants from two mental health rehabilitation units across the North West of England took part in a Nominal Group Technique (NGT). Participants consisted of mental health workers from varied roles in order to\\ud capture views from a...
Full Text Available French general practitioners (GPs refer their patients with major depression to psychiatrists or for psychotherapy at particularly low rates.This qualitative study aims to explore general practitioners' (GP opinions about psychotherapy, their relationships with mental health professionals, their perceptions of their role and that of psychiatrists in treating depression, and the relations between these factors and the GPs' strategies for managing depression.In 2011, in-depth interviews based on a semi-structured interview guide were conducted with 32 GPs practicing in southeastern France. Verbatim transcripts were examined by analyzing their thematic content.We identified three profiles of physicians according to their opinions and practices about treatment strategies for depression: pro-pharmacological treatment, pro-psychotherapy and those with mixed practices. Most participants considered their relationships with psychiatrists unsatisfactory, would like more and better collaboration with them and shared the same concept of management in general practice. This concept was based both on the values and principles of practice shared by GPs and on their strong differentiation of their management practices from those of psychiatrists.Several attitudes and values common to GPs might contribute to their low rate of referrals for psychotherapy in France: strong occupational identity, substantial variations in GPs' attitudes and practices regarding depression treatment strategies, representations sometimes unfavorable toward psychiatrists. Actions to develop a common culture and improve cooperation between GPs and psychiatrists are essential. They include systems of collaborative care and the development of interdisciplinary training common to GPs and psychiatrists practicing in the same area.
Wagman, Petra; Lindmark, Ulrika; Rolander, Bo; Wåhlin, Charlotte; Håkansson, Carita
Health care employees are often women, a group that has high degrees of sick leave and perhaps problems attaining occupational balance. However, people think differently about their everyday activities and it is therefore important to take their perceptions into account but occupational balance has not yet been measured in health professionals. The aim was to describe occupational balance in three different samples of health professionals in Sweden. A further aim was to investigate whether occupational therapists (OTs) rate their occupational balance differently from other health professionals. Four hundred and eighty-two health professionals, employees in public dentistry, mental health care and OTs, aged 21-70 years participated. The participants' occupational balance was measured using the occupational balance questionnaire (OBQ). The ratings of occupational balance were similar to earlier studies and did not differ significantly between the samples. The OTs' occupational balance was also similar to that of the other health professionals. The similarities in occupational balance indicate the same difficulties in attaining it. The result highlights the possibility that working people face similar difficulties in achieving occupational balance. Further research is warranted about how to attain it.
Sarah M. Ketelaar
Conclusion: The EMH approach to WHS improves the work functioning and mental health of nurses and allied health professionals. However, because we found small effects and participation in the offered EMH interventions was low, there is ample room for improvement.
Doença mental: representações de usuários e de profissionais da saúde Enfermedad mental: representaciones del usuarios y de los profesionales de salud Mental disease: representations of users and of health care professionals
Helena Bazanelli Prebianchi
concluyó que las diferencias de significados justifican más estúdios para que las prácticas respondan a las demandas extendidas.The diversity of conceptions, among social groups, about health and disease determines different expectations that will cause discrepancy between the needs and the priorities evaluated by professionals and users of the health services. The objective of this work is to review some articles that discuss health services professionals’ and users’ contents, beliefs and values about the mental disease. We conducted a literature search in indexes for scientific work, covering the period 2001 to 2008, including domestic work only. The similarities and the diversities among the social representations of the population who uses the mental health services and the professionals of that area were analyzed in the selected articles. The results showed similarities and diversities in the individuals’ conception related to: mental disease definition, its causes and cure, the psychologist and the search for psychological treatment. It was concluded that the differences in meaning among professionals and users justify the need of more studies about the topic so that the mental health practices meet more extended demands.
Mental health in the workplace today are ubiquitous and cause significant dysfunction in organizations (turnover, absenteeism, presenteeism, early retirement, long sick…). Statements of professional unfitness for depression is of particular concern. The human and financial costs associated with the support of mental disability is important, in France it is estimated to 14 billion euros. Mental disorder in the workplace also has a significant impact on the individual. If not always leads to actual inability to work, it usually causes, from the disclosure of the disorder, professional inequalities related to perceived environmental work disability. Therefore, this type of public remains largely on the sidelines of a stable occupation and all forms of recognition and undergo disqualifications and some forms of exclusion. Instead of saving, the workplace can promote relapse and even constitute a real obstacle to improving health. These exclusionary behavior result in persistent employment resistance in France and elsewhere, especially because of the prejudice of employers. These resistances persist despite legal obligations in this regard (e.g. in France: Law of 11 February 2005 on Equal Rights and Opportunities). To address the issue of sustainable professional inclusion (recruitment, integration and job preservation) of people with mental disabilities, studies are especially developed for the rehabilitation in the workplace of this public or accompanying us in their professional reintegration into protected workplaces. We propose a reflection on the adaptation of knowledge about psychological processes of hiring discrimination in the particular employment situation of people with mental disabilities in ordinary workplaces. Researches on social representations, stereotypes and prejudices applied in the workplace help to understand the negative attitudes and resistance to the hiring of people with mental disabilities despite regulations. Representations of
Objective: This is the first of three reports on a follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). In this first part, qualitative and quantitative descriptions were made of the services and of demographic and clinical data on acute mental health care users managed at HJH, in a retrospective review of ...
Introduction. Reliable data is necessary to facilitate the effective planning, management and restructuring of mental health care facilities. Access to accurate information on clinical conditions, treatment outcomes and expenditure is essential to ensure accountability, quality and cost-effective mental health care. This article is ...
Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro
... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well- being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...
Coppola, John Lafayette Granger
The majority of approaches to self-care in the mental health field revolve around activities that take place outside of the work environment or on supervision and policy level approaches. Using social constructionist and narrative principles, I created, implemented, and studied a series of workshops
Liu, Chunyu; Liu, Yanling; Guo, Cheng; Lan, Haiying
Despite a recent focus on the mental health of students, primary and middle school mental health education in China has been hampered by a lack of resources and inadequate professional training. This study assessed the mental health education competency of primary and middle school head teachers using the Mental Health Education Competency…
Vostanis, Panos; O'Reilly, Michelle; Taylor, Helen; Day, Crispin; Street, Cathy; Wolpert, Miranda; Edwards, Ruth
The importance of joint working between educational and child mental health professionals is well documented but there are numerous challenges and only limited training models. While the evidence base and training programmes for educationalists regarding child mental health is growing, training mental health professionals about education is more…
Wendler, Alicia M.; Murdock, Tamera B.
Cross-training professionals from mental health and addiction treatment systems can help further the goal of comprehensive treatment for clients with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders (co-occurring disorders). Two such trainings brought together 122 professionals from mental health and addiction treatment fields. This…
Nizamie, S Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N A
Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health.
Wissow, Lawrence S
While there is a strong case for primary prevention of mental health problems, relatively little mental health scholarship has been devoted to it in the last decade. Efforts to accelerate prevention scholarship could potentially benefit from strengthening pathways for interdisciplinary research; developing new training and working models for mental health professionals; developing a common language for public, policy, and scientific discussion of prevention; learning how to measure the common...
Wissow, Lawrence S
While there is a strong case for primary prevention of mental health problems, relatively little mental health scholarship has been devoted to it in the last decade. Efforts to accelerate prevention scholarship could potentially benefit from strengthening pathways for interdisciplinary research; developing new training and working models for mental health professionals; developing a common language for public, policy, and scientific discussion of prevention; learning how to measure the common outcomes of heterogeneous interventions tailored to diverse communities.
Gopalkrishnan, Narayan; Babacan, Hurriyet
Cultural diversity and its impact on mental health has become an increasingly important issue in a globalised world where the interactions between cultures continue to grow exponentially. This paper presents critical areas in which culture impacts on mental health, such as how health and illness are perceived, coping styles, treatment-seeking patterns, impacts of history, racism, bias and stereotyping, gender, family, stigma and discrimination. While cultural differences provide a number of challenges to mental health policy and practice they also provide a number of opportunities to work in unique and effective ways towards positive mental health. Ethno-specific approaches to mental health that incorporate traditional and community-based systems can provide new avenues for working with culturally diverse populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.
Full Text Available This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.
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Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree
Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…
Lucero, John A.
The goals of the School Mental Health Consultation Program, a cooperative effort of the Children and Youth Service at High Plains Mental Health Center and the Unified School District 489 in Hays, Kansas, are to evaluate students' behavioral problems, to assess how students' difficulties affect teachers, and to help the consultee assess the…
Donovan, Rob; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Robinson, Katy; Lin, Chad
To determine the impact of the Act-Belong-Commit mental health promotion campaign on people with a diagnosed mental illness or who had sought professional help for a mental health problem in the previous 12 months. In 2013 and 2014, 1,200 adults in Western Australia were interviewed by telephone. The questionnaire measured campaign reach, impact on beliefs about mental health and mental illness and behavioural impact. Campaign impact on changing the way respondents thought about mental health was significantly higher among those with a mental illness or who had sought help (41.4% vs 24.2%; pmental health as a result of their exposure to the campaign (20.5% vs 8.7%; pmental illness or who recently sought help to take steps of their own to enhance their mental health. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.
Tuffin, A; Tuffin, K; Watson, S
Talk about mental health and mental illness was examined using Potter and Wetherell's system of discourse analysis. Participants were 8 health coordinators (teachers) from a range of New Zealand secondary schools. They were interviewed on the topics of mental health and mental illness. Verbatim transcripts from the interviews were analyzed, and three mental health and illness linguistic resources were identified: a mental health as illness resource, a mental well-being resource, and a mental illness resource. Each resource was examined, and the practical consequences of this language use was discussed in relation to the role of teachers as frontline mental health professionals.
Esfahani, Mehdi Nasr; Mirsepassi, Gholamreza; Atef-Vahid, Mohammad-Kazem
A brief account of the three stages of development of a new mental health law in Iran is given. At each stage, the expert opinions of mental health professionals and lawyers interested in the rights of psychiatric patients were obtained. The final draft of the law consists of six sections and 50 articles. It has been submitted for ratification by Parliament.
Esfahani, Mehdi Nasr; Mirsepassi, Gholamreza; Atef-Vahid, Mohammad-Kazem
A brief account of the three stages of development of a new mental health law in Iran is given. At each stage, the expert opinions of mental health professionals and lawyers interested in the rights of psychiatric patients were obtained. The final draft of the law consists of six sections and 50 articles. It has been submitted for ratification by Parliament.
Results: There are shortfalls in the provision of mental health care including insufficient numbers of mental health professionals, aging infrastructure, widespread stigma, inadequate funding and an inequitable geographical distribution of services. Conclusion: Community-based services need to be delivered in the primary ...
Abbott, Max W.
This paper documents the development of community mental health (CMH) in New Zealand and makes comparisons with the United States. It is argued that the present New Zealand situation bears some similarity to that existing in the United States during the 1960's. The ideology of 'community mental health' is gaining popularity among professional and…
In the context of post-apartheid South Africa mental health professionals are increasingly faced with the complexities linked to people leaving the country, those left behind and those returning. In an attempt to illustrate the mental health challenges linked to the South African migration phenomenon, this article will firstly ...
van de Bovenkamp, H.; Trappenburg, M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/111650836
Objective To study the relationship between family members and mental health care workers to learn more about the support available to family members of mental health patients. Methods Eighteen interviews were conducted with family members, seven with professionals and two with patients.
van der Leij, JBJ; Jackson, JL; Malsch, M; Nijboer, JF
In Dutch criminal cases in which doubts arise about the defendant's mental health, a forensic assessment will be requested. This is provided either by the multidisciplinary staff of residential clinics who conduct forensic evaluations for the court, or by mental health professionals contracted on a
Full Text Available Background:Monitoring and reporting childhood mental health problems and mental health services utilization over time provide important information to identify mental health related issues and to guide early intervention. This paper aims to describe the recent prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among South Australian (SA children; to identify mental health problems associated characteristics; and to describe mental health services utilization and its related characteristics among this population. Methods:Parent-reported mental health problems were assessed against the first item of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. School-aged children were randomly sampled monthly and data were collected using a surveillance system between 2005 and 2015. Associations between mental health problems and various factors were analysed using univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression modelling. Results:Prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among children was 9.1% and 9.3% for children aged 5 to 11 years and children aged 12 to 15 years, respectively. No change in prevalence was observed during the past decade. Mental health problems were associated with male sex, long-term illness or pain, negative school experiences, not living with biological parents, and living in a rental dwelling. Less than half (48.7% of the children with mental health problems received professional help. An increasing trend was found in mental health services utilisation among children aged 5 to 15 years. Utilization of mental health services was associated with male sex, older age, long-term illness or pain, and feeling unhappy at school. Conclusion:This study reports the prevalence of parent-reported mental and mental health services utilisation among SA school-aged children. Identified characteristics associated with mental health problems and mental health services utilisation provide useful information for the planning of
Radovic, Ana; Vona, Pamela L; Santostefano, Antonella M; Ciaravino, Samantha; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D
Many adolescents and adults do not seek treatment for mental health symptoms. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist individuals with mental health concerns in alleviating symptoms or increasing understanding. This study seeks to characterize apps readily available to smartphone users seeking mental health information and/or support. Ten key terms were searched in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores: mental health, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, trauma, trauma in schools, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), child trauma, and bullying. A content analysis of the first 20 application descriptions retrieved per category was conducted. Out of 300 nonduplicate applications, 208 (70%) were relevant to search topic, mental health or stress. The most common purported purpose for the apps was symptom relief (41%; n = 85) and general mental health education (18%; n = 37). The most frequently mentioned approaches to improving mental health were those that may benefit only milder symptoms such as relaxation (21%; n = 43). Most app descriptions did not include information to substantiate stated effectiveness of the application (59%; n = 123) and had no mention of privacy or security (89%; n = 185). Due to uncertainty of the helpfulness of readily available mental health applications, clinicians working with mental health patients should inquire about and provide guidance on application use, and patients should have access to ways to assess the potential utility of these applications. Strategic policy and research developments are likely needed to equip patients with applications for mental health, which are patient centered and evidence based.
Hodges, Craig A; O'Brien, Matthew S; McGorry, Patrick D
Mental health is the number one health issue affecting young people in Australia today, yet only one in four of these young people receive professional help. Approximately 14% of 12- to 17-year-olds and 27% of 18- to 25-year-olds experience mental health problems each year. However, many do not have ready access to treatment or are reluctant to seek that help. These issues might be exacerbated in the rural and remote regions of Australia where sociocultural barriers such as stigma, lack of anonymity and logistic difficulties including cost and availability of transport can hinder young people accessing mental health services. headspace: the National Youth Mental Health Foundation has been funded to address these issues. headspace will provide funding for the establishment of communities of youth services across Australia, provide national and local community awareness campaigns and plans, establish a centre of excellence that will identify and disseminate evidence-based practice in addressing youth mental health issues, and translate findings into education and training programs that are targeted at service providers to work with youth mental health. The communities of youth services will build the capacity of local communities to identify early, and provide effective responses to, young people aged 12-25 years with mental health and related substance use disorders. Specific approaches in rural, regional and remote areas will be developed as well as specific programs to involve young Indigenous people.
Tomov, Toma; Mladenova, Maya; Lazarova, Irina; Sotirov, Vladimir; Okoliyski, Mihail
The mental health profile of Bulgaria has been compiled and following analysis of both the factual findings and the process of data collection a report has been prepared. The subject of discussion in the paper concerns several major findings: the discrepancy between what the policy documents state and the actual situation in mental health; the organizational culture, which alienates; and the peculiarities of the process of change and how it is driven under political pressure from outside the country. Analysis extends to encompass the influence of the general health reform on the mental health sector, the deficits of the leadership and how they impact on the effectiveness of the system, and the interdependence between the country's economy and the health sector. A conclusion is made about the need to consolidate the public health approach using the lever of international collaboration in the field of mental health.
Hyvonen, S; Nikkonen, M
The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the content of mental health care from the practitioner's point of view. The specific aim of this paper was to outline the types of mental health care tools and the ways in which they are used by primary health care practitioners. The data were derived from interviews with doctors and nurses (n = 29) working in primary health care in six different health care centres of the Pirkanmaa region in Finland. The data were analysed by using qualitative content analysis. The tools of mental health care used in primary health care were categorized as communicative, ideological, technical and collaborative tools. The interactive tools are either informative, supportive or contextual. The ideological tools consist of patient initiative, acceptance and permissiveness, honesty and genuineness, sense of security and client orientation. The technical tools are actions related to the monitoring of the patient's physical health and medical treatment. The collaborative tools are consultation and family orientation. The primary health care practitioner him/herself is an important tool in mental health care. On the one hand, the practitioner can be categorized as a meta-tool who has control over the other tools. On the other hand, the practitioner him/herself is a tool in the sense that s/he uses his/her personality in the professional context. The professional skills and attitudes of the practitioner have a significant influence on the type of caring the client receives. Compared with previous studies, the present informants from primary health care seemed to use notably versatile tools in mental health work. This observation is important for the implementation and development of mental health practices and education.
Franks, Wendy L M; Crozier, Kenda E; Penhale, Bridget L M
British public health and academic policy and guidance promotes service user involvement in health care and research, however collaborative research remains underrepresented in literature relating to pregnant women's mental health. The aim of this participatory research was to explore mothers' and professionals' perspectives on the factors that influence pregnant women's mental health. This qualitative research was undertaken in England with the involvement of three community members who had firsthand experience of mental health problems during pregnancy. All members of the team were involved in study design, recruitment, data generation and different stages of thematic analysis. Data were transcribed for individual and group discussions with 17 women who self-identified as experiencing mental health problems during pregnancy and 15 professionals who work with this group. Means of establishing trustworthiness included triangulation, researcher reflexivity, peer debriefing and comprehensive data analysis. Significant areas of commonality were identified between mothers' and professionals' perspectives on factors that undermine women's mental health during pregnancy and what is needed to support women's mental health. Analysis of data is provided with particular reference to contexts of relational, systemic and ecological conditions in women's lives. Women's mental health is predominantly undermined or supported by relational, experiential and material factors. The local context of socio-economic deprivation is a significant influence on women's mental health and service requirements. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
mental illness in the regional population HJH is supposed to serve. Therefore, only an analysis of trends for specific cohorts of in-patient users was possible. Both studies - the current review as well as the previous pilot, were retrospective descriptive clinical record reviews of mental health service delivery, training.
However, professionals who are part of a multi-professional team need to be suitably skilled and prepared to meet the needs of the adolescent. Professionals working in therapy programmes for adolescents should have certain personal attributes that make them suitable for working with adolescents. An adolescent inpatient ...
Department of Veterans Affairs — VAMC-level statistics on the prevalence, mental health utilization, non-mental health utilization, mental health workload, and psychological testing of Veterans with...
... dialing 1-800-273-8255 and pressing 1. Mental Health Concerns There are three primary mental health concerns ... care or call 911. How Will Asking for Mental Health Treatment Affect My Career? Military personnel have always ...
Abou-Saleh, Mohammed T; Christodoulou, George N
Refugees have high rates of mental health morbidity as a result of conflict. However, their needs for mental healthcare and psychosocial support are often unmet, despite the efforts of professional and humanitarian organisations. The war refugee crisis is a global challenge that needs a global solution. We call on all governments, regional and international organisations to take responsible humanitarian actions to intervene and support people affected by these disasters and for all humanity to unite against the forces of injustice and degradation. The thematic papers in this issue report on the Syrian crisis from a variety of perspectives.
Lora, A.; Sharan, P.
Background. Information is needed for development of mental health (MH) services; and particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs), where the MH systems are relatively weak. World Health Organization (WHO) has worked intensively during the last 15 years for developing a strategy in the field of MH information. Methods. The paper analyzes WHO instruments developed in this area [MH Atlas series and WHO Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS)]. Results. Data from ...
legislation humane treatment for the mentally ill. In 1913 there was a .... way, the person leaves his village and his com- munity at a time when he is ..... fective treatment? How might we predict if an epileptic patient may commit murder? We have in our mental hospital population a number of people who have murdered while ...
Global health has been defined as an area of study, research, and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. This article provides an overview of some central issues in global mental health in three parts. The first part demonstrates why mental health is relevant to global health by examining three key principles of global health: priority setting based on the burden of health problems, health inequalities and its global scope in particular in relation to the determinants and solutions for health problems. The second part considers and addresses the key critiques of global mental health: (a) that the "diagnoses" of mental disorders are not valid because there are no biological markers for these conditions; (b) that the strong association of social determinants undermines the use of biomedical interventions; (c) that the field is a proxy for the expansion of the pharmaceutical industry; and (d) that the actions of global mental health are equivalent to "medical imperialism" and it is a "psychiatric export." The final part discusses the opportunities for the field, piggybacking on the surge of interest in global health more broadly and on the growing acknowledgment of mental disorders as a key target for global health action. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon
Objective Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organizations, countries, and regions: WHO, OECD, EU, United States, Australia, UK, and Scotland. Using Delphi method, we conducted two surveys of mental health indicators for experts in the field of mental health. The survey questionnaire included 5 domains: mental health status, mental health factor, mental health system, mental health service, and quality of mental health services. We considered 124 potential mental health indicators out of more than 600 from indicators of international organizations and foreign countries. Results We obtained the top 30 mental health indicators from the surveys. Among them, 10 indicators belong to the mental health system. The most important five mental health indicators are suicide rate, rate of increase in mental disorder treatment, burden caused by mental disorders, adequacy of identifying problems of mental health projects and deriving solutions, and annual prevalence of mental disorders. Conclusion Our study provides information about the process for indicator development and the use of survey results to measure the mental health status of the Korean population. The aim of mental health indicator development is to improve the mental health system by better grasping the current situation. We suggest these mental health indicators can monitor progress in efforts to implement reform policies, provide community services, and involve users, families and other stakeholders in mental health promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation. PMID:23251193
Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa; Randemark, Norma Faustino Rocha; Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Ruiz, Erasmo Miessa
This study is inserted in assumptions of research's analysis qualitative which objective was to interpretate the Mental Health professional's perspectives about psychosocial rehabilitation of mental disorder's porter to know as them proceed it in their professional practice. Data collection came up by the application of semi-structured interviews to 8 Mental Health professionals that work in the Center of Psychosocial Attention. After the readings, notes of pieces of talk, subcategories and categories were composed after the interpretation based on the literature. The results pointed that psychosocial rehabilitation is a process which implementation and still needs effective overcome of traditional paradigma of health mental disease, that form conception and therapeutic practices and requires trust of professionals about the users' capacity of live as citizen in the most variable segments of social life.
Hamid, Hamada I; Everett, Anita
As Iraq faces the challenge of securing a sustainable resolution to the current violence, the burden of mental illness is likely to increase dramatically. The impact of Saddam Hussein's dictatorship, the Iran-Iraq war, U.S.-led economic sanctions, the Persian Gulf wars, and the U.S. invasion and subsequent violent insurgency have devastated Iraq's governmental and social infrastructure. Health care delivery across sectors has suffered greatly. During the reconstruction phase, the United States and coalition forces allocated resources to restructure Iraq's health care system. Many multinational organizations, governments, and policy makers had the political will as well as the financial and human resources to greatly influence Iraq's mental health program. However, the lack of an existing mental health plan stifled these efforts. Applying Kingdon's model for policy development, which includes political analysis, problem defining, and proposal drafting, the authors describe the development of Iraq's current mental health policy.
To describe the background in general culture, public and professional discourse against which mental health care reform initiatives in Eastern Europe need to be seen. An account of some key aspects of sociopolitical and cultural transition in Eastern European countries is given, and core results of a research project on attitudes and needs assessment in psychiatry in six Eastern European countries are reported. In post-totalitarian cultures mental health reforms impinge on imagination in ways which are not easy to predict. Some of the reasons for this are traced to the psychiatric practices under the system of total control, e.g. dispensary care, political abuse, reification of classificatory terms. Data on a study of attitudes suggest that institutions had replaced community life in those parts of Europe. It is predicted that with time trust in the capacity of community to contain mental illness will be regained.
Al-Darmaki, Fatima; Thomas, Justin; Yaaqeib, Saad
Recent epidemiological data from Arabian Gulf nations suggest that mental health problems such as depression and anxiety have a relatively high prevalence, particularly amongst women. However, despite the widespread morbidity, treatment seeking for mental health problems is low. Mental health beliefs amongst female Emirati college students were explored. A questionnaire exploring perceptions about the causes, consequences and best forms of intervention for mental health problems was administered to 70 participants. Data revealed that social and environmental factors were given the most weight in terms of etiology. Social stigma was the most frequently identified barrier to help seeking. Religious practices were commonly reported as an approach to cope with mental health problems and to maintain good psychological health. Most participants reported willingness to seek help from a healthcare professional. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for improving the quality and accessibility of mental health services in the gulf region.
Menear, Matthew; Gilbert, Michel; Fleury, Marie-Josée
Objective The objectives of this review were to identify and compare major international initiatives aiming to integrate mental health services in primary care and to summarize the lessons learned for similar integration efforts in the province of Quebec, Canada.Methods We conducted a narrative review of the literature guided by a conceptual framework drawn from the literature on integrated care. We identified relevant initiatives to support primary mental health care integration through Pubmed searches and through previous systematic reviews on this topic. We then selected those initiatives that provided sufficient details on their key characteristics, outcomes, and implementation issues (e.g. barriers, facilitators). We focused our analysis on large-scale initiatives as these offered the most potential for impacts on population mental health. This process resulted in the selection of 20 initiatives that were described in 153 articles and reports. Our synthesis was guided by our conceptual framework, which distinguishes between five types of integration, namely clinical, professional, organizational, systemic and functional integration.Results Of the 20 primary mental health care integration initiatives, 3 targeted youth, 14 targeted adults or multiple age groups, and 3 were targeted towards seniors. Most initiatives aimed to implement collaborative care models for common mental disorders in primary care. Other initiatives focused on co-locating mental health professionals in primary care, supporting the emergence of a diversity of integration projects led by community-based primary care practices, or the merger of primary care and mental health organizations. Most initiatives were based on clinical, professional and functional integration strategies. Across initiatives, a range of positive outcomes were reported, notably to the accessibility and quality of services, the satisfaction of patients and providers, the costs of services, and impacts on patients' health
... tools and materials offering practical ways to help adolescent girls and adult women achieve better physical, mental, ... org Spanish-speaking operators available National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders 1-847-831-3438 9: ...
Full Text Available Mental ill health constitutes a huge portion of the GBD but the majority of people with mental health problems do not receive any treatment, a scenario much worse in developing countries where mental health personnel are in gross short supply. The mhGAP was launched to address this gap, especially by training non-mental health professionals to deliver effective services for selected priority mental health problems. Especially in developing countries, people with mental health problems consult traditional healers either as a first step in the pathway to biomedical mental health care or as the sole mental health service providers. Bridging the gap between mental health needs and available services in developing countries must incorporate traditional healers, who are ubiquitously available, easily accessible and acceptable to the natives. Although there are barriers in forging collaborations between traditional and biomedical mental health care providers, with mutual respect, understanding and adapted training using the mhGAP guide it should be possible to get some traditional healers to understand the core principles of some priority mental health problems identification, treatment and referral.
Backović Dušan V.
Full Text Available Introduction. Medical studies bring many stressful activities to students. Prolonged stress can make adverse effects to mental health and lead to further professional burnout. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the association of stress impact and adverse effects of medical studies with psychological distress among medical students. Methods. The cross sectional study was conducted on 367 fourthyear medical students of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade, by means of the anonymous questionnaire, containing: sociodemographic data, selfreported health status and stressful influences of studying activities. Mental health status was estimated by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12. Results. More than 50% of students perceive frequent feeling of psychic tension, and one third has problems with insomnia. Nearly onehalf of students assessed their general stress level as moderate or high. Exams were estimated as high stressor in 63.1% of all students. Stressful effects of communication with teaching staff were reported by one quarter of the examinees. The scores of GHQ12 were above the threshold in 55.6 % of all students. Mental health problems among students were most significantly associated with stressful experience during exams and contacts with teaching staff. Conclusion. Academic stress makes great influence on mental health of medical students. Reduction of stress effects should be directed to optimization of the examination process and improvement of communication skills. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 175078
Backović, Dusan V; Maksimović, Milos; Davidović, Dragana; Zivojinović, Jelena Ilić; Stevanović, Dejan
Medical studies bring many stressful activities to students. Prolonged stress can make adverse effects to mental health and lead to further professional burnout. The aim of this study was to assess the association of stress impact and adverse effects of medical studies with psychological distress among medical students. The cross sectional study was conducted on 367 fourth-year medical students of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade, by means of the anonymous questionnaire, containing: socio-demographic data, self-reported health status and stressful influences of studying activities. Mental health status was estimated by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). More than 50% of students perceive frequent feeling of psychic tension, and one third has problems with insomnia. Nearly one-half of students assessed their general stress level as moderate or high. Exams were estimated as high stressor in 63.1% of all students. Stressful effects of communication with teaching staff were reported by one quarter of the examinees. The scores of GHQ-12 were above the threshold in 55.6% of all students. Mental health problems among students were most significantly associated with stressful experience during exams and contacts with teaching staff. Academic stress makes great influence on mental health of medical students. Reduction of stress effects should be directed to optimization of the examination process and improvement of communication skills.
Mangala, R; Thara, R
Tamil cinema is a vibrant part of the lives of many in south India. A chequered history and a phenomenal growth have made this medium highly influential not only in Tamil Nadu politics, but also in the social lives of the viewers. This paper provides an overview of the growth of Tamil cinema, and discusses in detail the way mental health has been handled by Tamil films. Cinema can be used very effectively to improve awareness about mental health issues.
Full Text Available Numerous issues related to culture, occupation, gender, caste, and health, to name a few, have faced harshness of society from time immemorial. Reasons are debatable, ranging from somewhat understandable to completely unacceptable. There is no doubt that society is dynamic and it has changed its view on many of the issues with passing time. Mental health is one such issue which society has neglected for quite a long time. Even today, mental health and mentally ill people face stigma and discrimination in their family, society, and at their workplace. People do not feel comfortable talking about mental health, even if they know that there cannot be any health without a healthy mind. But, as Albert Einstein has said “learn from yesterday, live for today, and hope for tomorrow”, everything is not lost. The mentally ill patients who were once abandoned and left on their own have now started to get humane care and attention. This article discusses this very pertinent topic of changing society and mental health.
Waqas, Ahmed; Ahmad, Waqas; Haddad, Mark; Taggart, Frances M; Muhammad, Zerwah; Bukhari, Muhammad Hamza; Sami, Shahzad Ahmed; Batool, Sayyeda Mehak; Najeeb, Fiza; Hanif, Ayesha; Rizvi, Zehra Ali; Ejaz, Sumbul
Background. There is growing awareness of the public health importance of mental well-being both in the general population and in specific groups. The well-being of health professionals is likely to influence the quality of the care they deliver. This study was carried out to examine the well-being of Pakistani healthcare professionals, and to evaluate the psychometric performance of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) in this population. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from June, 2013 to December, 2014 among 1,271 Pakistani health care providers (HCPs) working in seven different cities in Punjab province, Pakistan, to examine the acceptability, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and content and construct validity of the English version of the WEMWBS in a Pakistani population sample. All data were analyzed in SPSS v. 21. Results. Our analysis demonstrated unidimensional construct validity, high internal consistency (0.89) and test-retest reliability, good validity and easy readability of WEMWBS in our sample of Pakistani HCPs. The mean WEMWBS score was 48.1 (SD 9.4), which is lower than in the general population in other countries. Male HCPs scored significantly higher on the WEMWBS than their female counterparts (P well-being scores than those reported in general population surveys in the UK.
Yang, Fan; Meng, Heng; Chen, Hui; Xu, Xin-hao; Liu, Zhuo; Luo, Ai; Feng, Zhan-chun
This study investigated the mental health status of medical students in China, and analyzed the influencing factors in order to provide evidence for mental health education for medical students. A stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit medical students from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China. The questionnaire survey on general information and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were used for investigation and analysis. The results showed among the 1137 valid questionnaires, 278 (24.45%) participants had SCL-90 score ≥ 160. The top three mental problems of medical students were obsessive-compulsive disorder, interpersonal sensitivity and depression in terms of the factor score ≥ 2.5 and the number of participants who reflected on the diseases. The third-year medical students had the worst mental health status, and fifth-year medical students had the best mental health status. Students from rural area had more psychological problems than those from urban area; furthermore, students with high professional satisfaction, those who were the single child of the family, non-poor students, and those whose parents had high education level had better mental health status. It was concluded that the mental health of medical students is not optimistic in China. Medical students have some mental health problems of different degrees. Factors that influence the mental health of medical students include academic pressure, professional satisfaction level and family environment.
Full Text Available This study was designed to identify: (1 predictors of 12-month healthcare service utilization for mental health reasons, framed by the Andersen model, among a population cohort in an epidemiological catchment area; and (2 correlates associated with healthcare service utilization for mental health reasons among individuals with and without mental disorders respectively. Analyses comprised univariate, bivariate, and multiple regression analyses. Being male, having poor quality of life, possessing better self-perception of physical health, and suffering from major depressive episodes, panic disorder, social phobia, and emotional problems predicted healthcare service utilization for mental health reasons. Among individuals with mental disorders, needs factors (psychological distress, impulsiveness, emotional problems, victim of violence, and aggressive behavior and visits to healthcare professionals were associated with healthcare service utilization for mental health reasons. Among individuals without mental disorders, healthcare service utilization for mental health reasons is strongly associated with enabling factors such as social support, income, environmental variables, and self-perception of the neighborhood. Interventions facilitating social cohesion and social solidarity in neighborhood settings may reduce the need to seek help among individuals without mental disorders. Furthermore, in their capacity as frontline professionals, general practitioners should be more sensitive in preventing, detecting, and treating mental disorders in routine primary care.
Palermo, George B
The deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill which started in the 1960s greatly contributed to the overcrowding of judicial systems throughout the world. In the ensuing years, the actors involved in the adversarial system present in United States courts, a system that is primarily interested in assessing the culpability of the offender, have come to realize that the system is lacking therapeutic and reintegrative approaches to offenders, especially those who are mentally ill. Therapeutic jurisprudence, an interdisciplinary science, addresses this problematic situation of the mentally ill. It offers a fresh insight into the potentially beneficial and detrimental effects of legal decisions and views one of the roles of law as that of a healing agent. At present, many states have instituted mental health courts based on these concepts, incorporating previous drug court experiences. Their goal is to avoid the criminalization of the mentally ill and their recidivism through the creation of special programs. This article describes the mental health court programs of Washoe County and Clark County, Nevada, their organization, their therapeutic goals, and their success in keeping mentally ill offenders out of the correctional system, while improving their mental condition. In so doing, the program has lightened the load of the overburdened courts and has greatly diminished the financial burden incurred for court trials and jail and prison stays. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Platt, Lisa F; Wolf, Julia Kay; Scheitle, Christopher P
Prior studies of the utilization of mental health professionals by sexual minority populations have relied on data that are now dated or not nationally representative. These studies have also provided mixed findings regarding gender differences in the utilization of mental health professionals among sexual minority individuals. Using data from the 2013-2015 National Health Interview Surveys, this study investigates (1) how sexual minority individuals compare to heterosexual participants in their utilization of mental health professionals; and (2) gender differences in that utilization. The results indicate sexual minority individuals utilize mental health care professionals at higher rates than heterosexual individuals even after controlling for measures of mental health and other demographic characteristics; this is true for both men and women. However, gender moderates the sexual minority effect on utilization rates. Sexual minority men utilize mental health professionals at a high rate, such that their utilization rates are similar to sexual minority women, contrary to the gender gap seen among heterosexuals.
Full Text Available La Organización Mundial de la Salud ha establecido un programa especial denominado "Naciones unidas para la salud mental" con el fin de fomentar la salud mental en poblaciones subatendidas, con particular énfasis en las mujeres, los niños, los adolescentes, los refugiados y los pueblos indígenas. Uno de los objetivos del programa es crear una mayor conciencia entre el público y los gobiernos acerca del costo social y económico de los trastornos mentales y del abuso de sustancias. Un segundo objetivo es identificar y promover estrategias de colaboración para mejorar la salud mental que se puedan poner en práctica por medio de proyectos de cooperación técnica de nivel nacional dirigidos por las organizaciones del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en colaboración con otras organizaciones internacionales gubernamentales y no gubernamentales. Ya están en marcha varios proyectos de demostración y otros se están planificando.
Full Text Available La Organización Mundial de la Salud ha establecido un programa especial denominado "Naciones unidas para la salud mental" con el fin de fomentar la salud mental en poblaciones subatendidas, con particular énfasis en las mujeres, los niños, los adolescentes, los refugiados y los pueblos indígenas. Uno de los objetivos del programa es crear una mayor conciencia entre el público y los gobiernos acerca del costo social y económico de los trastornos mentales y del abuso de sustancias. Un segundo objetivo es identificar y promover estrategias de colaboración para mejorar la salud mental que se puedan poner en práctica por medio de proyectos de cooperación técnica de nivel nacional dirigidos por las organizaciones del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en colaboración con otras organizaciones internacionales gubernamentales y no gubernamentales. Ya están en marcha varios proyectos de demostración y otros se están planificando.
Smith, Jeffrey Maurice
Limited literature exists describing the melding of philosophies aimed at increasing men's use of mental health counseling services. Members of the mental health counseling profession will benefit from collaborating with other health care professional to conceptualize alternative means to encourage men to use mental health counseling services.…
This article sets out to outline the tenets of neoliberalism and globalization, prior to the identification of the implications of neoliberalism for the British health system since 1979. The article then focuses on the applications and implications of neoliberalism for the British mental health system in terms of service organization and management, and the impact these changes in direction had on the three existing service sectors: users, carers and professionals. The discussion and the conclusion highlight the significance of these developments in the mental health system in the rather hybrid context of health, mental health, and social care policy and practice in the United Kingdom.
... 8255) . Health Topics and Resources Featured Health Topics Anxiety Disorders Depression Eating Disorders Bipolar Disorder (Manic-Depressive Illness) Schizophrenia Borderline Personality Disorder Suicide Prevention Attention Deficit ...
Davies, Eleanor Bethan
Mental health literacy encompasses an individual’s knowledge and attitudes which influence recognition, treatment and management of a mental health problem. Depression is a common mental health problem experienced by university students, but they often do not seek professional help for their mental health, and prefer more informal sources of help. Online interventions to improve students’ mental health literacy could be a useful and engaging mental health promotion strategy in this population...
Harper, D C; Wadsworth, J S
There has been little effort directed at training health care professionals in behaviors and attitudes that are effective in communicating with persons with mental retardation. Such training would be beneficial not only to assist those with congenital cognitive deficits but for those with acquired central nervous system conditions as well, for example, dementia. Persons with mental retardation are living in community settings in greater numbers and increasingly participating in vocational, residential, and health care programs. Yet, most health care professionals are not routinely offered an opportunity to gain experience interacting with people who have limited ability to express and understand health care information. An education program was focused on health care professionals' use of basic communication skills when providing health information to an adult who is mentally retarded. A self-study instructional text and a 20-minute companion video provided methods of communicating with a patient with mental retardation in medical and dental care settings. Resident physicians, medical students, nurses, and nursing assistants improved their communication skills, knew more about mental retardation, and were more proactive in health care interviews following training. Health care training needs to incorporate educational opportunities focusing on skills to assist special populations. Brief, structured, and interactive skill training in communication offered early in the health care professional's career has positive benefits for the recipient and the provider.
Current media campaigns, realized within national campaigns and actions on mental health prevention and promotion, are considered in this paper, in the context of expert public relation, as well as the whole society, towards mental health. Mental health promotion is determined as a range of activities by which individuals, community and society are being enabled to take control over mental health determinants and to improve it, but also as an action for improvement of mental health posi...
Abstract. Background: Mental health is now attracting increased public health attention from health professionals, policy makers and the general population. However, stigma and discrimination usually have enormous negative impact on the patients and their families. This study reports on stigma and discrimination faced by ...
Tomaras Vlassis D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the promotion of mental health (MHP through education and training is widely accepted, there is scarce evidence for its effectiveness in the literature from outcome studies worldwide. The present study aimed to assess the effect of a three-semester MHP educational program on the recipients' opinions towards mental illness and on their own self-assessed health. Methods Respondents were 78 attendees who completed the assessment battery at the first (baseline and the last session (end of the training course. They were primary care physicians or other professionals, or key community agents, working in the greater Athens area. The course consisted of 44 sessions (4 h each, over a 3-semester period, focusing on the principles and methods of mental health promotion, the main aspects of major psychiatric disorders, and on relevant to health skills. Assessment instruments included the Opinion about Mental Illness (OMI scale and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28. Results The mean scores of three OMI factors, that is, social discrimination, social restriction and social integration, and the two GHQ-28 subscales, that is, anxiety/insomnia and social dysfunction, were significantly improved by the end of the training course. Conclusions The results of this study provide evidence, with limitations, for the short-term effectiveness of the implemented educational MHP program on an adult group of recipients-key agents in their community. Because interventions for strengthening positive opinions about mental illness and enhancing self-assessed health constitute priority aims of mental health promotion, it would be beneficial to further investigate the sustainability of the observed positive changes. In addition it would be useful to examine (a the possible interplay between the two outcome measures, that is, the effect of opinions of recipients about mental health on their perceived health, and (b the applicability of this
The mental health field has grown larger and more complex in recent years, but this has not been equalled by increased administrative sophistication. Two problems, neither one irremediable, have contributed to this state of affairs. First, mental health organizations have generally been administered by mental health professionals with little administrative knowledge or training. And second, we have often failed to recognize the very special circumstances faced by administrators in the mental health field. These special circumstances are legion. For one thing, mental health services depend on public funding and must often deal with a high degree of government regulation. For another, the typical staff in a mental health organization is multidisciplinary, professional, and highly autonomous-a bit like a Navy with more admirals than ships. Then too, the transaction between therapist and patient is much more private and intimate in mental health than in most other fields; we are often dealing with a highly dependent patient population; our product is intangible and the success achieved is hard to judge; the boundaries of the field are very hard to define; and the enduring public stigma associated with use of mental health services, combined with the problem of confidentiality, complicates the administrative task. Finally, on top of all this, it is absolutely essential that the mental health administrator understand the need to create and maintain an organizational climate of efficacy and hope. Taken individually, many of these conditions have obvious counterparts in other fields; but taken as a group, they separate mental health from all the other human services, even ones that are closely related. To be effective, therefore, academic programs in mental health administration must reflect these conditions by developing specialized curricula and training procedures.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mental Health Country Profile is a tool that was generated by the International Mental Health Policy and Services Project to inform policy makers, professionals and other key stakeholders about important issues which need to be considered in mental health policy development. The Mental Health Country Profile contains four domains, which include the mental health context, resources, provision and outcomes. We have aimed to generate a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, in order to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the Vietnamese mental health situation, in order to inform future reform efforts and decision-making. Methods This study used snowball sampling to identify informants for generating a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, and the data gathering was done through semi-structured interviews and collection of relevant reports and documents. The material from the interviews and documents was analysed according to qualitative content analysis. Results Marked strengths of the Vietnam mental health system are the aims to move toward community management and detection of mental illness, and the active involvement of several multilateral organizations and NGOs. However, there are a number of shortages still found, including the lack of treatment interventions apart from medications, the high proportion of treatments to be paid out-of-pocket, prominence of large tertiary psychiatric hospitals, and a lack of preventative measures or mental health information to the public. Conclusions At the end of this decade, mental health care in Vietnam is still characterised by unclear policy and poor critical mass especially within the governmental sector. This initial attempt to map the mental health situation of Vietnam suffers from a number of limitations and should be seen as a first step towards a comprehensive profile.
Full Text Available Background. “Health is wealth” is a time tested adage. Health becomes more relevant when it comes to professionals whose job is to provide people with services that maintain an optimum state of mental, physical and social well-being. Healthcare professionals (HCP differ from general population in regards to the nature of their work, stress, burnout etc. which begs the need to have a robust state of health for the ones who provide it to others. We initiated this study to see if healthcare professionals “practice what they preach others.”Methods. We employed a cross-sectional study design with convenience-sampling technique. Questionnaires were administered directly to the three groups of healthcare professionals (Doctors, Dentists and Nurses across the province Punjab after their consent. 1,319 healthcare professionals took part in the study (response rate of 87.35. Warwick Edinburg Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS was used to assess mental wellbeing. USDA Dietary Guidelines-2010 were employed to quantify diet. American Heart Association (AHA guidelines were employed for the analysis of exercise.Results. A total of 1,190 healthcare professionals formed the final sample with doctors and nurses forming the major proportion. Out of 1,190 participants only one healthcare professional was found to eat according to USDA Dietary Guidelines; others ate more of protein group and less of fruits, dairy and vegetable groups. 76% did not perform any exercise. 71.5% worked >48 h/week. More than 50% of healthcare professionals were sleeping <7 h/day. WEMWBS score of the entire sample was 47.97 ± 9.53 S.D.Conclusion. Our findings suggest that healthcare professionals do not practice what they preach. Their mental wellbeing, diet and exercise habits are not up to the mark and should be improved to foster the whole healthcare system for individual and community benefits.
Gulsum Ozge Doganavsargil Baysal
Full Text Available Stigmatizasyon represent a chronic negative interaction with the environment that most of people with a of diagnosis mental disorders. Different types of stigma may have harmful effects. Poor psychological well being, poor quality of life and poor self esteem are related stigmatization. In this article, definition and mechanism of stigmatization, influenced factors and consequences of stigmatization are reviewed. Stigmatization is a modifiable environmental risk factor. Integrating approaches against stigma in treatment may represent cost-effective way to reduce the risk of relapse and poor outcome occasioned by chronic exposure to stigma. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 239-251
Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Nabors, Laura A.; Merianos, Ashley L.
Stigma is recognized as a potential barrier to seeking help for a mental health disorder. The present study assessed college students' perceived benefits and barriers to obtaining mental health treatment and stigma-related attitudes via a four-page survey. A total of 682 students at one Midwestern university participated in the study. Findings indicated that females perceived a greater number of benefits to having participated in mental health services and held significantly lower stigma-related attitudes than did males. Students who had ever received mental health services reported significantly more barriers to treatment than did students who had never received services. Health professionals should target students with educational programs about positive outcomes related to receiving mental health services and work with treatment centers to reduce barriers for receiving services. PMID:25750831
Ando, Shuntaro; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Aoki, Yuta; Thornicroft, Graham
The aim of this study is to understand the nature and characteristics of mental-health-related stigma among Japanese people. We searched relevant studies in English or Japanese published since 2001 using MEDLINE and PsycINFO, and found 19 studies that examined mental-health-related stigma in Japan. Regarding knowledge about mental illness, reviewed studies showed that in the Japanese general population, few people think that people can recover from mental disorders. Psychosocial factors, including weakness of personality, are often considered the cause of mental illness, rather than biological factors. In addition, the majority of the general public in Japan keep a greater social distance from individuals with mental illness, especially in close personal relationships. Schizophrenia is more stigmatized than depression, and its severity increases the stigmatizing attitude toward mental illness. The literature also showed an association between more direct social contact between health professionals and individuals with mental illness and less stigmatization by these professionals. Less stigmatization by mental health professionals may be associated with accumulation of clinical experience and daily contact with people who have mental illness. Stigmatizing attitudes in Japan are stronger than in Taiwan or Australia, possibly due to institutionalism, lack of national campaigns to tackle stigma, and/or society's valuing of conformity in Japan. Although educational programs appear to be effective in reducing mental-health-related stigma, future programs in Japan need to address problems regarding institutionalism and offer direct social contact with people with mental illness. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Kogstad, Ragnfrid Eline; Mønness, Erik Neslein
English: Background: Several studies have illustrated the importance of social support and social networks for persons with mental health problems. Social networks may mean a reduced need for professional services, but also help to facilitate access to professional help. The interplay between social networks and professional services is complicated and invites further investigation. Aim: Compare aspects of clients’ experiences with social networks to experiences with professio...
... Article: Readmission After Pediatric Mental Health Admissions. Article: Care Coordination for Youth With Mental Health Disorders in Primary... Article: Increased prescription rates of anxiolytics and hypnotics ...
Full Text Available Interprofessional care within many clinical and community mental health teams in Australia require staff to work collaboratively and outside their traditional scope. Whilst shared decision making and interprofessional collaboration are important approaches in supporting an individual’s recovery journey, working interprofessionally can create issues within teams when determining and defining ways to respond, care and support people with mental illness. The aim of this report is to examine workforce perspectives regarding an interprofessional postgraduate learning approach in mental health practice. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with eight mental health stakeholders. Findings indicate that practitioner learning needs are dependent on practice setting (i.e. hospital/clinical vs. community and professional background (i.e. social work, nursing. Learning needs were related to the application of practice frameworks (therapeutic relationship, recovery and professional identity and the workforce issues for employers (qualifications and skills. Overall interprofessional understanding and collaboration were seen as an essential requirement in ensuring an evidence based response to improve quality of life and economic and social participation for consumers. Tension between professional identities and the need for mental health practitioners to operate successfully within interprofessional contexts provides a challenge for postgraduate higher education providers. Keywords: Inter-professional; multidisciplinary; mental health; postgraduate; higher education
Full Text Available Background: To date, mental health professionals’ attitudes toward posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, compared to other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or depression, have rarely been studied. Objective: We assessed mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD compared to patients suffering from depression. Method: Case vignettes of a patient with either PTSD or depression were presented to two samples of mental health professionals: attendees of a conference on posttraumatic stress (N=226 or of a lecture for psychiatry residents (N=112. Participants subsequently completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude reactions to the presented case. Results: Participants showed similarly positive attitudes toward depression and PTSD. PTSD elicited a more favorable attitude with regard to prosocial reactions, estimated dependency, attributed responsibility, and interest in the case, particularly in mental health professionals specializing in psychotraumatology. Across diagnoses, higher age and longer professional experience were associated with more positive attitudes toward patients. Conclusions: Mental health professionals’ positive attitudes toward patients with depression and PTSD correlate with their specific knowledge about the disorder, their level of professional training, and their years of professional experience. Limitations: The instruments used, although based on established theoretical concepts in attitude research, were not validated in their present versions.
van Dusseldorp, Loes R L C; van Meijel, Berno K G; Derksen, Jan J L
The aim of this study is to gain insight into the level of emotional intelligence of mental health nurses in the Netherlands. The focus in research on emotional intelligence to date has been on a variety of professionals. However, little is known about emotional intelligence in mental health nurses. The emotional intelligence of 98 Dutch nurses caring for psychiatric patients is reported. Data were collected with the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory within a cross-sectional research design. The mean level of emotional intelligence of this sample of professionals is statistically significant higher than the emotional intelligence of the general population. Female nurses score significantly higher than men on the subscales Empathy, Social Responsibility, Interpersonal Relationship, Emotional Self-awareness, Self-Actualisation and Assertiveness. No correlations are found between years of experience and age on the one hand and emotional intelligence on the other hand. The results of this study show that nurses in psychiatric care indeed score above average in the emotional intelligence required to cope with the amount of emotional labour involved in daily mental health practice. The ascertained large range in emotional intelligence scores among the mental health nurses challenges us to investigate possible implications which higher or lower emotional intelligence levels may have on the quality of care. For instance, a possible relation between the level of emotional intelligence and the quality of the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship or the relation between the level of emotional intelligence and the manner of coping with situations characterised by a great amount of emotional labour (such as caring for patients who self-harm or are suicidal). © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Thongpriwan, Vipavee; Leuck, Susan E; Powell, Rhonda L; Young, Staci; Schuler, Suzanne G; Hughes, Ronda G
The purpose of this study was to describe undergraduate nursing students' attitudes toward mental health nursing and how these attitudes influenced their professional career choices in mental health nursing. A descriptive, online survey was utilized to examine students' perceptions of mental health nursing. A total of 229 junior and senior nursing students were recruited from eight nursing colleges in Midwestern United States to participate in this survey. Students of different ages, genders, ethnicities, and nursing programs did not report significantly different perceptions of: (a) knowledge of mental illness; (b) negative stereotypes; (c) interest in mental health nursing as a future career; and (d), and beliefs that psychiatric nurses provide a valuable contribution to consumers and the community. Negative stereotypes were significantly different between students who had mental health nursing preparation either in class (p=0.0147) or in clinical practice (p=0.0018) and students who had not. There were significant differences in anxiety about mental illness between students who had classes on mental health nursing (p=.0005), clinical experience (p=0.0035), and work experience in the mental health field (p=0.0012). Significant differences in an interest in a future career in mental health nursing emerged between students with and without prior mental health experience and between students with and without an interest in an externship program with p-values of 0.0012 and students have to mental health nursing through clinical experiences, theory classes, and previous work in the field, the more prepared they feel about caring for persons with mental health issues. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
McKeown, M; Mercer, D
Mental health nurses have a critical stake in resisting the right-wing ideology of British fascism. Particularly concerning is the contemporary effort of the British National Party (BNP) to gain credibility and electoral support by the strategic re-packaging of a racist and divisive political manifesto. Evidence that some public sector workers are affiliated with the BNP has relevance for nursing at a series of levels, not least the incompatibility of party membership with a requirement of the Professional Code to avoid discrimination. Progressive advances, though, need to account for deep rooted institutionalized racism in the discourse and practice of healthcare services. The anomalous treatment of black people within mental health services, alongside racial abuse experienced by ethnic minority staff, is discussed in relation to the concept of race as a powerful social category and construction. The murder of the mentally ill and learning disabled in Nazi Germany, as an adjunct of racial genocide, is presented as an extreme example where professional ethics was undermined by dominant political ideology. Finally, the complicity of medical and nursing staff in the state sanctioned, bureaucratic, killing that characterized the Holocaust is revisited in the context of ethical repositioning for contemporary practice and praxis.
Objective: This is the second of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). Objectives for the review were to provide realistic estimates of cost for unit activities and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate cost centre management. Method: The study described ...
Introduction. To assess the use of space requires the review of activities performed and functions executed. The assessment of the use and structuring of space for acute mental health care necessitates the review of all operational areas and related activities incorporated in the care program. At the same time appropriate ...
Villarreal, Victor; Castro-Villarreal, Felicia
Schools have played an increasingly central role in providing mental health services to youth, but there are limitations to the services that are available through school-based mental health professionals. Thus, collaboration with non-school-based community mental health providers is oftentimes necessary. As collaboration can address limitations…
Bezyak, Jill; Clark, Alena
Purpose: To conduct an initial needs assessment of physical and mental health behavior among college students to improve understanding of physical and mental health needs among future helping professionals. Method: A sample of 24 undergraduate students was used to provide a description of mental health, physical activity, and healthy eating…
Mellin, Elizabeth A.; Ball, Annahita; Iachini, Aidyn; Togno, Nicole; Rodriguez, Ana Maria
Teachers are critical partners in expanded school mental health (ESMH) collaborations that aim to bring educators, community mental health professionals and families together to leverage expertise and resources for addressing non-academic barriers to learning. Although teachers are in a unique position to observe the day-to-day mental health needs…
The past three decades have seen the number of international migrants double, to reach the unprecedented total of 175 million people in 2003. National health systems are often the biggest national employer, responsible for an estimated 35 million workers worldwide. Health professionals are part of the expanding global labour market. Today, foreign-educated health professionals represent more than a quarter of the medical and nursing workforces of Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. Destination countries, however, are not limited to industrialised nations. For example, 50 per cent of physicians in the Namibia public services are expatriates and South Africa continues to recruit close to 80% of its rural physicians from other countries. International migration often imitates patterns of internal migration. The exodus from rural to urban areas, from lower to higher income urban neighbourhoods and from lower-income to higher-income sectors contributes challenges to the universal coverage of the population. International migration is often blamed for the dramatic health professional shortages witnessed in the developing countries. A recent OECD study, however, concludes that many registered nurses in South Africa (far exceeding the number that emigrate) are either inactive or unemployed. These dire situations constitute a modern paradox which is for the most part ignored. Shared language, promises of a better quality of life and globalization all support the continued existence of health professionals' international migration. The ethical dimension o this mobility is a sensitive issue that needs to be addressed. A major paradigm shift, however, is required in order to lessen the need to migrate rather than artificially curb the flows.
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.
This comprehensive course from the Practical Nursing series of competency-based curricula is designed to prepare students for employment by systematically guiding the students' learning activities from the simple to the complex. These materials prepare health care practitioners to function effectively in the rapidly changing health care industry.…
Cachia, John M.;
Mental ill-health imposes a huge burden on individuals, their families, society, health systems and the economy. Mental health care remains a neglected area of health policy in too many countries. This statement by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD 2014) confirms the overall bleak assessment of the reaction to mental ill-health that prevails worldwide even in well-developed economies. Mental ill-health has accompanying costs in terms o...
Richard Frank; Thomas G. McGuire
Are many prisoners in jail or prison because of their mental illness? And if so, is mental health treatment a cost-effective way to reduce crime and lower criminal justice costs? This paper reviews and evaluates the evidence assessing the potential of expansion of mental health services for reducing crime. Mental illness and symptoms of mental illness are highly prevalent among adult and child criminal justice populations. The association between serious mental illness and violence and arrest...
Culyba, Alison Journey; Patton, William Wesley
One reason that scientific research takes so long to reach patients is that medical researchers and practitioners often lack training in public policy implementation theory and strategy. General medical and specific psychiatric ethical precepts in the United States and in international ethics codes invest public policy duties in psychiatric researchers and individual clinicians. This essay discusses those medical ethical rules and suggests means for training psychiatrists to meet their public health policy duties in legal fora. The discussion presents a case study of the evolution of polyvictimization research, its initial lack of implementation in clinical practice and public policy debates, and a detailed demonstration of the incorporation of polyvictimization research in informing legislative action. Through systematic efforts to expand training and involvement of psychiatrists, we can expedite the implementation of psychiatric research by marshalling individual psychiatrists to affect decisions in legislative, executive, and judicial proceedings. These individual efforts can occur synergistically with ongoing psychiatric and psychological organizations' efforts to better effect timely incorporation of evidence-based policies to improve mental health at the local, state, national, and international levels.
... HealthPersistent Depressive Disorder (PDD)Managing Daily StressDepressionGrieving: Facing Illness, Death, and Other LossesTherapy and CounselingUnderstanding Your Teen’s Emotional HealthGeneralized Anxiety Disorder Home Prevention and Wellness Emotional Well-Being Mental ...
Mcluckie, Alan; Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Weaver, Cynthia
Enhancement of mental health literacy for youth is a focus of increasing interest for mental health professionals and educators alike. Schools are an ideal site for addressing mental health literacy in young people. Currently, there is limited evidence regarding the impact of curriculum-based interventions within high school settings. We examined the effect of a high-school mental health curriculum (The Guide) in enhancing mental health literacy in Canadian schools. We conducted a secondary analysis on surveys of students who participated in a classroom mental health course taught by their usual teachers. Evaluation of students' mental health literacy (knowledge/attitudes) was completed before and after classroom implementation and at 2-month follow-up. We used paired-samples t-tests and Cohen's d value to determine the significance and impact of change. There were 265 students who completed all surveys. Students' knowledge significantly improved between pre- and post-tests (p student knowledge and attitudes regarding mental health. This is the first study to demonstrate the positive impact of a curriculum-based mental health literacy program in a Canadian high school population.
Camila Bonfim de Alcântara
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To identify the perception of nursing professionals about drug therapy for people with mental disorders. Methods: An exploratory qualitative research was carried out in four Psychosocial Care Centers of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Data, collected from January to March 2015 using an individual semi-structured interview applied to 56 nursing professionals, were submitted to qualitative data analysis and interpretation as proposed by Creswell. Results: The data were organized into three thematic categories: drug therapy improves the life of the person with a mental disorder; negative and positive consequences related to drug therapy; and drug therapy as one of the resources needed to treat mental health. Conclusion: Nursing staff perceive the importance of medications as a resource to treat people with mental disorders as psychotropic drugs minimize he acute symptoms of disorders and improve living conditions when associated with other therapeutic resources.
Ahmad, Waqas; Taggart, Frances; Shafique, Muhammad Shoaib; Muzafar, Yumna; Abidi, Shehnam; Ghani, Noor; Malik, Zahra; Zahid, Tehmina; Waqas, Ahmed; Ghaffar, Naila
Background. "Health is wealth" is a time tested adage. Health becomes more relevant when it comes to professionals whose job is to provide people with services that maintain an optimum state of mental, physical and social well-being. Healthcare professionals (HCP) differ from general population in regards to the nature of their work, stress, burnout etc. which begs the need to have a robust state of health for the ones who provide it to others. We initiated this study to see if healthcare professionals "practice what they preach others." Methods. We employed a cross-sectional study design with convenience-sampling technique. Questionnaires were administered directly to the three groups of healthcare professionals (Doctors, Dentists and Nurses) across the province Punjab after their consent. 1,319 healthcare professionals took part in the study (response rate of 87.35). Warwick Edinburg Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS) was used to assess mental wellbeing. USDA Dietary Guidelines-2010 were employed to quantify diet. American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines were employed for the analysis of exercise. Results. A total of 1,190 healthcare professionals formed the final sample with doctors and nurses forming the major proportion. Out of 1,190 participants only one healthcare professional was found to eat according to USDA Dietary Guidelines; others ate more of protein group and less of fruits, dairy and vegetable groups. 76% did not perform any exercise. 71.5% worked >48 h/week. More than 50% of healthcare professionals were sleeping mental wellbeing, diet and exercise habits are not up to the mark and should be improved to foster the whole healthcare system for individual and community benefits.
Skingsley, David; Bradley, Eleanor J; Nolan, Peter
prescribe coupled with the information they provide to service users can be improved as a result of specific educational support. It would appear that adopting a prescribing dimension to one's role requires nurses to revisit a number of skills that are integral to the work of the mental health nurse, e.g. good communication, establishing empathy, listening to what clients say, responding to what is required and involving clients in their own care. Mental health nurses from one particular Trust in the West Midlands were provided with a 'top-up' course in neuropharmacology and, although they found this challenging, ultimately they found this to be helpful. As nurse prescribing is 'rolled out' to other nursing specialities it is important that local Trusts and Workforce Development Directorates maintain a dialogue about nurse prescriber training to ensure that nurse prescribers receive the appropriate time and support for their ongoing Continued Professional Development. As increasing numbers of nurses from different specialities qualify as nurse prescribers it is vital that they are supported by their employing organizations and given the opportunity to maintain their competency and confidence in their prescribing practice.
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ISBN 978-92-837-2022-5 Single copies of this publication or of a part of it may be made for individual use only by those organisations or individuals...Health Status on Military Fitness, HFM-164/RTG on Psychological Aspects of Health Behaviours on Deployed Military Operations, HFM-175/RTG Medically...dstl.gov.uk Dr. R. (Roos) DELAHAIJ Research Scientist, Behavioural Societal Sciences TNO P.O. Box 23, Kampweg 5 3769 ZE, Soesterberg
Marshall, Joanne Gard
Recent trends in the marketing of electronic information technology have increased interest among health professionals in obtaining direct access to online biomedical databases such as Medline. During 1985, the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) and Telecom Canada conducted an eight-month trial of the use made of online information retrieval systems by 23 practising physicians and one pharmacist. The results of this project demonstrated both the value and the limitations of these systems in p...
Akl, Elie A; Kairouz, Victor F; Sackett, Kay M; Erdley, William S; Mustafa, Reem A; Fiander, Michelle; Gabriel, Carolynne; Schünemann, Holger
The use of games as an educational strategy has the potential to improve health professionals' performance (e.g. adherence to standards of care) through improving their knowledge, skills and attitudes. The objective was to assess the effect of educational games on health professionals' performance, knowledge, skills, attitude and satisfaction, and on patient outcomes. We searched the following databases in January 2012: MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Database of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, EPOC Register, ERIC, Proquest Dissertations & Theses Database, and PsycINFO. Related reviews were sought in DARE and the above named databases. Database searches identified 1546 citations. We also screened the reference lists of included studies in relevant reviews, contacted authors of relevant papers and reviews, and searched ISI Web of Science for papers citing studies included in the review. These search methods identified an additional 62 unique citations for a total of 1608 for this update. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials (CCT), controlled before and after (CBA) and interrupted time-series analysis (ITS). Study participants were qualified health professionals or in postgraduate training. The intervention was an educational game with "a form of competitive activity or sport played according to rules". Using a standardized data form we extracted data on methodological quality, participants, interventions and outcomes of interest that included patient outcomes, professional behavior (process of care outcomes), and professional's knowledge, skills, attitude and satisfaction. The search strategy identified a total of 2079 unique citations. Out of 84 potentially eligible citations, we included two RCTs. The game evaluated in the first study used as a reinforcement technique, was based on the television game show "Family Feud" and focused on infection control. The study did not assess any patient or process of care outcomes. The
Somasundaram, D J; van de Put, W A
An effort is being made in Cambodia to involve grass-roots personnel in the integration of the care of the mentally ill into a broad framework of health services. This undertaking is examined with particular reference to the work of the Transcultural Psychosocial Organization.
Mache, Stefanie; Baresi, Lisa; Bernburg, Monika; Vitzthum, Karin; Groneberg, David
Dealing with work-related stress is highly prevalent for employees in Gynecology Medicine. Junior physicians, in particular, have to face high working demands and challenges while starting their medical career after graduation. Job resources (i.e., social support) and personal resources (coping skills) might reduce job strain. The evidence for supportive and effective mental health interventions for clinicians is limited. Offering psychosocial skill training for entrants in Gynecology Medicine is expected to be highly beneficial. Following this, the present pilot study focused on strengthening physicians' psychosocial skills and analyzed the effects of innovative training for junior gynecologists working in German hospitals. Coping skills training for junior gynecologists was offered as group training for 12 weekly sessions over a time period of 3 months. Physicians were randomized to either an intervention group (IG) receiving the training (n = 38) or a control group (CG; n = 40). Training content involved developing and learning coping skills as well as solution-focused and cognitive behavioral counselling for junior gynecologists. Study outcomes were (1) perceived occupational stress, (2) emotional exhaustion, (3) resilience coping behavior, (4) emotion regulation skills and (5) job satisfaction. Surveys were distributed at baseline (T0), after the training (T1), after 3 (T2) and 6 months (T3). Junior gynecologists (IG) reported a significant decrease in perceived job stress and emotional exhaustion from baseline to all follow-ups, whereas the control group did not show any comparable results. A clear positive value of the mental health promotion program was also noticeable with regard to job satisfaction and increased coping skills (i.e., emotion regulation). Overall satisfaction with the skill training was high: gynecologists reported high scores for training design, content, received outcome and overall satisfaction with the training. In this pilot
Full Text Available Background. There is growing awareness of the public health importance of mental well-being both in the general population and in specific groups. The well-being of health professionals is likely to influence the quality of the care they deliver. This study was carried out to examine the well-being of Pakistani healthcare professionals, and to evaluate the psychometric performance of the Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS in this population.Methods. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from June, 2013 to December, 2014 among 1,271 Pakistani health care providers (HCPs working in seven different cities in Punjab province, Pakistan, to examine the acceptability, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and content and construct validity of the English version of the WEMWBS in a Pakistani population sample. All data were analyzed in SPSS v. 21.Results. Our analysis demonstrated unidimensional construct validity, high internal consistency (0.89 and test-retest reliability, good validity and easy readability of WEMWBS in our sample of Pakistani HCPs. The mean WEMWBS score was 48.1 (SD 9.4, which is lower than in the general population in other countries. Male HCPs scored significantly higher on the WEMWBS than their female counterparts (P < 0.05, and older respondents had higher scores.Conclusion. The WEMWBS appears acceptable for use in Pakistani HCPs, and findings from this study verify its validity and internal consistency for this population sample. Our respondents had lower well-being scores than those reported in general population surveys in the UK.
Sipe, Theresa Ann; Finnie, Ramona K.C.; Knopf, John A.; Qu, Shuli; Reynolds, Jeffrey A.; Thota, Anilkrishna B.; Hahn, Robert A.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Hennessy, Kevin D.; McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Anderson, Clinton W.; Azrin, Susan; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Gelenberg, Alan J.; Vernon-Smiley, Mary E.; Nease, Donald E.
Context Health insurance benefits for mental health services typically have paid less than benefits for physical health services, resulting in potential underutilization or financial burden for people with mental health conditions. Mental health benefits legislation was introduced to improve financial protection (i.e., decrease financial burden) and to increase access to, and use of, mental health services. This systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of mental health benefits legislation, including executive orders, in improving mental health. Evidence acquisition Methods developed for the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to identify, evaluate, and analyze available evidence. The evidence included studies published or reported from 1965 to March 2011 with at least one of the following outcomes: access to care, financial protection, appropriate utilization, quality of care, diagnosis of mental illness, morbidity and mortality, and quality of life. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Evidence synthesis Thirty eligible studies were identified in 37 papers. Implementation of mental health benefits legislation was associated with financial protection (decreased out-of-pocket costs) and appropriate utilization of services. Among studies examining the impact of legislation strength, most found larger positive effects for comprehensive parity legislation or policies than for less-comprehensive ones. Few studies assessed other mental health outcomes. Conclusions Evidence indicates that mental health benefits legislation, particularly comprehensive parity legislation, is effective in improving financial protection and increasing appropriate utilization of mental health services for people with mental health conditions. Evidence is limited for other mental health outcomes. PMID:25998926
Chen, Martin K.
One of the major problems in measuring community mental health status is the lack of consensus among mental health workers in psychiatry, psychology, sociology, and epidemiology as to what constitutes mental illness. Additionally, changing social mores preclude a definition of mental illness in behavioral terms. An operational definition of mental…
Larson, Satu; Chapman, Susan; Spetz, Joanne; Brindis, Claire D
Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers (SBHCs) may be one strategy to decrease health disparities. Empirical studies between 2003 and 2013 of US pediatric populations and of US SBHCs were included if research was related to childhood trauma's effects, mental health care disparities, SBHC mental health services, or SBHC impact on academic achievement. Eight studies show a significant risk of mental health disorders and poor academic achievement when exposed to childhood trauma. Seven studies found significant disparities in pediatric mental health care in the US. Nine studies reviewed SBHC mental health service access, utilization, quality, funding, and impact on school achievement. Exposure to chronic childhood trauma negatively impacts school achievement when mediated by mental health disorders. Disparities are common in pediatric mental health care in the United States. SBHC mental health services have some showed evidence of their ability to reduce, though not eradicate, mental health care disparities. © 2017, American School Health Association.
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Mental health problems are a major concern to employers, employees and occupational health professionals in the Netherlands. Employees developing these problems often have to take long-term leave from work, which may lead to disability. About a third of the total disability inflow is due to
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are intersecting epidemics in South Africa (SA). Despite recognition that IPV and HIV are bidirectionally linked, less attention has been given to mental health – a key health condition that is at the nexus of both violence and HIV/AIDS. While SA healthcare professionals have made ...
Bruland, D.; Pinheiro, P.; Bröder, J.; Okan, O.; Carvalho, Graça Simões de; Saboga-Nunes, L.; Bond, E.; Wahl, P.; Fretian, A.; Bauer, U.
Children whose parents have mental health issues respond to associated familial stressors with symptomatic behaviors and are, themselves, at considerably higher risk of developing serious mental health problems. Teachers are the most likely professionals who are able to recognize behavior changes and mental health needs of children. This article aims to provide an overview of the current state-of-the-art research on teachers’ mental health literacy including how teachers identify and support ...
Ordan, Revital; Shor, Ron; Liebergall-Wischnitzer, Michal; Noble, Lawrence; Noble, Anita
To examine professional stigma and attitudes of parenthood towards postpartum women with severe mental illness and the association between postpartum nurses' attitudes and nursing interventions that promote motherhood. Stigma and attitudes towards parenthood of women with severe mental illness may influence nurses' clinical practices. Cross-sectional, mixed methods. The Stigma among Health Professionals towards People with Severe Mental Illness, Attitudes towards Parenthood among People with Severe Mental Illness and Nursing Interventions that Promote Becoming a Mother Questionnaires were used in the study, as well as qualitative analysis. Sixty-one postpartum nurses participated in the study. Increased stigma was associated with an increase in negative attitudes towards parenthood among people with severe mental illness, in general, and towards their parenthood skills, in particular. Postpartum nurses reported a decrease in nursing interventions and a therapeutic nurse-client relationship that fosters mother's empowerment. Themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis were postpartum nurse's perceptions of inadequacy, difficulty of postpartum nurses taking responsibility for managing women with severe mental illness and a paternalistic approach to these women, rather than empowerment, regarding infant care. Nurses providing care to postpartum women with severe mental illness and their infants may provide fewer routine postpartum interventions due to professional stigma and negative attitudes concerning parenting skills. Nurses should provide individualised, tailored care that allows women with severe mental illness to become a mother to the best of her ability. Not all women with severe mental illness are capable of caring for themselves and/or their baby. Nurses should provide individualised, tailored care that allows the women with severe mental illness to become a mother to the best of her ability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cuff, Patricia A.
"Assessing Health Professional Education" is the summary of a workshop hosted by the Institute of Medicine's Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education to explore assessment of health professional education. At the event, Forum members shared personal experiences and learned from patients, students, educators, and…
Smoyak, S A
Gaming-simulation is being developed foruse in a variety of aspects of health care. A mental health diagnostic and therapeutic application is described for problems in parent-teenager relations; it features gaming, videotaping of interactions, and extensive discussion. Two applications which elucidate the nature of discord between couples and two applications for work-group problems are also described. Gaming-simulation is used in basic and continuing education of health professionals for such issues as problems of dying patients and the aged, and prevention of coronary heart disease. Patients rights issues provide a potential focus for opening dialogues between patients and professionals about all facets of health and illness care.
Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee
In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.
Gigantesco, Antonella; Lega, Ilaria
One fifth of workers reports experiencing stress in the work environment in Europe. A number of studies show that psychosocial stressors in the workplace are associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes, including symptoms of anxiety and depression. The present paper: briefly describes the characteristics of occupational stress and the main psychosocial stressful risk factors in the work environment; reports the main results of studies on psychosocial risk factors in the work environment as risk factor for common mental disorders; presents findings from an Italian study aimed at assessing prevalence of common mental disorders and workplace psychosocial stressors in a sample of hospital employees; provides the "Working conditions Questionnaire", a validated self-administered instrument to assess perceived stress in the workplace; this questionnaire includes the assessment of organizational justice.
Yi, Youngmin; Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher
Previous studies provide insight into the mental health of jail and prison inmates, but this research does not compare the two groups of inmates. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this article examines how the association between incarceration and self-reported mental health varies by facility type, net of an array of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Both jail and prison inmates report high rates of depression, life dissatisfaction, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use. In adjusted logistic regression models, those incarcerated in jails, compared with those not incarcerated, have higher odds of depression (odds ratio [ OR] = 5.06, 90% confidence interval [CI; 1.96, 13.11]), life dissatisfaction ( OR = 3.59, 90% CI [1.40, 9.24]), and recent illicit drug use ( OR = 4.03, 90% CI [1.49, 10.58]). Those incarcerated in prisons have higher odds of life dissatisfaction ( OR = 3.88, 90% CI [2.16, 6.94]) and lower odds of recent heavy drinking ( OR = 0.32, 90% CI [0.13, 0.81]) compared with those not incarcerated. Furthermore, jail inmates report significantly more depression, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use than prison inmates. These results suggest the association between incarceration and mental health may vary substantially across facilities and highlight the importance of expanding research in this area beyond studies of prisons. The results also indicate that public health professionals in the correctional system should be especially attuned to the disproportionately high levels of poor mental health outcomes among jail inmates.
Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie
The aim of this study was to determine the respective contribution of professional characteristics, team attributes, team processes, and team emergent states on the job satisfaction of 315 mental health professionals from Quebec (Canada). Job satisfaction was measured with the Job Satisfaction Survey. Independent variables were organized into four categories according to a conceptual framework inspired from the Input-Mediator-Outcomes-Input Model. The contribution of each category of variables was assessed using hierarchical regression analysis. Variations in job satisfaction were mostly explained by team processes, with minimal contribution from the other three categories. Among the six variables significantly associated with job satisfaction in the final model, four were team processes: stronger team support, less team conflict, deeper involvement in the decision-making process, and more team collaboration. Job satisfaction was also associated with nursing and, marginally, male gender (professional characteristics) as well as with a stronger affective commitment toward the team (team emergent states). Results confirm the importance for health managers of offering adequate support to mental health professionals, and creating an environment favorable to collaboration and decision-sharing, and likely to reduce conflicts between team members.
Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the respective contribution of professional characteristics, team attributes, team processes, and team emergent states on the job satisfaction of 315 mental health professionals from Quebec (Canada). Methods: Job satisfaction was measured with the Job Satisfaction Survey. Independent variables were organized into four categories according to a conceptual framework inspired from the Input-Mediator-Outcomes-Input Model. The contribution of each category of variables was assessed using hierarchical regression analysis. Results: Variations in job satisfaction were mostly explained by team processes, with minimal contribution from the other three categories. Among the six variables significantly associated with job satisfaction in the final model, four were team processes: stronger team support, less team conflict, deeper involvement in the decision-making process, and more team collaboration. Job satisfaction was also associated with nursing and, marginally, male gender (professional characteristics) as well as with a stronger affective commitment toward the team (team emergent states). Discussion and Conclusion: Results confirm the importance for health managers of offering adequate support to mental health professionals, and creating an environment favorable to collaboration and decision-sharing, and likely to reduce conflicts between team members. PMID:29276591
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Hopley, Phil; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Verhagen, Evert; Viljoen, Wayne; Wylleman, Paul; Lambert, Mike I
The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders among professional rugby players across countries. A cross-sectional analysis of the baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study was conducted. Nine national players' associations and three rugby unions distributed questionnaires based on validated scales for assessing symptoms of common mental disorders. Among the whole study sample (N=990; overall response rate of 28%), prevalence (4-week) of symptoms of common mental disorders ranged from 15% for adverse alcohol use to 30% for anxiety/depression. These findings support the prevalence rates of symptoms of common mental disorders found in previous studies among professional (i. e., elite) athletes across other sports, and suggestions can be made that the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety/depression seems slightly higher in professional rugby than in other general/occupational populations. Awareness of the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders should be improved in international rugby, and an interdisciplinary approach including psychological attention should be fostered in the medical care of professional rugby players. Adequate supportive measures to enhance awareness and psychological resilience would lead not only to improved health and quality of life among rugby players but arguably to enhanced performance in rugby. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Connell, Nadine M.
Objectives. We assessed mental health screening and medication continuity in a nationally representative sample of US prisoners. Methods. We obtained data from 18 185 prisoners interviewed in the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities. We conducted survey logistic regressions with Stata version 13. Results. About 26% of the inmates were diagnosed with a mental health condition at some point during their lifetime, and a very small proportion (18%) were taking medication for their condition(s) on admission to prison. In prison, more than 50% of those who were medicated for mental health conditions at admission did not receive pharmacotherapy in prison. Inmates with schizophrenia were most likely to receive pharmacotherapy compared with those presenting with less overt conditions (e.g., depression). This lack of treatment continuity is partially attributable to screening procedures that do not result in treatment by a medical professional in prison. Conclusions. A substantial portion of the prison population is not receiving treatment for mental health conditions. This treatment discontinuity has the potential to affect both recidivism and health care costs on release from prison. PMID:25322306
Bruland, Dirk; Kornblum, Katharina; Harsch, Stefanie; Bröder, Janine; Okan, Orkan; Bauer, Ullrich
Students Having Parents with Mental Health Issues and Teachers' Mental Health Literacy Mental health issues of parents of school children often negatively affects the children as well, including their school performance and social behavior in the school setting. Teachers are then required to take actions with regards to supporting children in their coping with and mastering of their home situation and their responds to educational demands. As such, schools' and teachers' actions can either support affected children and fulfill a protective function or respond inappropriately, with negative impact on the affected children. Although the societal discussion about and acceptance of mental illnesses have increased in recent years, scientific knowledge on how well teachers are prepared for meeting the needs of affected students remains insufficient. Therefore, this research study examines teachers' attitudes towards, knowledge about, and competencies regarding children affected by a mentally ill parent. 15 in-depth interviews and 3 focus groups (n = 11) with teachers from primary and secondary schools were conducted and systematically analyzed. Although burdens in the family are perceived as major influences on children's school day and performance, teachers report to not feel sufficiently prepared for and uncertain about supporting and coping with the special needs of affected students. Instead they report to "learn from a case to case" basis. Recognizing the family situation of children with mentally ill parents is reported to be especially difficult for teachers. Responding inadequately and insensitive to the needs of affected children was perceived as a serious burden for teachers themselves. While schools can function as entry points to professional social help systems, teachers frequently reported barriers and challenges in accessing, communicating, and collaborating with these systems. The practical implications of these results regarding the "Mental Health
Wozney, Lori; Baxter, Pamela; Newton, Amanda S
Use of the Internet to deliver cognitive behavioural therapy, a frontline treatment for anxiety disorders, is emerging as an option to increase access to treatment among adolescents with anxiety disorders. This study examined the usability of the Internet-based component of Breathe, a CBT program designed for adolescents with mild to moderate anxiety and impairments. A mixed-method usability testing design with semi-structured interviews, task completion, and survey by trained usability moderators was undertaken with two interactive cycles to determine the usability (ease of use, efficiency, errors, and user satisfaction) of the user interface and content areas of the program. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit mental health clinicians with expertise in treating adolescent anxiety disorders and young people aged 15 to 24 years involved. Testing involved using Web-conferencing software that allowed remote participation through personal computers. Two testing cycles involved participants completing structured 'think aloud' and 'cognitive walkthrough' tasks within the program. At the end of each cycle participants completed a 15-item global usability evaluation survey and were asked a series of open-ended questions. Descriptive and simple content analyses were used to identify and score usability issues for frequency and severity. Five clinicians and four young people (all user performance indicators (i.e., learnability, efficiency and number of errors) and user satisfaction. Participants were able to complete all critical tasks with minimal errors. Errors and issues identified during testing were predominantly around enhancements to the visual design and navigational support. Opinions across usability elements did not differ between young people and clinician participants. A multi-method remote usability approach provided the opportunity to improve the technical interface, therapeutic messaging and user experience of an Internet-based treatment program for
van Ours, J.C.; Williams, J.
This paper investigates whether cannabis use leads to worse mental health. To do so, we account for common unobserved factors affecting mental health and cannabis consumption by modeling mental health jointly with the dynamics of cannabis use. Our main finding is that using cannabis increases the
National Technical Assistance Center on Transition, 2016
Recently researchers have begun focusing on young adults with mental health disorders transitioning into adulthood. Research exploring the importance of mental health support in secondary transition have yielded positive outcomes. For example, strong collaboration between educational and mental health agencies ensuring academic, employment, and…
Jenkins, Rachel; Baingana, Florence; Belkin, Gary; Borowitz, Michael; Daly, Anthony; Francis, Paul; Friedman, Jed; Garrison, Preston; Kauye, Felix; Kiima, David; Mayeya, John; Mbatia, Joseph; Tyson, Stewart; Njenga, Frank; Gureje, Oye; Sadiq, Sabah
This article synthesizes the views of participants in two roundtables that were convened in Nairobi (March 2007) and London (July 2008) to identify key challenges to the prioritization of mental health in Africa and possible solutions. Participants included leading development experts and policy makers from head and country offices of international donors, national directors of mental health for several African countries, key mental health and public health professionals, epidemiologists, and an international nongovernmental organization. The challenges they identified to mainstreaming mental health include lack of understanding of the contribution of mental disorders to morbidity and mortality, competition for limited resources within health reform efforts, poor distribution of interventions and lack of inclusion of mental health among core generic health indicators, lack of economic research evidence, lack of a strategic approach to human resources planning, lack of partnerships with the social development sector, and mental health professionals' need for public health skills to effectively conduct national advocacy. Potential solutions include further investment in economic research, better strategic identification of the levers and entry points for integrating mental health into health sector reform plans, more vigorous engagement of mental health professionals in general health sector reforms, strengthening the linkage between mental health and social development, and intensive resource mobilization. In summary, partnerships, underpinned by collaborative training, research, and mutual dialogue with other health and nonhealth sectors, are needed.
Acharya, Bibhav; Hirachan, Soniya; Mandel, Jeffery S; van Dyke, Craig
In low- and middle-income countries, the majority of individuals with mental illness go untreated largely because of a severe shortage of mental health professionals. Global initiatives to close the mental health treatment gap focus on primary care providers delivering this care. For this to be effective, primary care providers require the skills to assess, diagnose, and treat patients with mental illness. To assess primary care providers' training and experience in caring for mental health patients, the authors conducted five focus groups at three isolated district hospitals in rural Nepal where there was no access to mental health professionals. Primary care providers reported limited training, lack of knowledge and skills, and discomfort in delivering mental health care. To address the mental health education gap, primary care providers in Nepal, and perhaps other low- and middle-income countries, require more training during both undergraduate and graduate medical education.
Çelik Ince, S; Partlak Günüşen, N; Serçe, Ö
. A thematic analysis was used to evaluate the interviews. Four main themes were determined. (1) The barriers to physical healthcare theme included barriers related to patients, illness and treatment, barriers related to patients' caregivers, barriers related to health professionals and barriers related to the healthcare system. (2) The physical healthcare practices theme included common physical health problems and current nursing practices. (3) Motivators theme included the desire to see positive changes in a patient, receiving positive feedback, feeling useful and happy, having a sense of conscience and feeling satisfied with their profession. (4) The needs for better physical healthcare theme included the nurses' recommendations for better physical health care. Mental health nurses believe that the physical health care provided to individuals with mental illness is not adequate. Many barriers to providing care for physical health, such as having psychiatric symptoms that are not seen as a priority by patients and health personnel, were determined. Mental health nurses should integrate physical healthcare practices into their routine care. In addition, mental health nurses' knowledge and skills about physical health care should be improved. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Stein, Dan J; Giordano, James
Global mental health is a relatively new field that has focused on disparities in mental health services across different settings, and on innovative ways to provide feasible, acceptable, and effective services in poorly-resourced settings. Neuroethics, too, is a relatively new field, lying at the intersection of bioethics and neuroscience; it has studied the implications of neuroscientific findings for age-old questions in philosophy, as well as questions about the ethics of novel neuroscientific methods and interventions. In this essay, we address a number of issues that lie at the intersection of these two fields: an emphasis on a naturalist and empirical position, a concern with both disease and wellness, the importance of human rights in neuropsychiatric care, and the value of social inclusion and patient empowerment. These different disciplines share a number of perspectives, and future dialogue between the two should be encouraged.
Seko, Yukari; Kidd, Sean; Wiljer, David; McKenzie, Kwame
Mobile phone technologies have been hailed as a promising means for delivering mental health interventions to youth and adolescents, the age group with high cell phone penetration and with the onset of 75% of all lifetime mental disorders. Despite the growing evidence in physical health and adult mental health, however, little information is available about how mobile phones are implemented to deliver mental health services to the younger population. The purpose of this scoping study was to map the current state of knowledge regarding mobile mental health (mMental Health) for young people (age 13-24 years), identify gaps, and consider implications for future research. Seventeen articles that met the inclusion criteria provided evidence for mobile phones as a way to engage youth in therapeutic activities. The flexibility, interactivity, and spontaneous nature of mobile communications were also considered advantageous in encouraging persistent and continual access to care outside clinical settings. Four gaps in current knowledge were identified: the scarcity of studies conducted in low and middle income countries, the absence of information about the real-life feasibility of mobile tools, the need to address the issue of technical and health literacy of both young users and health professionals, and the need for critical discussion regarding diverse ethical issues associated with mobile phone use. We suggest that mMental Health researchers and clinicians should carefully consider the ethical issues related to patient-practitioner relationship, best practices, and the logic of self-surveillance.
Asher, Laura; Fekadu, Abebaw; Hanlon, Charlotte
Purpose of review\\ud The aim was to synthesise recent evidence on schizophrenia illness experience and outcomes and models of care in low and middle-income countries (LMIC).\\ud \\ud Recent findings\\ud There is a plurality of explanatory models for psychosis and increasing evidence that context influences experiences of stigma. People with schizophrenia in LMIC are vulnerable to food insecurity, violence and physical health problems, in addition to unmet needs for mental healthcare. Family supp...
Henderson, Anthony R; Martyr, Philippa
Mental health nursing education in Australia has undergone a significant transition in the last 50 years, influenced by national inquiries, national decisions, and international trends in nursing education. But mental health nursing education had also accumulated decades of history in each state, including sometimes unequal relations with general nursing. Complex inter- and intra-professional relationships at state level influenced this educational transition in each state, and Western Australia provides an example of this influence. Using a range of published and unpublished sources, including oral histories, this paper describes the revision of the mental health nursing curriculum in Western Australia from 1958, responses to the call for transition to the tertiary sector between 1976 and 1984, and the final transition of mental health nursing education to university level in Western Australia in 1994. Mental health nursing's educational standards improved only gradually in Western Australia from 1958 onwards, compared with professional advances in general nursing in the same period. Factors which may have held back these improvements include mental health nursing's professional conservatism, which was outpaced by general nursing's growing radicalization at the national level. A lack of professional confidence and cohesion left mental health nursing unable to respond effectively to rapid external changes in the 1960s and 1970s, and vulnerable to absorption and dominance by general nursing education programs. © 2012 North Metropolitan Area Health Service, Mental Health. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Ammentorp, Jette; Jensen, Hanne Irene; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth
In recent years, coaching, as a supplement to professional development, has received increased attention, especially in nursing. Still, only little is known about how health professionals experience participating in coaching sessions. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe and analyze he...... health professionals' experiences from coaching-what coaching meant to them and how it influenced different aspects of their lives....
Oladeji, Bibilola D.; Gureje, Oye
The brain drain of medical professionals from lower-income to higher-income countries contributes to the current inequity that characterises access to mental healthcare by those in need across the world and hinders efforts to scale up mental health services in resource-constrained settings, especially in Nigeria and other West African countries. The migration of skilled workers is driven by a combination of the globalisation of the labour market and the ability of highly resourced countries t...
Full Text Available Åke Grundberg,1,2 Anna Hansson,2 Dorota Religa,1 Pernilla Hillerås1,2 1Division of Neurogeriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, 2Sophiahemmet University, Stockholm, Sweden Introduction: Elderly people with multiple chronic conditions, or multimorbidity, are at risk of developing poor mental health. These seniors often remain in their homes with support from home care assistants (HCAs. Mental health promotion by HCAs needs to be studied further because they may be among the first to observe changes in clients’ mental health status. Aim: To describe HCAs’ perspectives on detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health among homebound seniors with multimorbidity. Methods: We applied a descriptive qualitative study design using semi-structured interviews. Content analyses were performed on five focus group interviews conducted in 2014 with 26 HCAs. Results: Most HCAs stated that they were experienced in caring for clients with mental health problems such as anxiety, depression, sleep problems, and high alcohol consumption. The HCAs mentioned as causes, or risk factors, multiple chronic conditions, feelings of loneliness, and social isolation. The findings reveal that continuity of care and seniors’ own thoughts and perceptions were essential to detecting mental health problems. Observation, collaboration, and social support emerged as important means of detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health. Conclusion: The HCAs had knowledge of risk factors, but they seemed insecure about which health professionals had the primary responsibility for mental health. They also seemed to have detected early signs of mental health problems, even though good personal knowledge of the client and continuity in home visits were crucial to do so. When it came to mental health promotion, the suggestions related to the aim of ending social isolation, decreasing feelings of
Angier, J J
Consumer health information as applied to mental health includes areas such as the diagnosis, management, and treatment of mental illness, as well as self-help, emotional wellness, and the relationship between life events, stress, and disease. This paper presents issues specific to the provision of mental health information to the layperson, e.g., confidentiality, literacy, competence, the social stigma of mental illness, the state of the art in psychiatry, popular psychology, and treatment f...
Wainer, J; Chesters, J
This paper explores the relationship between rural places and mental health. It begins with a definition of mental health and an outline of the data that have led to the current concern with promoting positive mental health. We then consider aspects of rural life and place that contribute to positive mental health or increase the likelihood of mental health problems. Issues identified include environment, place, gender identity, violence and dispossession and the influence of the effects of structural changes in rural communities. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the determinants of resilience in rural places, including social connectedness, valuing diversity and economic participation.
Full Text Available This article deals with questions of mental health among students of pedagogical universities. There were analysed differences in the level of mental health among sporting and non-sporting students. Two methods were used in the inquiry. Stepanov's questionnaire was used to estimate the level of mental health, Gundarov's questionnaire was used to evaluate psychical satisfaction. The sample consisted of 263 sporting students (athletes and 288 non-sporting students. Results have shown that the level of mental health among sporting students was higher than the level of mental health among non-sporting students.
Cobigo, Virginie; Stuart, Heather
Recent research on approaches to improving social inclusion for people with mental disabilities is reviewed. We describe four approaches (or tools) that can be used to improve social inclusion for people with mental disabilities: legislation, community-based supports and services, antistigma/antidiscrimination initiatives, and system monitoring and evaluation. While legislative solutions are the most prevalent, and provide an important framework to support social inclusion, research shows that their full implementation remains problematic. Community-based supports and services that are person-centered and recovery-oriented hold considerable promise, but they are not widely available nor have they been widely evaluated. Antistigma and antidiscrimination strategies are gaining in popularity and offer important avenues for eliminating social barriers and promoting adequate and equitable access to care. Finally, in the context of the current human rights and evidence-based health paradigms, systematic evidence will be needed to support efforts to promote social inclusion for people with mental disabilities, highlight social inequities, and develop best practice approaches. Tools that promote social inclusion of persons with mental disabilities are available, though not yet implemented in a way to fully realize the goals of current disability discourse.
Trombley, Janna; Chalupka, Stephanie; Anderko, Laura
: Climate change is an enormous challenge for our communities, our country, and our world. Recently much attention has been paid to the physical impacts of climate change, including extreme heat events, droughts, extreme storms, and rising sea levels. However, much less attention has been paid to the psychological impacts. This article examines the likely psychological impacts of climate change, including anxiety, stress, and depression; increases in violence and aggression; and loss of community identity. Nurses can play a vital role in local and regional climate strategies by preparing their patients, health care facilities, and communities to effectively address the anticipated mental health impacts of climate change.
Burns, Jonathan Kenneth
Mental disability and mental health care have been neglected in the discourse around health, human rights, and equality. This is perplexing as mental disabilities are pervasive, affecting approximately 8% of the world population. Furthermore, the experience of persons with mental disability is one characterized by multiple interlinked levels of inequality and discrimination within society. Efforts directed toward achieving formal equality should not stand alone without similar efforts to achieve substantive equality for persons with mental disabilities. Structural factors such as poverty, inequality, homelessness, and discrimination contribute to risk for mental disability and impact negatively on the course and outcome of such disabilities. A human rights approach to mental disability means affirming the full personhood of those with mental disabilities by respecting their inherent dignity, their individual autonomy and independence, and their freedom to make their own choices. A rights-based approach requires us to examine and transform the language, terminology, and models of mental disability that have previously prevailed especially within health discourse. Such an approach also requires us to examine the multiple ways in which inequality and discrimination characterize the lives of persons with mental disabilities and to formulate a response based on a human rights framework. In this article, I examine issues of terminology, models of understanding mental disability, and the implications of international treaties such as the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities for our response to the inequalities and discrimination that exist within society--both within and outside the health care system. Finally, while acknowledging that health care professionals have a role to play as advocates for equality, non-discrimination, and justice, I argue that it is persons with mental disabilities themselves who have the right to exercise agency
Santangelo, Peter; Procter, Nicholas; Fassett, Denise
How mental health nursing is differentiated from other disciplines and professions, and what special contribution mental health nurses make to health services, is a question at the heart of contemporary practice. One of the significant challenges for mental health nurses is identifying, developing and advancing those aspects of their practice that they consider differentiate them in the multi-disciplinary mental health care team and to articulate clearly what a mental health nurse is and does. This paper draws on data from interviews with 36 mental health nurses in Australia who identified their practice as autonomous. Participants were asked the question, "What's special about mental health nursing?" Constructivist grounded theory techniques were applied to the research process. Findings were formulated and expressed as the 'Ten P's of the professional profile that is mental health nursing', which are 'present', 'personal', 'participant partnering', 'professional', 'phenomenological', 'pragmatic', 'power-sharing', 'psycho-therapeutic', 'proud' and 'profound'. The combined elements of the findings present a theoretical construct of mental health nursing practice as something distinctive and special. It provides a model and exemplar for contemporary practice in mental health nursing, embracing the role of mental health nurses in the health care workforce as being well placed as providers of productive and effective care. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Cooper, Carol; Carver, Neil
Problem based learning (PBL) is well established within the field of health-care education for professionals worldwide, although little has been done to explore the experiences of students undertaking a PBL course in mental health nursing. Without firm evidence of the benefits of PBL, educationalists in mental health might be reluctant to view it as an option in curricula design. This U.K. study examined the experiences of pre-registration post-graduate mental health student nurses undertaking a 2-year educational course in which all teaching and assessment followed a PBL philosophy. Focus groups were used throughout the course to elicit in-depth qualitative data that was analysed by applying a constant comparative method. The analysis of the data uncovered the following broad themes: 'moves to autonomy, 'surviving the groups' and 'the impact of PBL'. The findings show that participants had mainly positive experiences and gained a range of study and interpersonal skills central to mental health nursing. Participants described initial anxieties resulting from engagement in PBL. However, they increasingly gained confidence in this approach, exercising increasing control over the PBL process. Despite this increased autonomy, participants continued to value the input of skilled facilitators. A recurring issue centred on the potential for interpersonal conflict within the student group and its impact on their learning. It is suggested that more research is needed examining the use of PBL in mental health nursing. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Sara Mota Borges Bottino
Full Text Available Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS. The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.
Bottino, Sara Mota Borges; Bottino, Cássio M C; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Correia, Aline Villa Lobo; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva
Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.
Smart, D; Pollard, C; Walpole, B
The aim of this study was to: (i) develop a triage scale consistent with the National Triage Scale (NTS) for patients with mental health problems attending emergency departments; and (ii) to reduce emergency waiting times, transit times and improve skills assessing mental health problems. We developed a Mental Health Triage Scale (MHTS) consistent with the NTS. The MHTS was then implemented using a structured education package, and evaluated from March to August 1994. Further evaluation occurred after 2 years. A four-tiered MHTS was produced: category 2, violent, aggressive or suicidal, danger to self or others or with police escort; category 3, very distressed or psychotic, likely to deteriorate, situational crisis, danger to self or others; category 4, long-standing semi-urgent mental health disorder, supporting agency present; and category 5, long-standing non-acute mental health disorder, no support agency present. Patients with illness, injury or self-harm were triaged using combined mental health and medical information. Mean emergency waiting times and transit times were reduced. More consistent triaging for mental health patients occurred, and more consistent admission rates by urgency. Reduced mental health 'did not waits' showed improved customer satisfaction. Mental Health Triage Scale was considered appropriate by liaison psychiatry and its use has continued at 2 years follow-up. A systematic approach to mental health triaging produced a workable scale, reduced waiting times, transit times, and provided effective and consistent integration of mental health patients into a general emergency department.
Christensen, Anne Illemann; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette
analysed by means of logistic regression models. Results: Men and women with poor mental health are characterized by being single, having a long-term illness, not being able to rely on help from others in case of illness and by feeling that family and friends demand too much of them. Men with poor mental...... health were further characterized by being a heavy smoker, and having a BMI below 25. Women with poor mental health were further characterized by being 16-44 years old and sedentary in leisure time. CONCLUSIONS THE PREVALENCE OF POOR MENTAL HEALTH IS HIGHER AMONG WOMEN THAN MEN, AND DIFFERENT FACTORS...... CHARACTERIZE MEN AND WOMEN WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH THE PRESENT FINDINGS SUPPORT THE NOTION THAT BOTH SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS AND LIFESTYLE FACTORS ARE INDEPENDENTLY RELATED WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH WE SUGGEST TAKING INTO ACCOUNT ALL THESE AREAS OF LIFE WHEN PLANNING ACTIVITIES TO PREVENT POOR MENTAL HEALTH AND WHEN...
Brazier, A S A; Balneaves, L G; Seely, D; Stephen, J E; Suryaprakash, N; Taylor-Brown, J W
Cancer patients are increasingly known to use complementary medicine (CAM) during conventional treatment, but data are limited on how Canadian oncology health professionals attempt to assist patients with their use of cam in the context of conventional cancer care. As part of a larger qualitative study assessing the perceptions of Canadian oncology health professionals regarding integrated breast cancer care, we undertook an exploration of current integrative practices of oncology health professionals. Using an interpretive description research design and a purposive sampling, we conducted a series of in-depth qualitative interviews with various oncology health professionals recruited from provincial cancer agencies, hospitals, integrative clinics, and private practice settings in four Canadian cities: Vancouver, Winnipeg, Montreal, and Halifax. A total of 16 oncology health professionals participated, including medical and radiation oncologists, nurses, and pharmacists. Findings highlighted two main strategies used by oncology health professionals to create a more integrative approach for cancer patients: acting as an integrative care guide, and collaborating with other health professionals. Although few clear standards of practice or guidance material were in place within their organizational settings, health professionals discussed some integrative roles that they had adopted, depending on interest, knowledge, and skills, in supporting patients with cam decisions. Given that cancer patients report that they want to be able to confer with their conventional health professionals, particularly their oncologists, about their cam use, health professionals who elect to adopt integrative practices are likely offering patients much-welcomed support.
Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender
Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738
... concept which is clearly differentiated from mental illness and psychopathology. The second part of the book focuses on the theory and practice of mental health promotion through applications to policy, assessment, consultation, and to education and training in mental health promotion. Drawing on a wealth of international literature Keith Tudor offe...
Learning can be hindered by students' mental health. Given the increased reports of mental health concerns among college students, it is imperative that we understand how best to provide supports to this population to help them learn and succeed. This is particularly significant given the body of research that demonstrates how mental illness may…
This book highlights a broad range of issues on mental health and illness in large cities. It presents the epidemiology of mental disorders in cities, cultural issues of urban mental health care, and community care in large cities and urban slums. It also includes chapters on homelessness, crime...
Santos, Érick Igor Dos; Alves, Yasmin Rayanne; Silva, Aline Cerqueira Santos Santana da; Gomes, Antonio Marcos Tosoli
To analyse the social representations of the professional autonomy of nurses and nursing for non-nursing health professionals. This is a qualitative study based on the theory of social representations. Fifty-three non-nursing professionals of a municipal hospital participated in this study. Data were collected between March and April 2015, from hierarchical free evocations using the inductor terms, "professional autonomy of nurses" and "nursing". The data were analysed using EVOC 2003. The most likely core of the social representation of professional autonomy were the terms care, team, and responsibility. Moreover, the likely core of nursing comprises the elements care, team, responsibility, and work. The professional autonomy of nurses and nursing consists of fairly close objects of representation in the studied group, which makes them non-autonomous representations that are still sensitive to the incorporation of new elements.
Chen, Alice W; Kazanjian, Arminée; Wong, Hubert
Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1 showed that Chinese immigrants to Canada and Chinese individuals born in Canada were less likely than other Canadians to have contacted a health professional for mental health reasons in the previous year in the province of British Columbia. The difference persisted among individuals at moderate to high risk for depressive episode. Both immigrant and Canadian-born Chinese showed similar characteristics of mental health service use. The demographic and health factors that significantly affected their likelihood to consult mental health services included Chinese language ability, restriction in daily activities, frequency of medical consultations, and depression score. Notwithstanding lower levels of mental illness in ethnic Chinese communities, culture emerged as a major factor explaining differences in mental health consultation between Chinese and non-Chinese Canadians.
Oladeji, Bibilola D; Gureje, Oye
The brain drain of medical professionals from lower-income to higher-income countries contributes to the current inequity that characterises access to mental healthcare by those in need across the world and hinders efforts to scale up mental health services in resource-constrained settings, especially in Nigeria and other West African countries. The migration of skilled workers is driven by a combination of the globalisation of the labour market and the ability of highly resourced countries to attract and retain specialists from poorer countries. If we are to ameliorate the worldwide shortage of mental health professionals, we need to find innovative ways of attracting young doctors into psychiatric training in all countries. We must also introduce measures to improve health worker retention in low- and middle-income countries.
Gabel, S; Oster, G D
Under the influence of managed care and diminished funding, the mental health field is undergoing a major transformation. Existing mental health programs, departments, and agencies are downsizing and restructuring to develop new types of service delivery systems. Organizations must change to survive; yet necessary and adaptive change may be resisted in numerous ways by providers whose reactions and behaviors may reduce the viability of their own programs and agencies. This paper explores various characteristics and reactions of mental health care professionals as they face great stress, professional devaluation, and necessary organizational change and restructuring. Adaptive and maladaptive patterns in response to potential organizational change are explored. The role of the leader in guiding and implementing programmatic changes and in dealing with denial and resistance is highlighted. Strategies to enhance the prospects for adaptive organizational change are offered.
... normal or healthy. For example, if you have bipolar disorder, you might think your mood swings are just ... patient-with-mental-symptoms. Accessed June 10, 2016. Bipolar disorder. The National Institute of Mental Health. https://www. ...
Rose, Diana; Trevillion, Kylee; Woodall, Anna; Morgan, Craig; Feder, Gene; Howard, Louise
Mental health service users are at high risk of domestic violence but this is often not detected by mental health services. To explore the facilitators and barriers to disclosure of domestic violence from a service user and professional perspective. A qualitative study in a socioeconomically deprived south London borough, UK, with 18 mental health service users and 20 mental health professionals. Purposive sampling of community mental health service users and mental healthcare professionals was used to recruit participants for individual interviews. Thematic analysis was used to determine dominant and subthemes. These were transformed into conceptual maps with accompanying illustrative quotations. Service users described barriers to disclosure of domestic violence to professionals including: fear of the consequences, including fear of Social Services involvement and consequent child protection proceedings, fear that disclosure would not be believed, and fear that disclosure would lead to further violence; the hidden nature of the violence; actions of the perpetrator; and feelings of shame. The main themes for professionals concerned role boundaries, competency and confidence. Service users and professionals reported that the medical diagnostic and treatment model with its emphasis on symptoms could act as a barrier to enquiry and disclosure. Both groups reported that enquiry and disclosure were facilitated by a supportive and trusting relationship between the individual and professional. Mental health services are not currently conducive to the disclosure of domestic violence. Training of professionals in how to address domestic violence to increase their confidence and expertise is recommended.
Schools have become the primary setting for mental health service among youth. However, school-based providers are sometimes limited by lack of time, training, and other resources. Furthermore, problem-solving models emphasize the importance of developing partnerships with other professionals and agencies. Thus, it is critical to engage in…
Background: Nigerian Medical Schools need to attain international bes t prac t i ces in teaching psychiatry. The supply or availability of mental health professionals demands strong medical school psychiatry curriculum. The study therefore aims to investigate the level of adherence of Nigerian Medical Schools to the ...
Talmi, Ayelet; Stafford, Brian; Buchholz, Melissa
After birth, newborns and their caregivers are seen routinely and frequently in pediatric primary care settings. The close succession of visits in the first few months of life puts pediatric primary care professionals in a unique position to enhance infant mental health by developing strong relationships with caregivers, supporting babies and…
Pietrofesa, John J.; And Others
Reviews background and case histories surrounding legal concept of "duty to warn" and confidentiality limits of counseling. Discusses professional, ethical, and legal responsibilities of mental health counselors and identifies steps to follow for counselors who have to warn potential victims of danger from their clients. (Author/ABL)
The South African Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions (SAACAPAP). The SAACAPAP is a professional body for child and adolescent mental health practitioners in South Africa. It was initiated in 1978, and since then has been an active member of the International Association for Child ...
Saúde mental em um hospital público: o olhar de profissionais médicos do município do Rio de Janeiro Mental health in a public hospital: the perspective of medical professionals of the city of Rio de Janeiro
Heloisa dos Reis Malheiro Máximo
Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo compreender percepções de médicos de um hospital público acerca do papel dos profissionais de Saúde Mental nesse espaço institucional, explorando interfaces estabelecidas entre as duas categorias no cotidiano da assistência, tal como percebidas pelos informantes. Para tanto, desenvolveu-se um estudo qualitativo fundamentado na tradição crítico-interpretativa como caminho metodológico, elegendo-se como técnica a entrevista não-diretiva. A amostra foi composta por médicos de diferentes setores que, no momento do estudo, haviam encaminhado pacientes para os profissionais de Saúde Mental e integravam a equipe do hospital por um período mínimo de dois anos. Com base nas categorias que emergiram no campo, a análise identificou diferentes temas, configurando uma rede interpretativa que representou a base do exercício hermenêutico. Os resultados do estudo apontam uma heterogeneidade no que se refere às concepções dos informantes acerca do papel da Saúde Mental no espaço hospitalar. No que tange à organização do trabalho, a variável tempo é fator fundamental no cotidiano do atendimento. Percebe-se uma nítida diferenciação entre o paradigma "psi", referente aos profissionais da Psicologia e da Psiquiatria, e o paradigma médico, revelando obstáculos para uma efetiva integração entre esses dois modelos.This study aims to understand the perceptions of the medical professionals at a public hospital, concerning the role of the Mental Health professionals, identifying simultaneously, the interfaces established between these two categories in the assistance enviroment. Therefore, we begin with the study on demand that characterizes the client assisted by mental health professionals, discussing the main demands required by the medical doctors in the different areas of the hospital unit. At the same time, we highlight the reasons of these indications. Based on this data, we have developed this
Nobiling, Brandye D.; Maykrantz, Sherry Azadi
Background: Mental health service is underutilized in the United States. Adolescent and young adults, including college students, are especially unlikely to seek professional help for mental illness. This issue presents a concern, because signs and symptoms commonly appear during this part of growth and development. Purpose: The Health Belief…
Larson, Satu; Chapman, Susan; Spetz, Joanne; Brindis, Claire D.
Background: Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers…
Kealy-Bateman, Warren; Pryor, Lisa
We aim to review marriage equality in New Zealand and Australia and critically evaluate the health impact of such a legal change. We undertook a review of the literature using the search terms "marriage equality", "same sex marriage" and "gay marriage" in combination with "health", "wellbeing", "psych*", "mental illness" and "distress". This search included medical literature, legal literature and mass media. This review indicates that Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex (LGBTI) people disproportionately face negative health stressors and negative health events compared with the general population and this is related to the stress of being a stigmatised minority group. The evidence strongly supports the proposition that marriage equality is related to improved health outcomes. A diverse range of professional health groups advocate for the legislative progression to marriage equality. The authors found no evidence that marriage equality harms opposite-sex marriage. Marriage equality is still lacking in Australia and as a positive correlate of health should be strongly supported. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Full Text Available Jane Burns, Emma Birrell Young and Well Cooperative Research Centre, Abbotsford, VIC, Australia Abstract: International studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness, and the fundamental contribution it make to the overall disease burden, is greatest in children and young people. Despite this high burden, adolescents and young adults are the least likely population group to seek help or to access professional care for mental health problems. This issue is particularly problematic given that untreated, or poorly treated, mental disorders are associated with both short- and long-term functional impairment, including poorer education and employment opportunities, potential comorbidity, including drug and alcohol problems, and a greater risk for antisocial behavior, including violence and aggression. This cycle of poor mental health creates a significant burden for the young person, their family and friends, and society as a whole. Australia is enviably positioned to substantially enhance the well-being of young people, to improve their engagement with mental health services, and – ultimately – to improve mental health. High prevalence but potentially debilitating disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are targeted by the specialized youth mental health service, headspace: the National Youth Mental Health Foundation and a series of Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centres, will provide early intervention specialist services for low prevalence, complex illnesses. Online services, such as ReachOut.com by Inspire Foundation, Youthbeyondblue, Kids Helpline, and Lifeline Australia, and evidence-based online interventions, such as MoodGYM, are also freely available, yet a major challenge still exists in ensuring that young people receive effective evidence-based care at the right time. This article describes Australian innovation in shaping a comprehensive youth mental health system, which is informed by an evidence
Abdolsattar Shahi; Ibrahim Ghaffari; Khalil Ghasemi
Background: Marital satisfaction is an important component of the marriage. Mental health as a component of the personal characteristic also related with marital satisfaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between mental health and marital satisfaction of couples.Methods: Three hundred couples from high-risk area of Gorgan – North of Iran were selected. Association between men's and women’s mental health level was measured using General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-...
Keller, Eric J
This study sought to identify and examine less commonly discussed challenges to positive mental health faced by medical students, residents, and physicians with hopes of improving current efforts to protect the mental health of these groups. Additionally, this work aimed to suggest an innovative means of preventing poor mental health during medical education. Literature on medical student, resident, and physician mental health was carefully reviewed and a number of psychiatrists who treat physician-patients were interviewed. The culture of medicine, medical training, common physician psychology and identity, and conflicting professional expectations all seem to contribute to poor mental health among medical students, residents, and physicians. Many current efforts may be more successful by better addressing the negative effects of these characteristics of modern medicine. Programs aimed at promoting healthy mental lifestyles during medical education should continue to be developed and supported to mitigate the deleterious effects of the challenging environment of modern medicine. To improve these efforts, educators may consider incorporating philosophical discussions on meaning and fulfillment in life between medical students and faculty. Through medical school faculty members sharing and living out their own healthy outlooks on life, students may emulate these habits and the culture of medicine may become less challenging for positive mental health.
Jafari Varjoshani, Nasrin; Hosseini, Mohammad Ali; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Ahmadi, Fazlollah
A highly important factor in enhancing quality of patient care and job satisfaction of health care staff is inter-professional communication. Due to the critical nature of the work environment, the large number of staff and units, and complexity of professional tasks and interventions, inter-professional communication in an emergency department is particularly and exceptionally important. Despite its importance, inter-professional communication in emergency department seems unfavorable. Thus, this study was designed to explain barriers to inter-professional communication in an emergency department. This was a qualitative study with content analysis approach, based on interviews conducted with 26 participants selected purposively, with diversity of occupation, position, age, gender, history, and place of work. Interviews were in-depth and semi-structured, and data were analyzed using the inductive content analysis approach. In total, 251 initial codes were extracted from 30 interviews (some of the participants re-interviewed) and in the reducing trend of final results, 5 categories were extracted including overcrowded emergency, stressful emergency environment, not discerning emergency conditions, ineffective management, and inefficient communication channels. Tumultuous atmosphere (physical, mental) was the common theme between categories, and was decided to be the main barrier to effective inter-professional communication. Tumultuous atmosphere (physical-mental) was found to be the most important barrier to inter-professional communication. This study provided a better understanding of these barriers in emergency department, often neglected in most studies. It is held that by reducing environmental turmoil (physical-mental), inter-professional communication can be improved, thereby improving patient care outcomes and personnel job satisfaction.
Farmer, Jane; Kilpatrick, Sue
Social entrepreneurs formally or informally generate community associations and networking that produces social outcomes. Social entrepreneurship is a relatively new and poorly understood concept. Policy promotes generating community activity, particularly in rural areas, for health and social benefits and 'community resilience'. Rural health professionals might be well placed to generate community activity due to their status and networks. This exploratory study, conducted in rural Tasmania and the Highlands and Islands of Scotland considered whether rural health professionals act as social entrepreneurs. We investigated activities generated and processes of production. Thirty-eight interviews were conducted with general practitioners, community nurses, primary healthcare managers and allied health professionals living and working rurally. Interviewees were self-selecting responders to an invitation for rural health professionals who were 'formally or informally generating community associations or networking that produced social outcomes'. We found that rural health professionals initiated many community activities with social outcomes, most related to health. Their identification of opportunities related to knowledge of health needs and examples of initiatives seen elsewhere. Health professionals described ready access to useful people and financial resources. In building activities, health professionals could simultaneously utilise skills and knowledge from professional, community member and personal dimensions. Outcomes included social and health benefits, personal 'buzz' and community capacity. Health professionals' actions could be described as social entrepreneurship: identifying opportunities, utilising resources and making 'deals'. They also align with community development. Health professionals use contextual knowledge to envisage and grow activities, indicating that, as social entrepreneurs, they do not explicitly choose a social mission, rather they
Stefanovics, Elina; He, Hongbo; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Cavalcanti, Maria Tavares; Rocha Neto, Helio; Makanjuola, Victor; Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Leddy, Meaghan; Rosenheck, Robert
This quantitative study sought to compare beliefs about the manifestation, causes and treatment of mental illness and attitudes toward people with mental illness among health professionals from five countries: the United States, Brazil, Ghana, Nigeria, and China. A total of 902 health professionals from the five countries were surveyed using a questionnaire addressing attitudes towards people with mental illness and beliefs about the causes of mental illness. Chi-square and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to compare age and gender of the samples. Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to confirm the structure and fit of the hypothesized model based on data from a previous study that identified four factors: socializing with people with mental illness (socializing), belief that people with mental illness should have normal roles in society (normalizing), non-belief in supernatural causes (witchcraft or curses), and belief in bio-psycho-social causes of mental illness (bio-psycho-social). Analysis of Covariance was used to compare four factor scores across countries adjusting for differences in age and gender. Scores on all four factors were highest among U.S. professionals. The Chinese sample showed lowest score on socializing and normalizing while the Nigerian and Ghanaian samples were lowest on non-belief in supernatural causes of mental illness. Responses from Brazil fell between those of the U.S. and the other countries. Although based on convenience samples of health professional robust differences in attitudes among health professionals between these five countries appear to reflect underlying socio-cultural differences affecting attitudes of professionals with the greater evidence of stigmatized attitudes in developing countries.