Husky, M.M.; Keyes, K.M.; Hamilton, A.; Stragalinou, A.; Pez, O.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Kovess-Masfety, V.
Background: Offspring of individuals with alcohol use disorders have been shown to have elevated risk for mental health problems. Objectives: To examine the association between maternal problem drinking and child mental health as assessed by three informants in three European countries. Methods:
Tse, Wai S; Siu, Angela F Y; Wong, Tracy K Y
This study aims to explore the interrelationship among maternal oxytocin (OT) responsiveness, maternal mental health, maternal parenting behavior, and mental health of children under a free-play interaction. 61 mother-child dyads were recruited for the study. Maternal mental health problem and parenting self-efficacy were measured using self-reported questionnaires. The mental health problems of children were also evaluated using a mother-reported questionnaire. Furthermore, salivary OT was collected before and after a standardized 10min free-play interaction. Parenting behaviors, including eye gaze and touch, were measured during the free-play interaction. Maternal OT responsiveness was significantly associated with less maternal mental health problem, touch frequency, and mental health problem of children but not with parenting self-efficacy. In the multivariate linear regression analysis that considers maternal OT responsiveness and maternal and children's mental health problems, maternal OT responsiveness was not associated with the mental health problems of children. This result suggested that maternal mental health problem played a mediational role between maternal OT responsiveness and the mental health problem of children. Results supported the assertion that maternal OT responsiveness contributed to the increased risk of maternal mental health problems and, subsequently, the risk of mental health problems of their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The emotional health and wellbeing of children and young people is of fundamental importance. Unmet mental health needs during childhood lead to difficulties in adolescence and problems in adulthood. The need to develop comprehensive prevention, early recognition and timely intervention services is essential. Despite this, many mental health problems go unnoticed or are only treated when advanced. Late intervention can often be associated with severe impairments for children and young people as well as their families. This article aims to improve nurses' understanding of children's emotional wellbeing and mental health, and identifies some of the risk and protective factors that combine to produce positive or negative outcomes. Individual and family-based psychological treatments that are available to support children are summarised. The learning activities offer nurses helpful interpersonal and practical strategies to promote emotional wellbeing and mental health in children.
Husky, Mathilde M; Keyes, Katherine; Hamilton, Ava; Stragalinou, Anastasia; Pez, Ondine; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane
Offspring of individuals with alcohol use disorders have been shown to have elevated risk for mental health problems. To examine the association between maternal problem drinking and child mental health as assessed by three informants in three European countries. Data were drawn from the School Child Mental Health in Europe study. Maternal alcohol use was assessed using the alcohol use disorders identification test. Child mental health was assessed using the mother and teacher versions of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire, and the child self-reported Dominic interactive. Analyses were performed on 2,678 individuals, 6-11 year olds. Adjusting for variables associated with maternal drinking, among children eight years old or younger, excessive drinking was not significantly associated with mental health problems, whether reported by the mother, teacher or by the child. However, among girls eight years old and above, problem drinking was associated with conduct problems as reported by the mother (OR = 4.19), teacher reported total difficulties (OR = 4.69), and peer relationship problems (OR = 8.86). It was also associated with the presence of any child-reported disorder (OR = 3.88), externalizing (OR = 5.55) and internalizing disorders (OR = 4.42). Conclusions/Importance: Adjusting for sociodemographic variables and for psychological distress, maternal problem drinking was not significantly associated with child mental health problems in boys or in girls ages six to eight. The association was only present among girls ages 8-11. Examining relationships between mothers and their daughters in the peripubertal period may be a critical window for the development of effective intervention strategies.
Full Text Available Background : "Crime" is increasing day by day in our society not only in India but also all over the world. In turn, the number of prisoners is also increasing at the same rate. They remain imprisoned for a long duration or in some cases for the whole life. Living in a prison for long time becomes difficult for all inmates. So they often face adjustment and mental health problems. Recent findings suggest that mental illness rate in prison is three times higher than in the general population. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the adjustment and the mental health problem and its relation in the prisoners. Materials and Methods : In the present study, 37 male prisoners of district jail of Dhanbad District of Jharkhand were selected on purposive sampling basis. Each prisoner was given specially designed Performa - Personal Data Sheet, General Health Questionnaire-12 and Bell Adjustment Inventory. Appropriate statistical tools were used to analyze the data. Results: The results obtained showed poor adjustment in social and emotional areas on the adjustment scale. The study also revealed a significant association between adjustment and mental health problem in the prisoners. Conclusion: The prisoners were found to have poor social and emotional adjustment which has strong association with their mental health.
Bayes, Marjorie; Neill, T. Kerby
Issues of changing positions and roles for paraprofessionals are considered in the context of the hierarchical structure and process of mental health organizations. Discussion focuses on problems arising when paraprofessionals are promoted in the functional hierarchy while continuing to occupy the lowest level in the professional caste system.…
van Ours, J.C.; Williams, J.
This paper investigates whether cannabis use leads to worse mental health. To do so, we account for common unobserved factors affecting mental health and cannabis consumption by modeling mental health jointly with the dynamics of cannabis use. Our main finding is that using cannabis increases the
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.
This background paper on children's mental health indicates that less than one-third of the children who have mental health problems receive treatment. Types of mental health problems are discussed, including intellectual, developmental, behavior, emotional, psychophysiological, and adjustment disorders. Enviromental risk factors of poverty and…
Massetti, Greta M; Thomas, Cheryll C; King, Jessica; Ragan, Kathleen; Buchanan Lunsford, Natasha
Chronic mental health problems often emerge in young adulthood, when adults begin to develop lifelong health behaviors and access preventive health services. The associations between mental health problems and modifiable cancer risk factors in young adulthood are not well understood. In 2016, the authors analyzed 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data on demographic characteristics, health service access and use, health status, and cancer risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol use, overweight or obesity, physical activity, and sleep) for 90,821 young adults aged 18-39 years with mental health problems (depressive disorder or frequent mental distress) compared to other young adults. Mental health problems were associated with white race; less than a high school education; lower income; being out of work or unable to work; being uninsured (for men only); poor health; previous diagnosis of asthma, skin cancer, or diabetes; and not having a recent checkup. After controlling for demographic characteristics, health service use, and health status, mental health problems among young adults were associated with smoking, binge drinking, inadequate sleep, having no leisure time physical activity, and being overweight or obese (among women only). Cervical cancer screening was not associated with mental health problems after controlling for demographic characteristics, health service use, and health status. Mental health problems in young adulthood were associated with potentially modifiable factors and behaviors that increase risk for cancer. Efforts to prevent cancer and promote health must attend to mental health disparities to meet the needs of young adults. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Provision of mental health services is in a state of ?ux as the Patient Protection and A¤ordable Care Act a¤ects provision and cost of medical care and state policymakers grapple with di¢ cult tradeo¤s between budget balance and provi- sion of public medical care. Mental health care provision is actually a relatively small part of the total cost of medical care provision.
Plass-Christl, Angela; Otto, Christiane; Klasen, Fionna; Wiegand-Grefe, Silke; Barkmann, Claus; Hölling, Heike; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike
Children of parents with mental health problems (CPM) have an increased risk for behavioral and psychological problems. This study investigated the age- and gender-specific course as well as predictors of mental health problems in CPM using the longitudinal data (baseline 1- and 2-year follow-ups) of a German general population sample from the BELLA study. Children and adolescents aged 11-17 years (at baseline) who had a parent with mental health problems (n = 325) were analyzed. The mental health problems of the children were assessed by the self-reported version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). We used individual growth modeling to investigate the age- and gender-specific course, and the effects of risk as well as personal, familial and social protective factors on self-reported mental health problems in CPM. Additionally, data were examined differentiating internalizing and externalizing mental health problems in CPM. Results indicated that female compared to male CPM showed increasing mental health problems with increasing age. Mental health problems in CPM were associated with lower self-efficacy, worse family climate and less social competence over time. Internalizing problems were associated with lower self-efficacy, less social competence and more severe parental mental health problems. Externalizing problems were associated with lower self-efficacy, worse family climate and lower social competence. The main limitations of the study are the short time period (2 years) covered and the report of mental health problems by only one parent. Our findings should be considered in the development of treatment and prevention programs for mental health problems in CPM.
Bruffaerts, Ronny; Mortier, Philippe; Kiekens, Glenn; Auerbach, Randy P; Cuijpers, Pim; Demyttenaere, Koen; Green, Jennifer G; Nock, Matthew K; Kessler, Ronald C
Mental health problems in college and their associations with academic performance are not well understood. The main aim of this study was to investigate to what extent mental health problems are associated with academic functioning. As part of the World Mental Health Surveys International College Student project, 12-month mental health problems among freshmen (N = 4921) was assessed in an e-survey of students at KU Leuven University in Leuven, Belgium. The associations of mental health problems with academic functioning (expressed in terms of academic year percentage [or AYP] and grade point average [GPA]) were examined across academic departments. Approximately one in three freshman reports mental health problems in the past year, with internalizing and externalizing problems both associated with reduced academic functioning (2.9-4.7% AYP reduction, corresponding to 0.2-0.3 GPA reduction). The association of externalizing problems with individual-level academic functioning was significantly higher in academic departments with comparatively low average academic functioning. Limited sample size precluded further investigation of interactions between department-level and student-level variables. No information was available on freshman secondary school academic performance. Mental health problems are common in college freshman, and clearly associated with lower academic functioning. Additional research is needed to examine the potentially causal nature of this association, and, if so, whether interventions aimed at treating mental health problems might improve academic performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Children's mental health covers a wide range of disorders. Some, such as ADHD and autism, tend to manifest themselves when children are young, while others, such as depression and addiction, are more likely to appear during the teenage years. Some respond readily to treatment or tend to improve as children grow older, while others, such as autism,…
Fergusson, D M; McLeod, G F H; Horwood, L J; Swain, N R; Chapple, S; Poulton, R
Previous research has found that mental health is strongly associated with life satisfaction. In this study we examine associations between mental health problems and life satisfaction in a birth cohort studied from 18 to 35 years. Data were gathered during the Christchurch Health and Development Study, which is a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 children, born in Christchurch, New Zealand, in 1977. Assessments of psychiatric disorder (major depression, anxiety disorder, suicidality, alcohol dependence and illicit substance dependence) using DSM diagnostic criteria and life satisfaction were obtained at 18, 21, 25, 30 and 35 years. Significant associations (p life satisfaction and the psychiatric disorders major depression, anxiety disorder, suicidality, alcohol dependence and substance dependence. After adjustment for non-observed sources of confounding by fixed effects, statistically significant associations (p life satisfaction and major depression, anxiety disorder, suicidality and substance dependence. Overall, those reporting three or more mental health disorders had mean life satisfaction scores that were nearly 0.60 standard deviations below those without mental health problems. A structural equation model examined the direction of causation between life satisfaction and mental health problems. Statistically significant (p life satisfaction and mental health problems. After adjustment for confounding, robust and reciprocal associations were found between mental health problems and life satisfaction. Overall, this study showed evidence that life satisfaction influences mental disorder, and that mental disorder influences life satisfaction.
Background: Mental health problems of adolescents are underserved in low and middle-income countries where they account for a significant proportion of disease burden. Perinatally infected HIV-positive adolescents have a high prevalence of mental health disorders; however, little is known about those retained in care in ...
People with HIV positive have risk increased mental health problem than the general population. It associated with psychosocial factors, direct neurological effects of the HIV infection and medication. Overall it can make increased morbidity and mortality in HIV positive patients. The more common mental problem in HIV/AIDS people is dementia, delirium, depression, and mania, suicide, psychotic, sleep problem. Both psychopharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatment strategies often indicate.
The mental health field has grown larger and more complex in recent years, but this has not been equalled by increased administrative sophistication. Two problems, neither one irremediable, have contributed to this state of affairs. First, mental health organizations have generally been administered by mental health professionals with little administrative knowledge or training. And second, we have often failed to recognize the very special circumstances faced by administrators in the mental health field. These special circumstances are legion. For one thing, mental health services depend on public funding and must often deal with a high degree of government regulation. For another, the typical staff in a mental health organization is multidisciplinary, professional, and highly autonomous-a bit like a Navy with more admirals than ships. Then too, the transaction between therapist and patient is much more private and intimate in mental health than in most other fields; we are often dealing with a highly dependent patient population; our product is intangible and the success achieved is hard to judge; the boundaries of the field are very hard to define; and the enduring public stigma associated with use of mental health services, combined with the problem of confidentiality, complicates the administrative task. Finally, on top of all this, it is absolutely essential that the mental health administrator understand the need to create and maintain an organizational climate of efficacy and hope. Taken individually, many of these conditions have obvious counterparts in other fields; but taken as a group, they separate mental health from all the other human services, even ones that are closely related. To be effective, therefore, academic programs in mental health administration must reflect these conditions by developing specialized curricula and training procedures.
McAlpine, Donna D; McCreedy, Ellen; Alang, Sirry
Self-rated health is a valid measure of health that predicts quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. Its predictive value reflects a conceptualization of health that goes beyond a traditional medical model. However, less is known about self-rated mental health (SRMH). Using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey ( N = 2,547), we examine how rating your mental health as good-despite meeting criteria for a mental health problem-predicts outcomes. We found that 62% of people with a mental health problem rated their mental health positively. Persons who rated their mental health as good (compared to poor) had 30% lower odds of having a mental health problem at follow-up. Even without treatment, persons with a mental health problem did better if they perceived their mental health positively. SRMH might comprise information beyond the experience of symptoms. Understanding the unobserved information individuals incorporate into SRMH will help us improve screening and treatment interventions.
Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid
We all have mental health. Mental health relates to how we think, feel, behave and interact with other people. At its simplest, good mental health is the absence of a mental disorder or mental health problem. Adults, children and young people with good mental health are likely to have high levels of mental wellbeing. The World Health Organisation…
Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali
The main objective of this study was predicting student's mental health using social problem solving- ability. In this correlational. descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson's correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P social problem solving ability and mental health.
Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Winters, Ken C
Research indicates at-risk youth are more likely to experience emotional and psychological problems. Young people who are often truant from school represent a group of at-risk youth, but one for which mental health issues are understudied. This study examined heterogeneity of mental health problems among a sample of 300 truant adolescents using latent class analysis (LCA). LCA indicated the sample of truants was best represented by four latent subgroups of youth with low mental health problems; high depression, low mania; high mania, low depression; and high depression and mania. These subgroups were examined in relation to sociodemographic and psychosocial measures at baseline and after truancy offenses. Results indicated general and unique differences in these covariates across the four latent classes. Service and practice implications of better understanding mental health issues of truant youth are discussed.
Mental health problems are a major concern to employers, employees and occupational health professionals in the Netherlands. Employees developing these problems often have to take long-term leave from work, which may lead to disability. About a third of the total disability inflow is due to
McLeod, Jane D.; Uemura, Ryotaro; Rohrman, Shawna
Prior research on the association of mental health and behavior problems with academic achievement is limited because it does not consider multiple problems simultaneously, take co-occurring problems into account, and control for academic aptitude. We addressed these limitations using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health…
Heffernan, Edward; Andersen, Kimina; Kinner, Stuart
Despite recognition of the extremely high rates of mental illness among custodial populations and the fact that Indigenous people represent around one-quarter of Australia's custodial population, little is known about the mental health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in custody. Mental health is an important component of social and emotional wellbeing for Indigenous people and this paper considers current evidence regarding the mental health status of Indigenous Australians in custody. A systematic review was undertaken of the quantitative literature relating to the mental health problems of Indigenous people in custody in Australia. Despite high incarceration rates for Indigenous people and evidence that both mental health problems and rates of mental illness are extremely high in this group, studies in this area are few and limited in scope. The first step toward addressing the marked social and mental health problems for Indigenous people in custody is to systematically identify the nature and extent of these problems.
Torres, Claudia; Otero, Patricia; Bustamante, Byron; Blanco, Vanessa; Díaz, Olga; Vázquez, Fernando L
Although the mental health problems of college students have been the subject of increasing research, there are no studies about its prevalence in Ecuadorian college students. The aim of this study was to determine the mental health problems and their associated factors in Ecuadorian freshmen university students. A sample of 1092 students (53.7% women; mean age = 18.3 years) were recruited from the Technical Particular University of Loja (Ecuador). Socio-demographic, academic, and clinical characteristics were gathered, as well as information on the participants' mental health through a number of mental health screens. Prevalence of positive screens was 6.2% for prevalence of major depressive episodes, 0.02% for generalized anxiety disorders, 2.2% for panic disorders, 32.0% for eating disorders, 13.1% for suicidal risk. Mental health problems were significantly associated with sex, area of study, self-esteem, social support, personality and histories of mental health problems. The findings offer a starting point for identifying useful factors to target prevention and intervention strategies aimed at university students.
Full Text Available Although the mental health problems of college students have been the subject of increasing research, there are no studies about its prevalence in Ecuadorian college students. The aim of this study was to determine the mental health problems and their associated factors in Ecuadorian freshmen university students. A sample of 1092 students (53.7% women; mean age = 18.3 years were recruited from the Technical Particular University of Loja (Ecuador. Socio-demographic, academic, and clinical characteristics were gathered, as well as information on the participants’ mental health through a number of mental health screens. Prevalence of positive screens was 6.2% for prevalence of major depressive episodes, 0.02% for generalized anxiety disorders, 2.2% for panic disorders, 32.0% for eating disorders, 13.1% for suicidal risk. Mental health problems were significantly associated with sex, area of study, self-esteem, social support, personality and histories of mental health problems. The findings offer a starting point for identifying useful factors to target prevention and intervention strategies aimed at university students.
Magnée, T.; Beurs, D. de; Verhaak, P.
Background & Aim: It seems cost-effective to provide mental health care to patient with mild mental problems in general practices instead of in specialized care, but general practitioners (GPs) often lack time or expertise. Since 2008, Dutch GPs have been collaborating with nurses with mental health
Gkotsis, George; Oellrich, Anika; Hubbard, Tim; Dobson, Richard JB; Liakata, Maria; Velupillai, Sumithra; Dutta, Rina
Online social media, such as Reddit, has become an important resource to share personal experiences and communicate with others. Among other personal information, some social media users communicate about mental health problems they are experiencing, with the intention of getting advice, support or empathy from other users. Here, we investigate the language of Reddit posts specific to mental health, to define linguistic characteristics that could be helpful for further applications. The latte...
Vostanis, P; Grattan, E; Cumella, S
To establish the mental health needs of homeless children and families before and after rehousing. Cross sectional, longitudinal study. City of Birmingham. 58 rehoused families with 103 children aged 2-16 years and 21 comparison families of low socioeconomic status in stable housing, with 54 children. Children's mental health problems and level of communication; mothers' mental health problems and social support one year after rehousing. Mental health problems remained significantly higher in rehoused mothers and their children than in the comparison group (mothers 26% v 5%, P = 0.04; children 39% v 11%, P = 0.0003). Homeless mothers continued to have significantly less social support at follow up. Mothers with a history of abuse and poor social integration were more likely to have children with persistent mental health problems. Homeless families have a high level of complex needs that cannot be met by conventional health services and arrangements. Local strategies for rapid rehousing into permanent accommodation, effective social support and health care for parents and children, and protection from violence and intimidation should be developed and implemented.
Cooper, Carol; Carver, Neil
Problem based learning (PBL) is well established within the field of health-care education for professionals worldwide, although little has been done to explore the experiences of students undertaking a PBL course in mental health nursing. Without firm evidence of the benefits of PBL, educationalists in mental health might be reluctant to view it as an option in curricula design. This U.K. study examined the experiences of pre-registration post-graduate mental health student nurses undertaking a 2-year educational course in which all teaching and assessment followed a PBL philosophy. Focus groups were used throughout the course to elicit in-depth qualitative data that was analysed by applying a constant comparative method. The analysis of the data uncovered the following broad themes: 'moves to autonomy, 'surviving the groups' and 'the impact of PBL'. The findings show that participants had mainly positive experiences and gained a range of study and interpersonal skills central to mental health nursing. Participants described initial anxieties resulting from engagement in PBL. However, they increasingly gained confidence in this approach, exercising increasing control over the PBL process. Despite this increased autonomy, participants continued to value the input of skilled facilitators. A recurring issue centred on the potential for interpersonal conflict within the student group and its impact on their learning. It is suggested that more research is needed examining the use of PBL in mental health nursing. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Full Text Available Background:Monitoring and reporting childhood mental health problems and mental health services utilization over time provide important information to identify mental health related issues and to guide early intervention. This paper aims to describe the recent prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among South Australian (SA children; to identify mental health problems associated characteristics; and to describe mental health services utilization and its related characteristics among this population. Methods:Parent-reported mental health problems were assessed against the first item of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. School-aged children were randomly sampled monthly and data were collected using a surveillance system between 2005 and 2015. Associations between mental health problems and various factors were analysed using univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression modelling. Results:Prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among children was 9.1% and 9.3% for children aged 5 to 11 years and children aged 12 to 15 years, respectively. No change in prevalence was observed during the past decade. Mental health problems were associated with male sex, long-term illness or pain, negative school experiences, not living with biological parents, and living in a rental dwelling. Less than half (48.7% of the children with mental health problems received professional help. An increasing trend was found in mental health services utilisation among children aged 5 to 15 years. Utilization of mental health services was associated with male sex, older age, long-term illness or pain, and feeling unhappy at school. Conclusion:This study reports the prevalence of parent-reported mental and mental health services utilisation among SA school-aged children. Identified characteristics associated with mental health problems and mental health services utilisation provide useful information for the planning of
Nishida, Atsushi; Richards, Marcus; Stafford, Mai
Mental health problems in adolescence are predictive of future mental distress and psychopathology; however, few studies investigated adolescent mental health problems in relation to future mental wellbeing and none with follow-up to older age. To test prospective associations between adolescent mental health problems and mental wellbeing and life satisfaction in early old age. A total of 1561 men and women were drawn from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort). Teachers had previously completed rating scales to assess emotional adjustment and behaviours, which allowed us to extract factors of mental health problems measuring self-organisation, behavioural problems, and emotional problems during adolescence. Between the ages of 60-64 years, mental wellbeing was assessed using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) and life satisfaction was self-reported using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). After controlling for gender, social class of origin, childhood cognitive ability, and educational attainment, adolescent emotional problems were independently inversely associated with mental wellbeing and with life satisfaction. Symptoms of anxiety/depression at 60-64 years explained the association with life satisfaction but not with mental wellbeing. Associations between adolescent self-organisation and conduct problems and mental wellbeing and life satisfaction were of negligible magnitude, but higher childhood cognitive ability significantly predicted poor life satisfaction in early old age. Adolescent self-organisation and conduct problems may not be predictive of future mental wellbeing and life satisfaction. Adolescent emotional problems may be inversely associated with future wellbeing, and may be associated with lower levels of future life satisfaction through symptoms of anxiety/depression in early old age. Initiatives to prevent and treat emotional problems in adolescence may
Background: Although many children with mental health problems are in contact with primary health care services, few receive appropriate help. Methods: Using a pathways to care model, this paper systematically reviews the literature relating to access to services. It separates out the various stages of help-seeking: parental perception of…
Full Text Available Background: Call centre workers in BPO face unique occupational hazards - mental, physical and psychosocial. Material & Method: A sample 100 call centre workers of both sexes and from two cities Pune and Mumbai were surveyed by both qualitative and quantitative methods for the above health problems. Results: A high proportion of workers faced sleep disturbances and associated mental stress and anxiety. Sleep disturbance and anxiety was significantly more in international call centres compared to domestic. There was also disturbance in circadian rhythms due to night shift. Physical problems such as musculoskeletal disorders, obesity, eye, and hearing problems were also present. Psychosocial problems included disruption in family life, use of tobacco and alcohol, and faulty eating habits. Conclusion: Better personal management, health education and more research is indicated to study the health problems in this emerging occupation.
Dupras, André; Bourget, Annick
This article addresses the sexuality of people with mental health problems. More specifically, the authors examine the issue of the sexual life of people with mental health problems in a perspective of sexual citizenship defined as a status that recognizes the sexual identity of individuals and their right to a sexual life of quality. They present an educational experience that allowed participants not only to gain confidence but also to create a social link that encourages them to become actors of their own sexuality and to exercise their rights as sexual citizens.
Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali
Background : The main objective of this study was predicting student′s mental health using social problem solving- ability . Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t tes...
Smith, Peggy B.; Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.
Examined the frequency and nature of mental health problems and symptoms among a group of 51 inner city male adolescents attending a teen health clinic. Results indicated participants experienced significant mental health problems and symptoms, such as relationship problems, problems with time and money, and symptoms of anger, depression, and…
Full Text Available Adolescents are currently being more and more exposed to the expectations of parents, educators, health-workers/helpers and policy makers to meet the demands of society and conform to it. The perception arises that adults are not able to let the adolescent take responsibility for the HOW of his own life story, despite all the expectations and demands. Under the influence of the post-modernistic approach to science and the narrative therapy it appears that each person is an expert of his own life and that each person is responsible for the how and the writing and rewriting of his own life story. This means that even the adolescent with mental health problems is busy with the writing and rewriting of his life story till even unpleasant incidents and experiences gain new meaning. This demands from the adolescent with mental health problems to be actively involved with his treatment program while the therapist is a participating observer of the therapeutic events. A one-sided approach, where the therapist’s objectives and ideas make the difference in the treatment of adolescents with mental health problems, becomes redundant. An alternative approach is suggested where the adolescent with mental health problems becomes co-author of his own life story and his treatment program. In this research the researcher aimed to explore and describe the HOW of the life world of the adolescent with mental health problems. The utilization of the case-study format as research method enabled an in-depth, holistic description of the life world of the adolescent with mental health problems. The implementation of the strategies to ensure trustworthiness, as described by Guba was applied to ensure the validity and reliability of this study. Focus was specifically placed on the application of the strategy of cross validation. This implies that multiple datacollection sources, different experts, theories and respondents were utilized in the exploration of the life world
Results: Nearly three quarters of street children in residential care were rated as having a mental health problem, as indicated by findings from both the self rated SDQ and the Carers' SDQ i.e. 48 children (76.1%) and 54 children (73.0%) respectively. Out of this population approximately one third were assessed as having ...
Beijersbergen, K.A.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; van der Laan, P.H.; Nieuwbeerta, P.
Background Given the high prevalence of mental health problems among prisoners, knowledge on its determinants is important. Prior cross-sectional studies suggest that procedurally just treatment within prison is a significant predictor; however, longitudinal research is lacking. Aim The aims of this
Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Wiefferink, Carin H.; Brugman, Emily; Verhulst, Frank C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S. Pauline; Paulussen, Theo G. W.
Background: Younger children in a school class have higher rates of mental health problems if admission to primary school occurs once a year. This study examines whether this relative age effect also occurs if children are admitted to school continuously throughout the year. Methods: We assessed
Stinton, Chris; Elison, Sarah; Howlin, Patricia
Although many researchers have investigated emotional and behavioral difficulties in individuals with Williams syndrome, few have used standardized diagnostic assessments. We examined mental health problems in 92 adults with Williams syndrome using the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities--PAS-ADD (Moss,…
Mitchell, Paul; Smedley, Kirsty; Kenning, Cassandra; McKee, Amy; Woods, Debbie; Rennie, Charlotte E.; Bell, Rachel V.; Aryamanesh, Mitra; Dolan, Mairead
Many studies have identified high levels of mental health problems among adolescents in custody and there is increasing evidence that mental health problems in this population are associated with further offending and mental health problems into adulthood. Despite recent improvements in mental health provision within custodial settings there is…
Logan-Greene, Patricia; Tennyson, Robert L.; Nurius, Paula S.; Borja, Sharon
Background: Mental health problems are gaining attention among court-involved youth with emphasis on the role of childhood adversity, but assessment lags. Objective: The present study uses a commonly delivered assessment tool to examine mental health problems (current mental health problem, mental health interfered with probation goals, and…
Full Text Available Background: There is a significant proportion of workers with mental disorders who either are struggling at work or who are trying to return to work from a disability leave. Objective: Using a population-based survey of working adults in Ontario, Canada, this paper examines the perceptions of workers towards mental disorders in the workplace. Methods: Data are from a sample of 2219 working adults identified through random digit dialing who either completed a telephone questionnaire administered by professional interviewers or a web-based survey. Results: A third of workers would not tell their managers if they experienced mental health problems. Rather than a single factor, workers more often identified a combination of factors that would encourage disclosure to their managers. One of the most identified disincentives was the fear of damaging their careers. The most pervasive reasons for concerns about a colleague with a mental health problem included safety and the colleague's reliability. Conclusion: Although critical for workers who experience a mental disorder and who find work challenging, a significant proportion do not seek support. One barrier is fear of negative repercussions. Organizations' policies can create safe environments and the provision of resources and training to managers that enable them to implement them. By making disclosure safe, stigma and the burden of mental disorders in the workplace can be decreased.
Dewa, C S
There is a significant proportion of workers with mental disorders who either are struggling at work or who are trying to return to work from a disability leave. Using a population-based survey of working adults in Ontario, Canada, this paper examines the perceptions of workers towards mental disorders in the workplace. Data are from a sample of 2219 working adults identified through random digit dialing who either completed a telephone questionnaire administered by professional interviewers or a web-based survey. A third of workers would not tell their managers if they experienced mental health problems. Rather than a single factor, workers more often identified a combination of factors that would encourage disclosure to their managers. One of the most identified disincentives was the fear of damaging their careers. The most pervasive reasons for concerns about a colleague with a mental health problem included safety and the colleague's reliability. Although critical for workers who experience a mental disorder and who find work challenging, a significant proportion do not seek support. One barrier is fear of negative repercussions. Organizations' policies can create safe environments and the provision of resources and training to managers that enable them to implement them. By making disclosure safe, stigma and the burden of mental disorders in the workplace can be decreased.
Full Text Available Kirstie N Anderson1 Andrew J Bradley2,3 1Department of Neurology, Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Trust, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK; 2Eli Lilly and Company Limited, Lilly House, Basingstoke, UK; 3Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK Abstract: Sleep has been described as being of the brain, by the brain, and for the brain. This fundamental neurobiological behavior is controlled by homeostatic and circadian (24-hour processes and is vital for normal brain function. This review will outline the normal sleep–wake cycle, the changes that occur during aging, and the specific patterns of sleep disturbance that occur in association with both mental health disorders and neurodegenerative disorders. The role of primary sleep disorders such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and REM sleep behavior disorder as potential causes or risk factors for particular mental health or neurodegenerative problems will also be discussed. Keywords: sleep, mental health, neurodegenerative disorders, cognition
Miller, Marilyn J; Ambrose, Donna M
Missed appointments are a problem in all types of outpatient clinics including those providing mental health care. A review of literature was conducted to explore the problem of missed appointments in mental health and identify methods that have been used to improve attendance. Study results demonstrate that patients miss appointments for many reasons. Common reasons for missed appointments in the articles reviewed were the interval between scheduling and appointment day, forgetting, being discharged against medical advice, and problems with substance abuse. Effective in reducing no shows was contact via phone, mail, or text messaging. No articles were found related to the use of positive reinforcement in reducing no shows, which is an area to consider for further research. Clinicians may identify techniques from this review applicable to their particular clinical setting to improve clinic attendance.
Pedrelli, Paola; Nyer, Maren; Yeung, Albert; Zulauf, Courtney; Wilens, Timothy
Attending college can be a stressful time for many students. In addition to coping with academic pressure, some students have to deal with the stressful tasks of separation and individuation from their family of origin while some may have to attend to numerous work and family responsibilities. In this context, many college students experience the first onset of mental health and substance use problems or an exacerbation of their symptoms. Given the uniqueness of college students, there is a need to outline critical issues to consider when working with this population. In this commentary, first, the prevalence of psychiatric and substance use problems in college students and the significance of assessing age of onset of current psychopathology are described. Then, the concerning persistent nature of mental health problems among college students and its implications are summarized. Finally, important aspects of treatment to consider when treating college students with mental health problems are outlined, such as the importance of including parents in the treatment, communicating with other providers, and employing of technology to increase adherence. It is concluded that, by becoming familiar with the unique problems characteristic of the developmental stage and environment college students are in, practitioners will be able to better serve them.
In the face of limited resources and an aging population with increasingly care needs, healthcare systems must identify community-dwelling older adults with mental health problems at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as institutionalization, hospitalization and death, in order to deliver timely and efficient care. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of mental health concerns and the associated perceived risk of adverse outcomes in a large sample of older patients in primary care (PC). We trained general practitioners and nurses to use the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community to rank perceived risk of mental health concerns (including neurocognitive and mood disorders) from 1 (mild) to 3 (severe). The mean age of the 4499 people assessed was 76.3 years (SD = 7.3) and 2645 (58.8%) were female. According to the PC team 1616 (35.9%) were perceived to have mental health concerns of whom 847 (52.4%) were mild, 559 (34.6%) were moderate and 210 (13%) were severe. Patients with mental health concerns had higher odds of perceived risk of adverse outcomes (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.83-2.69 for institutionalization; OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.41-1.94 for hospitalization; OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.42-2.01 for death). These results suggest a high prevalence of mental health concerns among older adults and supports the need for early identification of patients at high-risk of adverse healthcare outcomes.
Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.
Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…
Wingwontham, Surapol; Thitadilok, Wiboolphan; Singhakant, Supachoke
To study the prevalence of mental health problem during first-half pregnancy. Cross-sectional descriptive study. The 255 singleton pregnant women mental health problem screening tool) and frequent psychosocial stressor forms. The prevalence and factors associated with mental health problem were evaluated. The prevalence of mental health problem. The prevalence of mental health problem was 17.3%. Factors independently associated with mental health problem included worrying about health, stress of taking care of other family members and financial problem with adjusted OR 3.5 (95% CI 1.16, 10.74), 3.8 (95% CI 1.80, 7.89) and 3.2 (95% CI 1.34, 7.53) respectively. The prevalence of mental health problem was 17.3%. Screening of mental health problem should be included in antenatal care service especially in the risk group.
Little, Mandy; McLennan, John D
Delivering mental health services to children and their families through schools has many potential advantages. However, little is known about the characteristics of children referred to such services. This study aimed to determine the pattern of mental health and learning difficulties of children referred to one school mental health service. An identity stripped administrative database of all new referrals (n=353) to a school mental health program in southern Alberta between September 2006 and June 2009 was used. Teacher Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire responses and questions about learning and other developmental problems were included. Hyperactivity-inattention was the most prevalent mental health concern, and spelling was the most common learning concern. Higher rates of hyperactivity-inattention concerns and pro-social deficits were observed for boys and more emotional problems were observed for girls. Hyperactivity-inattention was higher at lower grades. Hyperactivity-inattention and conduct problems were often comorbid as were several learning problems. Understanding the typical patterns of concerns among referrals to school mental health services may guide the prioritization of assessment and intervention approaches within these programs. Findings suggest assessments and interventions for ADHD and other disruptive behaviours should be prioritized, as well as the provision of cognitive and academic testing.
Involuntary placement and treatment of persons with mental health problems were initially discussed from the perspective of personal liberty. However, the autonomy of persons with mental health problems has been growing in importance as an issue of involuntary placement and treatment since the last part of the twentieth century, because the purpose of involuntary placement is not the deprivation of liberty but to provide adequate treatment under medical supervision. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) adds a new perspective from non-discrimination and equality. Article 14 of CRPD states that "the existence of a disability shall in no case justify a deprivation of liberty." This provision should be construed from a perspective of non-discrimination. Conventional types of involuntary placement mainly based on dangerousness (UN-MI Principle 16-1a) and incompetency (UN-MI Principle16-1b) are not allowed by Article 14. There is a discussion on the difference between "mental disability" and "mental illness". Some people argue that CRPD should apply not to persons with mental illness, but to those with mental disabilities. However, CRPD does not provide a definition of "disability". It states that its definition is developing. ICF also mentions that ICD-10 and ICF should complement each other. Thus, CRPD should apply to the involuntary placement and treatment of persons with mental illness as well. It is clear that Article 14 intends to change the situation whereby persons who have been described using various terms, such as madness, lunacy, insanity, mental illness, mental disability, mental health problems, and users, are involuntarily hospitalized/placed. The significance of Article 14 will be lost if it cannot be applied to psychiatric hospitalization. From the perspective of non-discrimination, we have to universalize involuntary placement and treatment or completely abolish them. We cannot tolerate a situation where a type of
McCue Horwitz, Sarah; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Kerker, Bonnie D; Szilagyi, Moira; Garner, Andrew S; O'Connor, Karen G; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Green, Cori M; Foy, Jane M; Stein, Ruth E K
To assess the availability of on-site mental health professionals (MHPs) in primary care; to examine practice/pediatrician characteristics associated with on-site MHPs; and to determine whether the presence of on-site MHPs is related to pediatricians' comanaging or more frequently identifying, treating/managing, or referring mental health (MH) problems. Analyses included American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) members who participated in an AAP Periodic Survey in 2013 and who practiced general pediatrics (n = 321). Measures included sociodemographics, practice characteristics, questions about on-site MHPs, comanagement of MH problems, and pediatricians' behaviors in response to 5 prevalent MH problems. Weighted univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses were performed. Thirty-five percent reported on-site MHPs. Practice characteristics (medical schools, universities, health maintenance organizations, pediatricians usually identified, treated/managed, or referred 5 common child MH problems. Among the subset of pediatricians who reported comanaging, there was an association with comanagement when the on-site MHP was a child psychiatrist, substance abuse counselor, or social worker. On-site MHPs are more frequent in settings where low-income children are served and where pediatricians train. Pediatricians who comanage MH problems are more likely to do so when the on-site MHP is a child psychiatrist, substance abuse counselor, or social worker. Overall, on-site MHPs were not associated with comanagement or increased likelihood of pediatricians identifying, treating/managing, or referring children with 5 common child MH problems. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Beijersbergen, Karin A; Dirkzwager, Anja J E; Eichelsheim, Veroni I; van der Laan, Peter H; Nieuwbeerta, Paul
Given the high prevalence of mental health problems among prisoners, knowledge on its determinants is important. Prior cross-sectional studies suggest that procedurally just treatment within prison is a significant predictor; however, longitudinal research is lacking. The aims of this study were to examine (1) the longitudinal relationship between prisoners' perceptions of procedural justice--including fairness, respect, humanity and relationships with officers--and their mental health and (2) the moderating role of coping style in this relationship. Data were obtained from the Prison Project, a longitudinal study of adult male prisoners in the Netherlands, interviewed both 3 weeks and 3 months after their reception into pre-trial detention (N = 824). A cross-lagged structural equation model was employed to investigate associations. Prisoners who reported experiencing a higher level of procedural justice 3 weeks after their arrival in custody reported fewer mental health problems after 3 months. No evidence was found that coping style moderated this relationship. These findings suggest a causal relationship between procedural justice and psychological well-being. Fair and respectful treatment of prisoners is a predictor not only of prison order and prisoners' compliance but also of prisoners' psychological well-being. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ahmad, NoorAni; MuhdYusoff, Fadhli; Ratnasingam, Selva; Mohamed, Fauziah; Nasir, Nazrila Hairizan; MohdSallehuddin, Syafinaz; MahadirNaidu, Balkish; Ismail, Rohana; Aris, Tahir
Studying trends in mental health morbidity will guide the planning of future interventions for mental and public health services. To assess the trends in mental health problems among children and adolescents aged 5 through 15 years in Malaysia from 1996 to 2011, data from the children's mental health component of three population-based surveys was analysed using a two-stage stratified sampling design. Mental health problems were assessed using the Reporting Questionnaire for Children. The pre...
Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rincón, Carlos Javier; Urrego-Mendoza, Zulma
Indigenous people represent 5% of the world population and one-third of the poor ones. Alcoholism rates, substance abuse problems, and mental disorders are shown to be higher than the general population. An analysis was made of the data from the National Mental Health Survey 2015. In this survey, it was asked if self-recognition as a native was according to the culture, the people, or physical features. A total of 902 indigenous people were surveyed, corresponding to 8.3% of the surveyed adult population. The majority (39.5%) lived in the Pacific region, with 23.7% Atlantic region, and 20% in the Eastern region. More than one-quarter (26.6%) reported a status of poverty, 31.7% spoke the language of their people, and 17.8% reported displacement due to violence. Mental health was defined as, "having good physical health, to eat, sleep and rest, by 42.9%. As regards problems and mental disorders, 8% reported excessive consumption and 7.9% a risk consumption of alcohol. As regards general psychopathology, measured by the (Self-reporting questionnaire) SRQ, 8.1% of the population had symptoms. The life prevalences of anxiety and depressive mental disorders were reported by 6.7% women and 8.4% men, and the associated risk factors that show higher risk were: aged between 18 to 44 years, not speaking the language of their people, living in Bogota, living in urban areas, and consuming psychoactive substances and tobacco. People who recognised themselves as indigenous have higher rates of displacement by violence, report problems and common mental disorders that are associated with factors consistent with loss of cultural characteristics. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.
Full Text Available Åke Grundberg,1,2 Anna Hansson,2 Dorota Religa,1 Pernilla Hillerås1,2 1Division of Neurogeriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, 2Sophiahemmet University, Stockholm, Sweden Introduction: Elderly people with multiple chronic conditions, or multimorbidity, are at risk of developing poor mental health. These seniors often remain in their homes with support from home care assistants (HCAs. Mental health promotion by HCAs needs to be studied further because they may be among the first to observe changes in clients’ mental health status. Aim: To describe HCAs’ perspectives on detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health among homebound seniors with multimorbidity. Methods: We applied a descriptive qualitative study design using semi-structured interviews. Content analyses were performed on five focus group interviews conducted in 2014 with 26 HCAs. Results: Most HCAs stated that they were experienced in caring for clients with mental health problems such as anxiety, depression, sleep problems, and high alcohol consumption. The HCAs mentioned as causes, or risk factors, multiple chronic conditions, feelings of loneliness, and social isolation. The findings reveal that continuity of care and seniors’ own thoughts and perceptions were essential to detecting mental health problems. Observation, collaboration, and social support emerged as important means of detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health. Conclusion: The HCAs had knowledge of risk factors, but they seemed insecure about which health professionals had the primary responsibility for mental health. They also seemed to have detected early signs of mental health problems, even though good personal knowledge of the client and continuity in home visits were crucial to do so. When it came to mental health promotion, the suggestions related to the aim of ending social isolation, decreasing feelings of
Storrie, Kim; Ahern, Kathy; Tuckett, Anthony
The number of university students with a serious mental illness has risen significantly over the past few years. A systematic review was conducted that addressed emotional and or mental health problems of university students worldwide. In total, 572 articles were identified, of which 11 met inclusion criteria. Issues identified included types of problems experienced by students, how staff dealt with these students, barriers to seeking help, tools that facilitated help-seeking and epidemiological trends in the university student population. Recommendations include (i) providing better links between the university and external mental health providers, and (ii) increasing students' awareness of existing support services within and external to the university. As it is unrealistic to expect all academic staff to have the expertise required to deal with students with emotional problems, it is also recommended that (iii) policies and personnel with expertise in mental health are available to provide guidance for staff.
Na Hyun Kim
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE and mental health problems among Korean adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2011 Korean Community Health Survey. From the total of 229,226 participants aged 19 years or above, we excluded 48,679 current smokers, 36,612 former smokers, 3,036 participants with a history of stroke, 2,264 participants with a history of myocardial infarction, 14,115 participants who experienced at least one day in bed per month due to disability, and 855 participants for whom information regarding SHSE or mental health problems was not available. The final analysis was performed with 22,818 men and 100,847 women. Participants were classified into four groups according to the duration of SHSE: none, <1 hr/d, 1-<3 hr/d, and ≥3 hr/d. The presence of depressive symptoms, diagnosed depression, and high stress were measured by questionnaire. RESULTS: After adjusting for demographic factors, lifestyle, and chronic disease, the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI of depressive symptoms with 1-<3 hr/d and ≥3 hr/d SHSE were 1.44 (95% CI, 1.14 to 1.82 and 1.59 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.74, respectively. However, SHSE ≥3 hr/d had a higher OR of 1.37 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.58 for diagnosed depression. SHSE was also associated with high stress (1-<3 hr/d: OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.38 to 1.76; ≥3 hr/d: OR, 1.33 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.40. However, the association between SHSE and symptoms of depression and stress did not differ significantly by region. CONCLUSIONS: SHSE may be associated with mental health problems such as depression and stress in Korean adults.
Westphal, Richard J
.... Semi-structured interviews and military policies were used as data sources to analyze the language, knowledge, and attitudes of Navy surface fleet leaders about mental illness and mental health...
van der Velden, Peter G.; Yzermans, C. Joris; Kleber, Rolf J.; Gersons, B. P. R.
The authors assess the correlates of mental health services utilization (MHS) after a disaster among adults with mental health problems. Data of a three-wave longitudinal study among adult survivors of a fireworks disaster (T1: 2-3 weeks, T2: 18 months, T3: almost 4 years postdisaster) were linked
Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.
Campos, Filipa; Sousa, Ana; Rodrigues, Vânia; Marques, António; Queirós, Cristina; Dores, Artemisa
This study aims to determine the guiding principles for the implementation of peer support programmes in Portugal. The study was divided in 2 phases. In the first phase a systematic review of 112 papers indexed in ISI and EBSCO databases (2001 to 2012) was conducted. In the second phase clinicians, researchers, and people with psychiatric disabilities were invited to take part in a two-round online survey based on the Delphi process to rate the importance of statements generated from the systematic review. Data were analysed with NVivo 9 and SPSS 19. During the Delphi round 72 experts were contacted, 44 participated in the second round. A consensus was achieved on major statements, with 84% of the sentences obtaining a consensus and 8 key recommendations covering goals of peer support, selection of peer supporters, training and accreditation, role of mental health professionals, role of peer supporters, access to peer supporters, looking after peer supporters, and programme evaluation were based on these statements. Use of peer support for mental health problems is still underexplored and surrounded by some controversy and ambiguity. However, its organization and proper monitoring appears to enhance the quality of life and social inclusion of people with mental illness. This highlights the importance of conducting studies that increase our knowledge of these programmes and determining guidelines for their implementation. This national consensus may be used as a starting point for the design and implementation of peer support programmes in mental health organizations. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007
Long-standing policy controversies have heated up as a result of increasing proposals for using schools to screen for mental health problems (e.g., depression screening). This brief highlights the following issues: (1) How appropriate is large-scale screening for mental health problems? (2) Will the costs of large-scale mental health screening…
Bower, Peter; Knowles, Sarah; Coventry, Peter A; Rowland, Nancy
The prevalence of mental health and psychosocial problems in primary care is high. Counselling is a potential treatment for these patients, but there is a lack of consensus over the effectiveness of this treatment in primary care. To assess the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of counselling for patients with mental health and psychosocial problems in primary care. To update the review, the following electronic databases were searched: the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis (CCDAN) trials registers (to December 2010), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (to May 2011). Randomised controlled trials of counselling for mental health and psychosocial problems in primary care. Data were extracted using a standardised data extraction sheet by two reviewers. Trials were rated for quality by two reviewers using Cochrane risk of bias criteria, to assess the extent to which their design and conduct were likely to have prevented systematic error. Continuous measures of outcome were combined using standardised mean differences. An overall effect size was calculated for each outcome with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Continuous data from different measuring instruments were transformed into a standard effect size by dividing mean values by standard deviations. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to test the robustness of the results. Economic analyses were summarised in narrative form. There was no assessment of adverse events. Nine trials were included in the review, involving 1384 randomised participants. Studies varied in risk of bias, although two studies were identified as being at high risk of selection bias because of problems with concealment of allocation. All studies were from primary care in the United Kingdom and thus comparability was high. The analysis found significantly greater clinical effectiveness in the counselling group compared with usual care in terms of mental health outcomes in the
Sripada, Rebecca K; Bohnert, Amy S B; Teo, Alan R; Levine, Debra S; Pfeiffer, Paul N; Bowersox, Nicholas W; Mizruchi, Mark S; Chermack, Stephen T; Ganoczy, Dara; Walters, Heather; Valenstein, Marcia
Low social support and small social network size have been associated with a variety of negative mental health outcomes, while their impact on mental health services use is less clear. To date, few studies have examined these associations in National Guard service members, where frequency of mental health problems is high, social support may come from military as well as other sources, and services use may be suboptimal. Surveys were administered to 1448 recently returned National Guard members. Multivariable regression models assessed the associations between social support characteristics, probable mental health conditions, and service utilization. In bivariate analyses, large social network size, high social network diversity, high perceived social support, and high military unit support were each associated with lower likelihood of having a probable mental health condition (p social support (OR .90, CI .88-.92) and high unit support (OR .96, CI .94-.97) continued to be significantly associated with lower likelihood of mental health conditions. Two social support measures were associated with lower likelihood of receiving mental health services in bivariate analyses, but were not significant in adjusted models. General social support and military-specific support were robustly associated with reduced mental health symptoms in National Guard members. Policy makers, military leaders, and clinicians should attend to service members' level of support from both the community and their units and continue efforts to bolster these supports. Other strategies, such as focused outreach, may be needed to bring National Guard members with need into mental health care.
Kerebih, Habtamu; Abrha, Hailay; Frank, Reiner; Abera, Mubarek
Teachers perception of child mental health problems and their attitude to school-based mental health services helps in designing early intervention strategies aimed at promoting the service. However, little is known in this regard among primary school teachers in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study assessed perceptions and attitude of primary school teachers to child mental health problem and school-based mental health programs in Jimma town, southwest Ethiopia in 2013. A cross-sectional study design was implemented among 568 primary school teachers in Jimma town, from 1 to 30 October 2013. Perceptions and attitude of teachers to children with mental health problems and school mental health related information were assessed using a structured self- administered questionnaire. About 40% of teachers recognized the list of psychopathology items presented to them as child mental health problems while 54.4% of them rated child mental health problem as severe. Externalizing behaviors were perceived as the most severe problems. Teaching experience and teaching in public schools were significantly associated with the perception of severe type of child mental health problems. About 95% of teachers acknowledged that school-based mental health programs are important but limited availability was reported. Despite the high problem severity ratings, teachers' perception of the psychopathology as a mental health problem in children was low. There was also a favorable attitude on the importance and the need of school-based child mental health programs. Thus, creating mental health awareness for teachers and establishing school mental health services to intervene in child mental health problem is crucial.
Donovan, Rob; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Robinson, Katy; Lin, Chad
To determine the impact of the Act-Belong-Commit mental health promotion campaign on people with a diagnosed mental illness or who had sought professional help for a mental health problem in the previous 12 months. In 2013 and 2014, 1,200 adults in Western Australia were interviewed by telephone. The questionnaire measured campaign reach, impact on beliefs about mental health and mental illness and behavioural impact. Campaign impact on changing the way respondents thought about mental health was significantly higher among those with a mental illness or who had sought help (41.4% vs 24.2%; pmental health as a result of their exposure to the campaign (20.5% vs 8.7%; pmental illness or who recently sought help to take steps of their own to enhance their mental health. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.
Musiat, Peter; Goldstone, Philip; Tarrier, Nicholas
Background E-mental health and m-mental health include the use of technology in the prevention, treatment and aftercare of mental health problems. With the economical pressure on mental health services increasing, e-mental health and m-mental health could bridge treatment gaps, reduce waiting times for patients and deliver interventions at lower costs. However, despite the existence of numerous effective interventions, the transition of computerised interventions into care is slow. The aim of...
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2008
Significant mental health problems can and do occur in young children. In some cases, these problems can have serious consequences for early learning, social competence, and lifelong health. Furthermore, the foundations of many mental health problems that endure through adulthood are established early in life through the interaction of genetic…
Pryjmachuk, S.; Graham, T.; Haddad, M.; Tylee, A.
Aims and objectives: To explore the views of school nurses regarding mental health problems in young people and their potential for engaging in mental health work with this client group.\\ud \\ud Background: Mental health problems in children and young people are an important public health issue. Universal children’s services play a key role in identifying and managing these problems and, while school nurses have an important function in this work, little is known about their views on this aspe...
Sharp, Marie-Louise; Fear, Nicola T; Rona, Roberto J; Wessely, Simon; Greenberg, Neil; Jones, Norman; Goodwin, Laura
Approximately 60% of military personnel who experience mental health problems do not seek help, yet many of them could benefit from professional treatment. Across military studies, one of the most frequently reported barriers to help-seeking for mental health problems is concerns about stigma. It is, however, less clear how stigma influences mental health service utilization. This review will synthesize existing research on stigma, focusing on those in the military with mental health problems. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies between 2001 and 2014 to examine the prevalence of stigma for seeking help for a mental health problem and its association with help-seeking intentions/mental health service utilization. Twenty papers met the search criteria. Weighted prevalence estimates for the 2 most endorsed stigma concerns were 44.2% (95% confidence interval: 37.1, 51.4) for "My unit leadership might treat me differently" and 42.9% (95% confidence interval: 36.8, 49.0) for "I would be seen as weak." Nine studies found no association between anticipated stigma and help-seeking intentions/mental health service use and 4 studies found a positive association. One study found a negative association between self-stigma and intentions to seek help. Counterintuitively, those that endorsed high anticipated stigma still utilized mental health services or were interested in seeking help. We propose that these findings may be related to intention-behavior gaps or methodological issues in the measurement of stigma. Positive associations may be influenced by modified labeling theory. Additionally, other factors such as self-stigma and negative attitudes toward mental health care may be worth further attention in future investigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Van Loon, Linda M A; Van de Ven, Monique O M; Van Doesum, Karin T M; Hosman, Clemens M H; Witteman, Cilia L M
When adolescents live with a parent with mental illness, they often partly take over the parental role. Little is known about the consequences of this so-called parentification on the adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. This survey study examined this effect cross-sectionally and longitudinally in a sample of 118 adolescents living with a parent suffering from mental health problems. In addition, the study examined a possible indirect effect via perceived stress. Path analyses were used to examine the direct associations between parentification and problem behavior as well as the indirect relations via perceived stress. The results showed that parentification was associated with both internalizing and externalizing problems cross-sectionally, but it predicted only internalizing problems 1 year later. An indirect effect of parentification on adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems via perceived stress was found, albeit only cross-sectionally. These findings imply that parentification can be stressful for adolescents who live with a parent with mental health problems, and that a greater awareness of parentification is needed to prevent adolescents from developing internalizing problems. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a minority of adolescents reporting symptoms above case-levels on screenings for mental health seeks and receives help from specialist health services. The objective of this study was to a examine help-seeking for symptoms of anxiety and depression in relation to symptom load dimensionally, b identify the level of specialization in mental health among service-providers, and c identify associations between mental health problems and contact with different types of health services. Methods This cross-sectional school-based study (response-rate 88%, n = 11154 is based on Norwegian health surveys among 15 and 16 year olds. Results We found a dose-response association between symptom-load and help seeking. Only 34% of individuals with mental symptom-load above 99th percentile reported help-seeking in the last 12 months. Forty percent of help seekers were in contact with specialists (psychiatrists or psychologists, the remaining were mainly in contact with GPs. Mental health problems increased help seeking to all twelve service providers examined. Conclusion It might not be reasonable to argue that all adolescents with case-level mental health problems are in need of treatment. However, concerning the 99th percentile, claiming treatment need is less controversial. Even in the Norwegian context where mental health services are relatively available and free of charge, help-seeking in individuals with the highest symptom-loads is still low. Most help seekers achieved contact with health care providers, half of them at a non specialized level. Our results suggest that adolescents' recognition of mental health problems or intention to seek help for these are the major "filters" restricting treatment.
Hudson, Darrell L; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Croston, Merriah A; Blanchard, Melvin S; Goodman, Melody S
We examined the prevalence of mental disorders in a primary care setting affiliated with a large academic medical center. We also examined whether there were racial differences in mental health disorders. Patients were seeking medical care in an outpatient medical clinic; mental health data were available for them via medical records (n=767). Overall, 45% of patients had a diagnosed mental health problem; the most commonly reported form of mental disorder was depression. African Americans (OR= 1.88; CI: 1.21-2.91) were more likely than Whites to have a diagnosed mental health problem. These results suggest a strong mental health treatment need among patients seeking primary care in urban settings. The evidence garnered from this study underscores the need to detect and treat mental health problems systematically within outpatient primary care clinics that serve similarly vulnerable populations.
Bruland, D.; Pinheiro, P.; Bröder, J.; Okan, O.; Carvalho, Graça Simões de; Saboga-Nunes, L.; Bond, E.; Wahl, P.; Fretian, A.; Bauer, U.
Children whose parents have mental health issues respond to associated familial stressors with symptomatic behaviors and are, themselves, at considerably higher risk of developing serious mental health problems. Teachers are the most likely professionals who are able to recognize behavior changes and mental health needs of children. This article aims to provide an overview of the current state-of-the-art research on teachers’ mental health literacy including how teachers identify and support ...
2Department of Behavioural Sciences, University of Ilorin, Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria. 3Department of Mental Health, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Abstract. Objective: Anecdotal .... witchcraft (93.3%), cannabis (86.7%), punishment for sins. (73.3%), supernatural causes ...
Simonavicius, Erikas; Robson, Debbie; McEwen, Andy; Brose, Leonie S
Around thirty percent of smokers have a mental health problem. Smoking cessation has been associated with mental health benefits, but smoking prevalence remains high in populations with mental health problems. This study aimed to assess mental health related knowledge, practice, and training needs of practitioners supporting smoking cessation. UK stop smoking practitioners (n=717) recruited via a database of a national provider of smoking cessation training in June 2016 sufficiently completed an online survey about available resources, knowledge, confidence, and training needs related to smoking cessation and mental health. Responses were described and compared between practitioners with a mental health lead and those without such a lead in their service using chi-square statistics and t-tests. A considerable proportion agreed (37%) or were undecided (28.9%) that smoking helped people with mental health problems feel better and agreed (17.2%) or were undecided (30.2%) that cessation would exacerbate mental health symptoms. Only 11.6% said their service had designated funding for smokers with mental health problems and 26.5% were or had a staff member who was a dedicated lead practitioner for mental health work. Practitioners from services that had a dedicated mental health lead were more confident in supporting smokers with different mental health problems and using different pharmacotherapies (all ptraining, particularly about smoking cessation effects on psychiatric medication (84.3% of n=632) and how to tailor stop smoking support to clients with mental health problems (82.4%). Practitioners who support smoking cessation have limited knowledge about mental health and smoking but are willing to learn and improve. However, they are hindered by a lack of resources. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Gabel, S; Oster, G D
Under the influence of managed care and diminished funding, the mental health field is undergoing a major transformation. Existing mental health programs, departments, and agencies are downsizing and restructuring to develop new types of service delivery systems. Organizations must change to survive; yet necessary and adaptive change may be resisted in numerous ways by providers whose reactions and behaviors may reduce the viability of their own programs and agencies. This paper explores various characteristics and reactions of mental health care professionals as they face great stress, professional devaluation, and necessary organizational change and restructuring. Adaptive and maladaptive patterns in response to potential organizational change are explored. The role of the leader in guiding and implementing programmatic changes and in dealing with denial and resistance is highlighted. Strategies to enhance the prospects for adaptive organizational change are offered.
Ali, Kathina; Farrer, Louise; Gulliver, Amelia; Griffiths, Kathleen M
Background Adolescence and early adulthood are critical periods for the development of mental disorders. Online peer-to-peer communication is popular among young people and may improve mental health by providing social support. Previous systematic reviews have targeted Internet support groups for adults with mental health problems, including depression. However, there have been no systematic reviews examining the effectiveness of online peer-to-peer support in improving the mental health of a...
Franzese, Robert J; Covey, Herbert C; Tucker, Abigail S; McCoy, Leah; Menard, Scott
Evidence on the relationship of adolescent exposure to violence (AEV) with adult physical and mental health problems is limited, with studies often focusing on earlier childhood rather than adolescence, and also on short term rather than long term outcomes. Information specifically on the relationship of AEV to seeking help for mental health problems in adulthood from either formal sources such as mental health professionals or informal sources such as friends and clergy is even more difficult to find. The present study investigates how adolescent exposure to violence (AEV), in the form of parental physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and exposure to violence in the neighborhood, are related to self-reported adult physical problems and seeking formal or informal assistance with mental health, controlling for more general adolescent violent victimization and for self-reports and parent reports of mental health problems in adolescence. This study adds to the literature on AEV and adult physical problems, and provides a rare look at the relationship of AEV to adult help-seeking for mental health problems. The results suggest that AEV is associated with mental health problems in adolescence for both females and males, that for females AEV is related to physical problems and to seeking help for mental health problems in adulthood, but for males the only significant relationship involves inconsistent reports of witnessing parental violence and adult physical problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dey, Michelle; Wang, Jen; Jorm, Anthony Francis; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun
To compare children with mental and physical health problems regarding (1) perceived disease severity; (2) the impact of their condition on their families; (3) their utilization of health care services (including satisfaction with care); and (4) parents' health literacy about their child's condition and its treatment. Furthermore, we examined whether parents' health literacy differs between types of mental health condition. Parental reports about their 9- to 14-year-old children with mental (n = 785) or physical health problems (n = 475) were analyzed from the population-based National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs in Switzerland. Mental health problems were perceived as being more severe (p physical health problems. Furthermore, fewer parents of children with a mental health problem mentioned having a particular person or place to contact if they needed information or advice regarding the child's condition (p = 0.004) and were satisfied with the health care services their child received (p literacy was higher among parents with children suffering from mental health problems vs. parents of children with physical health problems (OR in the adjusted model = 1.92; 95 % CI 1.47-2.50; p literacy.
Koka, Betty E; Deane, Frank P; Lyons, Geoffrey Cb; Lambert, Gordon
Papua New Guinea is a developing country with limited resources for specialist mental health services. Little is known about the mental health and treatment services of Papua New Guinea. The aim of this study was to clarify the presenting mental health problems encountered by Papua New Guinean health workers and the common treatment approaches used. A total of 203 Papua New Guinean health workers completed a retrospective quantitative survey about their three most recent mental health patients. The survey asked about presenting symptomatology, diagnoses (including culture-bound diagnoses) and treatment approaches. The major presenting mental health problems for males included schizophrenia, substance use disorder, sorcery and spirit possession. Depression was the most common diagnoses for women, followed by sorcery and somatisation. Over 65% of patients were prescribed psychotropic medication, over 50% received some form of psychological intervention and 28% were receiving traditional treatments. Somatic symptoms are common among both male and female Papua New Guineans; however, males may be more likely to present with psychotic symptoms and females with mood-related problems. Schizophrenia and depression are commonly identified with substance use disorder more problematic among males. Culture-specific explanations and treatment are commonly used. © The Author(s) 2013.
Ahmad, NoorAni; MuhdYusoff, Fadhli; Ratnasingam, Selva; Mohamed, Fauziah; Nasir, Nazrila Hairizan; MohdSallehuddin, Syafinaz; MahadirNaidu, Balkish; Ismail, Rohana; Aris, Tahir
Studying trends in mental health morbidity will guide the planning of future interventions for mental and public health services. To assess the trends in mental health problems among children and adolescents aged 5 through 15 years in Malaysia from 1996 to 2011, data from the children's mental health component of three population-based surveys was analysed using a two-stage stratified sampling design. Mental health problems were assessed using the Reporting Questionnaire for Children. The prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents aged 5 through 15 years showed an increasing trend from 13.0% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 11.5-14.6) in 1996 to 19.4% (95% CI: 18.5-20.3) in 2006 and 20.0% (95% CI: 18.8-21.3) in 2011. In 2011, male children and adolescents and those who were in less affluent families were significantly associated with mental health problems. The findings indicate that even though mental health problems among children and adolescents in Malaysia are increasing, the rate of increase has decreased in the past five years. Socially and economically disadvantaged groups were most vulnerable to mental health problems.
Ahmad, NoorAni; MuhdYusoff, Fadhli; Ratnasingam, Selva; Mohamed, Fauziah; Nasir, Nazrila Hairizan; MohdSallehuddin, Syafinaz; MahadirNaidu, Balkish; Ismail, Rohana; Aris, Tahir
Studying trends in mental health morbidity will guide the planning of future interventions for mental and public health services. To assess the trends in mental health problems among children and adolescents aged 5 through 15 years in Malaysia from 1996 to 2011, data from the children's mental health component of three population-based surveys was analysed using a two-stage stratified sampling design. Mental health problems were assessed using the Reporting Questionnaire for Children. The prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents aged 5 through 15 years showed an increasing trend from 13.0% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 11.5–14.6) in 1996 to 19.4% (95% CI: 18.5–20.3) in 2006 and 20.0% (95% CI: 18.8–21.3) in 2011. In 2011, male children and adolescents and those who were in less affluent families were significantly associated with mental health problems. The findings indicate that even though mental health problems among children and adolescents in Malaysia are increasing, the rate of increase has decreased in the past five years. Socially and economically disadvantaged groups were most vulnerable to mental health problems. PMID:26000035
Rüsch, Nicolas; Corrigan, Patrick W; Waldmann, Tamara; Staiger, Tobias; Bahemann, Andreas; Oexle, Nathalie; Wigand, Moritz; Becker, Thomas
Despite low unemployment rates, individuals with mental health problems often struggle to gain reemployment. Many face the decision whether to disclose their mental illness to employers. This study therefore examined the role of disclosure attitudes for reemployment over time. Clinical and job search variables as well as attitudes toward disclosing a mental health issue to an employer were assessed among 301 unemployed individuals with mental health problems. Predictors of reemployment at 6-month follow-up were assessed using multiple regression, adjusted for sociodemographic variables, unemployment length, and depressive symptoms. Greater reluctance to disclose mental health problems at baseline predicted reemployment after 6 months. Reemployment was also associated with male sex, better education, lower disability levels, and more job offers at baseline. Therefore, a cautious approach toward disclosing a mental health problem may facilitate short-term reemployment. It is unclear whether this is a successful long-term strategy in employment settings.
Full Text Available The aims of the present multi-center study were to investigate the extent of mental health problems in adolescents with a hearing loss and cochlear implants (CIs in comparison to normal hearing (NH peers and to investigate possible relations between the extent of mental health problems of young CI users and hearing variables, such as age at implantation, or functional gain of CI. The survey included 140 adolescents with CI (mean age = 14.7, SD = 1.5 years and 140 NH adolescents (mean age = 14.8, SD = 1.4 years, their parents and teachers. Participants were matched by age, gender and social background. Within the CI group, 35 adolescents were identified as risk cases due to possible and manifest additional handicaps, and 11 adolescents were non-classifiable. Mental health problems were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ in the versions Self, Parent, and Teacher. The CI group showed significantly more Peer Problems than the NH group. When the CI group was split into a risk-group (35 risk cases and 11 non-classifiable persons and a non-risk group (n = 94, increased peer problems were perceived in both CI subgroups by adolescents themselves. However, no further differences between the CI non-risk group and the NH group were observed in any rater. The CI-risk group showed significantly more hyperactivity compared to the NH group and more hyperactivity and conduct problems compared to the CI non-risk group. Cluster analyses confirmed that there were significantly more adolescents with high problems in the CI-risk group compared to the CI non-risk group and the NH group. Adolescents with CI, who were able to understand speech in noise had significantly less difficulties compared to constricted CI users. Parents, teachers, and clinicians should be aware that CI users with additionally special needs may have mental health problems. However, peer problems were also experienced by CI adolescents without additional handicaps
Tatsuse, Takashi; Sekine, Michikazu
Although studies on the association of job dissatisfaction with mental health have been conducted in the past, few studies have dealt with the complicated links connecting job stress, job dissatisfaction, and stress-related illness. This study seeks to determine how job dissatisfaction is linked to common mental health issues. This study surveyed 3,172 civil servants (2,233 men and 939 women) in 1998, taking poor mental functioning, fatigue, and sleep disturbance as stress-related mental health problems. We examine how psychosocial risk factors at work and job dissatisfaction are associated independently with poor mental functioning, fatigue, and sleep disturbance after adjustment for other known risk factors, and how job dissatisfaction contributes to change in the degree of association between psychosocial risk factors at work and mental health problems. In general, psychosocial risk factors were independently associated with mental health problems. When adjusted for job dissatisfaction, not only was job satisfaction independently associated with mental health problems but it was also found that the association of psychosocial risk factors with mental health problems declined. Our results suggest that, although longitudinal research is necessary, attitudes toward satisfaction at work can potentially decrease the negative effects of psychosocial risk factors at work on mental health.
Audhoe, Selwin S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Hoving, Jan L.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
To evaluate the barriers to and solutions for return to work (RTW) from the perspective of unemployed workers who were sick-listed due to mental health problems. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 25 sick-listed unemployed workers with mental health problems. Qualitative data analysis was
Kaptein, S.; Jansen, D.E.M.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.
Background: The assessment of mental health problems in children with intellectual disability (ID) mostly occurs by filling out long questionnaires that are not always validated for children without ID. The aim of this study is to assess the differences in mental health problems between children
Gieteling, Marieke J.; Lisman-Van Leeuwen, Yvone; Passchier, Jan; Koes, Bart W.; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Leuwen, Y.L.V.
Objective. To investigate the course of mental health problems in children presenting to general practice with abdominal pain and to evaluate the extent to which abdominal pain characteristics during follow-up predict the presence of mental health problems at 12 months' follow-up. Design. A
Desta, Menelik; Deyessa, Negussie; Fish, Irving; Maxwell, Benjamin; Zerihun, Tigist; Levine, Saul; Fox, Claire; Giedd, Jay; Zelleke, Tesfaye G.; Alem, Atalay; Garland, Ann F.
In Ethiopia there is a severe shortage of child mental health professionals. Identification and intervention for young children's mental health problems is crucial to improve developmental trajectories and reduce the severity of emotional and behavioral disorders. Teachers can play an important role in early problem detection. This role is…
Zhang, Hongjing; Chang, Kyle; Zhang, Fan; Greenberger, Ellen; Chen, Chuansheng
Few studies have compared urban and rural adolescents' mental health problems, especially in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mental health problems and coping styles of adolescents in urban and rural areas in China. A total of 927 urban and rural high school students in Shandong Province of China were…
Esbensen, Anna J.
This review focuses on the families of individuals dually diagnosed with intellectual disability (ID) and comorbid mental health problems. The review examines the impact of caring for individuals with ID and comorbid mental health problems on family well-being, the impact of the family on these individuals, and intervention and support needs of…
The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…
Passchier, J.; Gieteling, M.J.; Lisman-Van Leeuwen, Y.; Koes, B.W.; Berger, M.Y.
Objective. To investigate the course of mental health problems in children presenting to general practice with abdominal pain and to evaluate the extent to which abdominal pain characteristics during follow-up predict the presence of mental health problems at 12 months' follow-up. Design. A
Huber, Maria; Burger, Thorsten; Illg, Angelika; Kunze, Silke; Giourgas, Alexandros; Braun, Ludwig; Kröger, Stefanie; Nickisch, Andreas; Rasp, Gerhard; Becker, Andreas; Keilmann, Annerose
The aims of the present multi-center study were to investigate the extent of mental health problems in adolescents with a hearing loss and cochlear implants (CIs) in comparison to normal hearing (NH) peers and to investigate possible relations between the extent of mental health problems of young CI users and hearing variables, such as age at implantation, or functional gain of CI. The survey included 140 adolescents with CI (mean age = 14.7, SD = 1.5 years) and 140 NH adolescents (mean age = 14.8, SD = 1.4 years), their parents and teachers. Participants were matched by age, gender and social background. Within the CI group, 35 adolescents were identified as “risk cases” due to possible and manifest additional handicaps, and 11 adolescents were non-classifiable. Mental health problems were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the versions “Self,” “Parent,” and “Teacher.” The CI group showed significantly more “Peer Problems” than the NH group. When the CI group was split into a “risk-group” (35 “risk cases” and 11 non-classifiable persons) and a “non-risk group” (n = 94), increased peer problems were perceived in both CI subgroups by adolescents themselves. However, no further differences between the CI non-risk group and the NH group were observed in any rater. The CI risk-group showed significantly more hyperactivity compared to the NH group and more hyperactivity and conduct problems compared to the CI non-risk group. Cluster analyses confirmed that there were significantly more adolescents with high problems in the CI risk-group compared to the CI non-risk group and the NH group. Adolescents with CI, who were able to understand speech in noise had significantly less difficulties compared to constricted CI users. Parents, teachers, and clinicians should be aware that CI users with additionally special needs may have mental health problems. However, peer problems were also experienced by CI
Kim, Soyeon; Colwell, Scott R; Kata, Anna; Boyle, Michael H; Georgiades, Katholiki
The use of electronic communication technologies has become a core method for adolescent communication. While there are many benefits to such technologies, cyberbullying has emerged as a potential harm. This study examines the association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health problems and the extent to which this association differs by sex and mental health problem type. A clustered sample of 31,148 students in grades 6-12 (Female = 51.9%; 56.5% Caucasian, 10.2% South Asian) completed an anonymous survey asking their frequency of exposure to traditional forms of bullying, cyberbullying, and experiences of mental health problems over the past 6 months. Multilevel structural equation modelling was used to examine the associations. Controlling for age and traditional forms of bullying, cyberbullying was a significant predictor of adolescents' emotional and behavioral problems. Cyberbullying was more strongly associated with emotional problems for females and with behavioral problems for males. This evidence identifies unique adverse effects associated with cyberbullying on both emotional and behavioural problems and sex differences in the strength of these associations.
Darbyshire, Philip; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Fereday, Jennifer; Jureidini, Jon; Drummond, Andrew
The present qualitative study describes and discusses the perspectives and experiences of young homeless people with mental health problems in relation to their interactions with health and social care services. Working in partnership with Streetlink, a supported accommodation assistance programme in Adelaide, Australia, the authors interviewed 10 homeless young people, aged from 16 to 24 years of age, who had experienced mental health problems. In-depth interviews elicited accounts of the best and worst of the participants' experiences of health and social care services. Access to services was not identified as being a significant problem in comparison with the participants' concerns regarding the quality of the services encountered. The central findings stress the importance of a respectful and supportive climate in relation to the qualities of service provision that the young people identified as valuable for their continuing treatment or consultation.
Stiffman, A R; Earls, F; Robins, L N; Jung, K G; Kulbok, P
This paper examines the association between adolescentpregnancy and socioenvironmental, physical, and mental health problems in 1590 inner-city US females aged 13-18 who use health clinics. Adolescents who have become pregnant, those who are sexually active but never have been pregnant, and those who are sexually inactive are compared. The sexually active youngsters come from more psychosocially disadvantaged backgrounds than their sexually inactive peers; the sexually active girls who become pregnant come from more psychosocially disadvantaged backgrounds than those who have never been pregnant. Despite this, the youths who have become pregnant do not have more current relationship problems, more stressful life events, or worse physical health than the never-pregnant sexually active youths. Although sexually inactive youths have the lowest rates of mental health problems, adolescents who have been pregnant have lower rates of anxiety and conduct disorder symptoms than those who are sexually active but never pregnant.
Laws, Thomas A.; Fiedler, Brenton A.
Mental health problems in young Australians continue to be a major public health issue. Studying at university can generate social pressures particularly for youth, which have been associated with the onset of a mental illness or a worsening of an existing condition. Many universities provide health services to support students with health…
Schneider, Renee; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel
Risk for adult mental health problems associated with child sexual, physical, or emotional abuse and multiple types of child abuse was examined. Logistic regression analyses were used to test study hypotheses in a population-based sample of women (N = 3,936). As expected, child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse were independently associated with increased risk for mental health problems. History of multiple types of child abuse was also associated with elevated risk for mental health problems. In particular, exposure to all three types of child abuse was linked to a 23-fold increase in risk for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Findings underscore relations between child emotional abuse and adult mental health problems and highlight the need for mental health services for survivors of multiple types of child abuse.
Handley, Tonelle E; Lewin, Terry J; Perkins, David; Kelly, Brian
Although mental health literacy has increased in recent years, mental illness is often under-recognised. There has been little research conducted on mental illness in rural areas; however, this can be most prominent in rural areas due to factors such as greater stigma and stoicism. The aim of this study is to create a profile of those who are most and least likely to self-identify mental health problems among rural residents with moderate- to-high psychological distress. Secondary analysis of a longitudinal postal survey. Rural and remote New South Wales, Australia. Four-hundred-and-seventy-two community residents. Participants completed the K10 Psychological Distress Scale, as well as the question 'In the past 12 months have you experienced any mental health problems?' The characteristics of those who reported moderate/high distress scores were explored by comparing those who did and did not experience mental health problems recently. Of the 472 participants, 319 (68%) with moderate/high distress reported a mental health problem. Reporting a mental health problem was higher among those with recent adverse life events or who perceived more stress from life events while lower among those who attributed their symptoms to a physical cause. Among a rural sample with moderate/high distress, one-third did not report a mental health problem. Results suggest a threshold effect, whereby mental health problems are more likely to be acknowledged in the context of additional life events. Ongoing public health campaigns are necessary to ensure that symptoms of mental illness are recognised in the multiple forms that they take. © 2018 National Rural Health Alliance Ltd.
Vitolo, Ymara Lúcia Camargo; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Goodman, Robert; Bordin, Isabel Altenfelder Santos
To verify the prevalence and identify the risk factors related to mental health problems among schoolchildren and its possible association with the beliefs and educational attitudes of parents/caretakers. Cross-sectional study with a stratified probabilistic sample (n=454) of first to third-graders from public and private schools in Southeastern Brazil. Standardized instruments were administered to parents/caretakers by trained interviewers, including screening questionnaires for mental health problems among children and parents/caretakers; a questionnaire on beliefs and attitudes; and a questionnaire for socio-economic status. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. We found 35.2% prevalence of clinical/borderline cases among students. Parents/caretakers that believed in corporal punishment as a child-rearing method used physical aggression towards their children more frequently (64.8%). Logistic regression models showed that the act of hitting the child with a belt was associated to conduct problems and to overall mental health problems among schoolchildren in the presence of other risk factors: child gender (male), parents/caretakers with mental health problems, and adverse socioeconomic conditions. The high prevalence of mental health problems among schoolchildren and its association with child-rearing methods and mental health problems among parents/caretakers indicate the need for psycho-educational interventions aimed to reduce physical abuse and mental health problems in childhood.
Full Text Available This article identifies unique mental health problems experienced by Chinese international students in the United States. The uniqueness of these problems suggests the need to address them independently from other Chinese and international student communities. First, an overview of the common sources of mental health problems and specific stressors these students face is provided. This article then develops culturally sensitive programming recommendations to improve collaborative efforts between health providers, mental health social workers, faculty, and academic staff within universities to serve these students more effectively.
Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Probst, Michel; Mugisha, James
Background There is a need for psychosocial interventions to address the escalating mental health burden in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Physiotherapists could have a central role in reducing the burden and facilitating recovery within the multidisciplinary care of people with mental health problems. The aim of this systematic review was to explore the role of physiotherapists within the current mental health policies of SSA countries and to explore the current research evidence for physiotherap...
Cook, Steven; Turner, Nigel E; Ballon, Bruce; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Murray, Robert; Adlaf, Edward M; Ilie, Gabriela; den Dunnen, Wendy; Mann, Robert E
This paper describes gambling problems among Ontario students in 2009 and examines the relationship between gambling problems and substance use problems, mental health problem indicators, and delinquent behaviors. Data were derived from the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey of Ontario students in grades 7-12. Gambling problems were measured as 2 or more of 6 indicators of problem gambling. In total 2.8% of the students surveyed endorsed two or more of the problem gambling items. The odds of problem gamblers reporting mental distress was 4.2 times higher than the rest of the sample and the odds of problem gamblers reporting a suicide attempt were 17.8 times greater than the rest of the sample. In addition compared to the rest of the students, delinquent behaviors were also more common among problem gamblers, including theft (OR = 14.5), selling marijuana (OR = 19.6), gang fights (OR = 11.3) and carrying a handgun (OR = 11.2). In a multivariate analysis, substance-use problems, mental health problems, and the participation in a variety of delinquent behaviors remained significantly associated with youth problem gambling behavior. Students who report problem gambling behaviors show increased substance abuse, mental health, and delinquency/criminal problems that are similar to those seen among adult problem gamblers. The association between these problems suggests that these problems could be addressed in a unified manner.
Verhulp, Esmée E; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; van de Schoot, Rens; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
Although immigrant adolescents are at least at equal risk of developing internalizing problems as their non-immigrant peers, immigrant adolescents are less likely to use mental health care. The present study is the first to examine ethnic differences in problem identification to find explanations for this disparity in mental health service use. Specifically, the extent to which emotional problem identification mediates the relationship between immigrant status and mental health service use for internalizing problems in three immigrant populations in the Netherlands (i.e., Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan) was investigated. A two-phase design was used to include adolescents at risk for internalizing problems. Data were used from the second phase, in which 349 parents and adolescents participated (95 native Dutch, 85 Surinamese, 87 Turkish, and 82 Moroccan). Results indicated that mental health service use for internalizing problems is far lower among immigrant adolescents than among native Dutch adolescents, although differences between immigrant groups were also substantive. A lack of emotional problem identification was identified as an essential mediator in the relationship between immigrant status and mental health service use. Since the results suggest the low levels of problem identification in our immigrant samples may serve an explanatory role in the relationship between immigrant status and mental health service use, future research should aim at understanding these ethnic differences in problem identification.
Oyserman, D.; Bybee, D.; Mowbray, C.; Hart-Johnson, T.
Maternal mental health (MMH) problems are associated with lack of confidence in one's parenting, overly lax or too harsh discipline, and child academic underperformance. We asked if parenting mediates the effect of MMH problems on academic outcomes even among mothers with serious mental illness (n=164). Structural equation analyses show a…
Burke, Delia A; Koot, Hans M; de Wilde, Amber; Begeer, Sander
Early recognition of childhood mental-health problems can help minimise long-term negative outcomes. Recognition of mental-health problems, needed for referral and diagnostic evaluation, is largely dependent on health-care professionals' (HCPs) judgement of symptoms presented by the child. This
Jan Nadine DeFehr
Full Text Available This article provides a sociopolitical critique of contemporary Mental Health First Aid (MHFA discourses. The concept of psychocentrism, adopted as an analytical tool, critiques the problematic nature of MHFA premises and practices that automate, expedite, enforce, and normalize the global movement to psychiatrize human distress. Contesting MHFA’s international image as a benevolent, individual crisis intervention model, this essay discusses MHFA as a technique of neoliberal governance, moral surveillance, and social control, responsible for reinvigorating the psychiatric profession while dividing and demoting the populace.
Full Text Available We examined the relationship between service use and the number of problem areas as reported by parents and teachers on questionnaires among children aged 7–9 years old in the Bergen Child Study, a total population study including more than 9000 children. A problem area was counted as present if the child scored above the 95th percentile on parent and/or teacher questionnaire. A total number of 13 problem areas were included. Odd ratios (ORs for contact with child and adolescent mental health services (CAMH, school psychology services (SPS, health visiting nurse/physician, and school support were calculated with gender as covariate. The number of symptom areas was highly predictive of service use, showing a dose-response relationship for all services. Children scoring on ≥4 problem areas had a more than hundredfold risk of being in contact with CAMH services compared to children without problems. The mean number of problem areas for children in CAMH and SPS was 6.1 and 4.4 respectively, strongly supporting the ESSENCE model predicting multisymptomatology in children in specialized services. Even after controlling for number of problem areas, boys were twice as likely as girls to be in contact with CAMH, replicating previous findings of female gender being a strong barrier to mental health services.
Rickwood, Debra; White, Angela; Eckersley, Richard
This paper provides an overview of current trends in the mental health problems of Australia's youth and adolescents. It presents information derived from the most recent and comprehensive Australian surveys of youth mental health, and provides international comparisons and views from professional practice where relevant. An update of trends for…
Nijs, Miesje M.; Bun, Clothilde J. E.; Tempelaar, Wanda M.; de Wit, Niek J.; Burger, Huibert; Plevier, Carolien M.; Boks, Marco P. M.
School environment is an important determinant of psychosocial function and may also be related to mental health. We therefore investigated whether perceived school safety, a simple measure of this environment, is related to mental health problems. In a population-based sample of 11,130 secondary
Levecque, K.; Anseel, F.; Beuckelaer, A. de; Van Der Heyden, J.; Gisle, L.
Research policy observers are increasingly concerned about the potential impact of current academic working conditions on mental health, particularly in PhD students. The aim of the current study is threefold. First, we assess the prevalence of mental health problems in a representative sample of
ten Have, M.; Nuyen, J.; Beekman, A.T.F.; de Graaf, R.
Background Detailed population-based survey information on the relationship between the severity of common mental disorders (CMDs) and treatment for mental health problems is heavily based on North American research. The aim of this study was to replicate and expand existing knowledge by studying
Graham, H L; Maslin, J; Copello, A; Birchwood, M; Mueser, K; McGovern, D; Georgiou, G
The extent and impact of drug and alcohol use among those with severe mental health problems has been well documented in the US. However, little is known of the nature of this problem in the UK, particularly in community treatment settings. This paper outlines findings from a large-scale survey conducted across community-based Mental Health and Substance Misuse services, which aimed to ascertain the prevalence of drug and alcohol problems among those with severe mental health problems. An assessment instrument was completed by keyworkers for each of their clients, which included mental health diagnosis and an adapted version of the Clinician Rating Scales for Alcohol and Drug Use. From a sample of 3079 clients across services, 1369 clients were identified with a severe mental illness diagnosis. According to their key-workers, 24% of these clients (324/1369) had used alcohol and/or drugs problematically during the past year. These individuals were most likely to have a diagnosis within the schizophrenia cluster, were mainly white males in their mid-30s, and tended to be located within Mental Health services in Assertive Outreach teams and to be higher utilisers of crises/emergency services. It can be concluded that similar to other studies in inner city areas of the UK, problem substance use is common amongst those with severe mental health problems within Northern Birmingham.
Morse, Gary; Salyers, Michelle P.; Rollins, Angela L.; Monroe-DeVita, Maria; Pfahler, Corey
Staff burnout is increasingly viewed as a concern in the mental health field. In this article we first examine the extent to which burnout is a problem for mental health services in terms of two critical issues: its prevalence and its association with a range of undesirable outcomes for staff, organizations, and consumers. We subsequently provide a comprehensive review of the limited research attempting to remediate burnout among mental health staff. We conclude with recommendations for the development and rigorous testing of intervention approaches to address this critical area. Keywords: burnout, burnout prevention, mental health staff PMID:21533847
Daley, Tamara C
Beliefs about treatment of mental health problems are a critical area for examination among immigrant and refugee populations. Data on treatment of child problems have been conspicuously absent from the literature. This study examines explanatory models of treatment among 40 second-generation Cambodian children aged 8-18 and their parents in the US. Comparisons of perceptions of intervention for an externalizing problem (gang-related behavior) and an internalizing problem (depression) are made in a group of children who have received mental health services, their parents, and a matched community sample. A significant interaction between respondent and group membership was present in the perception that these problems could be helped, and contrary to past findings among Asian Americans, both children and parents generally endorsed the use of mental health services. Data about actual experiences with mental health services are used to help explain the findings and suggest implications for treatment of Cambodian-American youth.
Burns, T; Knapp, M; Catty, J; Healey, A; Henderson, J; Watt, H; Wright, C
This review investigates the effectiveness of 'home treatment' for mental health problems in terms of hospitalisation and cost-effectiveness. For the purposes of this review, 'home treatment' is defined as a service that enables the patient to be treated outside hospital as far as possible and remain in their usual place of residence. METHODS - SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE SEARCH: 'Home treatment' excluded studies focused on day, residential and foster care. The review was based on Cochrane methodology, but non-randomised studies were included if they compared two services; these were only analysed if they provided evidence of the groups' baseline clinical comparability. METHODS - REVIEW OF ECONOMIC EVALUATIONS: Economic evaluations among the studies found were reviewed against established criteria. METHODS - IDENTIFICATION OF SERVICE COMPONENTS: A three-round Delphi exercise ascertained the degree of consensus among expert psychiatrists concerning the important components of community-based services that enable them to treat patients outside hospital. The identified components were used to construct the follow-up questionnaire. METHODS - FOLLOW-UP OF AUTHORS: As a supplement to the information available in the papers, authors of all the studies were followed up for data on service components, sustainability of programmes and service utilisation. METHODS - DATA ANALYSIS: The outcome measure was mean days in hospital per patient per month over the follow-up period. (1) Comparative analysis - compared experimental to control services. It analysed all studies with available data, divided into 'inpatient-control' and 'community-control' studies, and tested for associations between service components and difference in hospital days. (2) Experimental services analysis - analysed only experimental service data and tested for associations between service components and hospital days. RESULTS - SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE SEARCH: A total of 91 studies were found, conducted over a 30
Huggett, Charlotte; Birtel, Michèle D; Awenat, Yvonne F; Fleming, Paul; Wilkes, Sophie; Williams, Shirley; Haddock, Gillian
Prior research has examined various components involved in the impact of public and internalized stigma on people with mental health problems. However, studies have not previously investigated the subjective experiences of mental health stigma by those affected in a non-statutory treatment-seeking population. An in-depth qualitative study was conducted using thematic analysis to investigate the experiences of stigma in people with mental health problems. Eligible participants were recruited through a local mental health charity in the North West of England. The topic of stigma was examined using two focus groups of thirteen people with experience of mental health problems and stigma. Two main themes and five subthemes were identified. Participants believed that (1) the 'hierarchy of labels' has a profound cyclical impact on several levels of society: people who experience mental health problems, their friends and family, and institutional stigma. Furthermore, participants suggested (2) ways in which they have developed psychological resilience towards mental health stigma. It is essential to utilize the views and experiences gained in this study to aid understanding and, therefore, develop ways to reduce the negative impact of public and internal stigma. People referred to their mental health diagnosis as a label and associated that label with stigmatizing views. Promote awareness and develop improved strategies (e.g., training) to tackle the cyclical impact of the 'hierarchy of labels' on people with mental health problems, their friends and family, and institutional stigma. Ensure the implementation of clinical guidelines in providing peer support to help people to combat feeling stigmatized. Talking about mental health in psychological therapy or health care professional training helped people to take control and develop psychological resilience. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.
Hoge, Charles W; Auchterlonie, Jennifer L; Milliken, Charles S
The US military has conducted population-level screening for mental health problems among all service members returning from deployment to Afghanistan, Iraq, and other locations. To date, no systematic analysis of this program has been conducted, and studies have not assessed the impact of these deployments on mental health care utilization after deployment. To determine the relationship between combat deployment and mental health care use during the first year after return and to assess the lessons learned from the postdeployment mental health screening effort, particularly the correlation between the screening results, actual use of mental health services, and attrition from military service. Population-based descriptive study of all Army soldiers and Marines who completed the routine postdeployment health assessment between May 1, 2003, and April 30, 2004, on return from deployment to Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan (n = 16,318), Operation Iraqi Freedom (n = 222,620), and other locations (n = 64,967). Health care utilization and occupational outcomes were measured for 1 year after deployment or until leaving the service if this occurred sooner. Screening positive for posttraumatic stress disorder, major depression, or other mental health problems; referral for a mental health reason; use of mental health care services after returning from deployment; and attrition from military service. The prevalence of reporting a mental health problem was 19.1% among service members returning from Iraq compared with 11.3% after returning from Afghanistan and 8.5% after returning from other locations (PMental health problems reported on the postdeployment assessment were significantly associated with combat experiences, mental health care referral and utilization, and attrition from military service. Thirty-five percent of Iraq war veterans accessed mental health services in the year after returning home; 12% per year were diagnosed with a mental health problem. More
Nguyen, Dat Tan; Dedding, Christine; Pham, Tam Thi; Bunders, Joske
Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam.The study aimed to explore perceptions of mental health status, risk factors for mental health problems and strategies to improve mental health among Vietnamese secondary school students. A qualitative design was used to address the main study question including: six in-depth interviews conducted with professionals (with two researchers, two psychiatrists, and two secondary school teachers) to learn about their experience of mental health problems among secondary school pupils; 13 focus group discussions (four with teachers, four with parents, and five with pupils); and 10 individual in-depth interviews with pupils who did not take part in the FGDs, to reflect on the collected data and to deepen the authors' understanding. All interviews and FGDs were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed for the identification of emerging issues using qualitative techniques of progressive coding, analytic memoing and ongoing comparison. Our study confirms the need to pay attention to mental health of pupils in Vietnam. Depression, anxiety, stress, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts were seen as major problems by all stakeholders. Mental health problems were mainly associated with academic pressure, resulting from an overloaded curriculum and pressure from teachers and parents to succeed. The study found that pupils' mental health demands interventions at many levels, including at the level of government (Ministry of Education and Training), schools, communities, families and pupils themselves. Vietnamese secondary school pupils feel that their mental health status is poor, because of many risk factors in their learning and living environment. The need now is to investigate further to identify and apply strategies to improve students' mental
Kirmayer, Laurence J; Narasiah, Lavanya; Munoz, Marie; Rashid, Meb; Ryder, Andrew G; Guzder, Jaswant; Hassan, Ghayda; Rousseau, Cécile; Pottie, Kevin
Recognizing and appropriately treating mental health problems among new immigrants and refugees in primary care poses a challenge because of differences in language and culture and because of specific stressors associated with migration and resettlement. We aimed to identify risk factors and strategies in the approach to mental health assessment and to prevention and treatment of common mental health problems for immigrants in primary care. We searched and compiled literature on prevalence and risk factors for common mental health problems related to migration, the effect of cultural influences on health and illness, and clinical strategies to improve mental health care for immigrants and refugees. Publications were selected on the basis of relevance, use of recent data and quality in consultation with experts in immigrant and refugee mental health. The migration trajectory can be divided into three components: premigration, migration and postmigration resettlement. Each phase is associated with specific risks and exposures. The prevalence of specific types of mental health problems is influenced by the nature of the migration experience, in terms of adversity experienced before, during and after resettlement. Specific challenges in migrant mental health include communication difficulties because of language and cultural differences; the effect of cultural shaping of symptoms and illness behaviour on diagnosis, coping and treatment; differences in family structure and process affecting adaptation, acculturation and intergenerational conflict; and aspects of acceptance by the receiving society that affect employment, social status and integration. These issues can be addressed through specific inquiry, the use of trained interpreters and culture brokers, meetings with families, and consultation with community organizations. Systematic inquiry into patients' migration trajectory and subsequent follow-up on culturally appropriate indicators of social, vocational and
Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Narasiah, Lavanya; Munoz, Marie; Rashid, Meb; Ryder, Andrew G.; Guzder, Jaswant; Hassan, Ghayda; Rousseau, Cécile; Pottie, Kevin
Background: Recognizing and appropriately treating mental health problems among new immigrants and refugees in primary care poses a challenge because of differences in language and culture and because of specific stressors associated with migration and resettlement. We aimed to identify risk factors and strategies in the approach to mental health assessment and to prevention and treatment of common mental health problems for immigrants in primary care. Methods: We searched and compiled literature on prevalence and risk factors for common mental health problems related to migration, the effect of cultural influences on health and illness, and clinical strategies to improve mental health care for immigrants and refugees. Publications were selected on the basis of relevance, use of recent data and quality in consultation with experts in immigrant and refugee mental health. Results: The migration trajectory can be divided into three components: premigration, migration and postmigration resettlement. Each phase is associated with specific risks and exposures. The prevalence of specific types of mental health problems is influenced by the nature of the migration experience, in terms of adversity experienced before, during and after resettlement. Specific challenges in migrant mental health include communication difficulties because of language and cultural differences; the effect of cultural shaping of symptoms and illness behaviour on diagnosis, coping and treatment; differences in family structure and process affecting adaptation, acculturation and intergenerational conflict; and aspects of acceptance by the receiving society that affect employment, social status and integration. These issues can be addressed through specific inquiry, the use of trained interpreters and culture brokers, meetings with families, and consultation with community organizations. Interpretation: Systematic inquiry into patients’ migration trajectory and subsequent follow-up on culturally
Dotevall, Camilla; Winberg, Elin; Rosengren, Kristina
The aim of this study was to describe Jordanian nursing students' experience of caring for refugees with mental health problems. According to refugees' experiences of crisis, a well-educated staff is needed to provide high quality of care due to mental health problems. Therefore, health professionals play an important role in creating an environment that promotes human rights regardless of ethnic origin. The study comprised eight interviews and was analysed using content analysis, a qualitative method that involves an inductive approach, to increase our understanding of nursing students' perspective and thoughts regarding caring for refugees with mental health problems. The results formed one category: to be challenged by refugees' mental health issues and three subcategories: managing refugees' mental health needs, affected by refugees' mental health, and improve mental healthcare for refugees. Language problems could be managed by using interpreters to decrease cultural clashes to facilitate equal healthcare. In addition, well-educated (theoretical knowledge) and trained (practical knowledge) nursing students have potential to fulfil refugees' care needs regardless of ethnicity or background by using nursing interventions built on communication skills and cultural competences (theory, practice) to facilitate high quality of healthcare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pope, Megan A; Malla, Ashok K; Iyer, Srividya N
Individuals with mental health problems have many support needs that are often inadequately met; however, perceptions of who should be responsible for meeting these needs have been largely unexplored. Varying perceptions may influence whether, how, and to what extent relevant stakeholders support individuals with mental health problems. To critically evaluate the literature to determine who different stakeholders believe should be responsible for supporting individuals with mental health problems, what factors shape these perceptions, and how they relate to one another. A critical literature review was undertaken. Following an extensive literature search, the conceptual contributions of relevant works were critically evaluated. A concept map was created to build a conceptual framework of the topic. Views of individual versus societal responsibility for need provision and health; the morality of caring; and attributions of responsibility for mental illness offered valuable understandings of the review questions. Creating a concept map revealed that various interrelated factors may influence perceptions of responsibility. Varying perceptions of who should be responsible for supporting individuals with mental health problems may contribute to unmet support needs among this group. Our critical review helps build a much-needed conceptual framework of factors influencing perceptions of responsibility. Such a framework is essential as these views iteratively shape and reflect the complex divisions of mental healthcare roles and responsibilities. Understanding these perceptions can help define relevant stakeholders' roles more clearly, which can improve mental health services and strengthen stakeholder accountability.
Milton, Alyssa; Parsons, Nicholas; Morant, Nicola; Gilbert, Eleanor; Johnson, Sonia; Fisher, Adrian; Singh, Swaran; Cunliffe, Di; Marwaha, Steven
UK social firms are under-researched but are a potentially important vocational option for people with mental health problems. To describe the clinical profile, satisfaction levels and experiences of social firms employees with mental health problems. Clinical, work and service use characteristics were collected from social firms' employees with mental health problems in England and Wales. Workplace experience and satisfaction were explored qualitatively. Predominantly, social firms' employees (N = 80) report that they have a diagnosis of depression (56%) and anxiety (41%). People with schizophrenia (20%) or bipolar disorder (5%) were a minority. Respondents had low symptom and disability levels, high quality of life and job satisfaction and experienced reductions in secondary mental health service use over time. High-workplace satisfaction was related to flexibility, manager and colleague support and workplace accommodations. The clinical profile, quality of life and job satisfaction level of employees with mental health problems suggest social firms could be a useful addition to UK vocational services for some people. Current employees mainly have common mental disorders, and social firms will need to shift their focus if they are to form a substantial pathway for the vocational recovery of people currently using community mental health teams.
Straiton, Melanie L; Powell, Kathryn; Reneflot, Anne; Diaz, Esperanza
Researchers in Norway explore treatment options in primary care for immigrant women with mental health problems compared with nonimmigrant women. Three national registers were linked together for 2008. Immigrant women from Sweden, Poland, the Philippines, Thailand, Pakistan, and Russia were selected for analysis and compared with Norwegian women. Using logistic regression, we investigated whether treatment type varied by country of origin. Rates of sickness leave and psychiatric referrals were similar across all groups. Conversational therapy and use of antidepressants and anxiolytics were lower among Filipina, Thai, Pakistani, and Russian women than among Norwegians. Using the broad term "immigrants" masks important differences in treatment and health service use. By closely examining mental health treatment differences by country of origin, gaps in service provision and treatment uptake may be identified and addressed with more success.
Gudino, Omar G.; Lau, Anna S.; Yeh, May; McCabe, Kristen M.; Hough, Richard L.
The authors examined racial/ethnic disparities in mental health service use based on problem type (internalizing/externalizing). A diverse sample of youth in contact with public sectors of care and their families provided reports of youth's symptoms and functional impairment during an initial interview. Specialty and school-based mental health…
Cuijpers, Pim; Donker, Tara; Weissman, Myrna M; Ravitz, Paula; Cristea, Ioana A.
Objective: Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) has been developed for the treatment of depression but has been examined for several other mental disorders. A comprehensive meta-analysis of allrandomized trials examining the effects of IPT for all mental health problems was conducted. Method: Searches
Pryjmachuk, Steven; Graham, Tanya; Haddad, Mark; Tylee, Andre
To explore the views of school nurses regarding mental health problems in young people and their potential for engaging in mental health work with this client group. Mental health problems in children and young people are an important public health issue. Universal children's services play a key role in identifying and managing these problems and, while school nurses have an important function in this work, little is known about their views on this aspect of their role. A qualitative research design employing focus group methodology. School nurses (n = 33) were purposively sampled from four school nursing teams in two English cities for a series of focus groups. The focus group data were audio-recorded, transcribed and subsequently analysed using 'framework'. Four principal themes emerged from the data. In these themes, school nurses were found to value their involvement with the mental health of young people, recognising this as an important area of practice. Several obstacles to their work in this area were identified: heavy workloads, professional rivalries, a lack of confidence and limited education and training opportunities. The importance of support from local specialist mental health teams was emphasised. School nurses can be engaged in mental health work though, as public health specialists, their role should focus on health promotion, assessment, signposting and early intervention activities. To facilitate mental health work, school nurses are able to draw on established interpersonal skills and supportive networks; however, workload and a lack of confidence need to be managed and it is important that they are supported by constructive relationships with local specialist mental health teams. This study has implications for nurses and healthcare practitioners interested in enhancing the mental health of children and young people in school settings. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Oates, J; Drey, N; Jones, J
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: 'Expertise by experience' has become an increasingly valued element of service design and delivery by mental health service providers. The extent and influence of mental health professionals' personal experience of mental ill health on clinical practice has seldom been interrogated in depth. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: We investigate how mental health nurses' own personal experience of mental ill health informs their mental health nursing practice with particular reference to direct work with service users. Participants said that personal experience could impact on work in three positive ways: to develop their relationship with service users, to enhance their understanding of service users and as a motivation for potential mental health nurses to join the profession. This study moves the discussion of the state of mental health nurses' mental health further towards the recovery and well-being focus of contemporary mental health care, where 'expertise by experience' is highly valued. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: We must address the taboo of disclosure within clinical nursing practice and debate the extent to which personal and professional boundaries are negotiated during clinical encounters. Introduction 'Expertise by experience' is a highly valued element of service delivery in recovery-oriented mental health care, but is unacknowledged within the mental health nursing literature. Aim To explore the extent and influence of mental health professionals' personal experience of mental ill health on clinical practice. Method Twenty-seven mental health nurses with their own personal experience of mental ill health were interviewed about how their personal experience informed their mental health nursing practice, as part of a sequential mixed methods study. Results The influence of personal experience in nursing work was threefold: first, through overt disclosure; second, through the 'use of the self as a tool
Swords, Lorraine; Heary, Caroline; Hennessy, Eilis
Background: Research suggests that children's reactions to peers with mental health problems are related to the maintenance and outcomes of these problems. However, children's perceptions of such peers, particularly those with internalising problems, are neither well researched nor understood. The present study aimed to test a series of models…
Schreuders, G.A.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Smit, J.H.; Rijmen, F.P.J.; Stalman, W.A.B.; van Oppen, P.C.
Background: The prevalence of patients with mental health problems in general practice is high, and at least one-third of these problems last for 6 months or longer. Patients with these problems take up more time during a consultation and attend more frequently. Aim: This study investigated the
Pryor, Laura; Lioret, Sandrine; van der Waerden, Judith; Fombonne, Éric; Falissard, Bruno; Melchior, Maria
Food insecurity has been found to be related to anxiety and depression; however, the association with other psychiatric disorders, particularly among young adults, is not well known. We examined whether food insecurity is independently associated with four common mental health problems among a community sample of young adults in France. Data are from the TEMPO longitudinal cohort study. In 1991, participants' parents provided information on health and family socioeconomic characteristics. In 2011, participants' (18-35 years) reported food insecurity, mental health symptoms, and socioeconomic conditions (n = 1214). Mental health problems ascertained included major depressive episode, suicidal ideation, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and substance abuse and/or dependence (nicotine, alcohol and cannabis). Cross-sectional associations between food insecurity and mental health problems were tested using modified Poisson regressions, weighted by inverse probability weights (IPW) of exposure. This makes food insecure and not food insecure participants comparable on all characteristics including socioeconomic factors and past mental health problems. 8.5 % of young adults were food insecure. In IPW-controlled analyses, food insecurity was associated with increased levels of depression (RR = 2.01, 95 % CI 1.01-4.02), suicidal ideation (RR = 3.23, 95 % CI 1.55-6.75) and substance use problems (RR = 1.68, 95 % CI 1.15-2.46). Food insecurity co-occurs with depression, suicidal ideation and substance use problems in young adulthood. Our findings suggest that reductions in food insecurity during this important life period may help prevent mental health problems. Policies aiming to alleviate food insecurity should also address individuals' psychiatric problems, to prevent a lifelong vicious circle of poor mental health and low socioeconomic attainment.
Jiao, Mingxu; Gu, Jing; Xu, Huifang; Hao, Chun; Lau, Joseph T F; Mo, Phoenix; Liu, Di; Zhao, Yuteng; Zhang, Xiao; Babbitt, Andrew; Hao, Yuantao
A considerable proportion of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clients have experienced mental health problems (e.g., depression and anxiety), and poor mental health status is associated with HIV-related risk behaviors and treatment drop-out. Resilience is known to be a protective factor for mental health problems but is not studied among MMT clients in China. This study aimed to explore the relationship between resilience and mental health problems (depression, anxiety and stress) among clients of community-based MMT clinics in China. A total of 208 MMT clients completed the face-to-face interview conducted at 4 of 11 MMT clinics in Guangzhou. The Chinese short version of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) was used to assess the presence of depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) was used to measure resilience. Logistic regression models were fit in data analyses. Of all participants, 12.8%, 19.5% and 8.3% had depression, anxiety and stress, respectively. The mean resilience score was 57.6 (SD = 15.9). In the univariate analyses, resilience was negatively associated with two studied mental health problems (depression and anxiety, OR u = 0.96 and 0.96, p mental health problems of MMT users should consider resilience as an important part in the designing of such interventions.
McLafferty, Margaret; Lapsley, Coral R.; Ennis, Edel; Armour, Cherie; Murphy, Sam; Bunting, Brendan P.; Bjourson, Anthony J.; O'Neill, Siobhan M.
Mental health and behavioural problems are common among students commencing university. University life can be stressful and problems often exacerbate during their course of study, while others develop disorders for the first time. The WHO World Mental Health Surveys International College Student Project aims to conduct longitudinal research to examine and monitor student mental health and wellbeing. The Ulster University Student Wellbeing study, which commenced in September 2015 in Northern Ireland (NI), was conducted as part of this initiative (wave 1, n = 739), using the WMH-CIDI to examine psychopathology. Baseline prevalence rates of lifetime and 12-month mental health and substance disorders, ADHD and suicidality were high, with more than half of new undergraduate students reporting any lifetime disorder. Co-morbidity was common with 19.1% of students experiencing three or more disorders. Logistic regression models revealed that females, those over 21, non-heterosexual students, and those from a lower SES background were more likely to have a range of mental health and behavioural problems. Overall, 10% of new entry students received treatment for emotional problems in the previous year. However, 22.3% of students with problems said they would not seek help. The study provides important information for universities, policy makers and practice, on mental health and wellbeing in young people generally but particularly for students commencing university. The findings will assist in the development and implementation of protection and prevention strategies in the university setting and beyond. PMID:29236727
McLafferty, Margaret; Lapsley, Coral R; Ennis, Edel; Armour, Cherie; Murphy, Sam; Bunting, Brendan P; Bjourson, Anthony J; Murray, Elaine K; O'Neill, Siobhan M
Mental health and behavioural problems are common among students commencing university. University life can be stressful and problems often exacerbate during their course of study, while others develop disorders for the first time. The WHO World Mental Health Surveys International College Student Project aims to conduct longitudinal research to examine and monitor student mental health and wellbeing. The Ulster University Student Wellbeing study, which commenced in September 2015 in Northern Ireland (NI), was conducted as part of this initiative (wave 1, n = 739), using the WMH-CIDI to examine psychopathology. Baseline prevalence rates of lifetime and 12-month mental health and substance disorders, ADHD and suicidality were high, with more than half of new undergraduate students reporting any lifetime disorder. Co-morbidity was common with 19.1% of students experiencing three or more disorders. Logistic regression models revealed that females, those over 21, non-heterosexual students, and those from a lower SES background were more likely to have a range of mental health and behavioural problems. Overall, 10% of new entry students received treatment for emotional problems in the previous year. However, 22.3% of students with problems said they would not seek help. The study provides important information for universities, policy makers and practice, on mental health and wellbeing in young people generally but particularly for students commencing university. The findings will assist in the development and implementation of protection and prevention strategies in the university setting and beyond.
Full Text Available Mental health and behavioural problems are common among students commencing university. University life can be stressful and problems often exacerbate during their course of study, while others develop disorders for the first time. The WHO World Mental Health Surveys International College Student Project aims to conduct longitudinal research to examine and monitor student mental health and wellbeing. The Ulster University Student Wellbeing study, which commenced in September 2015 in Northern Ireland (NI, was conducted as part of this initiative (wave 1, n = 739, using the WMH-CIDI to examine psychopathology. Baseline prevalence rates of lifetime and 12-month mental health and substance disorders, ADHD and suicidality were high, with more than half of new undergraduate students reporting any lifetime disorder. Co-morbidity was common with 19.1% of students experiencing three or more disorders. Logistic regression models revealed that females, those over 21, non-heterosexual students, and those from a lower SES background were more likely to have a range of mental health and behavioural problems. Overall, 10% of new entry students received treatment for emotional problems in the previous year. However, 22.3% of students with problems said they would not seek help. The study provides important information for universities, policy makers and practice, on mental health and wellbeing in young people generally but particularly for students commencing university. The findings will assist in the development and implementation of protection and prevention strategies in the university setting and beyond.
Musiat, Peter; Goldstone, Philip; Tarrier, Nicholas
E-mental health and m-mental health include the use of technology in the prevention, treatment and aftercare of mental health problems. With the economical pressure on mental health services increasing, e-mental health and m-mental health could bridge treatment gaps, reduce waiting times for patients and deliver interventions at lower costs. However, despite the existence of numerous effective interventions, the transition of computerised interventions into care is slow. The aim of the present study was to investigate the acceptability of e-mental health and m-mental health in the general population. An advisory group of service users identified dimensions that potentially influence an individual's decision to engage with a particular treatment for mental health problems. A large sample (N = 490) recruited through email, flyers and social media was asked to rate the acceptability of different treatment options for mental health problems on these domains. Results were analysed using repeated measures MANOVA. Participants rated the perceived helpfulness of an intervention, the ability to motivate users, intervention credibility, and immediate access without waiting time as most important dimensions with regard to engaging with a treatment for mental health problems. Participants expected face-to-face therapy to meet their needs on most of these dimensions. Computerised treatments and smartphone applications for mental health were reported to not meet participants' expectations on most domains. However, these interventions scored higher than face-to-face treatments on domains associated with the convenience of access. Overall, participants reported a very low likelihood of using computerised treatments for mental health in the future. Individuals in this study expressed negative views about computerised self-help intervention and low likelihood of use in the future. To improve the implementation and uptake, policy makers need to improve the public perception of such
Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Probst, Michel; Mugisha, James
There is a need for psychosocial interventions to address the escalating mental health burden in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Physiotherapists could have a central role in reducing the burden and facilitating recovery within the multidisciplinary care of people with mental health problems. The aim of this systematic review was to explore the role of physiotherapists within the current mental health policies of SSA countries and to explore the current research evidence for physiotherapy to improve functional outcomes in people with mental health problems in SSA. The Mental Health Atlas and MiNDbank of the World Health Organization were screened for the role of physiotherapy in mental health plans. Next, we systematically searched PubMed from inception until August 1st, 2017 for relevant studies on physiotherapy interventions in people with mental health problems in SSA. The following search strategy was used: "physiotherapy" OR "physical therapy" OR "rehabilitation" AND "mental" OR "depression" OR "psychosis" OR "schizophrenia" OR "bipolar" AND the name of the country. The current systematic review shows that in 22 screened plans only 2 made reference to the importance of considering physiotherapy within the multidisciplinary treatment. The current evidence (N studies = 3; n participants = 94) shows that aerobic exercise might reduce depression and improve psychological quality of life, self-esteem, body image and emotional stress in people with HIV having mental health problems. In people with depression moderate to high but not light intensity aerobic exercise results in significantly less depressive symptoms ( N = 1, n = 30). Finally, there is evidence for reduction in post-traumatic stress symptoms (avoidance and arousal), anxiety and depression following body awareness related exercises (N = 1, n = 26). Our review demonstrated that physiotherapy is still largely neglected in the mental health care systems of SSA. This is probably due to
Frank C Bandiera
Full Text Available The rate of cigarette smoking is greater among persons with mental health and/or substance abuse problems. There are few population-based datasets with which to study tobacco mortality in these vulnerable groups. The Oregon Health Authority identified persons who received publicly-funded mental health or substance abuse services from January 1996 through December 2005. These cases were then matched to Oregon Vital Statistics records for all deaths (N= 148,761 in the period 1999-2005. The rate of tobacco-related death rates was higher among persons with substance abuse problems only (53.6% and those with both substance abuse and mental health problems (46.8%, as compared to the general population (30.7%. The rate of tobacco-related deaths among persons with mental health problems (30% was similar to that in the general population. Persons receiving substance abuse treatment alone, or receiving both substance abuse and mental health treatment, were more likely to die and more likely to die prematurely of tobacco-related causes as compared to the general population. Persons receiving mental health services alone were not more likely to die of tobacco-related causes, but tobacco-related deaths occurred earlier in this population.
Bandiera, Frank C; Anteneh, Berhanu; Le, Thao; Delucchi, Kevin; Guydish, Joseph
The rate of cigarette smoking is greater among persons with mental health and/or substance abuse problems. There are few population-based datasets with which to study tobacco mortality in these vulnerable groups. The Oregon Health Authority identified persons who received publicly-funded mental health or substance abuse services from January 1996 through December 2005. These cases were then matched to Oregon Vital Statistics records for all deaths (N= 148,761) in the period 1999-2005. The rate of tobacco-related death rates was higher among persons with substance abuse problems only (53.6%) and those with both substance abuse and mental health problems (46.8%), as compared to the general population (30.7%). The rate of tobacco-related deaths among persons with mental health problems (30%) was similar to that in the general population. Persons receiving substance abuse treatment alone, or receiving both substance abuse and mental health treatment, were more likely to die and more likely to die prematurely of tobacco-related causes as compared to the general population. Persons receiving mental health services alone were not more likely to die of tobacco-related causes, but tobacco-related deaths occurred earlier in this population.
van der Molen, E; Vermeiren, R R J M; Krabbendam, A A; Beekman, A T F; Doreleijers, T A H; Jansen, L M C
Although prior studies have shown that detained females are marked by significant adverse circumstances, little is known about their adult outcomes. Prospective follow-up study of 184 (80.4% of original sample of 229) detained adolescent females who were reassessed 4.5 (SD=0.6) years later in young adulthood (mean age=20.0, SD=1.4) on mental health and adjustment outcomes. Associations between these outcomes and detained females' behavior problems and offense history were examined. In the total sample, 59.0% had one or more mental health problems at follow-up, whereas 96.2% were facing at least one adjustment problem. Subjects with a personality disorder (PD) reported more adjustment problems compared to subjects without PD. Mental health and adjustment problems in young adulthood were predicted by detained adolescent females' behavior problems and offense history. Detained adolescent females suffered from multiple mental health and adjustment problems in young adulthood. Females who developed PD were most impaired. Results of this study underline the compelling need for continued and gender-specific interventions. The identification of predictors during detention for poor adult outcomes can serve as targets for intervention. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Hoeve, M.; Colins, O.F.; Mulder, E.A.; Loeber, R.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.
Justice-involved youths are more likely to have mental health problems than peers in the community. Therefore, it is important to develop an understanding of the antecedents of mental health problems in this group. The present study examined the association between childhood trauma and mental health
Hoeve, M.; Colins, O.F.; Mulder, E.A.; Loeber, R.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.
Justice-involved youths are more likely to have mental health problems than peers in the community. Therefore, it is important to develop an understanding of the antecedents of mental health problems in this group. The present study examined the association between childhood trauma and mental health
MacLean, Alice; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen
Amidst concerns that young people's mental health is deteriorating, it is important to explore their understandings of symptoms of mental health problems and beliefs around help seeking. Drawing on focus group data from Scottish school pupils, we demonstrate how they understood symptoms of mental health problems and how their characterisations of…
M R Sumathi
Full Text Available According to World Health Organization, 10-20% of children and adolescents all over the world are experiencing mental disorders. Correct diagnosis of mental disorders at an early stage improves the quality of life of children and avoids complicated problems. Various expert systems using artificial intelligence techniques have been developed for diagnosing mental disorders like Schizophrenia, Depression, Dementia, etc. This study focuses on predicting basic mental health problems of children, like Attention problem, Anxiety problem, Developmental delay, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, Pervasive Developmental Disorder(PDD, etc. using the machine learning techniques, Bayesian Networks and Fuzzy clustering. The focus of the article is on learning the Bayesian network structure using a novel Fuzzy Clustering Based Bayesian network structure learning framework. The performance of the proposed framework was compared with the other existing algorithms and the experimental results have shown that the proposed framework performs better than the earlier algorithms.
Haavik, L; Joa, I; Hatloy, K; Stain, H J; Langeveld, J
While the onset of many mental health problems occurs in adolescence, these problems are severely undertreated in this age group. To inform early intervention for adolescents, we investigated the effect of gender and education type on perception of barriers to help seeking, mental health literacy, and the awareness and use of mental health services. A web-based survey using vignettes, open-ended and multiple choice items was administered to upper secondary school students in two counties in Norway. The survey was completed by 1249 students (88% response rate) with an average age of 17.6 years and 56% were female. Compared to males, the females were better in identifying psychological problems of anxiety and trauma, awareness of mental health services (p mental health services, the effect of education type was greater than the effect of gender. For adolescents, gender appears to play a significant, but not exclusive, role in the inclination to seek professional help for mental health problems. We hypothesise that the observed gender difference in use of services is related to the gender difference in awareness of referral pathway services and the influence of parents in help-seeking process.
Dorn, T.; Yzermans, J.C.; Spreeuwenberg, P.M.; Zee, J. van der
OBJECTIVE: Caregiving has been described in the literature as a risk factor for ill health in the carer. This controlled, prospective study examines the course of physical and mental health problems in parents of adolescent survivors of a mass burn incident. METHODS: Health information was extracted
Lo, Celia C; Cheng, Tyrone C; Howell, Rebecca J
This research used a nationally representative sample of 12,756 respondents self-identified as White, Black, Hispanic, or Asian to examine problem drinking in relationship to social structure and mental healthcare factors. Associations between problem drinking and particular factors varied by racial/ethnic group. Results also indicated that Whites' problem-drinking rates were higher than those of Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians. Americans sometimes use alcohol to manage stress stemming from social disadvantage and inadequate material resources. Across racial/ethnic groups, drinking level was associated with the type and degree of such disadvantage. Additionally, the presence of a mental health problem was associated with problem drinking.
Evans-Lacko, Sara; Knapp, Martin; McCrone, Paul
Objectives A period of economic recession may be particularly difficult for people with mental health problems as they may be at higher risk of losing their jobs, and more competitive labour markets can also make it more difficult to find a new job. This study assesses unemployment rates among individuals with mental health problems before and during the current economic recession. Methods Using individual and aggregate level data collected from 27 EU countries in the Eurobarometer surveys of 2006 and 2010, we examined changes in unemployment rates over this period among individuals with and without mental health problems. Results Following the onset of the recession, the gap in unemployment rates between individuals with and without mental health problems significantly widened (odds ratio: 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.34). This disparity became even greater for males, and individuals with low levels of education. Individuals with mental health problems living in countries with higher levels of stigmatizing attitudes regarding dangerousness of people with mental illness were more vulnerable to unemployment in 2010, but not 2006. Greater agreement that people with mental health problems have themselves to blame, was associated with lower likelihood of unemployment for individuals with and without mental health problems. Conclusion These findings study suggest that times of economic hardship may intensify social exclusion of people with mental health problems, especially males and individuals with lower education. Interventions to combat economic exclusion and to promote social participation of individuals with mental health problems are even more important during times of economic crisis, and these efforts should target support to the most vulnerable groups. PMID:23922801
Full Text Available A period of economic recession may be particularly difficult for people with mental health problems as they may be at higher risk of losing their jobs, and more competitive labour markets can also make it more difficult to find a new job. This study assesses unemployment rates among individuals with mental health problems before and during the current economic recession.Using individual and aggregate level data collected from 27 EU countries in the Eurobarometer surveys of 2006 and 2010, we examined changes in unemployment rates over this period among individuals with and without mental health problems.Following the onset of the recession, the gap in unemployment rates between individuals with and without mental health problems significantly widened (odds ratio: 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.34. This disparity became even greater for males, and individuals with low levels of education. Individuals with mental health problems living in countries with higher levels of stigmatizing attitudes regarding dangerousness of people with mental illness were more vulnerable to unemployment in 2010, but not 2006. Greater agreement that people with mental health problems have themselves to blame, was associated with lower likelihood of unemployment for individuals with and without mental health problems.These findings study suggest that times of economic hardship may intensify social exclusion of people with mental health problems, especially males and individuals with lower education. Interventions to combat economic exclusion and to promote social participation of individuals with mental health problems are even more important during times of economic crisis, and these efforts should target support to the most vulnerable groups.
The severely constrained resources for mental health service in less-developed regions like sub-Saharan Africa underscore the need for good public mental health literacy as a potential additional mental health resource. Several studies examining the level of public knowledge about the nature and dynamics of mental illness in sub-Saharan Africa in the last decade had concluded that such knowledge was poor and had called for further public enlightenment. What was thought to be mental health 'ignorance' has also been blamed for poor mainstream service utilization. These views however assume that non-alignment of the views of community dwellers in sub-Saharan Africa with the biomedical understanding of mental illness connotes 'ignorance', and that correcting such 'ignorance' will translate to improvements in service utilization. Within the framework of contemporary thinking in mental health literacy, this paper argues that such assumptions are not culturally nuanced and may have overrated the usefulness of de-contextualized public engagement in enhancing mental health service utilization in the region. The paper concludes with a discourse on how to contextualize public mental health enlightenment in the region and the wider policy initiatives that can improve mental health service utilization. © The Author(s) 2015.
Levin, Michael; Haeger, Jack; Ong, Clarissa W.; Twohig, Michael P.
Delay discounting is a basic behavioral process that has been found to predict addictive behaviors, and more recently, other mental health problems. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), is a transdiagnostic treatment that appears to alter delay discounting, possibly through reducing psychological inflexibility. The current study sought to further bridge research on delay discounting and ACT by examining the relation of delay discounting to a broad range of selfreported mental health probl...
Mason, Robin; O'Rinn, Susan E
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive, serious problem detrimental to the health of untold numbers of women. In addition to physical injuries that may be sustained, IPV has been significantly associated with mental health challenges including substance use problems. The problems are complex, highly correlated with each other, and bidirectional in nature. Although as many as 50% of women in mental health and between 25% and 50% of women in substance abuse treatment programs report IPV, frontline workers in all three sectors state they lack the training to address these co-occurring problems. To determine what frontline IPV, mental health, and substance use workers need to know in order to provide appropriate care to women experiencing co-occurring IPV, mental health and/or substance use problems. Using Scholars Portal OVID, Medline and OVID PsycINFO and combinations of significant terms, we conducted a scoping review of articles published between 2005 and 2014. An initial 4017 records were retrieved (3484 from Scholars Portal, 272 from Medline, 261 from PsycINFO). After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 35 articles were reviewed. Of these, 14 examined the relationships among IPV, mental health, and substance use; 7 focused on IPV and mental health; 14 looked at IPV and substance use. Although education and training frequently figured among the recommendations in the reviewed articles, specific content for proposed education or training was lacking. The most frequently occurring recommendations focused on the need to develop better collaboration, coordination, and integration across IPV, mental health and addiction treatment services.
Full Text Available Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV is a pervasive, serious problem detrimental to the health of untold numbers of women. In addition to physical injuries that may be sustained, IPV has been significantly associated with mental health challenges including substance use problems. The problems are complex, highly correlated with each other, and bidirectional in nature. Although as many as 50% of women in mental health and between 25% and 50% of women in substance abuse treatment programs report IPV, frontline workers in all three sectors state they lack the training to address these co-occurring problems. Objective: To determine what frontline IPV, mental health, and substance use workers need to know in order to provide appropriate care to women experiencing co-occurring IPV, mental health and/or substance use problems. Design: Using Scholars Portal OVID, Medline and OVID PsycINFO and combinations of significant terms, we conducted a scoping review of articles published between 2005 and 2014. Results: An initial 4017 records were retrieved (3484 from Scholars Portal, 272 from Medline, 261 from PsycINFO. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 35 articles were reviewed. Of these, 14 examined the relationships among IPV, mental health, and substance use; 7 focused on IPV and mental health; 14 looked at IPV and substance use. Conclusions: Although education and training frequently figured among the recommendations in the reviewed articles, specific content for proposed education or training was lacking. The most frequently occurring recommendations focused on the need to develop better collaboration, coordination, and integration across IPV, mental health and addiction treatment services.
Nieuwsma, Jason A; Fortune-Greeley, Alice K; Jackson, George L; Meador, Keith G; Beckham, Jean C; Elbogen, Eric B
As a result of their military experience, veterans with mental health problems may have unique motivations for seeking help from clergy. Patterns and correlates of seeking pastoral care were examined using a nationwide representative survey that was conducted among veterans of post-9/11 conflicts (adjusted N = 1,068; 56% response rate). Separate multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine veteran characteristics associated with seeking pastoral care and seeking mental health services. Among post-9/11 veterans with a probable mental disorder (n = 461)-defined as a positive screen for posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder, or alcohol misuse-20.2% reported talking to a "pastoral counselor" in the preceding year, 44.7% reported talking to a mental health professional, and 46.6% reported talking to neither. In a multivariate analysis for veterans with a probable mental disorder, seeing a pastoral counselor was associated with an increased likelihood of seeing a mental health professional in the past year (OR: 2.16; 95% CI: [1.28, 3.65]). In a separate bivariate analysis, pastoral counselors were more likely to be seen by veterans who indicated concerns about stigma or distrust of mental health care. These results suggest that pastoral and mental health care services may complement one another and underscore the importance of enhancing understanding and collaboration between these disciplines so as to meet the needs of the veterans they serve.
Nieuwsma, Jason A.; Fortune-Greeley, Alice K.; Jackson, George L.; Meador, Keith G.; Beckham, Jean C.; Elbogen, Eric B.
As a result of their military experience, veterans with mental health problems may have unique motivations for seeking help from clergy. Patterns and correlates of seeking pastoral care were examined using a nationwide representative survey that was conducted among veterans of post-9/11 conflicts (adjusted N = 1,068; 56% response rate). Separate multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine veteran characteristics associated with seeking pastoral care and seeking mental health services. Among post-9/11 veterans with a probable mental disorder (n = 461) – defined as a positive screen for posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder, or alcohol misuse – 20.2% reported talking to a “pastoral counselor” in the preceding year, 44.7% reported talking to a mental health professional, and 46.6% reported talking to neither. In a multivariate analysis for veterans with a probable mental disorder, seeing a pastoral counselor was associated with an increased likelihood of seeing a mental health professional in the past year (OR: 2.16; 95% CI: [1.28, 3.65]). In a separate bivariate analysis, pastoral counselors were more likely to be seen by veterans who indicated concerns about stigma or distrust of mental health care. These results suggest that pastoral and mental health care services may complement one another and underscore the importance of enhancing understanding and collaboration between these disciplines so as to meet the needs of the veterans they serve. PMID:24933105
Ten Have, M; Nuyen, J; Beekman, A; de Graaf, R
Detailed population-based survey information on the relationship between the severity of common mental disorders (CMDs) and treatment for mental health problems is heavily based on North American research. The aim of this study was to replicate and expand existing knowledge by studying CMD severity and its association with treatment contact and treatment intensity in The Netherlands. Data were obtained from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2), a nationally representative face-to-face survey of the general population aged 18–64 years (n=6646, response rate=65.1%). DSM-IV diagnoses and disorder severity were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0). Treatment contact refers to at least one contact for mental health problems made in the general medical care (GMC) or mental health care (MHC) sector. Four levels of treatment intensity were assessed, based on type and duration of therapy received. Although CMD severity was related to treatment contact, only 39.0% of severe cases received MHC. At the same time, 40.3% of MHC users did not have a 12-month disorder. Increasing levels of treatment intensity ranged from 51.6% to 13.0% in GMC and from 81.4% to 51.1% in MHC. CMD severity was related to treatment intensity in MHC but not in GMC. Sociodemographic characteristics were not significantly related to having experienced the highest level of treatment intensity in MHC. CONCLUSIONS. Mental health treatment in the GMC sector should be improved, especially when policy is aimed at increasing the role of primary care in the management of mental health problems.
Bhugra, Dinesh; Pathare, Soumitra; Nardodkar, Renuka; Gosavi, Chetna; Ng, Roger; Torales, Julio; Ventriglio, Antonio
Realization of right to marry by a person is an exercise of personal liberty, even if concepts of marriage and expectations from such commitment vary across cultures and societies. Once married, if an individual develops mental illness the legal system often starts to discriminate against the individual. There is no doubt that every individual's right to marry or remain married is regulated by their country's family codes, civil codes, marriage laws, or divorce laws. Historically mental health condition of a spouse or intending spouse has been of interest to lawmakers in a number of ways from facilitating divorce to helping the individual with mental illness. There is no doubt that there are deeply ingrained stereotypes that persons with mental health problems lack capacity to consent and, therefore, cannot enter into a marital contract of their own free will. These assumptions lead to discrimination both in practice and in law. Furthermore, the probability of mental illness being genetically transmitted and passed on to offspring adds yet another dimension of discrimination. Thus, the system may also raise questions about the ability of persons with mental health problems to care, nurture, and support a family and children. Internationally, rights to marry, the right to remain married, and dissolution of marriage have been enshrined in several human rights instruments. Domestic laws were studied in 193 countries to explore whether laws affected the rights of people with mental illness with respect to marriage; it was found that 37% of countries explicitly prohibit marriage by persons with mental health problems. In 11% (21 countries) the presence of mental health problems can render a marriage void or can be considered grounds for nullity of marriage. Thus, in many countries basic human rights related to marriage are being flouted.
Lee, Gyungjoo; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Hyunju
Adolescents frequently skip meals, doing so even more than once per day. This is associated with more mental health problems. This study identified mental health problems' associations with skipping meals and the frequency thereof among adolescents. This cross-sectional population-based study used a data set of 1,413 adolescents from the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine the risk of mental health problems, including stress, depressive mood, and suicidal ideation in relation to skipping meals and the frequency thereof per day. Breakfast skipping significantly increased the risks of stress and depressive mood. Stress, depressive mood, and suicidal ideation were significantly prevalent as the daily frequency of skipping meals increased. Specific strategies should be developed at government or school level to decrease the frequency of skipping meals per day, associated with serious mental health problems in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lu, Wei-Hsin; Lee, Kun-Hua; Ko, Chih-Hung; Hsiao, Ray C; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang
Aim To examine the relationship between borderline personality symptoms and Internet addiction as well as the mediating role of mental health problems between them. Methods A total of 500 college students from Taiwan were recruited and assessed for symptoms of Internet addiction using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale, borderline personality symptoms using the Taiwanese version of the Borderline Symptom List and mental health problems using four subscales from the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale (interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, and hostility). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test our hypothesis that borderline personality symptoms are associated with the severity of Internet addiction directly and also through the mediation of mental health problems. Results SEM analysis revealed that all paths in the hypothesized model were significant, indicating that borderline personality symptoms were directly related to the severity of Internet addiction as well as indirectly related to the severity of Internet addiction by increasing the severity of mental health problems. Conclusion Borderline personality symptoms and mental health problems should be taken into consideration when designing intervention programs for Internet addiction.
Results: The respondents' knowledge of mental disorders was limited to psychotic disorders; their explanatory model was similar to beliefs of the populace. In practice, they combined some modern medical approach, some native methodology and some eclectic religious practices such as prophecy, trance and dream.
Conclusion: The prevalence of childhood behavioral and mental disorders in this study is within the range reported in previews studies conducted on children of the same age group. However, the lower prevalence of childhood disorders in the child laborers compared to that of the non-laborers found in the current study is ...
Kolaitis, G.A.; Meentken, M.G.; Utens, E.M.W.J.
Description: This review will provide a concise description of mental health problems in parents of children with a (non-syndromic) congenital heart disease (CHD) during different stressful periods. Predictors of these problems and also implications for clinical practice will be mentioned. Having a
Solarz, Andrea; Mowbray, Carol
Homelessness is a significant social problem in the United States and it has been estimated that there may be as many as 2.5 million homeless people in this country today. For these people, poverty, substance abuse, and harsh living conditions may further contribute to the development of physical and mental health problems. A study was conducted…
O'Driscoll, Claire; Heary, Caroline; Hennessy, Eilis; McKeague, Lynn
Background: Children and adolescents with mental health problems are widely reported to have problems with peer relationships; however, few studies have explored the way in which these children are regarded by their peers. For example, little is known about the nature of peer stigmatisation, and no published research has investigated implicit…
Chadwick, Angelina Lilja; Withnell, Neil
Globally, there is increased recognition of a higher prevalence of physical ill health and mortality in individuals with mental health problems. A review of the literature highlighted the need to address deterioration in physical health of those with mental health problems through better recognition and management on the part of mental health nurses. However, mental health nurses have been found to lack confidence and be unsure of their role within this area. The aim of the project was to develop pre-registration mental health students' confidence to be able to recognise and manage physical health deterioration through the use of high fidelity human patient simulation, the development of contextualised clinical scenarios and additional theory around the A to E mnemonic structured assessment. The project involved 95 third year mental health student nurses, using a self-rating pre and post intervention questionnaire to measure their perceived confidence levels and to evaluate the effectiveness of the learning intervention. Findings demonstrate improved overall confidence levels in recognising and managing physical health deterioration in human patient simulators displaying mental health problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Richards, R M
The effects which student nurses have on the care of clients with mental health problems in the community is an area which has seldom been studied. With the closure of large psychiatric hospitals and the rise in community placements as part of Project 2000, an increasing number of students are being placed in the community. The study gathers data from clients attending five self-help/support groups in the North Derbyshire area of England. Analysis of the data challenges assumptions generally held by community psychiatric nurses (CPNs) that the presence of a third person, e.g. student/visitor, during a CPN home visit to the client is detrimental to the therapeutic interaction between the CPN and the client. The findings are inconclusive but suggest that some client groups (possibly those with long-term mental health problems) may find the presence of a student during a CPN visit facilitative. The study raises the issue of the student nurse/patient power relationship within a support group. Findings suggest that membership of a support group is empowering to the client and illustrates that clients in the community have greater control over the involvement of student nurses in their care than patients in hospital. Groups within the sample expressed a unanimous view that student nurse placements should be long enough to allow therapeutic nurse/client relationships to develop. This is in direct contrast to the current Project 2000 Common Foundation Programme approach of short observational non-institutional placements.
Schraeder, Kyleigh E; Brown, Judith Belle; Reid, Graham J
Children's mental health (CMH) problems often recur. Following specialized mental health treatment, youth may require monitoring and follow-up. For these youth, primary health care is highly relevant, as family physicians (FPs) are the only professionals who follow patients across the lifespan. The current study gained multiple perspectives about (1) the role of FPs in caring for youth with ongoing/recurring CMH problems and (2) incorporating routine mental health monitoring into primary health care. A total of 33 interviews were conducted, including 10 youth (aged 12-15) receiving CMH care, 10 parents, 10 CMH providers, and 3 FPs. Using grounded theory methodology, a theme of FPs being "out of the loop" or not involved in their patient's CMH care emerged. Families perceived a focus on the medical model by their FPs and believed FPs lacked mental health expertise. Findings indicate a need for improved collaboration between CMH providers and FPs in caring for youth with ongoing CMH problems.
Winstanley, Erin L.; Steinwachs, Donald M.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Fishman, Marc J.
The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with adolescent alcohol or drug (AOD) abuse/dependence, mental health and co-occurring problems, as well as factors associated with access to treatment. This is a secondary analysis of data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) 2000. The 12-month prevalence rate of…
Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...
Havas, Jano; Bosma, Hans; Spreeuwenberg, Cor; Feron, Frans J
We studied the hypothesis of socioeconomic equalization regarding adolescents' mental health problems by examining whether a low educational level of adolescents and their parents shows independent (cumulative) or dependent (including interactive) associations with adolescents' mental health problems, or whether equalization occurred. Cross-sectional data were obtained from the preventive Youth Health Care Centre in a relatively deprived Dutch former mining area. Participants were 1861 adolescents aged 13 or 14 years (response rate 71.7%). The self-administered Dutch version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to identify adolescents' mental health problems. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations, and linear regression models to check the robustness of the findings. A low educational level of adolescents was strongly related to their mental health problems (OR = 5.37; 95% CI: 3.31-8.70). The initially high odds ratios for adolescents with low-educated parents (OR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.14-2.59) disappeared after controlling for the adolescents' own educational level (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 0.73-1.74). In terms of interactions, no specifically increased odds were found, e.g. for low-educated adolescents with high-educated parents. There was no evidence for socioeconomic equalization regarding adolescents' mental health problems. Lower educated adolescents had substantially higher odds of having mental health problems, regardless of their parents' education. The odds may be affected by differences in intelligence and life events. Youth healthcare workers should collaborate closely with schools to intervene in time, particularly among low-educated adolescents. More interventions are probably needed to reduce these major inequities.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with mental health problems have been neglected in health-related quality of life (HRQOL studies. Therefore, the aims of the current study were 1 to assess the influence of the presence of mental or physical health problems on HRQOL; and 2 to analyze the effects of item overlap between mental health problems and HRQOL-measurements. Methods Proxy- and self-rated HRQOL (KIDSCREEN-27 of children 9–14 years old was assessed across children with mental health problems (n = 535, children with physical health problems (n = 327, and healthy controls (n = 744. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted with health status, severity of symptoms, status of medication use, gender and nationality as independent, and HRQOL scores as dependent variables. The effects of item overlap were analyzed by repeating regression analyses while excluding those HRQOL items that contextually overlapped the most frequently-occurring mental health problem (attention deficits. Results Severity of symptoms was the strongest predictor of reduced HRQOL. However, all other predictors (except for the status of medication use also contributed to the prediction of some HRQOL scores. Controlling for item overlap did not meaningfully alter the results. Conclusions When children with different health constraints are compared, the severity of their particular health problems should be considered. Furthermore, item overlap seems not to be a major problem when the HRQOL of children with mental health problems is studied. Hence, HRQOL assessments are useful to gather information that goes beyond the clinical symptoms of a health problem. This information can, for instance, be used to improve clinical practice.
Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To identify the domains of quality of life important to people with mental health problems. Method A systematic review of qualitative research undertaken with people with mental health problems using a framework synthesis. Results We identified six domains: well-being and ill-being; control, autonomy and choice; self-perception; belonging; activity; and hope and hopelessness. Firstly, symptoms or ‘ill-being’ were an intrinsic aspect of quality of life for people with severe mental health problems. Additionally, a good quality of life was characterised by the feeling of being in control (particularly of distressing symptoms, autonomy and choice; a positive self-image; a sense of belonging; engagement in meaningful and enjoyable activities; and feelings of hope and optimism. Conversely, a poor quality life, often experienced by those with severe mental health difficulties, was characterized by feelings of distress; lack of control, choice and autonomy; low self-esteem and confidence; a sense of not being part of society; diminished activity; and a sense of hopelessness and demoralization. Conclusions Generic measures fail to address the complexity of quality of life measurement and the broad range of domains important to people with mental health problems.
Amstadter, Ananda B; Richardson, Lisa; Meyer, Alicia; Sawyer, Genelle; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Tran, Trinh Luong; Trung, Lam Tu; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Gaboury, Mario; Acierno, Ron
The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of probable mental health problems in an epidemiologic study of Vietnamese adolescents. A secondary aim was to examine the correlates of probable mental health caseness. Interviewers visited 1,914 households that were randomly selected to participate in a multi-agency study of mental health in select provinces of Vietnam. Semi-structured interviews assessed adolescent mental health problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) parent informant version, and additionally the interviewers collected information on demographic variables (age, gender, ethnic group, religious affiliation, social capital). The final sample included data on 1,368 adolescents (aged 11-18 years). The average score on the total problem composite of the SDQ scale was 6.66 (SD=4.89), and 9.1% of the sample was considered a case (n=124). Bivariate analyses were conducted to determine which demographic variables were related to the SDQ case/non-case score. All variables except gender were significant in bivariate analyses, and therefore were entered into a logistic regression. Results indicated that age, religion, and wealth remained significant predictors of probable caseness. Overall, prevalence estimates of mental health problems generated by the SDQ were consistent with those reported in the US and other Western and non-Western samples. Results of the current study suggest some concordance of risk and protective factors between Western and Vietnamese youth (i.e., age and SES).
Full Text Available Abstract Background Common mental health problems are prevalent in prison and the quality of prison health care provision for prisoners with mental health problems has been a focus of critical scrutiny. Currently, health policy aims to align and integrate prison health services and practices with those of the National Health Service (NHS. Medication management is a key aspect of treatment for patients with a mental health problem. The medication practices of patients and staff are therefore a key marker of the extent to which the health practices in prison settings equate with those of the NHS. The research reported here considers the influences on medication management during the early stages of custody and the impact it has on prisoners. Methods The study employed a qualitative design incorporating semi-structured interviews with 39 prisoners and 71 staff at 4 prisons. Participant observation was carried out in key internal prison locations relevant to the management of vulnerable prisoners to support and inform the interview process. Thematic analysis of the interview data and interpretation of the observational field-notes were undertaken manually. Emergent themes included the impact that delays, changes to or the removal of medication have on prisoners on entry to prison, and the reasons that such events take place. Results and Discussion Inmates accounts suggested that psychotropic medication was found a key and valued form of support for people with mental health problems entering custody. Existing regimes of medication and the autonomy to self-medicate established in the community are disrupted and curtailed by the dominant practices and prison routines for the taking of prescribed medication. The continuity of mental health care is undermined by the removal or alteration of existing medication practice and changes on entry to prison which exacerbate prisoners' anxiety and sense of helplessness. Prisoners with a dual diagnosis are likely
Eating Disorders are a group of mental disorders with considerable peculiarities and present a challenge for both the scientific community and the general public. More specific in our country a great attention and concern has being observed recently, caused to some extend by the role of public media, as they turned to "inform" about these disorders. Popular television programs are frequently focusing on famous individuals suffering from the disorder. Or they deal with dramatic presentation of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) cases, as they describe their wander around from inpatient services of general hospitals to private practices either of psychiatrists who only prescribed psychopharmaceutics drugs or gynecologists who recommended oral contraceptives.
Iwanaga, Mai; Iwanaga, Hiroo; Kawakami, Norito
The purpose of this study was to clarify the frequencies and sociodemographic and other characteristics around use of herbal medicine as a remedy for mental health problems in Japan. Data from the World Mental Health Japan (WMHJ) Survey and US National Comorbidity Survey Replications were analyzed. The WMHJ was conducted in 2002 to 2006, with 4129 respondents. National Comorbidity Survey Replications was conducted in 2002 to 2003, with 9282 respondents. The interview asked the respondents about their use of several types of herbs for mental health problems. Frequencies of use of herbal medicine were compared between Japan and the United States. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine sociodemographic and mental health-related correlates of 12-month herbal medicine use. Relevant sampling weights were used to adjust for the sampling designs. The proportion for use of herbal medicines as a remedy for mental health problems in the past 12 months was lower (0.4%) in Japan than that in the United States (3.7%). Low education in both countries (P herbal medicine. Any anxiety disorder in Japan was significantly associated with herbal medicine use (P herbal medicine among patients with mental health problems in the past 12 months was much lower in Japan compared to the United States. Persons with high educational attainment and anxiety disorders used herbal medicine as a remedy for mental health problems more frequently in Japan. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Full Text Available Debra Rickwood, Kerry ThomasFaculty of Health, University of Canberra, ACT, AustraliaBackground: Despite a high level of research, policy, and practice interest in help-seeking for mental health problems and mental disorders, there is currently no agreed and commonly used definition or conceptual measurement framework for help-seeking.Methods: A systematic review of research activity in the field was undertaken to investigate how help-seeking has been conceptualized and measured. Common elements were used to develop a proposed conceptual measurement framework.Results: The database search revealed a very high level of research activity and confirmed that there is no commonly applied definition of help-seeking and no psychometrically sound measures that are routinely used. The most common element in the help-seeking research was a focus on formal help-seeking sources, rather than informal sources, although studies did not assess a consistent set of professional sources; rather, each study addressed an idiosyncratic range of sources of professional health and community care. Similarly, the studies considered help-seeking for a range of mental health problems and no consistent terminology was applied. The most common mental health problem investigated was depression, followed by use of generic terms, such as mental health problem, psychological distress, or emotional problem. Major gaps in the consistent measurement of help-seeking were identified.Conclusion: It is evident that an agreed definition that supports the comparable measurement of help-seeking is lacking. Therefore, a conceptual measurement framework is proposed to fill this gap. The framework maintains that the essential elements for measurement are: the part of the help-seeking process to be investigated and respective time frame, the source and type of assistance, and the type of mental health concern. It is argued that adopting this framework will facilitate progress in the field by
Full Text Available A state of well being in which one realizes own potentials, can cope with every day stressors, can work productively and is able to constructively contribute to community is called mental health. Many stressful and negative events can interfere with these abilities and thus endanger someone’s mental health. Migration is one of them. With its’ pre and post phases/stages, migration represents great sources of stress and stressors. Immigrants need good personal and social resource in order to lessen down negative effects of migration on their mental health. The aim of this study is to explore presence of mental health problems in non clinical population of Bosnian immigrants (N=101, F=48, M=53 in Switzerland. It was assumed that migration stress acts negatively on immigrant’s mental health. General health questionnaire was used to test this hypothesis. Participants mean score results on total GHQ28 questionnaire were M=51.06, S.D. =14.30, its subscales on depression M=10.12 S.D.=3.75, somatic complaints M=13.04 S.D.=4.5, anxiety/insomnia M=13.34 S.D. 4.8, and social dysfunction M=14.37 S.D.=3.5. This indicates presence of mental health problems among Bosnian immigrants. At the same time, the study shows presence of social support seeking (N=83 subjects listed family and friends as primary coping strategy used by Bosnian immigrants while dealing with difficulties and problems rather than seeking professional help (N=3 subjects listed professional help seeking. Thus, social support seeking acts positively on mental health of Bosnian immigrants.
Sacks, Stanley; Cleland, Charles M; Melnick, Gerald; Flynn, Patrick M; Knight, Kevin; Friedmann, Peter D; Prendergast, Michael L; Coen, Carrie
The present study examines the relationship between substance use, mental health problems, and violence in a sample of offenders released from prison and referred to substance abuse treatment programs. Data from 34 sites (n = 1,349) in a federally funded cooperative, the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJDATS), were analyzed. Among parolees referred to substance abuse treatment, self-reports for the six-month period before the arrest resulting in their incarceration revealed frequent problems with both substance use and mental health. For most offenders with substance use problems, the quantity of alcohol consumed and the frequency of drug use were associated with a greater probability of self-reported violence. Mental health problems were not indicative of increases in violent behavior, with the exception of antisocial personality problems, which were associated with violence. The paper emphasizes the importance of providing substance abuse treatment in relation to violent behavior among offenders with mental health problems being discharged to the community. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mental health facilities in Uganda remain underutilized, despite efforts to decentralize the services. One of the possible explanations for this is the help-seeking behaviours of people with mental health problems. Unfortunately little is known about the factors that influence the help-seeking behaviours. Delays in seeking proper treatment are known to compromise the outcome of the care. Aim To examine the help-seeking behaviours of individuals with mental health problems, and the factors that may influence such behaviours in Uganda. Method Sixty-two interviews and six focus groups were conducted with stakeholders drawn from national and district levels. Thematic analysis of the data was conducted using a framework analysis approach. Results The findings revealed that in some Ugandan communities, help is mostly sought from traditional healers initially, whereas western form of care is usually considered as a last resort. The factors found to influence help-seeking behaviour within the community include: beliefs about the causes of mental illness, the nature of service delivery, accessibility and cost, stigma. Conclusion Increasing the uptake of mental health services requires dedicating more human and financial resources to conventional mental health services. Better understanding of socio-cultural factors that may influence accessibility, engagement and collaboration with traditional healers and conventional practitioners is also urgently required.
Gearing, Robin E; MacKenzie, Michael J; Schwalbe, Craig S; Brewer, Kathryne B; Ibrahim, Rawan W
This study aimed to establish the prevalence rates of mental health and behavioral problems of Arab youths residing in Jordanian care centers due to family disintegration, maltreatment, or abandonment and to examine how functioning varies by child characteristics and placement history. Child Behavior Checklist and case history data were collected for 70 youths across four Jordanian care centers. Approximately 53% of the adolescents were identified as experiencing mental health problems, and 43% and 46% had high internalizing and externalizing scores, respectively. Ordinary least-squares regression models examining mental health functioning showed that male gender, care entry because of maltreatment, time in care, and transfers were the most significant predictors of problems. Paralleling international research, this study found high levels of mental health needs among institutionalized youths. The impact of transfers on functioning is particularly worrisome, given the standard practice of transferring youths to another facility when they reach age 12. Improving the institutional care model by requiring fewer transfers and offering family-based community alternatives may ameliorate risks of developing mental and behavioral problems.
Adhikari, Ramesh P; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Paudel, Sasmita; Pokhrel, Ruja; Bhandari, Nagendra; Cole, Laura; Koirala, Suraj
To identify community perceptions on psychosocial and mental health problems of older people in postearthquake situation in Nepal. A qualitative methodology was adopted to explore the experience and opinions of older people, social workers, school teachers, health workers, and nongovernmental organization workers on the psychosocial and mental health problems of older people in Nepal, using key informant interviews. Major local vocabulary for older peoples' psychosocial and mental health problems were "bichalan" (variation in mood and feeling), "ekohoro" (becoming single minded), "athmabiswasko kami" (low self-esteem), and "bina karan rune" (crying without any reason). The major causes attributed to older people's problems were physical injury, disability, family conflict, and economic problems. Forgetfulness, tiredness, loss of concentration, restlessness, and isolation were observed in older people since the 2015 earthquake. The findings suggest that earthquake had negative impact on older people's psychosocial well-being; however, little support or treatment options have been made available to these individuals. The tailor-made community-based psychosocial and mental health programs for older people are needed.
Bierbooms, Joyce J P A; Bongers, Inge M B; van Oers, Hans A M
Despite large-scale investments in mental health care in the community since the 1990 s, a trend towards reinstitutionalization has been visible since 2002. Since many mental health care providers regard this as an undesirable trend, the question arises: In the coming 5 years, what types of residence should be organized for people with mental health problems? The purpose of this article is to provide mental health care providers, public housing corporations, and local government with guidelines for planning organizational strategy concerning types of residence for people with mental health problems. A scenario analysis was performed in four steps: 1) an exploration of the external environment; 2) the identification of key uncertainties; 3) the development of scenarios; 4) the translation of scenarios into guidelines for planning organizational strategy. To explore the external environment a document study was performed, and 15 semi-structured interviews were conducted. During a workshop, a panel of experts identified two key uncertainties in the external environment, and formulated four scenarios. The study resulted in four scenarios: 1) Integrated and independent living in the community with professional care; 2) Responsible healthcare supported by society; 3) Differentiated provision within the walls of the institution; 4) Residence in large-scale institutions but unmet need for care. From the range of aspects within the different scenarios, the panel was able to work out concrete guidelines for planning organizational strategy. In the context of residence for people with mental health problems, the focus should be on investment in community care and their re-integration into society. A joint effort is needed to achieve this goal. This study shows that scenario analysis leads to useful guidelines for planning organizational strategy in mental health care.
Reigstad, Bjørn Steinar
Traditionally, research on mental health problems among children and adolescents has focused mainly on prevalences and predictors of stability and changes in these disorders. Less is known about associated conditions as referral problems, and cooccurring conditions as pain and sleep disturbances, and psychosocial adversities like abuse and neglect. The purpose of this study is to focus on these less investigated problems and conditions which might be highly significant in day-to-day clinical ...
Keyes, Katherine M; Susser, Ezra; Pilowsky, Daniel J; Hamilton, Ava; Bitfoi, Adina; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella C W M; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Kovess, Viviane
Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in Europe project and included 4517 schoolchildren across seven diverse European regions. Past-year injuries serious enough to seek medical attention were reported by mothers. Child mental health problems were assessed using validated measures and reported by the mothers, teachers, and children. Parenting styles were based on The Parenting Scale and the Parent Behaviors and Attitudes Questionnaire. Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and oppositional defiant symptoms had a higher risk of injury compared to other children whether based on parent report (OR=1.47, 95% C.I. 1.2-1.9), teacher report (OR=1.36, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.7), or parent and teacher report combined (OR=1.53, 95% C.I. 1.1-2.1). Children who self-reported oppositional symptoms also had higher risk of injury (OR=1.6, 95% C.I. 1.1-2.4). Low-caring behavior of parents increased the risk of injury (OR=1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.9). Unintentional injury is a potential adverse health consequence of child externalizing problems. Interventions to improve parent-child relationships and prevention as well as focused treatment for externalizing problems may reduce the burden of injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Berg, B. van den; Velden, P.G. van der; Yzermans, C.J.; Stellato, R.K.; Grievink, L.
Studies have shown that the chronically ill are at higher risk for reduced health-related quality of life (HRQL) and for mental health problems. A combination with traumatic events might increase this risk. This longitudinal study among 1216 survivors of a disaster examines whether chronically ill
Berg, Bellis van den; Velden, Peter G van der; Yzermans, C Joris; Stellato, Rebecca K; Grievink, Linda
Studies have shown that the chronically ill are at higher risk for reduced health-related quality of life (HRQL) and for mental health problems. A combination with traumatic events might increase this risk. This longitudinal study among 1216 survivors of a disaster examines whether chronically ill
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 2 (2005) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Olivari, Cecilia; Guzmán-González, Mónica
Help-seeking behavior is a protective factor in young people, essential for their mental health, well-being and development. However, some adolescents do not seek professional help when they need to. In this context, it is relevant to study the help-seeking behavior for mental health problems in adolescent population. To adapt and validate the general help-seeking questionnaire for mental health problems in Chilean adolescents. Cross-sectional and correlational study of a non-random sample of 793 adolescent students, between 14 and 19 years old, from the city of Talca (Chile). The general help-seeking questionnaire, vignette version, (GHSQ-V) was administered after a transcultural adaptation and criterion validation. Descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis and non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test were used for analysis. An exploratory analysis identified two factors regarding available sources of help: 1) informal sources; 2) formal sources. Reliability was calculated separately for each of the health problems, resulting alpha values ranging from 0.87 to 0.75. In addition, the scale showed significant association with the variables self-efficacy and depression in the hypothesized directions. Finally, significant differences were identified in the willingness to seek help by adolescents level of mental health literacy, for all mental health issues presented, except suicide. The adaptation of the GHSQ-V for Chilean adolescent and youth population is a valid and reliable instrument to measure willingness to seek help for mental health problems in our socio-cultural environment.
Dreger, Stefanie; Meyer, Nicole; Fromme, Hermann; Bolte, Gabriele
Environmental noise is considered a threat to public health as 20% of the EU population is exposed to health influencing noise levels. An association of noise and mental health problems in children has been suggested by some studies, but results are not consistent and there are no longitudinal studies of this association. Our aim was to investigate the influence of different environmental noise sources at children's homes on incident mental health problems in school-aged children. A cohort study of children from first (t0) to fourth grade (t1) of primary school was conducted. Different environmental noise sources (day/night separately) at children's home were assessed via parental annoyance reports. Increased noise exposure between t0 and t1 was the exposure variable. Incident mental health problems were assessed with the parental version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). RRs and 95% CIs were analysed to investigate the association between different noise sources and incident mental health problems. The study population consisted of 583 boys and 602 girls. The most common increase in noise exposure between t0 and t1 was road traffic noise day (26.38%). After adjusting for covariates exposure to road traffic night was significantly associated with the total difficulties score (RR=2.06; 95% CI=1.25-3.40), emotional symptoms (RR=1.69, 95% CI=1.04-2.72), and conduct problems (RR=1.57, 95% CI=1.04-2.38). Noise by neighbours during the day was associated with conduct problems (RR=1.62, 95% CI=1.11-2.40) and hyperactivity (RR=1.69, 95% CI=1.08-2.65). Aircraft noise day and construction work day were not associated with any of the SDQ categories at a significant level. Environmental noise is an important public health problem. This is the first study to investigate the association of a broad range of noise sources and incident mental health problems in children in a cohort study. Our results suggest that exposure to noise at children's home is
Nower, Lia; Caler, Kyle R; Pickering, Dylan; Blaszczynski, Alex
Studies point to a relationship between fantasy sports/daily fantasy sports (DFS) play and gambling behavior. However, little is known about the nature of those relationships, particularly regarding the development of gambling problems. This study investigates the nature, frequency, and preferences of gambling behavior as well as problem gambling severity and comorbid conditions among DFS players. Data were collected from an epidemiologic survey of 3634 New Jersey residents on gambling and leisure activities. Participants were contacted by phone (land-line and cell) and online to obtain a representative, cross-sectional sample of non-institutionalized adults, aged 18 years or older. Excluding non-gamblers, the remaining 2146 participants, included in these analyses, indicated they had either played DFS (n = 299) or had gambled but not played DFS (1847) in the past year. Univariate comparisons and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the most significant characteristics and predictors of DFS players. Overall, a higher number of gambling activities, high frequency gambling, male gender, and reports of suicidal thoughts in the past year were most predictive of DFS players. Being Hispanic (vs. Caucasian) and/or single (vs. married or living with a partner) also doubled the odds of DFS play. Findings suggest that DFS players are characterized by high gambling frequency and problem severity and comorbid problems, notably suicidal ideation. Future research should examine the motivations and possible etiological sub-types of DFS players and the nature and course of DFS play, particularly in relation to gambling behavior and the development of gambling and other problems.
Chen, Gila; Gueta, Keren
The mental health problems and pathways to drug addiction and crime among female inmates have long been of interest to researchers and practitioners. The purpose of the current study was to examine the possible association between multiple types of childhood abuse, mental health problems, and drug addiction and the incarceration of 50 Israeli women in prison. The findings indicated that female inmates come from risky families with a high prevalence of family mental health problems, parental drug addiction and crime, and sibling drug addiction and crime. Furthermore, they revealed that incarcerated women from risky families were victims of multiple types of childhood abuse and neglect by their parents, as well as their siblings. Overall, the results suggest that the adverse consequences of a family's mental health problems are much more dramatic than we assumed to date, and that women are more likely than men to be the victims of multiple types of childhood abuse and neglect, as well as suffering more severe psychiatric problems, depression, and drug addiction. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boonmann, Cyril; Grisso, Thomas; Guy, Laura S; Colins, Olivier F; Mulder, Eva A; Vahl, P; Jansen, Lucres M C; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert R J M
To examine the relationship between a history of childhood abuse and mental health problems in juveniles who sexually offended (JSOs) over and above general offending behavior. A sample of 44 JSOs incarcerated in two juvenile detention centers in the Netherlands between May 2008 and March 2014 were examined for childhood abuse history (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form) and mental health problems (Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Version 2). Furthermore, the connection between childhood abuse and mental health problems in JSOs was compared to a sample of 44 propensity score matched juveniles who offended non-sexually (non-JSOs). In JSOs, sexual abuse was related to anger problems, suicidal ideation, and thought disturbance. These associations were significantly stronger in JSOs than in non-JSOs. Our results suggest that the relationship between childhood abuse and both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems is of more salience for understanding sexual offending than non-sexual offending, and should, therefore, be an important focus in the assessment and treatment of JSOs.
Reavley, N J; Morgan, A J; Jorm, A F
The aim of the current study was to carry out a national population-based survey to assess the proportion of people disclosing mental health problems in a variety of settings. A further aim was to explore respondent characteristics associated with disclosure. In 2014, telephone interviews were carried out with 5220 Australians aged 18+, 1381 of whom reported a mental health problem or scored highly on a symptom screening questionnaire. Questions covered disclosure of mental health problems to friends, intimate partners, other family members, supervisors or other colleagues in the workplace, teachers, lecturers or other students in the educational institution, health professionals and others in the community. Other than for intimate partners or supervisors, participants were asked whether or not they told everybody, some people or no one. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the correlates of disclosure in each setting. For friends and family, respondents were more likely to disclose to some people than to everyone or to no one. In most other domains, non-disclosure was most common, including in the workplace, where non-disclosure to supervisors was more likely than disclosure. Disclosure was associated with having received treatment or with support in all settings except healthcare, while it was only associated with discrimination in two settings (healthcare and education). Disclosure of mental health problems does not appear to be linked to discrimination in most settings, and is typically associated with receiving support. Selective or non-disclosure may be particularly critical in workplaces, education and healthcare settings.
Mitchell, Kimberly J; Wells, Melissa
This study utilizes data from clinical reports of 1441 youth and adults in the USA to examine the types of problematic Internet experiences mental health professionals report as clients' primary or secondary presenting problems. Overall, clients who present in treatment with an Internet problem are more likely to have problems related to overuse of the Internet; use of adult pornography; use of child pornography; sexual exploitation perpetration; and gaming, gambling, or role-playing. Other Internet-related problems, such as isolative-avoidant use, sexual exploitation victimization, harassment perpetration, and online infidelity were equally likely to present in treatment as a primary problem or secondary to other mental health concerns. Some differences between youth and adult clients were also identified. Findings suggest some initial support for the importance of including Internet use, experiences, and behavior as part of an initial clinical assessment.
Arroyo-Cobo, J M
A review was carried out of scientific literature on health care strategies for mental health problems in the prison environment. Data is given about the main activities put into practice by prison administrations as a response to the worrying information that has come to light in recent epidemiological studies on mental disorders in prison, with figures that, when compared to the general population, give results of double the number of cases of Common Mental Illness (CMI) and four times the number of cases of Severe Mental Illness (SMI) amongst prison inmates. A review was made of the most important bibliographical databases containing health care policies for mental health problems in prison published by prison administrations in the last 10 years. This information was completed with other data obtained from an analysis of the indicators available in Health Care Coordination on its health care strategies for mental health in centres run by the Secretary General of Prisons, in Spain. There is little in the way of scientific literature that clearly states health care policies for mental illness in the prison environment. Those that do tend to agree with a number of affirmations that include the obligation to offer a therapeutic response of equal quality to that received by patients in the community, the need for a multi-disciplinary team responsible for caring for this type of patient, along with a coordinated effort between the medical, social, legal and prison administrations that at a given time have to care for them.
GPs have an important position in the identification of patients’ mental health problems. As generalists, GPs are often the first health professionals contacted by patients with mental health problems and they are assigned to provide integrated care for both patients’ somatic and psychological
Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Kerker, Bonnie D.; Szilagyi, Moira; Garner, Andrew S.; O’Connor, Karen G.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Green, Cori M.; Foy, Jane M.; Stein, Ruth E.K.
Objective The objectives were to: assess the availability of on-site mental health professionals (MHP) in primary care; examine practice/pediatrician characteristics associated with on-site MHPs; and determine whether presence of on-site MHPs is related to pediatricians’ co-managing or more frequently identifying, treat/managing or referring MH problems. Methods Analyses included AAP members who participated in an AAP Periodic Survey in 2013 and who practiced general pediatrics (N=321). Measures included socio-demographics, practice characteristics, questions on about on-site MHPs, co-management of MH problems and pediatricians’ behaviors in response to 5 prevalent MH problems. Weighted univariate, bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed. Results Thirty-five percent reported on-site MHPs. Practice characteristics (medical schools/universities/HMOs, pediatricians usually identified, treat/managed or referred 5 common child MH problems. Among the subset of pediatricians who reported co-managing there was an association with co-management when the on-site MHP was a child psychiatrist, SA counselor, or social worker. Conclusions On-site MHPs are more frequent in settings where low-income children are served and where pediatricians train. Pediatricians who co-manage MH problems are more likely to do so when the on-site MHP is a child psychiatrist, SA counselor, or social worker. Overall, on-site MHPs were not associated with co-management or increased likelihood of pediatricians identifying, treating/managing, or referring children with 5 common child MH problems. PMID:27064141
Apolinário-Hagen, Jennifer; Kemper, Jessica; Stürmer, Carolina
Over the past decades, the deficient provision of evidence-based interventions for the prevention and treatment of mental health problems has become a global challenge across health care systems. In view of the ongoing diffusion of new media and mobile technologies into everyday life, Web-delivered electronic mental health (e-mental health) treatment services have been suggested to expand the access to professional help. However, the large-scale dissemination and adoption of innovative e-mental health services is progressing slowly. This discrepancy between potential and actual impact in public health makes it essential to explore public acceptability of e-mental health treatment services across health care systems. This scoping review aimed to identify and evaluate recent empirical evidence for public acceptability, service preferences, and attitudes toward e-mental health treatments. On the basis of both frameworks for technology adoption and previous research, we defined (1) perceived helpfulness and (2) intentions to use e-mental health treatment services as indicators for public acceptability in the respective general population of reviewed studies. This mapping should reduce heterogeneity and help derive implications for systematic reviews and public health strategies. We systematically searched electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, Psyndex, PsycARTICLES, and Cochrane Library, using reference management software for parallel searches) to identify surveys published in English in peer-reviewed journals between January 2010 and December 2015, focusing on public perceptions about e-mental health treatments outside the context of clinical, psychosocial, or diagnostic interventions. Both indicators were obtained from previous review. Exclusion criteria further involved studies targeting specific groups or programs. The simultaneous database search identified 76 nonduplicate records. Four articles from Europe and Australia were included in this scoping
Brohan, E; Evans-Lacko, S; Henderson, C; Murray, J; Slade, M; Thornicroft, G
Aims. Decisions regarding disclosure of a mental health problem are complex and can involve reconciling conflicting needs and values. This article provides a qualitative account of the beliefs and experiences of mental health service users regarding disclosure in employment contexts. Methods. Total sample of 45 individuals were interviewed in two study phases. In phase one, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 15 mental health service users. The transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). In phase two, identified themes were further explored through interviews with mental health service users (n = 30) in three employment contexts: in paid employment (n = 10); in study or voluntary work (n = 10); and currently unemployed (n = 10). These were analysed using directed content analysis. Results. Four super-ordinate themes were drawn from phase one analysis: (1) public understanding of mental health problems; (2) the employment context; (3) personal impact of labelling and (4) disclosure needs. These themes were reflective of the content of phase two interviews. Conclusions. Greater emphasis needs to be placed on considering the societal, employment and interpersonal influences which form the basis for disclosure beliefs and experiences.
Faust, Hannah; Scior, Katrina
Background: Young people with intellectual disabilities seem to be at increased risk of developing mental health problems. The present study set out to examine the impact such difficulties can have on parents. Method: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were carried out with 13 parents and one adult sibling of 11 young people with intellectual…
Koekkoek, B.W.; Meijel, B.K.G. van; Schene, A.H.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.
The objective of this research was to assess the problems that professionals perceive in the community mental health care for patients with severe borderline personality disorder that do not fit into specialized therapy. A group of national experts (n = 8) participated in a four-phase
Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan
The aim of this study was to investigate associations between specific mental health problems and pubertal stage in (pre)adolescents participating in the Dutch prospective cohort study TRAILS (first assessment: N = 2230, age 11.09 +/- 0.56, 50.8% girls; second assessment: N = 2149, age 13.56 +/-
Rodda, S N; Manning, V; Dowling, N A; Lee, S J; Lubman, D I
Despite high rates of comorbidity between problem gambling and mental health disorders, few studies have examined barriers or facilitators to the implementation of screening for problem gambling in mental health services. This exploratory qualitative study identified key themes associated with screening in mental health services. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 30 clinicians and managers from 11 mental health services in Victoria, Australia. Major themes and subthemes were identified using qualitative content analysis. Six themes emerged including competing priorities, importance of routine screening, access to appropriate screening tools, resources, patient responsiveness and workforce development. Barriers to screening included a focus on immediate risk as well as gambling being often considered as a longer-term concern. Clinicians perceived problem gambling as a relatively rare condition, but did acknowledge the need for brief screening. Facilitators to screening were changes to system processes, such as identification of an appropriate brief screening instrument, mandating its use as part of routine screening, as well as funded workforce development activities in the identification and management of problem gambling.
Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Rugulies, Reiner; Hjortkjaer, Charlotte; Bultmann, Ute; Christensen, Ulla
Mental health problems (MHPs) such as stress and depression are among the leading causes of work disability. In this article we explore how women with MHPs experience sickness absence and subsequent return to work. We conducted 16 semistructured interviews and employed constructivist grounded theory
Conclusion: We think that this report might be helpful for regulations related to disabled people, and might guide adult psychiatric services for patients who present to medical boards for disability due to mental health problems. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 253-258
Razik, S.; Ehring, T.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.
Earlier research showing moderate to high prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems in emergency personnel has mostly been carried out in Western countries. Data from non-Western countries are largely lacking. The current study aimed to gather
Wolters, Annemiek E.; Peelen, Linda M.; Welling, Maartje C.; Kok, Lotte; De Lange, Dylan W.; Cremer, Olaf L.; Van Dijk, Diederik; Slooter, Arjen J C; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S.
Objectives: To determine whether delirium during ICU stay is associated with long-term mental health problems defined as symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Survey study, 1 year after discharge from a medical-surgical ICU
Stadler, Christina; Feifel, Julia; Rohrmann, Sonja; Vermeiren, Robert; Poustka, Fritz
The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and effects of peer-victimization on mental health problems among adolescents. Parental and school support were assumed as protective factors that might interact with one another in acting as buffers for adolescents against the risk of peer-victimization. Besides these protective factors, age…
Feeney-Kettler, Kelly A.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Kaiser, Ann P.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Kettler, Ryan J.
Accurate identification of young children at risk for mental health problems is a key step in establishing early childhood preventive intervention programs. Without psychometrically valid identification procedures, children in need of early intervention may not be identified and may not receive appropriate care. This article provides a review of…
Prasomsri, Jaruwan; Jalayondeja, Chutima; Bovonsunthonchai, Sunee; Khemthong, Supalak
To compare muscle strength, balance, walking and stair climbing abilities among individuals after chronic stroke with or without mental health problems; to describe their physiological response after stress stimulation. Subjects who had their first stroke more than one year ago were classified for mental health problems according to the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21. Lower extremity muscle strength of the quadriceps and plantar flexors, was measured by dynamometer Balance and walking performance was measured by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), 10-m walk test and timing of stair climbing. Community participation and spiritual well-being were measured. The physiological response of stress stimulation was assessed by the long stress test protocol of the biofeedback device. Forty-five subjects with chronic stroke aged 40-80 years were grouped by with (n = 25) and without mental health problems (n = 20). Significant differences were found in quadriceps muscle strength, BBS, walking and stair climbing speed, community participation and spiritual well-being between two groups. In the stress stimulus phase, the electromyography and heart rate variability demonstrated significant difference between those with and without stress. Individuals with chronic stroke with mental health problems demonstrated decreased quadriceps muscle strength, balance and locomotor performances.
Markoulakis, Roula; Kirsh, Bonnie
Postsecondary institutions are witnessing an increase in the number and severity of student mental health problems, necessitating an understanding of the difficulties these students encounter in striving for higher education. The authors conducted a critical interpretive synthesis of 10 articles pertaining to difficulties experienced by students…
D.Nielsen, Maj Britt; Madsen, Ida E.H.; Bültmann, Ute
Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs....
Although emotional and behavioural problems are relatively common in children and adolescents, they are rarely brought to the attention of general practitioners (GPs) or mental health professionals. The main aim of this study was to investigate the process of help-seeking for child and adolescent
Havas, Jano; de Nooijer, Jascha; Crutzen, Rik; Feron, Frans
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the needs and views of adolescents regarding the development of online support for mental health problems. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured qualitative focus group interviews were conducted with ten groups of Dutch adolescents (n=106), aged 12-19 years, from four urban secondary schools…
Hussein, S. A.; Vostanis, P.
School-based interventions involving teacher training programmes have been shown to benefit teachers' ability to identify and manage child mental health problems in developed countries. However, very few studies have been conducted in low-income countries with limited specialist services. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the…
Mallardo, Mariarosa; Cuskelly, Monica; White, Paul; Jobling, Anne
This study focused on current life circumstances, previous life events, and engagement with productive and enjoyable activities. It examined the association of these variables with mental health problems and mood in a cohort of young adults with Down syndrome. Participants were 49 adults with Down syndrome (age range 20-31 years) and their…
Volkert, Jana; Andreas, Sylke; Härter, Martin; Dehoust, Maria Christina; Sehner, Susanne; Suling, Anna; Ausín, Berta; Canuto, Alessandra; Crawford, Mike J; Da Ronch, Chiara; Grassi, Luigi; Hershkovitz, Yael; Muñoz, Manuel; Quirk, Alan; Rotenstein, Ora; Santos-Olmo, Ana Belén; Shalev, Arieh Y; Strehle, Jens; Weber, Kerstin; Wegscheider, Karl; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Schulz, Holger
Empirical data on the use of services due to mental health problems in older adults in Europe is lacking. The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with service utilization in the elderly. As part of the MentDis_ICF65+ study, N = 3,142 people aged 65-84 living in the community in six European and associated countries were interviewed. Based on Andersen's behavioral model predisposing, enabling, and need factors were analyzed with logistic regression analyses. Overall, 7% of elderly and 11% of those with a mental disorder had used a service due to mental health problems in the last 12 months. Factors significantly associated with underuse were male sex, lower education, living in the London catchment area, higher functional impairment and more comorbid mental disorders. The most frequently reported barrier to service use was personal beliefs, e.g. "I can deal with my problem on my own" (90%). Underutilization of mental health services among older people in the European community is common and interventions are needed to achieve an adequate use of services.
Slaunwhite, Amanda K; Ronis, Scott T; Sun, Yuewen; Peters, Paul A
The purpose of this project was to examine the emotional health and well-being of Canadian caregivers of persons with significant mental health or addictions problems. We assessed the emotional health of caregivers by care-receiver condition type (i.e. mental health or addictions vs. physical or other health problems), levels of caregiver stress and methods particularly for reducing stress among caregivers of persons with mental health or addictions disorders. Weighted cross-sectional data from the 2012 General Social Survey (Caregiving and Care Receiving) were modelled using weighted descriptive and logistic regression analyses to examine levels of stress and the emotional health and well-being of caregivers by care-receiver condition type. Caregivers of persons with mental health or addictions problems were more likely to report that caregiving was very stressful and that they felt depressed, tired, worried or anxious, overwhelmed; lonely or isolated; short-tempered or irritable; and resentful because of their caregiving responsibilities. The results of this study suggest that mental health and addictions caregivers may experience disparate stressors and require varying services and supports relative to caregivers of persons with physical or other health conditions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Berthold, S Megan; Wong, Eunice C; Schell, Terry L; Marshall, Grant N; Elliott, Marc N; Takeuchi, David; Hambarsoomians, Katrin
This study examined U.S. Cambodian refugees' use of complementary and alternative medicine and Western sources of care for psychiatric problems. Analyses assessed the extent to which complementary and alternative medicine was used in the absence of Western mental health treatment and whether use of complementary and alternative medicine was associated with decreased use of Western services. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a representative sample drawn from the largest Cambodian refugee community in the United States. The sample included 339 persons who met criteria in the past 12 months for posttraumatic stress disorder, major depression, or alcohol use disorder. Respondents described contact with complementary and alternative medicine and Western service providers for psychological problems in the preceding 12 months. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. Seventy-two percent of the sample sought Western mental health services, and 34% relied on complementary and alternative medicine in the past year. Seeking complementary and alternative medicine was strongly and positively associated with seeking Western services, contrary to the hypothesis that use of complementary and alternative medicine inhibits seeking Western mental health treatment. Only a small percentage of Cambodian refugees used complementary and alternative medicine exclusively (5%), and utilization of complementary and alternative medicine was positively associated with seeking Western sources of care for mental health problems. Complementary and alternative medicine use does not appear to be a significant barrier to mental health treatment in this population, contrary to the Surgeon General's conclusion that Asian Americans' use of alternative resources may inhibit their utilization of Western mental health care.
Badr, Hanan E; Naser, Jumana; Al-Zaabi, Abdullah; Al-Saeedi, Anfal; Al-Munefi, Khalifa; Al-Houli, Shaikha; Al-Rashidi, Dana
Child maltreatment is a risk factor for detrimental effects on mental health that may extend to adulthood. This study aimed to examine the association between exposure to childhood maltreatment, socio-demographic factors, and students' mental health status and self-esteem. A cross-sectional study enrolled a representative sample of 1270 students from Kuwait University. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire included students' socio-demographic characteristics, history of exposure to childhood physical and/or emotional maltreatment, DASS-21 to assess mental health status, and Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were applied. The study found that among participants, 49.6%(95% CI: 64.8%-52.4%), 63.0%(95% CI: 60.3%-65.7%), and 43.8%(95% CI: 41.1%-46.6%) reported having depression, anxiety, and stress respectively. Moreover, 22.5%(95% CI: 20.1%-24.8%) and 18.6%(95% CI:16.5%-20.9%) reported childhood physical and emotional maltreatment, respectively; while 12.7% reported both. Multivariate analysis revealed that experiencing childhood physical and emotional maltreatment were independent contributors to reporting depression and anxiety; while exposure to only emotional maltreatment contributed to reporting stress. Gender, GPA, childhood enrollment in private/public schools, number of close friends, were other contributors to mental health problems. Participants' median score of self-esteem was 17/30, and only childhood emotional maltreatment was a significant predictor to low self-esteem after adjustment for other confounders. Mental health problems, and experiencing childhood physical and emotional maltreatment were prevalent relatively high among university students. Childhood corporal and emotional maltreatment were independent predictors to adolescents and young adults' mental health problems. Experiencing childhood emotional maltreatment predicted low self-esteem. Further research to assess culture factors
Kiran Mai; Srinivasan; Niharika; Sindhu
INTRODUCTION: Mental illness has a significant burden on morbidity and disability. The problem is higher than previously thought due to urbanization and modernization. There could be a significant level of unidentified and unmet need within this group , so a genuine att empt has been done to screen for potential mental health problem in adult women. OBJECTIVES: 1.To estimate the proportion of potential mental health problem. 2. To study the selected risk factors ...
Sun, Kai Sing; Lam, Tai Pong; Lam, Kwok Fai; Lo, Tak Lam
Recent studies have reported a lack of collaboration and consensus between primary care physicians (PCPs) and psychiatrists. To compare the views of PCPs and psychiatrists on managing common mental health problems in primary care. Four focus group interviews were conducted to explore the in-depth opinions of PCPs and psychiatrists in Hong Kong. The acceptance towards the proposed collaborative strategies from the focus groups were investigated in a questionnaire survey with data from 516 PCPs and 83 psychiatrists working in public and private sectors. In the focus groups, the PCPs explained that several follow-up sessions to build up trust and enable the patients to accept their mental health problems were often needed before making referrals. Although some PCPs felt capable of managing common mental health problems, they had limited choices of psychiatric drugs to prescribe. Some public PCPs experienced the benefits of collaborative care, but most private PCPs perceived limited support from psychiatrists. The survey showed that around 90% of PCPs and public psychiatrists supported setting up an agreed protocol of care, management of common mental health problems by PCPs, and discharging stabilized patients to primary care. However, only around 54-67% of private psychiatrists supported different components of these strategies. Besides, less than half of the psychiatrists agreed with setting up a support hotline for the PCPs to consult them. The majority of PCPs and psychiatrists support management of common mental health problems in primary care, but there is significantly less support from the private psychiatrists. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
BeLue, Rhonda; Francis, Lori Ann; Colaco, Brendon
In this study we examined the relation between mental health problems and weight in a population-based study of youth aged 12 to 17 years and whether the association between mental health problems and weight is moderated by race and ethnicity. We used 2003 National Survey on Children's Health data. Logistic regression was used to arrive at adjusted odds ratios showing the relation between BMI and mental health problems. Compared with their nonoverweight counterparts, both white and Hispanic youth who were overweight were significantly more likely to report depression or anxiety, feelings of worthlessness or inferiority, behavior problems, and bullying of others. Odds ratios relating mental health problems and BMI in black subjects were not statistically significant except for physician diagnosis of depression. Our results suggest that, when addressing youth overweight status, mental health problems also need to be addressed. Given that the relationship between mental health problems and youth overweight differs according to race/ethnic group, public health programs that target overweight youth should be cognizant of potential comorbid mental health problems and that race/ethnicity may play a role in the relationship between mental health and overweight status.
Ali, Kathina; Farrer, Louise; Gulliver, Amelia; Griffiths, Kathleen M
Adolescence and early adulthood are critical periods for the development of mental disorders. Online peer-to-peer communication is popular among young people and may improve mental health by providing social support. Previous systematic reviews have targeted Internet support groups for adults with mental health problems, including depression. However, there have been no systematic reviews examining the effectiveness of online peer-to-peer support in improving the mental health of adolescents and young adults. The aim of this review was to systematically identify available evidence for the effectiveness of online peer-to peer support for young people with mental health problems. The PubMed, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases were searched using keywords and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. Retrieved abstracts (n=3934) were double screened and coded. Studies were included if they (1) investigated an online peer-to-peer interaction, (2) the interaction discussed topics related to mental health, (3) the age range of the sample was between 12 to 25 years, and (4) the study evaluated the effectiveness of the peer-to-peer interaction. Six studies satisfied the inclusion criteria for the current review. The studies targeted a range of mental health problems including depression and anxiety (n=2), general psychological problems (n=1), eating disorders (n=1), and substance use (tobacco) (n=2). The majority of studies investigated Internet support groups (n=4), and the remaining studies focused on virtual reality chat sessions (n=2). In almost all studies (n=5), the peer support intervention was moderated by health professionals, researchers or consumers. Studies employed a range of study designs including randomized controlled trials (n=3), pre-post studies (n=2) and one randomized trial. Overall, two of the randomized controlled trials were associated with a significant positive outcome in comparison to the control group at post-intervention. In the remaining four
Van Dyk, Tori R; Thompson, Ronald W; Nelson, Timothy D
The present study examined the daily, bidirectional relationships between sleep and mental health symptoms in youth presenting to mental health treatment. Youth aged 6 to 11 (36% female, 44% European American) presenting to outpatient behavioral health treatment (N = 25) were recruited to participate in the study. Children and parents completed daily questionnaires regarding the child's sleep, mood, and behavior for a 14-day period, while youth wore an actigraph watch to objectively measure sleep. Examining between- and within-person variance using multilevel models, results indicate that youth had poor sleep duration and quality and that sleep and mental health symptoms were highly related at the daily level. Between-person effects were found to be most important and significant bidirectional relationships exist. Identifying and addressing sleep problems in the context of mental health treatment is important, as poor sleep is associated with increased symptomology and may contribute to worsened mental health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
O'Driscoll, Claire; Heary, Caroline; Hennessy, Eilis; McKeague, Lynn
Background: Children and adolescents with mental health problems are widely reported to have problems with peer relationships, however, few studies have explored the way in which these children are regarded by their peers. For example, little is known about the nature of peer stigmatization and no published research has investigated implicit attitudes thus ensuring that stigma is not well understood. In order to address this issue the current study explored patterns of explicit...
Yu, Mi; Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun
Menstrual cycle irregularity is common among adolescents and can induce mental health problems such as stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. We examined the association between mental health problems and menstrual cycle irregularity among adolescent Korean girls. This population-based cross-sectional study was on 808 female adolescents (12-18 years of age) participating in the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Psychological stress, depressive mood, suicidal ideations, suicide attempts, and psychological counseling were assessed through questionnaires and surveys, and hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. The risk of menstrual cycle irregularity tended to increase, as the number of mental health problems increased (P for trend=0.016). High stress levels, depressive mood, and psychological counseling were associated with increased risks of menstrual cycle irregularity (odd ratio [95% confidence interval]=1.88 [1.1-3.21], 2.01 [1.01-4.03], and 2.92 [1.16-7.34], respectively) even after adjusting for age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking status, physical activity, hemoglobin level, monthly household income, weight loss attempts, age at menarche, and sleep duration. Suicidal ideation was not significantly associated with menstrual cycle irregularity. Menstrual irregularity was evaluated based solely on subjects' self-reports, which are subject to their subjective perceptions and appraisal. Cross-sectional design and retrospective data could not draw causal relationship. Positive associations were observed between mental health problems and menstrual cycle irregularity among adolescent Korean girls. More attention should be paid towards mental health, to improve menstrual cycle regularity and help prevent related chronic diseases later in life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Goldberg, Sarah E.; Whittamore, Kathy H.; Harwood, Rowan H.; Bradshaw, Lucy E.; Gladman, John R. F.; Jones, Rob G.
Background: a high prevalence of co-morbid mental health problems is reported among older adults admitted to general hospitals. Setting: an 1,800 bed teaching hospital. Design: consecutive general medical and trauma orthopaedic admissions aged 70 or older were screened for mental health problems. Those screening positive were invited to undergo further assessment, and were interviewed to complete a battery of health status measurements. Results: of 1,004 patients screened, 36% had no mental h...
Tay, Stacie; Alcock, Kat; Scior, Katrina
To assess the prevalence of personal experiences of mental health problems among clinical psychologists, external, perceived, and self-stigma among them, and stigma-related concerns relating to disclosure and help-seeking. Responses were collected from 678 UK-based clinical psychologists through an anonymous web survey consisting of the Social Distance Scale, Stig-9, Military Stigma Scale, Secrecy Scale, Attitudes towards Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale-Short Form, alongside personal experience and socio-demographic questions. Two-thirds of participants had experienced mental health problems themselves. Perceived mental health stigma was higher than external and self-stigma. Participants were more likely to have disclosed in their social than work circles. Concerns about negative consequences for self and career, and shame prevented some from disclosing and help-seeking. Personal experiences of mental health problems among clinical psychologists may be fairly common. Stigma, concerns about negative consequences of disclosure and shame as barriers to disclosure and help-seeking merit further consideration. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kotevski, Aneta; Heerde, Jessica A
To investigate associations between Grade 9 and 10 cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization and Grade 11 problem behavior and mental health problems after controlling for risk factors for these outcomes in the analyses. The sample comprised 927 students from Victoria, Australia who completed a modified version of the self-report Communities That Care Youth Survey in Grades 9-11 to report on risk factors, traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, problem behavior, and mental health. Complete data on over 650 participants were analyzed. Five per cent of Grade 9 and 10 students reported cyber-bullying perpetration only, 6-8% reported victimization only, and 8-9% both cyber-bullied others and were cyber-bullied. Results showed that cyber-bullying others in Grade 10 was associated with theft in Grade 11, cyber-victimization in Grade 10 was linked with Grade 11 depressive symptoms, and Grade 10 cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization combined predicted Grade 11 school suspension and binge drinking. Prevention approaches that target traditional and cyber-bullying, and established risk factors are necessary. Such multi-faceted programs may also reduce problem behavior and mental health problems.
Sheehan, Jane; Hiscock, Harriet; Massie, John; Jaffe, Adam; Hay, Margaret
In children with cystic fibrosis (CF) sleep, eating/mealtime, physiotherapy adherence and internalising problems are common. Caregivers also often report elevated depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. To identify, through principal components analysis (PCA), coping strategies used by Australian caregivers of children with CF and to assess the relationship between the derived coping components, caregiver mental health symptoms and child treatment related and non-treatment related problem behaviours. One hundred and two caregivers of children aged 3 to 8 years from three CF clinic sites in Australia, completed self-report questionnaires about their coping and mental health and reported on their child's sleep, eating/mealtime, treatment adherence and internalising and externalising behaviours. Two caregiver coping components were derived from the PCA: labelled 'proactive' and 'avoidant' coping. 'Avoidant' coping correlated moderately with caregiver depression (0.52), anxiety (0.57) and stress (0.55). For each unit increase in caregiver use of avoidant coping strategies, the odds of frequent child eating/mealtime behaviour problems increased by 1.3 (adjusted 95 % CI 1.0 to 1.6, p = .03) as did the odds of children experiencing borderline/clinical internalising behaviour problems (adjusted 95 % CI 1.1 to 1.7, p = .01). Proactive coping strategies were not associated with reduced odds of any child problem behaviours. Avoidant coping strategies correlated with caregiver mental health and child problem behaviours. Intervening with caregiver coping may be a way to improve both caregiver mental health and child problem behaviours in pre-school and early school age children with CF.
López, M; Saavedra, F J; López, A; Laviana, M
To estimate the prevalence of different mental health problems in men serving prison sentences in Andalusia. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of a random sample of 472 men interned in two prisons located in Andalusia. We collected socio-demographic and general criminal and penitentiary data, and we identified mental health problems with two validated instruments for epidemiological research in mental health: the SCID-I interview to diagnose Axis 1 disorders of the DSM-IV and the self-applied questionnaire IPDE to estimate personality disorders. We analyzed the data (proportions and confidence intervals) with the SPSS-18 statistical package. 82.6% of the sample had a history of having suffered some type of mental health problem throughout their life (prevalence-life) and 25.8 have suffered from them in the past month (month prevalence). The most common disorders of the Axis I (DSM-IV) are related to abuse of and dependence on psychoactive substances (prevalence life of 65.9% and month prevalence of 6.6%), with an important but less frequent presence of affective (31.4%-9.3%), anxiety (30.9%-10, 4%) and psychotic disorders (9.5%-3, 4%). As regards personality disorders, the estimated probable prevalence lies between the 56.6% ("5" cutoff point) and the 79.9 ("4" cut-off point). The male inmate population in prisons in Andalucía shows a high prevalence of mental health problems, similar to that found in other Spanish and international prisons, but their care needs should take into account the different pathologies that they present.
Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of different mental health problems in men serving prison sentences in Andalusia. Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study of a random sample of 472 men interned in two prisons located in Andalusia. We collected socio-demographic and general criminal and penitentiary data, and we identified mental health problems with two validated instruments for epidemiological research in mental health: the SCID-I interview to diagnose Axis 1 disorders of the DSM-IV and the self-applied questionnaire IPDE to estimate personality disorders. We analyzed the data (proportions and confidence intervals with the SPSS-18 statistical package. Results: 82.6% of the sample had a history of having suffered some type of mental health problem throughout their life (prevalence-life and 25.8 have suffered from them in the past month (month prevalence. The most common disorders of the Axis I (DSM-IV are related to abuse of and dependence on psychoactive substances (prevalence life of 65.9% and month prevalence of 6.6%, with an important but less frequent presence of affective (31.4%-9.3%, anxiety (30.9%-10, 4% and psychotic disorders (9.5%-3, 4%. As regards personality disorders, the estimated probable prevalence lies between the 56.6% ("5" cutoff point and the 79.9 ("4" cut-off point. Conclusions: The male inmate population in prisons in Andalucía shows a high prevalence of mental health problems, similar to that found in other Spanish and international prisons, but their care needs should take into account the different pathologies that they present.
Manning, Victoria; Dowling, Nicki A; Lee, Stuart; Rodda, Simone; Garfield, Joshua Benjamin Bernard; Volberg, Rachel; Kulkarni, Jayashri; Lubman, Dan Ian
Background and aims Relatively little is known about co-occurring gambling problems and their overlap with other addictive behaviors among individuals attending mental health services. We aimed to determine rates of gambling and substance use problems in patients accessing mental health services in Victoria, Australia. Methods A total of 837 adult patients were surveyed about their gambling and administered standardized screening tools for problem gambling and harmful tobacco, alcohol, and drug use. Prevalence of gambling problems was estimated and regression models used to determine predictors of problem gambling. Results The gambling participation rate was 41.6% [95% CI = 38.2-44.9]. The Problem Gambling Severity Index identified 19.7% [CI = 17.0-22.4] as "non-problem gamblers," 7.2% [CI = 5.4-8.9] as "low-risk" gamblers, 8.4% [CI = 6.5-10.2] as "moderate-risk" gamblers, and 6.3% [CI = 4.7-8.0] as "problem gamblers." One-fifth (21.9%) of the sample and 52.6% of all gamblers were identified as either low-risk, moderate-risk, or problem gamblers (PGs). Patients classified as problem and moderate-risk gamblers had significantly elevated rates of nicotine and illicit drug dependence (p gambling. Discussion and conclusions Patients were less likely to gamble, but eight times as likely to be classified as PG, relative to Victoria's adult general population. Elevated rates of harmful substance use among moderate-risk and PG suggest overlapping vulnerability to addictive behaviors. These findings suggest mental health services should embed routine screening into clinical practice, and train clinicians in the management of problem gambling.
Public Health Agency
This leaflet outlines the signs of poor mental health and suggests steps that people can take to promote good mental health. It advises people to talk to someone if they feel that they may have a mental health problem.
Canavan, Réamonn; Barry, Margaret M.; Matanov, Aleksandra; Barros, Henrique; Gabor, Edina; Greacen, Tim; Holcnerová, Petra; Kluge, Ulrike; Nicaise, Pablo; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Díaz-Olalla, José Manuel; Strassmayr, Christa; Schene, Aart H.; Soares, Joaquim J. F.; Gaddini, Andrea; Priebe, Stefan
Background: Mental health problems are disproportionately higher amongst homeless people. Many barriers exist for homeless people with mental health problems in accessing treatment yet little research has been done on service provision and quality of care for this group. The aim of this paper is to
Niclasen, Janni; Dammeyer, Jesper
More knowledge is needed about the characteristics of mental health problems among deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) children. This study investigates the factor structure of one of the most widely used screening tools, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the prevalence of mental health problems among D/HH children. Our data were…
Martin, Jack K.; Pescosolido, Bernice A.; Olafsdottir, Sigrun; McLeod, Jane D.
Debates about children's mental health problems have raised questions about the reliability and validity of diagnosis and treatment. However, little research has focused on social reactions to children with mental health problems. This gap in research raises questions about competing theories of stigma, as well as specific factors shaping…
Teunissen, E.; Bavel, E. Van; Driessen Mareeuw, F.A. van den; Macfarlane, A.; Weel-Baumgarten, E.M. van; Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C. van den; Weel, C. van
OBJECTIVE: To explore the views and experiences of general practitioners (GPs) in relation to recognition, recording, and treatment of mental health problems of undocumented migrants (UMs), and to gain insight in the reasons for under-registration of mental health problems in the electronic medical
van der Jagt-Jelsma, W.; de Vries-Schot, M. R.; de Jong, Rint; Hartman, C. A.; Verhulst, F. C.; Klip, H.; van Deurzen, P. A. M.; Buitelaar, J. K.
Background: This study investigated the association between the religiosity of parents and pre-adolescents, and pre-adolescents' psychiatric problems. Method: In a clinic-referred cohort of 543 pre-adolescents at least once referred to a mental health outpatient clinic mental health problems were
Van Doorn, Marleen M. E. M.; Kuijpers, Rowella C. W. M.; Lichtwarck-aschoff, Anna; Bodden, Denise; Jansen, Mélou; Granic, Isabela
The relation between maternal depressive symptoms and children’s mental health problems has been well established. However, prior studies have predominantly focused on maternal reports of children’s mental health problems and on parenting behavior, as a broad and unilateral concept. This
Veldman, Karin; Bultmann, Ute; Stewart, Roy E.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Background: This study examines if mental health problems at age 11 and changes in mental health problems between age 11 and 16 predict educational attainment of adolescents at age 19, overall and stratified by gender. Methods: Data from 1711 adolescents (76.8% from initial cohort) of the Tracking
Choe, Daniel Ewon; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.
Family conflict is a salient risk factor for African American adolescents' mental health problems. No study we are aware of has estimated trajectories of their family conflict and whether groups differ in internalizing and externalizing problems during the transition to young adulthood, a critical antecedent in adult mental health and…
Rijswijk, E. van; Borghuis, M.; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Zitman, F.G.; Weel, C. van
OBJECTIVE: Real-life data on the treatment of patients with mental health problems are important as a reference to evaluate care and benchmarking. This study describes the treatment of mental health problems in general practice as diagnosed by general practitioners (GP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data
Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
This study tested whether childhood family instability is associated with mental health problems during adolescence through continued family instability and/or through a preadolescent onset of mental health problems. This test use data from a prospective population cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents ("M" age = 11.09, "SD" = 0.56…
Havnen, Karen Skaale; Jakobsen, Reidar; Stormark, Kjell Morten
The main aim of this article is to explore the association between mental health problems in children placed out-of-home and family risk factors reported as reasons for placement. The sample consisted of 109 Norwegian children aged 6-12 years. Mental health problems were assessed by the Revised Rutter scales reported by the parents and the…
Hoge, Charles W; Castro, Carl A; Messer, Stephen C; McGurk, Dennis; Cotting, Dave I; Koffman, Robert L
The current combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have involved US military personnel in major ground combat and hazardous security duty. Studies are needed to systematically assess the mental health of members of the armed services who have participated in these operations and to inform policy with regard to the optimal delivery of mental health care to returning veterans. We studied members of 4 US combat infantry units (3 Army units and a Marine Corps unit) using an anonymous survey that was administered to the subjects either before their deployment to Iraq (n=2530) or 3 to 4 months after their return from combat duty in Iraq or Afghanistan (n=3671). The outcomes included major depression, generalized anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which were evaluated on the basis of standardized, self-administered screening instruments. Exposure to combat was significantly greater among those who were deployed to Iraq than among those deployed to Afghanistan. The percentage of study subjects whose responses met the screening criteria for major depression, generalized anxiety, or PTSD was significantly higher after duty in Iraq (15.6% to 17.1%) than after duty in Afghanistan (11.2%) or before deployment to Iraq (9.3%); the largest difference was in the rate of PTSD. Of those whose responses were positive for a mental disorder, only 23% to 40% sought mental health care. Those whose responses were positive for a mental disorder were twice as likely as those whose responses were negative to report concern about possible stigmatization and other barriers to seeking mental health care. This study provides an initial look at the mental health of members of the Army and the Marine Corps who were involved in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Our findings indicate that among the study groups there was a significant risk of mental health problems and that the subjects reported important barriers to receiving mental health services, particularly the
Aebi, Marcel; Kuhn, Christine; Banaschewski, Tobias
were used to predict any problems/disorders, emotional problems/disorders and behavioural problems/disorders in a community sample (n = 252) and in a clinic sample (n = 95). RESULTS: The findings were strikingly similar in both samples. Parent and youth SDQ scales were related to any problem/disorder......BACKGROUND: Discrepancies between multiple informants often create considerable uncertainties in delivering services to youth. The present study assessed the ability of the parent and youth scales of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to predict mental health problems/disorders....... Youth SDQ symptom and impact had the strongest association with emotional problems/disorder and parent SDQ symptom score were most strongly related to behavioural problems/disorders. Both the SDQ total and the impact scores significantly predicted emotional problems/disorders in males whereas...
Gelberg, L; Linn, L S
A total of 529 homeless adults in Los Angeles County were surveyed to determine the relationship between their previous use of mental health services and their physical health status, utilization of medical services, personal habits affecting health, experience of injury and victimization, and perceived needs. Homeless adults with a previous psychiatric hospitalization were more likely to have experienced serious physical symptoms during the previous month than those who had used only outpatient mental health services or who had never used mental health services. They reported more reasons for not obtaining needed medical care, were more likely to obtained food from garbage cans, and had the least adequate personal hygiene. However, they did not differ from the other groups on most measures of nutrition, social relations, and financial status. The most frequently expressed needs of the homeless were for improved social relations, employment, shelter, and money.
Teunissen, Erik; Van Bavel, Eric; Van Den Driessen Mareeuw, Francine; Macfarlane, Anne; Van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; Van Den Muijsenbergh, Maria; Van Weel, Chris
To explore the views and experiences of general practitioners (GPs) in relation to recognition, recording, and treatment of mental health problems of undocumented migrants (UMs), and to gain insight in the reasons for under-registration of mental health problems in the electronic medical records. Qualitative study design with semi-structured interviews using a topic guide. Sixteen GPs in the Netherlands with clinical expertise in the care of UMs. GPs recognized many mental health problems in UMs. Barriers that prevented them from recording these problems and from delivering appropriate care were their low consultation rates, physical presentation of mental health problems, high number of other problems, the UM's lack of trust towards health care professionals, and cultural differences in health beliefs and language barriers. Referrals to mental health care organizations were often seen as problematic by GPs. To overcome these barriers, GPs provided personalized care as far as possible, referred to other primary care professionals such as social workers or mental health care nurses in their practice, and were a little less restrictive in prescribing psychotropics than guidelines recommended. GPs experienced a variety of barriers in engaging with UMs when identifying or suspecting mental health problems. This explains why there is a gap between the high recognition of mental health problems and the low recording of these problems in general practice files. It is recommended that GPs address mental health problems more actively, strive for continuity of care in order to gain trust of the UMs, and look for opportunities to provide mental care that is accessible and acceptable for UMs.
Lakeman, R; McGowan, P; MacGabhann, L; Parkinson, M; Redmond, M; Sibitz, I; Stevenson, C; Walsh, J
Stigma and discrimination related to mental-health problems impacts negatively on people's quality of life, help seeking behaviour and recovery trajectories. To date, the experience of discrimination by people with mental-health problems has not been systematically explored in the Republic of Ireland. This study aimed to explore the experience impact of discrimination as a consequence of being identified with a mental-health problem. Transcripts of semi-structured interviews with 30 people about their experience of discrimination were subject to thematic analysis and presented in summary form. People volunteered accounts of discrimination which clustered around employment, personal relationships, business and finance, and health care. Common experiences included being discounted or discredited, being mocked or shunned and being inhibited or constrained by oneself and others. Qualitative research of this type may serve to illustrate the complexity of discrimination and the processes whereby stigma is internalised and may shape behaviour. Such an understanding may assist health practitioners reduce stigma, and identify and remediate the impact of discrimination.
Sattler, Frank A; Christiansen, Hanna
Introduction: Victimization and rejection expectations predict mental health problems in gay and bisexual men. Furthermore, it was shown that victimization predicts rejection expectations. Nevertheless, the levels of these two variables do not necessarily correspond as indicated by low inter-correlations, resulting in the question "How do discrepancies in the two variables relate to mental health problems?" This study tests if non-corresponding levels of victimization and rejection expectations in gay and bisexual men relate to mental health problems differently than corresponding levels of victimization and rejection expectations. It furthermore tests for linear and curvilinear relationships between victimization, rejection expectations, and mental health problems. Methods: Data from N = 1423 gay and bisexual men were obtained online. Victimization and rejection expectations were tested for discrepant values (differing 0.5 SD or more) and those that were in agreement (differing less than 0.5): 33.7% of participants were in agreement, 33.0% reported higher rejection expectations than victimization, and 33.3% v.v. Then, a polynomial regression and a surface analysis were conducted. Results: Discrepant values in victimization and rejection expectations or the direction of the discrepancy did not relevantly predict mental health problems. Findings indicate that victimization and rejection expectations predict mental health problems linearly as well as convexly (upward curving) in gay and bisexual men. Discussion: This study replicates findings that gay and bisexual men with more experiences of victimization and rejection expectations demonstrated more mental health problems. Furthermore, this study is the first one to find a convex relationship between these predictors and mental health problems, implicating that disproportionally high mental health problems exist in those gay and bisexual men with high levels of victimization and rejection expectations. On the other
Barnett, R. A.; Hunter, M.
This study examined the adjustment of siblings of children with mental health problems. The participants had brothers or sisters receiving treatment at a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service within the Hunter New England Health Service, New South Wales, Australia. Seventy-five siblings completed questionnaires on their self-concept, quality…
Berry, Natalie; Lobban, Fiona; Belousov, Maksim; Emsley, Richard; Nenadic, Goran; Bucci, Sandra
Use of the social media website Twitter is highly prevalent and has led to a plethora of Web-based social and health-related data available for use by researchers. As such, researchers are increasingly using data from social media to retrieve and analyze mental health-related content. However, there is limited evidence regarding why people use this emerging platform to discuss mental health problems in the first place. The aim of this study was to explore the reasons why individuals discuss mental health on the social media website Twitter. The study was the first of its kind to implement a study-specific hashtag for research; therefore, we also examined how feasible it was to circulate and analyze a study-specific hashtag for mental health research. Text mining methods using the Twitter Streaming Application Programming Interface (API) and Twitter Search API were used to collect and organize tweets from the hashtag #WhyWeTweetMH, circulated between September 2015 and November 2015. Tweets were analyzed thematically to understand the key reasons for discussing mental health using the Twitter platform. Four overarching themes were derived from the 132 tweets collected: (1) sense of community; (2) raising awareness and combatting stigma; (3) safe space for expression; and (4) coping and empowerment. In addition, 11 associated subthemes were also identified. The themes derived from the content of the tweets highlight the perceived therapeutic benefits of Twitter through the provision of support and information and the potential for self-management strategies. The ability to use Twitter to combat stigma and raise awareness of mental health problems indicates the societal benefits that can be facilitated via the platform. The number of tweets and themes identified demonstrates the feasibility of implementing study-specific hashtags to explore research questions in the field of mental health and can be used as a basis for other health-related research. ©Natalie Berry
Bayer, Jordana K; Hiscock, Harriet; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Price, Anna; Wake, Melissa
Mental health problems comprise an international public health issue affecting up to 20% of children and show considerable stability. We aimed to identify child, parenting, and family predictors from infancy in the development of externalising and internalising behaviour problems by age 3 years. Design Longitudinal, population-based survey completed by primary caregivers when children were 7, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months old. Participants 733 children sequentially recruited at 6-7 months from routine well-child appointments (August-September 2004) across six socio-economically and culturally diverse government areas in Victoria, Australia; 589 (80%) retained at 3 years. Measures 7 months: sociodemographic characteristics, maternal mental health (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS)), substance misuse, home violence, social isolation, infant temperament; 12 months: partner relationship, parenting (Parent Behavior Checklist (PBC)); 18, 24 and 36 months: child behaviour (Child Behavior Checklist 1(1/2)-5 (CBCL)), PBC, DASS. Sixty-nine percent of all families attending well-child clinics took part. The consistent and cumulative predictors of externalising behaviours were parent stress and harsh discipline. Predictors of internalising behaviours included small family size, parent distress, and parenting. Twenty-five percent of variation in early externalising behaviour and 17% of variation in early internalising behaviour was explained. Effective and cost-efficient population approaches to preventing mental health problems early in childhood are urgently needed. Programmes must support parents in reducing personal stress as well as negative parenting practices.
Ando, Shuntaro; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Kanehara, Akiko; Tanaka, Shintaro; Morishima, Ryo; Kondo, Shinsuke; Kasai, Kiyoto
On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake caused a tsunami and led to the collapse of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, thus severely damaging the surrounding area. A systematic review was conducted in March 2015 with the following objectives: (1) to clarify the type, severity, and prevalence of mental health problems in the areas affected by the disaster, (2) to investigate trends in mental health problems over time, (3) to reveal demographic and socio-environmental characteristics associated with the post-disaster risk for developing mental health problems, and (4) to examine the impact of this natural disaster on the mental health of people in Fukushima. Forty-two papers were included in this review. The reported prevalence of posttraumatic stress reaction exceeded 10% in all studies. While some longitudinal studies observed an improvement in posttraumatic stress reaction over time, none reported a decrease in depression. Most risk factors for mental health problems were related to resettlement of daily lives, preexisting illnesses, and social networks. Overall, the reported prevalence of posttraumatic stress reaction seemed to be higher in Fukushima than in other affected areas. Given that some mental health problems had not improved even two years after the disaster occurred, long-term mental health support is required for people in the affected area. Our finding that mental health problems seemed to be more severe in residents of Fukushima than among those in other areas suggests that residents in this prefecture require special care.
O'Driscoll, Claire; Heary, Caroline; Hennessy, Eilis; McKeague, Lynn
Stigma research suggests that exclusion of peers with mental health problems is acceptable, however, no research has explored young people's beliefs about the fairness of exclusion. Group interviews with 148 adolescents explored judgements about the fairness of excluding peers with ADHD or depression from dyads and groups. Young people evaluated exclusion of peers with ADHD or depression from dyads and groups, with the exception of group exclusion of the peer with ADHD, as mostly unfair. Beliefs about the fairness of exclusion were influenced by the attributions that they applied to the target peer's behaviour, social obligations and loyalty within friendships and concerns about the adverse psychological effects of exclusion. Furthermore, their evaluations were influenced by personal beliefs about the social and personal costs of including the target peer. Evaluations of exclusion highlight novel avenues for to develop knowledge on the stigma of mental health problems. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Starace, Fabrizio; Mungai, Francesco; Sarti, Elena; Addabbo, Tindara
Purpose During economic recession people with mental health problems have higher risk of losing their job. This paper analyses the issue by considering the Italian rates of unemployment amongst individuals with and without mental health problems in 2005 and 2013, that is prior and during the economic crisis. Methods We used data from the National surveys on “Health conditions and use of health services” carried out by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) for the years 2005 and 2013. The surveys collected information on the health status and socioeconomic conditions of the Italian population. Self-reported unemployment status was analysed amongst individuals with and without reported mental health problems. In addition, descriptive statistics were performed in order to detect possible differences in the risk of unemployment within different regional contexts characterised by different socio-economic conditions. Results The recession determined increased disparities in unemployment rates between people with and without mental health problems. Regardless to the presence of mental health problems, young people were more likely to be unemployed. Among people who reported mental health problems, males were more likely to be unemployed than females. People with low education level were more likely to be unemployed, particularly during the recession and in presence of mental health problems. Changes in unemployment rates due to the crisis showed different patterns across different regions of the Country. Conclusions These analyses confirm that in periods of economic crisis people with mental health problems are at risk of experiencing exclusion from labour market. In addition, the impact is even worse within the group with low education and younger age. These findings emphasise the importance of specific interventions aimed at promoting labour market participation and reintegration for people with mental health problems. PMID:28376098
Oyserman, Daphna; Bybee, Deborah; Mowbray, Carol; Hart-Johnson, Tamera
Maternal mental health (MMH) problems are associated with lack of confidence in one's parenting, overly lax or too harsh discipline, and child academic underperformance. We asked if parenting mediates the effect of MMH problems on academic outcomes even among mothers with serious mental illness (n=164). Structural equation analyses show a significant association between MMH problems and permissive (lack of parenting confidence, lack of follow through) parenting and verbal hostility as well as worse academic outcomes (school recorded grades, teacher reported behaviour). Permissive parenting completely mediated the direct effect of MMH on academic outcomes. Further analyses showed that the mediation effect was attributed to a single component of permissive parenting-lack of parenting confidence.
Vitriol, Verónica; Minoletti, Alberto; Alvarado, Rubén; Sierralta, Paula; Cancino, Alfredo
Thirty to 50% of people exposed to a natural disaster suffer psychological problems in the ensuing months. To characterize the activities in mental health developed by Primary Health Care centers after the earthquake that affected Chile on february 27th, 2010. A cross-sectional study analyzing 16 urban centers of Maule Region, was carried out. A questionnaire was developed to know the preparatory and supportive activities directed to the community and the training and self-care activities directed to Health Care personnel that were made during the 12 months following the catastrophe. In addition, a questionnaire evaluating structural aspects was designed. Only 1/3 of the centers made some preparatory activity and none of them made a diagnosis of population vulnerability. The average of protective Mental Health interventions coverage reached 35% of the population estimated to be most affected. The activities lasted 31 to 62% of the optimal duration standards set by experts (according to the type of action). Important differences between centers in economic and geographical accessibility, construction and professional resources were found. This study shows the difficulties faced by urban centers of Maule Region to deal with mental health problems caused by the earthquake, which were attributable to the absence of local planning and drills, and to the lack of intra and inter sectorial coordination.
Wright, Steve; Twardzicki, Maya; Gomez, Fabio; Henderson, Claire
Rates of mental illness and self-harm are very high among women prisoners. Questionnaires assessed prisoners' knowledge of and attitudes towards mental health problems, and relevant behavioural intentions before and after the intervention, to evaluate the effectiveness of a comedy show in a women's prison to reduce mental health stigma and improve coping and help-seeking for mental health problems. The intervention appeared to have been successful in improving some aspects of prisoners' knowledge about the effectiveness of psychotherapy (Z = - 2.304, p = 0.021) and likelihood of recovery from mental health problems (Z = - 2.699, p = 0.007). There were significant post-intervention increases in the proportion who stated they would discuss or disclose mental health problems with all but one of the sources of help in the questionnaire, which was consistent with the increases in the number of prisoners who rated themselves as likely to start using different sources of help or prison activities. There was no improvement in intentions to associate with people with a mental health problem. The intervention appeared effective in improving factors that might increase help-seeking and improve coping, but not those that would change behaviour towards others with a mental health problem.
Toran, Hasnah; Squires, Jane; Lawrence, Karen
The Infant Mental Health system in Malaysia is described, beginning with cultural and religious practices that influence mental health practices. Second, a description of the Malaysian mental health system, including historical influences, is given. Third, policy and services for young children with mental health problems are described. Finally, recommendations for future steps for developing an effective infant mental health system are presented, including the development of infant mental health policies by the government, increased personnel training, increased community mental health resources, integration of culture into the mental health system, and finally, development of appropriate screening and assessment instruments and systems. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Obando Medina, Claudia; Kullgren, Gunnar; Dahlblom, Kjerstin
BACKGROUND: Mental health problems among young peoples are a growing public health issue around the world. In low- income countries health systems are characterized by lack of facilities, human resources and primary health care is rarely an integrated part of overall health care services. This study aims at exploring how primary health care professionals in Nicaragua perceive young people's mental health problems, suicidal problems and help-seeking behaviour. METHODS: Twelve in-depth intervie...
Lemke, Sonne; Schaefer, Jeanne A
This research addresses whether residents with substance use disorders (SUDs) in VA nursing homes (VANHs) are distinctive in terms of their demographic characteristics, medical and mental health comorbidities, functioning, and problem behaviors. Residents over age 55 admitted to VANHs (n = 27,002) were identified in VA administrative files, and SUD and non-SUD residents were compared. Compared with other residents, the residents with SUDs (18% of admissions over age 55) were more likely to be younger, male, African-American, unmarried, have low income and a tobacco use disorder. Controlling for demographic factors and smoking, SUD residents were more likely to have mental health comorbidities (dementia, serious mental illness, depressive disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder), as well as AIDS/hepatitis, pulmonary disease, gastro-intestinal disorders, and injuries. SUD residents were less likely to have cancer, diabetes, neurological disorders, heart failure, and renal failure. SUD residents were more independent in activities of daily living, such as mobility and toileting. They were more likely to engage in verbal disruption but not in other problem behaviors such as aggression. With demographic factors and comorbidities controlled, the functioning differences were diminished, and SUD and non-SUD residents did not differ in the levels of problem behaviors. VANH residents with SUDs have distinctive patterns of comorbidities and functioning. SUD appears to represent a separate risk factor for VANH admission. Residents with SUDs present challenges but may have good potential for positive discharge outcomes if their substance use problems and limited resources can be addressed.
Mathiassen, Børge; Brøndbo, Per Håkan; Waterloo, Knut; Martinussen, Monica; Eriksen, Mads; Hanssen-Bauer, Ketil; Kvernmo, Siv
Previous studies indicate that low IQ is a substantial risk factor for developing mental health problems. Based on these results, we hypothesized that IQ may predict some of the variance in clinician-rated severity of children's mental health problems measured with the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) and Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA). The other aims of this study were to examine if there was any difference in the predictive ability of the different IQ scores of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third edition (WISC-III) and to examine if parent-rated measure of child mental health problems could predict the scores on CGAS and HoNOSCA after controlling for IQ, age, and gender. In this study, 132 patients at three outpatient clinics in North Norway were assessed with the parent version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), HoNOSCA, CGAS, and with the WISC-III. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted with HoNOSCA and CGAS as dependent variables. Demographics, WISC-III IQ scores, and SDQ were entered as independent variables. The model with HoNOSCA as the dependent variable predicted 25% of the total variance. The WISC-III full-scale IQ predicted an additional 6% of the variance. The analyses with CGAS as the dependent variable gave no significant results. When a patient has a high HoNOSCA score, an intelligence test in addition to an evaluation of symptoms on mental health should be considered. Future research ought to examine whether HoNOSCA's ability to detect change might be affected by patients IQ. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco dependence among people with mental health problems is an issue that deserves attention both from a clinical and from a public health perspective. Research suggests that Stop Smoking Services often fail to ask clients about underlying mental health problems and thus fail to put in place the treatment adaptations and liaison procedures often required to meet the needs of clients with a mental health condition who want to stop smoking. This study assesses the recording of mental health problems in a large NHS stop smoking service in England and examines the effect of implementing a short screening procedure on recording mental health conditions. Methods Treatment records from the Stop Smoking Service covering a period of 13 months were audited. The prevalence of reported mental health problems in the six month period before the implementation of the mental health screening procedure was compared with that of the six month period following implementation. The screening procedure was only implemented in the support services directly provided by the Stop Smoking Service. Comparisons were also made with third-party sections of the service where no such screening procedure was introduced. Results The prevalence of reported mental health problems among a total of n = 4999 clients rose from less than 1% before implementation of the screening procedure to nearly 12% in the period following implementation, with the change being statistically significant. No significant rise was observed over the same period in the sections of the service where no screening procedure was implemented. Conclusions The absence of standard procedures to record mental health problems among service users in many stop smoking services is currently likely to prevent the detection of co morbidity. Implementing a simple screening procedure appears suitable to increase the routine recording of mental health problems in a stop smoking service, which is an
Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Pescosolido, Bernice A
In the 1990s, sociologists began to rethink the failure of utilization models to explain whether and why individuals accessed formal treatment systems. This effort focused on reconceptualizing the underlying assumptions and processes that shaped utilization patterns. While we have built a better understanding of how social networks structure pathways to care and how disadvantaged sociocultural groups face substantial barriers to treatment, we have less understanding of the larger cultural context in which individuals recognize and respond to symptoms. Drawing from recent innovations in the sociology of culture, we develop the concept of "cultural mapping" to describe if and how individuals discriminate among different available sources of formal treatment. Using data from the 1996 Mental Health Module of the General Social Survey, we compare Americans' willingness to recommend providers in the general medical and specialty mental health sectors. The results indicate that, despite unrealistically high levels of endorsement, individuals do discriminate between providers based on their evaluation of the problem, underlying causes, and likely consequences. While perceived severity leads individuals to suggest any type of formal care, problems attributed to biological causes are directed to general or specialty medical providers (doctors, psychiatrists, and hospitals); those matching symptoms for schizophrenia or seen as eliciting violence are allocated to the specialty mental health sector (psychiatry, mental hospital); and those seen as being caused by stress are sent to nonmedical mental health providers (i.e., counselors). These findings help to explain inconsistencies in previous utilization studies, and they suggest the critical importance of maintaining a dialogue between medical sociology and the sociology of culture.
Sampasa-Kanyinga, H; Hamilton, H A
Previous research has suggested an association between the use of social networking sites (SNSs) and mental health problems such as psychological distress, suicidal ideation and attempts in adolescents. However, little is known about the factors that might mediate these relationships. The present study examined the link between the use of social networking sites and psychological distress, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, and tested the mediating role of cyberbullying victimization on these associations in adolescents. The sample consisted of a group of 11-to-20-year-old individuals (n=5126, 48% females; mean±SD age: 15.2±1.9 years) who completed the mental health portion of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS) in 2013. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to test the mediation models. After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, subjective socioeconomic status (SES), and parental education, use of SNSs was associated with psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval=2.03, 1.22-3.37), suicidal ideation (3.44, 1.54-7.66) and attempts (5.10, 1.45-17.88). Cyberbullying victimization was found to fully mediate the relationships between the use of SNSs with psychological distress and attempts; whereas, it partially mediated the link between the use of SNSs and suicidal ideation. Findings provide supporting evidence that addressing cyberbullying victimization and the use of SNSs among adolescents may help reduce the risk of mental health problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
van der Hoorn, Anouk; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.; Bruggeman, R; Uiterwaal, C.S.P.M.; Burger, Huib
To determine whether the association between non-right-handedness and mental problems among adolescents is specific for psychotic symptoms, we included a group of 2096 adolescents with a mean age of 14 years from the general population. Mental health problems were assessed using the parent,
Bannink, Rienke; Broeren, Suzanne; van de Looij – Jansen, Petra M.; de Waart, Frouwkje G.; Raat, Hein
Purpose To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. Methods A two-year longitudinal study was conducted among first-year secondary school students (N = 3181). Traditional and cyber bullying victimization were assessed at baseline, whereas mental health status and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and follow-up by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between these variables while controlling for baseline problems. Additionally, we tested whether gender differences in mental health and suicidal ideation were present for the two types of bullying. Results There was a significant interaction between gender and traditional bullying victimization and between gender and cyber bullying victimization on mental health problems. Among boys, traditional and cyber bullying victimization were not related to mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. Among girls, both traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. No significant interaction between gender and traditional or cyber bullying victimization on suicidal ideation was found. Traditional bullying victimization was associated with suicidal ideation, whereas cyber bullying victimization was not associated with suicidal ideation after controlling for baseline suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, whereas traditional, as well as cyber bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of mental health problems among girls. These findings stress the importance of programs aimed at reducing bullying behavior, especially
Bannink, Rienke; Broeren, Suzanne; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra M; de Waart, Frouwkje G; Raat, Hein
To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. A two-year longitudinal study was conducted among first-year secondary school students (N = 3181). Traditional and cyber bullying victimization were assessed at baseline, whereas mental health status and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and follow-up by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between these variables while controlling for baseline problems. Additionally, we tested whether gender differences in mental health and suicidal ideation were present for the two types of bullying. There was a significant interaction between gender and traditional bullying victimization and between gender and cyber bullying victimization on mental health problems. Among boys, traditional and cyber bullying victimization were not related to mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. Among girls, both traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. No significant interaction between gender and traditional or cyber bullying victimization on suicidal ideation was found. Traditional bullying victimization was associated with suicidal ideation, whereas cyber bullying victimization was not associated with suicidal ideation after controlling for baseline suicidal ideation. Traditional bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, whereas traditional, as well as cyber bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of mental health problems among girls. These findings stress the importance of programs aimed at reducing bullying behavior, especially because early-onset mental health problems
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. METHODS: A two-year longitudinal study was conducted among first-year secondary school students (N = 3181. Traditional and cyber bullying victimization were assessed at baseline, whereas mental health status and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and follow-up by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between these variables while controlling for baseline problems. Additionally, we tested whether gender differences in mental health and suicidal ideation were present for the two types of bullying. RESULTS: There was a significant interaction between gender and traditional bullying victimization and between gender and cyber bullying victimization on mental health problems. Among boys, traditional and cyber bullying victimization were not related to mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. Among girls, both traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. No significant interaction between gender and traditional or cyber bullying victimization on suicidal ideation was found. Traditional bullying victimization was associated with suicidal ideation, whereas cyber bullying victimization was not associated with suicidal ideation after controlling for baseline suicidal ideation. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, whereas traditional, as well as cyber bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of mental health problems among girls. These findings stress the importance of programs aimed at reducing bullying
Buckner, Julia D; Ecker, Anthony H; Cohen, Alex S
There is growing recognition that marijuana use among college students is associated with marijuana-related problems. Yet little work has examined whether use is associated with mental health problems and whether there is a dose effect such that individuals engaging in more frequent use evince relatively greater psychiatric impairments. Further, little is known about factors related to interest in marijuana treatment among students experiencing marijuana-related problems. The current study examined academic and psychiatric functioning as well as interest in marijuana treatment among undergraduates (N=1,689). Approximately 29% acknowledged marijuana use, with 9.8% using weekly or more. More frequent marijuana use was related to more academic difficulties. Marijuana use (among both weekly and less frequent users) was related to greater psychiatric impairment. Interest in marijuana treatment was examined among students with 2+ marijuana-related problems (n=251). Of those, 22.7% expressed interest in marijuana treatment. Factors positively related to treatment interest included: marijuana use frequency, use-related problems, friends' marijuana use, age, employment status, and some types of mental health problems. Marijuana use among college students is associated with academic, psychiatric, and marijuana-related impairments. However, there is some interest in treatment to manage marijuana use among undergraduates, particularly among those with more frequent and more problematic marijuana use. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tomlinson, Samantha; Hewitt, Olivia
Research addressing people with intellectual disabilities' experiences of mental health problems has mainly focused on the perspectives of family members or professionals, or has been driven by service evaluation. Few studies have sought the views of people with intellectual disabilities about their own mental health experiences. This study…
Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Peeter; Värnik, Airi; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Balint, Maria; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Feldman, Dana; Haring, Christian; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Poštuvan, Vita; Tubiana, Alexandra; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Camilla; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W.; Wasserman, Danuta
Objective: In support of a whole-school approach to mental health promotion, this study was conducted to find out whether and how significantly teachers' satisfaction with school and their subjective psychological well-being are related to the belief that they can help pupils with mental health problems. Design: Cross-sectional data were collected…
Hoge, Charles W; Wright, Kathleen; Bliese, Paul; Adler, Amy; Thomas, Jeffrey; Castro, Carl A; Milliken, Charles C
... mandated for troops returning from Afghanistan and Iraq. Despite these efforts, little research has been done to determine the prevalence of mental health problems among combat / operational units, the validity and benefits / risks of screening, or the optimal delivery of mental health services.
Verhulp, Esmée E.; Stevens, Gonneke W.J.M.; Van Weert, Caroline M.C.; Pels, Trees V.M.; Vollebergh, Wilma A.M.
Individuals' lay beliefs about mental health problems and attitudes toward mental health care are thought to be influenced by the cultural background of these individuals. In the current study, we investigated differences between immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents and adolescents in lay
Verhulp, Esmée E.; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Pels, Trees V M; Van Weert, Caroline M C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
Objective: Individuals' lay beliefs about mental health problems and attitudes toward mental health care are thought to be influenced by the cultural background of these individuals. In the current study, we investigated differences between immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents and adolescents in
Smith, Hannah R.; Eryigit-Madzwamuse, Suna; Barnes, Jacqueline
Research on the effect of paternal mental health problems, particularly on young children, is based predominantly on clinical levels of depression. Furthermore, potential mediators such as marital discord have often been overlooked. This longitudinal community study assessed the association between paternal mental health symptoms in a community…
Devine, Maurice; Taggart, Laurence; McLornian, Paula
Prevalence rates vary considerably regarding the mental health of people with learning disabilities. This variation is a consequence of the assessment methods used to identify such clinical conditions and also different populations studied. The aim of this study was to screen for mental health problems in adults with mild-to-moderate learning…
Stolzenburg, Susanne; Freitag, Simone; Schmidt, Silke; Schomerus, Georg
Past research has shown that among the general public, certain causal explanations like biomedical causes are associated with stronger desire for social distance from persons with mental illness. Aim of this study was to find out how different causal attributions of persons with untreated mental health problems regarding their own complaints are associated with stigmatizing attitudes, anticipated self-stigma when seeking help and perceived stigma-stress. Altogether, 207 untreated persons with a current depressive syndrome were interviewed. Biomedical causes, but also belief in childhood trauma or unhealthy behavior as a cause of the problem, were associated with stronger personal stigma and with more stigma-stress. Similarities and differences to findings among the general population and implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... NIH/National Institute of Mental Health – Division of AIDS Research SAMHSA – Behavioral Health and HIV/AIDS SAMHSA – Suicide ... Office of Adolescent Health OAR NIH Office of AIDS Research OCR HHS Office for Civil Rights OFBNP HHS ...
O'Sullivan Peter B
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a high prevalence of mental health problems amongst adolescents. In addition there is a high prevalence of spinal pain in this population. Evidence suggests that these conditions are related. This study sought to extend earlier findings by examining the relationship between mental health problems as measured by the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL and the experience of back and neck pain in adolescents. Methods One thousand five hundred and eighty participants (mean age 14.1 years from the Western Australian Pregnancy (Raine Study provided cross-sectional spinal pain and CBCL data. Results As predicted, there was a high prevalence of back and neck pain in this cohort. On the whole, females reported more mental health difficulties than males. There were strong relationships between the majority of symptom scales of the CBCL and back and neck pain. Scores on the CBCL were associated with higher odds of comorbid back and neck pain. Conclusions These findings strongly support the need to consider both psychological and pain symptoms when providing assessments and treatment for adolescents. Further research is required to inform causal models.
Bordin, Isabel Altenfelder Santos; Paula, Cristiane Silvestre; do Nascimento, Rosimeire; Duarte, Cristiane Seixas
To estimate the prevalence of severe physical punishment of children/adolescents in a low-income community, and to examine child mental health problems as a potential correlate. This study is a Brazilian cross-sectional pilot study of the World Studies of Abuse in Family Environments. A probabilistic sample of clusters including all eligible households (women aged 15-49 years, son/daughter punishment of children/adolescents by mother/father) was defined as shaking (if age punishment in childhood, marital violence); father (unemployment, drunkenness). Severe marital violence was defined as kicking, hitting, beating or use of /threat to use a weapon. The following standardized questionnaires were applied by trained interviewers: World Studies of Abuse in Family Environments Core Questionnaire, Child Behavior Checklist, Self-Report Questionnaire. Outcome prevalence was 10.1%. Final logistic regression models identified two correlates: maternal harsh physical punishment in childhood (total sample, OR = 5.3, p = 0.047), and child/adolescent mental health problems (sub-sample aged 4-17 years, n = 67, OR = 9.1, p = 0.017). Severe physical punishment of children/adolescents is frequent in the studied community. The victims have a higher probability of becoming future perpetrators. When intrafamilial violence occurs, child/adolescent mental health may be compromised.
Background There is a high prevalence of mental health problems amongst adolescents. In addition there is a high prevalence of spinal pain in this population. Evidence suggests that these conditions are related. This study sought to extend earlier findings by examining the relationship between mental health problems as measured by the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) and the experience of back and neck pain in adolescents. Methods One thousand five hundred and eighty participants (mean age 14.1 years) from the Western Australian Pregnancy (Raine) Study provided cross-sectional spinal pain and CBCL data. Results As predicted, there was a high prevalence of back and neck pain in this cohort. On the whole, females reported more mental health difficulties than males. There were strong relationships between the majority of symptom scales of the CBCL and back and neck pain. Scores on the CBCL were associated with higher odds of comorbid back and neck pain. Conclusions These findings strongly support the need to consider both psychological and pain symptoms when providing assessments and treatment for adolescents. Further research is required to inform causal models. PMID:21609488
Ceri, Veysi; Özlü-Erkilic, Zeliha; Özer, Ürün; Kadak, Tayyib; Winkler, Dietmar; Dogangün, Burak; Akkaya-Kalayci, Türkan
Despite the growing number of young second-generation immigrant (SGI) children and adolescents, studies about their mental health are rare. The objective of this study was to investigate the mental health problems of SGI children and adolescents in Istanbul, Turkey. In a clinical sample the mental health of 54 SGIs and 50 native children and adolescents were examined using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) and Children's Global Assessment Scale. The assessments were carried out by a blinded rater. SGI children had higher rates of psychiatric disorders such as depression (p = 0.001), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (p = 0.011) and anxiety disorders (p = 0.013), more comorbid disorders and lower functionality scores compared to their native counterparts (p = 0.001). SGI children seem to have higher rates of psychiatric disorders most probably due to migration-induced burdens. The professionals treating SGI children should have more awareness for these problems to be able to approach them in a culture and language sensitive way.
vab, Vesna; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana
Mental health conceptualize a state of well-being, perceived self efficacy, competence, autonomy, intergenerational dependence and recognition of the ability to realize one's intellectual and emotional potential. Mental health care are services provided to individuals or communities by agents of the health services or professions to promote, maintain, monitor, or restore mental health. Students will become familiar with extensiveness of the problem, and levels of preventing it. It is illustra...
Reavley, Nicola J; McCann, Terence V; Jorm, Anthony F
With approximately 50% of young people aged 18-24 in tertiary education, these are potential settings for programmes to improve mental health literacy. A survey was carried out with students and staff of a tertiary education institution to investigate psychological distress, actions to deal with mental health problems and first-aid behaviours. Telephone interviews were carried out with 774 students of an Australian metropolitan university (with 422 staff as a comparison group). They answered questions relating to psychological distress, actions to deal with mental health problems and first-aid behaviours. Students were more likely to be psychologically distressed than staff (21% vs. 13%) and 27% reported experiencing a problem similar to that described in a depression vignette. The most common actions taken were talking to a close friend, physical activity and talking to close family. Over 72% of students with a problem had sought professional help, most often from a general practitioner or counsellor. Only 10% reported seeking help from a student counsellor. Helpful first-aid behaviours were common and were seen in over 90% of students who had a family member or close friend with a similar problem. There is a need for further investigation of levels and factors associated with psychological distress in higher education students along with an exploration of barriers to and enablers of use of student counselling services. High levels of help seeking from friends and first-aid behaviours provided point to the need for effective peer-to-peer education. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available Objective: Studies conducted in large metropolitan inner-city communities with high violent crime rates have demonstrated an association between exposure to violence and mental health problems; therefore the purpose of this study was to determine if similar trends exist in smaller inner-city communities with substantially lower violent crime rates. Methods: One hundred twenty-six children and young adults living in inner-city Omaha, Nebraska, were screened for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression, and anxiety symptoms and assessed for community violence exposure (CVE. Pearson’s correlation and analysis of variance were used to determine the relationship between PTSD, depression, and anxiety symptoms and CVE. Results: A statistically significant relationship was found between CVE and PTSD and anxiety symptoms among participants despite their having lower rates of exposure to violent events in comparison with other studies. No association was found between violence and depression symptoms. Additionally, the presence of anxiety and depression, as well as increased age of participants, was associated with higher rates of PTSD symptoms. Conclusion: We recommend that health care providers in smaller cities, where the effects of violent crime may be underestimated or overlooked, be informed of the existence of this public health problem within their community and that they screen at-risk patients for mental health problems.
Boyd, Candice P; Hayes, Louise; Nurse, Sarah; Aisbett, Damon L; Francis, Kristy; Newnham, Krystal; Sewell, Jessica
INTRODUCTION In Australia, rural adolescents still face barriers to obtaining professional psychological help due to poor availability and accessibility of services in rural areas when delay in seeking help for mental health problems can lead to poorer treatment outcomes. The aims of this study were to: investigate the preferences and intentions of rural Australian youth towards seeking help for mental health problems; determine predictors of help-seeking intention among rural adolescents; and verify results from previous qualitative research on the barriers to help-seeking in a rural context. Participants were 201 adolescents recruited from 8 rural schools in the state of Victoria, Australia. Participants ranged in age from 11 to 18 years. Using the Accessibility and Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA+), approximately 149 participants were classified as currently living in an inner regional area of Victoria, whereas 52 participants lived in an outer regional area. Participants completed an open-ended survey of help-seeking intention. Overall, 55.7% of the sample indicated that they would seek help for a mental health problem. The majority of participants, regardless of subgroup, indicated that they would seek help for a mental health problem from a school counsellor as their first choice. Gender differences were observed such that males had a higher preference for seeking help from a psychologist than females. Furthermore, older adolescents were more likely to prefer seeking help from a GP than younger participants. A multivariate analysis of help-seeking intentions revealed that ARIA was the only predictor of help-seeking intention; however, when extreme scores of depression and anxiety were also taken into account, these also predicted help-seeking intention. A content analysis of the barriers to help-seeking nominated by participants revealed that perceived limited availability of professional services in towns, perceived social proximity and fear of rural
Hinz, Andreas; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar; Spitzer, Silvia; Scheuch, Klaus; Seibt, Reingard
High degrees of premature retirement among teachers warrant investigating the occupational burden and the mental health status of this profession. A sample of 1074 German teachers participated in this study. Two samples of the general population (N = 824 and N = 792) were used as comparison groups. Work distress was assessed with the Effort-Reward-Imbalance questionnaire, and mental health problems were measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Teachers reported more effort-reward imbalance (M = 0.64) compared with the general population (M = 0.57), and they perceived more mental health problems (GHQ: M = 12.1) than the comparison group (M = 9.5). School type was not associated with work stress and mental health. Teachers with leading functions perceived high degrees of effort and reward, resulting in a moderate effort-reward ratio and no heightened mental health problems. Teachers working full time reported more effort than teachers working part time, but the reward mean values of both groups were similar. This results in a somewhat unfavourable effort-reward ratio of teachers working full time. Moreover, teachers working full time reported more mental health problems. The results support the appropriateness of the effort-reward conception, applied to the profession of teachers. The higher degree of effort-reward imbalance and the level of mental health problems warrant preventive measures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Woolford, Junie; Patterson, Tess; Macleod, Emily; Hobbs, Linda; Hayne, Harlene
When children require mental health services, clinicians need to conduct assessments that are developmentally sensitive and that include the child's point of view. Drawing is a popular tool that is commonly used in clinical settings. Research on drawing in experimental settings has confirmed that the opportunity to draw while talking increases the amount of verbal information that children report during an interview. The present research examined whether drawing also facilitates children's self reports during a mental health assessment. A total of 33 5-12-year-old children were asked either to draw and tell about their presenting problem or to tell only. Children who drew and told provided twice as much verbal information as children who told only. Further, interviewers in the draw and tell condition used a greater number of minimal responses than did interviewers in the tell only condition. These data have important implications for clinical practice. © The Author(s) 2013.
Twomey, Conal; Prina, A Matthew; Baldwin, David S; Das-Munshi, Jayati; Kingdon, David; Koeser, Leonardo; Prince, Martin J; Stewart, Robert; Tulloch, Alex D; Cieza, Alarcos
Few countries have made much progress in implementing transparent and efficient systems for the allocation of mental health care resources. In England there are ongoing efforts by the National Health Service (NHS) to develop mental health 'payment by results' (PbR). The system depends on the ability of patient 'clusters' derived from the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) to predict costs. We therefore investigated the associations of individual HoNOS items and the Total HoNOS score at baseline with mental health service costs at one year follow-up. An historical cohort study using secondary care patient records from the UK financial year 2012-2013. Included were 1,343 patients with 'common mental health problems', represented by ICD-10 disorders between F32-48. Costs were based on patient contacts with community-based and hospital-based mental health services. The costs outcome was transformed into 'high costs' vs 'regular costs' in main analyses. After adjustment for covariates, 11 HoNOS items were not associated with costs. The exception was 'self-injury' with an odds ratio of 1.41 (95% CI 1.10-2.99). Population attributable fractions (PAFs) for the contribution of HoNOS items to high costs ranged from 0.6% (physical illness) to 22.4% (self-injury). After adjustment, the Total HoNOS score was not associated with costs (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.99-1.07). However, the PAF (33.3%) demonstrated that it might account for a modest proportion of the incidence of high costs. Our findings provide limited support for the utility of the self-injury item and Total HoNOS score in predicting costs. However, the absence of associations for the remaining HoNOS items indicates that current PbR clusters have minimal ability to predict costs, so potentially contributing to a misallocation of NHS resources across England. The findings may inform the development of mental health payment systems internationally, especially since the vast majority of countries have not progressed
Bordin, Isabel A; Duarte, Cristiane S; Peres, Clovis A; Nascimento, Rosimeire; Curto, Bartira M; Paula, Cristiane S
To examine the relationship between specific types of child mental health problems and severe physical punishment, in combination with other important known risk factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Embu, São Paulo, Brazil, as the Brazilian component of a multicountry survey on abuse in the family environment. From a probabilistic sample of clusters that included all eligible households (women aged 15-49 years with a son or daughter children aged 6-17 years (n = 480). Child Behaviour Checklist CBCL/6-18 was used to identify children with internalizing problems only, externalizing problems only, and both internalizing and externalizing problems (comorbidity). Severe physical punishment was defined as being hit with an object, being kicked, choked, smothered, burnt, scalded, branded, beaten or threatened with a weapon. We examined other potential correlates from four domains: child (gender, age, ever witnessing marital violence); mother (education, unemployment, anxiety or depression, marital violence); father (absence, drunkenness); and family (socioeconomic status). The WHO Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was used to identify maternal anxiety or depression (score > 7). Backward logistic regression analysis identified independent correlates and significant interactions. Multivariate modelling showed that severe punishment was an independent correlate of comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems but was not associated with internalizing problems only. It increased the risk of externalizing problems alone only for children and adolescents not exposed to maternal anxiety or depression. Maternal anxiety or depression increased the risk only for children or adolescents not exposed to severe punishment. Severe punishment may be related to child mental health problems, with the mechanism depending on the type of problem. Its influence persists in the presence of family stressors such as the father's absence and maternal anxiety or depression.
Gudiño, Omar G; Martinez, Jonathan I; Lau, Anna S
This study examined racial disparities in mental health service use by problem type (internalizing versus externalizing) for youths in contact with the child welfare system. Participants included 1,693 non-Hispanic white, African-American, and Hispanic youths (ages four to 14) from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a national probability study of youths who were the subject of investigations of maltreatment by child welfare agencies. Mental health need, assessed at baseline, was considered present if the youth had internalizing or externalizing scores in the clinical range on either the Child Behavior Checklist or the Youth Self-Report. Out patient mental health service use in the subsequent year was assessed prospectively. Children who were removed from the home and those investigated for abuse (versus neglect) were more likely to receive services in the year after the child welfare investigation. Overall, African-American youths were less likely than non-Hispanic white youths to receive mental health services. However, race-ethnicity moderated the association between externalizing need and service use such that African Americans were more likely to receive services when externalizing need was present (26% versus 4%) compared with non-Hispanic white youths (30% versus 14%). Race and ethnicity did not moderate the association between youth internalizing need and service use, but internalizing need was associated with increased probability of service use only for non-Hispanic white youths. Examinations of overall racial disparities in service use may obscure important problem specific disparities. Additional research is needed to identify factors that lead to disparities and to develop strategies for reducing them.
Hestetun, Ingebjørg; Svendsen, Martin Veel; Oellingrath, Inger Margaret
Overweight and mental health problems represent two major challenges related to child and adolescent health. More knowledge of a possible relationship between the two problems and the influence of peer problems on the mental health of overweight children is needed. It has previously been hypothesized that peer problems may be an underlying factor in the association between overweight and mental health problems. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations between overweight, peer problems, and indications of mental health problems in a sample of 12-13-year-old Norwegian schoolchildren. Children aged 12-13 years were recruited from the seventh grade of primary schools in Telemark County, Norway. Parents gave information about mental health and peer problems by completing the extended version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Height and weight were objectively measured. Complete data were obtained for 744 children. Fisher's exact probability test and multiple logistic regressions were used. Most children had normal good mental health. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that overweight children were more likely to have indications of psychiatric disorders (adjusted OR: 1.8, CI: 1.0-3.2) and peer problems (adjusted OR: 2.6, CI: 1.6-4.2) than normal-weight children, when adjusted for relevant background variables. When adjusted for peer problems, the association between overweight and indications of any psychiatric disorder was no longer significant. The results support the hypothesis that peer problems may be an important underlying factor for mental health problems in overweight children.
Nkuba, Mabula; Hermenau, Katharin; Goessmann, Katharina; Hecker, Tobias
Little is known about the prevalence of mental health problems among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. Research consistently determined violence and maltreatment to be important risk factors. In this study, we examined the prevalence of mental health problems among adolescents in Tanzania, as well as the association with exposure to violence and maltreatment. We administered a set of questionnaires (e.g., strength and difficulties questionnaire; conflict tactic scale) to a nationally representative sample of 700 Tanzanian secondary school children (52% girls; age 14.92 years, SD = 1.02) and 333 parents or primary caregivers (53% females; age 43.47 years, SD = 9.02). 41% of the students reported an elevated level of mental health problems (emotional problems 40%, peer problems 63%, conduct problems 45%, hyperactivity 17%) in the past 6 months. Concordantly, 31% of parents reported observing an elevated level of mental health problems in their children (emotional problems 37%, peer problems 54%, conduct problems 35%, hyperactivity 17%). After controlling for other risk factors, we found significant associations between physical violence by parents and adolescent's mental health problems reported by students (β = 0.15) and their parents (β = 0.33). Our findings suggest a high prevalence of mental health problems using screening tools among secondary school students in Tanzania as well as an association between physical violence by parents and adolescents' mental health problems. Our findings emphasize the need to inform the population at large about the potentially adverse consequences associated with violence against children and adolescents.
Sinclair, Katerina O; Bauman, Sheri; Poteat, V Paul; Koenig, Brian; Russell, Stephen T
To examine how two forms of interstudent harassment, cyber and bias-based harassment, are associated with academic, substance use, and mental health problems. We used a population-based survey of 17,366 middle and high school students that assessed harassment due to race/ethnicity or sexual orientation, and harassment through the Internet or text messaging along with other forms of interstudent harassment. Odds ratios indicated that students experiencing both cyber and bias-based harassment were at the greatest risk for adjustment problems across all indicators, with suicidal ideation and attempts having the largest risk differences. Assessments of adolescent health and adjustment should include questions regarding both cyber and bias-based harassment. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hart Laura M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol is a leading risk factor for avoidable disease burden. Research suggests that a drinker's social network can play an integral role in addressing hazardous (i.e., high-risk or problem drinking. Often however, social networks do not have adequate mental health literacy (i.e., knowledge about mental health problems, like problem drinking, or how to treat them. This is a concern as the response that a drinker receives from their social network can have a substantial impact on their willingness to seek help. This paper describes the development of mental health first aid guidelines that inform community members on how to help someone who may have, or may be developing, a drinking problem (i.e., alcohol abuse or dependence. Methods A systematic review of the research and lay literature was conducted to develop a 285-item survey containing strategies on how to help someone who may have, or may be developing, a drinking problem. Two panels of experts (consumers/carers and clinicians individually rated survey items, using a Delphi process. Surveys were completed online or via postal mail. Participants were 99 consumers, carers and clinicians with experience or expertise in problem drinking from Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Items that reached consensus on importance were retained and written into guidelines. Results The overall response rate across all three rounds was 68.7% (67.6% consumers/carers, 69.2% clinicians, with 184 first aid strategies rated as essential or important by ≥80% of panel members. The endorsed guidelines provide guidance on how to: recognize problem drinking; approach someone if there is concern about their drinking; support the person to change their drinking; respond if they are unwilling to change their drinking; facilitate professional help seeking and respond if professional help is refused; and manage an alcohol-related medical emergency
Kingston, Anna H; Jorm, Anthony F; Kitchener, Betty A; Hides, Leanne; Kelly, Claire M; Morgan, Amy J; Hart, Laura M; Lubman, Dan I
Alcohol is a leading risk factor for avoidable disease burden. Research suggests that a drinker's social network can play an integral role in addressing hazardous (i.e., high-risk) or problem drinking. Often however, social networks do not have adequate mental health literacy (i.e., knowledge about mental health problems, like problem drinking, or how to treat them). This is a concern as the response that a drinker receives from their social network can have a substantial impact on their willingness to seek help. This paper describes the development of mental health first aid guidelines that inform community members on how to help someone who may have, or may be developing, a drinking problem (i.e., alcohol abuse or dependence). A systematic review of the research and lay literature was conducted to develop a 285-item survey containing strategies on how to help someone who may have, or may be developing, a drinking problem. Two panels of experts (consumers/carers and clinicians) individually rated survey items, using a Delphi process. Surveys were completed online or via postal mail. Participants were 99 consumers, carers and clinicians with experience or expertise in problem drinking from Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Items that reached consensus on importance were retained and written into guidelines. The overall response rate across all three rounds was 68.7% (67.6% consumers/carers, 69.2% clinicians), with 184 first aid strategies rated as essential or important by > or =80% of panel members. The endorsed guidelines provide guidance on how to: recognize problem drinking; approach someone if there is concern about their drinking; support the person to change their drinking; respond if they are unwilling to change their drinking; facilitate professional help seeking and respond if professional help is refused; and manage an alcohol-related medical emergency. The guidelines provide a consensus-based resource
Despite the growing number of cross-cultural studies focusing on psychological problems, little is known about social support outside of western civilization, particularly among people in South Asian cultures. This study examined the cultural orientation regarding perceived social support and psychological problems among 912 undergraduate students (age 19-26) studying at COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, Pakistan. The present study supported variance in cultural values regarding the relative prominence of sources of support in collectivist culture indicating that low levels of family support were related to various psychological problems. Further, low levels of peer support were related to depression, anxiety, and interpersonal sensitivity. While familial support played a bigger role than peer support in affecting psychological problems, peer support also had a role to play. The results may help counsellors and researchers to identify more effectively the population of students at high risk for mental illness and develop culturally effective interventions to address this significant and growing public health issue.
Stratton, Kelcey Jane; Edwards, Alexis Christine; Overstreet, Cassie; Richardson, Lisa; Tran, Trinh Luong; Trung, Lam Tu; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Amstadter, Ananda Beth
Little is known about risk factors for adolescent mental health in Vietnam. The present study investigated the relationship between caretaker mental health and adolescent mental health in a cross-sectional Vietnamese sample. Primary caretakers completed measures of their own mental distress and general health status using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) as well as reports of adolescent mental health using the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multivariate regression models were used to examine the relationships between the caretaker and adolescent health variables. The demographic factors of age, sex, ethnicity, religious affiliation, and household wealth status demonstrated significant relationships with SDQ subscale scores. Caretaker mental health was positively associated with adolescent mental health, and this association remained significant even after accounting for other relevant demographic variables and caretaker general health status. Understanding correlates of adolescent mental health difficulties may help identify youth and families at risk for developing psychiatric problems and inform mental health interventions in Vietnam. PMID:25204862
O'Driscoll, Claire; Heary, Caroline; Hennessy, Eilis; McKeague, Lynn
Children and adolescents with mental health problems are widely reported to have problems with peer relationships; however, few studies have explored the way in which these children are regarded by their peers. For example, little is known about the nature of peer stigmatisation, and no published research has investigated implicit attitudes thus ensuring that stigma is not well understood. To address this issue, the current study explored patterns of explicit and implicit stigmatisation of peers with depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample was 385 children (M = 10.21 years) and adolescents (M = 15.36 years). Participants completed a questionnaire assessing explicit stigma towards an age- and gender-matched peer with ADHD or depression and another peer with 'normal issues' who were described in vignettes. They also completed a modified version of the implicit association test (IAT) that explored implicit attitudes towards the target peers. Questionnaire data indicated that the peer with ADHD was perceived more negatively than the peer with depression on all dimensions of stigma, except perceived dangerousness and fear. In contrast, the IAT findings suggest that some participants had more negative views of the peer with depression than the peer with ADHD. Specifically, the findings demonstrate that adolescent males demonstrated significantly stronger negative implicit evaluations of depression compared with younger males and adolescent females. Children and adolescents demonstrate stigmatising responses to peers with common mental health problems. The nature and extent of these responses depends on the type of problem and the type of measurement used. The findings highlight the importance of using both explicit and implicit measures of stigma. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Gould, Brian H; Brodie, Liz; Carver, Fiona; Logan, Pamela
The practice and policy of mental health nursing are changing. Integration of health and social care, an increased emphasis on wellness and recovery and greater expectation of involvement from both service users and carers require competence in both group and interpersonal working. The active and dynamic processes of problem based learning provide the ideal environment to achieve proficiency in these skills. The aim of this review was to understand those programme elements that best support the delivery of a problem based learning module. This study utilised a standard module evaluation. A systematic analysis of completed module evaluations allowed key themes to be established. Problem based learning helps develop the skills and attributes that mental health nursing need in an increasing collaborative and wellness focused practice environment. Successful integration of PBL is more likely to occur when student centred approaches are already incorporated within a programme. Creating the right conditions for learning are key to successful facilitation of PBL groups. Successful implementation of PBL requires identification of relevance to practice by students, a programme approach that is compatible with the aims and philosophy of PBL and a form of facilitation that encourages development of student autonomy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quach, Jon; Hiscock, Harriet; Wake, Melissa
To determine at school entry (i) the prevalence and types of child sleep problems; (ii) sleep difficulties and hygiene practices associated with sleep problems; and (iii) their associations with child health-related quality of life, mental health and parent mental health. We conducted a cross-sectional community-based study at 22 primary schools in Melbourne, Australia. One thousand five hundred and twelve (70%) parents of children in the first 6 months of the child's first year of primary school took part. Parent report of child sleep problems (none, mild, and moderate/severe); sleep difficulties; pre-bedtime activities (television in bedroom, television or electronic games before bedtime, television or electronic games >2 h/day) and caffeine intake; child mental health (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), health-related quality of life (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory); and parent mental health (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21). 38.6% of children had a parent-reported sleep problem (27.9% mild, 10.8% moderate/severe). Sleep problems were characterised by problematic sleep difficulties but not poor sleep hygiene practices. Moderate/severe sleep problems were associated with poorer child mental health (mean difference -0.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.1 to -0.5, P quality of life (mean difference -9.9; 95% CI -11.9 to -7.9, P sleep problems are common and associated with poorer child mental health, health-related quality of life and parent mental health. Future research needs to determine if systematically addressing sleep problems improves these outcomes. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Cuijpers, Pim; Donker, Tara; Weissman, Myrna M; Ravitz, Paula; Cristea, Ioana A
Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) has been developed for the treatment of depression but has been examined for several other mental disorders. A comprehensive meta-analysis of all randomized trials examining the effects of IPT for all mental health problems was conducted. Searches in PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase, and Cochrane were conducted to identify all trials examining IPT for any mental health problem. Ninety studies with 11,434 participants were included. IPT for acute-phase depression had moderate-to-large effects compared with control groups (g=0.60; 95% CI=0.45-0.75). No significant difference was found with other therapies (differential g=0.06) and pharmacotherapy (g=-0.13). Combined treatment was more effective than IPT alone (g=0.24). IPT in subthreshold depression significantly prevented the onset of major depression, and maintenance IPT significantly reduced relapse. IPT had significant effects on eating disorders, but the effects are probably slightly smaller than those of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the acute phase of treatment. In anxiety disorders, IPT had large effects compared with control groups, and there is no evidence that IPT was less effective than CBT. There was risk of bias as defined by the Cochrane Collaboration in the majority of studies. There was little indication that the presence of bias influenced outcome. IPT is effective in the acute treatment of depression and may be effective in the prevention of new depressive disorders and in preventing relapse. IPT may also be effective in the treatment of eating disorders and anxiety disorders and has shown promising effects in some other mental health disorders.
Kagee, Ashraf; Donenberg, Geri; Davids, Alicia; Vermaak, Redwaan; Simbayi, Leickness; Ward, Catherine; Naidoo, Pamela; Mthembu, Jacky
High risk sexual behaviour, alcohol and drug use, and mental health problems combine to yield high levels of HIV-risk behaviour among adolescents with mental health problems. In South Africa, little research has been conducted on parental perspectives of HIV-risk among this population. We conducted a series of focus group discussions with 28 mothers of adolescents receiving services at two mental health clinics in South Africa to identify, from their perspectives, the key community problems facing their children. Participants indicated that HIV remained a serious threat to their adolescent children's well-being, in addition to substance abuse, early sexual debut, and teenage pregnancy. These social problems were mentioned as external to their household dynamics, and thus seemingly beyond the purview of the parent-adolescent relationship. These data have implications for the design of family-based interventions to ameliorate the factors associated with HIV-risk among youth receiving mental health services.
Flapper, B.C.; Bos, A.C.; Jansen, D.E.
The prevalence of mental health problems (MHP) in children with language disorders ranges from 11 to 55%, due to additional disabilities that have a significant relationship to psychosocial difficulties. Specialists assume that children with a selective disorder [selective language impairment
Reavley, Nicola J; Jorm, Anthony F
Stigma and discrimination are central concerns for people with mental health problems. The aim of the study was to carry out a national survey in order to assess experiences of avoidance, discrimination and positive treatment in people with mental health problems. In 2014, telephone interviews were carried out with 5220 Australians aged 18+, 1381 of whom reported a mental health problem or scored highly on a symptom screening questionnaire. Questions covered experiences of avoidance, discrimination and positive treatment by friends, spouse, other family, workplace, educational institution and others in the community. In most domains, respondents reported more positive treatment experiences than avoidance or discrimination. Friends and family were more likely to avoid the person than to discriminate. The results can provide input into the design of anti-discrimination interventions and further empower people with mental health problems as they advocate for change in the area of discrimination. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Physiotherapy in mental health care and psychiatry is a recognized specialty within physiotherapy. It offers a rich variety of observational and evaluation tools as well as a range of interventions that are related to the patient’s physical and mental health problems based on evidence-based literature and a 50-year history. Physiotherapy in mental health care addresses human movement, function, physical activity and exercise in individual and group therapeutic settings. Additionally, it conne...
Kevin Y. C. Hui
Full Text Available This study examined the effectiveness of a 6-month strengths-based case management intervention with 45 Chinese participants with mental health problems in Hong Kong. Social workers provided service according to the strengths-based case management (SCM model developed at the University of Kansas. Changes in participants’ recovery components (Stage of Recovery Scale, mental health symptoms (GHQ, and satisfaction with life were assessed using a single group pretest and posttest design. Results suggest that participants had some improvement in their autonomy, hope, and overall well-being as well as satisfaction with life after receiving services. No significant improvements in the other recovery components and GHQ score were found. Significantly, a number of participants progressed from stages of being overwhelmed or struggling with disability to stages of living with or beyond disability. Strengths-based practice helped participants develop a transformed self which sees hope and possibility despite the vulnerabilities caused by their illness. Though further refinement and testing are vital, adoption of SCM in Hong Kong mental health services is promising.
Heneghan, Amy; Stein, Ruth E K; Hurlburt, Michael S; Zhang, Jinjin; Rolls-Reutz, Jennifer; Fisher, Emily; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah McCue
To examine prevalence and correlates of five mental health (MH) problems among 12-17.5 year olds investigated by child welfare. Data from the National Survey on Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW II) were analyzed to examine depression, anxiety, substance use/abuse, suicidality, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as reported by teens and their caregivers. In a sample of 815 adolescents, prevalence for each MH problem and correlates (e.g., age, placement location) were identified using bivariate and multivariable logistic analyses. After investigation for maltreatment, 42.7% of teens reported at least one MH problem, regardless of placement. Nine percent reported depression, 13.9% reported suicidality, 23% had substance use/abuse, 13.5% reported anxiety, and 18.6% had ADHD. Of 332 teens with any MH problem, 52.1% reported only one problem, 28.3% had two problems, and 19.6% had ≥ three problems. Teens with prior out-of-home placement had odds 2.29 times higher of reporting a MH problem and odds 2.12 times higher of reporting substance use/abuse. Males were significantly less likely to report depression. Older teens were more likely to report substance use/abuse. Black teens were significantly less likely to report suicidality and ADHD and almost half as likely to report anxiety. Teens with a chronic health condition and teens whose caregiver reported depression had more than twice the odds of reporting anxiety. This study highlights high rates of MH problems in teens of all ages and placement locations and suggests that all teens involved with child welfare should be screened for MH problems, regardless of initial placement status. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Stigma and discrimination present an important barrier to finding and keeping work for individuals with a mental health problem. This paper reviews evidence on: 1 employment-related disclosure beliefs and behaviours of people with a mental health problem; 2 factors associated with the disclosure of a mental health problem in the employment setting; 3 whether employers are less likely to hire applicants who disclose a mental health problem; and 4 factors influencing employers' hiring beliefs and behaviours towards job applicants with a mental health problem. Methods A systematic review was conducted for the period 1990-2010, using eight bibliographic databases. Meta-ethnography was used to provide a thematic understanding of the disclosure beliefs and behaviours of individuals with mental health problem. Results The searches yielded 8,971 items which was systematically reduced to 48 included studies. Sixteen qualitative, one mixed methods and seven quantitative studies were located containing evidence on the disclosure beliefs and behaviours of people with a mental health problem, and the factors associated with these beliefs and behaviours. In the meta-ethnography four super-ordinate themes were generated: 1 expectations and experiences of discrimination; 2 other reasons for non-disclosure; 3 reasons for disclosure; and 4 disclosure dimensions. Two qualitative, one mixed methods and 22 quantitative studies provided data to address the remaining two questions on the employers perspective. Conclusions By presenting evidence from the perspective of individuals on both sides of the employment interaction, this review provides integrated perspective on the impact of disclosure of a mental health problem on employment outcomes.
Brohan, Elaine; Henderson, Claire; Wheat, Kay; Malcolm, Estelle; Clement, Sarah; Barley, Elizabeth A; Slade, Mike; Thornicroft, Graham
Stigma and discrimination present an important barrier to finding and keeping work for individuals with a mental health problem. This paper reviews evidence on: 1) employment-related disclosure beliefs and behaviours of people with a mental health problem; 2) factors associated with the disclosure of a mental health problem in the employment setting; 3) whether employers are less likely to hire applicants who disclose a mental health problem; and 4) factors influencing employers' hiring beliefs and behaviours towards job applicants with a mental health problem. A systematic review was conducted for the period 1990-2010, using eight bibliographic databases. Meta-ethnography was used to provide a thematic understanding of the disclosure beliefs and behaviours of individuals with mental health problem. The searches yielded 8,971 items which was systematically reduced to 48 included studies. Sixteen qualitative, one mixed methods and seven quantitative studies were located containing evidence on the disclosure beliefs and behaviours of people with a mental health problem, and the factors associated with these beliefs and behaviours. In the meta-ethnography four super-ordinate themes were generated: 1) expectations and experiences of discrimination; 2) other reasons for non-disclosure; 3) reasons for disclosure; and 4) disclosure dimensions. Two qualitative, one mixed methods and 22 quantitative studies provided data to address the remaining two questions on the employers perspective. By presenting evidence from the perspective of individuals on both sides of the employment interaction, this review provides integrated perspective on the impact of disclosure of a mental health problem on employment outcomes.
Reavley, Nicola J; Morgan, Amy J; Rossetto, Alyssia; Jorm, Anthony F
The aim of the study was to explore self-reported avoidance, discrimination, and positive treatment by members of the public towards people with mental health problems. In 2014, telephone interviews were carried out with 5220 Australians aged 18 +. Respondents were asked if they had known an adult with a mental health problem over the previous 12 months. If they had, they were asked further questions about the person's age, gender, relationship to the respondent, and their mental health problem. Respondents were then asked if they had avoided, discriminated against or treated the person more positively and, if so, some details about what happened. 19.9% of respondents reported avoiding someone with a mental health problem, with the most common reasons being difficulty tolerating the person's behaviour and needing time out. However, respondents were more likely to report treating the person with mental health problems more positively (73.0%) than avoiding or discriminating against them (4.7%). The most common positive behaviours were non-specific support and maintaining or increasing contact. Avoidance was less likely from friends and those aged 60 +. Discrimination was more likely from family members and spouses and less likely from respondents aged 60 +. Positive treatment was more likely from people who had experienced a mental health problem. This study provides insight into the reasons why people avoid others with mental health problems. The results can provide input into the design of anti-discrimination interventions and further empower people with mental health problems as they advocate for change in the area of discrimination.
The name of Fukushima has now become well-known worldwide after Hiroshima and Nagasaki as the third place exposed to radiation in Japan. This radiation pollution has severely damaged the chief industries of Fukushima Prefecture, namely agriculture, fishery, and tourist industry. It has also stimulated strong anxious feelings among parents with young children. The accident has caused a critical situation in the psychiatric and mental health services in Fukushima as well. Five hospitals with psychiatric beds within 30 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant were ordered to transfer their inpatients to other hospitals outside the designated 30 km-areas and to close down the hospitals immediately after the nuclear plant accident. In total, more than 800 psychiatric beds disappeared in an instant, and 1,228 persons including psychiatric inpatients and residents of elderly people nursing homes were transferred to other facilities far away. Rational explanation that low-level radiation in Fukushima will not do harm to people did not necessarily relieve existing anxiety among people. The terms 'safety' and 'relief' are usually used in combination; however, 'relief' was separated from 'safety' this time in Fukushima. People gradually began to feel 'relieved', when they themselves got involved in the cleaning work of radiation although its effect remained ambiguous. Now we have the following mental health problems after the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident; recovery and maintenance of treatment systems for psychiatric patients in the affected areas, efforts for early detection and intervention of depression, severe stress disorder, adaptation disorder, and alcohol abuse which are expected to occur due to the earthquake and radiation pollution, prevention of suicides, relief from anxiety resulting from radiation pollution, adequate treatment of mental problems among children with long-term evacuation, prevention of fall in physical and mental
Gökgöz-Durmaz, Funda; Cihan, Fatma Gökşin; Uzun, Meltem; Kutlu, Ruhuşen
Mental health problems and parental anxiety in children with epilepsy were investigated. Parents of 83 children with epilepsy and 172 healthy children were asked to complete Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for their children and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for themselves. In those with epilepsy, 39.8% (n: 33) were girls, 60.2% (n: 50) were boys and their mean age was 9.34 ± 3.99 years. Control group was more successful in school (p children with epilepsy was higher than control group (p anxiety levels of parents of children with epilepsy were higher. Children with epilepsy have more neuro-behavioral problems; and their parents have greater anxiety levels. Physicians should be in contact with children with epilepsy for the psychological health of the family besides seizure control.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On April 14, 2010, an earthquake registering 7.1 on the Richter scale shook Qinghai Province in southwest China. The earthquake caused numerous casualties and much damage. The epicenter, Yushu County, suffered the most severe damage. As a part of the psychological relief work, the present study evaluated the mental health statuses of the people affected and identified the mental disorder risk factors related to earthquakes. METHODS: Five hundred and five earthquake survivors living in Yushu County were investigated 3-4 months after the earthquake. Participant demographic data including gender, age, marital status, ethnicity, educational level, and religious beliefs were collected. The Earthquake-Specific Trauma Exposure Indicators assessed the intensity of exposure to trauma during the earthquake. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian version (PCL-C and the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 (HSCL-25 assessed the symptoms and prevalence rates of probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD as well as anxiety and depression, respectively. The Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS evaluated subjective social support. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of probable PTSD, anxiety, and depression were 33.7%, 43.8% and 38.6%, respectively. Approximately one fifth of participants suffered from all three conditions. Individuals who were female, felt initial fear during the earthquake, and had less social support were the most likely to have poor mental health. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed that there are serious mental problems among the hard-hit survivors of the Yushu earthquake. Survivors at high risk for mental disorders should be specifically considered. The present study provides useful information for rebuilding and relief work.
Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Wenzhong; Shi, Zhanbiao; Wang, Li; Zhang, Jianxin
On April 14, 2010, an earthquake registering 7.1 on the Richter scale shook Qinghai Province in southwest China. The earthquake caused numerous casualties and much damage. The epicenter, Yushu County, suffered the most severe damage. As a part of the psychological relief work, the present study evaluated the mental health statuses of the people affected and identified the mental disorder risk factors related to earthquakes. Five hundred and five earthquake survivors living in Yushu County were investigated 3-4 months after the earthquake. Participant demographic data including gender, age, marital status, ethnicity, educational level, and religious beliefs were collected. The Earthquake-Specific Trauma Exposure Indicators assessed the intensity of exposure to trauma during the earthquake. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian version (PCL-C) and the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) assessed the symptoms and prevalence rates of probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) as well as anxiety and depression, respectively. The Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) evaluated subjective social support. The prevalence rates of probable PTSD, anxiety, and depression were 33.7%, 43.8% and 38.6%, respectively. Approximately one fifth of participants suffered from all three conditions. Individuals who were female, felt initial fear during the earthquake, and had less social support were the most likely to have poor mental health. The present study revealed that there are serious mental problems among the hard-hit survivors of the Yushu earthquake. Survivors at high risk for mental disorders should be specifically considered. The present study provides useful information for rebuilding and relief work.
Gerasimos A. Kolaitis
Full Text Available This review will provide a concise description of mental health problems in parents of children with a (non-syndromic congenital heart disease (CHD during different stressful periods. Predictors of these problems and also implications for clinical practice will be mentioned. Having a child with CHD can be very stressful for parents, who have to face overwhelming emotions and also extra physical, financial, and other practical challenges. Parental distress has been reported in 30–80% of parents and appears not to be related to severity of CHD. Parental mental health, parenting, the parent–child relationship, and parental quality of life can all be affected. Parents, and especially mothers, are at risk of psychological distress, anxiety, depression, somatization, hopelessness, and posttraumatic stress symptoms, which in turn may influence mother’s responsiveness. In the long term, the majority of parents adapt successfully to living with a child with CHD, but approximately 40% report a need for psychosocial care. These families may be helped by early psychosocial interventions to alleviate stress and reduce children’s emotional and behavioral problems. A holistic approach to early psychosocial interventions should aim at improving coping and enhance parenting. During routine medical checkups, medical professionals should ask about parental stress, family functioning, and psychosocial functioning of the child and, when needed, adequate psychosocial care should be provided.
Wolters, Annemiek E; Peelen, Linda M; Welling, Maartje C; Kok, Lotte; de Lange, Dylan W; Cremer, Olaf L; van Dijk, Diederik; Slooter, Arjen J C; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S
To determine whether delirium during ICU stay is associated with long-term mental health problems defined as symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Prospective cohort study. Survey study, 1 year after discharge from a medical-surgical ICU in the Netherlands. One-year ICU survivors of an ICU admission lasting more than 48 hours, without a neurologic disorder or other condition that would impede delirium assessment during ICU stay. None. One year after discharge, ICU survivors received a survey containing the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale with a subscale for symptoms of depression and a subscale for symptoms of anxiety, and the Impact of Event Scale 15 item measuring symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Participants were classified as having experienced no delirium (n = 270; 48%), a single day of delirium (n = 86; 15%), or multiple days of delirium (n = 211; 37%) during ICU stay. Log-binomial regression was used to assess the association between delirium and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The study population consisted of 567 subjects; of whom 246 subjects (43%) reported symptoms of anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale with a subscale for anxiety, ≥ 8), and 254 (45%) symptoms of depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale with a subscale for depression, ≥ 8). In 220 patients (39%), the Impact of Event Scale 15 item was greater than or equal to 35, indicating a high probability of posttraumatic stress disorder. There was substantial overlap between these mental health problems-63% of the subjects who scored positive for the presence of any three of the mental health problems, scored positive for all three. No association was observed between either a single day or multiple days of delirium and symptoms of anxiety, depression, or posttraumatic stress disorder. Although symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder were found to be common 1 year after
Amanda J Mason-Jones
Full Text Available To explore the link between alcohol use, binge drinking and mental health problems in a representative sample of adolescent and young adult Chileans.Age and sex-adjusted Odds Ratios (OR for four mental wellbeing measures were estimated with separate conditional logistic regression models for adolescents aged 15-20 years, and young adults aged 21-25 years, using population-based estimates of alcohol use prevalence rates from the Chilean National Health Survey 2010.Sixty five per cent of adolescents and 85% of young adults reported drinking alcohol in the last year and of those 83% per cent of adolescents and 86% of young adults reported binge drinking in the previous month. Adolescents who reported binging alcohol were also more likely, compared to young adults, to report being always or almost always depressed (OR 12.97 [95% CI, 1.86-19.54] or to feel very anxious in the last month (OR 9.37 [1.77-19.54]. Adolescent females were more likely to report poor life satisfaction in the previous year than adolescent males (OR 8.50 [1.61-15.78], feel always or almost always depressed (OR 3.41 [1.25-9.58]. Being female was also associated with a self-reported diagnosis of depression for both age groups (adolescents, OR 4.74 [1.49-15.08] and young adults, OR 4.08 [1.65-10.05].Young people in Chile self-report a high prevalence of alcohol use, binge drinking and associated mental health problems. The harms associated with alcohol consumption need to be highlighted through evidence-based prevention programs. Health and education systems need to be strengthened to screen and support young people. Focussing on policy initiatives to limit beverage companies targeting alcohol to young people will also be needed.
Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Tekkel, Mare; Aluoja, Anu; Leinsalu, Mall
To study the long-term mental health consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident among cleanup workers from Estonia. In 2010, 614 Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers and 706 geographically and age-matched population-based controls completed a mail survey that included self-rated health, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL), alcohol symptoms (AUDIT), and scales measuring depressive, anxiety, agoraphobia, fatigue, insomnia, and somatization symptoms. Respondents were dichotomized into high (top quartile) and low symptom groups on each measure. Logistic regression analysis detected significant differences between cleanup workers and controls on all measures even after adjustment for ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The strongest difference was found for somatization, with cleanup workers being three times more likely than controls to score in the top quartile (OR = 3.28, 95% CI 2.39-4.52), whereas for alcohol problems the difference was half as large (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.16-1.99). Among cleanup workers, arrival at Chernobyl in 1986 (vs. later) was associated with sleep problems, somatization, and symptoms of agoraphobia. The toll of cleanup work was evident 24 years after the Chernobyl accident among Estonian cleanup workers indicating the need for focused mental health interventions.
Amone-P'Olak, K.; Ormel, J.; Huisman, Martijn; Verhulst, F.C.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Burger, Huib
Objective: Life stressors and family socioeconomic position have often been associated with mental health status. The aim of the present study is to contribute to the understanding of the pathways from low socioeconomic position and life stressors to mental problems. Method: In a cross-sectional
João P. Pacheco
Full Text Available Objective: To provide a comprehensive picture of mental health problems (MHPs in Brazilian medical students by documenting their prevalence and association with co-factors. Methods: We systematically searched the MEDLINE/PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, and PsycINFO databases for cross-sectional studies on the prevalence of MHPs among medical students in Brazil published before September 29, 2016. We pooled prevalences using a random-effects meta-analysis, and summarized factors associated with MHP. Results: We included 59 studies in the analysis. For meta-analyses, we identified the summary prevalence of different MHPs, including depression (25 studies, prevalence 30.6%, common mental disorders (13 studies, prevalence 31.5%, burnout (three studies, prevalence 13.1%, problematic alcohol use (three studies, prevalence 32.9%, stress (six studies, prevalence 49.9%, low sleep quality (four studies, prevalence 51.5%, excessive daytime sleepiness (four studies, prevalence 46.1%, and anxiety (six studies, prevalence 32.9%. Signs of lack of motivation, emotional support, and academic overload correlated with MHPs. Conclusion: Several MHPs are highly prevalent among future physicians in Brazil. Evidence-based interventions and psychosocial support are needed to promote mental health among Brazilian medical students.
Muhammad Tahir Khalily
Full Text Available Objectives: This paper discusses the increasing incidence of mental health problems in Pakistan, and specifically in the Swat valley, in relation to the growing insurgency and current violence in Pakistani society. The paper argues that the health care system's response in Pakistan is not adequate to meet the current challenges and that changes in policy are needed to build mental health care services as an important component of the basic health package at primary care level in the public sector.Method: This paper reviews the existing mental health situation in Pakistan with reference to the findings of a case study in the Swat valley in Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa Pakistan. The figures presented in the case study are used to support the need for an integrated national mental health policy.Conclusion: Mental health care needs to be incorporated as a core service in primary care and supported by specialist services. There is a strong need to provide adequate training for general practitioners and postgraduate training for mental health professionals to meet the current demands. A collaborative network between stakeholders in the public and private sector, as well as non-governmental organisations are required that promotes mental health care and advocates for changes in mental health policy.
Higgins, Agnes; Tuohy, Teresa; Murphy, Rebecca; Begley, Cecily
to explore the views and experiences of women with mental health difficulties, in the Republic of Ireland, accessing and receiving care from publicly-funded maternity care services during pregnancy, childbirth and immediate postnatal period in hospital. in total 20 women with a range of mental health problems were recruited. The women had given birth within maternity services with and without specialist perinatal mental health services. a qualitative descriptive design using in-depth face to face interviews was used to explore women׳s experience. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic process. the study offers valuable insights into the maternity care experiences of women with mental health problems, and highlights the deficits and fragmentation of care in maternity units that do not have a specialist mental health service. Even when the women voluntarily disclosed their difficulties, midwives appeared to lack the knowledge and skills to respond sensitively and responsively. there is a need to expand perinatal mental health services in the Republic of Ireland, so that quality service provision is not dependent on geography. In addition, there is a need for education to address the lack of knowledge and understanding of perinatal mental health problems amongst maternity care practitioners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eldik, T. van; Treffers, P.D.A.; Veerman, J.W.; Verhulst, F.C.
Emotional/behavioral problems of 238 deaf Dutch children ages 4-18 years were studied. Parental reports indicated that 41% had emotional/behavioral problems, a rate nearly 2.6 times higher than the 16% reported by parents of a Dutch normative sample. Mental health problems seemed most prevalent in
Health promotion is essential to improve the health status and quality of life of individuals. Promoting mental health at an individual, community and policy level is central to reducing the incidence of mental health problems, including self-harm and suicide. Men may be particularly vulnerable to mental health problems, in part because they are less likely to seek help from healthcare professionals. Although this article discusses mental health promotion and related strategies in general, th...
Wang, Jun; Liu, Ke; Zheng, Jing; Liu, Jiali; You, Liming
Rural-to-urban migration, which has achieved a huge scale during China's economic reform, is a potential risk factor for the mental health of migrant children. To test this hypothesis, this study assessed the mental health status of rural-to-urban migrant children. Guided by Andersen's behavioral model, the study explored the risk factors associated with mental health. The study recruited 1182 fifth/sixth-grade children from four private and four public primary schools in Guangzhou in 2014 in a descriptive cross-sectional design. Mental health status was measured by the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Predisposing characteristics including demographics (e.g., age, gender), social structure (e.g., education, occupation) and health beliefs (health attitude) were recorded. Enabling characteristics including family and community resources and the need for health services were analyzed to explore the risk factors. The results indicate that more rural-to-urban migrant children were classified in the abnormal (21.0%) or borderline (18.8%) categories based on the total difficulties scores, the proportions of which were much higher than those of local children (9.8% abnormal, 13.8% borderline). Factors associated with a greater likelihood of mental health problems included single-parent families, seeking health information actively, family income cannot meet basic needs and poor perceived health status. Compared with the local children, the rural-to-urban migrant children had relatively poor mental health, hence monitoring and supporting mental health for rural-urban migrant children is critical.
Keith, Diana R; Hart, Carl L; McNeil, Michael P; Silver, Rae; Goodwin, Renee D
In light of the rapidly changing legal status of marijuana in the U.S., there has been increased interest in the potentially adverse outcomes of heavy marijuana use among young persons. The goal of this study was to investigate frequent marijuana use among undergraduates, and its association with the use of illicit substances, mental health problems, and stress. Undergraduates from one university in the Northeast were surveyed using a questionnaire derived from the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (N = 1,776). Logistic regression analyses were used to examine relationships between frequency of marijuana use and other substance use, binge drinking, negative consequences of drinking, mental health problems, and perceived stress. Analyses were adjusted for demographics differences such as gender, race, year in school, and sorority/fraternity membership. Approximately 1 in 12 undergraduates (8.5%) reported using marijuana more than 10 days in the past month. Frequent marijuana use was associated with increased likelihood of other substance use and alcohol-related negative outcomes. Marijuana use was associated with increased reports of anxiety, and frequent use was associated with depression and substance use problems. Perceived stress was not associated with marijuana use. These findings, indicating that frequent use is related to depression, other substance use and negative outcomes, contribute to our understanding of marijuana use among undergraduates. Given the relatively high prevalence of marijuana use among young persons, future studies should seek to uncover potentially causal relationships between frequent marijuana use and a variety of negative outcomes. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Razik, Saiqa; Ehring, Thomas; Emmelkamp, Paul M G
Earlier research showing moderate to high prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems in emergency personnel has mostly been carried out in Western countries. Data from non-Western countries are largely lacking. The current study aimed to gather evidence on the prevalence of PTSD, anxiety, and depression in N=125 Pakistani emergency workers, most of whom (n=100; 80%) had been exposed to terrorist attacks. Fifteen percent of participants showed clinically relevant levels of PTSD, and 11-16% of participants reported heightened levels of anxiety or depression. Neither the experience of terrorist attacks per se nor the severity of the attack experienced was related to symptom severities. However, symptom levels of PTSD were related to a number of predictor variables, including subjective threat, peritraumatic dissociation, past traumas, rumination, and avoidant coping. Only a few variables were predictive of levels of anxiety and depression. In sum, a substantial subgroup of emergency workers experienced mental health problems, and prevalences were in the high range of those reported in earlier studies focusing on emergency personnel in Western countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schraeder, Kyleigh E; Reid, Graham J; Brown, Judith Belle
Children's mental health (CMH) problems can be long-lasting. Even among children and youth who receive specialized CMH treatment, recurrence of problems is common. It is unknown whether youth and their parents view the possibility of future mental health problems. This has important implications for how CMH services should be delivered. This grounded theory study gained perspectives from youth (aged 12-15 years) who received CMH treatment ( n = 10) and their parents ( n = 10) about the expected course of CMH problems. Three disorder trajectories emerged: (a) not chronic, (b) chronic and persistent, and (c) chronic and remitting, with the majority of youth falling in the third trajectory. A gap in available services between CMH and adult care was perceived by parents, leaving them either help hopeful or help hungry about their child's future care. Improving care for youth with ongoing mental health problems is needed to minimize costs to families and the system.
Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; van Pampus, Mariëlle G; Ormel, Johan; Meijer, Judith L; Hartman, Catharina A; Burger, Huibert
BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression (PPD) follows 5-15% of the life births and forms a major threat to the child's mental health and psychosocial development. However, the nature, continuance, and mediators of the association of postpartum depression (PPD) with the child's mental health are not well
Pescosolido, Bernice A; Fettes, Danielle L; Martin, Jack K; Monahan, John; McLeod, Jane D
This study examined the public's beliefs regarding the potential for harm to self and others and the public's willingness to invoke coercive or legal means to ensure treatment of children. Using data from the National Stigma Study-Children (NSS-C), which presented vignettes to 1,152 individuals, the investigators compared public perceptions of the dangerousness of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), major depression, asthma, and "daily troubles." Multivariate analyses were used to examine the predictors of perceptions of dangerousness and the willingness to support legally enforced treatment of these conditions. Children with ADHD and children with major depression were perceived (by 33% and 81% of the sample, respectively) as somewhat likely or very likely to be dangerous to themselves or others, compared with children with asthma (15%) or those with "daily troubles" (13%). Over one-third of the sample (35%) were willing to use legal means to force children with depression to see a clinician. However, even more (42%) endorsed forced treatment for a child with asthma. Furthermore, individuals who labeled the child as "mentally ill" were approximately twice as likely to report a potential for violence and five times as likely to support forced treatment. Large numbers of people in the United States link children's mental health problems, particularly depression, to a potential for violence and support legally mandated treatment. These evaluations appear to reflect the stigma associated with mental illness and the public's concern for parental responsibility.
Saillant, S; Hudelson, P; Dominicé Dao, M; Junod Perron, N
Thirty to forty percent of patients seen in primary care medicine suffer from mental health problems, but primary care physicians (PCPs) often feel unprepared to deal with their patients' mental health problems. Joint consultations conducted with a liaison psychiatrist can help. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the experience of joint consultations in a primary care service in Geneva, Switzerland. We retrospectively analyzed reports of psychiatric evaluations conducted between October 2010 and August 2012 (n=182), in the Primary Care Service of the Geneva University Hospitals. We also carried out 4 focus groups with 23 physicians-in-training to explore their experiences and perceptions of the joint consultations. Seventy two percent of the evaluations resulted in a psychiatric diagnosis. Psychiatric follow-up was not considered necessary in 61% of cases. Focus groups revealed that prior to experiencing joint consultations, PCPs considered mental health problems to be the domain of psychiatrists and outside their own area of competence. Joint consultations helped to demystify the role of psychiatrists, reduce their anxiety and increase PCPs' confidence in dealing with patients' mental health problems. Joint consultations enabled PCPs to shift away from a dichotomous view of somatic versus mental health problems and their management, and towards a more integrated view. Joint consultations provide a useful strategy for training primary care physicians in the management of mental health problems. Integrated management of somatic and mental health problems can lead to a better understanding of the patient and improve the therapeutic relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Maj Britt D; Rugulies, Reiner; Hjortkjaer, Charlotte; Bültmann, Ute; Christensen, Ulla
Mental health problems (MHPs) such as stress and depression are among the leading causes of work disability. In this article we explore how women with MHPs experience sickness absence and subsequent return to work. We conducted 16 semistructured interviews and employed constructivist grounded theory for the analysis. We found that whereas sickness absence constituted a major threat to positive self-images, the experience had potential as a personal growth experience: Although some women felt handicapped, others became stronger and more self-confident. The core of the experience was not the return to work but a process of healing a vulnerable self--the ability both to refocus attention from symptoms to other life goals and to maintain or reconstruct a positive self-image. Supportive health care and acknowledgment from others facilitated the healing process.
Pilgrim, David; Rogers, Anne; Bentall, Richard
An interdisciplinary case is made for the centrality of personal relationships in the creation and amelioration of mental health problems. Taking the work of John Bowlby as a starting point, the article summarizes accumulating evidence from the past 50 years about the link between childhood adversity and adult mental health problems. Evidence is also reviewed about contemporary interpersonal impacts on adult mental health from natural social settings and in professional therapy. These empirical summaries are then discussed in the context of dominant trends in professional knowledge about bio-determinism within psychiatry and the emphasis upon models and techniques in professional and political advocates of the psychological therapies. It is concluded that the latter trends are diverting us from policies, which properly concede the importance of relationships for improving the mental health of the population.
Bolton, Paul; Michalopoulos, Lynn; Ahmed, Ahmed Mohammed Amin; Murray, Laura K; Bass, Judith
From 1986-9, the Kurdish population of Iraqi Kurdistan was subjected to an intense campaign of military action, and genocide by the central Iraq government. This campaign, referred to as the Anfal, included systematic attacks consisting of aerial bombings, mass deportation, imprisonment, torture, and chemical warfare. It has been estimated that around 200,000 Kurdish people disappeared. To gain a better understanding of current priority mental health and psychosocial problems among Kurdish survivors of the Anfal, and to inform the subsequent design of culturally appropriate and relevant assessment instruments and services to address these problems. The study examined 1) the nature and cause of current problems of survivors of torture and/or civilian attacks and their families, 2) what survivors do to address these problems, and 3) what they felt should be done. We used a grounded theory approach. Free list interviews with a convenience sample (n=42) explored the current problems of Kurdish persons affected by torture. Subsequent key informant interviews (n=21) gathered more detailed information on the priority mental health problem areas identified in the free list interviews. Major mental health problem areas emerging from the free list interviews (and explored in the key informant interviews) included 1) problems directly related to the torture, 2) problems related to the current situation, and 3) problems related to the perception and treatment by others in the community. Problems were similar, but not identical, to Western concepts of depression, anxiety, PTSD and related trauma, and traumatic grief. Iraqi Kurdish torture survivors in Iraq have many mental health and psychosocial problems found among torture survivors elsewhere. The findings suggest that the problems are a result of the trauma experienced as well as current stressors. Development of mental health assessment tools and interventions should therefore address both previous trauma and current
Levin, Michael; Krafft, Jennifer; Levin, Crissa
Objective: This study examined whether self-help (books, websites, mobile apps) increases help seeking for mental health problems among college students by minimizing stigma as a barrier. Participants and Methods: A survey was conducted with 200 college students reporting elevated distress from February to April 2017. Results: Intentions to use self-help were low, but a significant portion of students unwilling to see mental health professionals intended to use self-help. Greater self-stigma ...
Zeratsion, Henok; Dalsklev, Madeleine; Bjertness, Espen; Lien, Lars; Haavet, Ole R; Halvorsen, Jon A; Bjertness, Cecilie B; Claussen, Bjørgulf
Former studies have shown increased mental health problems in adolescents after parental divorce all over the Western world. We wanted to see if that still is the case in Norway today when divorce turns to be more and more common. In a prospective study design, two samples were constituted, adolescents at a baseline survey in 2001/02 (n = 2422) and those at follow-up in 2003/04 (n = 1861), when the adolescents were 15/16 and 18/19 years-old, respectively. They answered self-administered questionnaires in both surveys of Young-HUBRO in Oslo. Early parental divorce was defined as that which occured before age 15/16 years, and late divorce occured between age 15/16 and 18/19. Internalized and externalized mental health problems were measured by the Hopkin's Symptom Check List (HSCL-10) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). After linear regression models were adjusted for gender, ethnicity, family economy, social support, and mental health problem symptoms measured at baseline before parental divorce occured, late parental divorce did not lead to significant increase in mental health problems among adolescents in the city of Oslo. Early parental divorce was associated with internal mental health problems among young adolescents when adjusted only for the first four possible confounders. It seems that parental divorce in late adolescence does not lead to mental health problems in Norway any more, as has been shown before, while such problems may prevail among young adolescents. This does not mean that parental divorce create less problems in late adolescence than before but these youths might have developed adjustment abilities against health effects as divorce have turned to be more common.
John A. Cunningham
Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbidity between problem gambling and depression or anxiety is common. Further, the treatment needs of people with co-occurring gambling and mental health symptoms may be different from those of problem gamblers who do not have a co-occurring mental health concern. The current randomized controlled trial (RCT will evaluate whether there is a benefit to providing access to mental health Internet interventions (G + MH intervention in addition to an Internet intervention for problem gambling (G-only intervention in participants with gambling problems who do or do not have co-occurring mental health symptoms. Methods Potential participants will be screened using an online survey to identify participants meeting criteria for problem gambling. As part of the baseline screening process, measures of current depression and anxiety will be assessed. Eligible participants agreeing (N = 280 to take part in the study will be randomized to one of two versions of an online intervention for gamblers – an intervention that just targets gambling issues (G-only versus a website that contains interventions for depression and anxiety in addition to an intervention for gamblers (G + MH. It is predicted that problem gamblers who do not have co-occurring mental health symptoms will display no significant difference between intervention conditions at a six-month follow-up. However, for those with co-occurring mental health symptoms, it is predicted that participants receiving access to the G + MH website will display significantly reduced gambling outcomes at six-month follow-up as compared to those provided with G-only website. Discussion The trial will produce information on the best means of providing online help to gamblers with and without co-occurring mental health symptoms. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02800096 ; Registration date: June 14, 2016.
Cunningham, John A; Hodgins, David C; Bennett, Kylie; Bennett, Anthony; Talevski, Marina; Mackenzie, Corey S; Hendershot, Christian S
Comorbidity between problem gambling and depression or anxiety is common. Further, the treatment needs of people with co-occurring gambling and mental health symptoms may be different from those of problem gamblers who do not have a co-occurring mental health concern. The current randomized controlled trial (RCT) will evaluate whether there is a benefit to providing access to mental health Internet interventions (G + MH intervention) in addition to an Internet intervention for problem gambling (G-only intervention) in participants with gambling problems who do or do not have co-occurring mental health symptoms. Potential participants will be screened using an online survey to identify participants meeting criteria for problem gambling. As part of the baseline screening process, measures of current depression and anxiety will be assessed. Eligible participants agreeing (N = 280) to take part in the study will be randomized to one of two versions of an online intervention for gamblers - an intervention that just targets gambling issues (G-only) versus a website that contains interventions for depression and anxiety in addition to an intervention for gamblers (G + MH). It is predicted that problem gamblers who do not have co-occurring mental health symptoms will display no significant difference between intervention conditions at a six-month follow-up. However, for those with co-occurring mental health symptoms, it is predicted that participants receiving access to the G + MH website will display significantly reduced gambling outcomes at six-month follow-up as compared to those provided with G-only website. The trial will produce information on the best means of providing online help to gamblers with and without co-occurring mental health symptoms. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02800096 ; Registration date: June 14, 2016.
Besse, Christine; Poremski, Daniel; Laliberté, Vincent; Latimer, Eric
Many clinicians are concerned that competitive work may cause excessive stress for people with severe mental health problems. Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is acknowledged as the most effective model of supported employment for this population. The manner in which IPS clients define and experience employment-related stress is poorly understood. This qualitative study aims to explore how people with mental health problems receiving IPS services define and experience employment-related stress. We purposively sampled and interviewed 16 clients of an IPS programme, who had been competitively employed for more than 1 month. Data were collected between September 2014 and July 2015 in Montreal, Canada. Transcripts of semi-structured interviews were analysed using grounded theory methodology. IPS clients often defined stress similar to its common understanding: the result of experiencing prolonged or/and cumulative strains, or of an incongruence between efforts and rewards, hopes and reality. Stress experienced in this way could exacerbate psychiatric symptoms, especially depression or psychotic symptoms. However, when maintained at a more manageable level, stress stimulated learning and improved planning of tasks. Participants described different coping mechanisms, such as sharing their experiences and difficulties with others, focusing on problem resolution and avoidance. The first two of these helped IPS clients remain at work and bolstered their confidence. Work-related stress has potentially positive as well as negative consequences for IPS clients. In order to maximise the potential beneficial effects of stress, employment specialists can help clients anticipate potential stressors and plan how they might cope with them. Further research on the most effective ways of helping clients cope with stress is needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Purpose This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of various learning styles among medical students and their correlations with academic achievement and mental health problems in these students. Methods This study was conducted among 140 first-year medical students of Chiang Mai University, Thailand in 2014. The participants completed the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK questionnaire, the results of which can be categorized into 4 modes, corresponding to how many of the 4 types are preferred by a respondent. The 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 and the 21-item Outcome Inventory (OI-21 were also used. The participants’ demographic data, grade point average (GPA, and scores of all measurements are presented using simple statistics. Correlation and regression analysis were employed to analyze differences in the scores and to determine the associations among them. Results Sixty percent of the participants were female. The mean age was 18.86±0.74 years old. Quadmodal was found to be the most preferred VARK mode (43.6%. Unimodal, bimodal, and trimodal modes were preferred by 35%, 12.9%, and 18.6% of the participants, respectively. Among the strong unimodal learners, visual, aural, read/write, and kinesthetic preferences were reported by 4.3%, 7.1%, 11.4%, and 12.1% of participants, respectively. No difference was observed in the PSS-10, OI-anxiety, OI-depression, and OI-somatization scores according to the VARK modes, although a significant effect was found for OI-interpersonal (F=2.788, P=0.043. Moreover, neither VARK modes nor VARK types were correlated with GPA. Conclusion The most preferred VARK learning style among medical students was quadmodal. Learning styles were not associated with GPA or mental health problems, except for interpersonal problems.
Paiboonsithiwong, Salilthip; Kunanitthaworn, Natchaya; Songtrijuck, Natchaphon; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Wongpakaran, Tinakon
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of various learning styles among medical students and their correlations with academic achievement and mental health problems in these students. This study was conducted among 140 first-year medical students of Chiang Mai University, Thailand in 2014. The participants completed the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire, the results of which can be categorized into 4 modes, corresponding to how many of the 4 types are preferred by a respondent. The 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and the 21-item Outcome Inventory (OI-21) were also used. The participants' demographic data, grade point average (GPA), and scores of all measurements are presented using simple statistics. Correlation and regression analysis were employed to analyze differences in the scores and to determine the associations among them. Sixty percent of the participants were female. The mean age was 18.86±0.74 years old. Quadmodal was found to be the most preferred VARK mode (43.6%). Unimodal, bimodal, and trimodal modes were preferred by 35%, 12.9%, and 18.6% of the participants, respectively. Among the strong unimodal learners, visual, aural, read/write, and kinesthetic preferences were reported by 4.3%, 7.1%, 11.4%, and 12.1% of participants, respectively. No difference was observed in the PSS-10, OI-anxiety, OI-depression, and OI-somatization scores according to the VARK modes, although a significant effect was found for OI-interpersonal (F=2.788, P=0.043). Moreover, neither VARK modes nor VARK types were correlated with GPA. The most preferred VARK learning style among medical students was quadmodal. Learning styles were not associated with GPA or mental health problems, except for interpersonal problems.
He, W J; Xia, J H; Lv, X; Li, L M
Objective: To investigate the current status of depression and anxiety among female staff in a maternal and child health hospital, and to provide a basis for developing related prevention and intervention measures and promoting the mental health of female staff. Methods: The female staff from a provincial maternal and child health hospital completed a psycho-health questionnaire survey on Internet from June to October, 2016. The questionnaires used in the survey consisted of Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) , Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) , and Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) . The distribution features of mental health problems such as depression and anxiety were analyzed according to the results: of the questionnaire survey. Results Of all female staff surveyed, 42.04% showed depression symptoms, 28.90% showed anxiety symptoms, and 26.12% showed comorbid symptoms of depression and anxiety. Moderate or severe depression (anxiety) was mainly distributed among the female staff with comorbid symptoms (90.63% and 97.01%, respectively) . There were significant differences in the distribution of moderate or severe anxiety symptoms between the medical staff and nursing staff (χ(2)= 5.81, P =0.05) and between those with intermediate and junior professional titles (χ(2)=7.99, P =0.018) . As for SCL-90 results, the total score, total average score, and scores on factors of somatization, compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, and anxiety in the female staff with comorbid symptoms, moderate or severe depression, and moderate or severe anxiety were significantly higher than the national norm ( P staff with comorbid symptoms than in the female staff with a single symptom and asymptomatic female staff (both P staff in the maternal and child health hospital, mainly characterized by comorbid symptoms of moderate or severe depression and anxiety. Comorbidity is accompanied by mental health problems such as interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive compulsion
Gellatly, Judith; Chisnall, Leanne; Seccombe, Nic; Ragan, Kathryn; Lidbetter, Nicola; Cavanagh, Kate
Ensuring rapid access to psychological interventions is a priority of mental health services. The involvement of peer workers to support the delivery of more accessible treatment options such as computerized cognitive behaviour therapy (CCBT) is recognized. To evaluate the implementation of a third sector remote CCBT @Home eTherapy service for people experiencing common mental health problems supported by individuals with lived experience. Supported CCBT packages with telephone support were delivered over a 30-month period. Self-complete measures identifying levels of depression, anxiety and functioning were administered at each treatment appointment. Over 2000 people were referred to the @Home eTherapy service; two-thirds attended an initial assessment and 53.4% of referrals assigned to CCBT completed treatment. Statistically significant improvements in anxiety, depression and functioning were found, with 61.6% of treated clients meeting recovery criteria. The service meets Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) key performance targets, and is comparable to other IAPT services using CCBT. Evidence for the successful implementation of such a service by a third sector organization is provided.
... Mental Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Good mental health Nutrition and mental health Exercise and ... a friend. Return to top More information on Good mental health Read more from womenshealth.gov Action ...
AbstractBackgroundMental health problems are disproportionately higher amongst homeless people. Many barriers exist for homeless people with mental health problems in accessing treatment yet little research has been done on service provision and quality of care for this group. The aim of this paper is to assess current service provision and identify barriers to care for homeless people with mental health problems in 14 European capital cities.MethodTwo methods of data collection were employed; (i) In two highly deprived areas in each of the 14 European capital cities, homeless-specific services providing mental health, social care or general health services were assessed. Data were obtained on service characteristics, staff and programmes provided. (ii) Semi-structured interviews were conducted in each area with experts in mental health care provision for homeless people in order to determine the barriers to care and ways to overcome them.ResultsAcross the 14 capital cities, 111 homeless-specific services were assessed. Input from professionally qualified mental health staff was reported as low, as were levels of active outreach and case finding. Out-of-hours service provision appears inadequate and high levels of service exclusion criteria were evident. Prejudice in the services towards homeless people, a lack of co-ordination amongst services, and the difficulties homeless people face in obtaining health insurance were identified as major barriers to service provision.ConclusionsWhile there is variability in service provision across European capital cities, the reported barriers to service accessibility are common. Homeless-specific services are more responsive to the initial needs of homeless people with mental health problems, while generic services tend to be more conducive to long term care. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of different service delivery models, including the most effective coordination of homeless specific and generic
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health problems are disproportionately higher amongst homeless people. Many barriers exist for homeless people with mental health problems in accessing treatment yet little research has been done on service provision and quality of care for this group. The aim of this paper is to assess current service provision and identify barriers to care for homeless people with mental health problems in 14 European capital cities. Method Two methods of data collection were employed; (i In two highly deprived areas in each of the 14 European capital cities, homeless-specific services providing mental health, social care or general health services were assessed. Data were obtained on service characteristics, staff and programmes provided. (ii Semi-structured interviews were conducted in each area with experts in mental health care provision for homeless people in order to determine the barriers to care and ways to overcome them. Results Across the 14 capital cities, 111 homeless-specific services were assessed. Input from professionally qualified mental health staff was reported as low, as were levels of active outreach and case finding. Out-of-hours service provision appears inadequate and high levels of service exclusion criteria were evident. Prejudice in the services towards homeless people, a lack of co-ordination amongst services, and the difficulties homeless people face in obtaining health insurance were identified as major barriers to service provision. Conclusions While there is variability in service provision across European capital cities, the reported barriers to service accessibility are common. Homeless-specific services are more responsive to the initial needs of homeless people with mental health problems, while generic services tend to be more conducive to long term care. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of different service delivery models, including the most effective coordination of
Deane, Frank P.; Tweedie, Rosemarie; van der Weyden, Chantelle; Cowlin, Feona
Unlicensed boarding houses provide low cost accommodation for many people who have mental health and/or alcohol or other drug problems. The present study explored the needs and experiences of owners and managers of unlicensed boarding houses who have residents with MH and AOD problems. Twenty-three boarding house managers (BHMs) from Illawarra and…
Hung, Tsui-Mei; Tang, Lee-Chun; Ko, Chen-Ju
Critical thinking has been regarded as one of the most important elements for nurses to improve quality of patient care. The aim of this study was to use problem-based learning (PBL) as a method in a continuing education program to evaluate nurses' critical thinking skills. A quasiexperimental study design was carried out. The "Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory" in Chinese was used for data collection. The results indicated significant improvement after PBL continuous education, notably in the dimensions of systematic analysis and curiosity. Content analysis extracted four themes: (a) changes in linear thinking required, (b) logical and systematic thinking required performance improved, (3) integration of prior knowledge and clinical application, and (4) brainstorming learning strategy. The study supports PBL as a continuing education strategy for mental health nurses, and that systematic analysis and curiosity effectively facilitate the development of critical thinking.
Misund, Aud R; Nerdrum, Per; Bråten, Stein; Pripp, Are Hugo; Diseth, Trond H
Several studies have reported significantly higher stress levels, both short and long terms, among mothers giving preterm birth compared with mothers giving birth at term. Stress, however, is a psychological phenomenon that may present as anxiety, depression and/or trauma reactions. In this study, the long-term mental health outcomes and the prevalence of anxiety, depression and trauma reactions in women experiencing preterm birth were explored. Interactional, main effect variables and predictors were identified. Twenty-nine mothers of 35 premature children born before the 33rd week of pregnancy were assessed within 2 weeks postpartum (T0), 2 weeks after hospitalization (T1), 6 months post-term (T2), and 18 months post-term (T3). The standardized psychometric methods Impact of Event Scale (IES), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-X1) assessed the maternal mental health outcomes. The maternal mental health problems except state anxiety decreased from T0 to T1, but remained high and stable at T3. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress reactions (PTSR) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at T0 and T3 was 52% and 23%, respectively. We identified the time period between T0 and T1 to have a significant main effect on mental health outcomes. The predictors of higher levels of mental health problems were preeclampsia, previous psychological treatment, age, trait anxiety and infant's postnatal intraventricular haemorrhage. Bleeding in pregnancy predicted lower levels of mental health problems. The prevalence of maternal mental health problems remained high, emphasizing the importance of effective interventions.
Background Several studies have reported significantly higher stress levels, both short and long terms, among mothers giving preterm birth compared with mothers giving birth at term. Stress, however, is a psychological phenomenon that may present as anxiety, depression and/or trauma reactions. In this study, the long-term mental health outcomes and the prevalence of anxiety, depression and trauma reactions in women experiencing preterm birth were explored. Interactional, main effect variables and predictors were identified. Methods Twenty-nine mothers of 35 premature children born before the 33rd week of pregnancy were assessed within 2 weeks postpartum (T0), 2 weeks after hospitalization (T1), 6 months post-term (T2), and 18 months post-term (T3). The standardized psychometric methods Impact of Event Scale (IES), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-X1) assessed the maternal mental health outcomes. Results The maternal mental health problems except state anxiety decreased from T0 to T1, but remained high and stable at T3. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress reactions (PTSR) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at T0 and T3 was 52% and 23%, respectively. We identified the time period between T0 and T1 to have a significant main effect on mental health outcomes. The predictors of higher levels of mental health problems were preeclampsia, previous psychological treatment, age, trait anxiety and infant's postnatal intraventricular haemorrhage. Bleeding in pregnancy predicted lower levels of mental health problems. Conclusions The prevalence of maternal mental health problems remained high, emphasizing the importance of effective interventions. PMID:24176131
Mokhtari, Mehdi; Dehghan, Somayeh Farhang; Asghari, Mehdi; Ghasembaklo, Uonees; Mohamadyari, Ghasem; Azadmanesh, Seyed Ali; Akbari, Elmira
Mental health as a state of well-being can be affected by gender. The present work aims to examine the mental health status in female students and recognize its affecting factors. A cross-sectional study on female students of Payame-Noor University in West Azerbaijan, Iran, was conducted among 1632 students. Data collection tools were the demographic data and the General Health Questionnaires (GHQ-28). The results show that 51.5% of the population under study were healthy and 48.5% have had mental disorders. Based on the social effects on the mental health of students, the correlations between age (p=0.15), location (p=0.29) and parental education (p=0.34) with general health status were assessed and there were no significant differences between them. However, birth order (pmental health status. This study indicates that 43.6% of students are suspected to have mental and physical disorders, and the most effective factor is the socioeconomic condition. The strong correlation between birth order, marital status, and family income and mental health disorders suggests the necessity to pay more attention to all these issues in all at-risk students. Copyright © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cortina, Melissa A; Sodha, Anisha; Fazel, Mina; Ramchandani, Paul G
To assess the prevalence of child mental health problems in community settings in sub-Saharan Africa. A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo, supplemented by tracking of references from identified articles and personal communications with local researchers. Only community-based studies in sub-Saharan Africa that assessed the general psychopathology of children aged 0 to 16 years were included. For each eligible study, the following information was extracted: year of publication, country, population sampled, area type (rural or urban), sampling method and sample size (percentage boys), age range, assessment instrument, informant, diagnostic criteria, and prevalence rates of general psychopathology. Pooled prevalence rate of psychopathology in children, identified by questionnaire and, specifically, by clinical diagnostic instruments. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria, 10 of which were included in the meta-analysis. The 10 studies provided data for 9713 children from 6 countries, with substantial variation in assessment methods. Overall, 14.3% (95% CI, 13.6%-15.0%) of children were identified as having psychopathology. Studies using screening questionnaires reported higher prevalence rates (19.8%; 95% CI, 18.8%-20.7%) than did studies using clinical diagnostic instruments (9.5%; 8.4%-10.5%). Evidence suggests that considerable levels of mental health problems exist among children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. One in 7 children and adolescents have significant difficulties, with 1 in 10 (9.5%) having a specific psychiatric disorder. There are clear sociodemographic correlates of psychopathology that may place children in areas of greatest deprivation at greatest risk.
M. Schuring (Merel); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); A. Burdorf (Alex)
textabstractObjectives The aims of this study were to (i) investigate the impact of paid employment on self-rated health, self-esteem, mastery, and happiness among previously unemployed persons with common mental health problems, and (ii) determine whether there are educational inequalities in these
Pritchett, Tierra M.
Health First Aid at the Philadelphia Red Cross completed a survey with information pertaining to knowledge and confidence in recognizing the signs and symptoms of youth/adolescents that may be experiencing a mental health problem and or crisis. Descriptive statistics, independent t-tests, ANOVA, and Tukey tests were conducted to investigate the…
Rasalingam, Anurajee; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne; Raanaas, Ruth Kjaersti
Peer victimization is a widespread phenomenon especially prevalent in early adolescence. This study investigates the prevalence of peer victimization and its association with mental health problems and impact on everyday life, and the possible mediating effect of parental and peer support. Data are based on a cross-sectional health survey (N =…
Wagner, Gudrun; Zeiler, Michael; Waldherr, Karin; Philipp, Julia; Truttmann, Stefanie; Dür, Wolfgang; Treasure, Janet L; Karwautz, Andreas F K
This is a nationwide epidemiological study using DSM-5 criteria to assess the prevalence of mental disorders in a large sample of Austrian adolescents between 10 and 18 years including hard-to-reach samples. A sample of 3615 adolescents from four cohorts (school grades 5, 7, 9, 11; age range 10-18 years) was recruited from 261 schools, samples of unemployed adolescents (n = 39) and adolescents from mental health institutions (n = 137) were added. The Youth Self-Report and SCOFF were used to screen for mental health problems. In a second phase, the Childrens' Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders was used to make point and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses. Mental health service use was also assessed. Point prevalence and lifetime prevalence rates for at least one psychiatric disorder were 23.9% and 35.8%. The highest lifetime prevalence rates were found for anxiety disorders (15.6%), neurodevelopmental disorders (9.3%; ADHD 5.2%) and depressive disorders (6.2%). Forty-seven percent of adolescents with a lifetime psychiatric disorder had a second diagnosis. Internalising disorders were more prevalent in girls, while neurodevelopmental disorders and disruptive, impulse control and conduct disorders were more prevalent in boys. Of those with a lifetime psychiatric disorder, 47.5% had contacted mental health services. Of the residual 52.5% who had not contacted mental health services, 18.1% expressed an interest in treatment. DSM-5 mental health disorders are highly prevalent among Austrian adolescents. Over 50% had or were interested in accessing treatment. Early access to effective interventions for these problems is needed to reduce burden due to mental health disorders.
Full Text Available The environmental stress of intimate partner violence is common and often results in mental health problems of depression, anxiety, and PTSD for women and behavioral dysfunctions for their children. Problem-solving skills can serve to mitigate or accentuate the environmental stress of violence and associated impact on mental health. To better understand the relationship between problem-solving skills and mental health of abused women with children, a cross-sectional predictive analysis of 285 abused women who used justice or shelter services was completed. The women were asked about social problem-solving, and mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTSD as well as behavioral functioning of their children. Higher negative problem-solving scores were associated with significantly P<0.001 greater odds of having clinically significant levels of PTSD, anxiety, depression, and somatization for the woman and significantly P<0.001 greater odds of her child having borderline or clinically significant levels of both internalizing and externalizing behaviors. A predominately negative problem-solving approach was strongly associated with poorer outcomes for both mothers and children in the aftermath of the environmental stress of abuse. Interventions addressing problem-solving ability may be beneficial in increasing abused women’s abilities to navigate the daily stressors of life following abuse.
Maddoux, John; Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith; Koci, Anne; Gilroy, Heidi; Fredland, Nina
The environmental stress of intimate partner violence is common and often results in mental health problems of depression, anxiety, and PTSD for women and behavioral dysfunctions for their children. Problem-solving skills can serve to mitigate or accentuate the environmental stress of violence and associated impact on mental health. To better understand the relationship between problem-solving skills and mental health of abused women with children, a cross-sectional predictive analysis of 285 abused women who used justice or shelter services was completed. The women were asked about social problem-solving, and mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTSD as well as behavioral functioning of their children. Higher negative problem-solving scores were associated with significantly (P problem-solving approach was strongly associated with poorer outcomes for both mothers and children in the aftermath of the environmental stress of abuse. Interventions addressing problem-solving ability may be beneficial in increasing abused women's abilities to navigate the daily stressors of life following abuse.
Martínez-Hidalgo, Mª Nieves; Lorenzo-Sánchez, Elena; López García, Juan José; Regadera, Juan José
This study assessed the effectiveness of a social contact program between young adults and adolescents with and without mental health problems. It was evaluated if the development of a social contact program in a non-segregated space and respecting criteria of contact hypothesis reduced Self-Stigma and Public Stigma and, increased Self-Esteem. A pre-post intervention design was used with a sample of 47 subjects, 25 with different mental health diagnoses (Psychotic Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, Depression, Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) and 22 without mental health problems, aged between 15 and 35 years. Five workshops of social contact and creativity were carried out during five months with a 2-h weekly meeting. The results analysis revealed a significant reduction in Self-Stigma for participants with mental health problems and may suggest a slight reduction in Public Stigma as well as a slight increase in the level of Self-Esteem of all participants. These findings suggest that programs of this nature reduce Self-Stigma and facilitate social inclusion in young adults and adolescents with and without mental health problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hallal, Pedro C; Martínez-Mesa, Jeovany; Coll, Carolina V; Mielke, Grégore I; Mendes, Márcio A; Peixoto, Márcio B; Munhoz, Tiago N; Ramires, Virgilio V; Assunção, Maria Cecilia; Gonçalves, Helen; Menezes, Ana M
To evaluate the longitudinal association between physical activity behavior at 11 years of age and the incidence of mental health problems from 11 to 15 years of age. Individuals born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, in 1993 have been followed up since birth. At 11 and 15 years of age, mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). At 11 years of age, physical activity was assessed through a validated questionnaire. The continuous SDQ score at 15 years was used as the outcome variable. The main exposure was physical activity behavior at 11 years of age divided into 3 categories (0, 1-299, ≥ 300 min/wk). The incidence of mental health problems from 11 to 15 years was 13.6% (95% CI, 12.4-14.9). At 11 years, 35.2% of the adolescents achieved 300 min/wk of physical activity. In the unadjusted analysis, physical activity was inversely related to mental health problems (P = .04). After adjustment for confounders, the association was no longer significant in the whole sample but was still significant among boys. Physical activity appears to be inversely related to mental health problems in adolescence, but the magnitude of the association is weak to moderate.
Hart, Laura M; Morgan, Amy J; Rossetto, Alyssia; Kelly, Claire M; Mackinnon, Andrew; Jorm, Anthony F
teen Mental Health First Aid (tMHFA) is a classroom-based training programme for students aged 15-18 years to improve supportive behaviours towards peers, increase mental health literacy and reduce stigma. This research evaluated tMHFA by comparing it to a matched emergency Physical First Aid (PFA) training programme. A cluster-randomised crossover trial matched four public schools in two pairs and then randomised each to first receive tMHFA or PFA for all Year 10 students. In the subsequent calendar year, the new Year 10 cohort received the opposite intervention, giving eight cohorts. Online surveys were administered at baseline and 1 week post-training, measuring quality of first aid intentions, mental health literacy, problem recognition and stigmatising beliefs, towards fictional adolescents with depression and suicidality (John) and social anxiety (Jeanie). A total of 1942 students were randomised (979 received tMHFA, 948 received PFA), 1605 (84%) analysed for the John vignette at baseline and 1116 (69% of baseline) provided post-training data. The primary outcomes, 'helpful first aid intentions' towards John/Jeanie, showed significant group-by-time interactions with medium effect sizes favouring tMHFA ( ds = 0.50-0.58). Compared to PFA, tMHFA students also reported significantly greater improvements in confidence supporting a peer ( ds = 0.22-0.37) and number of adults rated as helpful ( ds = 0.45-0.46) and greater reductions in stigmatising beliefs ( ds = 0.12-0.40) and 'harmful first aid intentions' towards John/Jeanie ( ds = 0.15-0.41). tMHFA is an effective and feasible programme for increasing supportive first aid intentions and mental health literacy in adolescents in the short term. tMHFA could be widely disseminated to positively impact on help seeking for adolescent mental illness.
Full Text Available 138 headaches sufferers and 138 subjects without headaches were studied to investigate if there were differences between headache and non-headache sufferers in terms of their mental health and social support levels. The overall results of this study indicated that headache sufferers, as compared with non-headache sufferers had slightly more mental health problems, and more social support from their family members. When the results were scrutinised in more detail, it was observed that headache sufferers reported that they felt less capable of making decisions about things, were not always able to face up to their problems, and sometimes thought about themselves as a worthless. Given that the study was based on a community, rather than clinic sample, further research would be required to examine the differing the types of headaches that people are suffering from, and the intensity of the headaches, in relation to mental health problems.
Afifi, Tracie O; Cox, Brian J; Martens, Patricia J; Sareen, Jitender; Enns, Murray W
Gambling has become an increasingly common activity among women since the widespread growth of the gambling industry. Currently, our knowledge of the relationship between problem gambling among women and mental and physical correlates is limited. Therefore, important relationships between problem gambling and health and functioning, mental disorders, physical health conditions, and help-seeking behaviours among women were examined using a nationally representative Canadian sample. Data were from the nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.2 (CCHS 1.2; n = 10,056 women aged 15 years and older; data collected in 2002). The statistical analysis included binary logistic regression, multinomial logistic regression, and linear regression models. Past 12-month problem gambling was associated with a significantly higher probability of current lower general health, suicidal ideation and attempts, decreased psychological well-being, increased distress, depression, mania, panic attacks, social phobia, agoraphobia, alcohol dependence, any mental disorder, comorbidity of mental disorders, chronic bronchitis, fibromyalgia, migraine headaches, help-seeking from a professional, attending a self-help group, and calling a telephone help line (odds ratios ranged from 1.5 to 8.2). Problem gambling was associated with a broad range of negative health correlates among women. Problem gambling is an important public health concern. These findings can be used to inform healthy public policies on gambling.
Skovgaard, Anne Mette
as young as 1.5 years may suffer from mental illness as older children do. Risk factors and predictors of mental illness can be identified in the first ten months of life, and the association of risks found in studies of older children seem to operate already from birth. The results point to the potentials...... of psychiatric illness in early life. The Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000 was established with inclusion of 6090 children born in year 2000. The cohort was described at baseline with data from Danish National registers and prospective data on mental health and development collected by health nurses at home...... visits. At 1½ years of age a subpopulation was thoroughly investigated regarding child psychiatric illness, in a random sample prevalence study and a case-control study nested in cohort, with cases being children of health nurse concern in the first ten months of living. Mental health disorders were...
van Gastel, W.A.
Cannabis use has been implicated as a risk factor for mental health problems, (subclinical) psychotic symptoms in particular. If cannabis use was a cause of these problems, cessation would lead to improved public mental health. If cannabis use was a mere consequence of a predisposition for mental
Pescosolido, Bernice A; Jensen, Peter S; Martin, Jack K; Perry, Brea L; Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Fettes, Danielle
Child and adolescent psychiatry confronts help-seeking delays and low treatment use and adherence. Although lack of knowledge has been cited as an underlying reason, we aim to provide data on public recognition of, and beliefs about, problems and sources of help. The National Stigma Study-Children is the first nationally representative study of public response to child mental health problems. A face-to-face survey of 1,393 adults (response rate 70.1%, margin of error +/-3.5%) used vignettes consistent with diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. Descriptive and multivariate analyses provide estimates of the levels and correlates of recognition, labeling, and treatment recommendations. Respondents do differentiate "daily troubles" from mental health problems. For the cases that meet diagnostic criteria, 58.5% correctly identify depression and 41.9% correctly identify ADHD. However, respondents are less likely to see ADHD as serious, as a mental illness, or needing treatment compared with depression. Moreover, a substantial group who correctly identifies each disorder rejects its mental illness label (ADHD 19.1%, depression 12.8%). Although women are more knowledgeable, the influence of other sociodemographic characteristics, particularly race, is complex and inconsistent. More respondents see general practitioners, mental health professionals, and teachers as suitable sources of advice than psychiatrists. Behaviors and perceived severity seem to drive public responses. Americans have clear and consistent views of children's mental health problems. Mental health specialists face challenges in gaining family participation. Unless systematically addressed, the public's lack of knowledge, skepticism, and misinformed beliefs signal continuing problems for providers, as well as for caregivers and children seeking treatment.
Lee, Young Bok; Yu, Jihan; Choi, Hyun Ho; Jeon, Bu Seok; Kim, Hyung-Keun; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Sung Soo; Park, Yong Gyu; Chae, Hiun Suk
This study aimed to investigate the association between the prevalence of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and mental health problems, such as severe stress, depressive mood, and suicidal ideation.The population-based cross-sectional study was comprised of 14,266 subjects participating in the fourth annual Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination survey from 2007 to 2009. The participants were divided into 2 groups according to the self-reported questionnaires: the PUD group and the non-PUD group. The association between PUD and mental health problems, such as severe stress, depressed mood, suicidal ideation, and psychological counseling history, were evaluated by using multivariate analysis and logistic regression.Among the 14,266 participants over 19-years old, 813 participants (5.6%) had PUD. Compared to the non-PUD group (n = 13,453), the PUD group had a significantly higher percentage of males, current smokers, and heavy drinkers, lower education status, lower income, and greater presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and mental health problems, including severe stress, depressed mood, suicidal ideation, and psychological counseling history. After adjustment for lifestyle and medical and environmental factors, mental health problems were found to be associated with a significantly higher risk for PUD.Psychological problems, such as severe stress, depressed mood, suicidal ideation, and psychological counseling, were associated with PUD prevalence.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent health challenges are increasing throughout the world. It has been shown that adolescents with persistent health challenges are at greater risk of having mental health problems than their healthy peers. However, these studies are mainly cross-sectional, and little is known about the transition to adulthood. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine how mental health problems in adolescents and young adults with persistent health challenges vary during adolescence and in the transition to young adulthood. Methods The study used longitudinal and time-series data from the “Young in Norway” study. A sample of adolescents was prospectively followed from adolescence to young adulthood with measures at four different time points (n = 3,087; T1–T4: 2921 adolescents (12–19 years participated at T1 and T2, while 2448 young adults participated at T3 and T4. Persistent health challenges, age, gender, mental health problems and parental socio-economic status were measured in the longitudinal survey. Regression models were applied to estimate associations between persistent health challenges (understood as having a chronic health condition or disability and mental health problems during adolescence and young adulthood. Different models were tested for chronic health conditions and disability. Results Adolescents with disability had higher scores for depressive and anxiety symptoms, loneliness and self-concept instability, and lower scores for self-worth, appearance satisfaction, scholastic competence and social acceptance compared with adolescents without disability. In young adulthood, there were also significant associations between disability and most mental health problems. The longitudinal associations between chronic health conditions and mental health problems during adolescence and young adulthood showed that significant associations between chronic health conditions and mental health problems were only
Christensen, Birgitte Schütt; Grønbaek, Morten; Osler, Merete
Studies have shown a high prevalence of sexual dysfunctions among individuals with a variety of health problems.......Studies have shown a high prevalence of sexual dysfunctions among individuals with a variety of health problems....
N. A. Kornetov
irritability as during the postpartum depression and in its residual period. They can cause child abuse. This paper also presents current data on the epidemiology, etiology, risk factors for postpartum depression, its clinical manifestations, the influence of untreated maternal depression on child development, therapy and educational modules to spread multidisciplinary and inter-agency approach in perinatal mental health problems.
Sevilla-Dedieu, Christine; Kovess-Masféty, Viviane; Haro, Josep Maria; Fernández, Anna; Vilagut, Gemma; Alonso, Jordi
In certain countries, it is not uncommon to turn to professionals outside the conventional health care system for psychological problems. As this situation is not well documented in Europe, we assessed use of nonconventional care for mental health in 6 European countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in representative samples of noninstitutionalized adults in 6 European countries. Participants (n = 8796) completed a survey, which included, among other items, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 and in-depth questions about lifetime consultations for mental health problems. Among the respondents (n = 2928) who reported having already sought help in their lifetime for psychological problems (20.0%), 8.6% turned to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers, such as chiropractors and herbalists, and a similar proportion (8.4%) to religious advisers such as ministers, priests, or rabbis. Only a small proportion (2.9%) consulted only these professionals for their problems. CAM providers were more frequently used in the Netherlands (13.5%) and Germany (9.4%), while religious advisers were more often consulted in Italy (12.6%) and Germany (11.6%). Multivariate analyses confirmed differences between countries and revealed that people turning to religious advisers tended to be older, foreign born, and with alcohol problems, whereas those consulting CAM providers were younger, wealthier, and more frequently depressed. In Europe, patients who turn to CAM therapists and those who seek help from religious advisers for psychological problems are not exactly the same. In addition, these professionals are not consulted frequently in most countries, and are almost always associated with more traditional follow-up when used.
Bøe, Tormod; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Sivertsen, Børge; Hysing, Mari; Petrie, Keith J; Dearing, Eric; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae
The aim of the current paper was to investigate the association between the patterns of duration, timing and sequencing of exposure to low family income during childhood, and symptoms of mental health problems in adolescence. Survey administered to a large population-based sample of Norwegian adolescents. Survey data from 9154 participants of 16-19 years age (53% participation rate; 52.7% girls) were linked to registry-based information about childhood family income from tax return data. Mental health outcomes were symptoms of emotional, conduct, hyperactivity, peer problems and general mental health problems measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, symptoms of depression measured with Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) measured with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Latent class analysis and the BCH approach in Mplus were used to examine associations between patterns of poverty exposure and mental health outcomes. Four latent classes of poverty exposure emerged from the analysis. Participants moving into poverty (2.3%), out of poverty (3.5%) or those chronically poor (3.1%) had more symptoms of mental health problems (Cohen's d =16-.50) than those with no poverty exposure (91.1%). This pattern was, however, not found for symptoms of ADHD. The pattern of results was confirmed in robustness checks using observed data. Exposure to poverty in childhood was found to be associated with most mental health problems in adolescence. There was no strong suggestion of any timing or sequencing effects in the patterns of associations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Bevaart, Floor; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Wierdsma, André; Donker, Marianne C H; Jansen, Wilma; Raat, Hein; Verhulst, Frank C; van Oort, Floor V A
Empirical research on mental health care use and its determinants in young school-aged children is still scarce. In this study, we investigated the role of ethnicity, socioeconomic position (SEP) and perceived severity by both parents and teachers on mental health care use in 5- to 8-year old children with emotional and/or behavioural problems. Data from 1,269 children with a high score([P90) on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the school year 2008–2009 were linked to psychiatric case register data over the years 2010–2011. Cox proportional hazards models were used to predict mental health care use from ethnicity, SEP and perceived severity of the child's problems. During the follow-up period, 117 children with high SDQ scores (9.2 %) had used mental health care for the first time. Ethnic minority children were less likely to receive care than Dutch children (HR Moroccan/Turkish:0.26; 95 % CI 0.13-0.54, HR other ethnicity: 0.26; 95 %CI 0.12-0.58). No socioeconomic differences were found.After correction for previous care use, ethnicity and parental perceived severity, impact score as reported by teachers was significantly associated with mental healthcare use (HR 1.58; 95 % CI 1.01–2.46). Ethnicity is an important predictor of mental health care use in young children. Already in the youngest school-aged children, ethnic differences in the use of mental health care are present.A distinct predictor of care use in this age group is severity of emotional and behavioural problems as perceived by teachers. Therefore, teachers may be especially helpful in the process of identifying young children who need specialist mental health care.
Background Research examining mental health in violence-affected youth in representative samples is rare. Using data from the nationally representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) this study reports on gender-specific prevalence rates and associations of a broad range of internalizing and externalizing mental health problems: emotional problems, conduct problems, ADHD, disordered eating, somatic pain and substance use in youth variously affected by violence. While internalizing is generally more common in girls and externalizing in boys, observations of prior non-normative studies suggest reverse associations once an individual is affected by violence. The occurrence of such “gender cross-over effects” is therefore examined in a representative sample. Methods The sample consisted of 6,813 adolescents aged 11 to 17 from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS): Applying multivariate logistic regression analyses, associations between each type of violence history and mental health indicator were determined for perpetrators, victims, and perpetrating victims of youth violence. Moderating effects of gender were examined by using product term interaction. Results Victim status was associated primarily with internalizing problems, while perpetrators were more prone to externalizing problems. Perpetrating victims stood out with respect to the number and strength of risk associations with all investigated mental health indicators. However, the risk profiles of all violence-affected youth included both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Gender cross-over effects were found for girls and boys: despite lower overall prevalence, girls affected by violence were at far higher risk for conduct problems and illicit drug use; by contrast, somatic pain, although generally lower in males, was positively associated with perpetrator status and perpetrating
Gras, Laura M.; Swart, Marte; Slooff, Cees J.; van Weeghel, Jaap; Knegtering, Henderikus; Castelein, Stynke
This study compares stigmatizing attitudes of different healthcare professionals towards psychiatry and patients with mental health problems. The Mental Illness Clinicians Attitude (MICA) questionnaire is used to assess stigmatizing attitudes in three groups: general practitioners (GPs, n = 55),
Gras, L.M.; Swart, M.; Slooff, C.; van Weeghel, J.; Knegtering, H.; Castelein, S.
Purpose This study compares stigmatizing attitudes of different healthcare professionals towards psychiatry and patients with mental health problems. Methods The Mental Illness Clinicians Attitude (MICA) questionnaire is used to assess stigmatizing attitudes in three groups: general practitioners
Full Text Available Aim of this multicenter study was to investigate whether schooling relates to mental health problems of adolescents with cochlear implants (CI and how this relationship is mediated by hearing and family variables. 140 secondary school students with CI (mean age = 14.7 years, SD = 1.5, their hearing parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Additional audiological tests (speech comprehension tests in quiet and noise were performed. Students of special schools for hearing impaired persons (SSHIs showed significantly more conduct problems (p<0.05 and a significantly higher total difficulty score (p<0.05 compared to students of mainstream schools. Mental health problems did not differ between SSHI students with sign language education and SSHI students with oral education. Late implanted students and those with indication for additional handicaps were equally distributed among mainstream schools and SSHIs. However, students in SSHIs were more restricted to understand speech in noise, had a lower social background and were more likely to come from single-parent families. These factors were found to be partial mediators of the differences in mental health problems between the two school types. However, no variable could explain comprehensively, why students of SSHIs have more mental health problems than mainstream pupils.
It is now over thirty years since Claus Offe theorised the crisis tendencies of the welfare state in late capitalism. As part of that work he explored ongoing and irresolvable forms of crisis management in parliamentary democracies: capitalism cannot live with the welfare state but also cannot live without it. This article examines the continued relevance of this analysis by Offe, by applying its basic assumptions to the response of the British welfare state to mental health problems, at the turn of the twenty first century. His general theoretical abstractions are tested against the empirical picture of mental health service priorities, evident since the 1980s, in sections dealing with: re-commodification tendencies; the ambiguity of wage labour in the mental health workforce; the emergence of new social movements; and the limits of legalism. © 2012 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R; Pardini, Dustin
Some evidence suggests that youth who use marijuana heavily during adolescence may be particularly prone to health problems in later adulthood (e.g., respiratory illnesses, psychotic symptoms). However, relatively few longitudinal studies have prospectively examined the long-term physical and mental health consequences associated with chronic adolescent marijuana use. The present study used data from a longitudinal sample of Black and White young men to determine whether different developmental patterns of marijuana use, assessed annually from early adolescence to the mid-20s, were associated with adverse physical (e.g., asthma, high blood pressure) and mental (e.g., psychosis, anxiety disorders) health outcomes in the mid-30s. Analyses also examined whether chronic marijuana use was more strongly associated with later health problems in Black men relative to White men. Findings from latent class growth curve analysis identified 4 distinct subgroups of marijuana users: early onset chronic users, late increasing users, adolescence-limited users, and low/nonusers. Results indicated that the 4 marijuana use trajectory groups were not significantly different in terms of their physical and mental health problems assessed in the mid-30s. The associations between marijuana group membership and later health problems did not vary significantly by race. Findings are discussed in the context of a larger body of work investigating the potential long-term health consequences of early onset chronic marijuana use, as well as the complications inherent in studying the possible link between marijuana use and health effects. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Javanbakht, M; Nazari, A; Javanbakht, A; Moghaddam, L
There has been increasing number of requests for cosmetic rhinoplastic surgery among Iranian people in different age groups in recent years. One risk for people who undergo such plastic operations is the presence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), which can complicate the result and decrease the rate of satisfaction from surgery. This study aimed to investigate mental health problems in people seeking rhinoplastic surgery. In this case-control study, the scores of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and DCQ (Dysmorphic Concerns Questionnaire) were obtained from 50 individuals who were candidates for rhinoplasty, and the results were compared with a normal control group. The total GHQ score and scores in anxiety, depression, and social dysfunction sub-scales were higher among the study group. This was the same for the DCQ score. However, the scores of somatization sub-scale of GHQ were not significantly different between the two groups. Psychiatric evaluation of candidates for rhinoplasty seems necessary for prevention of unnecessary and repetitive surgical operations.
Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; Verbeek, J.H.A.M.; Boer, A.G.E.M. de; Blonk, R.W.B.; Dijk, F.J.H. van
Aims: To study supervisory behaviour as a predictive factor for return to work of employees absent due to mental health problems; and to explore the association between conditional factors and supervisory behaviour. Methods: Eighty five supervisors of employees were interviewed by telephone.
Brookman-Frazee, Lauren I.; Taylor, Robin; Garland, Ann F.
This study describes the characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with disruptive behavior problems served in community-based mental health clinics, characterizes psychotherapy process and outcome, and examines differences between children with ASD and a non-ASD comparison group. Results indicate that children with ASD…
Lagerveld, S.E.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Brenninkmeijer, V.; Schaufeli, W.B.
Because of the costs to both the organization and the individual, it is important that employees who are sick-listed with mental health problems are facilitated in their return to work (RTW). In order to provide adequate interventions, it is necessary to obtain a better understanding of the RTW
Thompson, Ronald G., Jr.; Auslander, Wendy F.
This study examined the relationship between substance use, mental health problems, and HIV sexual risk behaviors among a sample of foster care adolescents. Data were collected through structured baseline interviews with 320 adolescents (ages 15 to 18 years) who resided in foster care placements and participated in a larger evaluation study of an…
R. Bannink (Rienke); S.M.L. Broeren (Suzanne); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); F. de Waart (Frouwkje); H. Raat (Hein)
textabstractPurpose: To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. Methods: A
A-Tjak, J.G.L.; Davis, M.L.; Morina, N.; Powers, M.B.; Smits, J.A.J.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.
Background: The current study presents the results of a meta-analysis of 39 randomized controlled trials on the efficacy of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), including 1,821 patients with mental disorders or somatic health problems. Methods: We searched PsycINFO, MEDLINE and the Cochrane
Kuijpers, Rowella C. W. M.; Otten, Roy; Krol, Nicole P. C. M.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
Background: Children and youths' self-report of mental health problems is considered essential but complicated. Objective: This study examines the psychometric properties of the Dominic Interactive, a computerized DSM-IV based self-report questionnaire and explores informant correspondence. Methods: The Dominic Interactive was administered to 214…
Olde Hartman, T.C.; Rijswijk, E. van; Ravesteijn, H.J. van; Hassink-Franke, L.J.A.; Bor, H.; Weel-Baumgarten, E.M. van; Lucassen, P.L.B.J.
BACKGROUND: Somatic comorbidity in patients with depression and anxiety is very prevalent and mainly studied with respect to chronic conditions. Patients with mental health problems are high utilizers of medical care. This may be a result of their functional impairment and illness behaviour, but
Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Lodewijks, Henny P. B.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.
This cross-sectional study examined the relationships (using structural equation modeling) between exposure to early-onset interpersonal trauma, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), symptoms of complex PTSD, and other mental health problems. The participants were 92 girls recruited from
Painter, Jon; Hastings, Richard; Ingham, Barry; Trevithick, Liam; Roy, Ashok
Introduction: Current research findings in the field of intellectual disabilities (ID) regarding the relationship between mental health problems and challenging behavior are inconclusive and/or contradictory. The aim of this study was to further investigate the putative association between these two highly prevalent phenomena in people with ID,…
Slobodskaya, Helena R; Semenova, Nadezhda B
High rates of child mental health problems in the Russian Federation have recently been documented; the rates of youth suicide are among the highest in the world. Across the Russian regions, Republic of Tyva has one of the highest rates of child and adolescent suicide and the lowest life expectancy at birth. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and associations of mental health problems in Native Tyvinian children and adolescents using internationally recognised measures and diagnoses. A two-stage, two-phase design involved selection of schools in five rural settlements in Western Tyva and two schools in the capital city followed by selection of Native Tyvinian children in grades 3-4 (ages 9-10) and 6-7 (ages 14-15). In the first phase, a screening measure of psychopathology, the Rutter Teacher Questionnaire, was obtained on 1048 children with a 97% participation rate. In the second phase, more detailed psychiatric assessments were carried out for subgroups of screen-positive and screen-negative children. The prevalence of mental health problems was about 25%, ranging from 40% in adolescent boys from rural areas to 9% in adolescent girls from the city. The patterning of disorders and risk factors were similar to those in other countries, rural areas were associated with an increased risk of psychopathology. The findings indicate that there is an urgent need for interventions to reduce risk in this population and provide effective help for Tyvinian children and adolescents with mental health problems.
Venville, Annie; Sawyer, Anne-Maree; Long, Maureen; Edwards, Niki; Hair, Sara
This article reports on the findings of a scoping review of peer-reviewed research that investigates the formal support experiences of adults with an intellectual disability and mental health problems. Seven databases and 21 sources of grey literature were searched and 17 articles were retained for review, demonstrating the dearth of literature in…
Burk, Linnea R.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Park, Jong-Hyo; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Klein, Marjorie H.; Essex, Marilyn J.
Aggressive victims--children who are both perpetrators and victims of peer aggression--experience greater concurrent mental health problems and impairments than children who are only aggressive or only victimized. The stability of early identified aggressive victim status has not been evaluated due to the fact that most studies of aggressor/victim…
Kerig, Patricia K.; Ward, Rose Marie; Vanderzee, Karin L.; Moeddel, Melissa Arnzen
This study investigated the interrelationships among trauma exposure, PTSD, and mental health problems in a sample of 289 adolescents (199 male, 90 female) detained in a juvenile correctional facility. Mean differences were found in that females scored higher than males on measures of interpersonal trauma exposure and symptoms of both simple and…
Germundsson, Per; Hillborg, Helene; Danermark, Berth
There is an aspiration and policy within the European Union to fully involve persons with disabilities in the community; this implies an opportunity to gainful employment. A large percentage of disabled persons remain unemployed despite this policy, especially persons with mental health problems. This study aims at investigating how people with…
Downs, Andrew; Boucher, Laura A.; Campbell, Duncan G.; Polyakov, Anita
There is a clear need for colleges to do a better job of identifying students who may benefit from treatment and encouraging those students to actually seek help (Hunt & Eisenberg, 2010). Indeed, research suggests that population-based screening can encourage college students who are at risk for mental health problems to seek treatment (Kim,…
Nygaard, Egil; Jensen, Tine K.; Dyb, Grete
The aim of this study was to evaluate the structure of posttraumatic stress reaction factors and their relation to general mental health problems in Norwegian children exposed to the tsunami on December 26, 2004. A total of 133 children and adolescents (ages 6-17) were interviewed 10 months posttsunami using the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index, and 104…
The incidence of mental health disorders is significantly higher in individuals with a rare disease, compared to the general population. This letter considers the possible reasons for this in terms of the many ways in which a rare disease impacts on an individual's life, and how these impacts can be strongly related to factors which predispose to mental health difficulties.Furthermore, issues surrounding mental health can also play a significant role in the process of diagnosing a rare disease. The unusual nature of such diseases intrinsically predisposes an individual to obtain an inaccurate diagnosis of a psychosomatic disorder, a diagnosis which can often be further complicated by the presence of genuine psychiatric symptoms.This letter argues that these common experiences of rare disease patients have impacts upon the way in which their psychiatric care should be offered and managed, and that sensitivity and understanding surrounding these issues should be considered a necessary part of effective care for rare disease patients.
Hiscock, Harriet; Gulenc, Alisha; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Gold, Lisa; Bayer, Jordana; Shaw, Daniel; Le, Ha; Wake, Melissa
Prevention of child behavior problems may reduce later mental health problems. We compared the effectiveness, at the population level, of an efficacious targeted prevention program alone or following a universal parenting program. Three-arm, cluster randomized controlled trial. One thousand three hundred fifty-three primary caregivers and healthy 8-month-old babies recruited from July 2010 to January 2011 from well-child centers (randomization unit). Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) externalizing and internalizing scales* at child ages 3 and 4.5 years. Parenting Behavior Checklist* and over-involved/protective parenting (primary caregiver report). Secondary caregivers completed starred measures at age 3. Retention was 76% and 77% at ages 3 and 4.5 years, respectively. At 3 years, intention-to-treat analyses found no statistically significant differences (adjusted mean difference [95% confidence interval (CI); p-value]) for externalizing (targeted vs usual care -0.2 [-1.7 to 1.2; p = .76]; combined vs usual care 0.4 [-1.1 to 1.9; p = .60]) or internalizing behavior problems (targeted vs usual care 0.2 [-1.2 to 1.6; p = .76]; combined vs usual care 0.4 [-1.1 to 2.0; p = .58]). Primary outcomes were similar at 4.5 years. At 3 years, primary and secondary caregivers reported less over-involved/protective parenting in both the combined and targeted versus usual care arm; secondary caregivers also reported less harsh discipline in the combined and targeted versus usual care arm. Mean program costs per family were A$218 (targeted arm) and A$682 (combined arm). When translated to the population level by existing staff, pre-existing programs seemed ineffective in improving child behavior, alone or in combination, but improved parenting.
Weare, Katherine; Nind, Melanie
The European Union Dataprev project reviewed work on mental health in four areas, parenting, schools, the workplace and older people. The schools workpackage carried out a systematic review of reviews of work on mental health in schools from which it identified evidence-based interventions and programmes and extracted the general principles from evidence-based work. A systematic search of the literature uncovered 52 systematic reviews and meta-analyses of mental health in schools. The interventions identified by the reviews had a wide range of beneficial effects on children, families and communities and on a range of mental health, social, emotional and educational outcomes. The effect sizes associated with most interventions were generally small to moderate in statistical terms, but large in terms of real-world impacts. The effects associated with interventions were variable and their effectiveness could not always be relied on. The characteristics of more effective interventions included: teaching skills, focusing on positive mental health; balancing universal and targeted approaches; starting early with the youngest children and continuing with older ones; operating for a lengthy period of time and embedding work within a multi-modal/whole-school approach which included such features as changes to the curriculum including teaching skills and linking with academic learning, improving school ethos, teacher education, liaison with parents, parenting education, community involvement and coordinated work with outside agencies. Interventions were only effective if they were completely and accurately implemented: this applied particularly to whole-school interventions which could be ineffective if not implemented with clarity, intensity and fidelity. The implications for policy and practice around mental health in schools are discussed, including the suggestion of some rebalancing of priorities and emphases.
Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Bültmann, Ute; Madsen, Ida E.H.
absence benefits at a large Danish welfare Department (n = 721). A total of 298 employees returned the questionnaire containing information on possible predictors of RTW. We followed up all baseline responders for a maximum of one year in a national registry of social transfer payments, including sickness......Purpose: To identify health-, personal- and work-related factors predictive of return to work (RTW) in employees sick-listed due to common mental health problems, such as, stress, depression, burnout, and anxiety. Methods: We distributed a baseline questionnaire to employees applying for sickness...... absence benefits. Results: At baseline, about 9% of respondents had quit their job, 10% were dismissed and the remaining 82% were still working for the same employer. The mean time to RTW, measured from the first day of absence, was 25 weeks (median = 21) and at the end of follow-up (52 weeks) 85% had...
Posner, Zoe; Janssen, Jessica; Roddam, Hazel
Purpose- Burnout in mental health staff is acknowledged as a major problem. The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of mental health staff views on improving burnout and mental toughness in mental health staff.\\ud Design/methodology/approach-Ten participants from two mental health rehabilitation units across the North West of England took part in a Nominal Group Technique (NGT). Participants consisted of mental health workers from varied roles in order to\\ud capture views from a...
Patterson, Michelle L; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Somers, Julian M
It is well documented that childhood abuse, neglect and household dysfunction are disproportionately present in the backgrounds of homeless adults, and that these experiences adversely impact child development and a wide range of adult outcomes. However, few studies have examined the cumulative impact of adverse childhood experiences on homeless adults with mental illness. This study examines adverse events in childhood as predictors of duration of homelessness, psychiatric and substance use disorders, and physical health in a sample of homeless adults with mental illness. This study was conducted using baseline data from a randomized controlled trial in Vancouver, British Columbia for participants who completed the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale at 18 months follow-up (n=364). Primary outcomes included current mental disorders; substance use including type, frequency and severity; physical health; duration of homelessness; and vocational functioning. In multivariable regression models, ACE total score independently predicted a range of mental health, physical health, and substance use problems, and marginally predicted duration of homelessness. Adverse childhood experiences are overrepresented among homeless adults with complex comorbidities and chronic homelessness. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of literature indicating that childhood traumas are potent risk factors for a number of adult health and psychiatric problems, particularly substance use problems. Results are discussed in the context of cumulative adversity and self-trauma theory. This trial has been registered with the International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register and assigned ISRCTN42520374.
Harvey, Samuel B; Modini, Matthew; Joyce, Sadhbh; Milligan-Saville, Josie S; Tan, Leona; Mykletun, Arnstein; Bryant, Richard A; Christensen, Helen; Mitchell, Philip B
It has been suggested that certain types of work may increase the risk of common mental disorders, but the exact nature of the relationship has been contentious. The aim of this paper is to conduct the first comprehensive systematic meta-review of the evidence linking work to the development of common mental health problems, specifically depression, anxiety and/or work-related stress and to consider how the risk factors identified may relate to each other. MEDLINE, PsychInfo, Embase, the Cochrane Collaboration and grey literature databases were systematically searched for review articles that examined work-based risk factors for common mental health problems. All included reviews were subjected to a quality appraisal. 37 review studies were identified, of which 7 were at least moderate quality. 3 broad categories of work-related factors were identified to explain how work may contribute to the development of depression and/or anxiety: imbalanced job design, occupational uncertainty and lack of value and respect in the workplace. Within these broad categories, there was moderate level evidence from multiple prospective studies that high job demands, low job control, high effort-reward imbalance, low relational justice, low procedural justice, role stress, bullying and low social support in the workplace are associated with a greater risk of developing common mental health problems. While methodological limitations continue to preclude more definitive statements on causation between work and mental disorders, there is now a range of promising targets for individual and organisational-level interventions aimed at minimising mental health problems in the workplace. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Bonsack, C; Schaffter, M; Singy, P; Charbon, Y; Eggimann, A; Guex, P
Treatment of severe mental illness in the community is gaining interest under ethical, clinical and economical pressure, which has led to mental health reform and deinstitutionalisation. However, this can lead to conflicts between all the parties involved in the community. Several countries have initiated extensive efforts to coordinate health services to enhance quality of care without increasing costs. According to Gray [Hum Relat 38 (1985) 911-936.], the first conditions facilitating interorganizational collaboration are the identification of common problems, recognition of partners (legitimacy and expertise) and interest in collaborating gains to be made from such collaboration [int J Health Plann Manage 17(4) (2002) 315-32.]. The aims of the study were to assess the representation of problems and needs from people dealing with psychiatric patients in the community with a model of action research. The action part of the study meant to influence collaboration and objective setting in the network. The research part intended to identify the main problems experienced while dealing in the community with people suffering from severe mental illness. In depth interviews were conducted with 25 persons involved in the community network (GPs, psychiatrists, nurses, social workers, police, judge, relatives, and users). Five open-ended questions on experienced problematic situations, network's collaboration, and expectations were asked. Content analysis of individual interviews was validated through discussion in six focus groups. Qualitative analysis used a 3 x 3 matrix model inspired from Parsons [Social systems and the evolution of action theory. Free Press; 1977, 420 p.; Health Serv Manage Res 11(1) (1998) 24-41 discussion 41-8.], and Tansella and Thornicroft [Psychol Med 28(3) (1998) 503-508.]. One thousand four hundred and seventy-nine propositions were grouped in 52 themes. Seventeen key problems were identified at individual, population, care-process and network
Martinez, Haley S; Klanecky, Alicia K; McChargue, Dennis E
Scarce research has examined the combined effect of mental health difficulties and demographic risk factors such as freshman status and Greek affiliation in understanding college problem drinking. The current study is interested in looking at the interaction among freshman status, Greek affiliation, and mental health difficulties. Undergraduate students (N = 413) from a private and public Midwestern university completed a large online survey battery between January 2009 and April 2013. Data from both schools were aggregated for the analyses. After accounting for gender, age, and school type, the three-way interaction indicated that the highest drinking levels were reported in freshman students who reported a history of mental health problems although were not involved in Greek life. Findings are discussed in the context of perceived social norms, as well as alcohol-related screenings and intervention opportunities on college campuses.
Lluch-Canut, Teresa; Puig-Llobet, Montserrat; Sánchez-Ortega, Aurelia; Roldán-Merino, Juan; Ferré-Grau, Carmen
A holistic perspective on health implies giving careful consideration to the relationship between physical and mental health. In this regard the present study sought to determine the level of Positive Mental Health (PMH) among people with chronic physical health problems, and to examine the relationship between the observed levels of PMH and both physical health status and socio-demographic variables. The study was based on the Multifactor Model of Positive Mental Health (Lluch, 1999), which comprises six factors: Personal Satisfaction (F1), Prosocial Attitude (F2), Self-control (F3), Autonomy (F4), Problem-solving and Self-actualization (F5), and Interpersonal Relationship Skills (F6). The sample comprised 259 adults with chronic physical health problems who were recruited through a primary care center in the province of Barcelona (Spain). Positive mental health was assessed by means of the Positive Mental Health Questionnaire (Lluch, 1999). Levels of PMH differed, either on the global scale or on specific factors, in relation to the following variables: age: global PMH scores decreased with age (r=-0.129; p=0.038); b) gender: men scored higher on F1 (t=2.203; p=0.028) and F4 (t=3.182; p=0.002), while women scored higher on F2 (t -3.086; p=0.002) and F6 (t=-2.744; p=0.007); c) number of health conditions: the fewer the number of health problems the higher the PMH score on F5 (r=-0.146; p=0.019); d) daily medication: polymedication patients had lower PMH scores, both globally and on various factors; e) use of analgesics: occasional use of painkillers was associated with higher PMH scores on F1 (t=-2.811; p=0.006). There were no significant differences in global PMH scores according to the type of chronic health condition. The only significant difference in the analysis by factors was that patients with hypertension obtained lower PMH scores on the factor Autonomy (t=2.165; p=0.032). Most people with chronic physical health problems have medium or high levels of PMH
Background A holistic perspective on health implies giving careful consideration to the relationship between physical and mental health. In this regard the present study sought to determine the level of Positive Mental Health (PMH) among people with chronic physical health problems, and to examine the relationship between the observed levels of PMH and both physical health status and socio-demographic variables. Methods The study was based on the Multifactor Model of Positive Mental Health (Lluch, 1999), which comprises six factors: Personal Satisfaction (F1), Prosocial Attitude (F2), Self-control (F3), Autonomy (F4), Problem-solving and Self-actualization (F5), and Interpersonal Relationship Skills (F6). The sample comprised 259 adults with chronic physical health problems who were recruited through a primary care center in the province of Barcelona (Spain). Positive mental health was assessed by means of the Positive Mental Health Questionnaire (Lluch, 1999). Results Levels of PMH differed, either on the global scale or on specific factors, in relation to the following variables: age: global PMH scores decreased with age (r=-0.129; p=0.038); b) gender: men scored higher on F1 (t=2.203; p=0.028) and F4 (t=3.182; p=0.002), while women scored higher on F2 (t -3.086; p=0.002) and F6 (t=-2.744; p=0.007); c) number of health conditions: the fewer the number of health problems the higher the PMH score on F5 (r=-0.146; p=0.019); d) daily medication: polymedication patients had lower PMH scores, both globally and on various factors; e) use of analgesics: occasional use of painkillers was associated with higher PMH scores on F1 (t=-2.811; p=0.006). There were no significant differences in global PMH scores according to the type of chronic health condition. The only significant difference in the analysis by factors was that patients with hypertension obtained lower PMH scores on the factor Autonomy (t=2.165; p=0.032). Conclusions Most people with chronic physical health
O'Brien, Doireann; Harvey, Kate; Howse, Jessica; Reardon, Tessa; Creswell, Cathy
Mental health problems are common and typically have an early onset. Effective treatments for mental health problems in childhood and adolescence are available, yet only a minority of children who are affected access them. This is of serious concern, considering the far-reaching and long-term negative consequences of such problems. Primary care is usually the first port of call for concerned parents so it is important to understand how primary care practitioners manage child and adolescent mental health problems and the barriers they face. To ascertain primary care practitioners' perceptions of the barriers that prevent effective management of child and adolescent mental health problems. A systematic review of qualitative and quantitative literature in a primary care setting. A database search of peer-reviewed articles using PsycINFO, MEDLINE(®), Embase, and Web of Science, from inception (earliest 1806) until October 2014, was conducted. Additional studies were identified through hand searches and forward-citation searches. Studies needed to have at least one search term in four categories: primary care, childhood/adolescence, mental health, and barriers. A total of 4151 articles were identified, of which 43 were included (30 quantitative studies and 13 qualitative studies). The majority of the barriers related to identification, management, and/or referral. Considerable barriers included a lack of providers and resources, extensive waiting lists, and financial restrictions. The identification of a broad range of significant barriers highlights the need to strengthen the ability to deal with these common difficulties in primary care. There is a particular need for tools and training to aid accurate identification and management, and for more efficient access to specialist services. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.
Das, Aswathy; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Thamilselvan, P; Marimuthu, P
Technology usage has seen an increase among users. The usage varies from social, personal, and psychological reasons. Users are frequently using to overcome mood states as well as to manage the other psychological states. This work is going to explore the information technology use among subjects with a psychiatric disorder. A total of 75 subjects were assessed using background data sheet, internet addiction impairment index, video game use pattern, pornography addiction screening tool and screening for mobile phone use, from in-patient and out-patient setting of tertiary mental health setting. It showed the presence of addiction to mobile, internet, video game, and pornography. Age was found to be negatively correlated with this addiction. Average usage time had been associated with management of mood states. The addiction to information technology had been associated with a delay in initiation of sleep. This work has implication for screening technology addiction among subjects seeking treatment for psychological problems and motivate them to develop the healthy use of technology.
Bailey, S Kathleen; Mushquash, Christopher J; Haggarty, John M
The relationship between male sex and employment as barriers to accessing mental health care is unclear. The aim of this research was to examine (1) whether the clinical features of men referred to a shared mental health care (SMHC) service through primary care differed when symptoms were affecting them in the work domain; and (2) empirically re-evaluate the effectiveness of a SMHC model for work-related disability using a pre-post chart review of N = 3960 referrals to SMHC. ANOVA and logistic regression were performed to examine symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ) and disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, WHODAS 2) at entry and discharge. Men were RR (relative risk) = 1.8 (95% C.I.: 1.60-2.05) times more likely to be referred to SMHC with work problems than women. Having greater disability and more severe somatic symptoms increased the likelihood of a work-related referral. There were no significant differences after treatment. Problems in the work domain may play an important role in men's treatment seeking and clinicians' recognition of a mental health care need. This study is relevant because men are underrepresented in mental health (MH) treatment and primary care is the main gateway to accessing MH care. Asking men about functioning in the work domain may increase access to helpful psychiatric services.
Rickwood, Debra J; Mazzer, Kelly R; Telford, Nic R; Parker, Alexandra G; Tanti, Chris J; McGorry, Patrick D
To examine changes in psychological distress and psychosocial functioning in young people presenting to headspace centres across Australia for mental health problems. Analysis of routine data collected from headspace clients who had commenced an episode of care between 1 April 2013 and 31 March 2014, and at 90-day follow-up. A total of 24 034 people aged 12-25 years who had first presented to one of the 55 fully established headspace centres for mental health problems during the data collection period. Main reason for presentation, types of therapeutic services provided, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) scores, and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) scores. Most headspace mental health clients presented with symptoms of depression and anxiety and were likely to receive cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). Younger males were more likely than other age- and sex-defined groups to present for anger and behavioural problems, while younger females were more likely to present for deliberate self-harm. From presentation to last assessment, over one-third of clients had significant improvements in psychological distress (K10) and a similar proportion in psychosocial functioning (SOFAS). Sixty per cent of clients showed significant improvement on one or both measures. Data regarding outcomes for young people using mental health care services similar to headspace centres are scarce, but the current results compare favourably with those reported overseas, and show positive outcomes for young people using headspace centres.
Dowling, Nicki A; Merkouris, Stephanie S; Manning, Victorian; Volberg, Rachel; Lee, Stuart J; Rodda, Simone N; Lubman, Dan I
Despite the over-representation of people with gambling problems in mental health populations, there is limited information available to guide the selection of brief screening instruments within mental health services. The primary aim was to compare the classification accuracy of nine brief problem gambling screening instruments (two to five items) with a reference standard among patients accessing mental health services. The classification accuracy of nine brief screening instruments was compared with multiple cut-off scores on a reference standard. Eight mental health services in Victoria, Australia. A total of 837 patients were recruited consecutively between June 2015 and January 2016. The brief screening instruments were the Lie/Bet Questionnaire, Brief Problem Gambling Screen (BPGS) (two- to five-item versions), NODS-CLiP, NODS-CLiP2, Brief Biosocial Gambling Screen (BBGS) and NODS-PERC. The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) was the reference standard. The five-item BPGS was the only instrument displaying satisfactory classification accuracy in detecting any level of gambling problem (low-risk, moderate-risk or problem gambling) (sensitivity = 0.803, specificity = 0.982, diagnostic efficiency = 0.943). Several shorter instruments adequately detected both problem and moderate-risk, but not low-risk, gambling: two three-item instruments (NODS-CLiP, three-item BPGS) and two four-item instruments (NODS-PERC, four-item BPGS) (sensitivity = 0.854-0.966, specificity = 0.901-0.954, diagnostic efficiency = 0.908-0.941). The four-item instruments, however, did not provide any considerable advantage over the three-item instruments. Similarly, the very brief (two-item) instruments (Lie/Bet and two-item BPGS) adequately detected problem gambling (sensitivity = 0.811-0.868, specificity = 0.938-0.943, diagnostic efficiency = 0.933-0.934), but not moderate-risk or low-risk gambling. The optimal brief screening instrument for mental health services
Ravenna, Jean; Cleaver, Karen
Prevalence of mental health disorder is increasing among young people. It is recognized that early intervention is essential in supporting young people, and care provided within schools to support emotional well-being is recommended as part of this process. A scoping review was undertaken examining school nurses' experiences of supporting the…
Nguyen, Dat Tan; Dedding, Christine; Pham, Tam Thi; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.
Background: Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam.The study aimed to explore perceptions of
Gunnarsdóttir, Hrafnhildur; Hensing, Gunnel; Povlsen, Lene; Petzold, Max
The Nordic welfare system has been acknowledged as favourable for children, successfully contributing to low child mortality and poverty rates. Nevertheless, mental health problems among children and adolescents are common and the economic situation of the family has been highlighted as an important determinant. In spite of similar social, political and cultural structures, the Nordic countries differ; Iceland was most affected by the global financial crisis in 2008. The aim of this study was to examine potential differences in parental financial stress and the associations to child mental health between the Nordic countries as well as age and gender differences. The study sample consisted of 6330 children aged 4-16 years old included in the 2011 version of the Nordic Study of Children's Health, Wellbeing and Quality of life. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to measure mental health problems. In Iceland, 47.7% of the parents reported financial stress while ≤20% did so in the other countries except for Finland (33.5%). However, in case of parental financial stress the OR of mental health problems comparing children to parents with and without financial stress was significantly lower among the Icelandic children (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.15-2.24) than among the others: Denmark OR 3.07 (95% CI 2.15-4.39), Finland OR 2.28 (95% CI 1.60-3.25), Norway OR 2.77 (95% CI 1.86-4.12), Sweden OR 3.31(95% CI 2.26-4.86). No significant age or gender differences in the ORs were observed. Besides socioeconomic situation, relative deprivation should be considered an important determinant of child mental health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Mishra, Nitin; Nagpal, Sajanjiv Singh; Chadda, Rakesh K.; Sood, Mamta
Background: Patients with mental health problems in the nonwestern world seek help from a variety of sources, such as the family physicians, psychiatrists, psychologists, traditional faith-healers, or alternative medicine practitioners. Understanding the help-seeking behavior is important from the public health perspective. Materials and Methods: Two hundred new patients visiting a psychiatric outpatient service at a tertiary care hospital were interviewed on a semi-structured questionnaire f...
Child maltreatment is a worldwide societal phenomenon of concern that has continuously subjected children to various health risks (Gershoff, 2010; Lansford et al., 2015; UNICEF, 2010). Research findings in high-income countries have reported a high prevalence of child maltreatment in families and schools, which were consistently associated with children’s mental health challenges (Lansford, Sexton, Davis-Kean, & Sameroff, 2012; Weaver, Borkowski, and Whitman, 2008). Moreover, findings from gl...
Hasan, Syed Shahzad; Thiruchelvam, Kaeshaelya; Ahmed, Syed Imran; Clavarino, Alexandra M; Mamun, Abdullah A; Kairuz, Therese
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between pregnancy complications, mental health-related problems, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Malaysian women. A case-control study of women with T2DM (n=160) matched by age range to controls without T2DM (n=160). Data were collected in the Negeri Sembilan and PutraJaya regions in Malaysia, from two hospital outpatient clinics, PutraJaya Hospital and Tuanku Jaa'far Hospital Seremban, and one health clinic at Seremban. Validated, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to obtain the data. The unadjusted and adjusted estimates were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method. Neither depression (RR 0.74, 95% CI: 0.39-1.41) nor anxiety (RR 1.00, 95% CI: 0.53-1.88) symptoms increased the risk of T2DM significantly. However, gestational diabetes (RR 1.35, 95% CI: 1.02-1.79), and ≥3 pregnancies (RR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.08-1.79) were significant risk factors for the development of T2DM. T2DM was not a significant risk factor for either depression (RR 1.26, 95% CI: 0.91-1.74) or anxiety symptoms (RR 1.13, 95% CI: 0.59-2.19). In this study, T2DM is not a significant risk factor for depression and anxiety; similarly, neither are depression and anxiety significant risk factors for T2DM. Although prevalence of depression and anxiety is not alarming, the findings reported here should alert clinicians to screen and treat anxiety and depression in people with diabetes and also note the importance of monitoring women with complications in pregnancy for risk of later T2DM. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wissow, Lawrence S; Zafar, Waleed; Fothergill, Kate; Ruble, Anne; Slade, Eric
To further efforts to integrate mental health and primary care, this study develops a novel approach to quantifying the amount and sources of work involved in shifting care for common mental health problems to pediatric primary care providers. Email/web-based survey of a convenience sample (n = 58) of Maryland pediatricians (77% female, 58% at their site 10 or more years; 44% in private practice, 52 % urban, 48 % practicing with a co-located mental health provider). Participants were asked to review 11 vignettes, which described primary care management of child/youth mental health problems, and rate them on an integer-based ordinal scale for the overall amount of work involved compared to a 12th reference vignette describing an uncomplicated case of ADHD. Respondents were also asked to indicate factors (time, effort, stress) accounting for their ratings. Vignettes presented combinations of three diagnoses (ADHD, anxiety, and depression) and three factors (medical co-morbidity, psychiatric co-morbidity, and difficult families) reported to complicate mental health care. The reference case was pre-assigned a work value of 2. Estimates of the relationship of diagnosis and complicating factors with workload were obtained using linear regression, with random effects at the respondent level. The 58 pediatricians gave 593 vignette responses. Depression was associated with a 1.09 unit (about 50%) increase in work (95% CL .94, 1.25), while anxiety did not differ significantly from the reference case of uncomplicated ADHD (p = .28). Although all three complicating factors increased work ratings compared with the reference case, family complexity and psychiatric co-morbidity did so the most (.87 and 1.07 units, respectively, P work were physician time, physician mental effort, and stress; those least strongly associated were staff time, physician physical effort, and malpractice risk. Pediatricians working with co-located mental health providers gave higher work
Gough, Karla; Happell, Brenda
Difficulties recruiting and retaining adequate numbers of mental health nurses have been extensively documented in the Australian literature. The continued increase in the average age of practicing mental health nurses has intensified concerns that a workforce crisis is rapidly approaching. Despite the urgency of this situation, there has been no comprehensive, co-ordinated collection of labour force data. The aim of this paper is to synthesise and present labour force data gathered from various official sources to more clearly identify and articulate the nature and extent of the problem. Relevant labour force data was obtained from reports produced by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and the Victorian Department of Human Services. Information was collated, synthesised and, in some cases, re-analysed to provide a clearer picture of the current national and Victorian mental health nursing labour force, as well as requirement and supply projections. Findings are consistent with conclusions in the available literature but suggest that the magnitude of the problem is likely to be greater than previously anticipated. The systematic and coordinated collection of mental health nursing labour force data is crucial in order that appropriate interventions can be implemented and evaluated.
Borst, Jorien M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.
A high prevalence of mental health problems (i.e. depression and/or anxiety) has been found in medical students in comparison with the general population. Therefore, the objective was first to study the prevalence and 1-year incidence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and any mental health problems
Adriaanse, Marcia; Veling, Wim; Doreleijers, Theo; van Domburgh, Lieke
To investigate to what extent differences in prevalence and types of mental health problems between ethnic minority and majority youth can be explained by social disadvantage. Mental health problems were assessed in a sample of 1,278 schoolchildren (55 % Dutch, 32 % Moroccan and 13 % Turkish; mean
Mental health problems in deaf and severely hard of hearing children and adolescents : findings on prevalence, pathogenesis and clinical complexities, and implications for prevention, diagnosis and intervention
Gent, Tiejo van
The aim of this thesis is to expand the knowledge of mental health problems with deaf and severely hard of hearing children and adolescents in the following domains: 1. The prevalence of mental health problems; 2. Specific intra- and interpersonal aspects of pathogenesis; 3. characteristics of the
Dembo, Richard; Briones, Rhissa; Gulledge, Laura; Karas, Lora; Winters, Ken C; Belenko, Steven; Greenbaum, Paul E
Reflective of interest in mental health and substance abuse issues among youths involved with the justice system, we performed a latent class analysis on baseline information collected on 100 youths involved in two diversion programs. Results identified two groups of youths: Group 1: a majority of the youths, who had high levels of delinquency, mental health and substance abuse issues, Group 2: youths with low levels of these problems. Comparison of these two groups on a variety of psychosocial measures and parent/guardian reports found differences between them that were consistent with their problem group classification. Follow-up analysis confirmed problem behavior that was consistent with the youths' latent class placement. Implications of the findings for research and practice will be presented.
Dembo, Richard; Briones, Rhissa; Gulledge, Laura; Karas, Lora; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Greenbaum, Paul E.
Reflective of interest in mental health and substance abuse issues among youths involved with the justice system, we performed a latent class analysis on baseline information collected on 100 youths involved in two diversion programs. Results identified two groups of youths: Group 1: a majority of the youths, who had high levels of delinquency, mental health and substance abuse issues, Group 2: youths with low levels of these problems. Comparison of these two groups on a variety of psychosocial measures and parent/guardian reports found differences between them that were consistent with their problem group classification. Follow-up analysis confirmed problem behavior that was consistent with the youths’ latent class placement. Implications of the findings for research and practice will be presented. PMID:22685378
Schuring, Merel; Robroek, Suzan Jw; Burdorf, Alex
Objectives The aims of this study were to (i) investigate the impact of paid employment on self-rated health, self-esteem, mastery, and happiness among previously unemployed persons with common mental health problems, and (ii) determine whether there are educational inequalities in these effects. Methods A quasi-experimental study was performed with a two-year follow-up period among unemployed persons with mental health problems. Eligible participants were identified at the social services departments of five cities in The Netherlands when being diagnosed with a common mental disorder, primarily depression and anxiety disorders, in the past 12 months by a physician (N=749). Employment status (defined as paid employment for ≥12 hours/week), mental health [Short Form 12 (SF-12)], physical health (SF-12), self-esteem, mastery, and happiness were measured at baseline, after 12 months and 24 months. The repeated-measurement longitudinal data were analyzed using a hybrid method, combining fixed and random effects. The regression coefficient was decomposed into between- and within-individual associations, respectively. Results The between-individuals associations showed that persons working ≥12 hours per week reported better mental health (b=26.7, SE 5.1), mastery (b=2.7, SE 0.6), self-esteem (b=5.7, SE 1.1), physical health (b=14.6, SE 5.6) and happiness (OR 7.7, 95% CI 2.3-26.4). The within-individual associations showed that entering paid employment for ≥12 hours per week resulted in better mental health (b=16.3, SE 3.4), mastery (b=1.7, SE 0.4), self-esteem (b=3.4, SE 0.7), physical health (b=9.8, SE 2.9), and happiness (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.4-6.9). Among intermediate- and high-educated persons, entering paid employment had significantly larger effect on mental health than among low-educated persons. Conclusions This study provides evidence that entering paid employment has a positive impact on self-reported health; thus work should be considered as an important
Full Text Available There is a growing understanding that psychiatric treatment is more than psychotherapy and medication, and that people themselves can be active in preventing and handling mental health problems. This brings non-medical solutions into play. Physical activity (in terms of exercise, sport, and fitness becomes an important contribution in this particular context. The perceived mental and physical benefits of physical activity (both preventative and therapeutic for people experiencing mental health problems are well documented. Typically, this kind of research focuses narrowly on “size of effect” or “most successful type of intervention” or “exercise versus other treatment.” Less research has explored the lived experience of physical activity and the meaning and relevance it has for individuals in their everyday lives. This article suggests that sport and exercise can play a valuable role in and contribute to the recovery process for young people with mental health problems. Results from an evaluation study of a developmental project in Denmark shows how physical activity affects a person‟s lived experiences, relationships, and pursuits. The findings is discussed in relation to the concept of recovery, especially focusing on exercise as a form of self-care strategy, as an opportunity to create social relationships, and as a way to become part of a meaningful social activity.
Adelman, Howard S; Taylor, Linda
Health policy and practice call for health and mental health parity and for a greater focus on universal interventions to promote, prevent, and intervene as early after problem onset as is feasible. Those in the public health field are uniquely positioned to help promote the mental health of young people and to reshape how the nation thinks about and addresses mental health. And schools are essential partners for doing the work.
Full Text Available Judith M Jarosinski,1 Jane A Fox21Nursing Department, Henson School of Science, Salisbury University, Salisbury, MD, 2School of Nursing, College of Health and Human Services, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, NC, USAAbstract: In this article, the authors explore the risks pregnant women experience due to mental illness and intimate partner violence (IPV and discuss the nursing role involved in the management of their care. For many women, pregnancy is a time of hopeful anticipation, yet for others, pregnancy reflects a new or an ongoing struggle with mental illness. The sequelae of untreated mental illness can be as severe as infanticide, maternal suicide, lack of maternal attachment, and inability to parent. Newborns whose mothers misuse alcohol and drugs are at risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and neonatal addiction syndrome. Women who live with IPV risk their physical and mental well-being as well as the safety of their newborn. Implications for practice include the use of assessment tools early and during the treatment trajectory; otherwise, mental illness and IPV in pregnancy would go undetected/untreated. Identifying postpartum depression early is key toward providing timely care for both the mother and infant; yet, few obstetric practices use a depression assessment tool such as the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. During the initial intake assessment, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale can provide the means of early treatment through targeted assessment. Further implications include specialized services for substance-misusing pregnant women whose issues are different and separate from those of men, integration of services to address their multifaceted needs, and educating nurses to the reality of comorbidity as the norm rather than the rare occurrence, with a truly holistic approach that diminishes stigma. Keywords: intimate partner violence, mental illness, pregnancy, serious mental illness, Women
Song, Insu; Yellowlees, Peter; Diederich, Joachim
This book introduces approaches that have the potential to transform the daily practice of psychiatrists and psychologists. This includes the asynchronous communication between mental health care providers and clients as well as the automation of assessment and therapy. Speech and language are particularly interesting from the viewpoint of psychological assessment. For instance, depression may change the characteristics of voice in individuals and these changes can be detected by a special form of speech analysis. Computational screening methods that utilise speech and language can detect subtle changes and alert clinicians as well as individuals and caregivers. The use of online technologies in mental health, however, poses ethical problems that will occupy concerned individuals, governments and the wider public for some time. Assuming that these ethical problems can be solved, it should be possible to diagnose and treat mental health disorders online (excluding the use of medication).
Saavedra, Javier E; Uchofen-Herrera, Verousckha
Person-centered health and community health perspectives on its needs and resources are mandatory in healthcare policies in highly cultural diverse contexts. From this point of view, epidemiology needs to be centered not only on the disease, but also on the health diagnosis and its context, including the points of view of people and the community about their problems and needs. This article describes and qualitatively analyzes the views of adults with self-identified mental health disorders (MHD) in rural regions on the coast, highlands, and jungle of Peru, as causal factors, personal resources, and healthcare expectations from health facilities, using the narrative approach of ideographic formulation proposed by the World Psychiatric Association. The database of mental health epidemiological studies from the National Mental Health Institute was used. The qualitative analysis on answers from 235 people reveals that a large part of MHD is linked to the dynamics of troubled families and to the loss of loved ones. The presence of scarce community resources that help overcome these problems is noted. Counseling is stressed among the expectations of healthcare at facilities; nevertheless, many people do not know what to expect from such healthcare. We believe that the narrative approach is an important tool as regards to community- and person-centered medicine and intervention strategy planning.
O'Reilly, Michelle; Lester, Jessica Nina; Muskett, Tom
The objective was to identify how children's knowledge positions were negotiated in child mental health assessments and how this was managed by the different parties. The child psychiatry data consisted of 28 video-recorded assessments. A conversation analysis was undertaken to examine the interactional detail between the children, parents, and practitioners. The findings indicated that claims to knowledge were managed in three ways. First, practitioners positioned children as 'experts' on their own health and this was sometimes accepted. Second, some children resisted this epistemic position, claiming not to have the relevant knowledge. Third, some children's claims to knowledge were negotiated and sometimes contested by adult parties who questioned their competence to share relevant information about their lives in accordance with the assessment agenda. Through question design, the practitioner was able to position the child as holding relevant knowledge regarding their situation. The child was able to take up this position or resist it in various ways. This has important implications for debates regarding children's competence to contribute to mental health interventions. Children are often treated as agents with limited knowledge, yet in the mental health assessment they are directly questioned about their own lives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vostanis, P; Tischler, V; Cumella, S; Bellerby, T
Children and mothers who have suffered domestic or neighbourhood violence constitute a high risk group, although it has not been clear whether their mental health needs are specifically related to the type of violence. This paper reports on the prevalence of mental health problems in homeless parents and children who have experienced domestic and neighbourhood violence and their access to social support networks. Three groups of families who had become homeless were compared: those experiencing domestic violence (48 with 75 children), victims of neighbourhood violence (14 with 29 children), and those who became homeless for other reasons (31 with 54 children). Mothers completed a service use semi-structured interview, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire, the Family Support Scales, and the SF-36 Health Status Questionnaire. Levels of psychiatric morbidity were high in the group experiencing domestic violence (35.7% in children and 21.9% in mothers) and higher still in those who were victims of neighbourhood violence (52.2% in children and 50% in mothers). Levels of social support were found to be an important factor, particularly in relation to professional support and support from other family members, as they predicted both child and maternal psychopathology. Mental health interventions for victims of domestic and neighbourhood violence should be integrated with community programmes of social reintegration. Mental health professionals should work in close collaboration with Housing Departments, Social Services, Education and the Police.
Figueroa, Rodrigo A; Cortés, Paula F
One of the most important topics mentioned by people from places affected by the February 27th, 2010 earthquake to the Presidential Delegation for the Reconstruction, was the urgent need of mental health care. Given the enormous individual and social burden of mental health sequelae after disasters, its treatment becomes a critical issue. In this article, we propose several actions to be implemented in Chile in the context of the process of recovery and reconstruction, including optimization of social communication and media response to disasters; designing and deployment of a national strategy for volunteer service; training of primary care staff in screening and initial management of post-traumatic stress reactions; and training, continuous education and clinical supervision of a critical number of therapists in evidence-based therapies for conditions specifically related to stress.
Wickramage, Kolitha; Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Vidanapathirana, Puwalani; Weerawarna, Sulochana; Jayasekara, Buddhini; Pannala, Gayani; Adikari, Anushka; Jayaweera, Kaushalya; Peiris, Sharika; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula
One-in-ten Sri Lankans are employed abroad as International Labor Migrants (ILM), mainly as domestic maids or low-skilled laborers. Little is known about the impact their migration has on the health status of the children they 'leave behind'. This national study explored associations between the health status of 'left-behind' children of ILM's with those from comparative non-migrant families. A cross-sectional study design with multi-stage random sampling was used to survey a total of 820 children matched for both age and sex. Socio-demographic and health status data were derived using standardized pre-validated instruments. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to estimate the differences in mental health outcomes between children of migrant vs. non-migrant families. Two in every five left-behind children were shown to have mental disorders [95%CI: 37.4-49.2, p mental health status were observed. Over a quarter (30%) of the left-behind children aged 6-59 months were 'underweight or severely underweight' compared to 17.7% of non-migrant children. Findings provide evidence on health consequences for children of migrant worker families in a country experiencing heavy out-migration of labour, where remittances from ILM's remain as the single highest contributor to the economy. These findings may be relevant for other labour 'sending countries' in Asia relying on contractual labor migration for economic gain. Further studies are needed to assess longitudinal health impacts on the children left-behind.
Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi
This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.
Chorwe-Sungani, G; Shangase, N
Therapeutic commitment of general nurses influences their provision of mental health care to clients. It is the general nurses' predisposition for working therapeutically with clients who have mental health problems (MHPs). In Malawi, general nurses are the majority of health care professionals who care for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and they are expected to deal with the mental health problems of these patients. The provision of mental health care to PLWHA is vital because apart from the physical illnesses associated with the virus, these people are also affected by mental health problems. However, most general nurses, feel neither confident nor competent when dealing with the mental health problems of their clients in Malawi. This may negatively influence their therapeutic commitment in dealing with mental health problems of PLWHA. However, therapeutic commitment of general nurses in providing mental health care to PLWHA in Malawi remains unknown. The study used a quantitative descriptive survey design. a convenient sample comprising of 136 general nurses was used and data was collected using Mental Health Problems Perception Questionnaire. Permission to use the tool in this study was granted by Prof. Lauder. Ethical approval to conduct the study was granted by Ethics Committees at University of KwaZulu Natal and University of Malawi. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 15.0. The study findings revealed that there is a linear relationship between general nurses' levels of knowledge and skills and their therapeutic commitment (r=.40, n=136, p<.05) to provide mental health care of PLWHA. This study suggests general nurses' levels of therapeutic commitment in dealing with MHPs of PLWHA vary and their levels of knowledge and skill to deal with MHPs influence their willingness to provide mental health care to PLWHA.
Borst, Jorien M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K
A high prevalence of mental health problems (i.e. depression and/or anxiety) has been found in medical students in comparison with the general population. Therefore, the objective was first to study the prevalence and 1-year incidence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and any mental health problems among Dutch medical students and, second, to study which study-related and personal factors present a risk of these mental health problems. A 1-year prospective longitudinal study was performed among medical students of two medical faculties in the Netherlands (n=951). Health problems and study-related and personal factors were measured with an online questionnaire. Mental health problems were assessed by depression and/or anxiety symptoms (BSI-DEP and BSI-ANG). Univariate and multivariate hierarchical logistic regression analyses were performed to examine which of the study-related and personal factors predict mental health problems. At follow-up, 36%, 28% and 48% of the medical students reported symptoms of depression, anxiety and mental health problems, respectively. The incidence between 2010 and 2011 for depression was 20%, 17% for anxiety and 25% for mental health problems. Students who are worried about their own health during medical education are at an increased risk of future mental health problems (OR 2.0 [1.3-2.9], p=0.00). Excessive drinking behavior is a protective factor in this study (OR 0.7 [0.5-0.9], p=0.02). This study shows that only two out of nine factors are significantly associated with mental health problems among Dutch medical students, one risk factor and one protective factor.
Gunnar Vold Hansen
Full Text Available For many years the education and training of people with addictions and mental-health problems have been a key strategy to assist people to find ordinary jobs. This strategy is largely concerned with adapting people to the requirements of the workplace. An alternative strategy can also be envisaged, where the workplace adapts to the possibilities and resources of the people (Hansen, 2009. In this article, we raise the following question: how is it possible to adapt workplaces for people with addiction and mental-health problems? Here we highlight the experiences of a workplace that focuses on adapting to employees’ capabilities and resources. The data collection consists both of 12 interviews with managers and workers and of participant observation of the workplace. Our answer to our question is that this is possible because the workplace is flexible in the way that they adapt their demands to the workers’ resources.
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan
This study compared physical child abuse and teacher harassment of bully-victims with other groups and examined their associations with mental health problems in bully-victims. For 6,160 adolescents, experiences of physical child abuse, teacher harassment, peer bullying, and six mental health problem indicators were assessed. Adolescents that had experienced physical child abuse and teacher harassment were more likely to be bully-victims but not neutral or pure victims. Adolescents who reported physical child abuse were more likely to be bully-victims but not pure bullies. Bully-victims that had experienced teacher harassment exhibited more severe depression and insomnia than did those without teacher harassment. Gender had moderating effects on the difference in physical child abuse between bully-victims and neutrals and on the association between physical child abuse and suicidality in bully-victims. Physical child abuse and teacher harassment should be considered when preventive and intervention programs are developed for adolescents.
Hébert, Martine; Cénat, Jude Mary; Blais, Martin; Lavoie, Francine; Guerrier, Mireille
Child sexual abuse is associated with adverse outcomes, including heightened vulnerability that may translate into risk of revictimization. The aims of the study were: (1) to explore the direct and indirect links between child sexual abuse and cyberbullying, bullying, and mental health problems and (2) to study maternal support as a potential protective factor. Teenagers involved in the two first waves of the Quebec Youths' Romantic Relationships Survey (N = 8,194 and 6,780 at Wave I and II, respectively) completed measures assessing child sexual abuse and maternal support at Wave I. Cyberbullying, bullying, and mental health problems (self-esteem, psychological distress, and suicidal ideations) were evaluated 6 months later. Rates of cyberbullying in the past 6 months were twice as high in sexually abused teens compared to nonvictims both for girls (33.47 vs. 17.75%) and boys (29.62 vs. 13.29%). A moderated mediated model revealed a partial mediation effect of cyberbullying and bullying in the link between child sexual abuse and mental health. Maternal support acted as a protective factor as the conditional indirect effects of child sexual abuse on mental health via cyberbullying and bullying were reduced in cases of high maternal support. Results have significant relevance for prevention and intervention in highlighting the heightened vulnerability of victims of child sexual abuse to experience both bullying and cyberbullying. Maternal support may buffer the risk of developing mental health distress, suggesting that intervention programs for victimized youth may profit by fostering parent involvement. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hébert, Martine; Cénat, Jude Mary; Blais, Martin; Lavoie, Francine; Guerrier, Mireille
Child sexual abuse is associated with adverse outcomes, including heightened vulnerability that may translate into risk of revictimization. The aims of the study were: (1) to explore the direct and indirect links between child sexual abuse and cyberbullying, bullying, and mental health problems and (2) to study maternal support as a potential protective factor. Methods: Teenagers involved in the two first waves of the Quebec Youths’ Romantic Relationships Survey (N = 8,194 and 6,780 at Wave I and II, respectively) completed measures assessing child sexual abuse and maternal support at Wave I. Cyberbullying, bullying, and mental health problems (self-esteem, psychological distress, and suicidal ideations) were evaluated 6 months later. Results: Rates of cyberbullying in the past 6 months were twice as high in sexually abused teens compared to nonvictims both for girls (33.47 vs. 17.75%) and boys (29.62 vs. 13.29%). A moderated mediated model revealed a partial mediation effect of cyberbullying and bullying in the link between child sexual abuse and mental health. Maternal support acted as a protective factor as the conditional indirect effects of child sexual abuse on mental health via cyberbullying and bullying were reduced in cases of high maternal support. Conclusions: Results have significant relevance for prevention and intervention in highlighting the heightened vulnerability of victims of child sexual abuse to experience both bullying and cyberbullying. Maternal support may buffer the risk of developing mental health distress, suggesting that intervention programs for victimized youth may profit by fostering parent involvement. PMID:27037519
Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Yuejiao
HIV risk and mental health problems are prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. The purpose of this research was to study age group differences in HIV risk and mental health problems in this population. In the current study, we divided a sample of 1022 FSWs into three age groups (≤ 20 years, 21-34 years, and ≥ 35 years). Results showed that among the three groups (1) older FSWs (≥ 35 years) were likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged (e.g., rural residency, little education, employment in low-paying venues, and low monthly income); (2) older FSWs reported the highest rates of inconsistent, ineffective condom use, and sexually transmitted diseases history; (3) younger FSWs (≤ 20 years) reported the highest level of depression, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts, regular-partner violence, and substance use; (4) all health-related risks except casual-partner violence were more prevalent among older and younger FSWs than among FSWs aged 21-34 years; and (5) age had a significant effect on all health indicators except suicide attempts after controlling for several key demographic factors. These findings indicate the need for intervention efforts to address varying needs among FSWs in different age groups. Specific interventional efforts are needed to reduce older FSWs' exposure to HIV risk; meanwhile, more attention should be given to improve FSWs' mental health status, especially among younger FSWs.
Yang, Bei; Qin, Qi-zhong; Han, Ling-li; Lin, Jing; Chen, Yu
To investigate the relieving effects of hot spring balneotherapy on mental stress, sleep disorder, general health problems, and women's health problems in sub-healthy people, we recruited 500 volunteers in sub-health in Chongqing, and 362 volunteers completed the project, including 223 in the intervention group and 139 in the control group. The intervention group underwent hot spring balneotherapy for 5 months, while the control group did not. The two groups took questionnaire investigation (general data, mental stress, emotional status, sleep quality, general health problems, as well as some women's health problems) and physical examination (height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipid, blood sugar) 5 months before and after the intervention, respectively. After intervention, sleep disorder (difficulty in falling asleep ( P = 0.017); dreaminess, nightmare suffering, and restless sleep ( P = 0.013); easy awakening ( P = 0.003) and difficulty in falling into sleep again after awakening( P = 0.016); and mental stress ( P = 0.031) and problems of general health (head pain ( P = 0.026), joint pain( P = 0.009), leg or foot cramps ( P = 0.001), blurred vision ( P = 0.009)) were relieved significantly in the intervention group, as compared with the control group. While other indicators (fatigue, eye tiredness, limb numbness, constipation, skin allergy) and women's health problems (breast distending pain; dysmenorrhea, irregular menstruation) were relieved significantly in the self-comparison of the intervention group before and after intervention ( P groups ( P > 0.05). All indications (except bad mood, low mood, and worry or irritability) in the intervention group significantly improved, with effect size from 0.096 to 1.302. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the frequency, length, and location of balneotherapy in the intervention group were the factors influencing emotion, sleep, and health condition ( P group than in young-aged group
Adriaanse, Marcia; Veling, Wim; Doreleijers, Theo; van Domburgh, Lieke
To investigate to what extent differences in prevalence and types of mental health problems between ethnic minority and majority youth can be explained by social disadvantage. Mental health problems were assessed in a sample of 1,278 schoolchildren (55% Dutch, 32% Moroccan and 13% Turkish; mean age: 12.9 ± 1.8) using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire self-report and teacher report. Measures of family socioeconomic status, neighbourhood deprivation, perceived discrimination, family structure, repeating a school year, housing stability and neighbourhood urbanization were used as indicators of social disadvantage, based on which a cumulative index was created. Ethnic minority youth had more externalizing and fewer internalizing problems than majority youth. Perceived discrimination and living in an unstable social environment were associated with mental health problems, independent of ethnicity. A dose-response relationship was found between social disadvantage and mental health problems. The adjusted odds ratio for mental health problems was 4.16 (95% CI 2.49-6.94) for more than four compared with zero indicators of social disadvantage. Social disadvantage was more common in ethnic minority than in majority youth, explaining part of the differences in prevalence of mental health problems. Ethnic minority youth in the Netherlands have a different profile of mental health problems than majority youth. In all ethnic groups, the risk of mental health problems increases with the degree of social disadvantage. The higher prevalence of externalizing problems among ethnic minority youth is explained partly by their disadvantaged social position. The findings suggest that social factors associated with ethnicity are likely to explain mental health problems in ethnic groups.
Gunnar Vold Hansen; Ragnhild Fugletveit; Petter A Arvesen
For many years the education and training of people with addictions and mental-health problems have been a key strategy to assist people to find ordinary jobs. This strategy is largely concerned with adapting people to the requirements of the workplace. An alternative strategy can also be envisaged, where the workplace adapts to the possibilities and resources of the people (Hansen, 2009). In this article, we raise the following question: how is it possible to adapt workplaces for people with...