Seaton, Cherisse L.; Bottorff, Joan L.; Jones-Bricker, Margaret; Oliffe, John L.; DeLeenheer, Damen; Medhurst, Kerensa
There is an increasing need for mental health promotion strategies that effectively engage men. Although researchers have examined the effectiveness of diverse mental wellness interventions in male-dominated industries, and reviewed suicide prevention, early intervention, and health promotion interventions for boys and men, few have focused on sex-specific program effects. The purpose of this review was to (a) extend the previous reviews to examine the effectiveness of mental health promotion...
LaMontagne, Anthony D; Martin, Angela; Page, Kathryn M; Reavley, Nicola J; Noblet, Andrew J; Milner, Allison J; Keegel, Tessa; Smith, Peter M
Background Mental health problems are prevalent and costly in working populations. Workplace interventions to address common mental health problems have evolved relatively independently along three main threads or disciplinary traditions: medicine, public health, and psychology. In this Debate piece, we argue that these three threads need to be integrated to optimise the prevention of mental health problems in working populations. Discussion To realise the greatest population mental health be...
Grabert, John C.
This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…
Background Mental health problems are prevalent and costly in working populations. Workplace interventions to address common mental health problems have evolved relatively independently along three main threads or disciplinary traditions: medicine, public health, and psychology. In this Debate piece, we argue that these three threads need to be integrated to optimise the prevention of mental health problems in working populations. Discussion To realise the greatest population mental health benefits, workplace mental health intervention needs to comprehensively 1) protect mental health by reducing work–related risk factors for mental health problems; 2) promote mental health by developing the positive aspects of work as well as worker strengths and positive capacities; and 3) address mental health problems among working people regardless of cause. We outline the evidence supporting such an integrated intervention approach and consider the research agenda and policy developments needed to move towards this goal, and propose the notion of integrated workplace mental health literacy. Summary An integrated approach to workplace mental health combines the strengths of medicine, public health, and psychology, and has the potential to optimise both the prevention and management of mental health problems in the workplace. PMID:24884425
LaMontagne, Anthony D; Martin, Angela; Page, Kathryn M; Reavley, Nicola J; Noblet, Andrew J; Milner, Allison J; Keegel, Tessa; Smith, Peter M
Mental health problems are prevalent and costly in working populations. Workplace interventions to address common mental health problems have evolved relatively independently along three main threads or disciplinary traditions: medicine, public health, and psychology. In this Debate piece, we argue that these three threads need to be integrated to optimise the prevention of mental health problems in working populations. To realise the greatest population mental health benefits, workplace mental health intervention needs to comprehensively 1) protect mental health by reducing work-related risk factors for mental health problems; 2) promote mental health by developing the positive aspects of work as well as worker strengths and positive capacities; and 3) address mental health problems among working people regardless of cause. We outline the evidence supporting such an integrated intervention approach and consider the research agenda and policy developments needed to move towards this goal, and propose the notion of integrated workplace mental health literacy. An integrated approach to workplace mental health combines the strengths of medicine, public health, and psychology, and has the potential to optimise both the prevention and management of mental health problems in the workplace.
The Ububele Baby Mat Service is a community-based, parent–infant mental health intervention offered at five primary health care clinics in Alexandra Township, in Johannesburg. The aim of the intervention is to promote healthy caregiver-infant attachments. There has been a steady increase in the number of mother-baby ...
Flores, Elaine C; Fuhr, Daniela C; Bayer, Angela M; Lescano, Andres G; Thorogood, Nicki; Simms, Victoria
Mental disorders are a major contributor to the global burden of disease and disability, and can be extremely costly at both individual and community level. Social capital, (SC) defined as an individual's social relationships and participation in community networks, may lower the risk of mental disorders while increasing resilience capacity, adaptation and recovery. SC interventions may be a cost-effective way of preventing and ameliorating these conditions. However, the impact of these SC interventions on mental health still needs research. We conducted a systematic review of SC-based interventions to investigate their effect on mental health outcomes from controlled, quasi-experimental studies or pilot trials. We searched twelve academic databases, three clinical trials registries, hand-searched references and contacted field experts. Studies' quality was assessed with the Cochrane Risk of Bias tools for randomized and non-randomized studies. Seven studies were included in the review, published between 2006 and 2016. There was substantial heterogeneity in the definitions of both SC and mental disorders among the studies, preventing us from calculating pooled effect sizes. The interventions included community engagement and educative programs, cognitive processing therapy and sociotherapy for trauma survivors, and neighbourhood projects. There are paucity of SC interventions investigating the effect on mental health outcomes. This study showed that both SC scores and mental health outcomes improved over time but there was little evidence of benefit compared to control groups in the long term. Further high-quality trials are needed, especially among adverse populations to assess sustainability of effect.
Krishnaswamy, Saroja; Subramaniam, Kavitha; Indran, Tishya; Low, Wah-Yun
Disasters, natural or man-made, bring numerous health care challenges. In any crisis, mental health programs are a requirement during both the acute and postemergency phases. In the Asian tsunami on December 26, 2004, some of the northwestern coastal areas of Malaysia, particularly the island of Penang, were affected with devastating effects on the residents. Such disasters can predispose to mental health problems among the affected people. An early mental health intervention program was carried out in Balik Pulau, Penang, an area badly affected by the tsunami. The objective of the intervention program was to identify the victims, counsel them, make referrals if necessary, and provide help and resources to prevent the development of mental health problems. Penang residents identified as tsunami victims by the local health authorities were recruited. A group of health care workers, school teachers, village authorities, and volunteers were trained to carry out the crisis intervention program by health care workers experienced in crisis interventions. A total of 299 adults participated in the crisis intervention program, with follow-up assessments being made 4 to 6 weeks later. At the follow-up assessment, 1% of the victims had a problem and they were then referred for further medical assessment. This indicates that the intervention program in the first 2 weeks after the tsunami disaster with referrals to medical services may have helped stabilize the victims.
Seko, Yukari; Kidd, Sean; Wiljer, David; McKenzie, Kwame
Mobile phone technologies have been hailed as a promising means for delivering mental health interventions to youth and adolescents, the age group with high cell phone penetration and with the onset of 75% of all lifetime mental disorders. Despite the growing evidence in physical health and adult mental health, however, little information is available about how mobile phones are implemented to deliver mental health services to the younger population. The purpose of this scoping study was to map the current state of knowledge regarding mobile mental health (mMental Health) for young people (age 13-24 years), identify gaps, and consider implications for future research. Seventeen articles that met the inclusion criteria provided evidence for mobile phones as a way to engage youth in therapeutic activities. The flexibility, interactivity, and spontaneous nature of mobile communications were also considered advantageous in encouraging persistent and continual access to care outside clinical settings. Four gaps in current knowledge were identified: the scarcity of studies conducted in low and middle income countries, the absence of information about the real-life feasibility of mobile tools, the need to address the issue of technical and health literacy of both young users and health professionals, and the need for critical discussion regarding diverse ethical issues associated with mobile phone use. We suggest that mMental Health researchers and clinicians should carefully consider the ethical issues related to patient-practitioner relationship, best practices, and the logic of self-surveillance.
Chu, A H Y; Koh, D; Moy, F M; Müller-Riemenschneider, F
Mental health is an important issue in the working population. Interventions to improve mental health have included physical activity. To review evidence for the effectiveness of workplace physical activity interventions on mental health outcomes. A literature search was conducted for studies published between 1990 and August 2013. Inclusion criteria were physical activity trials, working populations and mental health outcomes. Study quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. Of 3684 unique articles identified, 17 met all selection criteria, including 13 randomized controlled trials, 2 comparison trials and 2 controlled trials. Studies were grouped into two key intervention areas: physical activity and yoga exercise. Of eight high-quality trials, two provided strong evidence for a reduction in anxiety, one reported moderate evidence for an improvement in depression symptoms and one provided limited evidence on relieving stress. The remaining trials did not provide evidence on improved mental well-being. Workplace physical activity and yoga programmes are associated with a significant reduction in depressive symptoms and anxiety, respectively. Their impact on stress relief is less conclusive. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
van den Brink, W.; Leenstra, A.; Ormel, J.; van de Willige, G.
This study examines the scientific basis for mental health intervention programs in primary care. The validity of five underlying assumptions is evaluated, using the results of a naturalistic study covering a representative sample of 25 Dutch family practices and data from the literature. Our
Robinson, Cendrine; Seaman, Elizabeth L; Montgomery, LaTrice; Winfrey, Adia
African-American children and adolescents experience an undue burden of disease for many health outcomes compared to their White peers. More research needs to be completed for this priority population to improve their health outcomes and ameliorate health disparities. Integrating hip hop music or hip hop dance into interventions may help engage African-American youth in health interventions and improve their health outcomes. We conducted a review of the literature to characterize hip hop interventions and determine their potential to improve health. We searched Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO, and EMBASE to identify studies that assessed hip hop interventions. To be included, studies had to (1) be focused on a psychosocial or physical health intervention that included hip hop and (2) present quantitative data assessing intervention outcomes. Twenty-three articles were identified as meeting all inclusion criteria and were coded by two reviewers. Articles were assessed with regards to sample characteristics, study design, analysis, intervention components, and results. Hip hop interventions have been developed to improve health literacy, health behavior, and mental health. The interventions were primarily targeted to African-American and Latino children and adolescents. Many of the health literacy and mental health studies used non-experimental study designs. Among the 12 (of 14) health behavior studies that used experimental designs, the association between hip hop interventions and positive health outcomes was inconsistent. The number of experimental hip hop intervention studies is limited. Future research is required to determine if hip hop interventions can promote health.
Schuengel, Carlo; de Schipper, Johanna Clasien; Sterkenburg, Paula S; Kef, Sabina
Attachment theory is highly influential in child and adult mental health research and practice. Research and practice have started now to explore the potential value of an attachment perspective for understanding and alleviating the challenges that persons with intellectual disabilities face in mental health and social participation. Research on attachment and intellectual disabilities is reviewed on its importance for knowledge, assessment and intervention. Progress was found in understanding and distinguishing attachment behaviours, attachment relationships, attachment representations, attachment styles and attachment disorders and their respective implications for assessment and intervention. Of the various attachment-related concepts, insights into attachment behaviours and relationships showed the most promise for practical applications in the field of intellectual disabilities. Findings on representations, styles and disorders were inconclusive or preliminary. Attachment-informed research and practice can be part of emerging developmental understanding of functioning with intellectual disabilities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Schomerus, G; Angermeyer, M C; Baumeister, S E; Stolzenburg, S; Link, B G; Phelan, J C
A core component of stigma is being set apart as a distinct, dichotomously different kind of person. We examine whether information on a continuum from mental health to mental illness reduces stigma. Online survey experiment in a quota sample matching the German population for age, gender and region (n=1679). Participants randomly received information on either (1) a continuum, (2) a strict dichotomy of mental health and mental illness, or (3) no information. We elicited continuity beliefs and stigma toward a person with schizophrenia or depression. The continuum intervention decreased perceived difference by 0.19 standard deviations (SD, Pmental illness can be improved by providing information on a mental health-mental illness continuum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Fibbins, Hamish; Ward, Philip B; Watkins, Andrew; Curtis, Jackie; Rosenbaum, Simon
Exercise interventions are efficacious in reducing cardiometabolic risk and improving symptoms in people with severe mental illness, yet evidence guiding the implementation and scalability of such efforts is lacking. Given increasing efforts to address the disparity in physical health outcomes facing people with a mental illness, novel approaches to increasing adoption of effective interventions are required. Exercise interventions targeting mental health staff may improve staff health while also creating more positive attitudes towards the role of lifestyle interventions for people experiencing mental illness. We aimed to determine the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of exercise interventions delivered to staff working in mental health services. A systematic review was conducted from database inception, until November 2017. Studies recruiting staff participants to receive an exercise intervention were eligible for inclusion. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. Physical health interventions for mental health staff were feasible and acceptable with low dropout rates. Reductions in anthropometric measures and work-related stress were reported. Limited evidence suggests that exercise interventions targeting mental health staff are feasible and acceptable. Further research is required to determine the efficacy of such interventions and the impact such strategies may have on staff culture and patient outcomes.
Ramsey, Alex T; Montgomery, Katherine
Despite concerns around the use of technology-based interventions, they are increasingly being employed by social workers as a direct practice methodology to address the mental health needs of vulnerable clients. Researchers have highlighted the importance of using innovative technologies within social work practice, yet little has been done to summarize the evidence and collectively assess findings. In this systematic review, we describe accounts of technology-based mental health interventions delivered by social workers over the past 10 years. Results highlight the impacts of these tools and summarize advantages and disadvantages to utilizing technologies as a method for delivering or facilitating interventions.
Das, Jai K; Salam, Rehana A; Lassi, Zohra S; Khan, Marium Naveed; Mahmood, Wajeeha; Patel, Vikram; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Many mental health disorders emerge in late childhood and early adolescence and contribute to the burden of these disorders among young people and later in life. We systematically reviewed literature published up to December 2015 to identify systematic reviews on mental health interventions in adolescent population. A total of 38 systematic reviews were included. We classified the included reviews into the following categories for reporting the findings: school-based interventions (n = 12); community-based interventions (n = 6); digital platforms (n = 8); and individual-/family-based interventions (n = 12). Evidence from school-based interventions suggests that targeted group-based interventions and cognitive behavioral therapy are effective in reducing depressive symptoms (standard mean difference [SMD]: -.16; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -.26 to -.05) and anxiety (SMD: -.33; 95% CI: -.59 to -.06). School-based suicide prevention programs suggest that classroom-based didactic and experiential programs increase short-term knowledge of suicide (SMD: 1.51; 95% CI: .57-2.45) and knowledge of suicide prevention (SMD: .72; 95% CI: .36-1.07) with no evidence of an effect on suicide-related attitudes or behaviors. Community-based creative activities have some positive effect on behavioral changes, self-confidence, self-esteem, levels of knowledge, and physical activity. Evidence from digital platforms supports Internet-based prevention and treatment programs for anxiety and depression; however, more extensive and rigorous research is warranted to further establish the conditions. Among individual- and family-based interventions, interventions focusing on eating attitudes and behaviors show no impact on body mass index (SMD: -.10; 95% CI: -.45 to .25); Eating Attitude Test (SMD: .01; 95% CI: -.13 to .15); and bulimia (SMD: -.03; 95% CI: -.16 to .10). Exercise is found to be effective in improving self-esteem (SMD: .49; 95% CI: .16-.81) and reducing
Ariel Soares Teles
Full Text Available Current mobile devices allow the execution of sophisticated applications with the capacity for identifying the user situation, which can be helpful in treatments of mental disorders. In this paper, we present SituMan, a solution that provides situation awareness to MoodBuster, an ecological momentary assessment and intervention mobile application used to request self-assessments from patients in depression treatments. SituMan has a fuzzy inference engine to identify patient situations using context data gathered from the sensors embedded in mobile devices. Situations are specified jointly by the patient and mental health professional, and they can represent the patient’s daily routine (e.g., “studying”, “at work”, “working out”. MoodBuster requests mental status self-assessments from patients at adequate moments using situation awareness. In addition, SituMan saves and displays patient situations in a summary, delivering them for consultation by mental health professionals. A first experimental evaluation was performed to assess the user satisfaction with the approaches to define and identify situations. This experiment showed that SituMan was well evaluated in both criteria. A second experiment was performed to assess the accuracy of the fuzzy engine to infer situations. Results from the second experiment showed that the fuzzy inference engine has a good accuracy to identify situations.
Tramonte, Michael R.
The goals of this presentation were to help mental health professionals learn more about intervening in aviation disasters, learn about the uniqueness of disaster mental health, and share the presenter's mental health disaster experiences as they relate to aviation disasters. Survivors' emotional phases during the disaster recovery process are…
Full Text Available Objective To observe the effects of systematic mental intervention, with combined centralized teaching, group interview and individual consulting, on mental health, personality and coping style in recruits, and explore an optimal intervention model for recruits' mental health. Methods Two thousand and sixteen recruits in one unit were involved in the present study, among them 1064 were allocated to study group, and the remaining 952 to control group. Recruits in study group received centralized teaching with battalion as a unit, and received group interview in squad or platoon as a unit, and meanwhile individual interview was conducted. Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ were filled one month after they were enlisted in the army and 3 days before the training ended. Recruits in control group undertook the same tests mentioned above only 3 days before the training ended. Results The total score and factor scores except hostility in SCL-90 test were significantly lower after than before systematic mental intervention (P0.05. The total score and factor scores except paranoia in SCL-90 test were significantly lower in study group than in control group after intervention (P0.05, the score of active coping was significantly higher (P<0.001, and of negative coping was significantly lower (P<0.001 after than before intervention. The ratio of the score over 2 and above declined obviously (P<0.05 in neurosis, SCL-90 abnormality, SCL-90 total scores, number of positive items, somatization, obsession, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobia, paranoid, and psychotic factor after than before intervention in recruits. Conclusion Systematic mental intervention, which consisted of combined centralized teaching, group interview and individual consulting, may promote the mental health, personality and coping style in recruits.
Duncan, Edward; Best, Catherine; Hagen, Suzanne
One person in every four will suffer from a diagnosable mental health condition during their life course. Such conditions can have a devastating impact on the lives of the individual, their family and society. Increasingly partnership models of mental health care have been advocated and enshrined in international healthcare policy. Shared decision making is one such partnership approach. Shared decision making is a form of patient-provider communication where both parties are acknowledged to bring expertise to the process and work in partnership to make a decision. This is advocated on the basis that patients have a right to self-determination and also in the expectation that it will increase treatment adherence. To assess the effects of provider-, consumer- or carer-directed shared decision making interventions for people of all ages with mental health conditions, on a range of outcomes including: patient satisfaction, clinical outcomes, and health service outcomes. We searched: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1950 to November 2008), EMBASE (1980 to November 2008), PsycINFO (1967 to November 2008), CINAHL (1982 to November 2008), British Nursing Index and Archive (1985 to November 2008) and SIGLE (1890 to September 2005 (database end date)). We also searched online trial registers and the bibliographies of relevant papers, and contacted authors of included studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised controlled trials (q-RCTs), controlled before-and-after studies (CBAs); and interrupted time series (ITS) studies of interventions to increase shared decision making in people with mental health conditions (by DSM or ICD-10 criteria). Data on recruitment methods, eligibility criteria, sample characteristics, interventions, outcome measures, participant flow and outcome data from each study were extracted by one author and checked by another. Data are presented in a narrative
Clement, Sarah; Lassman, Francesca; Barley, Elizabeth; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Williams, Paul; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Slade, Mike; Rüsch, Nicolas; Thornicroft, Graham
Mental health-related stigma is widespread and has major adverse effects on the lives of people with mental health problems. Its two major components are discrimination (being treated unfairly) and prejudice (stigmatising attitudes). Anti-stigma initiatives often include mass media interventions, and such interventions can be expensive. It is important to know if mass media interventions are effective. To assess the effects of mass media interventions on reducing stigma (discrimination and prejudice) related to mental ill health compared to inactive controls, and to make comparisons of effectiveness based on the nature of the intervention (e.g. number of mass media components), the content of the intervention (e.g. type of primary message), and the type of media (e.g. print, internet). We searched eleven databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 7, 2011); MEDLINE (OvidSP),1966 to 15 August 2011; EMBASE (OvidSP),1947 to 15 August 2011; PsycINFO (OvidSP), 1806 to 15 August 2011; CINAHL (EBSCOhost) 1981 to 16 August 2011; ERIC (CSA), 1966 to 16 August 2011; Social Science Citation Index (ISI), 1956 to 16 August 2011; OpenSIGLE (http://www.opengrey.eu/), 1980 to 18 August 2012; Worldcat Dissertations and Theses (OCLC), 1978 to 18 August 2011; metaRegister of Controlled Trials (http://www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/mrct_about.asp), 1973 to 18 August 2011; and Ichushi (OCLC), 1903 to 11 November 2011. We checked references from articles and reviews, and citations from included studies. We also searched conference abstracts and websites, and contacted researchers. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster RCTs or interrupted time series studies of mass media interventions compared to inactive controls in members of the general public or any of its constituent groups (excluding studies in which all participants were people with mental health problems), with mental health as a subject of the intervention and
Full Text Available Psychological strain in working life is gaining ever more attention. Health care workers are often under extreme emotional stress, which can become so overwhelming that they show signs of mental ill-health. This project aimed to develop a model for sustainable psychological support within a hospital clinic to prevent mental ill-health among employees. Mental strains at work and mental ill-health among clinic employees were mapped out, after which interventions for psychological support were designed in collaboration with employees. The interventions were conducted over one year and evaluated. Throughout the process the clinic received continuous feedback. Both questionnaires and interviews were used. The results of identifying mental strains and conducting interventions showed that employees experienced mental strain at work and perceived a need for support. Intervention evaluations showed that the project provided support, new insights, and an increased acceptance for long-term prevention of mental strain. Quantitative and qualitative methodologies supported the results. The conclusion was that increased legitimacy for mental strain at work and continuous feedback between clinic management and employees, as well as organizational circumstances are important factors when developing long-term intervention programs with various forms of psychological support.
Clarke, Janine; Proudfoot, Judy; Vatiliotis, Veronica; Verge, Charles; Holmes-Walker, Deborah J; Campbell, Lesley; Wilhelm, Kay; Moravac, Catherine; Indu, Pillaveetil S; Bridgett, Madeleine
Young people with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk of mental disorders. Whereas treatment need is high, difficulty recruiting young people with type 1 diabetes into psychosocial studies complicates development, testing and dissemination of these interventions. Interviews with young adults with type 1 diabetes were conducted to examine attitudes towards mental health and mental health research, including barriers and motivators to participation in mental health studies and preferred sources of mental health support. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and evaluated via thematic analysis. Young adults with type 1 diabetes were recruited via social media channels of 3 advocacy organizations. A total of 31 young adults (26 females and 5 males) with an average age of 22 years were interviewed between October 2015 and January 2016. Participants were largely unaware of their increased vulnerability to common mental health problems and knew little about mental health research. Major barriers to participation included perceived stigma and lifestyle issues and low levels of trust in researchers. Opportunities to connect with peers and help others were described as key motivators. Psychological distress was considered normal within the context of diabetes. A need for some level of human contact in receiving psychosocial support was expressed. Findings provide valuable insights into the complex dynamics of engaging young adults with type 1 diabetes in mental health studies. Interviewees provided practical suggestions to assist investigation and delivery of psychosocial interventions for this vulnerable group. © 2018 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lederman, Oscar; Suetani, Shuichi; Stanton, Robert; Chapman, Justin; Korman, Nicole; Rosenbaum, Simon; Ward, Philip B; Siskind, Dan
Evaluation of physical activity (PA) programs among populations with severe mental illness (SMI) has predominately focused on efficacy and therapeutic benefits. There is now strong evidence to support the benefits of PA in people with SMI. What remains is a gap in the implementation of pragmatic and sustainable PA interventions in mental-health settings. The current paper provides examples of interventions that have been successfully implemented in Australian settings, identifies key components of successful PA interventions and outlines practical strategies that can assist with widespread implementation of PA interventions in mental-health settings. There is an emergence of PA interventions being imbedded within a variety of mental-health settings. These interventions vary in terms of mode and intensity of service delivery. Yet, all aim to increase PA and reduce sedentary behaviour. Adopting the identified strategies may help facilitate successful implementation and increase access to PA interventions for mental-health service users.
Sebbens, Joshua; Hassmén, Peter; Crisp, Dimity; Wensley, Kate
Mental illnesses are as prevalent among elite athletes as in the general population. Despite this, there is little research examining how to enhance mental health literacy or helping behaviors in elite sport environments. A Mental Health in Sport (MHS) workshop was therefore developed and its effects on mental health literacy and confidence studied in 166 coaches and support staff working with elite athletes and teams in Australia. Results indicated that participants increased their knowledge of the signs and symptoms of common mental illnesses and were more confident in helping someone who may be experiencing a mental health problem. We conclude that even a very brief intervention can be effective in improving the mental health literacy and confidence of key persons in elite sport environments, and may promote early intervention and timely referral of elite athletes with mental health concerns to appropriate professionals. PMID:27445887
Stathopoulou, G.; Powers, M.B.; Berry, A.C.; Smits, J.A.J.; Otto, M.W.
Associations between exercise and mental well-being have been documented repeatedly over the last two decades. More recently, there has been application of exercise interventions to clinical populations diagnosed with depression, anxiety, and eating disorders with evidence of substantial benefit.
Gerben J. Westerhof
Full Text Available The goal of this article is to explore the relations between narratives and mental health from a psychological perspective. We argue that a process of identification with personal experiences underlies narrative structures that are known to be related to mental health. Overidentification and underidentification are described as general processes underlying mental health problems. Gerontological insights in reminiscence and life review and cognitive psychological studies on autobiographical memories validate this claim. Practical applications in mental health care provide even further evidence for the role of identification processes in mental health and how they can be targeted in interventions.
Rodríguez, Gabriela M; Garcia, Dainelys; Blizzard, Angela; Barroso, Nicole E; Bagner, Daniel M
Mental health interventions for infants typically target high-risk groups and can prevent long-term negative outcomes. Despite federal initiatives promoting early intervention, minimal research has examined usual care services for infants, which is important to improve routine care. The current study characterized usual care practices in infant mental health through the adaptation and administration of a provider survey. Providers (n = 126) reported using a wide range of intervention strategies and few intervention programs with varied evidence. Findings can inform future research to identify quality improvement targets of usual mental health care for high-risk infants and their families.
de Camps Meschino, Diane; Philipp, Diane; Israel, Aliza; Vigod, Simone
Dyadic interactions associated with maternal depression and anxiety may perpetuate maternal mental illness and impact infant attachment. Individual and maternal-dyadic therapies are effective but resource intensive. We assessed feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a newly developed maternal-infant dyadic group therapy intervention. This was an open-label pilot study targeting mothers with mood or anxiety disorders, and their infants aged 6 to 12 months. We conducted three 12-week groups combining evidence-based maternal and mother-infant dyadic strategies to enhance mood, insight, parenting, and mentalizing capacity. We measured recruitment and retention rates, reasons for nonparticipation, and missed sessions. Acceptability of the intervention was assessed via questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Efficacy outcomes were the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EDPS), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), measured pretreatment and posttreatment. The feasibility and acceptability were excellent. There was a significant reduction in mean depressive symptom scores (t 3.31; p 0.008 sig) and a trend toward decreasing anxiety scores (t 1.96; p 0.08). The total PSI score decreased, approaching statistical significance (t 2.23; p 0.057). Enhanced insight, parenting capacity, affect regulation, and positive interaction with baby were supported with self-report surveys and interviews. This resource-efficient novel mother-baby dyadic group intervention shows excellent feasibility, acceptability, and has good preliminary efficacy results. It has the potential to improve depression, anxiety, affect regulation, parenting, and maternal mentalization.
Schuengel, C.; de Schipper, J.C.; Sterkenburg, P.S.; Kef, S.
Background: Attachment theory is highly influential in child and adult mental health research and practice. Research and practice have started now to explore the potential value of an attachment perspective for understanding and alleviating the challenges that persons with intellectual disabilities
Davies, Eleanor Bethan
Mental health literacy encompasses an individual’s knowledge and attitudes which influence recognition, treatment and management of a mental health problem. Depression is a common mental health problem experienced by university students, but they often do not seek professional help for their mental health, and prefer more informal sources of help. Online interventions to improve students’ mental health literacy could be a useful and engaging mental health promotion strategy in this population...
Chisholm, Katharine Elizabeth; Patterson, Paul; Torgerson, Carole; Turner, Erin; Birchwood, Max
With the burden of mental illness estimated to be costing the English economy alone around £22.5 billion a year 1, coupled with growing evidence that many mental disorders have their origins in adolescence, there is increasing pressure for schools to address the emotional well-being of their students, alongside the stigma and discrimination of mental illness. A number of prior educational interventions have been developed and evaluated for this purpose, but inconsistency of findings, reporting standards, and methodologies have led the majority of reviewers to conclude that the evidence for the efficacy of these programmes remains inconclusive. A cluster randomised controlled trial design has been employed to enable a feasibility study of 'SchoolSpace', an intervention in 7 UK secondary schools addressing stigma of mental illness, mental health literacy, and promotion of mental health. A central aspect of the intervention involves students in the experimental condition interacting with a young person with lived experience of mental illness, a stigma reducing technique designed to facilitate students' engagement in the project. The primary outcome is the level of stigma related to mental illness. Secondary outcomes include mental health literacy, resilience to mental illness, and emotional well-being. Outcomes will be measured pre and post intervention, as well as at 6 month follow-up. The proposed intervention presents the potential for increased engagement due to its combination of education and contact with a young person with lived experience of mental illness. Contact as a technique to reduce discrimination has been evaluated previously in research with adults, but has been employed in only a minority of research trials investigating the impact on youth. Prior to this study, the effect of contact on mental health literacy, resilience, and emotional well-being has not been evaluated to the authors' knowledge. If efficacious the intervention could provide a
Whitley, Jessica; Smith, J. David; Vaillancourt, Tracy
Teachers and other school staff play key roles as partners in the prevention, identification, and intervention of mental health difficulties among children and youth. However, it is essential that teachers are equipped with sufficient mental health literacy to engender effective practices in these areas. This article reviews the literature related…
Desta, Menelik; Deyessa, Negussie; Fish, Irving; Maxwell, Benjamin; Zerihun, Tigist; Levine, Saul; Fox, Claire; Giedd, Jay; Zelleke, Tesfaye G.; Alem, Atalay; Garland, Ann F.
In Ethiopia there is a severe shortage of child mental health professionals. Identification and intervention for young children's mental health problems is crucial to improve developmental trajectories and reduce the severity of emotional and behavioral disorders. Teachers can play an important role in early problem detection. This role is…
Wahlbeck, Kristian; Cresswell-Smith, Johanna; Haaramo, Peija; Parkkonen, Johannes
To review psychosocial and policy interventions which mitigate the effects of poverty and inequality on mental health. Systematic reviews, controlled trials and realist evaluations of the last 10 years are reviewed, without age or geographical restrictions. Effective psychosocial interventions on individual and family level, such as parenting support programmes, exist. The evidence for mental health impact of broader community-based interventions, e.g. community outreach workers, or service-based interventions, e.g. social prescribing and debt advice is scarce. Likewise, the availability of evidence for the mental health impact of policy level interventions, such as poverty alleviation or youth guarantee, is quite restricted. The social, economic, and physical environments in which people live shape mental health and many common mental disorders. There are effective early interventions to promote mental health in vulnerable groups, but it is necessary to both initiate and facilitate a cross-sectoral approach, and to form partnerships between different government departments, civic society organisations and other stakeholders. This approach is referred to as Mental Health in All Policies and it can be applied to all public policy levels from local policies to supranational.
Rominov, Holly; Pilkington, Pamela D; Giallo, Rebecca; Whelan, Thomas A
Interventions targeting parents' mental health in the perinatal period are critical due to potential consequences of perinatal mental illness for the parent, the infant, and their family. To date, most programs have targeted mothers. This systematic review explores the current status and evidence for intervention programs aiming to prevent or treat paternal mental illness in the perinatal period. Electronic databases were systematically searched to identify peer-reviewed studies that described an intervention targeting fathers' mental health in the perinatal period. Mental health outcomes included depression, anxiety, and stress as well as more general measures of psychological functioning. Eleven studies were identified. Three of five psychosocial interventions and three massage-technique interventions reported significant effects. None of the couple-based interventions reported significant effects. A number of methodological limitations were identified, including inadequate reporting of study designs, and issues with the timing of interventions. The variability in outcomes measures across the studies made it difficult to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the interventions. Father-focused interventions aimed at preventing perinatal mood problems will be improved if future studies utilize more rigorous research strategies. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Musyimi, Christine W.; Mutiso, Victoria N.; Ndetei, David M.; Henderson, David C.; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.
Task-shifting in mental health such as engaging Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs) in appropriate management of mental disorders is crucial in reducing global mental health challenges. This study aims to determine the outcomes of using evidence-based mental health Global Action Programme
Full Text Available The growth of the Internet, mobile phones, social media and other digital technologies has changed our world in many ways. It has provided individuals with information that was previously only available to a select few. An example of the reach of technology is data that as of October 2012, there are over 6 billion phones worldwide (BBC, 2012. The availability of data in real time has presented hopes of intervening more efficiently and managing health problems by leveraging limited human resources. It also has an impact in changing the roles of providers and patients and in legal and ethical issues including privacy in digital health interactions. This paper will discuss why digital technology has received recent attention in the area of mental health, present some applications of technology for mental health to date, explore the challenges to full implementation in clinical settings, and present future opportunities for digital technologies.El crecimiento del Internet, los teléfonos móviles, las redes sociales y otras tecnologías digitales ha cambiado nuestro mundo de muchas maneras. Ha proporcionado a las personas con la información que antes sólo estaba disponible para un grupo selecto, por ejemplo a partir de octubre de 2012. Un ejemplo del alcance de la tecnología son los datos que dicen que hay más de 6 millones de teléfonos en todo el mundo (BBC, 2012. La disponibilidad de los datos en tiempo real a presentado la esperanza de intervenir de manera más eficiente y manejar los problemas de salud los recursos humanos limitados. También tiene un impacto en el cambio de los roles de los proveedores y los pacientes y en aspectos legales y éticos, incluyendo la privacidad en las interacciones de salud digital. Este artículo discutirá unas razones por cual la tecnología digital ha recibido atención recientemente en el área de salud mental, presentará algunas aplicaciones de la tecnología para mejorar la salud mental hasta la fecha
Facchini, Sergio; Martin, Valentina; Downing, George
This case series study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a behavioral/cognitive psychological intervention in a pediatric primary health care setting during standard well-baby visits. The aim of the intervention was to support caregivers’ sensitivity and mentalization in order to promote infant mental health. Four neonates from birth to eight months were consecutively enrolled to test a short video-feedback intervention (Primary Care - Video Intervention Therapy, an adaptation ...
Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Kim, Sunny Jung; McHugo, Gregory J; Unützer, Jürgen; Bartels, Stephen J; Marsch, Lisa A
Theoretical models offer valuable insights for designing effective and sustainable behavioral health interventions, yet the application of theory for informing digital technology interventions for people with mental illness has received limited attention. We offer a perspective on the importance of applying behavior theories and models to developing digital technology interventions for addressing mental and physical health concerns among people with mental illness. In this commentary, we summarize prominent theories of human behavior, highlight key theoretical constructs, and identify opportunities to inform digital health interventions for people with mental illness. We consider limitations with existing theories and models, and examine recent theoretical advances that can specifically guide development of digital technology interventions. Established behavioral frameworks including health belief model, theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory consist of important and overlapping constructs that can inform digital health interventions for people with mental illness. As digital technologies continue to evolve and enable longitudinal data collection, real-time behavior monitoring, and adaptive features tailored to users' changing needs over time, there are new opportunities to broaden our understanding of health behaviors and mechanisms of behavior change. Recent advances include dynamic models of behavior, persuasive system design, the behavioral intervention technology model, and behavioral models for just-in-time adaptive interventions. Behavior theories offer advantages for guiding use of digital technologies. Future researchers must explore how theoretical models can effectively advance efforts to develop, evaluate, and disseminate digital health interventions targeting individuals with mental illness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Anderson, Kimberley; Laxhman, Neelam; Priebe, Stefan
Social networks of patients with psychosis can provide social support, and improve health and social outcomes, including quality of life. However, patients with psychosis often live rather isolated with very limited social networks. Evidence for interventions targeting symptoms or social skills, are largely unsuccessful at improving social networks indirectly. As an alternative, interventions may directly focus on expanding networks. In this systematic review, we assessed what interventions have previously been tested for this and to what extent they have been effective. A systematic review was conducted of randomised controlled trials, testing psychosocial interventions designed to directly increase the social networks of patients with psychosis. Searches of five online databases (PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Database, MEDLINE, Embase), hand searching of grey literature, and both forward and backward snowballing of key papers were conducted and completed on 12 December 2014. Trial reports were included if they were written in English, the social network size was the primary outcome, participants were ≥ 18 years old and diagnosed with a psychotic disorder. Five studies (n = 631 patients) met the complete inclusion criteria. Studies were from different countries and published since 2008. Four trials had significant positive results, i.e. an observable increase in patients' social network size at the end of the intervention. The interventions included: guided peer support, a volunteer partner scheme, supported engagement in social activity, dog-assisted integrative psychological therapy and psychosocial skills training. Other important elements featured were the presence of a professional, and a focus on friendships and peers outside of services and the immediate family. Despite the small number and heterogeneity of included studies, the results suggest that interventions directly targeting social isolation can be effective and achieve a meaningful increase
Full Text Available There is a growing interest for the potential health benefits of human-animal interactions. Although scientific evidence on the effects is far from being consistent, companion animals are used with a large number of human subjects, ranging from children to elderly people, who benefit most from emotional support. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature, this paper examines the potential for domesticated animals, such as dogs, for providing emotional and physical opportunities to enrich the lives of many frail subjects. In particular, we focus on innovative interventions, including the potential use of dogs to improve the life of emotionally-impaired children, such as those affected by autism spectrum disorders. Overall an ever increasing research effort is needed to search for the mechanism that lie behind the human-animal bond as well as to provide standardized methodologies for a cautious and effective use of animal-assisted interventions.
Cirulli, Francesca; Borgi, Marta; Berry, Alessandra; Francia, Nadia; Alleva, Enrico
There is a growing interest for the potential health benefits of human-animal interactions. Although scientific evidence on the effects is far from being consistent, companion animals are used with a large number of human subjects, ranging from children to elderly people, who benefit most from emotional support. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature, this paper examines the potential for domesticated animals, such as dogs, for providing emotional and physical opportunities to enrich the lives of many frail subjects. In particular, we focus on innovative interventions, including the potential use of dogs to improve the life of emotionally-impaired children, such as those affected by autism spectrum disorders. Overall an ever increasing research effort is needed to search for the mechanism that lie behind the human-animal bond as well as to provide standardized methodologies for a cautious and effective use of animal-assisted interventions.
Brahm, Paulina; Cortázar, Alejandra; Fillol, María Paz; Mingo, María Verónica; Vielma, Constanza; Aránguiz, María Consuelo
Maternal sensitivity (MS) and mental health influence mother-child attachment and the child's mental health. Early interventions may promote resilience and facilitate healthy development of the children through an impact on mothers' outcomes such as their sensitivity and mental health. Play with Our Children (POC) is an early intervention programme aiming to promote a positive mother-child interaction for children who attend three family health centres of deprived areas of Santiago de Chile. To estimate the effect of the programme POC on MS and mental health. A quasi-experimental design with propensity score matching estimations was employed. MS was measured with the Q-Sort of Maternal Sensitivity, and maternal mental health was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index. Mean-difference comparison and difference-in-difference method were used as statistical strategies. The sample included 102 children from 2 to 23 months of age, 54 of them participated in the intervention and 48 children were the comparison group. Estimates showed that participation in POC was positively associated with less stress in mothers of children younger than 12 months (P mental health and indirectly impact children's well-being during critical stages of their development by strengthening their mother's sensitivity towards them. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Osofsky, Joy; Wieder, Serena; Noroña, Carmen Rosa; Lowell, Darcy; Worthy, D'Lisa Ramsey
Infant and early childhood mental health interventions and treatment take place in many different settings including clinics serving adults and children, primary care centers, pediatric clinics, private practice offices, homes, early intervention offices, and child care centers. In addition, the types of evaluations and services offered in these…
Demyan, Amy L.; Anderson, Timothy
This study examined the effects of a mass-media video intervention on expectations, attitudes, and intentions to seek help from professional mental health care services. A public service announcement-style, mass-media video intervention was developed, with prior empirical research on help-seeking behaviors organized according to the theory of…
Hoermann, Simon; McCabe, Kathryn L; Milne, David N; Calvo, Rafael A
Synchronous written conversations (or "chats") are becoming increasingly popular as Web-based mental health interventions. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to evaluate and summarize the quality of these interventions. The aim of this study was to review the current evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of online one-on-one mental health interventions that use text-based synchronous chat. A systematic search was conducted of the databases relevant to this area of research (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online [MEDLINE], PsycINFO, Central, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, IEEE, and ACM). There were no specific selection criteria relating to the participant group. Studies were included if they reported interventions with individual text-based synchronous conversations (ie, chat or text messaging) and a psychological outcome measure. A total of 24 articles were included in this review. Interventions included a wide range of mental health targets (eg, anxiety, distress, depression, eating disorders, and addiction) and intervention design. Overall, compared with the waitlist (WL) condition, studies showed significant and sustained improvements in mental health outcomes following synchronous text-based intervention, and post treatment improvement equivalent but not superior to treatment as usual (TAU) (eg, face-to-face and telephone counseling). Feasibility studies indicate substantial innovation in this area of mental health intervention with studies utilizing trained volunteers and chatbot technologies to deliver interventions. While studies of efficacy show positive post-intervention gains, further research is needed to determine whether time requirements for this mode of intervention are feasible in clinical practice. ©Simon Hoermann, Kathryn L McCabe, David N Milne, Rafael A Calvo. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 21.07.2017.
Milne, David N
Background Synchronous written conversations (or “chats”) are becoming increasingly popular as Web-based mental health interventions. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to evaluate and summarize the quality of these interventions. Objective The aim of this study was to review the current evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of online one-on-one mental health interventions that use text-based synchronous chat. Methods A systematic search was conducted of the databases relevant to this area of research (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online [MEDLINE], PsycINFO, Central, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, IEEE, and ACM). There were no specific selection criteria relating to the participant group. Studies were included if they reported interventions with individual text-based synchronous conversations (ie, chat or text messaging) and a psychological outcome measure. Results A total of 24 articles were included in this review. Interventions included a wide range of mental health targets (eg, anxiety, distress, depression, eating disorders, and addiction) and intervention design. Overall, compared with the waitlist (WL) condition, studies showed significant and sustained improvements in mental health outcomes following synchronous text-based intervention, and post treatment improvement equivalent but not superior to treatment as usual (TAU) (eg, face-to-face and telephone counseling). Conclusions Feasibility studies indicate substantial innovation in this area of mental health intervention with studies utilizing trained volunteers and chatbot technologies to deliver interventions. While studies of efficacy show positive post-intervention gains, further research is needed to determine whether time requirements for this mode of intervention are feasible in clinical practice. PMID:28784594
Mohr, David C; Burns, Michelle Nicole; Schueller, Stephen M; Clarke, Gregory; Klinkman, Michael
A technical expert panel convened by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Institute of Mental Health was charged with reviewing the state of research on behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) in mental health and identifying the top research priorities. BITs refers to behavioral and psychological interventions that use information and communication technology features to address behavioral and mental health outcomes. This study on the findings of the technical expert panel. Videoconferencing and standard telephone technologies to deliver psychotherapy have been well validated. Web-based interventions have shown efficacy across a broad range of mental health outcomes. Social media such as online support groups have produced disappointing outcomes when used alone. Mobile technologies have received limited attention for mental health outcomes. Virtual reality has shown good efficacy for anxiety and pediatric disorders. Serious gaming has received little work in mental health. Research focused on understanding reach, adherence, barriers and cost is recommended. Improvements in the collection, storage, analysis and visualization of big data will be required. New theoretical models and evaluation strategies will be required. Finally, for BITs to have a public health impact, research on implementation and application to prevention is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D; Koirala, Suraj; Worthman, Carol M
The anthropological study of human biology, health, and child development provides a model with potential to address the gap in population-wide mental health interventions. Four key concepts from human biology can inform public mental health interventions: life history theory and tradeoffs, redundancy and plurality of pathways, cascades and multiplier effects in biological systems, and proximate feedback systems. A public mental health intervention for former child soldiers in Nepal is used to illustrate the role of these concepts in intervention design and evaluation. Future directions and recommendations for applying human biology theory in pursuit of public mental health interventions are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chaudhury, Sumona; Kirk, Catherine M; Ingabire, Charles; Mukunzi, Sylvere; Nyirandagijimana, Beatha; Godfrey, Kalisa; Brennan, Robert T; Betancourt, Theresa S
Few evidence-based interventions exist to support parenting and child mental health during the process of caregiver HIV status disclosure in sub-Saharan Africa. A secondary analysis of a randomized-controlled trial was conducted to examine the role of family-based intervention versus usual social work care (care as usual) in supporting HIV status disclosure within families in Rwanda. Approximately 40 households were randomized to family-based intervention and 40 households to care as usual. Parenting, family unity, and child mental health during the process of disclosure were studied using quantitative and qualitative research methods. Many of the families had at least one caregiver who had not disclosed their HIV status at baseline. Immediately post-intervention, children reported lower parenting and family unity scores compared with those in the usual-care group. These changes resolved at 3-month follow-up. Qualitative reports from clinical counselor intervention sessions described supported parenting during disclosure. Overall findings suggest adjustments in parenting, family unity, and trust surrounding the disclosure process. Family-based intervention may support parenting and promote child mental health during adjustment to caregiver HIV status disclosure. Further investigation is required to examine the role of family-based intervention in supporting parenting and promoting child mental health in HIV status disclosure.
Chaudhury, Sumona; Kirk, Catherine M.; Ingabire, Charles; Mukunzi, Sylvere; Nyirandagijimana, Beatha; Godfrey, Kalisa; Brennan, Robert T.; Betancourt, Theresa S.
Introduction Few evidence-based interventions exist to support parenting and child mental health during the process of caregiver HIV status disclosure in sub-Saharan Africa. A secondary analysis of a randomized-controlled trial was conducted to examine the role of family-based intervention versus usual social work care (care as usual) in supporting HIV status disclosure within families in Rwanda. Method Approximately 40 households were randomized to family-based intervention and 40...
Fledderus, M.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Smit, Filip; Westerhof, Gerben Johan
Objectives: We assessed whether an intervention based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and mindfulness was successful in promoting positive mental health by enhancing psychological flexibility. Methods: Participants were 93 adults with mild to moderate psychological distress. They were
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D
The purpose of this review is to describe interventions used with children who are exposed to disasters and terrorism and to present information about the potential benefits of these interventions. A literature search conducted in January 2013 using relevant databases and literature known to the authors that was not generated by the search yielded a total of 85 studies appropriate for review. Intervention approaches used with children exposed to disasters and terrorism included preparedness interventions, psychological first aid, psychological debriefing, psychoeducation, cognitive behavioral techniques, exposure and narrative techniques, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and traumatic grief interventions. The investigation of these interventions is complex, and studies varied in methodological rigor (e.g., sample size, the use of control groups, outcomes measured). Given the limitations in the currently available empirical information, this review integrates the literature, draws tentative conclusions about the current state of knowledge, and suggests future directions for study.
Pandor, Abdullah; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Higgins, Agnes; Lorimer, Karen; Smith, Shubulade; Wylie, Kevan; Wong, Ruth
Despite variability in sexual activity among people with severe mental illness, high-risk sexual behavior (e.g. unprotected intercourse, multiple partners, sex trade and illicit drug use) is common. Sexual health risk reduction interventions (such as educational and behavioral interventions, motivational exercises, counselling and service delivery), developed and implemented for people with severe mental illness, may improve participants' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs behaviors or practices (including assertiveness skills) and could lead to a reduction in risky sexual behavior. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of sexual health risk reduction interventions for people with severe mental illness. Thirteen electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO) were searched to August 2014, and supplemented by hand-searching relevant articles and contacting experts. All controlled trials (randomized or non-randomized) comparing the effectiveness of sexual health risk reduction interventions with usual care for individuals living in the community with severe mental illness were included. Outcomes included a range of biological, behavioral and proxy endpoints. Narrative synthesis was used to combine the evidence. Thirteen controlled trials (all from the USA) were included. Although there was no clear and consistent evidence that interventions reduce the total number of sex partners or improved behavioral intentions in sexual risk behavior, positive effects were generally observed in condom use, condom protected intercourse and on measures of HIV knowledge, attitudes to condom use and sexual behaviors and practices. However, the robustness of these findings is low due to the large between study variability, small sample sizes and low-to-moderate quality of included studies. There is insufficient evidence at present to fully support or reject the identified sexual health risk reduction interventions for people with severe mental illness. Given the
Chadwick, Angelina Lilja; Withnell, Neil
Globally, there is increased recognition of a higher prevalence of physical ill health and mortality in individuals with mental health problems. A review of the literature highlighted the need to address deterioration in physical health of those with mental health problems through better recognition and management on the part of mental health nurses. However, mental health nurses have been found to lack confidence and be unsure of their role within this area. The aim of the project was to develop pre-registration mental health students' confidence to be able to recognise and manage physical health deterioration through the use of high fidelity human patient simulation, the development of contextualised clinical scenarios and additional theory around the A to E mnemonic structured assessment. The project involved 95 third year mental health student nurses, using a self-rating pre and post intervention questionnaire to measure their perceived confidence levels and to evaluate the effectiveness of the learning intervention. Findings demonstrate improved overall confidence levels in recognising and managing physical health deterioration in human patient simulators displaying mental health problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saunders, Donna M; Leak, Jean; Carver, Monique E; Smith, Selina A
To build on current research involving faith-based interventions (FBIs) for addressing mental and physical health, this study a) reviewed the extent to which relevant publications integrate faith concepts with health and b) initiated analysis of the degree of FBI integration with intervention outcomes. Derived from a systematic search of articles published between 2007 and 2017, 36 studies were assessed with a Faith-Based Integration Assessment Tool (FIAT) to quantify faith-health integration. Basic statistical procedures were employed to determine the association of faith-based integration with intervention outcomes. The assessed studies possessed (on average) moderate, inconsistent integration because of poor use of faith measures, and moderate, inconsistent use of faith practices. Analysis procedures for determining the effect of FBI integration on intervention outcomes were inadequate for formulating practical conclusions. Regardless of integration, interventions were associated with beneficial outcomes. To determine the link between FBI integration and intervention outcomes, additional analyses are needed.
Reavley, Nicola; Jorm, Anthony F
The age at which most young people are in higher education is also the age of peak onset for mental and substance use disorders, with these having their first onset before age 24 in 75% of cases. In most developed countries, over 50% of young people are in higher education. To review the evidence for prevention and early intervention in mental health problems in higher education students. The review was limited to interventions targeted to anxiety, depression and alcohol misuse. Interventions to review were identified by searching PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Interventions were included if they were designed to specifically prevent or intervene early in the general (non-health professional) higher education student population, in one or more of the following areas: anxiety, depression or alcohol misuse symptoms, mental health literacy, stigma and one or more behavioural outcomes. For interventions to prevent or intervene early for alcohol misuse, evidence of effectiveness is strongest for brief motivational interventions and for personalized normative interventions delivered using computers or in individual face-to-face sessions. Few interventions to prevent or intervene early with depression or anxiety were identified. These were mostly face-to-face, cognitive-behavioural/skill-based interventions. One social marketing intervention to raise awareness of depression and treatments showed some evidence of effectiveness. There is very limited evidence that interventions are effective in preventing or intervening early with depression and anxiety disorders in higher education students. Further studies, possibly involving interventions that have shown promise in other populations, are needed.
Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...
Bercier, Melissa L.; Maynard, Brandy R.
Objective: A systematic review was conducted to examine effects of indicated interventions to reduce symptoms of secondary traumatic stress (STS) experienced by mental health workers. Method: Systematic review methods were employed to search, retrieve, select, and analyze studies that met study inclusion criteria. Results: Over 4,000 citations…
van Hasselt, F.M.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; van Ittersum, D.G.; Postma, M.J.; Loonen, Anton J. M.
Objective: To present a systematic review of the evaluation of randomized interventions directed toward improving somatic health for patients with severe mental illness (SMI). Method: A systematic search in PubMed, Embase, Cinahl, and PsycInfo was performed. The scope of the search was prospective
Hussein, S. A.; Vostanis, P.
School-based interventions involving teacher training programmes have been shown to benefit teachers' ability to identify and manage child mental health problems in developed countries. However, very few studies have been conducted in low-income countries with limited specialist services. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the…
Malla, Ashok; Iyer, Srividya; McGorry, Patrick; Cannon, Mary; Coughlan, Helen; Singh, Swaran; Jones, Peter; Joober, Ridha
The objective of this review is to report on recent developments in youth mental health incorporating all levels of severity of mental disorders encouraged by progress in the field of early intervention in psychotic disorders, research in deficiencies in the current system and social advocacy. The authors have briefly reviewed the relevant current state of knowledge, challenges and the service and research response across four countries (Australia, Ireland, the UK and Canada) currently active in the youth mental health field. Here we present information on response to principal challenges associated with improving youth mental services in each country. Australia has developed a model comprised of a distinct front-line youth mental health service (Headspace) to be implemented across the country and initially stimulated by success in early intervention in psychosis; in Ireland, Headstrong has been driven primarily through advocacy and philanthropy resulting in front-line services (Jigsaw) which are being implemented across different jurisdictions; in the UK, a limited regional response has addressed mostly problems with transition from child-adolescent to adult mental health services; and in Canada, a national multi-site research initiative involving transformation of youth mental health services has been launched with public and philanthropic funding, with the expectation that results of this study will inform implementation of a transformed model of service across the country including indigenous peoples. There is evidence that several countries are now engaged in transformation of youth mental health services and in evaluation of these initiatives.
Rosvall, Per-Åke; Nilsson, Stefan
There has been an increase of reports describing mental health problems in adolescents, especially girls. School nurses play an important role in supporting young people with health problems. Few studies have considered how the nurses' gender norms may influence their discussions. To investigate this issue, semi-structured interviews focusing on school nurses' work with students who have mental health problems were conducted. Transcripts of interviews with Swedish school nurses (n = 15) from the Help overcoming pain early project (HOPE) were analysed using theories on gender as a theoretical framework and then organised into themes related to the school nurses' provision of contact and intervention. The interviewees were all women, aged between 42-63 years, who had worked as nurses for 13-45 years, and as school nurses for 2-28 years. Five worked in upper secondary schools (for students aged 16-19) and 10 in secondary schools (for students aged 12-16). The results show that school nurses more commonly associated mental health problems with girls. When the school nurses discussed students that were difficult to reach, boys in particular were mentioned. However, very few nurses mentioned specific intervention to address students' mental health problems, and all of the mentioned interventions were focused on girls. Some of the school nurses reported that it was more difficult to initiate a health dialogue with boys, yet none of the nurses had organized interventions for the boys. We conclude that generalisations can sometimes be analytically helpful, facilitating, for instance, the identification of problems in school nurses' work methods and interventions. However, the most important conclusion from our research, which applied a design that is not commonly used, is that more varied approaches, as well as a greater awareness of potential gender stereotype pitfalls, are necessary to meet the needs of diverse student groups.
Arjadi, R; Nauta, M H; Chowdhary, N; Bockting, C L H
Low and middle income countries (LMICs) are facing an increase of the impact of mental health problems while confronted with limited resources and limited access to mental health care, known as the 'mental health gap'. One strategy to reduce the mental health gap would be to utilize the internet to provide more widely-distributed and low cost mental health care. We undertook this systematic review to investigate the effectiveness and efficacy of online interventions in LMICs. We systematically searched the data-bases PubMed, PsycINFO, JMIR, and additional sources. MeSH terms, Thesaurus, and free text keywords were used. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of online interventions in LMICs. We found only three articles reported results of RCTs on online interventions for mental health conditions in LMICs, but none of these interventions was compared with an active control condition. Also, the mental health conditions were diverse across the three studies. There is a dearth of studies examining the effect of online interventions in LMICs, so we cannot draw a firm conclusion on its effectiveness. However, given the effectiveness of online interventions in high income countries and sharp increase of internet access in LMICs, online interventions may offer a potential to help reduce the 'mental health gap'. More studies are urgently needed in LMICs.
Francesca Cirulli; Marta Borgi; Alessandra Berry; Nadia Francia; Enrico Alleva
There is a growing interest for the potential health benefits of human-animal interactions. Although scientific evidence on the effects is far from being consistent, companion animals are used with a large number of human subjects, ranging from children to elderly people, who benefit most from emotional support. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature, this paper examines the potential for domesticated animals, such as dogs, for providing emotional and physical opportunities to enri...
Evans-Lacko, Sara; London, Jillian; Japhet, Sarah; Rüsch, Nicolas; Flach, Clare; Corker, Elizabeth; Henderson, Claire; Thornicroft, Graham
Stigma and discrimination associated with mental health problems is an important public health issue, and interventions aimed at reducing exposure to stigma and discrimination can improve the lives of people with mental health problems. Social contact has long been considered to be one of the most effective strategies for improving inter-group relations. For this study, we assess the impact of a population level social contact intervention among people with and without mental health problems. This study investigated the impact of social contact and whether presence of specific facilitating factors (equal status, common goals, cooperation and friendship potential): (1) improves intended stigmatising behaviour; (2) increases future willingness to disclose a mental health problem; and (3) promotes behaviours associated with anti-stigma campaign engagement. Two mass participation social contact programmes within England's Time to Change campaign were evaluated via a 2-part questionnaire. 403 participants completed initial questionnaires (70% paper, 30% online) and 83 completed follow-up questionnaires online 4-6 weeks later. This study investigated the impact of social contact and whether presence of specific facilitating factors (equal status, common goals, cooperation and friendship potential): (1) improves intended stigmatising behaviour; (2) increases future willingness to disclose a mental health problem; and (3) promotes behaviours associated with anti-stigma campaign engagement. Two mass participation social contact programmes within England's Time to Change campaign were evaluated via a 2-part questionnaire. 403 participants completed initial questionnaires (70% paper, 30% online) and 83 completed follow-up questionnaires online 4-6 weeks later. Campaign events facilitated meaningful intergroup social contact between individuals with and without mental health problems. Presence of facilitating conditions predicted improved stigma-related behavioural intentions
Full Text Available Background: Mental health issues in the workplace are a growing concern among organizations and policymakers, but it remains unclear what interventions are effective in preventing mental health problems and their associated organizational consequences. This synthesis reports on workplace mental health interventions that impact absenteeism, productivity and financial outcomes. Objective: To determine the level of evidence supporting mental health interventions as valuable to work outcomes. Methods: Databases were searched for systematic reviews between 2000 and 2012: Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and TRIP. Grey literature searches included health-evidence.ca, Rehab+, National Rehabilitation Information Center (NARIC, and Institute for Work and Health. The assessment of articles for inclusion criteria and methodological quality was conducted independently by two or more researchers, with differences resolved through consensus. Results: The search resulted in 3363 titles, of which 3248 were excluded following title/abstract review, with 115 articles retrieved for full-text review. 14 articles finally met the inclusion criteria and are summarized in this synthesis. Conclusion: There is moderate evidence for the effectiveness of workplace mental health interventions on improved workplace outcomes. Certain types of programs, such as those incorporating both mental and physical health interventions, multicomponent mental health and/or psychosocial interventions, and exposure in vivo containing interventions for particular anxiety disorders had a greater level of research evidence to support their effectiveness.
Xu, Wenxin; Li, Menglong; Yao, Jiwei
Anxiety, depression, and other adverse psychological reactions are often observed in elderly hypertensive patients. Appropriate exercise is a safe form of adjuvant therapy without causing side effects among these patients, with consistent effects on patients' mental health. In this study, a collective exercise intervention experiment was conducted to evaluate the mental health of elderly hypertensive patients and to verify the effect of the psychological intervention of collective exercise. A total of 115 elderly hypertensive patients aged 60-70 years old were selected as study subjects from May 2012 to January 2015 in Fuzhou City, Fujian Province, China. A total of 57 patients were included in the control group and 58 patients were assigned in the experimental group. Patients in the experimental group participated in a 12 weeks exercise intervention, while patients in the control group didn't participate in any regular physical exercise. After intervention, the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), total score, somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptom, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, and paranoia scores of the experimental group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P mental health level and coping ability of elderly hypertensive patients can be effectively improved with the proposed treatment.
Duhoux, Arnaud; Menear, Matthew; Charron, Maude; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Alderson, Marie
To synthesize the evidence on the effectiveness of interventions aiming to promote or improve the mental health of primary care nurses. Primary care nurses have been found to have high levels of emotional exhaustion and to be at increased risk of suffering from burnout, anxiety and depression. Given the increasingly critical role of nurses in high-performing primary care, there is a need to identify interventions that can effectively reduce these professionals' mental health problems and promote their well-being. We conducted a systematic review on the effectiveness of interventions at the individual, group, work environment or organizational level. Eight articles reporting on seven unique studies met all eligibility criteria. They were non-randomized pre-post intervention studies and reported positive impacts of interventions on at least some outcomes, though caution is warranted in interpreting these results given the moderate-weak methodological quality of studies. This systematic review found moderate-weak evidence that primary, secondary and combined interventions can reduce burnout and stress in nurses practising in community-based health care settings. The results highlight a need for the implementation and evaluation of new strategies tailored for community-based nurses practising in primary care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Malti, Tina; Noam, Gil G; Beelmann, Andreas; Sommer, Simon
This special issue examines essential challenges and successes for developing, implementing, and disseminating evidence-based psychological interventions for child and adolescent development and mental health. The main aims are to identify what evidence is "good enough" for roll-out, if and how interventions need to be adapted to developmental diversity and contextual variation, and how they relate to complex systemic contexts. Themes of the special issue are twofold and first include questions about adoption versus adaptation, in terms of both developmental tailoring and cultural adaptation of existing intervention programs. Second, the issue tackles questions about what systems of support are needed to ensure the system readiness for child and adolescent mental health interventions. We argue that moving from simple adoption to dynamic adaptation and from programs to collaborative systems offers new perspectives for developing and implementing flexible protocols and strategies that allow adapted intervention. The special issue raises broader questions of whether current intervention programs and practices are good enough in moving us from mere adoption to innovation in system readiness, or whether we need to do more before we can claim that interventions are good enough for roll-out.
Walters, Heather; Kulkarni, Madhur; Forman, Jane; Roeder, Kathryn; Travis, Jamie; Valenstein, Marcia
The majority of VA patient suicides are completed with firearms. Interventions that delay patients' gun access during high-risk periods may reduce suicide, but may not be acceptable to VA stakeholders or may be challenging to implement. Using qualitative methods, stakeholders' perceptions about gun safety and interventions to delay gun access during high-risk periods were explored. Ten focus groups and four individual interviews were conducted with key stakeholders, including VA mental health patients, mental health clinicians, family members and VA facility leaders (N=60). Transcripts were consensus-coded by two independent coders, and structured summaries were developed and reviewed using a consensus process. All stakeholder groups indicated that VA health system providers had a role in increasing patient safety and emphasized the need for providers to address gun access with their at-risk patients. However, VA mental health patients and clinicians reported limited discussion regarding gun access in VA mental health settings during routine care. Most, although not all, patients and clinicians indicated that routine screening for gun access was acceptable, with several noting that it was more acceptable for mental health patients. Most participants suggested that family and friends be involved in reducing gun access, but expressed concerns about potential family member safety. Participants generally found distribution of trigger locks acceptable, but were skeptical about its effectiveness. Involving Veteran Service Organizations or other individuals in temporarily holding guns during high-risk periods was acceptable to many participants but only with numerous caveats. Patients, clinicians and family members consider the VA health system to have a legitimate role in addressing gun safety. Several measures to delay gun access during high-risk periods for suicide were seen as acceptable and feasible if implemented thoughtfully. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Arjadi, R.; Nauta, M.H.; Chowdhary, N.; Bockting, C.L.H.
Background. Low and middle income countries (LMICs) are facing an increase of the impact of mental health problems while confronted with limited resources and limited access to mental health care, known as the ?mental health gap?. One strategy to reduce the mental health gap would be to utilize the
Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter
In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....
Mandryk, Regan Lee; Birk, Max Valentin
Designers of digital interventions for mental health often leverage interactions from games because the intrinsic motivation that results from game-based interventions may increase participation and translate into improved treatment efficacy. However, there are outstanding questions about the suitability (eg, are desktop or mobile interventions more appropriate?) and intervention potential (eg, do people with depression activate enough to play?) of games for mental health. In this paper, we aimed to describe the presently unknown relationship between gaming activity and indicators of well-being so that designers make informed choices when designing game-based interventions for mental health. We gathered validated scales of well-being (Beck's Depression Inventory [BDI-II], Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9], trait anxiety [TA], and basic psychological needs satisfaction [BPNS]), play importance (control over game behavior: control; gamer identity: identity), and play behavior (play frequency, platform preferences, and genre preferences) in a Web-based survey (N=491). The majority of our participants played games a few times a week (45.3%, 222/490) or daily (34.3%, 168/490). In terms of depression, play frequency was associated with PHQ-9 (P=.003); PHQ-9 scores were higher for those who played daily than for those who played a few times a week or less. Similarly, for BDI-II (P=.01), scores were higher for those who played daily than for those who played once a week or less. Genre preferences were not associated with PHQ-9 (P=.32) or BDI-II (P=.68); however, platform preference (ie, mobile, desktop, or console) was associated with PHQ-9 (P=.04); desktop-only players had higher PHQ-9 scores than those who used all platforms. Platform preference was not associated with BDI-II (P=.18). In terms of anxiety, TA was not associated with frequency (P=.23), platform preference (P=.07), or genre preference (P=.99). In terms of needs satisfaction, BPNS was not associated with
Bentley, Caroline; Gratwick-Sarll, Kassandra; Mond, Jonathan
Background Whether and to what extent young adults are aware of the adverse impact of eating disorder features (EDF) on psychosocial functioning is unclear, although such awareness may affect the experience and behavior of sufferers. The aim of the current study was to examine young adults? perceptions of psychosocial impairment associated with EDF, and the potential effect on these perceptions of an eating disorders ?mental health literacy? (ED-MHL) intervention. Methods Undergraduate studen...
Full Text Available Abstract Awareness of the importance of maintaining physical health for patients with severe mental illnesses has recently been on the increase. Although there are several elements contributing to poor physical health among these patients as compared with the general population, risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and obesity are of particular significance due to their relationship with mortality and morbidity. These patients present higher vulnerability to cardiovascular risk factors based on several issues, such as genetic predisposition to certain pathologies, poor eating habits and sedentary lifestyles, high proportions of smokers and drug abusers, less access to regular health care services, and potential adverse events during pharmacological treatment. Nevertheless, there is ample scientific evidence supporting the benefits of lifestyle interventions based on diet and exercise designed to minimize and reduce the negative impact of these risk factors on the physical health of patients with severe mental illnesses.
Thomé, Emi da Silva; Centena, Renata Cardoso; Behenck, Andressa da Silva; Marini, Maiko; Heldt, Elizeth
To assess the applicability of the systematization of nursing care (NCS) to outpatient nursing appointments using the NANDA-I and Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) taxonomies. Data were collected from 40 patients who had appointments with a nurse who specialized in mental health. Nursing diagnoses (NDs) and interventions were classified using the NANDA-I and NIC taxonomies, respectively. A total of 14 different NDs were detected (minimum of one and maximum of three per appointment). The most frequently made diagnoses were impaired social interaction (00052), anxiety (00146), and ineffective self-health management (00078). A total of 23 nursing interventions were prescribed (approximately two per appointment), of which the most frequent were socialization enhancement (5100), self-care assistance (1800), and exercise promotion (0200). Significant associations were found between the most frequently detected NDs and the most commonly prescribed interventions (p > .05). The NCS through the use of classification systems allows mental health nurses to better identify and assist poorly adjusted patients. The assessment of the applicability of the NCS to different areas of health care and types of medical assistance contributes significantly to the quality of nursing care. © 2014 NANDA International, Inc.
Derek de Beurs
Full Text Available BackgroundAlthough many web-based mental health interventions are being released, the actual uptake by end users is limited. The marginal level of engagement of end users when developing these interventions is recognized as an important cause for uptake problems. In this paper, we offer our perceptive on how to improve user engagement. By doing so, we aim to stimulate a discourse on user involvement within the field of online mental health interventions.MethodsWe shortly describe three different methods (the expert-driven method, intervention mapping, and scrum that were currently used to develop web-based health interventions. We will focus to what extent the end user was involved in the developmental phase, and what the additional challenges were. In the final paragraph, lessons learned are summarized, and recommendations provided.ResultsEvery method seems to have its trade-off: if end users are highly involved, availability of end users and means become problematic. If end users are less actively involved, the product may be less appropriate for the end user. Other challenges to consider are the funding of the more active role of technological companies, and the time it takes to process the results of shorter development cycles.ConclusionThinking about user-centered design and carefully planning, the involvement of end users should become standard in the field of web-based (mental health. When deciding on the level of user involvement, one should balance the need for input from users with the availability of resources such as time and funding.
Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Magnus, Anne; Carter, Rob; Vos, Theo
Existing evidence suggests that family interventions can be effective in reducing relapse rates in schizophrenia and related conditions. Despite this, such interventions are not routinely delivered in Australian mental health services. The objective of the current study is to investigate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of introducing three types of family interventions, namely: behavioural family management (BFM); behavioural intervention for families (BIF); and multiple family groups (MFG) into current mental health services in Australia. The ICER of each of the family interventions is assessed from a health sector perspective, including the government, persons with schizophrenia and their families/carers using a standardized methodology. A two-stage approach is taken to the assessment of benefit. The first stage involves a quantitative analysis based on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. The second stage involves application of 'second filter' criteria (including equity, strength of evidence, feasibility and acceptability to stakeholders) to results. The robustness of results is tested using multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The most cost-effective intervention, in order of magnitude, is BIF (8000 Australian dollars per DALY averted), followed by MFG (21,000 Australian dollars per DALY averted) and lastly BFM (28,000 Australian dollars per DALY averted). The inclusion of time costs makes BFM more cost-effective than MFG. Variation of discount rate has no effect on conclusions. All three interventions are considered 'value-for-money' within an Australian context. This conclusion needs to be tempered against the methodological challenge of converting clinical outcomes into a generic economic outcome measure (DALY). Issues surrounding the feasibility of routinely implementing such interventions need to be addressed.
Zanjani, Faika; Downer, Brian G; Hosier, Amy F; Watkins, John D
The aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of Memory Banking (MB), a life story development intervention within the context of aging preparation. Individuals participate in MB to strategically document and share their life story, including mapping out future dreams, aspirations, plans, and decisions. Data (2010-2012) from eight MB workshops were examined to determine the impact of the intervention on mental health, social support, and quality of life. Recruitment efforts resulted in n = 72 participants, primarily female (72%), White/Caucasian (93%), average age of 70 years. Data indicated intervention effects showing improvements in depression (p = .041), mood disturbance (p = .0067), and cognitive performance (p = .0045). MB outcomes indicate that the intervention is promising and supports continued investigation and development in the area of life story development for aging preparation and improving late life mental health distress in a community setting. Future research is needed to examine the versatility and long-term effects of the MB intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.
Nguyen, A J; Lee, C; Schojan, M; Bolton, P
Recent political changes in Myanmar provide opportunities to expand mental health (MH) services. Given Myanmar's unique situation, we felt a need to assemble and interpret available local information on MH in Myanmar to inform service design, rather than simply drawing lessons from other countries. We reviewed academic and gray literature on the experience of MH problems in Myanmar and the suitability, availability, and effectiveness of MH and psychosocial programming. We searched: (1) Google Scholar; (2) PubMed; (3) PsychInfo; (4) English-language Myanmar journals and databases; (5) the Mental Health and Psychosocial Support (MHPSS) Network resources website; (6) websites and (7) local contacts of organizations identified during 2010 and 2013 mapping exercise of MHPSS providers; (8) the Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU) website; (9) University libraries in Yangon and Mandalay; and (10) identified local MH professionals. Qualitative data suggest that MH conditions resulting from stress are similar to those experienced elsewhere. Fourteen intervention evaluations were identified: three on community-level interventions, three on adult religion-based practice (meditation), four adult psychotherapeutic interventions, and four child-focused interventions. Support for the acceptability and effectiveness of interventions is mostly anecdotal. With the exception of two rigorous, randomized control trials, most evaluations had serious methodologic limitations. Few evaluations of psychotherapeutic or psychosocial programs for people from Myanmar have been published in the black or gray literature. Incorporating rigorous evaluations into existing and future programs is imperative for expanding the evidence base for psychotherapeutic and psychosocial programs in this context.
Lai, Betty S; Esnard, Ann-Margaret; Lowe, Sarah R; Peek, Lori
This article draws on experiences and lessons from global disasters and utilizes the United Nations Comprehensive School Safety Framework to highlight the necessary role of safe schools in protecting children, as well as adult staff, from the immediate threats and long-term implications of disasters. Specifically, we focus on three well-established pillars of school safety: Pillar I: Safe Learning Facilities; Pillar II: Disaster Management; and Pillar III: Risk Reduction and Resilience Education. In addition, we propose a potential fourth pillar, which underscores the function of schools in postdisaster mental health assessment and intervention for children. We argue that schools offer a central location and trusted institutional space for mental health assessment and intervention after disasters. We also examine the important linkages between schools, child mental health, and household and family recovery. We conclude with recommendations for filling gaps in research and practice related to ensuring the safety of schools and the associated health and well-being of children in the face of future disasters.
Milton, Alyssa; Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Fullarton, Kate; Morant, Nicola; Paterson, Bethan; Hindle, David; Kelly, Kathleen; Mason, Oliver; Lambert, Marissa; Johnson, Sonia
A documented gap in support exists for service users following discharge from acute mental health services, and structured interventions to reduce relapse are rarely provided. Peer-facilitated self-management interventions have potential to meet this need, but evidence for their effectiveness is limited. This paper describes the development of a peer-provided self-management intervention for mental health service users following discharge from crisis resolution teams (CRTs). A five-stage iterative mixed-methods approach of sequential data collection and intervention development was adopted, following the development and piloting stages of the MRC framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions. Evidence review (stage 1) included systematic reviews of both peer support and self-management literature. Interviews with CRT service users (n = 41) regarding needs and priorities for support following CRT discharge were conducted (stage 2). Focus group consultations (n = 12) were held with CRT service-users, staff and carers to assess the acceptability and feasibility of a proposed intervention, and to refine intervention organisation and content (stage 3). Qualitative evaluation of a refined, peer-provided, self-management intervention involved qualitative interviews with CRT service user participants (n = 9; n = 18) in feasibility testing (stage 4) and a pilot trial (stage 5), and a focus group at each stage with the peer worker providers (n = 4). Existing evidence suggests self-management interventions can reduce relapse and improve recovery. Initial interviews and focus groups indicated support for the overall purpose and planned content of a recovery-focused self-management intervention for people leaving CRT care adapted from an existing resource: The personal recovery plan (developed by Repper and Perkins), and for peer support workers (PSWs) as providers. Participant feedback after feasibility testing was positive regarding facilitation of
Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Tsui, Pui Ki; Lam, John H M
Chronic occupational stress is common among health care practitioners, with potential impacts on personal mental health and staff turnover. This study investigated whether directing practitioners' attention to thankful events in work could reduce stress and depressive symptoms. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in 5 public hospitals with follow-up to 3 months posttreatment. One hundred two practitioners were randomly assigned into 3 conditions: gratitude, hassle, and nil-treatment. Those with scheduled long leaves were excluded. Participants in the gratitude and hassle group wrote work-related gratitude and hassle diaries respectively twice a week for 4 consecutive weeks. A no-diary group served as control. Depressive symptoms (primary outcome) and perceived stress (secondary outcome) were collected at baseline, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses were performed with mixed-effects regression. Significant Treatment × Time interaction effects were found for the gratitude intervention, whether it was compared with control or hassle; the general pattern was a decline in stress and depressive symptoms over time, but the rate of decline became less pronounced as time progressed. Hassle and control were basically indistinct from each other. Relative to control, the gratitude group reported lower depressive symptoms (-1.50 points; 95% CI [-2.98, -0.01]; d = -0.49) and perceived stress (-2.65 points; 95% CI [-4.00, -1.30]; d = -0.95) at follow-up. RESULTS for the comparison between gratitude and hassle were similar. Taking stock of thankful events is an effective approach to reduce stress and depressive symptoms among health care practitioners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Hjorth, Peter; Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Killian, Reinhold
Background: Patients with severe mental illnesses have an increased physical morbidity andpremature mortality on account of somatic diseases. Patients with mental illness are nursed andcared for by the staff, who may acts as role models for the patients. Aims: The study tested theefficacy of an i...... blood pressure was seen. Indications that staff acted aspositive role models for the patients’ physical health were seen.......-month intervention study, and the interventionwas active awareness on physical health. Results: In the intervention group the staff reducedtheir waist circumference by 2.3 cm (95% CI: 0.3–4.4) when controlling for gender, age andcigarette consumption. In the control group, the staff changed their waist...... circumference by - 2.1 cm (95% CI: - 5.6–1.5). The staff in the intervention group experienced a significantreduction in diastolic blood pressure of - 5.9 mmHg (95% CI: - 9.5 to - 2.3, p=0.009). Thestudy indicated an association between the staff average change in each facility and theindividual patient...
Flaherty-Jones, Graeme M; Carne, Alexandra S; Dexter-Smith, Sarah
This study reports on the evaluation of a group-based intervention for older individuals receiving mental health services. A prospective cohort repeated-measure design was used for 48 participants who accessed secondary care mental health services for older people. Changes on the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS), the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWEBS), and a postevaluation questionnaire were analyzed. A paired sample t test examined changes in participant's scores on the WEMWEBS and RAS from baseline to postintervention. Participants qualitatively evaluated the Steps to Recovery group as having a positive effect on their recovery. Following involvement in this group intervention, participants reported improved mental well-being and recovery from mental health difficulty. These results suggest that the program has the potential to provide an accessible framework for developing recovery-orientated approaches in mental health care that can be delivered by care staff at all levels. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Wright, Steve; Twardzicki, Maya; Gomez, Fabio; Henderson, Claire
Rates of mental illness and self-harm are very high among women prisoners. Questionnaires assessed prisoners' knowledge of and attitudes towards mental health problems, and relevant behavioural intentions before and after the intervention, to evaluate the effectiveness of a comedy show in a women's prison to reduce mental health stigma and improve coping and help-seeking for mental health problems. The intervention appeared to have been successful in improving some aspects of prisoners' knowledge about the effectiveness of psychotherapy (Z = - 2.304, p = 0.021) and likelihood of recovery from mental health problems (Z = - 2.699, p = 0.007). There were significant post-intervention increases in the proportion who stated they would discuss or disclose mental health problems with all but one of the sources of help in the questionnaire, which was consistent with the increases in the number of prisoners who rated themselves as likely to start using different sources of help or prison activities. There was no improvement in intentions to associate with people with a mental health problem. The intervention appeared effective in improving factors that might increase help-seeking and improve coping, but not those that would change behaviour towards others with a mental health problem.
GPs, as healthcare professionals with whom young people commonly interact, have a central role in early intervention for mental health problems. However, successfully fulfilling this role is a challenge, and this is especially in deprived urban areas.
Thornicroft, Graham; Mehta, Nisha; Clement, Sarah; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Doherty, Mary; Rose, Diana; Koschorke, Mirja; Shidhaye, Rahul; O'Reilly, Claire; Henderson, Claire
. However, the evidence for longer-term benefit of such social contact to reduce stigma is weak. In view of the magnitude of challenges that result from mental health stigma and discrimination, a concerted effort is needed to fund methodologically strong research that will provide robust evidence to support decisions on investment in interventions to reduce stigma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Josef I. Ruzek
Full Text Available Internet-facilitated interventions may offer numerous advantages in reaching the large numbers of military service men and women exposed to traumatic events. The Internet is now a primary source of health-related information for consumers and research has shown the effectiveness of web-based interventions in addressing a range of mental health problems.Clinicians can learn how to bring Internet education and intervention into routine care, to help clients better understand mental health issues and learn skills for self-management of problems.The Afterdeployment.org (AD Internet site can be used by health care professionals serving U.S. military personnel returning from Iraq and Afghanistan, and their families. The site currently addresses 18 key domains of functioning, including post-traumatic stress, sleep, anger, alcohol and drugs, and military sexual trauma. It provides an extensive amount of client and family education that is suitable for immediate use by clients and providers, as well as the kinds of interactive workshop content and self-assessment tools that have been shown to be helpful in other treatment contexts. AD can be utilized in clinical practice in a variety of ways: as an adjunct to treatment for PTSD, to supplement existing treatments for a range of post-deployment problems, or as the primary focus of treatment for a client.AD represents a kind of service that is likely to become increasingly available in coming years and that is important for mental health providers to actively explore as a tool for extending their reach, improving their efficiency, and improving quality of care.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online.
Farrer, Louise; Gulliver, Amelia; Chan, Jade K Y; Batterham, Philip J; Reynolds, Julia; Calear, Alison; Tait, Robert; Bennett, Kylie; Griffiths, Kathleen M
Mental disorders are responsible for a high level of disability burden in students attending university. However, many universities have limited resources available to support student mental health. Technology-based interventions may be highly relevant to university populations. Previous reviews have targeted substance use and eating disorders in tertiary students. However, the effectiveness of technology-based interventions for other mental disorders and related issues has not been reviewed. To systematically review published randomized trials of technology-based interventions evaluated in a university setting for disorders other than substance use and eating disorders. The PubMed, PsycInfo, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched using keywords, phrases, and MeSH terms. Retrieved abstracts (n=1618) were double screened and coded. Included studies met the following criteria: (1) the study was a randomized trial or a randomized controlled trial, (2) the sample was composed of students attending a tertiary institution, (3) the intervention was delivered by or accessed using a technological device or process, (4) the age range of the sample was between 18 and 25 years, and (5) the intervention was designed to improve, reduce, or change symptoms relating to a mental disorder. A total of 27 studies met inclusion criteria for the present review. Most of the studies (24/27, 89%) employed interventions targeting anxiety symptoms or disorders or stress, although almost one-third (7/24, 29%) targeted both depression and anxiety. There were a total of 51 technology-based interventions employed across the 27 studies. Overall, approximately half (24/51, 47%) were associated with at least 1 significant positive outcome compared with the control at postintervention. However, 29% (15/51) failed to find a significant effect. Effect sizes were calculated for the 18 of 51 interventions that provided sufficient data. Median effect size was 0
Full Text Available This case series study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a behavioral/cognitive psychological intervention in a pediatric primary health care setting during standard well-baby visits. The aim of the intervention was to support caregivers’ sensitivity and mentalization in order to promote infant mental health. Four neonates from birth to eight months were consecutively enrolled to test a short video-feedback intervention (Primary Care - Video Intervention Therapy, an adaptation of George Downing's Video Intervention Therapy to primary care conducted by a pediatrician.The five minute interaction recording and the video-feedback session were performed during the same well-baby visit and in the same pediatrician's office where the physical examination was conducted. During the study period, six video-feedback sessions were performed for each baby at different ages (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 months. Filmed and discussed were a series of different interactional situations: touch, cry, affective matching, descriptive language, feeding, separation and autonomy.The intervention was easily accepted and much appreciated by all four families enrolled. This study aimed to answer a dilemma which pediatric providers generally face: if the provider wishes to respond to not only physical but also infant mental health issues, how on a practical level can this be done? This case series study indicates that Primary Care - Video Intervention Therapy deserves to be seen as a promising new tool for such a purpose.
Carolan, Stephany; de Visser, Richard O
Prevalence rates of work-related stress, depression, and anxiety are high, resulting in reduced productivity and increased absenteeism. There is evidence that these conditions can be successfully treated in the workplace, but take-up of psychological treatments among workers is low. Digital mental health interventions delivered in the workplace may be one way to address this imbalance, but although there is evidence that digital mental health is effective at treating stress, depression, and anxiety in the workplace, uptake of and engagement with these interventions remains a concern. Additionally, there is little research on the appropriateness of the workplace for delivering these interventions or on what the facilitators and barriers to engagement with digital mental health interventions in an occupational setting might be. The aim of this research was to get a better understanding of the facilitators and barriers to engaging with digital mental health interventions in the workplace. Semistructured interviews were held with 18 participants who had access to an occupational digital mental health intervention as part of a randomized controlled trial. The interviews were transcribed, and thematic analysis was used to develop an understanding of the data. Digital mental health interventions were described by interviewees as convenient, flexible, and anonymous; these attributes were seen as being both facilitators and barriers to engagement in a workplace setting. Convenience and flexibility could increase the opportunities to engage with digital mental health, but in a workplace setting they could also result in difficulty in prioritizing time and ensuring a temporal and spatial separation between work and therapy. The anonymity of the Internet could encourage use, but that benefit may be lost for people who work in open-plan offices. Other facilitators to engagement included interactive and interesting content and design features such as progress trackers and
Gaebel, W; Großimlinghaus, I; Mucic, D; Maercker, A; Zielasek, J; Kerst, A
The aim of this EPA guidance was to develop recommendations on eMental health interventions in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A systematic literature search was performed and 40 articles were retrieved and assessed with regard to study characteristics, applied technologies, therapeutic approaches, diagnostic ascertainment, efficacy, sustainability of clinical effects, practicability and acceptance, attrition rates, safety, clinician-supported vs. non-supported interventions and active vs. waiting-list controls. The reviewed studies showed a great heterogeneity concerning study type, study samples, interventions and outcome measures. Based on these findings, five graded recommendations dealing with symptom reduction, acceptability, type of administration, clinician support, self-efficacy and coping were developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Keogh, Edmund; Bond, Frank W; Flaxman, Paul E
Two hundred and nine pupils were randomly allocated to either a cognitive behaviourally based stress management intervention (SMI) group, or a non-intervention control group. Mood and motivation measures were administered pre and post intervention. Standardized examinations were taken 8-10 weeks later. As hypothesized, results indicated that an increase in the functionality of pupils' cognitions served as the mechanism by which mental health improved in the SMI group. In contrast, the control group demonstrated no such improvements. Also, as predicted, an increase in motivation accounted for the SMI group's significantly better performance on the standardized, academic assessments that comprise the United Kingdom's General Certificate of Secondary Education. Indeed, the magnitude of this enhanced performance was, on average, one-letter grade. Discussion focuses on the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
Doyle, Louise; de Vries, Jan; Higgins, Agnes; Keogh, Brian; McBennett, Padraig; O'Shea, Marié T.
Objectives: This study evaluated the impact of a one-day mental health Wellness Workshop on participants' mental health and attitudes towards mental health. Design: Convergent, longitudinal mixed-methods approach. Setting: The study evaluated Wellness Workshops which took place throughout the Republic of Ireland. Method: Questionnaires measuring…
Stratton, Elizabeth; Lampit, Amit; Choi, Isabella; Calvo, Rafael A; Harvey, Samuel B; Glozier, Nicholas
Many organisations promote eHealth applications as a feasible, low-cost method of addressing mental ill-health and stress amongst their employees. However, there are good reasons why the efficacy identified in clinical or other samples may not generalize to employees, and many Apps are being developed specifically for this group. The aim of this paper is to conduct the first comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the evidence for the effectiveness and examine the relative efficacy of different types of eHealth interventions for employees. Systematic searches were conducted for relevant articles published from 1975 until November 17, 2016, of trials of eHealth mental health interventions (App or web-based) focused on the mental health of employees. The quality and bias of all identified studies was assessed. We extracted means and standard deviations from published reports, comparing the difference in effect sizes (Hedge's g) in standardized mental health outcomes. We meta-analysed these using a random effects model, stratified by length of follow up, intervention type, and whether the intervention was universal (unselected) or targeted to selected groups e.g. "stressed". 23 controlled trials of eHealth interventions were identified which overall suggested a small positive effect at both post intervention (g = 0.24, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.35) and follow up (g = 0.23, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.42). There were differential short term effects seen between the intervention types whereby Mindfulness based interventions (g = 0.60, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.85, n = 6) showed larger effects than the Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) based (g = 0.15, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.29, n = 11) and Stress Management based (g = 0.17, 95%CI -0.01 to 0.34, n = 6) interventions. The Stress Management interventions however differed by whether delivered to universal or targeted groups with a moderately large effect size at both post-intervention (g = 0.64, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.85) and follow-up (g = 0
Full Text Available Many organisations promote eHealth applications as a feasible, low-cost method of addressing mental ill-health and stress amongst their employees. However, there are good reasons why the efficacy identified in clinical or other samples may not generalize to employees, and many Apps are being developed specifically for this group. The aim of this paper is to conduct the first comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the evidence for the effectiveness and examine the relative efficacy of different types of eHealth interventions for employees.Systematic searches were conducted for relevant articles published from 1975 until November 17, 2016, of trials of eHealth mental health interventions (App or web-based focused on the mental health of employees. The quality and bias of all identified studies was assessed. We extracted means and standard deviations from published reports, comparing the difference in effect sizes (Hedge's g in standardized mental health outcomes. We meta-analysed these using a random effects model, stratified by length of follow up, intervention type, and whether the intervention was universal (unselected or targeted to selected groups e.g. "stressed".23 controlled trials of eHealth interventions were identified which overall suggested a small positive effect at both post intervention (g = 0.24, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.35 and follow up (g = 0.23, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.42. There were differential short term effects seen between the intervention types whereby Mindfulness based interventions (g = 0.60, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.85, n = 6 showed larger effects than the Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT based (g = 0.15, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.29, n = 11 and Stress Management based (g = 0.17, 95%CI -0.01 to 0.34, n = 6 interventions. The Stress Management interventions however differed by whether delivered to universal or targeted groups with a moderately large effect size at both post-intervention (g = 0.64, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.85 and follow
Physiotherapy in mental health care and psychiatry is a recognized specialty within physiotherapy. It offers a rich variety of observational and evaluation tools as well as a range of interventions that are related to the patient’s physical and mental health problems based on evidence-based literature and a 50-year history. Physiotherapy in mental health care addresses human movement, function, physical activity and exercise in individual and group therapeutic settings. Additionally, it conne...
John A. Cunningham
Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbidity between problem gambling and depression or anxiety is common. Further, the treatment needs of people with co-occurring gambling and mental health symptoms may be different from those of problem gamblers who do not have a co-occurring mental health concern. The current randomized controlled trial (RCT will evaluate whether there is a benefit to providing access to mental health Internet interventions (G + MH intervention in addition to an Internet intervention for problem gambling (G-only intervention in participants with gambling problems who do or do not have co-occurring mental health symptoms. Methods Potential participants will be screened using an online survey to identify participants meeting criteria for problem gambling. As part of the baseline screening process, measures of current depression and anxiety will be assessed. Eligible participants agreeing (N = 280 to take part in the study will be randomized to one of two versions of an online intervention for gamblers – an intervention that just targets gambling issues (G-only versus a website that contains interventions for depression and anxiety in addition to an intervention for gamblers (G + MH. It is predicted that problem gamblers who do not have co-occurring mental health symptoms will display no significant difference between intervention conditions at a six-month follow-up. However, for those with co-occurring mental health symptoms, it is predicted that participants receiving access to the G + MH website will display significantly reduced gambling outcomes at six-month follow-up as compared to those provided with G-only website. Discussion The trial will produce information on the best means of providing online help to gamblers with and without co-occurring mental health symptoms. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02800096 ; Registration date: June 14, 2016.
Cunningham, John A; Hodgins, David C; Bennett, Kylie; Bennett, Anthony; Talevski, Marina; Mackenzie, Corey S; Hendershot, Christian S
Comorbidity between problem gambling and depression or anxiety is common. Further, the treatment needs of people with co-occurring gambling and mental health symptoms may be different from those of problem gamblers who do not have a co-occurring mental health concern. The current randomized controlled trial (RCT) will evaluate whether there is a benefit to providing access to mental health Internet interventions (G + MH intervention) in addition to an Internet intervention for problem gambling (G-only intervention) in participants with gambling problems who do or do not have co-occurring mental health symptoms. Potential participants will be screened using an online survey to identify participants meeting criteria for problem gambling. As part of the baseline screening process, measures of current depression and anxiety will be assessed. Eligible participants agreeing (N = 280) to take part in the study will be randomized to one of two versions of an online intervention for gamblers - an intervention that just targets gambling issues (G-only) versus a website that contains interventions for depression and anxiety in addition to an intervention for gamblers (G + MH). It is predicted that problem gamblers who do not have co-occurring mental health symptoms will display no significant difference between intervention conditions at a six-month follow-up. However, for those with co-occurring mental health symptoms, it is predicted that participants receiving access to the G + MH website will display significantly reduced gambling outcomes at six-month follow-up as compared to those provided with G-only website. The trial will produce information on the best means of providing online help to gamblers with and without co-occurring mental health symptoms. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02800096 ; Registration date: June 14, 2016.
... NIH/National Institute of Mental Health – Division of AIDS Research SAMHSA – Behavioral Health and HIV/AIDS SAMHSA – Suicide ... Office of Adolescent Health OAR NIH Office of AIDS Research OCR HHS Office for Civil Rights OFBNP HHS ...
Scholte, Willem F.; Verduin, Femke; Kamperman, Astrid M.; Rutayisire, Theoneste; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Stronks, Karien
War has serious and prolonged mental health consequences. It is argued that post-emergency mental health interventions should not only focus on psychological factors but also address the social environment. No controlled trials of such interventions exist. We studied the effect on mental health of a
National Guard communities MHFA has been shown to be effective in improving participants’ knowledge of mental disorders , reducing stigma , and increasing...show: a. Decreased stress and stigma ; b. Increased coping resources and knowledge of mental health resources; and c. More positive opinions towards... mental health in the military, stigma associated with mental health issues, and use of appropriate referral and support practices for helping someone
Arbesman, Marian; Bazyk, Susan; Nochajski, Susan M
We describe the results of a systematic review of the literature on children's mental health using a public health model consisting of three levels of mental health service: universal, targeted, and intensive. At the universal level, strong evidence exists for the effectiveness of occupation- and activity-based interventions in many areas, including programs that focus on social-emotional learning; schoolwide bullying prevention; and after-school, performing arts, and stress management activities. At the targeted level, strong evidence indicates that social and life skills programs are effective for children who are aggressive, have been rejected, and are teenage mothers. The evidence also is strong that children with intellectual impairments, developmental delays, and learning disabilities benefit from social skills programming and play, leisure, and recreational activities. Additionally, evidence of the effectiveness of social skills programs is strong for children requiring services at the intensive level (e.g., those with autism spectrum disorder, diagnosed mental illness, serious behavior disorders) to improve social behavior and self-management. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Nakkash, Rima T.; Alaouie, Hala; Haddad, Pascale; El Hajj, Taghreed; Salem, Heba; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Afifi, Rema A.
Public health interventions are complex in nature and composed of multiple components. Evaluation of process and impact is necessary to build evidence of effectiveness. Process evaluation involves monitoring extent of implementation and comparison against the program plan. This article describes the process evaluation of the ‘Qaderoon’ (We are Capable) intervention; a community-based mental health promotion intervention for children living in a Palestinian refugee camp of Beirut, Lebanon. The manuscript describes the context of Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, the intervention, the process evaluation plan and results. The process evaluation was guided by the literature and by a Community Youth Committee. Findings indicated that attendance was 54 and 38% for summer and fall sessions, respectively. Session objectives and activities were commonly achieved. Over 78.4% of activities were reported to be implemented fully as planned. Over 90% of the children indicated high satisfaction with the sessions. Contextual facilitators and challenges to implementing the intervention are discussed. The most challenging were maintaining attendance and the actual implementation of the process evaluation plan. Findings from process evaluation will strengthen interpretation of impact evaluation results. PMID:21908850
Yamazaki, Fumio; Yamada, Hisao; Morikawa, Sachiko
To determine the effectiveness of habitual exercise on the health promotion of college students, we measured the body composition and physical fitness of female nursing students before (Pre) and after (Post) an 8-week low-intensity exercise intervention. We also conducted a questionnaire survey of their mental health condition before and at every 4 weeks during the intervention. The quantity of physical exercise increased (P exercise intervention did not alter the body weight, but decreased the body fat (Pre, 26.8 ± 0.5%; Post, 24.9 ± 0.5%, P mental health were significantly raised by the intervention. These results suggest that habitual exercise for 8 weeks was effective for the promotion of physical and mental health in female nursing students.
Rathbone, Amy Leigh; Prescott, Julie
The initial introduction of the World Wide Web in 1990 brought around the biggest change in information acquisition. Due to the abundance of devices and ease of access they subsequently allow, the utility of mobile health (mHealth) has never been more endemic. A substantial amount of interactive and psychoeducational apps are readily available to download concerning a wide range of health issues. mHealth has the potential to reduce waiting times for appointments; eradicate the need to meet in person with a clinician, successively diminishing the workload of mental health professionals; be more cost effective to practices; and encourage self-care tactics. Previous research has given valid evidence with empirical studies proving the effectiveness of physical and mental health interventions using mobile apps. Alongside apps, there is evidence to show that receiving short message service (SMS) messages, which entail psychoeducation, medication reminders, and links to useful informative Web pages can also be advantageous to a patient's mental and physical well-being. Available mHealth apps and SMS services and their ever improving quality necessitates a systematic review in the area in reference to reduction of symptomology, adherence to intervention, and usability. The aim of this review was to study the efficacy, usability, and feasibility of mobile apps and SMS messages as mHealth interventions for self-guided care. A systematic literature search was carried out in JMIR, PubMed, PsychINFO, PsychARTICLES, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, and SAGE. The search spanned from January 2008 to January 2017. The primary outcome measures consisted of weight management, (pregnancy) smoking cessation, medication adherence, depression, anxiety and stress. Where possible, adherence, feasibility, and usability outcomes of the apps or SMS services were evaluated. Between-group and within-group effect sizes (Cohen d) for the mHealth intervention method group were determined. A total of 27
Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Wolfenden, Luke; Campbell, Elizabeth; Freund, Megan; Hodder, Rebecca; Wiggers, John
The mental health of children and adolescents is a key area of health concern internationally. Previous empirical studies suggest that resilience may act as a protective mechanism towards the development of mental health problems. Resilience refers to the ability to employ a collection of protective factors to return to or maintain positive mental health following disadvantage or adversity. Schools represent a potential setting within which protective factors of all children and adolescents may be fostered through resilience-focussed interventions. Despite this potential, limited research has investigated the effectiveness of universal school-based resilience-focussed interventions on mental health outcomes in children and adolescents. The objective of the present review is to assess the effects of universal school-based resilience-focussed interventions, relative to a comparison group, on mental health outcomes in children and adolescents. Eligible studies will be randomised (including cluster-randomised) controlled trials of universal interventions explicitly described as resilience-focussed or comprising strategies to strengthen a minimum of three internal protective factors, targeting children aged 5 to 18 years, implemented within schools, and reporting a mental health outcome. Screening for studies will be conducted across six electronic databases: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Two reviewers will retrieve eligible articles, assess risk of bias, and extract data. Where studies are sufficiently homogenous and reported outcomes are amenable for pooled synthesis, meta-analysis will be performed. Narrative description will be used to synthesise trial outcome data where data cannot be combined or heterogeneity exists. This review will aid in building an evidence
Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing attention is given to the effects of health promotion programs targeting physical activity and healthy eating in individuals with mental disorders. The design of evaluation studies of public health interventions poses several problems and the current literature appears to provide only limited evidence on the effectiveness of such programs. The aim of the study is to examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a health promotion intervention targeting physical activity and healthy eating in individuals with mental disorders living in sheltered housing. In this paper, the design of the study and baseline findings are described. Methods/design The design consists of a cluster preference randomized controlled trial. All sheltered housing organisations in the Flanders region (Belgium were asked if they were interested to participate in the study and if they were having a preference to serve as intervention or control group. Those without a preference were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Individuals in the intervention group receive a 10-week health promotion intervention above their treatment as usual. Outcome assessments occur at baseline, at 10 and at 36 weeks. The primary outcomes include body weight, Body Mass Index, waist circumference, and fat mass. Secondary outcomes consist of physical activity levels, eating habits, health-related quality of life and psychiatric symptom severity. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention will be examined by calculating the Cost-Effectiveness ratio and through economic modeling.Twenty-five sheltered housing organisations agreed to participate. On the individual level 324 patients were willing to participate, including 225 individuals in the intervention group and 99 individuals in the control group. At baseline, no statistical significant differences between the two groups were found for the primary outcome variables. Discussion This is the first trial
Tomas Vetrovsky; Jozef Cupka; Martin Dudek; Blanka Kuthanova; Klaudia Vetrovska; Vaclav Capek; Vaclav Bunc
Background: Physical activity level is positively associated with mental health and health-related quality of life. Primary care providers are ideally situated to offer physical activity interventions, and pedometers are commonly used as motivational tools to increase walking. However, several recent trials of pedometer-based interventions in primary care settings neither improved patients' quality of life nor reduced anxiety or depression, but these interventions only had relatively modest e...
Dunne, Tom; Bishop, Lisa; Avery, Susan; Darcy, Stephen
The majority of adult mental health and substance use (MH&SU) conditions emerge in adolescence. Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment programs targeting this age group have a unique opportunity to significantly impact the well-being of the future generation of adults. At the same time, youth are reluctant to seek treatment and have high rates of dropout from interventions. An emphasis on youth engagement in prevention and treatment interventions for MH&SU results in better health outcomes for those youth. This literature review was undertaken to evaluate opportunities to improve youth engagement in MH&SU programs. The intent was to determine best practices in the field that combined community-level improvement in clinical outcomes with proven strategies in engagement enhancement to inform program development at a local level. The results discuss 40 studies, reviews, and program reports demonstrating effective youth engagement. These have been grouped into six themes based on the underlying engagement mechanism: youth participation in program development, parental relationships, technology, the health clinic, school, and social marketing. A broad range of tools are discussed that intervention developers can leverage to improve youth engagement in prevention or treatment programs. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Heilemann, MarySue V; Soderlund, Patricia D; Kehoe, Priscilla; Brecht, Mary-Lynn
Latinos report higher rates of depression and anxiety than US whites but are less likely to receive care. Transmedia storytelling interventions accessible on the Internet via smartphones, tablets, and computers hold promise for reducing reluctance to explore or get help for symptoms because they are private, convenient, and can reach large numbers of people, including Latinas with mental health needs. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a mental health transmedia intervention for Latinas with elevated symptoms of depression, anxiety, or both. A total of 28 symptomatic English-speaking Latina women aged 21 to 48 years participated in a 6-week study using a within-group design. All aspects of the study were completed via telephone or Internet. Participants used their personal devices to engage the Web-based transmedia intervention (in English) that included story-based videos, a data-informed psychotherapeutic video, an interactive video sequence, and a blog written from the point of view of one of the characters with links to mental health resources. Perceived confidence to get help and perceived importance for seeking immediate help were both measured using single-item questions. Participants completed surveys at baseline (via telephone) and 1 and 6 weeks after media engagement that measured various factors, including depression (Patient Health Questionnaire; PHQ-9 and PHQ-8) and anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale; GAD-7). A telephone interview was conducted within 72 hours of media engagement. Action taken or intentions to get help (single-item question) and talking about the videos with others (single-item question) were measured 1 and 6 weeks after media engagement. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess change in depression (PHQ-8) and anxiety (GAD-7) before transmedia engagement and 1 and 6 weeks after. Spearman correlations evaluated the association of confidence and
R. Bannink (Rienke)
markdownabstract__abstract__ A high percentage of adolescents suffer from mental health problems and many health-risk behaviors, such as excessive alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and drug (mis)use, are acquired during adolescence. These mental health problems and health-risk behaviors
Full Text Available Abstract Stigmatizing, or discriminatory, perspectives and behaviour, which target individuals on the basis of their mental health, are observed in even the youngest school children. We conducted a systematic review of the published and unpublished, scientific literature concerning the benefits and harms of school-based interventions, which were directed at students 18 years of age or younger to prevent or eliminate such stigmatization. Forty relevant studies were identified, yet only a qualitative synthesis was deemed appropriate. Five limitations within the evidence base constituted barriers to drawing conclusive inferences about the effectiveness and harms of school-based interventions: poor reporting quality, a dearth of randomized controlled trial evidence, poor methods quality for all research designs, considerable clinical heterogeneity, and inconsistent or null results. Nevertheless, certain suggestive evidence derived both from within and beyond our evidence base has allowed us to recommend the development, implementation and evaluation of a curriculum, which fosters the development of empathy and, in turn, an orientation toward social inclusion and inclusiveness. These effects may be achieved largely by bringing especially but not exclusively the youngest children into direct, structured contact with an infant, and likely only the oldest children and youth into direct contact with individuals experiencing mental health difficulties. The possible value of using educational activities, materials and contents to enhance hypothesized benefits accruing to direct contact also requires investigation. Overall, the curriculum might serve as primary prevention for some students and as secondary prevention for others.
Francisco Javier Bonilla-Escobar
Full Text Available Abstract Armed conflict has positioned Colombia as the country with the second highest internal displacement of citizens. This situation has forced government projects and international cooperation agencies to intervene to mitigate the impact of violence; however, the coping strategies implemented by the country’s minorities are still unknown. The study objective is to describe the coping strategies and their relation with mental health within Afro-descendant culture in Colombia and the effects that armed conflict has on these coping mechanisms, through a phenomenological study involving focus groups and interviews with experts. Rituals and orality have a healing function that allow Afro-Colombian communities to express their pain and support each other, enabling them to cope with loss. Since the forced displacement, these traditions have been in jeopardy. Armed conflict prevents groups from mourning, generating a form of latent pain. Afro-Colombians require community interventions that create similar spaces for emotional support for the bereaved persons in the pre-conflict period. Thus, it is essential to understand the impact of this spiritual and ritualistic approach on mental health issues and the relevance of narrative and community interventions for survivors.
Barry, Margaret M; Clarke, Aleisha M; Jenkins, Rachel; Patel, Vikram
This systematic review provides a narrative synthesis of the evidence on the effectiveness of mental health promotion interventions for young people in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Commissioned by the WHO, a review of the evidence for mental health promotion interventions across the lifespan from early years to adulthood was conducted. This paper reports on the findings for interventions promoting the positive mental health of young people (aged 6-18 years) in school and community-based settings. Searching a range of electronic databases, 22 studies employing RCTs (N = 11) and quasi-experimental designs conducted in LMICs since 2000 were identified. Fourteen studies of school-based interventions implemented in eight LMICs were reviewed; seven of which included interventions for children living in areas of armed conflict and six interventions of multicomponent lifeskills and resilience training. Eight studies evaluating out-of-school community interventions for adolescents were identified in five countries. Using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) criteria, two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the evidence. The findings from the majority of the school-based interventions are strong. Structured universal interventions for children living in conflict areas indicate generally significant positive effects on students' emotional and behavioural wellbeing, including improved self-esteem and coping skills. However, mixed results were also reported, including differential effects for gender and age groups, and two studies reported nonsignficant findings. The majority of the school-based lifeskills and resilience programmes received a moderate quality rating, with findings indicating positive effects on students' self-esteem, motivation and self-efficacy. The quality of evidence from the community-based interventions for adolescents was moderate to strong with promising findings concerning the potential of multicomponent
Andrew J. Lewis
Full Text Available Background. This paper presents findings derived from consumer feedback, following a multicentre randomised controlled trial for adolescent mental health problems and substance misuse. The paper focuses on the implementation of a family-based intervention, including fidelity of delivery, family members’ experiences, and their suggestions for program improvements. Methods. Qualitative and quantitative data (n=21 were drawn from the Deakin Family Options trial consumer focus groups, which occurred six months after the completion of the trial. Consumer focus groups were held in both metropolitan and regional locations in Victoria, Australia. Findings. Overall reductions in parental isolation, increases in parental self-care, and increased separation/individuation were the key therapeutic features of the intervention. Sharing family experiences with other parents was a key supportive factor, which improved parenting confidence and efficacy and potentially reduced family conflict. Consumer feedback also led to further development of the intervention, with a greater focus on aiding parents to engage adolescents in services and addressing family factors related to adolescent’s mood and anxiety symptoms. Conclusions. Participant feedback provides valuable qualitative data, to monitor the fidelity of treatment implementation within a trial, to confirm predictions about the effective mechanisms of an intervention, and to inform the development of new interventions.
Ebert, David Daniel; Cuijpers, Pim; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Baumeister, Harald
Although psychological interventions might have a tremendous potential for the prevention of mental health disorders (MHD), their current impact on the reduction of disease burden is questionable. Possible reasons include that it is not practical to deliver those interventions to the community en
Ebert, David Daniel; Cuijpers, Pim; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Baumeister, Harald
Although psychological interventions might have a tremendous potential for the prevention of mental health disorders (MHD), their current impact on the reduction of disease burden is questionable. Possible reasons include that it is not practical to deliver those interventions to the community en
Reavley, Nicola J; McCann, Terence V; Cvetkovski, Stefan; Jorm, Anthony F
The aim of the current study was to assess whether a multifaceted intervention could improve mental health literacy, facilitate help seeking and reduce psychological distress and alcohol misuse in students of a multicampus university in Melbourne, Australia. In this cluster randomized trial, nine university campuses were paired (some pairs included more than one campus), with one of each pair randomly assigned to either the intervention or control condition. The interventions were designed to be whole-of-campus and to run over 2 academic years with their effectiveness assessed through recruitment of a monitoring sample of students from each campus. Interventions included emails, posters, campus events, factsheets/booklets and mental health first aid training courses. Participants had a 20-min telephone interview at baseline and at the end of academic years 1 and 2. This assessed mental health literacy, help seeking, psychological distress and alcohol use. The primary outcomes were depression and anxiety levels and alcohol use and pertained to the individual level. There were no effects on psychological distress and alcohol use. Recall of intervention elements was greater in the intervention group at the end of year 2. Students in the intervention group were more likely to say they would go to a drug and alcohol centre for alcohol problems at the end of 6 months. Although education and awareness may play a role in improving mental health literacy, it is likely that, to achieve changes in psychological distress, interventions would need to be more personalized and intensive.
Collins, Sabrina; Woolfson, Lisa Marks; Durkin, Kevin
Anxiety disorders are common in children and may signal risk of depression, social, or academic difficulties. This study evaluated the effects of a universal mental health promotion intervention delivered in primary schools. Three hundred and seventeen 9- to 10-year-olds were randomly allocated by class group to intervention conditions…
Skre, Ingunn; Friborg, Oddgeir; Breivik, Camilla; Johnsen, Lars Inge; Arnesen, Yngvild; Wang, Catharina Elisabeth Arfwedson
"Mental health for everyone" is a school program for mental health literacy and prevention aimed at secondary schools (13-15 yrs). The main aim was to investigate whether mental health literacy, could be improved by a 3-days universal education programme by: a) improving naming of symptom profiles of mental disorder, b) reducing prejudiced beliefs, and c) improving knowledge about where to seek help for mental health problems. A secondary aim was to investigate whether adolescent sex and age influenced the above mentioned variables. A third aim was to investigate whether prejudiced beliefs influenced knowledge about available help. This non-randomized cluster controlled trial included 1070 adolescents (53.9% boys, M age 14 yrs) from three schools in a Norwegian town. One school (n = 520) received the intervention, and two schools (n = 550) formed the control group. Pre-test and follow-up were three months apart. Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations models were employed for analysis. Mental health literacy improved contingent on the intervention, and there was a shift towards suggesting primary health care as a place to seek help. Those with more prejudiced beliefs did not suggest places to seek help for mental health problems. Generally, girls and older adolescents recognized symptom profiles better and had lower levels of prejudiced beliefs. A low cost general school program may improve mental health literacy in adolescents. Gender specific programs and attention to the age and maturity of the students should be considered when mental health literacy programmes are designed and tried out. Prejudice should be addressed before imparting information about mental health issues.
Scholte, W.F.; Verduin, F.; Kamperman, A.M.; Rutayisire, T.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Stronks, K.
Background: War has serious and prolonged mental health consequences. It is argued that post-emergency mental health interventions should not only focus on psychological factors but also address the social environment. No controlled trials of such interventions exist. We studied the effect on mental
Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Wang, Xinchao
This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a workplace-based intervention program to improve mental health, work ability, and work productivity in privately owned enterprises in China. A prospective cohort intervention study design was employed in which the intervention program was implemented for 30 months (from July 2009 to December 2012). Nine privately owned retail enterprises in China participated in the intervention study. Researchers administered a self-report survey to 2768 employees. The research team measured participants' job stress, resilience, work ability, absenteeism, depression, and work performance. A comprehensive Health Promotion Enterprise Program was implemented that entailed the following components: policies to support a healthy work environment, psychosocial interventions to promote mental health, provision of health services to people with mental illness, and professional skills training to deal with stress and build resilience. Analysis of variance was used to examine preintervention versus postintervention differences in stress, resilience, and work ability. Logistic regression was used to examine absenteeism related to depression. The results suggest that the intervention program was effective at improving participants' ability to work, their sense of control over their jobs, and, in particular, their ability to meet the mental demands of work. The intervention program also reduced participants' job stress levels and reduced the probability of absenteeism related to depression. The intervention programs incorporating both individual-level and organizational-level factors to promote mental health were effective and have implications for both practice and policy regarding enterprises taking more responsibility for the provision of mental health services to their employees.
Gureje, Oye; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Kola, Lola; Musa, Emmanuel; Yasamy, Mohammad Taghi; Adebayo, Kazeem
The World Mental Health Surveys conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) have shown that huge treatment gaps for severe mental disorders exist in both developed and developing countries. This gap is greatest in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Efforts to scale up mental health services in LMICs have to contend with the paucity of mental health professionals and health facilities providing specialist services for mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders. A pragmatic solution is to improve access to care through the facilities that exist closest to the community, via a task-shifting strategy. This study describes a pilot implementation program to integrate mental health services into primary health care in Nigeria. The program was implemented over 18 months in 8 selected local government areas (LGAs) in Osun state of Nigeria, using the WHO Mental Health Gap Action Programme Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG), which had been contextualized for the local setting. A well supervised cascade training model was utilized, with Master Trainers providing training for the Facilitators, who in turn conducted several rounds of training for front-line primary health care workers. The first set of trainings by the Facilitators was supervised and mentored by the Master Trainers and refresher trainings were provided after 9 months. A total of 198 primary care workers, from 68 primary care clinics, drawn from 8 LGAs with a combined population of 966,714 were trained in the detection and management of four MNS conditions: moderate to severe major depression, psychosis, epilepsy, and alcohol use disorders, using the mhGAP-IG. Following training, there was a marked improvement in the knowledge and skills of the health workers and there was also a significant increase in the numbers of persons identified and treated for MNS disorders, and in the number of referrals. Even though substantial retention of gained knowledge was observed nine months after the initial
Becker, Mackenzie P E; Christensen, Bruce K; Cunningham, Charles E; Furimsky, Ivana; Rimas, Heather; Wilson, Fiona; Jeffs, Lisa; Bieling, Peter J; Madsen, Victoria; Chen, Yvonne Y S; Mielko, Stephanie; Zipursky, Robert B
Early intervention services (EISs) for mental illness may improve outcomes, although treatment engagement is often a problem. Incorporating patients' preferences in the design of interventions improves engagement. A discrete-choice conjoint experiment was conducted in Canada to identify EIS attributes that encourage treatment initiation. Sixteen four-level attributes were formalized into a conjoint survey, completed by patients, family members, and mental health professionals (N=562). Participants were asked which EIS option people with mental illness would contact. Latent-class analysis identified respondent classes characterized by shared preferences. Randomized first-choice simulations predicted which hypothetical options, based on attributes, would result in maximum utilization. Participants in the conventional-service class (N=241, 43%) predicted that individuals would contact traditional services (for example, hospital location and staffed by psychologists or psychiatrists). Membership was associated with being a patient or family member and being male. Participants in the convenient-service class (N=321, 57%) predicted that people would contact services promoting easy access (for example, self-referral and access from home). Membership was associated with being a professional. Both classes predicted that people would contact services that included short wait times, direct contact with professionals, patient autonomy, and psychological treatment information. The convenient-service class predicted that people would use an e-health model, whereas the conventional-service class predicted that people would use a primary care or clinic-hospital model. Provision of a range of services may maximize EIS use. Professionals may be more apt to adopt EISs in line with their beliefs regarding patient preferences. Considering several perspectives is important for service design.
Bentley, Caroline; Gratwick-Sarll, Kassandra; Mond, Jonathan
Whether and to what extent young adults are aware of the adverse impact of eating disorder features (EDF) on psychosocial functioning is unclear, although such awareness may affect the experience and behavior of sufferers. The aim of the current study was to examine young adults' perceptions of psychosocial impairment associated with EDF, and the potential effect on these perceptions of an eating disorders "mental health literacy" (ED-MHL) intervention. Undergraduate students (male: n = 35; female: n = 141) completed self-report questionnaires prior to, immediately following, and 3 months after completion of a 3-h ED-MHL intervention. Perceived psychosocial impairment associated with EDF-binge eating, purging, extreme dietary restriction, overvaluation of weight/shape, and excessive exercise-was assessed at each time point. At all 3 time points, EDF were considered to have a 'slightly negative' to 'very negative' impact on psychosocial functioning. Prior to the intervention, binge eating, purging and extreme dietary restriction were generally considered to have a greater negative impact than excessive exercise and overvaluation of weight/shape. Three months after the ED-MHL intervention, participants reported greater perceived impairment associated with excessive exercise and overvaluation; while perceptions of psychosocial impairment associated with binge eating, purging and dietary restriction remained largely unchanged. Females perceived greater impairment associated with EDF than males did immediately after the intervention, but not at the 3-month follow-up. The adverse effects on psychosocial functioning of binge eating, purging and extreme dietary restriction appear to be readily recognized by young people. Awareness of the adverse effects of excessive exercise and overvaluation may be poorer, but amenable to improvement by means of a relatively simple intervention. These features may warrant particular attention in health promotion programs.
Facchini, Sergio; Martin, Valentina; Downing, George
This case series study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a behavioral/cognitive psychological intervention in a pediatric primary health care setting during standard well-baby visits. The aim of the intervention was to support caregivers' sensitivity and mentalization in order to promote infant mental health (IMH). Four neonates from birth to 8 months were consecutively enrolled to test a short video-feedback intervention (Primary Care - Video Intervention Therapy, an adaptation of George Downing's Video Intervention Therapy to primary care) conducted by a pediatrician. The 5 min interaction recording and the video-feedback session were performed during the same well-baby visit and in the same pediatrician's office where the physical examination was conducted. During the study period, six video-feedback sessions were performed for each baby at different ages (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 months). A series of different interactional situations were filmed and discussed: touch, cry, affective matching, descriptive language, feeding, separation and autonomy. The intervention was easily accepted and much appreciated by all four families enrolled. This study aimed to answer a dilemma which pediatric providers generally face: if the provider wishes to respond not only to physical but also IMH issues, how on a practical level can this be done? This case series study indicates that Primary Care - Video Intervention Therapy can be a promising new tool for such a purpose.
Nguyen-Feng, Viann N; Greer, Christiaan S; Frazier, Patricia
This study evaluated the efficacy of Internet-based stress management programs for college students. This approach is particularly fitting for students owing to a lack of mental health resources on campus and to high levels of Internet use among students. Because a history of interpersonal trauma (IPT) is associated with more distress and poorer academic performance, IPT history was assessed as a moderator of intervention efficacy. Students (N = 365) were randomly assigned to a mindfulness plus present control intervention, a mindfulness only intervention, or a stress management information condition that served as an active comparison. Prior research has supported the efficacy of the mindfulness plus present control intervention (Nguyen-Feng et al., 2015). Outcome measures were self-report measures of stress, anxiety, depression, and perceived stress completed online at preintervention, postintervention, and 2 follow-ups (2-3 weeks and 4-5 weeks postintervention). Linear mixed modeling was used to assess change over time. Participants in all 3 groups reported significant decreases on all primary outcomes. All time-by-intervention group interaction effects were nonsignificant, suggesting that the 3 conditions were equally effective. When examining IPT history as a moderator, the mindfulness plus present control and stress management conditions were both more effective for IPT survivors than the mindfulness only intervention. Results suggested that Internet-based interventions are effective for lowering distress among college students and that specific approaches may be differentially effective for certain subgroups of students. They also suggested that providing students with stress management information without providing training in 1 specific skill may also be helpful. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Schilling, Sara; Bustamante, Juan Antonio; Sala, Andres; Acevedo, Claudio; Tapia, Eric; Alvarado, Ruben; Sapag, Jaime C; Yang, Lawrence Hsin; Lukens, Ellen; Mascayano, Franco; Cid, Patricia; Tapia, Thamara
Latin America is characterized by a high prevalence of public stigma toward those with mental illness, and significant selfstigma among labeled individuals, leading to social exclusion, low treatment adherence, and diminished quality of life. However, there is no published evidence of an intervention designed to address stigma in the region. In light of this, a psychosocial intervention to reduce self-stigma among users with severe mental illness was developed and tested through an RCT in two regions of Chile. To describe the development of the psychosocial intervention, assess its feasibility and acceptability, and evaluate its preliminary impact. An intervention was designed and is being tested, with 80 users with severe mental illness attending two community mental health outpatient centers. To prepare the intervention, pertinent literature was reviewed, and experts and mental health services users were consulted. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed, and impact was analyzed, based on follow-up qualitative reports by the participants. The recovery-oriented, ten-session group intervention incorporates the Tree of Life narrative approach, along with other narrative practices, to promote a positive identity change in users, and constructivist psychoeducation, based on case studies and group discussions, to gather tools to confront self-stigma. The intervention was feasible to implement and well evaluated by participants, family members, and center professionals. Participants reported increased self-confidence, and the active use of anti-stigma strategies developed during the workshop. This group intervention promises an effective means to reduce stigma of mental illness within Chile and other Latin American countries and feasibility to scale up within mental health services.
Huang, Shu-Ling; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Feng-Ying; Tang, Feng-Cheng
This study aims to intensively evaluate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) on mental illness risks (including psychological distress, prolonged fatigue, and perceived stress) and job strain (job control and job demands) for employees with poor mental health. A longitudinal research design was adopted. In total, 144 participants were randomized to the intervention group or the control group. The intervention group participated in MBI for eight weeks. Measurements were collected for both groups at five time points: at pre-intervention (T1), at mid-intervention (T2), at the completion of intervention (T3), four weeks after intervention (T4), and eight weeks after intervention (T5). Data were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. A linear mixed model with two levels was employed to analyze the repeated measurement data. Compared with the control group, the intercepts (means at T3) for the intervention group were significantly lower on psychological distress, prolonged fatigue, and perceived stress when MBI was completed. Even with the demographic variables controlled, the positive effects remained. For growth rates of prolonged fatigue and perceived stress, participants in the intervention group showed a steeper decrease than did the participants in the control group. Regarding job strain, although the intercept (mean at T3) of job demands showed a significant decline when BMI was completed, the significance disappeared when the demographic variables were controlled. Moreover, the other results for job control and job demands did not show promising findings. As a workplace health promotion program, the MBI seems to have potential in improving mental illness risks for employees with poor mental health. However, there was insufficient evidence to support its effect on mitigating job strain. Further research on maintaining the positive effects on mental health for the long term and on developing innovative MBI to suit job strain
Brown, Menna; O'Neill, Noelle; van Woerden, Hugo; Eslambolchilar, Parisa; Jones, Matt; John, Ann
Adherence to effective Web-based interventions for common mental disorders (CMDs) and well-being remains a critical issue, with clear potential to increase effectiveness. Continued identification and examination of "active" technological components within Web-based interventions has been called for. Gamification is the use of game design elements and features in nongame contexts. Health and lifestyle interventions have implemented a variety of game features in their design in an effort to encourage engagement and increase program adherence. The potential influence of gamification on program adherence has not been examined in the context of Web-based interventions designed to manage CMDs and well-being. This study seeks to review the literature to examine whether gaming features predict or influence reported rates of program adherence in Web-based interventions designed to manage CMDs and well-being. A systematic review was conducted of peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) designed to manage CMDs or well-being and incorporated gamification features. Seven electronic databases were searched. A total of 61 RCTs met the inclusion criteria and 47 different intervention programs were identified. The majority were designed to manage depression using cognitive behavioral therapy. Eight of 10 popular gamification features reviewed were in use. The majority of studies utilized only one gamification feature (n=58) with a maximum of three features. The most commonly used feature was story/theme. Levels and game leaders were not used in this context. No studies explicitly examined the role of gamification features on program adherence. Usage data were not commonly reported. Interventions intended to be 10 weeks in duration had higher mean adherence than those intended to be 6 or 8 weeks in duration. Gamification features have been incorporated into the design of interventions designed to treat CMD and well-being. Further research is needed to improve understanding
Haslam, Catherine; Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, S Alexander; Dingle, Genevieve; Chang, Melissa Xue-Ling
Social isolation and disconnection have profound negative effects on mental health, but there are few, if any, theoretically-derived interventions that directly target this problem. We evaluate a new intervention, Groups 4 Health (G4H), a manualized 5-module psychological intervention that targets the development and maintenance of social group relationships to treat psychological distress arising from social isolation. G4H was tested using a non-randomized control design. The program was delivered to young adults presenting with social isolation and affective disturbance. Primary outcome measures assessed mental health (depression, general anxiety, social anxiety, and stress), well-being (life satisfaction, self-esteem) and social connectedness (loneliness, social functioning). Our secondary goal was to assess whether mechanisms of social identification were responsible for changes in outcomes. G4H was found to significantly improve mental health, well-being, and social connectedness on all measures, both on program completion and 6-month follow-up. In line with social identity theorizing, analysis also showed that improvements in depression, anxiety, stress, loneliness, and life satisfaction were underpinned by participants' increased identification both with their G4H group and with multiple groups. This study provides preliminary evidence of the potential value of G4H and its underlying mechanisms, but further examination is required in other populations to address issues of generalizability, and in randomized controlled trials to address its wider efficacy. Results of this pilot study confirm that G4H has the potential to reduce the negative health-related consequences of social disconnection. Future research will determine its utility in wider community contexts. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thomas, Neil; Foley, Fiona; Lindblom, Katrina; Lee, Stuart
The Internet is increasingly used in mental health service delivery, but there are significant potential barriers to Internet access for persons with severe mental illness (SMI). There is a need to understand this group's access to, and confidence with using, the Internet, and current views on using online resources as part of mental healthcare. A survey was conducted of 100 consumers attending a specialist mental health service in Melbourne, Australia. Approximately three-quarters of participants had regular access to the Internet, and two-thirds used the Internet weekly or more. Half of the sample used email at least weekly, and a third were regular users of social networking sites. Internet access was often via mobile devices. Only a minority of participants used the Internet for mental health information, with video streaming and general websites accessed more often than peer forums for mental health content. Most participants were positive about their mental health worker using tablet computers with them in appointments for delivery of mental health materials. Most people with SMI are active Internet users and, therefore, able to use interventions online.
Shors, Tracey J; Olson, Ryan L; Bates, Marsha E; Selby, Edward A; Alderman, Brandon L
New neurons are generated in the hippocampus each day and their survival is greatly enhanced through effortful learning (Shors, 2014). The numbers of cells produced can be increased by physical exercise (van Praag, Kempermann, & Gage, 1999). These findings inspired us to develop a clinical intervention for humans known as Mental and Physical Training, or MAP Training. Each session consists of 30min of mental training with focused attention meditation (20min sitting and 10min walking). Meditation is an effortful training practice that involves learning about the transient nature of thoughts and thought patterns, and acquiring skills to recognize them without necessarily attaching meaning and/or emotions to them. The mental training component is followed by physical training with 30min of aerobic exercise performed at moderate intensity. During this component, participants learn choreographed dance routines while engaging in aerobic exercise. In a pilot "proof-of-concept" study, we provided supervised MAP Training (2 sessions per week for 8weeks) to a group of young mothers in the local community who were recently homeless, most of them having previously suffered from physical and sexual abuse, addiction, and depression. Preliminary data suggest that MAP Training improves dependent measures of aerobic fitness (as assessed by maximal rate of oxygen consumed) while decreasing symptoms of depression and anxiety. Similar changes were not observed in a group of recently homeless women who did not participate in MAP Training. It is not currently possible to determine whether new neurons in the human brain increase in number as a result of MAP Training. Rather these preliminary results of MAP Training illustrate how neuroscientific research can be translated into novel clinical interventions that benefit human health and wellness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wheeler, Amanda; Fowler, Jane; Hattingh, Laetitia
Current mental health policy in Australia recognizes that ongoing mental health workforce development is crucial to mental health care reform. Community pharmacy staff are well placed to assist people with mental illness living in the community; however, staff require the knowledge and skills to do this competently and effectively. This article presents the systematic planning and development process and content of an education and training program for community pharmacy staff, using a program planning approach called intervention mapping. The intervention mapping framework was used to guide development of an online continuing education program. Interviews with mental health consumers and carers (n = 285) and key stakeholders (n = 15), and a survey of pharmacy staff (n = 504) informed the needs assessment. Program objectives were identified specifying required attitudes, knowledge, skills, and confidence. These objectives were aligned with an education technique and delivery strategy. This was followed by development of an education program and comprehensive evaluation plan. The program was piloted face to face with 24 participants and then translated into an online program comprising eight 30-minute modules for pharmacists, 4 of which were also used for support staff. The evaluation plan provided for online participants (n ≅ 500) to be randomized into intervention (immediate access) or control groups (delayed training access). It included pre- and posttraining questionnaires and a reflective learning questionnaire for pharmacy staff and telephone interviews post pharmacy visit for consumers and carers. An online education program was developed to address mental health knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and skills required by pharmacy staff to work effectively with mental health consumers and carers. Intervention mapping provides a systematic and rigorous approach that can be used to develop a quality continuing education program for the health workforce
Soderlund, Patricia D; Kehoe, Priscilla; Brecht, Mary-Lynn
Background Latinos report higher rates of depression and anxiety than US whites but are less likely to receive care. Transmedia storytelling interventions accessible on the Internet via smartphones, tablets, and computers hold promise for reducing reluctance to explore or get help for symptoms because they are private, convenient, and can reach large numbers of people, including Latinas with mental health needs. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a mental health transmedia intervention for Latinas with elevated symptoms of depression, anxiety, or both. Methods A total of 28 symptomatic English-speaking Latina women aged 21 to 48 years participated in a 6-week study using a within-group design. All aspects of the study were completed via telephone or Internet. Participants used their personal devices to engage the Web-based transmedia intervention (in English) that included story-based videos, a data-informed psychotherapeutic video, an interactive video sequence, and a blog written from the point of view of one of the characters with links to mental health resources. Perceived confidence to get help and perceived importance for seeking immediate help were both measured using single-item questions. Participants completed surveys at baseline (via telephone) and 1 and 6 weeks after media engagement that measured various factors, including depression (Patient Health Questionnaire; PHQ-9 and PHQ-8) and anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale; GAD-7). A telephone interview was conducted within 72 hours of media engagement. Action taken or intentions to get help (single-item question) and talking about the videos with others (single-item question) were measured 1 and 6 weeks after media engagement. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess change in depression (PHQ-8) and anxiety (GAD-7) before transmedia engagement and 1 and 6 weeks after. Spearman correlations evaluated the
Hoare, Erin; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven
Objectives This paper aimed to systematically evaluate the mental health and well-being outcomes observed in previous community-based obesity prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Setting Systematic review of literature from database inception to October 2014. Articles were sourced from CINAHL, Global Health, Health Source: Nursing and Academic Edition, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, all of which were accessed through EBSCOhost. The Cochrane Database was also searched to identify all eligible articles. PRISMA guidelines were followed and search terms and search strategy ensured all possible studies were identified for review. Participants Intervention studies were eligible for inclusion if they were: focused on overweight or obesity prevention, community-based, targeted adolescents (aged 10–19 years), reported a mental health or well-being measure, and included a comparison or control group. Studies that focused on specific adolescent groups or were treatment interventions were excluded from review. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes were measures of mental health and well-being, including diagnostic and symptomatic measures. Secondary outcomes included adiposity or weight-related measures. Results Seven studies met the inclusion criteria; one reported anxiety/depressive outcomes, two reported on self-perception well-being measures such as self-esteem and self-efficacy, and four studies reported outcomes of quality of life. Positive mental health outcomes demonstrated that following obesity prevention, interventions included a decrease in anxiety and improved health-related quality of life. Quality of evidence was graded as very low. Conclusions Although positive outcomes for mental health and well-being do exist, controlled evaluations of community-based obesity prevention interventions have
Villani, Murielle; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane
In France, negative views on schizophrenia are pervasive, even among health professionals. Prior research suggests that the level of prejudice is lower when the illness is described with the example of a specific individual. This finding highlights the importance of designing local, targeted destigmatization campaigns. The present study aims to evaluate the benefits of a short intervention offering contact with psychiatric services users on reducing the stigma about mentally ill people, among a sample of Health Administrators and Students. Data were collected before (Time 0) and after (Time 1) a short training intervention program proposed to a sample of 121 Health Services Administrators and Students. This four-day workshop explained the multiple causes of mental illness, the clinical implications of psychosis and various mental disorders, the subjective experience of mental illness and the legal evolutions of users' rights. The intervention was strongly based on live testimonies from users. Using a French version of the Attitudes to Mental Illness scale, we compared attitudes before and after the training intervention among 58 trainees having answered our questionnaire at Time 0 and Time 1. After the training, a significantly lower endorsement of stigmatizing statements compared to baseline was found in one third (9 out of 27) of the items. These results plead for further research about the potential benefits of initiatives like this short intervention program on significantly reducing stigmatizing attitudes towards mentally ill people among Health Administrators and Students. The present study highlights the importance of further studying the effect of targeted interventions that offer first hand contact with persons with mental illness.
Burnett-Zeigler, Inger; Lyons, John S.
Large numbers of children and adolescents experience diagnosable psychiatric disturbances; however, the majority of those with need do not utilize mental health services. Characteristics of caregivers are important predictors of which youth will access and continue to use services over time. In recent years school-based mental health intervention…
Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas
The goal of this article is to explore the relations between narratives and mental health from a psychological perspective. We argue that a process of identification with personal experiences underlies narrative structures that are known to be related to mental health. Overidentification and
Mann-Poll, P.S.; Smit, A.; Koekkoek, B.W.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.
In a vignette study, mental health nurses were asked to score vignettes on necessity and appropriateness using a Likert scale. Sixty-nine clinical nurses from four mental health institutes scored 64 vignettes on necessity (there is no alternative) and appropriateness (seclusion supports patients'
Gingerich, Wallace J.; Wabeke, Todd
Describes the use of solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) for working with children who present with mental health problems in the school setting. SFBT eschews a pathology-based model of mental health, focusing instead on the client's strengths and desire to change. Describes the techniques and application of SFBT and discusses the prevalence of…
Janssen, Ellen M; Jerome, Gerald J; Dalcin, Arlene T; Gennusa, Joseph V; Goldsholl, Stacy; Frick, Kevin D; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Appel, Lawrence J; Daumit, Gail L
In the ACHIEVE randomized controlled trial, an 18-month behavioral intervention accomplished weight loss in persons with serious mental illness who attended community psychiatric rehabilitation programs. This analysis estimates costs for delivering the intervention during the study. It also estimates expected costs to implement the intervention more widely in a range of community mental health programs. Using empirical data, costs were calculated from the perspective of a community psychiatric rehabilitation program delivering the intervention. Personnel and travel costs were calculated using time sheet data. Rent and supply costs were calculated using rent per square foot and intervention records. A univariate sensitivity analysis and an expert-informed sensitivity analysis were conducted. With 144 participants receiving the intervention and a mean weight loss of 3.4 kg, costs of $95 per participant per month and $501 per kilogram lost in the trial were calculated. In univariate sensitivity analysis, costs ranged from $402 to $725 per kilogram lost. Through expert-informed sensitivity analysis, it was estimated that rehabilitation programs could implement the intervention for $68 to $85 per client per month. Costs of implementing the ACHIEVE intervention were in the range of other intensive behavioral weight loss interventions. Wider implementation of efficacious lifestyle interventions in community mental health settings will require adequate funding mechanisms. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
LaMontagne, Anthony D; Milner, Allison J; Allisey, Amanda F; Page, Kathryn M; Reavley, Nicola J; Martin, Angela; Tchernitskaia, Irina; Noblet, Andrew J; Purnell, Lauren J; Witt, Katrina; Keegel, Tessa G; Smith, Peter M
In this paper, we present the protocol for a cluster-randomised trial to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of a workplace mental health intervention in the state-wide police department of the south-eastern Australian state of Victoria. n. The primary aims of the intervention are to improve psychosocial working conditions and mental health literacy, and secondarily to improve mental health and organisational outcomes. The intervention was designed collaboratively with Victoria Police based on a mixed methods pilot study, and combines multi-session leadership coaching for the senior officers within stations (e.g., Sergeants, Senior Sergeants) with tailored mental health literacy training for lower and upper ranks. Intervention effectiveness will be evaluated using a two-arm cluster-randomised trial design, with 12 police stations randomly assigned to the intervention and 12 to the non-intervention/usual care control condition. Data will be collected from all police members in each station (estimated at >20 per station). Psychosocial working conditions (e.g., supervisory support, job control, job demands), mental health literacy (e.g., knowledge, confidence in assisting someone who may have a mental health problem), and mental health will be assessed using validated measures. Organisational outcomes will include organisational depression disclosure norms, organisational cynicism, and station-level sickness absence rates. The trial will be conducted following CONSORT guidelines. Identifying data will not be collected in order to protect participant privacy and to optimise participation, hence changes in primary and secondary outcomes will be assessed using a two-sample t-test comparing summary measures by arm, with weighting by cluster size. This intervention is novel in its integration of stressor-reduction and mental health literacy-enhancing strategies. Effectiveness will be rigorously evaluated, and if positive results are observed, the intervention
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Yanos, Philip T.; Lucksted, Alicia; Drapalski, Amy L.; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul
Objective With growing awareness of the impact of mental illness self-stigma, interest has arisen in the development of interventions to combat it. The present article briefly reviews and compares interventions targeting self-stigma to clarify the similarities and important differences between the interventions. Methods We conducted a narrative review of published literature on interventions targeting self-stigma. Results Six intervention approaches (Healthy Self-Concept, Self-Stigma Reduction Program, Ending Self-Stigma, Narrative Enhancement and Cognitive Therapy, Coming Out Proud, and Anti-Stigma Photo-Voice Intervention) were identified and are discussed, and data is reviewed on format, group-leader backgrounds, languages, number of sessions, primary mechanisms of action, and the current state of data on their efficacy. Conclusions and Implications for Practice We conclude with a discussion of common elements and important distinctions between the interventions and a consideration of which interventions might be best suited to particular populations or settings. PMID:25313530
Mann, Farhana; Bone, Jessica K; Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Frerichs, Johanna; Pinfold, Vanessa; Ma, Ruimin; Wang, Jingyi; Johnson, Sonia
There is growing evidence of significant harmful effects of loneliness. Relatively little work has focused on how best to reduce loneliness in people with mental health problems. We aim to present an overview of the current state of the art in loneliness interventions in people with mental health problems, identify relevant challenges, and highlight priorities for future research and implementation. A scoping review of the published and grey literature was conducted, as well as discussions with relevant experts, to propose a broad classification system for types of interventions targeting loneliness. We categorised interventions as 'direct', targeting loneliness and related concepts in social relationships, and 'indirect' broader approaches to well-being that may impact on loneliness. We describe four broad groups of direct interventions: changing cognitions; social skills training and psychoeducation; supported socialisation or having a 'socially-focused supporter'; and 'wider community approaches'. The most promising emerging evidence appears to be in 'changing cognitions', but, as yet, no approaches have a robust evidence base. Challenges include who is best placed to offer the intervention, how to test such complex interventions, and the stigma surrounding loneliness. Development of clearly defined loneliness interventions, high-quality trials of effectiveness, and identifying which approaches work best for whom is required. Promising future approaches may include wider community initiatives and social prescribing. It is important to place loneliness and social relationships high on the wider public mental health and research agenda.
Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L
Despite extensive evidence that Internet interventions are effective in treating mental health problems, uptake of Internet programs is suboptimal. It may be possible to make Internet interventions more accessible and acceptable through better understanding of community preferences for delivery of online programs. This study aimed to assess community preferences for components, duration, frequency, modality, and setting of Internet interventions for mental health problems. A community-based online sample of 438 Australian adults was recruited using social media advertising and administered an online survey on preferences for delivery of Internet interventions, along with scales assessing potential correlates of these preferences. Participants reported a preference for briefer sessions, although they recognized a trade-off between duration and frequency of delivery. No clear preference for the modality of delivery emerged, although a clear majority preferred tailored programs. Participants preferred to access programs through a computer rather than a mobile device. Although most participants reported that they would seek help for a mental health problem, more participants had a preference for face-to-face sources only than online programs only. Younger, female, and more educated participants were significantly more likely to prefer Internet delivery. Adults in the community have a preference for Internet interventions with short modules that are tailored to individual needs. Individuals who are reluctant to seek face-to-face help may also avoid Internet interventions, suggesting that better implementation of existing Internet programs requires increasing acceptance of Internet interventions and identifying specific subgroups who may be resistant to seeking help. ©Philip J Batterham, Alison L Calear. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 30.06.2017.
The quality of parenting that children receive can have a profound influence on their development and mental health. This article reviews articles published from late 2010 onwards that address the effects of parenting on the child's physiological and genetic systems, and how interventions can improve children's security of attachments, antisocial behaviour and other outcomes across a range of settings. Biological indices of stress, such as C-reactive protein, show that prenatal anxiety is a significant determinant of later outcomes for children, and abusive parenting of young children has lasting biological effects into adulthood. Increasingly, specific genes, especially those that code for neurotransmitter synthesis and functions, are being identified that moderate parenting effects. Furthermore, animal studies suggest that harsh parenting affects the expression of genes by epigenetic processes.Parenting programmes are effective in increasing the security of infant children's attachments, and reducing conduct problems/antisocial behaviour in childhood, and they can be effective at a population level in preventing abuse. These programmes are now widening their reach to cover a broader range of children's outcomes such as literacy and obesity. We are learning much more about the biological impact of poor parenting and the need for interventions that are crafted to improve the quality of parent-child relationships in many settings. Hopefully, they will also ameliorate the biological effects of poor parenting.
Glisson, Charles; Hemmelgarn, Anthony; Green, Philip; Williams, Nathaniel J.
Objectives: The primary objective of the study was to assess whether the Availability, Responsiveness and Continuity (ARC) organizational intervention improved youth outcomes in community based mental health programs. The second objective was to assess whether programs with more improved organizational social contexts following the 18-month ARC…
Stadnick, Nicole A.; Drahota, Amy; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren
Research suggests that improvements to community mental health (CMH) care for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are needed. Recent research examining the feasibility of training CMH therapists to deliver a package of evidence-based practice intervention strategies (EBPs) targeting challenging behaviors for school-age children with ASD…
Tol, W.A.; Komproe, I.H.; Jordans, M.J.D.; Ndayisaba, A.; Ntamatumba, P.; Sipsma, H.; Smallegange, E.S.; Macy, R.D.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.
Background: Armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of impacts on the mental health of children and adolescents. We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (treatment aim); and improving
Tol, Wietse A.; Komproe, Ivan H.; Jordans, Mark J D; Ndayisaba, Aline; Ntamutumba, Prudence; Sipsma, Heather; Smallegange, Eva S.; Macy, Robert D.; de Jong, Joop T V M; Komproe, J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/142349321
Background: Armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of impacts on the mental health of children and adolescents. We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (treatment aim); and improving
Iachini, Aidyn L.; Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Ball, Annahita; Gibson, Jennifer E.; Lize, Steven E.
The current educational policy context in the United States necessitates that school-based programs prioritize students' academic outcomes. This review examined the quantitative research on school mental health (SMH) early interventions and academic outcomes for at-risk high school students. Seven articles met the inclusion criteria for this…
Dobie, Alana; Tucker, Alison; Ferrari, Madeleine; Rogers, Jeffrey M
Mental health professionals are particularly susceptible to occupational stress; however, there are limited formal programmes to address the problem. This paper discusses the preliminary results of a brief mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) programme for practising professionals in a public hospital mental health unit. A mixed-group of nine mental health professionals participated in eight weeks of daily 15-minute MBSR training interspersed with three 30-minute education sessions developed by the authors (AD and AT). Levels of psychological distress and mindfulness skill were measured before and immediately after participation. Following the brief MBSR programme, quantitative and qualitative participant feedback revealed a perceived reduction in psychological distress. A brief MBSR programme can be incorporated into the full-time workloads of practicing mental health professionals, potentially addressing a significant unmet workplace need. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
van Hasselt, F.; Loonen, Antonius
Objective: Patients with severe mental illness (SMI) suffer from more somatic illness than the general population. Possible causes are side effects of neuropsychiatric medication, genetic vulnerability, insufficient health care and lifestyle. This co-morbidity is potentially reversible and augments
Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Webster, Jeffrey Dean; Webster, Jeffrey Dean
This article explores recent progress in theory, research and practical applications of reminiscence. It first describes the evidence for reminiscence as a naturally occurring process, and discusses the different functions of reminiscence and their relationships with mental health and lifespan
Martin, Marie H. T.; Moefelt, Louise; Dahl Nielsen, Maj Britt
AIMS: Evidence for the effectiveness of return-to-work (RTW) interventions aimed at sickness absence beneficiaries with mental health problems (MHPs) is still relatively sparse and mostly inconclusive. This may in part reflect the varying settings and inconsistent implementations associated......, different interpretations of sickness absence legislation among stakeholders, competing rehabilitation alternatives, and lack of managerial support for the intervention. An important facilitator was the motivation and availability of resources to solve disagreements through extensive communication...
Eaton, Julian; Gureje, Oye; De Silva, Mary; Sheikh, Taiwo Lateef; Ekpe, Ekpe Esien; Abdulaziz, Mohammed; Muhammad, Asiya; Akande, Yusuf; Onukogu, Uchechi; Onyuku, Theo; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Fadahunsi, Woye; Nwefoh, Emeka; Cohen, Alex
The treatment gap for mental illness in Nigeria, as in other sub-Saharan countries, is estimated to be around 85%. There is need to prioritise mental health care in low and middle income countries by providing a strong body of evidence for effective services, particularly with a view to increasing international and government confidence in investment in scaling up appropriate services. This paper lays out the processes by which a programme to integrate evidence-based mental health care into primary care services in Nigeria was designed, including a research framework to provide evidence from a robust evaluation. This paper forms the first step in the overall process evaluation of the mhSUN intervention, where standard research practice indicates that the intervention, and its development, is clearly documented prior to subsequent evaluation. The report covers the period of programme development and evaluation design, and study site and design was chosen to allow generalisability and practical conclusions to be drawn for service development in Nigeria. In order to design an intervention that was informed by evidence and took into account local context and input of stakeholders, a structured process was followed, including: (1) Engagement of relevant stakeholders for information gathering and buy-in; (2) Literature review and gathering of pertinent evidence; (3) Situation analysis at a national and local level; (4) Model development (using Theory of Change); (5) Ongoing consultation, recognising the iterative nature of Theory of Change, and need for ongoing refinement of complex interventions. The different sections of the structured approach resulted in outputs that built the necessary components (literature review, situation analysis) for informing the Theory of Change. A Theory of Change map is presented, which includes transparent documentation of the assumptions and logic behind the activities to drive the desired change. In addition, it documents the indicators
W.F. Scholte (Willem); F. Verduin (Femke); A.M. Kamperman (Astrid); T. Rutayisire (Theoneste); A.H. Zwinderman (Ailko); K. Stronks (Karien)
textabstractBackground: War has serious and prolonged mental health consequences. It is argued that post-emergency mental health interventions should not only focus on psychological factors but also address the social environment. No controlled trials of such interventions exist. We studied the
Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Mond, Jonathan; Bussion, Elise; Mohammad, Yaser; Uribe Guajardo, Maria Gabriela; Smith, Mitchell; Milosevic, Diana; Lujic, Sanja; Jorm, Anthony Francis
Resettled refugees are a particularly vulnerable group. They have very high levels of mental health problems, in particular, trauma-related disorders, but very low uptake of mental health care. Evidence suggests that poor "mental health literacy", namely, poor knowledge and understanding of the nature and treatment of mental health problems is a major factor in low or inappropriate treatment-seeking among individuals with mental health problems. This study used a culturally adapted Mental Health Literacy Survey method to determine knowledge of, and beliefs about, helpfulness of treatment interventions and providers for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst resettled Iraqi refugees. 225 resettled Iraqi refugees in Western Sydney attending the Adult Migrant English Program (AMEP), federally funded English language tuition, were surveyed. A vignette of a fictional character meeting diagnostic criteria for PTSD was presented followed by the Mental Health Literacy Survey. PTSD symptomology was measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire part IV (HTQ part IV), with Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) used to measure levels of general psychological distress. Only 14.2% of participants labelled the problem as PTSD, with "a problem with fear" being the modal response (41.8%). A total of 84.9% respondents indicated that seeing a psychiatrist would be helpful, followed by reading the Koran or Bible selected by 79.2% of those surveyed. There was some variation in problem recognition and helpfulness of treatment, most notably influenced by the length of resettlement in Australia of the respondents. These findings have important implications for the design and implementation of mental health promotion and treatment programs for resettled refugees and those who work with them.
Alderdice, Fiona; McNeill, Jenny; Lynn, Fiona
to identify non-invasive interventions in the perinatal period that could enable midwives to offer effective support to women within the area of maternal mental health and well-being. a total of 9 databases were searched: MEDLINE, PubMed, EBSCO (CINAHL/British Nursing Index), MIDIRS Online Database, Web of Science, The Cochrane library, CRD (NHS EED/DARE/HTA), Joanne Briggs Institute and EconLit. A systematic search strategy was formulated using key MeSH terms and related text words for midwifery, study aim, study design and mental health. Inclusion criteria were articles published from 1999 onwards, English language publications and articles originating from economically developed countries, indicated by membership of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Data were independently extracted using a data collection form, which recorded data on the number of papers reviewed, time frame of the review, objectives, key findings and recommendations. Summary data tables were set up outlining key data for each study and findings were organised into related groups. The methodological quality of the reviews was assessed based on predefined quality assessment criteria for reviews. 32 reviews were identified as examining interventions that could be used or co-ordinated by midwives in relation to some aspect of maternal mental health and well-being from the antenatal to the postnatal period and met the inclusion criteria. The review highlighted that based on current systematic review evidence it would be premature to consider introducing any of the identified interventions into midwifery training or practice. However there were a number of examples of possible interventions worthy of further research including midwifery led models of care in the prevention of postpartum depression, psychological and psychosocial interventions for treating postpartum depression and facilitation/co-ordination of parent-training programmes. No reviews were identified
Martin, Marie H. T.; D. Nielsen, Maj Britt; Pedersen, Jacob
PURPOSE: Mental health problems (MHPs) are increasingly common as reasons for long-term sickness absence. However, the knowledge of how to promote a stable return to work (RTW) after sickness absence due to MHPs is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a multidisciplinary...... showed no benefits in terms of improved stability of RTW, reduced sickness absence or improved labour market status after 2 years when compared to conventional case management. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION: Evidence for effective return-to-work (RTW) interventions for people with mental health......, coordinated and tailored RTW-intervention in terms of stability of RTW, cumulative sickness absence and labour market status after 2 years among sickness absence compensation beneficiaries with MHPs. METHODS: In a quasi-randomised, controlled trial, we followed recipients of the intervention (n = 88...
Finnegan, Alan; Kip, K; Hernandez, D; McGhee, S; Rosenzweig, L; Hynes, C; Thomas, M
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling trauma and stress-related disorder that may occur after a person experiences a traumatic event, and evokes a combination of intrusion and avoidance symptoms, negative alterations in cognitions and mood, and alterations in arousal and reactivity. Accelerated resolution therapy (ART) is an emerging psychotherapy that provides fast and lasting resolution for mental health problems such as PTSD. ART has been shown to achieve a positive result in one to five sessions, typically over a 2-week period, and requires no homework, skills practice or repeated exposure to targeted events. Initial research, including one randomised control trial, has demonstrated that ART interventions can significantly reduce symptoms of psychological trauma in both civilians and US service members and veterans. These results suggest that ART be considered as either a primary treatment option or for refractory PTSD in those with a suboptimal response to endorsed first-line therapies. Conservative estimates indicate substantial potential cost savings in PTSD treatment. Despite the need for more definitive clinical trials, there is increasing interest in ART in the USA, including in the US Army. The growing positive empirical evidence is compelling, and there appears to be sufficient evidence to warrant UK researchers undertaking ART research. The armed forces offer the potential for comparative international trials. However, equally important are veterans, emergency services personnel and those subjected to violence. ART appears to also have application in other conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, and alcohol or drug misuse. ART can potentially help personnel traumatised by the unique challenges of war and conflict zones by providing brief psychotherapy in a readily accessible and culturally competent manner. ART facilitates the provision of interventions and resolutions in theatre, thus enhancing forces' fighting capability
Marwaha, Steven; Gilbert, Eleanor; Flanagan, Sarah
In the UK, the severely mentally ill have high rates of unemployment. To (1) evaluate implementation of an employment intervention and (2) test the effectiveness of training an existing staff member in providing the employment intervention (Model A) against the provision of a dedicated employment specialist to a team (Model B). An employment service was implemented in five mental health teams, with three teams having an existing team member trained and two teams receiving an additional member of staff to carry out the employment intervention. Work outcomes for the two groups were compared at 1 year. Competitive employment was obtained by 17.7% receiving an employment intervention (10.3%, Model A versus 22.8% Model B). Rates of employment or training obtained were 25.6% (10/39) in Model A versus 35.1% (20/57) in Model B, but the difference was not statistically different. Type of employment service model was not significantly associated with working. An employment service can be introduced effectively into mental health teams in the UK and positive employment outcomes achieved in a short space of time. Providing an additional resource is more effective compared to asking existing staff to deliver the intervention alongside other roles.
Muzik, Maria; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Alfafara, Emily A; Schuster, Melisa M; Miller, Nicole M; Waddell, Rachel M; Stanton Kohler, Emily
Maternal psychopathology and traumatic life experiences may adversely impact family functioning, the quality of the parent-child relationship and the attachment bond, placing the child's early social-emotional development at risk. Attachment-based parenting interventions may be particularly useful in decreasing negative outcomes for children exposed to risk contexts, yet high risk families frequently do not engage in programs to address mental health and/or parenting needs. This study evaluated the effects of Mom Power (MP), a 13-session parenting and self-care skills group program for high-risk mothers and their young children (age parenting competence, and engagement in treatment. Mothers were referred from community health providers for a phase 1 trial to assess feasibility, acceptability, and pilot outcomes. At baseline, many reported several identified risk factors, including trauma exposure, psychopathology, poverty, and single parenthood. Ninety-nine mother-child pairs were initially recruited into the MP program with 68 women completing and providing pre- and post-self-report measures assessing demographics and trauma history (pre-assessment only), maternal mental health (depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)), parenting, and intervention satisfaction. Results indicate that MP participation was associated with reduction in depression, PTSD, and caregiving helplessness. A dose response relationship was evident in that, despite baseline equivalence, women who attended ≥70 % of the 10 groups (completers; N = 68) improved on parenting and mental health outcomes, in contrast to non-completers (N = 12). Effects were most pronounced for women with a mental health diagnosis at baseline. The intervention was perceived as helpful and user-friendly. Results indicate that MP is feasible, acceptable, and holds promise for improving maternal mental health and parenting competence among high-risk dyads. Further research is warranted to evaluate
Adelman, Howard S; Taylor, Linda
Health policy and practice call for health and mental health parity and for a greater focus on universal interventions to promote, prevent, and intervene as early after problem onset as is feasible. Those in the public health field are uniquely positioned to help promote the mental health of young people and to reshape how the nation thinks about and addresses mental health. And schools are essential partners for doing the work.
Langberg, Joshua M; Vaughn, Aaron J; Williamson, Pamela; Epstein, Jeffery N; Girio-Herrera, Erin; Becker, Stephen P
The purpose of the study was to modify, test, and refine the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) intervention for adolescents with ADHD for use by school mental health (SMH) providers. Ten SMH providers from three school districts implemented the HOPS intervention with 11 middle school students with ADHD. Parent and teacher ratings of materials organization and homework management were collected pre- and post-intervention and treatment fidelity was assessed. SMH providers and teachers participated in focus groups and provided feedback on ways to improve the feasibility and usability of the HOPS intervention. Students made large improvements in organization skills ( d = 1.8) and homework problems ( d = 1.6) according to parent ratings however, no improvements were observed on teacher ratings. Qualitative data generated from coding the focus groups and audio-recorded HOPS sessions were combined with the quantitative results to systematically refine the HOPS intervention for further evaluation of intervention effectiveness and disseminability.
Mazurek Melnyk, Bernadette; Slevin, Caitlin; Militello, Lisa; Hoying, Jacqueline; Teall, Alice; McGovern, Colleen
Little is known about the physical health, lifestyle beliefs and behaviors, and mental health among first-year health professional graduate students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe these attributes as well as to explore the relationships among them. A descriptive correlational study was conducted on the baseline data from a wellness onboarding intervention study with 93 health sciences students from seven different colleges within a large public land grant university in the Midwest United States. Nearly 40% of the sample was overweight/obese, and 19% of students had elevated total cholesterol levels. Only 44% met the recommended 30 min of exercise 5 days per week. Forty-one percent reported elevated depressive symptoms and 28% had elevated anxiety. Four students reported suicidal ideation. Inverse relationships existed among depression/anxiety and healthy lifestyle beliefs/behaviors. Students entering health professional schools are at high risk for depression, anxiety, and unhealthy behaviors, which could be averted through screening and early evidence-based interventions. Assessing the physical health, lifestyle behaviors, and mental health of first-year health sciences professional students is important to identify health problems and modifiable at-risk behaviors so that early interventions can be implemented to improve outcomes. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Fazel, Seena; Hayes, Adrian J; Bartellas, Katrina; Clerici, Massimo; Trestman, Robert
There are more than 10 million prisoners worldwide, and the prevalence of all investigated mental disorders is higher than general population comparisons. Although the extent to which prison increases the incidence of mental disorders is uncertain, there is considerable evidence of low rates of identification and treatment of psychiatric disorders. Prisoners are also at increased risk of all-cause mortality, suicide, self-harm, violence, and victimization, and research has outlined some modifiable risk factors. High quality treatment trials for psychiatric disorders in prisoners have been limited. Despite this, it has been shown in trials that opiate substitution treatments reduce substance misuse relapse and possibly reoffending. The mental health needs of women and older adults in prison are distinct, and national policies should be developed to meet these. Clinical, research, and policy recommendations to improve prison mental healthcare are presented. National attempts to meet these recommendations should be annually surveyed. PMID:27426440
Full Text Available Background: Physical activity level is positively associated with mental health and health-related quality of life. Primary care providers are ideally situated to offer physical activity interventions, and pedometers are commonly used as motivational tools to increase walking. However, several recent trials of pedometer-based interventions in primary care settings neither improved patients' quality of life nor reduced anxiety or depression, but these interventions only had relatively modest effects on physical activity levels. Objective: Our aim was to assess whether a pedometer-based walking intervention delivered in a primary care setting affects anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life. Methods: A quasi-experimental, pre-post, single group study was conducted in 23 physically inactive patients from four general practices who participated in a pedometer-based intervention. The patients were administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 questionnaires before and after the 3-month intervention. Results: Following the intervention, the patients increased their walking volume by 1,676 steps per day (p < .001. Both the anxiety (-1.4, p = .011 and depression (-2.4, p = .001 subscales of HADS decreased, while the physical functioning (+6, p = .023, social functioning (+9, p = .035, mental health (+12, p = .001, vitality (+12, p = .003, and general health (+7, p = .013 subscales of SF-36 increased. Conclusions: Providing physically inactive patients with a pedometer and encouraging them to walk more in a primary care setting was associated with lower anxiety and depression scores, and improved health-related quality of life.
Hemingway, Steve; Clifton, Andrew; Stephenson, John; Edward, Karen-Leigh
The aim of this project was to develop and deliver an evidence-based educational package with a physical and mental health focus to clinicians and other health care workers in mental health settings. For individuals who experience mental disorders, pharmacotherapy is often considered as a first line of treatment. However, owing to adverse drug reactions and pre-existing physical conditions, outcomes for clients/service users may be compromised. Mortality and morbidity rates of people diagnosed with a serious mental illness caused by physical health conditions do not compare favourably with the general population. This paper reports on a physical skills project that was developed in collaboration between the University of Huddersfield and South West Yorkshire Partnership Foundation Trust. Pre-post study design: five workshops were conducted in the fields of intramuscular injections, diabetes, health improvement, oral health and wound care. A total of 180 pairs of questionnaires to assess practitioner and student skills and knowledge were administered to participants before and after workshops. All workshops resulted in a statistically significant improvement in subject skills and knowledge scores (P Mental health nurses are the largest group of registered practitioners working in the mental health setting and thus need to be harnessed to make a positive contribution to the improvement of the physical health status of service users with a serious mental illness. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Arjadi, R.; Nauta, M.H.; Chowdhary, N.; Bockting, C.L.H.
Background. Low and middle income countries (LMICs) are facing an increase of the impact of mental health problems while confronted with limited resources and limited access to mental health care, known as the ‘mental health gap’. One strategy to reduce the mental health gap would be to utilize the
Jantien van Berkel
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a worksite mindfulness-related multi-component health promotion intervention on work engagement, mental health, need for recovery and mindfulness. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial design, 257 workers of two research institutes participated. The intervention group (n = 129 received a targeted mindfulness-related training, followed by e-coaching. The total duration of the intervention was 6 months. Data on work engagement, mental health, need for recovery and mindfulness were collected using questionnaires at baseline and after 6 and 12 months follow-up. Effects were analyzed using linear mixed effect models. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in work engagement, mental health, need for recovery and mindfulness between the intervention and control group after either 6- or 12-months follow-up. Additional analyses in mindfulness-related training compliance subgroups (high and low compliance versus the control group as a reference and subgroups based on baseline work engagement scores showed no significant differences either. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not show an effect of this worksite mindfulness-related multi-component health promotion intervention on work engagement, mental health, need for recovery and mindfulness after 6 and 12 months. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register NTR2199.
Berkel, J. van; Boot, C.R.L.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a worksite mindfulness-related multicomponent health promotion intervention on work engagement, mental health, need for recovery and mindfulness. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial design, 257 workers of two
Karasz, Alison; Raghavan, Sumithra; Patel, Viraj; Zaman, Moumita; Akhter, Laila; Kabita, Mahbhooba
Common mental disorder (CMD) is highly prevalent among low-income immigrant women, yet few receive effective treatment. This underutilization is partly owing to a lack of conceptual synchrony between biopsychiatric theories underlying conventional mental treatments and explanatory models in community settings. The Action to Improve Self-esteem and Health through Asset building (ASHA) program is a depression intervention designed by and for South Asian women immigrants. ASHA helps women to build psychological, social, and financial assets. This paper describes the development and a preliminary pilot evaluation of the ASHA intervention. Researchers, clinicians, activists, and women from the Bronx Bangladeshi community collaboratively designed a depression intervention that would synchronize with local concepts of distress. In addition to providing mental health treatment, ASHA addresses social isolation and financial dependence. ASHA was evaluated in a pilot study described in this paper. Participants were assigned to intervention or delayed intervention (control) groups. Data collection at baseline and time 2 (6 months) included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and an indigenous measure of psychological and somatic distress. Eighty percent of intervention participants completed the 6-month program. After treatment, mean PHQ-9 scores in the intervention group decreased from 9.90 to 4.26 (p < .001). Participants saved an average of $10 per week. To date, participants have applied their skills and savings toward such activities as starting small businesses and enrolling in community college. ASHA was effective in improving depression and increasing financial independence. Using a culturally synchronous approach to psychological treatment may be effective in ameliorating distress in immigrant populations.
Burnett-Zeigler, Inger; Lyons, John S.
Several epidemiological studies have reported that large numbers of children and adolescents suffer from diagnosable psychiatric conditions, however most of them do not receive treatment. The schools are a key setting where youth with mental health problems are identified and linked to treatment. In this study we examine the demographic and…
Collado, Carmen; Levine, Paul
This article describes a successful pilot project in New York City that effectively reduced the number of transfers or replacements of children in family foster care through the placement of mental health clinicians onsite at two foster care agencies. (Contains 2 tables and 2 footnotes.)
This article describes an intense relationship between an infant mental health (IMH) specialist and a mother-daughter dyad. At intake, an 18-month-old little girl was diagnosed with failure to thrive and a chronic kidney condition, and she was at risk for protective service involvement and possible removal from the family home. The author…
O'Callaghan, Dana M.; Chandler, Cynthia K.
This study implemented an exploratory analysis to examine how a sample of mental health professionals incorporates specific animal-assisted techniques into the therapeutic process. An extensive review of literature related to animal-assisted therapy (AAT) resulted in the identification of 18 techniques and 10 intentions for the practice of AAT in…
Full Text Available Children and adolescents with intellectual disability have higher rates of mental health problems compared with there typically developing peers. Social support has been identified as an important protective factor for psychological well - being. In this paper we discuss the benefits of social support networks, and consider approaches for promoting children’s perceptions of the availability of social support. We describe an evidence-based intervention that has been specially adapted and implemented for students with intellectual disability in school settings. In a randomised controlled trial, the Aussie Optimism Resilience Skills Program was associated with improved perceptions of social support following a 10-week intervention. Educators need to be aware of the increased vulnerability of students with intellectual disability to the development mental health problems and the proactive ways in which they can promote psychological well - being within their classrooms.
Lindkvist, Marie; Feldman, Inna
Many intervention-based studies aiming to improve mental health do not include a multi-attribute utility instrument (MAUI) that produces quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and it limits the applicability of the health economic analyses. This study aims to develop 'crosswalk' transformation algorithm between a measure for psychological distress General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and MAUI EuroQoL (EQ-5D-3L). The study is based on a survey questionnaire sent to a random sample in four counties in Sweden in 2012. The survey included GHQ-12 and EQ-5D instruments, as well as a question about self-rated health. The EQ-5D index was calculated using the UK and the Swedish tariff values. Two OLS models were used to estimate the EQ-5D health state values using the GHQ-12 as exposure, based on the respondents (n = 17, 101) of two counties. The algorithms were applied to the data from two other counties, (n = 15, 447) to check the predictive capacity of the models. The final models included gender, age, self-rated health and GHQ-12 scores as a quantitative variable. The regression equations explained 40 % (UK tariff) and 46 % (Swedish tariff) of the variances. The model showed a satisfying predictive capacity between the observed and the predicted EQ-5D index score, with Pearson correlation = 0.65 and 0.69 for the UK and Swedish models, respectively. The algorithms developed in this study can be used to determine cost-effectiveness of services or interventions that use GHQ-12 as a primary outcome where the utility measures are not collected.
Chibanda, Dixon; Verhey, Ruth; Munetsi, Epiphany; Cowan, Frances M; Lund, Crick
There is a paucity of data on how to deliver complex interventions that seek to reduce the treatment gap for mental disorders, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The need for well-documented protocols which clearly describe the development and the scale-up of programs and interventions is necessary if such interventions are to be replicated elsewhere. This article describes the use of a theory of change (ToC) model to develop a brief psychological intervention for common mental disorders and its' evaluation through a cluster randomized controlled trial in Zimbabwe. A total of eight ToC workshops were held with a range of stakeholders over a 6-month period with a focus on four key components of the program: formative work, piloting, evaluation and scale-up. A ToC map was developed as part of the process with defined causal pathways leading to the desired impact. Interventions, indicators, assumptions and rationale for each point along the causal pathway were considered. Political buy-in from stakeholders together with key resources, which included human, facility/infrastructure, communication and supervision were identified as critical needs using the ToC approach. Ten (10) key interventions with specific indicators, assumptions and rationale formed part of the final ToC map, which graphically illustrated the causal pathway leading to the development of a psychological intervention and the successful implementation of a cluster randomized controlled trial. ToC workshops can enhance stakeholder engagement through an iterative process leading to a shared vision that can improve outcomes of complex mental health interventions particularly where scaling up of the intervention is desired.
Alison L. Calear
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young men are consistently less likely to seek help for mental health problems than their female peers. This is particularly concerning given the high rates of suicide among male adolescents. The school system has been identified as an ideal setting for the implementation of prevention and early intervention programs for young people. The current trial aims to determine the effectiveness of the Silence is Deadly program in increasing positive help-seeking intentions for mental health problems and suicide among male secondary school students. Methods This study is a two-arm, cluster-randomised, controlled trial that will compare the Silence is Deadly program to a wait-list control condition. Eight Australian high schools will be recruited to the trial, with male students in grades 11 and 12 (16 to 18 years of age targeted for participation. The program is an innovative male-tailored suicide prevention intervention, comprising a presentation that emphasises role-modelling and legitimises help-seeking for personal and emotional problems, and a brief video that features celebrity athletes who counter existing male norms around help-seeking and encourage communication about personal and emotional issues. The program also includes a discussion of how to help a friend in distress and ends with a question and answer session. The primary outcome measure for the current study is help-seeking intentions. Secondary outcomes include help-seeking behaviour, help-seeking attitudes, help-seeking stigma, mental health symptoms, and suicidal ideation. Data will be collected pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at 3-month follow-up. Primary analyses will compare changes in help-seeking intentions for the intervention condition relative to the wait-list control condition using mixed-effects repeated-measures analyses that account for clustering within schools. Discussion If proven to be effective, this targeted help-seeking intervention for
Calear, Alison L; Banfield, Michelle; Batterham, Philip J; Morse, Alyssa R; Forbes, Owen; Carron-Arthur, Bradley; Fisk, Martin
Young men are consistently less likely to seek help for mental health problems than their female peers. This is particularly concerning given the high rates of suicide among male adolescents. The school system has been identified as an ideal setting for the implementation of prevention and early intervention programs for young people. The current trial aims to determine the effectiveness of the Silence is Deadly program in increasing positive help-seeking intentions for mental health problems and suicide among male secondary school students. This study is a two-arm, cluster-randomised, controlled trial that will compare the Silence is Deadly program to a wait-list control condition. Eight Australian high schools will be recruited to the trial, with male students in grades 11 and 12 (16 to 18 years of age) targeted for participation. The program is an innovative male-tailored suicide prevention intervention, comprising a presentation that emphasises role-modelling and legitimises help-seeking for personal and emotional problems, and a brief video that features celebrity athletes who counter existing male norms around help-seeking and encourage communication about personal and emotional issues. The program also includes a discussion of how to help a friend in distress and ends with a question and answer session. The primary outcome measure for the current study is help-seeking intentions. Secondary outcomes include help-seeking behaviour, help-seeking attitudes, help-seeking stigma, mental health symptoms, and suicidal ideation. Data will be collected pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at 3-month follow-up. Primary analyses will compare changes in help-seeking intentions for the intervention condition relative to the wait-list control condition using mixed-effects repeated-measures analyses that account for clustering within schools. If proven to be effective, this targeted help-seeking intervention for adolescent males, which is currently only delivered in
Lamb, Jonathan; Dowrick, Christopher; Burroughs, Heather; Beatty, Susan; Edwards, Suzanne; Bristow, Kate; Clarke, Pam; Hammond, Jonathan; Waheed, Waquas; Gabbay, Mark; Gask, Linda
Despite the availability of effective evidence-based treatments for depression and anxiety, many 'harder-to-reach' social and patient groups experience difficulties accessing treatment. We developed a complex intervention, the AMP (Improving Access to Mental Health in Primary Care) programme, which combined community engagement (CE), tailored (individual and group) psychosocial interventions and primary care involvement. To develop and evaluate a model for community engagement component of the complex intervention. This paper focuses on the development of relationships between stakeholders, their engagement with the issue of access to mental health and with the programme through the CE model. Our evaluation draws on process data, qualitative interviews and focus groups, brought together through framework analysis to evaluate the issues and challenges encountered. A case study of the South Asian community project carried out in Longsight in Greater Manchester, United Kingdom. Complex problems require multiple local stakeholders to work in concert. Assets based approaches implicitly make demands on scarce time and resources. Community development approaches have many benefits, but perceptions of open-ended investment are a barrier. The time-limited nature of a CE intervention provides an impetus to 'do it now', allowing stakeholders to negotiate their investment over time and accommodating their wider commitments. Both tangible outcomes and recognition of process benefits were vital in maintaining involvement. CE interventions can play a key role in improving accessibility and acceptability by engaging patients, the public and practitioners in research and in the local service ecology. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Schmidt, K.; Worrack, S.; Korff, M. Von; Davydow, D.; Brunkhorst, F.; Ehlert, U.; Pausch, C.; Mehlhorn, J.; Schneider, N.; Scherag, A.; Freytag, A.; Reinhart, K.; Wensing, M.; Gensichen, J.
IMPORTANCE: Survivors of sepsis face long-term sequelae that diminish health-related quality of life and result in increased care needs in the primary care setting, such as medication, physiotherapy, or mental health care. OBJECTIVE: To examine if a primary care-based intervention improves mental
Full Text Available Child maltreatment is associated with life-long social, physical, and mental health problems. Intervening early to provide maltreated children with safe, nurturing care can improve outcomes. The need for prompt decisions about permanent placement (i.e., regarding adoption or return home is internationally recognised. However, a recent Glasgow audit showed that many maltreated children “revolve” between birth families and foster carers. This paper describes the protocol of the first exploratory randomised controlled trial of a mental health intervention aimed at improving placement permanency decisions for maltreated children. This trial compares an infant's mental health intervention with the new enhanced service as usual for maltreated children entering care in Glasgow. As both are new services, the trial is being conducted from a position of equipoise. The outcome assessment covers various fields of a child’s neurodevelopment to identify problems in any ESSENCE domain. The feasibility, reliability, and developmental appropriateness of all outcome measures are examined. Additionally, the potential for linkage with routinely collected data on health and social care and, in the future, education is explored. The results will inform a definitive randomised controlled trial that could potentially lead to long lasting benefits for the Scottish population and which may be applicable to other areas of the world. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NC01485510.
Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Nagami, Makiko; Yoshikawa, Toru; Kogi, Kazutaka; Kawakami, Norito
To explore the effect of participatory intervention for workplace improvement on mental health and job performance. Eleven assembly lines were randomly allocated to six intervention and five control lines (47 and 50 workers, respectively). The primary outcome was defined as the improvement in the following measures during the intervention period: General Health Questionnaire and WHO Health and Work Performance Questionnaire. General Health Questionnaire scores significantly deteriorated in the control lines, whereas the score remained at the same level in the intervention lines. Health and Work Performance Questionnaire scores increased in the intervention lines, but decreased in the control lines, yielding a significant intervention effect (P = 0.048). It is suggested that the participatory intervention for workplace improvement is effective against deterioration in mental health and for improving job performance.
James, Leah Emily; Noel, John Roger
In the year following the 2010 Haiti earthquake, local earthquake survivors trained as lay mental health workers implemented a culturally-adapted, psychosocial and trauma-focused group intervention for residents of camps for internally displaced peoples (IDPs). Analysis of evaluation data collected at three Port-au-Prince IDP camps revealed decreased self-reported posttraumatic distress (measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire) associated with participation in this intervention. Improvement occurred across all three PTSD symptom clusters (re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal). Female participants reported higher baseline distress, were more likely to participate in the intervention, and benefitted more than did men. Results provide initial support for the effectiveness of train-the-trainer interventions utilizing local lay disaster survivors.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex interventions have components which can vary in different contexts. Using the Realistic Evaluation framework, this study investigates how a complex health services intervention led to developments in shared care for people with long-term mental illness. Methods A retrospective qualitative interview study was carried out alongside a randomised controlled trial. The multi-faceted intervention supported by facilitators aimed to develop systems for shared care. The study was set in London. Participants included 46 practitioners and managers from 12 participating primary health care teams and their associated community mental health teams. Interviews focussed on how and why out comes were achieved, and were analysed using a framework incorporating context and intervening mechanisms. Results Thirty-one interviews were completed to create 12 case studies. The enquiry highlighted the importance of the catalysing, doing and reviewing functions of the facilitation process. Other facets of the intervention were less dominant. The intervention catalysed the allocation of link workers and liaison arrangements in nearly all practices. Case discussions between link workers and GPs improved individual care as well as helping link workers become part of the primary care team; but sustained integration into the team depended both on flexibility and experience of the link worker, and upon selection of relevant patients for the case discussions. The doing function of facilitators included advice and, at times, manpower, to help introduce successful systems for reviewing care, however time spent developing IT systems was rarely productive. The reviewing function of the intervention was weak and sometimes failed to solve problems in the development of liaison or recall. Conclusion Case discussions and improved liaison at times of crisis, rather than for proactive recall, were the key functions of shared care contributing to the success of
Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi
This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.
Siriwanarangsan, Porntep; Liknapichitkul, Dusit; Khandelwal, Sudhir K
Thailand, a constitutional monarchy, has undergone a rapid shift in its demography and economy in last two decades. This has put a great burden on the health services, including mental health care of the country. The current emphasis of the Ministry of Public Health is to change its role from health care provider to policymaker and regulator of standards, and to provide technical support to health facilities under its jurisdiction as well as in the private sector. The Department of Mental Health, established in 1994, has laid down a mental health policy that aims to promote mental health care within the community with the help of people's participation in health programmes. Focus has been placed on developing suitable and efficient technology by seeking cooperation both within and outside the Ministry of Public Health. Consequently, the Department of Mental Health has been receiving increasing budgetary allocations. Since there is a paucity of trained manpower, the emphasis is being laid on the utilization of general health care for mental health care. Some of the specific interventions are community services, prison services, psychiatric rehabilitation, and use of media in mental health operations. There have been active efforts towards international cooperation for developing technologies for specific programmes. Private and non-governmental organizations are supported and encouraged to provide mental health care to the marginalized sections of society. Efforts have also been made by the Department of Mental Health to inspect and raise the efficiency of its operations to result in quality service.
Edwards, C. A.; Britton, M. L.; Jenkins, L.; Rickwood, D. J.; Gillham, K. E.
Young people have higher rates of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) than the general population. Research has shown that there is a clear link between emotional distress, depression, substance abuse and sexual risk taking behaviours in young people. "headspace" is a youth mental health early intervention service operating in more…
Ride, Jemimah; Lorgelly, Paula; Tran, Thach; Wynter, Karen; Rowe, Heather; Fisher, Jane
Objectives Postnatal maternal mental health problems, including depression and anxiety, entail a significant burden globally, and finding cost-effective preventive solutions is a public policy priority. This paper presents a cost-effectiveness analysis of the intervention, What Were We Thinking (WWWT), for the prevention of postnatal maternal mental health problems. Design The economic evaluation, including cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses, was conducted alongside a cluster-randomised trial. Setting 48 Maternal and Child Health Centres in Victoria, Australia. Participants Participants were English-speaking first-time mothers attending participating Maternal and Child Health Centres. Full data were collected for 175 participants in the control arm and 184 in the intervention arm. Intervention WWWT is a psychoeducational intervention targeted at the partner relationship, management of infant behaviour and parental fatigue. Outcome measures The evaluation considered public sector plus participant out-of-pocket costs, while outcomes were expressed in the 30-day prevalence of depression, anxiety and adjustment disorders, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Incremental costs and outcomes were estimated using regression analyses to account for relevant sociodemographic, prognostic and clinical characteristics. Results The intervention was estimated to cost $A118.16 per participant. The analysis showed no statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups in costs or outcomes. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were $A36 451 per QALY gained and $A152 per percentage-point reduction in 30-day prevalence of depression, anxiety and adjustment disorders. The estimate lies under the unofficial cost-effectiveness threshold of $A55 000 per QALY; however, there was considerable uncertainty surrounding the results, with a 55% probability that WWWT would be considered cost-effective at that threshold. Conclusions The results
Reeve, Joanne; Cooper, Lucy; Harrington, Sean; Rosbottom, Peter; Watkins, Jane
Health services face the challenges created by complex problems, and so need complex intervention solutions. However they also experience ongoing difficulties in translating findings from research in this area in to quality improvement changes on the ground. BounceBack was a service development innovation project which sought to examine this issue through the implementation and evaluation in a primary care setting of a novel complex intervention. The project was a collaboration between a local mental health charity, an academic unit, and GP practices. The aim was to translate the charity's model of care into practice-based evidence describing delivery and impact. Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) was used to support the implementation of the new model of primary mental health care into six GP practices. An integrated process evaluation evaluated the process and impact of care. Implementation quickly stalled as we identified problems with the described model of care when applied in a changing and variable primary care context. The team therefore switched to using the NPT framework to support the systematic identification and modification of the components of the complex intervention: including the core components that made it distinct (the consultation approach) and the variable components (organisational issues) that made it work in practice. The extra work significantly reduced the time available for outcome evaluation. However findings demonstrated moderately successful implementation of the model and a suggestion of hypothesised changes in outcomes. The BounceBack project demonstrates the development of a complex intervention from practice. It highlights the use of Normalisation Process Theory to support development, and not just implementation, of a complex intervention; and describes the use of the research process in the generation of practice-based evidence. Implications for future translational complex intervention research supporting practice change
Estellita-Lins, Carlos; Oliveira, Verônica Miranda; Coutinho, Maria Fernanda
This paper discusses the theme therapeutic assistance (TA), understood as homecare-based mental health intervention. We emphasize the importance of community interventions for dealing with psychic suffering, either through reading the symptoms based on visibility, or through a psychoanalytic approach mainly concerned with listening. Lacking an independent theoretical background to support this practice, therapeutic assistance makes use of theories coming from other related fields of knowledge. Therefore, we discuss the influence of psychoanalysis and its role among broad spectrum mental health practice through clinical interventions belonging to the field of TA, focusing on two long-range operative concepts: Lacan's subject supposed to know and Winnicott's care (or caring process). Both concepts guide the clinical action and provide answers to theoretical problems within the TA field. We conclude that TA meets some requirements of the classical management of transference by means of a complex care process developed in the daily life and environment of the patient, in which desire and subjectivity are necessarily recognized although no psychotherapic setting is intentionally settled. Therapeutic assistance performs the role of an advanced clinical sentinel in the field of community psychiatry and public health.
Stjernswärd, Sigrid; Hansson, Lars
Parsapure, Roxana; Rahimiforushani, Abbas; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Montazeri, Ali; Sadeghi, Roya; Garmarudi, Gholamreza
Vaginitis is one of the most common diseases in reproductive-aged women (15 - 49 years of age). Side effects of vaginitis can affect other aspects of health, which could be prevented by promoting a healthy lifestyle related to vaginal health. This study aimed at determining the impact of health-promoting educational intervention on lifestyle (nutrition behaviors, physical activities, and mental health) related to vaginal health among reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. The data set was collected as part of an experimental study conducted on 350 reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. Participants were selected through a stratified two-stage clustered sampling and simple randomization from 10 attending health centers affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in five regions (North, South, East, West, and Center) of Kermanshah (a city in western Iran) in 2015. Two clinics in each region were selected; patients from the first center were chosen as the intervention group and patients from the second center made up the control group. To collect data, a questionnaire including socio-demographic and lifestyle questions was used. The questionnaire was designed and validated via the psychometric process. Educational intervention was performed over twenty sessions of 25 to 35 minutes. The intervention group was followed up with face-to-face education, a pamphlet, phone contact, and by social media. The control group continued the routine treatment without contacting the intervention group. Data were collected from both groups before the intervention and six months after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the SPSS-20 package, using the independent t-test, paired t-test, chi-square test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test. The confidence interval was 95% and P lifestyle related to vaginal health in the intervention group (28.48 ± 0.38) and control group (23.65 ± 1.23) was significant (P lifestyle in the intervention group (P lifestyle scores
Harrold, S Akeya; Libet, Julian; Pope, Charlene; Lauerer, Joy A; Johnson, Emily; Edlund, Barbara J
Individuals with severe mental illness (SMI), experience increased mortality-20 years greater disparity for men and 15 years greater disparity for women-compared to the general population (Thornicroft G. Physical health disparities and mental illness: The scandal of premature mortality. Br J Psychiatr. 2011;199:441-442). Numerous factors contribute to premature mortality in persons with SMI, including suicide and accidental death (Richardson RC, Faulkner G, McDevitt J, Skrinar GS, Hutchinson D, Piette JD. Integrating physical activity into mental health services for persons with serious mental illness. Psychiatr Serv. 2005;56(3):324-331; Thornicroft G. Physical health disparities and mental illness: The scandal of premature mortality. Br J Psychiatr. 2011;199:441-442), but research has shown that adverse health behaviors-including smoking, low rate of physical activity, poor diet, and high alcohol consumption-also significantly contribute to premature deaths (Jones J. Life expectancy in mental illness. Psychiatry Services. 2010. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/news/2010/07/13/life-expectancy-in-mental-illness). This quality improvement (QI) project sought to improve health and wellness for veterans in the Mental Health Intensive Case Management Program (MHICM), which is a community-based intensive program for veterans with SMI at risk for decompensation and frequent hospitalizations. At the time of this QI project, the program had 69 veterans who were assessed and treated weekly in their homes. The project introduced a pedometer steps intervention adapted from the VA MOVE! Program-a physical activity and weight management program-with the addition of personalized assistance from trained mental health professionals in the veteran's home environment. Because a large percentage of the veterans in the MHICM program had high blood pressure and increased weight, these outcomes were the focus of this project. Through mental health case management involvement and
Ride, Jemimah; Lorgelly, Paula; Tran, Thach; Wynter, Karen; Rowe, Heather; Fisher, Jane
Postnatal maternal mental health problems, including depression and anxiety, entail a significant burden globally, and finding cost-effective preventive solutions is a public policy priority. This paper presents a cost-effectiveness analysis of the intervention, What Were We Thinking (WWWT), for the prevention of postnatal maternal mental health problems. The economic evaluation, including cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses, was conducted alongside a cluster-randomised trial. 48 Maternal and Child Health Centres in Victoria, Australia. Participants were English-speaking first-time mothers attending participating Maternal and Child Health Centres. Full data were collected for 175 participants in the control arm and 184 in the intervention arm. WWWT is a psychoeducational intervention targeted at the partner relationship, management of infant behaviour and parental fatigue. The evaluation considered public sector plus participant out-of-pocket costs, while outcomes were expressed in the 30-day prevalence of depression, anxiety and adjustment disorders, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Incremental costs and outcomes were estimated using regression analyses to account for relevant sociodemographic, prognostic and clinical characteristics. The intervention was estimated to cost $A118.16 per participant. The analysis showed no statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups in costs or outcomes. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were $A36 451 per QALY gained and $A152 per percentage-point reduction in 30-day prevalence of depression, anxiety and adjustment disorders. The estimate lies under the unofficial cost-effectiveness threshold of $A55 000 per QALY; however, there was considerable uncertainty surrounding the results, with a 55% probability that WWWT would be considered cost-effective at that threshold. The results suggest that, although WWWT shows promise as a preventive intervention for postnatal
Weiss, William M; Ugueto, Ana M; Mahmooth, Zayan; Murray, Laura K; Hall, Brian J; Nadison, Maya; Rasmussen, Andrew; Lee, Jennifer S; Vazzano, Andrea; Bass, Judy; Bolton, Paul
This research describes the development and findings of a literature review and analysis meant to inform the international torture and trauma treatment community. The review focuses on interventions that have been used among populations affected by torture, based on a review of journals indexed in commonly used search engines. Work on the review began in September 2008 and continued to be updated until March 2014. In total, 88 studies of interventions for torture victims were identified. Studies ranged from randomized controlled trials utilizing evidence-based treatments to case studies employing non-structured, supportive therapies. Based on the results of the analysis, we have included recommendations for interventions that demonstrate effectiveness in treating survivors of torture and other systematic violence who suffer from PTSD, depression and anxiety. Priorities for mental health research for survivors of torture and other systematic violence are also recommended.
Sutton, Marie; O'Keeffe, Donal; Frawley, Timothy; Madigan, Kevin; Fanning, Felicity; Lawlor, Elizabeth; Roche, Eric; Kelly, Aine; Turner, Niall; Horenstein, Arielle; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; Clarke, Mary
The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a psychosis information intervention for professionals in contact with young people in Ireland. A quasi-experimental pre- and post-intervention design was used. One thousand and thirty-two professionals received an information intervention designed to improve mental health literacy (MHL) and confidence in providing help to people with psychosis. Seven hundred and fifty-five participants completed the Psychosis Information and Confidence Questionnaire pre- and post-intervention. The information intervention significantly improved participants': (1) knowledge of psychosis; (2) ability to recognize signs and symptoms of psychosis; (3) awareness of how to access services; and (4) confidence in providing help to people experiencing psychosis. Findings provide promising support for the intervention's feasibility and acceptability. The intervention enhanced MHL regarding psychosis among professionals in contact with young people. Further research assessing if such improvements translate to the facilitation of appropriate help seeking, the enhanced early detection of psychosis and a reduction of the duration of untreated psychosis is required. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Gellatly, Judith; Pedley, Rebecca; Molloy, Christine; Butler, Jennifer; Lovell, Karina; Bee, Penny
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating mental health disorder that can substantially impact upon quality of life and everyday functioning. Guidelines recommend pharmacological and psychological treatments, using a cognitive behaviour therapy approach (CBT) including exposure and response prevention, but access has generally been poor. Low intensity psychological interventions have been advocated. The evidence base for these interventions is emerging but there is a paucity of information regarding practitioners' perceptions and experiences of supporting individuals with OCD using this approach. Qualitative interviews were undertaken with psychological wellbeing practitioners (PWPs) (n = 20) delivering low intensity psychological interventions for adults with OCD within the context of a large pragmatic effectiveness trial. Interviews explored the feasibility and acceptability of delivering two interventions; guided self-help and supported computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT), within Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services in NHS Trusts. Interviews were recorded with consent, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. PWPs acknowledged the benefits of low intensity psychological interventions for individuals experiencing OCD symptoms on an individual and population level. Offering low intensity support provided was perceived to have the opportunity to overcome existing service barriers to access treatment, improve patient choice and flexibility. Professional and service relevant issues were also recognised including self-beliefs about supporting people with OCD and personal training needs. Challenges to implementation were recognised in relation to practitioner resistance and intervention delivery technical complications. This study has provided insight into the implementation of new low intensity approaches to the management of OCD within existing mental health services. Benefits from a practitioner, service
Woolderink, M; Smit, H.F.E.; Zanden, R.; Beecham, J; Knapp, M.; Paulus, A; Evers, S.
Background Preventive interventions are developed for children of parents with mental and substance use disorders (COPMI), because these children have a higher risk of developing a psychological or behavioral disorder in the future. Mental health and substance use disorders contribute significantly
In our review we examine the relationship between physical activity and mental health; especially we determine the effectiveness of exercise in the prevention and treatment of depression. Over the past two decades the literature in the area of physical activity and mental health has been growing. However it seems that the findings and evidences not being utilized by mental health agencies and health practitioners. Depression is the most common disorder in the world, generally has a higher prevalence among women. In our study we overview and demonstrate that the exercise is a powerful intervention for prevention and treatment not only in non-clinical but also in clinical levels of depression. In sub-clinical levels of depression the meta-analytic findings and population surveys suggest that the exercise is associated with a significant moderate reduction of depression in different groups by gender and age; as well as a physically active lifestyle associates with lower levels of depression. In clinical levels of depression the physical activity is an effective tool in the prevention, studies support an association between higher levels of physical activity and lower levels of depression. In the treatment of clinical depression the randomized-controlled trials suggest the clear positive effects of exercise. This effect is similar to psychotherapeutic interventions and it was appeared under relatively short time (4-8 weeks). The exercise is one of the most important preventive health-related behaviors. Our review suggests a protective effect from activity on the development of clinical levels of depression and depressive symptoms. In addition the randomized controlled trials support a causal connection between exercise and reduction of depression. In sum the reviewed studies clearly support the antidepressant effect of exercise.
Background Depressive symptoms in older home care clients are common but poorly recognized and treated, resulting in adverse health outcomes, premature institutionalization, and costly use of health services. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a new six-month interprofessional (IP) nurse-led mental health promotion intervention, and to explore its effects on reducing depressive symptoms in older home care clients (≥ 70 years) using personal support services. Methods A prospective one-group pre-test/post-test study design was used. The intervention was a six-month evidence-based depression care management strategy led by a registered nurse that used an IP approach. Of 142 eligible consenting participants, 98 (69%) completed the six-month and 87 (61%) completed the one-year follow-up. Outcomes included depressive symptoms, anxiety, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and the costs of use of all types of health services at baseline and six-month and one-year follow-up. An interpretive descriptive design was used to explore clients’, nurses’, and personal support workers’ perceptions about the intervention’s appropriateness, benefits, and barriers and facilitators to implementation. Results Of the 142 participants, 56% had clinically significant depressive symptoms, with 38% having moderate to severe symptoms. The intervention was feasible and acceptable to older home care clients with depressive symptoms. It was effective in reducing depressive symptoms and improving HRQoL at six-month follow-up, with small additional improvements six months after the intervention. The intervention also reduced anxiety at one year follow-up. Significant reductions were observed in the use of hospitalization, ambulance services, and emergency room visits over the study period. Conclusions Our findings provide initial evidence for the feasibility, acceptability, and sustained effects of the nurse-led mental health promotion
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... Health Promotion . Fact sheet no. 220. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Chronic Illness & Mental Health . Bethesda, MD: National Institutes ... of-onset distributions of mental disorders in the World Health Organization’s World Mental Health Survey Initiative. World Psychiatry. 2007; ...
Berry, Natalie; Lobban, Fiona; Emsley, Richard; Bucci, Sandra
Psychological interventions are recommended for people with severe mental health problems (SMI). However, barriers exist in the provision of these services and access is limited. Therefore, researchers are beginning to develop and deliver interventions online and via mobile phones. Previous research has indicated that interventions delivered in this format are acceptable for people with SMI. However, a comprehensive systematic review is needed to investigate the acceptability of online and mobile phone-delivered interventions for SMI in depth. This systematic review aimed to 1) identify the hypothetical acceptability (acceptability prior to or without the delivery of an intervention) and actual acceptability (acceptability where an intervention was delivered) of online and mobile phone-delivered interventions for SMI, 2) investigate the impact of factors such as demographic and clinical characteristics on acceptability, and 3) identify common participant views in qualitative studies that pinpoint factors influencing acceptability. We conducted a systematic search of the databases PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Web of Science in April 2015, which yielded a total of 8017 search results, with 49 studies meeting the full inclusion criteria. Studies were included if they measured acceptability through participant views, module completion rates, or intervention use. Studies delivering interventions were included if the delivery method was online or via mobile phones. The hypothetical acceptability of online and mobile phone-delivered interventions for SMI was relatively low, while actual acceptability tended to be high. Hypothetical acceptability was higher for interventions delivered via text messages than by emails. The majority of studies that assessed the impact of demographic characteristics on acceptability reported no significant relationships between the two. Additionally, actual acceptability was higher when participants were provided remote online
SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia
Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.
Vella, Stewart A; Swann, Christian; Batterham, Marijka; Boydell, Katherine M; Eckermann, Simon; Fogarty, Andrea; Hurley, Diarmuid; Liddle, Sarah K; Lonsdale, Chris; Miller, Andrew; Noetel, Michael; Okely, Anthony D; Sanders, Taren; Telenta, Joanne; Deane, Frank P
There is a recognised need for targeted community-wide mental health strategies and interventions aimed specifically at prevention and early intervention in promoting mental health. Young males are a high need group who hold particularly negative attitudes towards mental health services, and these views are detrimental for early intervention and help-seeking. Organised sports provide a promising context to deliver community-wide mental health strategies and interventions to adolescent males. The aim of the Ahead of the Game program is to test the effectiveness of a multi-component, community-sport based program targeting prevention, promotion and early intervention for mental health among adolescent males. The Ahead of the Game program will be implemented within a sample drawn from community sporting clubs and evaluated using a sample drawn from a matched control community. Four programs are proposed, including two targeting adolescents, one for parents, and one for sports coaches. One adolescent program aims to increase mental health literacy, intentions to seek and/or provide help for mental health, and to decrease stigmatising attitudes. The second adolescent program aims to increase resilience. The goal of the parent program is to increase parental mental health literacy and confidence to provide help. The coach program is intended to increase coaches' supportive behaviours (e.g., autonomy supportive behaviours), and in turn facilitate high-quality motivation and wellbeing among adolescents. Programs will be complemented by a messaging campaign aimed at adolescents to enhance mental health literacy. The effects of the program on adolescent males' psychological distress and wellbeing will also be explored. Organised sports represent a potentially engaging avenue to promote mental health and prevent the onset of mental health problems among adolescent males. The community-based design, with samples drawn from an intervention and a matched control community
Bennett, Sophie; Heyman, Isobel; Coughtrey, Anna; Simmonds, Jess; Varadkar, Sophia; Stephenson, Terence; DeJong, Margaret; Shafran, Roz
Rates of mental health disorders are significantly greater in children with physical illnesses than in physically well children. Children with neurological conditions, such as epilepsy, are known to have particularly high rates of mental health disorders. Despite this, mental health problems in children with neurological conditions have remained under-recognised and under-treated in clinical settings. Evidence-based guided self-help interventions are efficacious in reducing symptoms of mental health disorders in children, but their efficacy in reducing symptoms of common mental health disorders in children with neurological conditions has not been investigated. We aim to pilot a guided self-help intervention for the treatment of mental health disorders in children with neurological conditions. A pilot randomised controlled trial with 18 patients with neurological conditions and mental health disorders will be conducted. Participants attending specialist neurology clinics at a National UK Children's Hospital will be randomised to receive guided self-help for common mental health disorders or to a 12-week waiting list control. Participants in the treatment group will receive 10 sessions of guided self-help delivered over the telephone. The waiting list control group will receive the intervention after a waiting period of 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure is reduction in symptoms of mental health disorders. Exclusion criteria are limited to those at significant risk of harm to self or others, the presence of primary mental health disorder other than anxiety, depression or disruptive behaviour (e.g. psychosis, eating disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder) or intellectual disability at a level meaning potential participants would be unable to access the intervention. The study has ethical approval from the Camden and Islington NHS Research Ethics Committee, registration number 14.LO.1353. Results will be disseminated to patients, the wider public, clinicians and
Firth, Joseph; Torous, John; Nicholas, Jennifer; Carney, Rebekah; Pratap, Abhishek; Rosenbaum, Simon; Sarris, Jerome
The rapid advances and adoption of smartphone technology presents a novel opportunity for delivering mental health interventions on a population scale. Despite multi-sector investment along with wide-scale advertising and availability to the general population, the evidence supporting the use of smartphone apps in the treatment of depression has not been empirically evaluated. Thus, we conducted the first meta-analysis of smartphone apps for depressive symptoms. An electronic database search in May 2017 identified 18 eligible randomized controlled trials of 22 smartphone apps, with outcome data from 3,414 participants. Depressive symptoms were reduced significantly more from smartphone apps than control conditions (g=0.38, 95% CI: 0.24-0.52, pSmartphone interventions had a moderate positive effect in comparison to inactive controls (g=0.56, 95% CI: 0.38-0.74), but only a small effect in comparison to active control conditions (g=0.22, 95% CI: 0.10-0.33). Effects from smartphone-only interventions were greater than from interventions which incorporated other human/computerized aspects along the smartphone component, although the difference was not statistically significant. The studies of cognitive training apps had a significantly smaller effect size on depression outcomes (p=0.004) than those of apps focusing on mental health. The use of mood monitoring softwares, or interventions based on cognitive behavioral therapy, or apps incorporating aspects of mindfulness training, did not affect significantly study effect sizes. Overall, these results indicate that smartphone devices are a promising self-management tool for depression. Future research should aim to distil which aspects of these technologies produce beneficial effects, and for which populations. © 2017 World Psychiatric Association.
Firth, Joseph; Torous, John; Nicholas, Jennifer; Carney, Rebekah; Pratap, Abhishek; Rosenbaum, Simon; Sarris, Jerome
The rapid advances and adoption of smartphone technology presents a novel opportunity for delivering mental health interventions on a population scale. Despite multi‐sector investment along with wide‐scale advertising and availability to the general population, the evidence supporting the use of smartphone apps in the treatment of depression has not been empirically evaluated. Thus, we conducted the first meta‐analysis of smartphone apps for depressive symptoms. An electronic database search in May 2017 identified 18 eligible randomized controlled trials of 22 smartphone apps, with outcome data from 3,414 participants. Depressive symptoms were reduced significantly more from smartphone apps than control conditions (g=0.38, 95% CI: 0.24‐0.52, pSmartphone interventions had a moderate positive effect in comparison to inactive controls (g=0.56, 95% CI: 0.38‐0.74), but only a small effect in comparison to active control conditions (g=0.22, 95% CI: 0.10‐0.33). Effects from smartphone‐only interventions were greater than from interventions which incorporated other human/computerized aspects along the smartphone component, although the difference was not statistically significant. The studies of cognitive training apps had a significantly smaller effect size on depression outcomes (p=0.004) than those of apps focusing on mental health. The use of mood monitoring softwares, or interventions based on cognitive behavioral therapy, or apps incorporating aspects of mindfulness training, did not affect significantly study effect sizes. Overall, these results indicate that smartphone devices are a promising self‐management tool for depression. Future research should aim to distil which aspects of these technologies produce beneficial effects, and for which populations. PMID:28941113
Wang, Chao; Hua, Yujie; Fu, Hua; Cheng, Longfeng; Qian, Wen; Liu, Junyang; Crawford, Paul; Dai, Junming
in terms of sleep, well-being, and depression at baseline and before the intervention. Mixed-model repeated measures ANOVAs detected a group × time interaction on depression, sleep, and well-being and showed a favorable intervention effect within groups immediately after the intervention. The mutual recovery program could be a creative and effective approach to improve mental health in older community-dwelling adults with depressive symptom.
was no significant difference within the groups in terms of sleep, well-being, and depression at baseline and before the intervention. Mixed-model repeated measures ANOVAs detected a group × time interaction on depression, sleep, and well-being and showed a favorable intervention effect within groups immediately after the intervention. Conclusions The mutual recovery program could be a creative and effective approach to improve mental health in older community-dwelling adults with depressive symptom.
Full Text Available Background Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and distress are more common in undergraduates compared to age-matched peers. Mental ill health among students is associated with impaired academic achievement, worse occupational preparedness, and lower future occupational performance. Research on mental health promoting and mental ill health preventing interventions has shown promising short-term effects, though the sustainability of intervention benefits deserve closer attention. We aimed to identify, appraise and summarize existing data from randomized control trials (RCTs reporting on whether the effects of mental health promoting and mental ill health preventing interventions were sustained at least three months post-intervention, and to analyze how the effects vary for different outcomes in relation to follow-up length. Further, we aimed to assess whether the effect sustainability varied by intervention type, study-level determinants and of participant characteristics. Material and Methods A systematic search in MEDLINE, PsycInfo, ERIC, and Scopus was performed for RCTs published in 1995–2015 reporting an assessment of mental ill health and positive mental health outcomes for, at least, three months of post-intervention follow-up. Random-effect modeling was utilized for quantitative synthesis of the existing evidence with standardized mean difference (Hedges’ g used to estimate an aggregated effect size. Sustainability of the effects of interventions was analyzed separately for 3–6 months, 7–12 months, and 13–18 months of post-intervention follow-up. Results About 26 studies were eligible after reviewing 6,571 citations. The pooled effects were mainly small, but significant for several categories of outcomes. Thus, for the combined mental ill health outcomes, symptom-reduction sustained up to 7–12 months post-intervention (standardized mean difference (Hedges’ g effect size (ES = −0.28 (95% CI [−0.49, −0.08]. Further
Daneau, Stéphanie; Goudreau, Johanne; Sarrazin, Catherine
Accompanying loved ones suffering from a mental health problem on a daily basis is an experience that profoundly transforms the identity of families. Such families must often cope with feelings such as guilt and helplessness. The psychiatric hospitalisation of a family member suffering from mental illness hardly improves the situation. In this context, existing literature recognises the benefits of including family members involved in care, as much for the afflicted person as for family and the professionals involved. However, these families inevitably feel excluded from care and unrecognised in their role, leading to important consequences. This critical review of literature was meant to analyse the obstacles to practicing a family-oriented approach by nurses working in mental health units, in order to propose recommendations aiming at the transformation of present clinical practices in this regard. A systematic study of literature was carried out on the databases CINHAL, Psychlnfo and PubMed and the analysis of literature was realised based on the Theory of Change proposed by Collerette. The results demonstrate that confidentiality, lack of abilities and expertise in addition to certain organisational problems constitute the principal barriers to the practice of nursing interventions for families on a daily basis.
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Winters, Ken C; Schmeidler, James; Ungaro, Rocio; Karas, Lora M; Belenko, Steven; Gulledge, Laura
The relationship between substance use, mental health disorders, and delinquency among youth is well documented. What has received far less attention from researchers is the relationship between these issues among truant youth, in spite of studies that document truants are a population at-risk for negative outcomes. The present study bridges this gap by (1) examining psychosocial functioning and delinquency among truants, and (2) assessing the efficacy of a Brief Intervention (BI) in reducing delinquent behavior over time. To meet these objectives, data were collected from 183 truant youth enrolled in an ongoing NIDA-funded BI project. Informed by a developmental damage perspective, a structural equation model was formulated and estimated. Interim results provide overall support for the model, and suggest the BI may be a promising, innovative intervention for truant youth. Service delivery implications and directions for future analyses are discussed.
Full Text Available Growing numbers of mental health organizations are developing community music-making interventions for service users; however, to date there has been little research into their efficacy or mechanisms of effect. This study was an exploratory examination of whether 10 weeks of group drumming could improve depression, anxiety and social resilience among service users compared with a non-music control group (with participants allocated to group by geographical location. Significant improvements were found in the drumming group but not the control group: by week 6 there were decreases in depression (-2.14 SE 0.50 CI -3.16 to -1.11 and increases in social resilience (7.69 SE 2.00 CI 3.60 to 11.78, and by week 10 these had further improved (depression: -3.41 SE 0.62 CI -4.68 to -2.15; social resilience: 10.59 SE 1.78 CI 6.94 to 14.24 alongside significant improvements in anxiety (-2.21 SE 0.50 CI -3.24 to -1.19 and mental wellbeing (6.14 SE 0.92 CI 4.25 to 8.04. All significant changes were maintained at 3 months follow-up. Furthermore, it is now recognised that many mental health conditions are characterised by underlying inflammatory immune responses. Consequently, participants in the drumming group also provided saliva samples to test for cortisol and the cytokines interleukin (IL 4, IL6, IL17, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP 1. Across the 10 weeks there was a shift away from a pro-inflammatory towards an anti-inflammatory immune profile. Consequently, this study demonstrates the psychological benefits of group drumming and also suggests underlying biological effects, supporting its therapeutic potential for mental health.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01906892.
In the United Kingdom, contemporary mental health rehabilitation services evolved during the period of deinstitutionalisation. They focus on people with complex psychosis, a "low volume, high needs" group which is at risk of social exclusion. Without these specialist services, this group is at risk of becoming stuck in a hospital or in other facilities that do not enable them to achieve their optimal level of autonomy. When a "whole system" of rehabilitative care is provided, including specialist inpatient facilities and supported accommodation, the majority are able to progress in their recovery and live successfully in the community. Rehabilitation is a complex intervention; current and further research is needed to identify the specific aspects of treatment and support it delivers that are most effective in enabling recovery and social inclusion for those with the most complex and long-term mental health needs.
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Prieto-Welch, Susan L.
This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.
van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Kelders, Saskia Marion; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas
Background: Web-based interventions for the early treatment of depressive symptoms can be considered effective in reducing mental complaints. However, there is a limited understanding of which elements in an intervention contribute to effectiveness. For efficiency and effectiveness of interventions,
evaluation of the intervention. Results of this study have been presented at the World Congress of the World Federation for Mental Health in Cape Town, October 2011.
David Daniel Ebert
Full Text Available Although psychological interventions might have a tremendous potential for the prevention of mental health disorders (MHD, their current impact on the reduction of disease burden is questionable. Possible reasons include that it is not practical to deliver those interventions to the community en masse due to limited health care resources and the limited availability of evidence-based interventions and clinicians in routine practice, especially in rural areas. Therefore, new approaches are needed to maximize the impact of psychological preventive interventions. Limitations of traditional prevention programs could potentially be overcome by providing Internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMIs. This relatively new medium for promoting mental health and preventing MHD introduces a fresh array of possibilities, including the provision of evidence-based psychological interventions that are free from the restraints of travel and time and allow reaching participants for whom traditional opportunities are not an option. This article provides an introduction to the subject and narratively reviews the available evidence for the effectiveness of IMIs with regard to the prevention of MHD onsets. The number of randomized controlled trials that have been conducted to date is very limited and so far it is not possible to draw definite conclusions about the potential of IMIs for the prevention of MHD for specific disorders. Only for the indicated prevention of depression there is consistent evidence across four different randomized trial trials. The only trial on the prevention of general anxiety did not result in positive findings in terms of eating disorders (EDs, effects were only found in post hoc subgroup analyses, indicating that it might be possible to prevent ED onset for subpopulations of people at risk of developing EDs. Future studies need to identify those subpopulations likely to profit from preventive. Disorders not examined so far include
Maatouk, Imad; Müller, Andreas; Angerer, Peter; Schmook, Renate; Nikendei, Christoph; Herbst, Kirsten; Gantner, Melanie; Herzog, Wolfgang; Gündel, Harald
This multicentre, randomised controlled trial (RCT) aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a small-group intervention promoting successful ageing at work in older nurses (aged ≥45). A sample of 115 nurses aged ≥45 from 4 trial sites in Germany were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (IG), that received a small-group intervention of seven weekly sessions of 120 min with a booster session after six weeks or to a wait-list control condition (WLC). Outcomes were measured via validated self-report questionnaires at baseline (T1) and at post-treatment (T2). Primary outcomes were mental health-related well-being and mental health-related quality of life (QOL). The secondary outcomes included mental health-related and work-related measures. The intention to treat (ITT) analysis showed significant positive effects of the intervention on mental health. A significant small effect (d = 0.3) in favour of the IG was found for psychological health-related quality of life. Positive small effects (d = 0.24 to d = 0.31) were also found for work related mental strain. Our small-group intervention based on a theory of successful ageing for nurses aged ≥45 was found to be effective with regard to improvements of psychological health related quality of life and other mental health-related outcomes. Thus, our study shows that the ageing workforce can be reached through specifically designed preventive interventions. The components of our intervention could be easily adapted to the belongings of other professions. Our results suggest that these components should be evaluated in various settings outside the healthcare sector.
Full Text Available This multicentre, randomised controlled trial (RCT aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a small-group intervention promoting successful ageing at work in older nurses (aged ≥45.A sample of 115 nurses aged ≥45 from 4 trial sites in Germany were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (IG, that received a small-group intervention of seven weekly sessions of 120 min with a booster session after six weeks or to a wait-list control condition (WLC. Outcomes were measured via validated self-report questionnaires at baseline (T1 and at post-treatment (T2. Primary outcomes were mental health-related well-being and mental health-related quality of life (QOL. The secondary outcomes included mental health-related and work-related measures.The intention to treat (ITT analysis showed significant positive effects of the intervention on mental health. A significant small effect (d = 0.3 in favour of the IG was found for psychological health-related quality of life. Positive small effects (d = 0.24 to d = 0.31 were also found for work related mental strain.Our small-group intervention based on a theory of successful ageing for nurses aged ≥45 was found to be effective with regard to improvements of psychological health related quality of life and other mental health-related outcomes. Thus, our study shows that the ageing workforce can be reached through specifically designed preventive interventions. The components of our intervention could be easily adapted to the belongings of other professions. Our results suggest that these components should be evaluated in various settings outside the healthcare sector.
Albright, Glenn; Bryan, Craig; Adam, Cyrille; McMillan, Jeremiah; Shockley, Kristen
Primary health care professionals are in an excellent position to identify, screen, and conduct brief interventions for patients with mental health and substance use disorders. However, discomfort in initiating conversations about behavioral health, time concerns, lack of knowledge about screening tools, and treatment resources are barriers. This study examines the impact of an online simulation where users practice role-playing with emotionally responsive virtual patients to learn motivational interviewing strategies to better manage screening, brief interventions, and referral conversations. Baseline data were collected from 227 participants who were then randomly assigned into the treatment or wait-list control groups. Treatment group participants then completed the simulation, postsimulation survey, and 3-month follow-up survey. Results showed significant increases in knowledge/skill to identify and engage in collaborative decision making with patients. Results strongly suggest that role-play simulation experiences can be an effective means of teaching screening and brief intervention.
Strayhorn, Joseph M; Strayhorn, Jillian C
Martial arts studios for children market their services as providing mental health outcomes such as self-esteem, self-confidence, concentration, and self-discipline. It appears that many parents enroll their children in martial arts in hopes of obtaining such outcomes. The current study used the data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten class of 1998-1999, to assess the effects of martial arts upon such outcomes as rated by classroom teachers. The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study used a multistage probability sampling design to gather a sample representative of U.S. children attending kindergarten beginning 1998. We made use of data collected in the kindergarten, 3rd grade, and 5th grade years. Classroom behavior was measured by a rating scale completed by teachers; participation in martial arts was assessed as part of a parent interview. The four possible combinations of participation and nonparticipation in martial arts at time 1 and time 2 for each analysis were coded into three dichotomous variables; the set of three variables constituted the measure of participation studied through regression. Multiple regression was used to estimate the association between martial arts participation and change in classroom behavior from one measurement occasion to the next. The change from kindergarten to third grade was studied as a function of martial arts participation, and the analysis was replicated studying behavior change from third grade to fifth grade. Cohen's f2 effect sizes were derived from these regressions. The martial arts variable failed to show a statistically significant effect on behavior, in either of the regression analyses; in fact, the f2 effect size for martial arts was 0.000 for both analyses. The 95% confidence intervals for regression coefficients for martial arts variables have upper and lower bounds that are all close to zero. The analyses not only fail to reject the null hypothesis, but also render unlikely a population
Strayhorn Joseph M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Martial arts studios for children market their services as providing mental health outcomes such as self-esteem, self-confidence, concentration, and self-discipline. It appears that many parents enroll their children in martial arts in hopes of obtaining such outcomes. The current study used the data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten class of 1998-1999, to assess the effects of martial arts upon such outcomes as rated by classroom teachers. Methods The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study used a multistage probability sampling design to gather a sample representative of U.S. children attending kindergarten beginning 1998. We made use of data collected in the kindergarten, 3rd grade, and 5th grade years. Classroom behavior was measured by a rating scale completed by teachers; participation in martial arts was assessed as part of a parent interview. The four possible combinations of participation and nonparticipation in martial arts at time 1 and time 2 for each analysis were coded into three dichotomous variables; the set of three variables constituted the measure of participation studied through regression. Multiple regression was used to estimate the association between martial arts participation and change in classroom behavior from one measurement occasion to the next. The change from kindergarten to third grade was studied as a function of martial arts participation, and the analysis was replicated studying behavior change from third grade to fifth grade. Cohen's f2 effect sizes were derived from these regressions. Results The martial arts variable failed to show a statistically significant effect on behavior, in either of the regression analyses; in fact, the f2 effect size for martial arts was 0.000 for both analyses. The 95% confidence intervals for regression coefficients for martial arts variables have upper and lower bounds that are all close to zero. The analyses not only fail to reject the
Gibson, Marcia; Thomson, Hilary; Banas, Kasia; Lutje, Vittoria; McKee, Martin J; Martin, Susan P; Fenton, Candida; Bambra, Clare; Bond, Lyndal
Lone parents in high-income countries have high rates of poverty (including in-work poverty) and poor health. Employment requirements for these parents are increasingly common. 'Welfare-to-work' (WtW) interventions involving financial sanctions and incentives, training, childcare subsidies and lifetime limits on benefit receipt have been used to support or mandate employment among lone parents. These and other interventions that affect employment and income may also affect people's health, and it is important to understand the available evidence on these effects in lone parents. To assess the effects of WtW interventions on mental and physical health in lone parents and their children living in high-income countries. The secondary objective is to assess the effects of welfare-to-work interventions on employment and income. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE Ovid, Embase Ovid, PsycINFO EBSCO, ERIC EBSCO, SocINDEX EBSCO, CINAHL EBSCO, Econlit EBSCO, Web of Science ISI, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA) via Proquest, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS) via ProQuest, Social Services Abstracts via Proquest, Sociological Abstracts via Proquest, Campbell Library, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) (CRD York), Turning Research into Practice (TRIP), OpenGrey and Planex. We also searched bibliographies of included publications and relevant reviews, in addition to many relevant websites. We identified many included publications by handsearching. We performed the searches in 2011, 2013 and April 2016. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of mandatory or voluntary WtW interventions for lone parents in high-income countries, reporting impacts on parental mental health, parental physical health, child mental health or child physical health. One review author extracted data using a standardised extraction form, and another checked them. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias and
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Kohrt, Brandon A; Blasingame, Elise; Compton, Michael T; Dakana, Samuel F; Dossen, Benedict; Lang, Frank; Strode, Patricia; Cooper, Janice
We sought to develop a curriculum and collaboration model for law enforcement and mental health services in Liberia, West Africa. In 2013 we conducted key informant interviews with law enforcement officers, mental health clinicians, and mental health service users in Liberia, and facilitated a 3-day curriculum workshop. Mental health service users reported prior violent interactions with officers. Officers and clinicians identified incarceration and lack of treatment of mental health service users as key problems, and they jointly drafted a curriculum based upon the Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) model adapted for Liberia. Officers' mental health knowledge improved from 64% to 82% on workshop assessments (t=5.52; P<.01). Clinicians' attitudes improved (t=2.42; P=.03). Six months after the workshop, 69% of clinicians reported improved engagement with law enforcement. Since the Ebola outbreak, law enforcement and clinicians have collaboratively addressed diverse public health needs. Collaborations between law enforcement and mental health clinicians can benefit multiple areas of public health, as demonstrated by partnerships to improve responses during the Ebola epidemic. Future research should evaluate training implementation and outcomes including stigma reduction, referrals, and use of force.
Lang, Linda; Orton, Sophie; Sallah, David; Hewitt-Moran, Teresa; Zhang, Dongmei; Cullen, Sean; Dixon, Sheila; Bell, Brian; Bell, David; Meeson, Lesley; Chen, Ruoling
National Health Service (NHS) mental health workforce configuration is at the heart of successful delivery, and providers are advised to produce professional development strategies. Recent policy changes in England have sharpened the focus on competency based role development. We determined levels of intervention activities, engagement and competence and their influencing factors in a community-setting mental health workforce. Using a modified questionnaire based on the Yorkshire Care Pathways Model we investigated 153 mental health staff working in Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust. A median score of competence was computed across 10 cluster activities. Low engagement and competence levels were examined in a logistic regression model. In 220 activities, Monitoring risk was the highest rate of engagement (97.6%) and Group psychological therapy/Art/Drama therapy was the lowest engagement (3.6%). The median competence level based on all activities was 3.95 (proficient). There were significant differences in the competence level among professional groups; non-qualified support group (3.00 for competent), Counsellor/Psychologist/Therapist (3.38), Occupational therapists (3.76), Nurses (4.01), Medical staff (4.05), Social workers (4.25) and Psychologists (4.62 for proficient/expert). These levels varied with activity clusters; the lowest level was for Counsellor/Psychologist/Therapist in the accommodation activity (1.44 novice/advance beginner) and the highest for Occupational therapists in personal activity (4.94 expert). In a multivariate analysis, low competence was significantly related to non-qualified community support professions, late time of obtaining first qualification, more frequencies of clinical training, and training of cognitive behavioural therapy. The associations were similar in the analysis for 10 activity clusters respectively. There was a reasonable competence level in the community-setting mental health workforce, but competence varied with
Full Text Available Abstract Background National Health Service (NHS mental health workforce configuration is at the heart of successful delivery, and providers are advised to produce professional development strategies. Recent policy changes in England have sharpened the focus on competency based role development. We determined levels of intervention activities, engagement and competence and their influencing factors in a community-setting mental health workforce. Methods Using a modified questionnaire based on the Yorkshire Care Pathways Model we investigated 153 mental health staff working in Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust. A median score of competence was computed across 10 cluster activities. Low engagement and competence levels were examined in a logistic regression model. Results In 220 activities, Monitoring risk was the highest rate of engagement (97.6% and Group psychological therapy/Art/Drama therapy was the lowest engagement (3.6%. The median competence level based on all activities was 3.95 (proficient. There were significant differences in the competence level among professional groups; non-qualified support group (3.00 for competent, Counsellor/Psychologist/Therapist (3.38, Occupational therapists (3.76, Nurses (4.01, Medical staff (4.05, Social workers (4.25 and Psychologists (4.62 for proficient/expert. These levels varied with activity clusters; the lowest level was for Counsellor/Psychologist/Therapist in the accommodation activity (1.44 novice/advance beginner and the highest for Occupational therapists in personal activity (4.94 expert. In a multivariate analysis, low competence was significantly related to non-qualified community support professions, late time of obtaining first qualification, more frequencies of clinical training, and training of cognitive behavioural therapy. The associations were similar in the analysis for 10 activity clusters respectively. Conclusions There was a reasonable competence level in the community
Pisinger, Charlotte; Ladelund, Steen; Glümer, Charlotte
INTRODUCTION: Self-reported health has been shown to predict mortality. We lack knowledge on whether a lifestyle intervention can improve self-reported mental and physical health in a general population. METHODS: Inter99, Denmark (1999-2006) is a randomised population-based intervention study. We...... screened for ischemic heart disease and repeatedly offered advice and assistance to obtain a healthier lifestyle. Health related quality of life was measured by Short Form 12 (SF-12); completed by 9322 at baseline and 7719 at five-year follow-up. In linear mixed models we investigated the effect...... of the intervention on self-reported health over time. RESULTS: At baseline men had higher physical health-component scores (PCS) than women. Living with a partner, being employed, and being healthy was associated with high PCS. The mental health-component scores (MCS) showed the same socio-demographic differences...
Tol, Wietse A; Komproe, Ivan H; Jordans, Mark J D; Ndayisaba, Aline; Ntamutumba, Prudence; Sipsma, Heather; Smallegange, Eva S; Macy, Robert D; de Jong, Joop T V M
Armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of impacts on the mental health of children and adolescents. We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (treatment aim); and improving a sense of hope and functioning (preventive aim). We conducted a cluster randomized trial with 329 children in war-affected Burundi (aged 8 to 17 (mean 12.29 years, standard deviation 1.61); 48% girls). One group of children (n = 153) participated in a 15-session school-based intervention implemented by para-professionals, and the remaining 176 children formed a waitlist control condition. Outcomes were measured before, one week after, and three months after the intervention. No main effects of the intervention were identified. However, longitudinal growth curve analyses showed six favorable and two unfavorable differences in trajectories between study conditions in interaction with several moderators. Children in the intervention condition living in larger households showed decreases on depressive symptoms and function impairment, and those living with both parents showed decreases on posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms. The groups of children in the waitlist condition showed increases in depressive symptoms. In addition, younger children and those with low levels of exposure to traumatic events in the intervention condition showed improvements on hope. Children in the waitlist condition who lived on their original or newly bought land showed improvements in hope and function impairment, whereas children in the intervention condition showed deterioration on these outcomes. Given inconsistent effects across studies, findings do not support this school-based intervention as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms in conflict-affected children. The intervention appears to have more consistent preventive benefits, but these effects are
Blackwell, Cindy DeRuiter; Bilics, Andrea
Directors of entry-level occupational therapy (OT) programs were surveyed regarding how their programs prepare students to become mental health practitioners in schools. Analysis of quantitative data included descriptive statistics to examine participants' ratings of their program's ability to prepare students for mental health practice. We found…
Millar, Golden M.; Lean, Debra; Sweet, Susan D.; Moraes, Sabrina C.; Nelson, Victoria
Evidence suggests that schools have, by default, become the primary mental health system for students in Canada. The goal of the present study was to design, implement, and evaluate the Psychology School Mental Health Initiative (PSMHI). The PSMHI is an innovative attempt to increase the capacity of school-based psychology staff to deliver…
Lang, Ariel J.; Norman, Gregory J.; Casmar, Pollyanna V.
This randomized trial is a first evaluation of a brief psychotherapeutic intervention for primary care patients. Sixty-two participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or to treatment as usual. As compared with treatment as usual, the intervention led to significant reductions in symptoms of anxiety and depression. The reduction was…
Gibson, Marcia; Thomson, Hilary; Banas, Kasia; Lutje, Vittoria; McKee, Martin J; Martin, Susan P; Fenton, Candida; Bambra, Clare; Bond, Lyndal
Background Lone parents in high-income countries have high rates of poverty (including in-work poverty) and poor health. Employment requirements for these parents are increasingly common. 'Welfare-to-work' (WtW) interventions involving financial sanctions and incentives, training, childcare subsidies and lifetime limits on benefit receipt have been used to support or mandate employment among lone parents. These and other interventions that affect employment and income may also affect people's health, and it is important to understand the available evidence on these effects in lone parents. Objectives To assess the effects of WtW interventions on mental and physical health in lone parents and their children living in high-income countries. The secondary objective is to assess the effects of welfare-to-work interventions on employment and income. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE Ovid, Embase Ovid, PsycINFO EBSCO, ERIC EBSCO, SocINDEX EBSCO, CINAHL EBSCO, Econlit EBSCO, Web of Science ISI, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA) via Proquest, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS) via ProQuest, Social Services Abstracts via Proquest, Sociological Abstracts via Proquest, Campbell Library, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) (CRD York), Turning Research into Practice (TRIP), OpenGrey and Planex. We also searched bibliographies of included publications and relevant reviews, in addition to many relevant websites. We identified many included publications by handsearching. We performed the searches in 2011, 2013 and April 2016. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of mandatory or voluntary WtW interventions for lone parents in high-income countries, reporting impacts on parental mental health, parental physical health, child mental health or child physical health. Data collection and analysis One review author extracted data using a standardised extraction
Koenig, Christopher J; Abraham, Traci; Zamora, Kara A; Hill, Coleen; Kelly, P Adam; Uddo, Madeline; Hamilton, Michelle; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Seal, Karen H
Telephone motivational coaching has been shown to increase urban veteran mental health treatment initiation. However, no studies have tested telephone motivational coaching delivered by veteran peers to facilitate mental health treatment initiation and engagement. This study describes pre-implementation strategies with 8 Veterans Affairs (VA) community-based outpatient clinics in the West and Mid-South United States to adapt and implement a multisite pragmatic randomized controlled trial of telephone peer motivational coaching for rural veterans. We used 2 pre-implementation strategies, Formative Evaluation (FE) research and Evidence-Based Quality Improvement (EBQI) meetings to adapt the intervention to stakeholders' needs and cultural contexts. FE data were qualitative, semi-structured interviews with rural veterans and VA clinic staff. Results were rapidly analyzed and presented to stakeholders during EBQI meetings to optimize the intervention implementation. FE research results showed that VA clinic providers felt overwhelmed by veterans' mental health needs and acknowledged limited mental health services at VA clinics. Rural veteran interviews indicated geographical, logistical, and cultural barriers to VA mental health treatment initiation and a preference for self-care to cope with mental health symptoms. EBQI meetings resulted in several intervention adaptations, including veteran study recruitment, peer veteran coach training, and an expanded definition of mental health care outcomes. As the VA moves to cultivate community partnerships in order to personalize and expand access to care for rural veterans, pre-implementation processes with engaged stakeholders, such as those described here, can help guide other researchers and clinicians to achieve proactive and veteran-centered health care services. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.
vab, Vesna; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana
Mental health conceptualize a state of well-being, perceived self efficacy, competence, autonomy, intergenerational dependence and recognition of the ability to realize one's intellectual and emotional potential. Mental health care are services provided to individuals or communities by agents of the health services or professions to promote, maintain, monitor, or restore mental health. Students will become familiar with extensiveness of the problem, and levels of preventing it. It is illustra...
Muuraiskangas, Salla; Harjumaa, Marja; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Ermes, Miikka
Digital interventions have the potential to serve as cost-effective ways to manage occupational stress and well-being. However, little is known about the adoption of individual-level digital interventions at organizations. The aim of this paper is to study the effects of an unguided digital mental health intervention in occupational well-being and the factors that influence the adoption of the intervention. The intervention was based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and its aim was to teach skills for stress management and mental well-being. It was delivered via a mobile and a Web-based app that were offered to employees of two information and communication technology (ICT) companies. The primary outcome measures were perceived stress and work engagement, measured by a 1-item stress questionnaire (Stress) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9). The intervention process was evaluated regarding the change mechanisms and intervention stages using mixed methods. The initial interviews were conducted face-to-face with human resource managers (n=2) of both companies in August 2013. The participants were recruited via information sessions and email invitations. The intervention period took place between November 2013 and March 2014. The participants were asked to complete online questionnaires at baseline, two months, and four months after the baseline measurement. The final phone interviews for the volunteer participants (n=17) and the human resource managers (n=2) were conducted in April to May 2014, five months after the baseline. Of all the employees, only 27 (8.1%, 27/332) took the app into use, with a mean use of 4.8 (SD 4.7) different days. In the beginning, well-being was on good level in both companies and no significant changes in well-being were observed. The activities of the intervention process failed to integrate the intervention into everyday activities at the workplace. Those who took the app into use experienced many benefits such as
Gibson, Marcia; Thomson, Hilary; Banas, Kasia; Lutje, Vittoria; McKee, Martin J; Martin, Susan P; Fenton, Candida; Bambra, Clare; Bond, Lyndal
Lone parents in high-income countries have high rates of poverty (including in-work poverty) and poor health. Employment requirements for these parents are increasingly common. 'Welfare-to-work' (WtW) interventions involving financial sanctions and incentives, training, childcare subsidies and lifetime limits on benefit receipt have been used to support or mandate employment among lone parents. These and other interventions that affect employment and income may also affect people's health, and it is important to understand the available evidence on these effects in lone parents. To assess the effects of WtW interventions on mental and physical health in lone parents and their children living in high-income countries. The secondary objective is to assess the effects of welfare-to-work interventions on employment and income. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE Ovid, Embase Ovid, PsycINFO EBSCO, ERIC EBSCO, SocINDEX EBSCO, CINAHL EBSCO, Econlit EBSCO, Web of Science ISI, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA) via Proquest, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS) via ProQuest, Social Services Abstracts via Proquest, Sociological Abstracts via Proquest, Campbell Library, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) (CRD York), Turning Research into Practice (TRIP), OpenGrey and Planex. We also searched bibliographies of included publications and relevant reviews, in addition to many relevant websites. We identified many included publications by handsearching. We performed the searches in 2011, 2013 and April 2016. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of mandatory or voluntary WtW interventions for lone parents in high-income countries, reporting impacts on parental mental health, parental physical health, child mental health or child physical health. One review author extracted data using a standardised extraction form, and another checked them. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias and
Global health has been defined as an area of study, research, and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. This article provides an overview of some central issues in global mental health in three parts. The first part demonstrates why mental health is relevant to global health by examining three key principles of global health: priority setting based on the burden of health problems, health inequalities and its global scope in particular in relation to the determinants and solutions for health problems. The second part considers and addresses the key critiques of global mental health: (a) that the "diagnoses" of mental disorders are not valid because there are no biological markers for these conditions; (b) that the strong association of social determinants undermines the use of biomedical interventions; (c) that the field is a proxy for the expansion of the pharmaceutical industry; and (d) that the actions of global mental health are equivalent to "medical imperialism" and it is a "psychiatric export." The final part discusses the opportunities for the field, piggybacking on the surge of interest in global health more broadly and on the growing acknowledgment of mental disorders as a key target for global health action. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Tol, Wietse A; Komproe, Ivan H; Susanty, Dessy; Jordans, Mark J D; Macy, Robert D; De Jong, Joop T V M
Little is known about the efficacy of mental health interventions for children exposed to armed conflicts in low- and middle-income settings. Childhood mental health problems are difficult to address in situations of ongoing poverty and political instability. To assess the efficacy of a school-based intervention designed for conflict-exposed children, implemented in a low-income setting. A cluster randomized trial involving 495 children (81.4% inclusion rate) who were a mean (SD) age of 9.9 (1.3) years, were attending randomly selected schools in political violence-affected communities in Poso, Indonesia, and were screened for exposure (> or = 1 events), posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety symptoms compared with a wait-listed control group. Nonblinded assessment took place before, 1 week after, and 6 months after treatment between March and December 2006. Fifteen sessions, over 5 weeks, of a manualized, school-based group intervention, including trauma-processing activities, cooperative play, and creative-expressive elements, implemented by locally trained paraprofessionals. We assessed psychiatric symptoms using the Child Posttraumatic Stress Scale, Depression Self-Rating Scale, the Self-Report for Anxiety Related Disorders 5-item version, and the Children's Hope Scale, and assessed function impairment as treatment outcomes using standardized symptom checklists and locally developed rating scales. Correcting for clustering of participants within schools, we found significantly more improvement in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (mean change difference, 2.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 4.53) and maintained hope (mean change difference, -2.21; 95% CI, -3.52 to -0.91) in the treatment group than in the wait-listed group. Changes in traumatic idioms (stress-related physical symptoms) (mean change difference, 0.50; 95% CI, -0.12 to 1.11), depressive symptoms (mean change difference, 0.70; 95% CI, -0.08 to 1.49), anxiety (mean change difference
Glisson, Charles; Hemmelgarn, Anthony; Green, Philip; Dukes, Denzel; Atkinson, Shannon; Williams, Nathaniel J
Evidence-based Practice (EBP) implementation is likely to be most efficient and effective in organizations with positive social contexts (i.e., organizational culture, climate, and work attitudes of clinicians). The study objective was to test whether an organizational intervention labeled Availability, Responsiveness and Continuity (ARC) could improve the organizational social contexts of community-based mental health programs for youth. The study randomly assigned 26 community-based mental health programs for youth to ARC or control conditions. The organizational cultures, climates, and work attitudes of clinicians (n = 197) in the programs were assessed with the Organizational Social Context (OSC) measure for mental health services at baseline and following the 18-month ARC intervention. Hierarchical linear models (HLM) analyses indicated that organizational culture, climate, and work attitudes were significantly improved in the ARC condition after 18 months. Clinicians in programs assigned to ARC reported less rigid, less centralized and less apathetic organizational cultures, more engaged and functional organizational climates with less role conflict, and work attitudes with improved morale, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. ARC improved the organizational social contexts of clinicians in community-based mental health programs for youth. Results suggest that organizational intervention strategies can be used to create the types of organizational social contexts that are believed to be necessary for EBP implementation and other service innovations in mental health programs. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Palmer, Colin J; Connor, Charlotte; Newton, Benjamin John; Patterson, Paul; Birchwood, Max
This study explores the mental health needs of teachers and how these might impact on their capacity to provide early identification and intervention strategies to support their student's emotional well-being. The present study surveyed a sample of UK teachers (N = 320) to explore the impact of work-related stress on their mental health and their ability to provide early intervention support for their students. Our survey showed high levels of work-related stress due to time pressures and excessive workloads; many teachers failed to seek help for their stress often due to stigmatic attitudes and fear of negative response by senior management. Such factors led some to withdraw from taking on extra responsibilities with regard to student support and to consider leaving the teaching profession altogether. Coping mechanisms included the use of alcohol and tobacco, with only a small minority receiving access to psychological therapies. High levels of work-related stress in teachers can have serious consequences for their mental health and impede their ability to provide effective early intervention support for their student's emotional well-being. Improvements in mental health training for teachers and greater assistance for their own mental health needs are necessary. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Cramer, Kristine M.; Castro-Olivo, Sara
Student self-reports of resiliency and social-emotional internalizing problems were examined to determine intervention effects of a culturally adapted social and emotional learning (SEL) program. Data were analyzed from 20 culturally and linguistically diverse high school students who participated in a school-based 12-lesson SEL intervention and…
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Slobodin, Ortal; de Jong, Joop T V M
The prevalence of trauma-related problems among refugees and asylum seekers is extremely high due to adverse experiences associated with forced migration. Although the literature presents a considerable number of guidelines and theoretical frameworks for working with traumatized refugees and asylum seekers, the efficacy, feasibility and applicability of these interventions have little empirical evidence. The purpose of this article is to critically review the literature to provide a rationale for developing culturally sensitive, evidence-based interventions for refugees and asylum seekers. A literature review integrating research findings on interventions designed especially for traumatized asylum seekers and refugees was conducted. Retained studies had to use some quantitative measurements of post-traumatic stress and to have pre- and post-measurements to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention. Studies included in this review cover a wide variety of interventions, including trauma-focused interventions, group therapy, multidisciplinary interventions and pharmacological treatments. The majority of studies with traumatized refugees and asylum seekers reported positive outcomes of the intervention in reducing trauma-related symptoms. There is evidence to support the suitability of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and narrative exposure therapy (NET) in certain populations of refugees. Other intervention studies are limited by methodological considerations, such as lack of randomization, absence of control group and small samples. This review has again highlighted the shortage of guiding frameworks available to investigators and clinicians who are interested in tailoring interventions to work with refugees and asylum seekers. Theoretical, ethical and methodological considerations for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Okkels, Niels; Kristiansen, Christina Blanner; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl
areas include loneliness, violence, high crime rates, homelessness, noise and other pollutants, traffic accidents, drug abuse, and insufficiency of mental health services. Summary Urbanization is a global and growing phenomenon that pose significant challenges to mental health and mental health services....... Fast and unstructured urbanization, such as that seen in many developing countries, further exacerbates these challenges. There are promising initiatives emerging including initiatives to end homelessness, to improve access to green areas in urban environments, to provide emergency psychiatric services...
Musiat, Peter; Conrod, Patricia; Treasure, Janet; Tylee, Andre; Williams, Chris; Schmidt, Ulrike
A large proportion of university students show symptoms of common mental disorders, such as depression, anxiety, substance use disorders and eating disorders. Novel interventions are required that target underlying factors of multiple disorders. To evaluate the efficacy of a transdiagnostic trait-focused web-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of common mental disorders in university students. Students were recruited online (n=1047, age: M=21.8, SD=4.2) and categorised into being at high or low risk for mental disorders based on their personality traits. Participants were allocated to a cognitive-behavioural trait-focused (n=519) or a control intervention (n=528) using computerised simple randomisation. Both interventions were fully automated and delivered online (trial registration: ISRCTN14342225). Participants were blinded and outcomes were self-assessed at baseline, at 6 weeks and at 12 weeks after registration. Primary outcomes were current depression and anxiety, assessed on the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9) and Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD7). Secondary outcome measures focused on alcohol use, disordered eating, and other outcomes. Students at high risk were successfully identified using personality indicators and reported poorer mental health. A total of 520 students completed the 6-week follow-up and 401 students completed the 12-week follow-up. Attrition was high across intervention groups, but comparable to other web-based interventions. Mixed effects analyses revealed that at 12-week follow up the trait-focused intervention reduced depression scores by 3.58 (pstudents at high risk. In high-risk students, between group effect sizes were 0.58 (depression) and 0.42 (anxiety). In addition, self-esteem was improved. No changes were observed regarding the use of alcohol or disordered eating. This study suggests that a transdiagnostic web-based intervention for university students targeting underlying personality risk factors may be a
Smith, A P
The objective of the present investigation was to study the relationship between breakfast consumption and subjective reports of mental health and health-related behaviours in a general population sample (126 subjects aged between 20 and 79 years). Individuals who consumed a cereal breakfast each day were less depressed, less emotionally distressed and had lower levels of perceived stress than those who did not eat breakfast each day. Those who consumed breakfast had a healthier lifestyle than the others in that they were less likely to be smokers, drank less alcohol and had a healthier diet. However, the relationship between cereal breakfast consumption and mental health did not reflect these differences in the smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. In conclusion, there is an association between breakfast consumption and well-being which cannot entirely be accounted for by differences in other aspects of diet or smoking and alcohol consumption. Further intervention studies are now needed to establish whether causal relationships and mechanisms underlie the associations seen in this study.
Moll, Sandra E
There is a high rate of stress and mental illness among healthcare workers, yet many continue to work despite symptoms that affect their performance. Workers with mental health issues are typically ostracized and do not get the support that they need. If issues are not addressed, however, they could become worse and compromise the health and safety, not only of the worker, but his/her colleagues and patients. Early identification and support can improve work outcomes and facilitate recovery, but more information is needed about how to facilitate this process in the context of healthcare work. The purpose of this study was to explore the key individual and organizational forces that shape early intervention and support for healthcare workers who are struggling with mental health issues, and to identify barriers and opportunities for change. A qualitative, case study in a large, urban healthcare organization was conducted in order to explore the perceptions and experiences of employees across the organization. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight healthcare workers who had experienced mental health issues at work as well as eight workplace stakeholders who interacted with workers who were struggling (managers, coworkers, union leaders). An online survey was completed by an additional 67 employees. Analysis of the interviews and surveys was guided by a process of interpretive description to identify key barriers to early intervention and support. There were many reports of silence and inaction in response to employee mental health issues. Uncertainty in identifying mental health problems, stigma regarding mental ill health, a discourse of professional competence, social tensions, workload pressures, confidentiality expectations and lack of timely access to mental health supports were key forces in preventing employees from getting the help that they needed. Although there were a few exceptions, the overall study findings point to many barriers to supporting
Background There is a high rate of stress and mental illness among healthcare workers, yet many continue to work despite symptoms that affect their performance. Workers with mental health issues are typically ostracized and do not get the support that they need. If issues are not addressed, however, they could become worse and compromise the health and safety, not only of the worker, but his/her colleagues and patients. Early identification and support can improve work outcomes and facilitate recovery, but more information is needed about how to facilitate this process in the context of healthcare work. The purpose of this study was to explore the key individual and organizational forces that shape early intervention and support for healthcare workers who are struggling with mental health issues, and to identify barriers and opportunities for change. Methods A qualitative, case study in a large, urban healthcare organization was conducted in order to explore the perceptions and experiences of employees across the organization. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight healthcare workers who had experienced mental health issues at work as well as eight workplace stakeholders who interacted with workers who were struggling (managers, coworkers, union leaders). An online survey was completed by an additional 67 employees. Analysis of the interviews and surveys was guided by a process of interpretive description to identify key barriers to early intervention and support. Results There were many reports of silence and inaction in response to employee mental health issues. Uncertainty in identifying mental health problems, stigma regarding mental ill health, a discourse of professional competence, social tensions, workload pressures, confidentiality expectations and lack of timely access to mental health supports were key forces in preventing employees from getting the help that they needed. Although there were a few exceptions, the overall study findings point to
Conclusions: Guidance is a beneficial feature of Internet-based interventions, although its effect is smaller than reported before when compared to unguided interventions. The qualification of the e-coaches seems of minor importance. However, methodological limitations need to be considered when interpreting these findings. Overall, the number of studies was small and mainly limited to depression and social phobia restricting the generalizability of the findings.
Sijbrandij, Marit; Acarturk, Ceren; Bird, Martha; Bryant, Richard A; Burchert, Sebastian; Carswell, Kenneth; de Jong, Joop; Dinesen, Cecilie; Dawson, Katie S; El Chammay, Rabih; van Ittersum, Linde; Jordans, Mark; Knaevelsrud, Christine; McDaid, David; Miller, Kenneth; Morina, Naser; Park, A-La; Roberts, Bayard; van Son, Yvette; Sondorp, Egbert; Pfaltz, Monique C; Ruttenberg, Leontien; Schick, Matthis; Schnyder, Ulrich; van Ommeren, Mark; Ventevogel, Peter; Weissbecker, Inka; Weitz, Erica; Wiedemann, Nana; Whitney, Claire; Cuijpers, Pim
The crisis in Syria has resulted in vast numbers of refugees seeking asylum in Syria's neighbouring countries as well as in Europe. Refugees are at considerable risk of developing common mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most refugees do not have access to mental health services for these problems because of multiple barriers in national and refugee specific health systems, including limited availability of mental health professionals. To counter some of challenges arising from limited mental health system capacity the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a range of scalable psychological interventions aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving functioning in people living in communities affected by adversity. These interventions, including Problem Management Plus (PM+) and its variants, are intended to be delivered through individual or group face-to-face or smartphone formats by lay, non-professional people who have not received specialized mental health training, We provide an evidence-based rationale for the use of the scalable PM+ oriented programmes being adapted for Syrian refugees and provide information on the newly launched STRENGTHS programme for adapting, testing and scaling up of PM+ in various modalities in both neighbouring and European countries hosting Syrian refugees.
Sijbrandij, Marit; Acarturk, Ceren; Bird, Martha; Bryant, Richard A; Burchert, Sebastian; Carswell, Kenneth; de Jong, Joop; Dinesen, Cecilie; Dawson, Katie S.; El Chammay, Rabih; van Ittersum, Linde; Jordans, Mark; Knaevelsrud, Christine; McDaid, David; Miller, Kenneth; Morina, Naser; Park, A-La; Roberts, Bayard; van Son, Yvette; Sondorp, Egbert; Pfaltz, Monique C.; Ruttenberg, Leontien; Schick, Matthis; Schnyder, Ulrich; van Ommeren, Mark; Ventevogel, Peter; Weissbecker, Inka; Weitz, Erica; Wiedemann, Nana; Whitney, Claire; Cuijpers, Pim
ABSTRACT The crisis in Syria has resulted in vast numbers of refugees seeking asylum in Syria’s neighbouring countries as well as in Europe. Refugees are at considerable risk of developing common mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most refugees do not have access to mental health services for these problems because of multiple barriers in national and refugee specific health systems, including limited availability of mental health professionals. To counter some of challenges arising from limited mental health system capacity the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a range of scalable psychological interventions aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving functioning in people living in communities affected by adversity. These interventions, including Problem Management Plus (PM+) and its variants, are intended to be delivered through individual or group face-to-face or smartphone formats by lay, non-professional people who have not received specialized mental health training, We provide an evidence-based rationale for the use of the scalable PM+ oriented programmes being adapted for Syrian refugees and provide information on the newly launched STRENGTHS programme for adapting, testing and scaling up of PM+ in various modalities in both neighbouring and European countries hosting Syrian refugees. PMID:29163867
Ramaswamy, Rohit; Shidhaye, Rahul; Nanda, Sharmishtha
Globally, there is a large treatment gap for people with mental disorders, and this gap is especially extreme in Low and Middle Income Countries. This gap can be potentially bridged by integrating evidenced based mental health interventions into primary care, but there is little knowledge about how to do this well, especially in countries with weak health systems. Research into the best implementation approaches is a priority, but in order to do so, it is first necessary to adapt implementation science principles and tools for mental health services in low resource settings. The frameworks that have been used to implement evidence-based behavioral health and health care interventions in High Income Countries do not directly apply to contexts where resources and processes for service delivery and support do not exist. We propose an implementation approach for low resource settings, called design-focused implementation, emphasizing the design of delivery systems using systematic design methods as precursor to implementation in severely resource constrained environments. This approach draws from existing literature in design thinking, quality implementation, improvement science and evaluation and we describe its use in creating the processes, organizations and the enabling environment for integration of mental health service delivery into primary care in India. Design-focused implementation will be useful for guiding research and practice in closing the implementation gap for a wide variety of complex interventions in low resource settings.
Patel, Asmita; Keogh, Justin W L; Kolt, Gregory S; Schofield, Grant M
To examine the effect that physical activity delivered via two different versions of the Green Prescription (a primary care physical activity scripting program) had on depressive symptomatology and general mental health functioning over a 12-month period in non-depressed, low-active, community-dwelling older adults. Two hundred and twenty-five participants from the Healthy Steps study took part in the present study. Healthy Steps participants were randomized to receive either the standard time-based or a modified pedometer-based Green Prescription. Depression, mental health functioning and physical activity were measured at baseline, post-intervention (3 months post-baseline) and at the 9-month follow-up period. At post-intervention, a positive association was found between increases in leisure-time physical activity and total walking physical activity and a decrease in depressive symptomatology (within the non-depressed range of the GDS-15) and an increase in perceived mental health functioning, regardless of intervention allocation. These improvements were also evident at the follow-up period for participants in both intervention allocation groups. Our findings suggest that the standard time-based Green Prescription and a modified pedometer-based Green Prescription are both effective in maintaining and improving mental health in non-depressed, previously low-active older adults.
Sommers-Spijkerman, Maria Petronella Johanna; Pots, Wendy Theresia Maria; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are increasingly being delivered through the Internet. Whereas numerous meta-analyses have investigated the effectiveness of face-to-face MBIs in the context of mental health and well-being, thus far a quantitative synthesis of the effectiveness of online MBIs
Evaluation of the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) Intervention for Middle School Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder as Implemented by School Mental Health Providers
Langberg, Joshua M.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Becker, Stephen P.
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) intervention for middle school students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as implemented by school mental health (SMH) providers using a randomized trial design. Seventeen SMH providers from five school districts implemented the HOPS…
Schultz, Pamela N; Remick-Barlow, G Ann; Robbins, Leslie
Equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) is a specialized form of psychotherapy using the horse as a therapeutic tool. This modality is designed to address self-esteem and personal confidence, communication and interpersonal effectiveness, trust, boundaries and limit-setting, and group cohesion. Substantial numbers of children witness family violence. There is evidence that violence between parents has adverse effects on the children in the family. These children are at greater risk of behavioural problems and mental health disorders, including anxiety, anger, depression and suicidal ideations, withdrawal, low self-esteem, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The purpose of the present pilot study was to test the efficacy of EAP in a cross-sectional group of children referred to a psychotherapist for various childhood behavioural and mental health issues over an 18-month period (June 2003-January 2005). Sixty-three children received a mean number of 19 EAP sessions. Scores on the Children's Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale were determined pre- and post-treatment. The mean (+/- standard deviation, SD) pretreatment score was 54.1 (SD 3.2) and post treatment mean score was 61.7 +/- 5.0 (t = 9.06, d.f. = 96, P < 0.001). All children showed improvement in GAF scores, and there was a statistically significant correlation between the percentage improvement in the GAF scores and the number of sessions given (r = 0.73, P = 0.001). Univariate analysis showed that the greatest improvement in the GAF scores occurred in the youngest of the subjects. Children in the group who had a history of physical abuse and neglect had a statistically significant greater percentage improvement in GAF scores after treatment than those who did not have a history of abuse and neglect. This study has demonstrated a quick response to EAP, especially in younger children, but it remains to be determined what kind of long-term effects this type of intervention may provide.
Su, Puyu; Tao, Fangbiao; Sun, Ying; Hao, Jiahu
To evaluate the effect of intervention project of mental health promotion in paid blood donors with AIDS/HIV infected adults in Anhui countryside. About 41 HIV/AIDS infected adults were invited to take part in the intervention project. The project was put into practice by ways of multimedia course and group participation with the handbook of mental health promotion intervention for HIV/AIDS infected adults. All participants (41 intervention objects and 21 control objects) completed an anonymous questionnaire before and after the intervention. Depression, anxiety, self-esteem and coping style were evaluated by Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Self-Esteem Scale and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire. There were 35.5% of the 62 blood donors without taking any education. There were 46.7% of them need to partially or completely rely on government grants and loans. Before intervention the rates of depression and anxiety, the scores of positive coping, negative coping and self-esteem were not significantly different between study group and control group (P > 0.05). After intervention the rates of depression and anxiety in study group were lower than those in control group and with significant difference. The scores of positive coping and self-esteem in study group were higher than those in control group, but the score of negative coping was contrary to them (P self-esteem (P Age was the influence factor for the intervention on depression, negative coping. Level of education was the influence factor for the intervention on depression, anxiety and self-esteem intervention. Gender was the influence factor for the intervention on positive coping. All objects reported that they liked the intervention project of mental health promotion and liked the interactive form of education. Psychological intervention to improve the response capacity and mental health of paid blood donors with HIV/AIDS infected adults in countryside has a
Livingston, James D; Cianfrone, Michelle; Korf-Uzan, Kimberley; Coniglio, Connie
This study extends an evaluation of a brief, social media intervention, called In One Voice, for raising mental health awareness and improving attitudes of youth and young adults towards mental health issues. A successive independent samples design assessed market penetration and attitudinal changes among the young people who completed an online questionnaire 1 year after (T3: n = 438) the intervention. This is compared with two samples that completed a survey either immediately before (T1: n = 403) or 2 months after (T2: n = 403) the campaign launch. The proportion of respondents who remembered the campaign grew from 24.8 % at T2 to 48.6 % at T3. Elevated website activity on mindcheck.ca was sustained 1 year after In One Voice had ended. Small but significant reductions in personal stigma and social distance were detected from T1 and T3, which were not observed at T2. Respondents' self-rated ability to help others with mental health issues and to engage in positive behaviors relating to mental health issues (e.g., seeking information) did not improve significantly from T1 to T3. Improved attitudes towards mental health issues were observed among young people 1 year following a brief social media campaign. The campaign was less effective at providing the tools young people need to feel capable of helping someone who may be experiencing mental health issues, and motivating them to engage in constructive behaviors related to mental health.
Toran, Hasnah; Squires, Jane; Lawrence, Karen
The Infant Mental Health system in Malaysia is described, beginning with cultural and religious practices that influence mental health practices. Second, a description of the Malaysian mental health system, including historical influences, is given. Third, policy and services for young children with mental health problems are described. Finally, recommendations for future steps for developing an effective infant mental health system are presented, including the development of infant mental health policies by the government, increased personnel training, increased community mental health resources, integration of culture into the mental health system, and finally, development of appropriate screening and assessment instruments and systems. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
... Helping Children in Rural Areas Children's Mental Health Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Mental health in childhood means reaching developmental and emotional milestones, and learning healthy social skills and how to cope when ...
... for the individual. Covering issues including perinatal psychiatric disorders, depression, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and alcohol and drug abuse - from a female perspective - Women and Mental Health will prove a valuable tool for all those working in the fields of mental health. Dora Kohen is a Consultant Psychiatrist and an Honorary Senior...
Full Text Available Issues related to the mental health of women are a priority these days. Many international organisations working in the field of psychiatry are having sections on it now. This approach can go a long way in the improvement of the available mental health services for this population.
... and Family Members For Educators For Community and Faith Leaders Conversations in Your Community How To Get Help Get Immediate Help Help for Veterans and Their Families Health Insurance and Mental Health Services Participate in a ...
El trabajador con problemas de salud mental: Pautas generales de detección, intervención y prevención Workers with mental health problems: General guidelines for detection, intervention and prevention
José Carlos Mingote Adán
Full Text Available Numerosos estudios han demostrado las relaciones entre condiciones psicosociales del trabajo y la salud mental de los empleados, y especialmente cómo la combinación de bajo control percibido y altas demandas laborales predicen determinados problemas de salud mental. Trastornos mentales tales como los de ansiedad y depresión tienen un efecto muy negativo sobre la calidad de vida y la capacidad funcional en el trabajo. Además, la salud mental del trabajador puede afectar a la percepción de las características del trabajo. Como consecuencia, es fundamental diseñar trabajos saludables, programas de reducción de estrés para los empleados y para la reincorporación laboral de empleados con trastornos mentales. El objetivo del presente artículo es revisar las principales líneas de prevención, detección e intervención en las organizaciones, que pueden promover políticas saludables para la atención e integración de los trabajadores con trastorno mental.Numerous studies have demonstrated the relationship between psychosocial work conditions and the mental health of employees, and especially the combination of low perceived control and high labor demands predicts mental health problems. Mental health disorders such us anxiety or depression have a big detrimental effect on the individual's quality of life and the ability to function in the workplace. Mental health may also affect the perception of work characteristics. As a consequence, it is essential to design healthy jobs, stress reduction programs and return to work programs for employees with mental disorders. The aim of this paper is to review the main lines of prevention, detection and intervention in organizations that can promote healthy policies for the care and integration of workers with mental disorder.
Mirick, Rebecca; McCauley, James; Bridger, Joanna; Berkowitz, Larry
This study examined the impact of a 1-day continuing education training for mental health professionals on knowledge and confidence around suicide assessment and intervention. Data on knowledge, confidence and the utility of information were collected through pretests and posttests at 12 trainings at local community agencies. Findings indicate that a continuing education workshop can increase knowledge and self-confidence. Several participant characteristics were associated with knowledge and confidence at pretest; only being trained as a mental health professional and previous training remained significant at posttest. Participants identified training components which were new and useful. Implications for training and education are discussed.
Jones, Hannah F; Adams, Clive E; Clifton, Andrew; Simpson, Jayne; Tosh, Graeme; Liddle, Peter F; Callaghan, Patrick; Yang, Min; Guo, Boliang; Furtado, Vivek
Background: Oral health is an important part of general physical health and is essential for self-esteem, self-confidence\\ud and overall quality of life. There is a well-established link between mental illness and poor oral health. Oral health\\ud problems are not generally well recognized by mental health professionals and many patients experience barriers\\ud to treatment.\\ud Methods/Design: This is the protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomised trial that has been designed to fit within\\ud ...
Cheng, Jui-Fen; Huang, Xuan-Yi; Lin, Mei-Jue; Wang, Ya-Hui; Yeh, Tzu-Pei
To investigate a community-based and hospital-based home visit partnership intervention in improving caregivers' satisfaction with home service and reducing caregiver burden. The community-oriented mental healthcare model prevails internationally. After patients return to the community, family caregivers are the patients' main support system and they also take the most of the burden of caring for patients. It is important to assist these caregivers by building good community healthcare models. A longitudinal quasi-experimental quantitative design. The experimental group (n = 109) involved "partnership" intervention, and the control group (n = 101) maintained routine home visits. The results were measured before the intervention, 6 and 12 months after the partnership intervention. Six months after the partnership intervention, the satisfaction of the experimental group was higher than the control group for several aspects of care. Although the care burden was reduced in the experimental group, there was no significant difference between the two groups. This study confirms that the partnership intervention can significantly improve caregiver satisfaction with home services, without reducing the care burden. The community-based and hospital-based mental health home visit service partnership programme could improve the main caregiver's satisfaction with the mental health home visit services, while the reduction in care burden may need government policies for the provision of more individual and comprehensive assistance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Valdinei Santos de Aguiar Júnior
Full Text Available Objetivo: Relatar a experiência da higiene pessoal enquanto aspecto da intervenção clínica de um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial (CAPSi situado no Município do Rio de Janeiro. Método: Se trata de um estudo descritivo de relato de experiência que constou de: Primeiro Momento: Foi criada uma oficina com os responsáveis, composta por psicólogos, equipes de enfermagem, farmacêuticos, médicos e equipe de odontologia (os dois últimos como convidados da Unidade Básica. Segundo momento: Identificamos problemas/limitações e a necessidade de criarmos estratégias que sustentasse a participação dos responsáveis às oficinas. Resultados: Evidenciou-se uma baixa adesão dos pais, levando-nos a repensar outras ações mais efetivas. Conclusão: Esperamos que este estudo possa trazer importantes reflexões acerca de estratégias que devemos construir na assistência em saúde mental na atenção básica e contribuir para a prática e crescimento dos trabalhadores e das equipes dos centros de atenção psicossocial infanto-juvenil.
Laurent, Heidemarie K; Gilliam, Kathryn S; Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A
Research on stress-sensitive biological systems has typically focused on activation at one time, yet recent theories emphasize dynamic, context-specific adaptation. This study tested hypothesized calibration of one such system by examining both mean levels and longitudinal stability of daily cortisol--reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation--in children exposed to high-risk versus lower-risk caregiving contexts. Context-specific effects of longitudinal cortisol profiles were addressed via relations with child psychiatric symptoms. Children from regular foster care, foster children participating in a family-based intervention, and community comparison children (n = 96 total) collected saliva samples for cortisol assay at 29 timepoints across 6+ years. High-risk (regular foster care) children showed lower and more variable cortisol levels than their lower-risk (treatment foster care, community comparison) counterparts. For the high-risk children only, higher and more stable cortisol related to elevated anxiety symptoms. Implications for contextual calibration of stress systems and family intervention mechanisms are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wendy T M Pots
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although there has been growing evidence for the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT for different clinical populations, its effectiveness as a public mental health intervention has not been studied. The present study evaluates a community-based MBCT intervention for adults with mild to moderate depressive symptomatology in a large multi-site, pragmatic randomized controlled trial. METHOD: The participants with mild to moderate depressive symptomatology were recruited from the general population and randomized to the MBCT intervention (n = 76 or to a waiting list control group (n = 75. Participants completed measures before and after the intervention. Participants in the experimental condition also completed these measures at a 3-month follow-up. RESULTS: In the experimental condition significant reductions in depression, anxiety, and experiential avoidance, and improvements in mindfulness and emotional- and psychological mental health were found, compared to the waiting list (effect sizes Cohen's d = 0.31-0.56. These effects were sustained at the 3-month follow-up. The likelihood of a clinically significant change in depressive symptoms was significantly higher for the MBCT group [odds ratio (OR 3.026, p<0.01 at post-treatment; NNT = 5.10]. DISCUSSION: MBCT as a public mental health intervention for adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms seems effective and applicable in a natural setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Nederlands Trial Register NTR2096.
Pots, Wendy T M; Meulenbeek, Peter A M; Veehof, Martine M; Klungers, Jorinde; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T
Although there has been growing evidence for the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for different clinical populations, its effectiveness as a public mental health intervention has not been studied. The present study evaluates a community-based MBCT intervention for adults with mild to moderate depressive symptomatology in a large multi-site, pragmatic randomized controlled trial. The participants with mild to moderate depressive symptomatology were recruited from the general population and randomized to the MBCT intervention (n = 76) or to a waiting list control group (n = 75). Participants completed measures before and after the intervention. Participants in the experimental condition also completed these measures at a 3-month follow-up. In the experimental condition significant reductions in depression, anxiety, and experiential avoidance, and improvements in mindfulness and emotional- and psychological mental health were found, compared to the waiting list (effect sizes Cohen's d = 0.31-0.56). These effects were sustained at the 3-month follow-up. The likelihood of a clinically significant change in depressive symptoms was significantly higher for the MBCT group [odds ratio (OR) 3.026, p<0.01 at post-treatment; NNT = 5.10]. MBCT as a public mental health intervention for adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms seems effective and applicable in a natural setting. Nederlands Trial Register NTR2096.
Hughes, Edward G; da Silva, Alicia Mann
BACKGROUND Subfertility is a common but hidden source of anxiety, depressive symptoms and hopelessness. Counselling reduces this emotional burden and may even enhance the likelihood of pregnancy. Art therapy may be a useful intervention, because it facilitates the expression of feelings, both visually and verbally, and may ease emotional distress. METHODS Weekly 2-h art therapy group courses were held for a total of 21 subfertile women. The impact of subfertile women's support systems and barriers to coping were all explored. The effectiveness of art therapy was assessed using Beck Hopelessness, Depression and Anxiety Inventories, administered before and after participation, as well as a qualitative exit questionnaire. RESULTS The mean age of participants was 35.7 (SD 2.1) years and duration of infertility was 64 (12.0) months. Mean Beck Hopelessness Scale fell from 6.1 (3.8) to 3.5 (3.1, P = 0.01) after therapy. Beck Depression Inventory-II Score fell from 19.8 (11.0) to 12.5 (10.2, P = 0.01) and Beck Anxiety Inventory Score changed from 12.4 (8.4) to 8.4 (5.2, P = 0.3). Based on the exit questionnaire, women felt the course was insightful, powerful and enjoyable. CONCLUSIONS Art therapy is an inexpensive, non-pharmacological intervention, which was associated with decreased levels of hopelessness and depressed mood in subfertile women. It also provides insight into the meaning and emotional implications of subfertility for patients and caregivers. This pilot study highlights the need for further research in this field.
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Public Health Agency
This leaflet outlines the signs of poor mental health and suggests steps that people can take to promote good mental health. It advises people to talk to someone if they feel that they may have a mental health problem.
Hollis, Chris; Falconer, Caroline J; Martin, Jennifer L; Whittington, Craig; Stockton, Sarah; Glazebrook, Cris; Davies, E Bethan
Digital health interventions (DHIs), including computer-assisted therapy, smartphone apps and wearable technologies, are heralded as having enormous potential to improve uptake and accessibility, efficiency, clinical effectiveness and personalisation of mental health interventions. It is generally assumed that DHIs will be preferred by children and young people (CYP) given their ubiquitous digital activity. However, it remains uncertain whether: DHIs for CYP are clinically and cost-effective, CYP prefer DHIs to traditional services, DHIs widen access and how they should be evaluated and adopted by mental health services. This review evaluates the evidence-base for DHIs and considers the key research questions and approaches to evaluation and implementation. We conducted a meta-review of scoping, narrative, systematic or meta-analytical reviews investigating the effectiveness of DHIs for mental health problems in CYP. We also updated a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of DHIs for CYP published in the last 3 years. Twenty-one reviews were included in the meta-review. The findings provide some support for the clinical benefit of DHIs, particularly computerised cognitive behavioural therapy (cCBT), for depression and anxiety in adolescents and young adults. The systematic review identified 30 new RCTs evaluating DHIs for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, anxiety, depression, psychosis, eating disorders and PTSD. The benefits of DHIs in managing ADHD, autism, psychosis and eating disorders are uncertain, and evidence is lacking regarding the cost-effectiveness of DHIs. Key methodological limitations make it difficult to draw definitive conclusions from existing clinical trials of DHIs. Issues include variable uptake and engagement with DHIs, lack of an agreed typology/taxonomy for DHIs, small sample sizes, lack of blinded outcome assessment, combining different comparators, short-term follow-up and poor specification of
Kutcher, S.; Gilberds, H.; Morgan, C.; Greene, R.; Hamwaka, K.; Perkins, K.
Background. Mental health literacy is foundational for mental health promotion, prevention, stigma reduction and care. Integrated school mental health literacy interventions may offer an effective and sustainable approach to enhancing mental health literacy for educators and students globally. Methods. Through a Grand Challenges Canada funded initiative called ?An Integrated Approach to Addressing the Issue of Youth Depression in Malawi and Tanzania?, we culturally adapted a previously demons...
Imogen C Rehm
Full Text Available In the burgeoning field of e-mental health interventions, avatars are increasingly being utilized to facilitate online communication between clients and therapists, and amongst peers. Avatars are digital self-representations which enable individuals to interact with each other in computer-based virtual environments. In this narrative review, we examine the psychotherapeutic applications of avatars that have been investigated and trialed to date. Five key applications were identified: (1 in the formation of online peer support communities; (2 replicating traditional modes of psychotherapy by using avatars as a vehicle to communicate within a wholly virtual environment; (3 using avatar technology to facilitate or augment face-to-face treatment; (4 as part of serious games, and (5 communication with an autonomous virtual therapist. Across these applications, avatars appeared to serve several functions conducive to treatment engagement: (1 facilitating the development of a virtual therapeutic alliance; (2 reducing communication barriers; (3 promoting treatment-seeking through anonymity; (4 promoting expression and exploration of client identity, and (5 enabling therapists to control and manipulate treatment stimuli. Further research into the feasibility and ethical implementation of avatar-based psychotherapies is required.
Rehm, Imogen C; Foenander, Emily; Wallace, Klaire; Abbott, Jo-Anne M; Kyrios, Michael; Thomas, Neil
In the burgeoning field of e-mental health interventions, avatars are increasingly being utilized to facilitate online communication between clients and therapists, and among peers. Avatars are digital self-representations, which enable individuals to interact with each other in computer-based virtual environments. In this narrative review, we examine the psychotherapeutic applications of avatars that have been investigated and trialed to date. Five key applications were identified (1) in the formation of online peer support communities; (2) replicating traditional modes of psychotherapy by using avatars as a vehicle to communicate within a wholly virtual environment; (3) using avatar technology to facilitate or augment face-to-face treatment; (4) as part of serious games; and (5) communication with an autonomous virtual therapist. Across these applications, avatars appeared to serve several functions conducive to treatment engagement by (1) facilitating the development of a virtual therapeutic alliance; (2) reducing communication barriers; (3) promoting treatment-seeking through anonymity; (4) promoting expression and exploration of client identity; and (5) enabling therapists to control and manipulate treatment stimuli. Further research into the feasibility and ethical implementation of avatar-based psychotherapies is required.
McEvedy, Samantha; Maguire, Tessa; Furness, Trentham; McKenna, Brian
Sensory modulation (SM) and trauma-informed-care (TIC) are therapeutic strategies which can help avoid incidents of aggression and thus reduce the use of restrictive interventions in mental health settings. In order to educate mental health nurses and allied health professionals in these strategies, a train-the-trainer intervention was developed and delivered to 19 area mental health services as a statewide, government funded program. This descriptive qualitative study evaluated the effectiveness of the intervention to: a) transfer knowledge; and, b) translate knowledge into practice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with senior staff (n = 21); focus group discussions with trainees (n = 10); and, a paired in-depth interview with master trainers (n = 2). In total, 170 trainees attended two day train-the-trainer sessions. Many trainees were not in education roles. Most services facilitated further knowledge transfer to end-user clinicians, though training materials were often adapted. End-users' responses to SM/TIC training were generally positive to the training, but some were resistant to the change in practice. Limited anecdotal evidence of translation of SM/TIC into practice was provided. Ongoing support is required to maintain a focus on SM and TIC, sustain and encourage further knowledge transfer and translation, and assess the impact on consumer and staff health outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Nizamie, S Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N A
Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health.
Orlowski, Simone Kate; Lawn, Sharon; Venning, Anthony; Winsall, Megan; Jones, Gabrielle M; Wyld, Kaisha; Damarell, Raechel A; Antezana, Gaston; Schrader, Geoffrey; Smith, David; Collin, Philippa; Bidargaddi, Niranjan
Despite the potential of technology-based mental health interventions for young people, limited uptake and/or adherence is a significant challenge. It is thought that involving young people in the development and delivery of services designed for them leads to better engagement. Further research is required to understand the role of participatory approaches in design of technology-based mental health and well-being interventions for youth. To investigate consumer involvement processes and associated outcomes from studies using participatory methods in development of technology-based mental health and well-being interventions for youth. Fifteen electronic databases, using both resource-specific subject headings and text words, were searched describing 2 broad concepts-participatory research and mental health/illness. Grey literature was accessed via Google Advanced search, and relevant conference Web sites and reference lists were also searched. A first screening of titles/abstracts eliminated irrelevant citations and documents. The remaining citations were screened by a second reviewer. Full text articles were double screened. All projects employing participatory research processes in development and/or design of (ICT/digital) technology-based youth mental health and well-being interventions were included. No date restrictions were applied; English language only. Data on consumer involvement, research and design process, and outcomes were extracted via framework analysis. A total of 6210 studies were reviewed, 38 full articles retrieved, and 17 included in this study. It was found that consumer participation was predominantly consultative and consumerist in nature and involved design specification and intervention development, and usability/pilot testing. Sustainable participation was difficult to achieve. Projects reported clear dichotomies around designer/researcher and consumer assumptions of effective and acceptable interventions. It was not possible to
Lawn, Sharon; Venning, Anthony; Winsall, Megan; Jones, Gabrielle M; Wyld, Kaisha; Damarell, Raechel A; Antezana, Gaston; Schrader, Geoffrey; Smith, David; Collin, Philippa; Bidargaddi, Niranjan
Background Despite the potential of technology-based mental health interventions for young people, limited uptake and/or adherence is a significant challenge. It is thought that involving young people in the development and delivery of services designed for them leads to better engagement. Further research is required to understand the role of participatory approaches in design of technology-based mental health and well-being interventions for youth. Objective To investigate consumer involvement processes and associated outcomes from studies using participatory methods in development of technology-based mental health and well-being interventions for youth. Methods Fifteen electronic databases, using both resource-specific subject headings and text words, were searched describing 2 broad concepts-participatory research and mental health/illness. Grey literature was accessed via Google Advanced search, and relevant conference Web sites and reference lists were also searched. A first screening of titles/abstracts eliminated irrelevant citations and documents. The remaining citations were screened by a second reviewer. Full text articles were double screened. All projects employing participatory research processes in development and/or design of (ICT/digital) technology-based youth mental health and well-being interventions were included. No date restrictions were applied; English language only. Data on consumer involvement, research and design process, and outcomes were extracted via framework analysis. Results A total of 6210 studies were reviewed, 38 full articles retrieved, and 17 included in this study. It was found that consumer participation was predominantly consultative and consumerist in nature and involved design specification and intervention development, and usability/pilot testing. Sustainable participation was difficult to achieve. Projects reported clear dichotomies around designer/researcher and consumer assumptions of effective and acceptable
Bonelli, Raphael Maria
Since 1978, two systematic evidence-based reviews of the available data on religiosity and mental health in the field of psychiatry have been done. More than 70 % found a relationship between level of religious/spiritual involvement and less mental disorder (positive), some found mixed results (positive and negative), and only about 5 % reported more mental disorder (negative), as was originally suggested by Sigmund Freud. There is good evidence that religious involvement is correlated with better mental health in the areas of depression, substance abuse, and suicide; some evidence in stress-related disorders and dementia; insufficient evidence in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and no data in many other mental disorders. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Elsborg, Peter; Andersen, Vinnie; Stelter, Reinhard
Women undergoing menopause experience a decline in a number of health aspects such as stress, anxiety and depression. These health declines can be countered with physical activity engagement. However interventions targeting increasing physical activity for women undergoing menopause are ineffective...... and participants experience relapse. The aim of this study was to investigate a group coaching interventions effects, as a standalone intervention and as an add-on to a physical activity intervention, on exercise maintenance, stress, anxiety and depression. Stress and recovery questionnaire, hospital anxiety...... the course of 3 months can help facilitate maintenance of a number of stress factors (Emotional Stress, Social Stress, Conflict Pressure, Lack of Energy, Success and Sleep Quality) and anxiety benefits obtained through participation in a physical activity intervention. The GC intervention also affected...
Musiat, Peter; Goldstone, Philip; Tarrier, Nicholas
Background E-mental health and m-mental health include the use of technology in the prevention, treatment and aftercare of mental health problems. With the economical pressure on mental health services increasing, e-mental health and m-mental health could bridge treatment gaps, reduce waiting times for patients and deliver interventions at lower costs. However, despite the existence of numerous effective interventions, the transition of computerised interventions into care is slow. The aim of...
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Winters, Ken C.; Schmeidler, James; Ungaro, Rocio Aracelis; Karas, Lora; Belenko, Steven; Gulledge, Laura
The relationship between substance use, mental health disorders, and delinquency among youth is well documented. What has received far less attention from researchers is the relationship between these issues among truant youth, in spite of studies that document truants are a population at risk for negative outcomes. This study bridges this gap by…
Lennox, Charlotte; Kirkpatrick, Tim; Taylor, Rod S; Todd, Roxanne; Greenwood, Clare; Haddad, Mark; Stevenson, Caroline; Stewart, Amy; Shenton, Deborah; Carroll, Lauren; Brand, Sarah L; Quinn, Cath; Anderson, Rob; Maguire, Mike; Harris, Tirril; Shaw, Jennifer; Byng, Richard
Rates of common mental health problems are much higher in prison populations, but access to primary care mental health support falls short of community equivalence. Discontinuity of care on release is the norm and is further complicated by substance use and a range of social problems, e.g. homelessness. To address these problems, we worked with criminal justice, third sector social inclusion services, health services and people with lived experiences (peer researchers), to develop a complex collaborative care intervention aimed at supporting men with common mental health problems near to and following release from prison. This paper describes an external pilot trial to test the feasibility of a full randomised controlled trial. Eligible individuals with 4 to 16 weeks left to serve were screened to assess for common mental health problems. Participants were then randomised at a ratio of 2:1 allocation to ENGAGER plus standard care (intervention) or standard care alone (treatment as usual). Participants were followed up at 1 and 3 months' post release. Success criteria for this pilot trial were to meet the recruitment target sample size of 60 participants, to follow up at least 50% of participants at 3 months' post release from prison, and to deliver the ENGAGER intervention. Estimates of recruitment and retention rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. Descriptive analyses included summaries (percentages or means) for participant demographics, and baseline characteristics are reported. Recruitment target was met with 60 participants randomised in 9 months. The average retention rates were 73% at 1 month [95% CI 61 to 83] and 47% at 3 months follow-up [95% CI 35 to 59]. Ninety percent of participants allocated to the intervention successfully engaged with a practitioner before release and 70% engaged following release. This pilot confirms the feasibility of conducting a randomised trial for prison leavers with common mental health problems. Based
We want to learn from university students about your experiences and perspectives on mental health and well-being in the context of being a student. Your input can help us develop evidence-based intervention programs that can help address the mental health needs of students. This survey should take 15-20 minutes to complete.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large proportion of university students show symptoms of common mental disorders, such as depression, anxiety, substance use disorders and eating disorders. Novel interventions are required that target underlying factors of multiple disorders. AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy of a transdiagnostic trait-focused web-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of common mental disorders in university students. METHOD: Students were recruited online (n=1047, age: M=21.8, SD=4.2 and categorised into being at high or low risk for mental disorders based on their personality traits. Participants were allocated to a cognitive-behavioural trait-focused (n=519 or a control intervention (n=528 using computerised simple randomisation. Both interventions were fully automated and delivered online (trial registration: ISRCTN14342225. Participants were blinded and outcomes were self-assessed at baseline, at 6 weeks and at 12 weeks after registration. Primary outcomes were current depression and anxiety, assessed on the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9 and Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD7. Secondary outcome measures focused on alcohol use, disordered eating, and other outcomes. RESULTS: Students at high risk were successfully identified using personality indicators and reported poorer mental health. A total of 520 students completed the 6-week follow-up and 401 students completed the 12-week follow-up. Attrition was high across intervention groups, but comparable to other web-based interventions. Mixed effects analyses revealed that at 12-week follow up the trait-focused intervention reduced depression scores by 3.58 (p<.001, 95%CI [5.19, 1.98] and anxiety scores by 2.87 (p=.018, 95%CI [1.31, 4.43] in students at high risk. In high-risk students, between group effect sizes were 0.58 (depression and 0.42 (anxiety. In addition, self-esteem was improved. No changes were observed regarding the use of alcohol or disordered eating. CONCLUSIONS
Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Joiner, Thomas E
Help-seeking stigma is a potent barrier to the utilization of mental health services. This study aimed to determine if, compared to a psychoeducation condition, individuals randomized to a novel cognitive bias modification intervention for help-seeking stigma (CBM-HS) demonstrate greater reductions in help-seeking stigma, as well as increases in readiness to change and help-seeking behaviors. Participants included 32 undergraduates with a DSM-5 psychiatric disorder who denied past-year mental health treatment. Post-randomization, three intervention sessions were delivered in one-week intervals (45 min total). Participants were assessed at baseline, mid-intervention, one-week post-intervention, and two-month follow-up. RM-ANOVAs were utilized among the intent-to-treat sample. There were no significant differences across time points between the intervention groups for help-seeking stigma and readiness to change. At two-month follow-up, 25% of participants initiated mental health treatment (29.4% CBM-HS, 20.0% psychoeducation). Strikingly, across groups, there was a statistically significant reduction in help-seeking self-stigma (F[2.214,66.418] = 5.057, p = 0.007, η p 2 = 0.144) and perceived public stigma (F[3,90] = 6.614, p undergraduates with untreated psychiatric disorders. Studies are needed to evaluate these interventions against an inactive control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Copenhagen infant mental health project: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing circle of security –parenting and care as usual as interventions targeting infant mental health risks
Mette Skovgaard Væver
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems and psychopathologies. In disadvantaged populations insecure and disorganized attachment are common, which points to the need of identifying early risk and effective methods of addressing such problems. This protocol describes an experimental evaluation of an indicated group-based parental educational program, Circle of Security–Parenting (COS-P, currently being conducted in Denmark. Methods/design In a parallel randomized controlled trial of two intervention groups this study tests the efficacy of COS-P compared to Care as Usual (CAU in enhancing maternal sensitivity and child attachment in a community sample in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314, who agree to participate, will be randomly allocated with a ratio of 2:1 into the COS-P intervention arm and into CAU. Data will be obtained at inclusion (baseline and at follow-up when the child is 12–16 months. The primary outcome is maternal sensitivity. Secondary outcomes include quality of infant attachment, language, cognitive and socioemotional development, family functioning, parental stress, parental mentalizing and maternal mental wellbeing
Lindert, Jutta; Bilsen, Johan; Jakubauskiene, Marija
Public mental health (PMH) is a major challenge for public health research and practice. This article is organized in six parts. First, we will highlight the significance of PMH; second, we will define mental health and mental disorders; third, we identify and describe determinants of mental health and mental disorders on which we worked in the past 10 years since the establishment of the PMH section such as social determinants and violence. Fourth, we will describe the development of the EUPHA PMH section and provide details on vulnerable groups in the field of PMH, on violence as a main determinant and on suicide as an outcome which affects all countries in the European region. Fifth, we describe policy and practice implications of the development of PMH and highlight the European dimension of PMH. We will conclude this article by providing an outlook on potential further development of PMH as regards research and policy and practice. Finally, we hope that the EUPHA PMH section will contribute to public health in the next 25 years and we can contribute to improvement of PMH in Europe. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies suggest that the number of risk factors rather than their nature is key to mental health disorders in childhood. Method and design The objective of this multicentre randomized controlled parallel trial (PROBE methodology is to assess the impact in a multi-risk French urban sample of a home-visiting program targeting child mental health and its major determinants. This paper describes the protocol of this study. In the study, pregnant women were eligible if they were: living in the intervention area; able to speak French, less than 26 years old; having their first child; less than 27 weeks of amenorrhea; and if at least one of the following criteria were true: less than twelve years of education, intending to bring up their child without the presence of the child’s father, and 3 low income. Participants were randomized into either the intervention or the control group. All had access to usual care in mother-child centres and community mental health services free of charge in every neighbourhood. Psychologists conducted all home visits, which were planned on a weekly basis from the 7th month of pregnancy and progressively decreasing in frequency until the child’s second birthday. Principle outcome measures included child mental health at 24 months and two major mediating variables for infant mental health: postnatal maternal depression and the quality of the caring environment. A total of 440 families were recruited, of which a subsample of 120 families received specific attachment and caregiver behaviour assessment. Assessment was conducted by an independent assessment team during home visits and, for the attachment study, in a specifically created Attachment Assessment laboratory. Discussion The CAPEDP study is the first large-scale randomised, controlled infant mental health promotion programme to take place in France. A major specificity of the program was that all home visits were conducted by
Tubach, Florence; Greacen, Tim; Saïas, Thomas; Dugravier, Romain; Guedeney, Nicole; Ravaud, Philippe; Tereno, Susana; Tremblay, Richard; Falissard, Bruno; Guedeney, Antoine
Several studies suggest that the number of risk factors rather than their nature is key to mental health disorders in childhood. The objective of this multicentre randomized controlled parallel trial (PROBE methodology) is to assess the impact in a multi-risk French urban sample of a home-visiting program targeting child mental health and its major determinants. This paper describes the protocol of this study. In the study, pregnant women were eligible if they were: living in the intervention area; able to speak French, less than 26 years old; having their first child; less than 27 weeks of amenorrhea; and if at least one of the following criteria were true: less than twelve years of education, intending to bring up their child without the presence of the child's father, and 3) low income. Participants were randomized into either the intervention or the control group. All had access to usual care in mother-child centres and community mental health services free of charge in every neighbourhood. Psychologists conducted all home visits, which were planned on a weekly basis from the 7th month of pregnancy and progressively decreasing in frequency until the child's second birthday. Principle outcome measures included child mental health at 24 months and two major mediating variables for infant mental health: postnatal maternal depression and the quality of the caring environment. A total of 440 families were recruited, of which a subsample of 120 families received specific attachment and caregiver behaviour assessment. Assessment was conducted by an independent assessment team during home visits and, for the attachment study, in a specifically created Attachment Assessment laboratory. The CAPEDP study is the first large-scale randomised, controlled infant mental health promotion programme to take place in France. A major specificity of the program was that all home visits were conducted by specifically trained, supervised psychologists rather than nurses
Langberg, Joshua M; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Molitor, Stephen J; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D; Smith, Zoe R; Oddo, Lauren E; Eadeh, Hana-May
To evaluate the effectiveness of 2 brief school-based interventions targeting the homework problems of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) intervention and the Completing Homework by Improving Efficiency and Focus (CHIEF) intervention, as implemented by school mental health providers during the school day. A secondary goal was to use moderator analyses to identify student characteristics that may differentially predict intervention response. Two-hundred and eighty middle school students with ADHD were randomized to the HOPS or CHIEF interventions or to waitlist, and parent and teacher ratings were collected pre, post, and at a 6-month follow-up. Both interventions were implemented with fidelity by school mental health providers. Participants were pulled from elective periods and sessions averaged less than 20 min. Participants in HOPS and CHIEF demonstrated significantly greater improvements in comparison with waitlist on parent ratings of homework problems and organizational skills and effect sizes were large. HOPS participants also demonstrated moderate effect size improvements on materials management and organized action behaviors according to teachers. HOPS participants made significantly greater improvements in parent- and teacher-rated use of organized actions in comparison with CHIEF, but not on measures of homework problems. Moderation analyses revealed that participants with more severe psychopathology and behavioral dysregulation did significantly better with the HOPS intervention as compared to the CHIEF intervention. Brief school-based interventions implemented by school providers can be effective. This type of service delivery model may facilitate overcoming the oft cited research-to-practice gap. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Treatment innovation in mental health is a major public-health priority. A specific sub-challenge underlying the development of new treatments is the use of digital technologies to support mental health interventions. In addition to the potential benefits of increased access to care and reduced
Noben, Cindy; Smit, Filip; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Ketelaar, Sarah; Gärtner, Fania; Boon, Brigitte; Sluiter, Judith; Evers, Silvia
The specific job demands of working in a hospital may place nurses at elevated risk for developing distress, anxiety and depression. Screening followed by referral to early interventions may reduce the incidence of these health problems and promote work functioning. To evaluate the comparative cost-effectiveness of two strategies to promote work functioning among nurses by reducing symptoms of mental health complaints. Three conditions were compared: the control condition consisted of online screening for mental health problems without feedback about the screening results. The occupational physician condition consisted of screening, feedback and referral to the occupational physician for screen-positive nurses. The third condition included screening, feedback, and referral to e-mental health. The study was designed as an economic evaluation alongside a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial with randomisation at hospital-ward level. The study included 617 nurses in one academic medical centre in the Netherlands. Treatment response was defined as an improvement on the Nurses Work Functioning Questionnaire of at least 40% between baseline and follow-up. Total per-participant costs encompassed intervention costs, direct medical and non-medical costs, and indirect costs stemming from lost productivity due to absenteeism and presenteeism. All costs were indexed for the year 2011. At 6 months follow-up, significant improvement in work functioning occurred in 20%, 24% and 16% of the participating nurses in the control condition, the occupational physician condition and the e-mental health condition, respectively. In these conditions the total average annualised costs were €1752, €1266 and €1375 per nurse. The median incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the occupational physician condition versus the control condition was dominant, suggesting cost savings of €5049 per treatment responder. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the e-mental health
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others
This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…
Barriers to the sustainability of an intervention designed to improve patient engagement within NHS mental health rehabilitation units: a qualitative study nested within a randomised controlled trial.
Lean, Melanie; Leavey, Gerard; Killaspy, Helen; Green, Nicholas; Harrison, Isobel; Cook, Sarah; Craig, Thomas; Holloway, Frank; Arbuthnott, Maurice; King, Michael
We undertook a cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a staff training intervention to improve patient engagement in activities in inpatient mental health rehabilitation units. Concurrently, we undertook a qualitative study to investigate the experiences of staff within the intervention units and the contextual issues that may have influenced the effectiveness of the intervention. We conducted focus groups with staff working in the inpatient units that received the intervention, sampled using a maximum variation strategy. The intervention was accepted by staff. However, the skills gained, and changes to the unit's processes and structures that were agreed with the intervention team were not sustained after they left. The main reasons for this were a) external factors (economic recession, resource limitations); b) organisation level factors (lack of senior staff support; competing priorities); c) limitations of the intervention itself (length of intensive training period; reinforcement of skills). This study illustrates some of the inter-related factors which operate at different levels within and outside of NHS organisations that may impact on the success of complex interventions. These factors need to be considered when designing interventions to ensure adequate buy-in from senior staff. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN25898179 (Registered 23 April 2010).
Song, Insu; Yellowlees, Peter; Diederich, Joachim
This book introduces approaches that have the potential to transform the daily practice of psychiatrists and psychologists. This includes the asynchronous communication between mental health care providers and clients as well as the automation of assessment and therapy. Speech and language are particularly interesting from the viewpoint of psychological assessment. For instance, depression may change the characteristics of voice in individuals and these changes can be detected by a special form of speech analysis. Computational screening methods that utilise speech and language can detect subtle changes and alert clinicians as well as individuals and caregivers. The use of online technologies in mental health, however, poses ethical problems that will occupy concerned individuals, governments and the wider public for some time. Assuming that these ethical problems can be solved, it should be possible to diagnose and treat mental health disorders online (excluding the use of medication).
hospitalized, but to get inside the contemporary psychiatric institution and to participate in the social world of patients and professionals, I had to experiment with different ethnographic approaches. Ethnographies of mental health have become increasingly rare, and much research on language in psychiatric......In 2010, I began a PhD study to examine how professionals and patients talked to—and about—each other in mental health institutions in Denmark. One year later, I found myself chain-smoking, dressed in baggy clothing, and slouching on a sofa in a closed psychiatric ward. I had not myself been...... institutions is done by interview research. My study involved observing and participating in the day-to-day life at two mental health facilities: an outpatient clinic and an inpatient closed ward. The case study provides an account of some of the specific methodological problems and unanticipated events...
Coldiron, Matthew E; Llosa, Augusto E; Roederer, Thomas; Casas, German; Moro, Marie-Rose
Mental health problems, particularly anxiety and mood disorders, are prevalent in the setting of humanitarian emergencies, both natural and man-made disasters. Evidence regarding best strategies for therapeutic interventions is sparse. Médecins Sans Frontières has been providing mental health services during emergencies for over two decades, and here we compare data from four programs. In China, 564 patients were followed for an average of 7 sessions after a major earthquake. The most common diagnoses were PTSD and other anxiety disorders. Between program entry and exit, the median global assessment of functioning increased from 65 to 80. At program entry, 58% were considered moderately, markedly or severely ill; a proportion which fell to 14% at program exit. In Colombia in the setting of chronic violence, 2411 patients were followed for a median of two sessions. Anxiety disorders and major depression were the most common diagnoses, and 76% of patients were moderately or severely ill at program entry. 91% had symptomatic improvement at program exit. In Gaza, 1357 patients were followed for a median of 9 sessions; a majority was under age 15. PTSD and other anxiety disorders were the most common diagnoses, and 91% were moderately or severely ill at entry. 89% had improved symptoms at program exit. In the West Bank, the 1478 patients had similar characteristics to those enrolled in Gaza. 88% were moderately or severely ill at entry; 88% had improved at exit. It was feasible to implement brief yet effective mental health interventions in a wide variety of humanitarian contexts - post-natural disaster, during acute violent conflict and during chronic violent conflict. The most common diagnoses were PTSD, other anxiety disorders and mood disorders. The use of local specially-trained counselors who were focused on coping skills and improving functionality over a brief time period, likely contributed to the symptomatic improvement seen in a large majority of patients
Schmidt, Konrad; Worrack, Susanne; Von Korff, Michael; Davydow, Dimitry; Brunkhorst, Frank; Ehlert, Ulrike; Pausch, Christine; Mehlhorn, Juliane; Schneider, Nico; Scherag, André; Freytag, Antje; Reinhart, Konrad; Wensing, Michel; Gensichen, Jochen
Survivors of sepsis face long-term sequelae that diminish health-related quality of life and result in increased care needs in the primary care setting, such as medication, physiotherapy, or mental health care. To examine if a primary care-based intervention improves mental health-related quality of life. Randomized clinical trial conducted between February 2011 and December 2014, enrolling 291 patients 18 years or older who survived sepsis (including septic shock), recruited from 9 intensive care units (ICUs) across Germany. Participants were randomized to usual care (n = 143) or to a 12-month intervention (n = 148). Usual care was provided by their primary care physician (PCP) and included periodic contacts, referrals to specialists, and prescription of medication, other treatment, or both. The intervention additionally included PCP and patient training, case management provided by trained nurses, and clinical decision support for PCPs by consulting physicians. The primary outcome was change in mental health-related quality of life between ICU discharge and 6 months after ICU discharge using the Mental Component Summary (MCS) of the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 [range, 0-100; higher ratings indicate lower impairment; minimal clinically important difference, 5 score points]). The mean age of the 291 patients was 61.6 years (SD, 14.4); 66.2% (n = 192) were men, and 84.4% (n = 244) required mechanical ventilation during their ICU stay (median duration of ventilation, 12 days [range, 0-134]). At 6 and 12 months after ICU discharge, 75.3% (n = 219 [112 intervention, 107 control]) and 69.4% (n = 202 [107 intervention, 95 control]), respectively, completed follow-up. Overall mortality was 13.7% at 6 months (40 deaths [21 intervention, 19 control]) and 18.2% at 12 months (53 deaths [27 intervention, 26 control]). Among patients in the intervention group, 104 (70.3%) received the intervention at high levels of integrity. There was no
... violence (IPV) and women veterans More information on women veterans and mental health Recent research shows that about 25to 30 percent of veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan report symptoms of a mental disorder. Untreated mental ...
Spijkerman, M P J; Pots, W T M; Bohlmeijer, E T
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are increasingly being delivered through the Internet. Whereas numerous meta-analyses have investigated the effectiveness of face-to-face MBIs in the context of mental health and well-being, thus far a quantitative synthesis of the effectiveness of online MBIs is lacking. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the overall effects of online MBIs on mental health. Fifteen randomised controlled trials were included in this study. A random effects model was used to compute pre-post between-group effect sizes, and the study quality of each of the included trials was rated. Results showed that online MBIs have a small but significant beneficial impact on depression (g=0.29), anxiety (g=0.22), well-being (g=0.23) and mindfulness (g=0.32). The largest effect was found for stress, with a moderate effect size (g=0.51). For stress and mindfulness, exploratory subgroup analyses demonstrated significantly higher effect sizes for guided online MBIs than for unguided online MBIs. In addition, meta-regression analysis showed that effect sizes for stress were significantly moderated by the number of intervention sessions. Effect sizes, however, were not significantly related to study quality. The findings indicate that online MBIs have potential to contribute to improving mental health outcomes, particularly stress. Limitations, directions for future research and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Mcluckie, Alan; Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Weaver, Cynthia
Background Enhancement of mental health literacy for youth is a focus of increasing interest for mental health professionals and educators alike. Schools are an ideal site for addressing mental health literacy in young people. Currently, there is limited evidence regarding the impact of curriculum-based interventions within high school settings. We examined the effect of a high-school mental health curriculum (The Guide) in enhancing mental health literacy in Canadian schools. Methods We cond...
Barling, Julian; Cloutier, Anika
While employees' mental health is the focus of considerable attention from researchers, the public, and policymakers, leaders' mental health has almost escaped attention. We start by considering several reasons for this, followed by discussions of the effects of leaders' mental health on their own leadership behaviors, the emotional toll of high-quality leadership, and interventions to enhance leaders' mental health. We offer 8 possible directions for future research on leaders' mental health. Finally, we discuss methodological obstacles encountered when investigating leaders' mental health, and policy dilemmas raised by leaders' mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Health promotion is essential to improve the health status and quality of life of individuals. Promoting mental health at an individual, community and policy level is central to reducing the incidence of mental health problems, including self-harm and suicide. Men may be particularly vulnerable to mental health problems, in part because they are less likely to seek help from healthcare professionals. Although this article discusses mental health promotion and related strategies in general, th...
Strand, Monica; Gammon, Deede; Ruland, Cornelia M
The Internet is transforming mental health care services by increasing access to, and potentially improving the quality of, care. Internet-based interventions in mental health can potentially play a role in transitions from biomedical to recovery-oriented research and practices, but an overview of what this may entail, current work, and issues that need addressing, is lacking. The objective of this study is to describe Internet-based recovery-oriented interventions (referred to as e-recovery) and current research, and to identify gaps and issues relevant to advancing recovery research and practices through opportunities provided by the Internet. Five iterative stages of a scoping review framework were followed in searching and analyzing the literature. A recovery framework with four domains and 16 themes was used to deductively code intervention characteristics according to their support for recovery-oriented practices. Only Internet-based interventions used in conjunction with ongoing care were included. Twenty studies describing six e-recovery interventions were identified and originated in Australia, Finland, the Netherlands, Norway and USA. The domain supporting personal recovery was most clearly reflected in interventions, whereas the last three domains, i.e., promoting citizenship, organizational commitment and working relationship were less evident. Support for the formulation and follow-up of personal goals and preferences, and in accessing peer-support, were the characteristics shared by most interventions. Three of the six studies that employed a comparison group used randomization, and none presented definitive findings. None used recovery-oriented frameworks or specific recovery outcome measures. Four of the interventions were specific to a diagnosis. Research about how technologies might aid in illuminating and shaping recovery processes is in its formative stages. We recommend that future e-recovery research and innovation attend to four dimensions
Dickens, Geoffrey L; Hallett, Nutmeg; Lamont, Emma
There is some evidence that mental health nurses have poor attitudes towards people with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder and that this might impact negatively on the development of helpful therapeutic relationships. We aimed to collate the current evidence about interventions that have been devised to improve the responses of mental health nurses towards this group of people. Systematic review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses statement. Comprehensive terms were used to search CINAHL, PsycINFO, Medline, Biomedical Reference Collection: Comprehensive, Web of Science, ASSIA, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, ProQuest [including Dissertations/Theses], and Google Scholar for relevant studies. Included studies were those that described an intervention whose aim was to improve attitudes towards, knowledge about or responses to people with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. The sample described had to include mental health nurses. Information about study characteristics, intervention content and mode of delivery was extracted. Study quality was assessed, and effect sizes of interventions and potential moderators of those interventions were extracted and converted to Cohen's d to aid comparison. The search strategy yielded a total of eight studies, half of which were judged to be methodologically weak with the remaining four studies judged to be of moderate quality. Only one study employed a control group. The largest effect sizes were found for changes related to cognitive attitudes including knowledge; smaller effect sizes were found in relation to changes in affective outcomes. Self-reported behavioural change in the form of increased use of components of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy following training in this treatment was associated with moderate effect sizes. The largest effect sizes were found among those with poorer baseline attitudes and without previous training about borderline
Braithwaite, Scott; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne
This paper reviews the research on relationships and mental health. Individuals who are more mentally healthy are more likely to select into relationships, but relationships are also demonstrably associated with mental health. The type of relationship matters - evidence suggests that more established, committed relationships, such as marriage, are associated with greater benefits than less committed unions such as cohabitation. The association between relationships and mental health is clearly bidirectional, however, stronger effects are observed when mental health is the outcome and relationships are the predictor, suggesting that the causal arrow flows more strongly from relationships to mental health than vice versa. Moreover, improving relationships improves mental health, but improving mental health does not reliably improve relationships. Our review of research corroborates the view that relationships are a keystone component of human functioning that have the potential to influence a broad array of mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Li, Jie; Li, Juan; Huang, Yuanguang; Thornicroft, Graham
In order to reduce the huge treatment gap in mental health, WHO has called for integrating mental health into primary care. The purposes of this study are to provide a training course to improve the community mental health staff's knowledge of mental health and reduce stigma related to mental illness, as well as to evaluate the impact of this training on knowledge and stigma. The training intervention was a one day course for community mental health staff in Guangzhou, China. Evaluation questionnaires were given before and after the training session. Mental health knowledge was assessed using two vignettes. Stigma was evaluated by the Mental Illness: Clinicians' Attitudes Scale (MICA) and the Reported and Intended Behavior Scale (RIBS). A total of 99 community mental health staff from eight regions in Guangzhou, China were recruited for the study. The training course did not lead to a significant improvement of participants' levels of mental health knowledge. The mean score of MICA decreased from 47.92 ± 8.63 to 43.53 ± 9.61 after the training (t = 6.64, P training course is an effective way to improve community mental health staff's attitudes toward people with mental illness in the short term, as well as to lessen the social distance between staff and people with mental illness.
Winkler, Petr; Janoušková, Miroslava; Kožený, Jiří; Pasz, Jiří; Mladá, Karolína; Weissová, Aneta; Tušková, Eva; Evans-Lacko, Sara
We aimed to assess whether short video interventions could reduce stigma among nursing students. A multi-centre, randomised controlled trial was conducted. Participating schools were randomly selected and randomly assigned to receive: (1) an informational leaflet, (2) a short video intervention or (3) a seminar involving direct contact with a service user. The Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness (CAMI) and Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale (RIBS) were selected as primary outcome measures. SPANOVA models were built and Cohen's d calculated to assess the overall effects in each of the trial arms. Compared to the baseline, effect sizes immediately after the intervention were small in the flyer arm (CAMI: d = 0.25; RIBS: d = 0.07), medium in the seminar arm (CAMI: d = 0.61; RIBS: d = 0.58), and medium in the video arm (CAMI: d = 0.49 RIBS: d = 0.26; n = 237). Effect sizes at the follow-up were vanishing in the flyer arm (CAMI: d = 0.05; RIBS: d = 0.04), medium in the seminar arm (CAMI: d = 0.43; RIBS: d = 0.26; n = 254), and small in the video arm (CAMI: d = 0.22 RIBS: d = 0.21; n = 237). Seminar had the strongest and relatively stable effect on students' attitudes and intended behaviour, but the effect of short video interventions was also considerable and stable over time. Since short effective video interventions are relatively cheap, conveniently accessible and easy to disseminate globally, we recommend them for further research and development.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a consensus about the importance of 'recovery' in mental health services, but the evidence base is limited. Methods/Design A two centre, cluster randomised controlled trial. Participants are community-based mental health teams, and service users aged 18-65 years with a primary clinical diagnosis of psychosis. In relation to the REFOCUS Manual researchintorecovery.com/refocus, which describes a 12-month, pro-recovery intervention based on the REFOCUS Model, the objectives are: (1 To establish the effectiveness of the intervention described in the REFOCUS Manual; (2 To validate the REFOCUS Model; (3 To establish and optimise trial parameters for the REFOCUS Manual; and (4 To understand the relationship between clinical outcomes and recovery outcomes. The hypothesis for the main study is that service users in the intervention arm will experience significantly greater increases in measures of personal recovery (as measured by the QPR compared to service users receiving care from control teams. The hypothesis for the secondary study is that black service users in the intervention arm will experience significantly greater increases in measures of personal recovery (as measured by the QPR and client satisfaction (as measured by the CSQ compared to Black service users receiving care from control teams. The intervention comprises treatment as usual plus two components: recovery-promoting relationships and working practices. The control condition is treatment as usual. The primary outcme is the Process of Recovery Questionnaire (QPR. Secondary outcomes are satisfaction, Goal setting - Personal Primary Outcome, hope, well-being, empowerment, and quality of life. Primary outcomes for the secondary study will be QPR and satisfaction. Cost data will be estimated, and clinical outcomes will also be reported (symptomatology, need, social disability, functioning. 29 teams (15 intervention and 14 control will be randomised. Within
Stein, Dan J; He, Yanling; Phillips, Anthony; Sahakian, Barbara J; Williams, John; Patel, Vikram
Global mental health has emerged as an important specialty. It has drawn attention to the burden of mental illness and to the relative gap in mental health research and services around the world. Global mental health has raised the question of whether this gap is a developmental issue, a health issue, a human rights issue, or a combination of these issues-and it has raised awareness of the need to develop new approaches for building capacity, mobilising resources, and closing the research and treatment gap. Translational neuroscience has also advanced. It comprises an important conceptual approach to understanding the neurocircuitry and molecular basis of mental disorders, to rethinking how best to undertake research on the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of these disorders, with the ultimate aim to develop entirely new approaches to prevention and intervention. Some apparent contrasts exist between these fields; global mental health emphasises knowledge translation, moving away from the bedside to a focus on health systems, whereas translational neuroscience emphasises molecular neuroscience, focusing on transitions between the bench and bedside. Meanwhile, important opportunities exist for synergy between the two paradigms, to ensure that present opportunities in mental health research and services are maximised. Here, we review the approaches of global mental health and clinical neuroscience to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and intervention, and make recommendations for facilitating an integration of these two perspectives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roberts, Lisa R; Montgomery, Susanne B
Stillbirth is a significant global health problem that frequently results in perinatal grief with compound negative psychosocial impact. In low-resource settings with exceedingly high stillbirth rates, such as rural Chhattisgarh, India, it is vital to utilize low-cost, effective interventions. Mindfulness-based stress reduction is an evidence-based intervention utilized for a broad range of physical and mental health problems, and is adaptable to specific populations. The objective of this study was to explore the sustained effectiveness of a shortened, culturally adapted mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) designed to address complex grief after stillbirth. We used an observational, mixed-methods pre-post study design with 6-week and 12-month follow-up assessments among women with a history of stillbirth (N = 22). Analyses explored study outcomes and continued use of mindfulness skills. Pretest results showed elevated psychological symptoms and high levels of perinatal grief. General linear modeling repeated measures was used to explore 6-week and 12-month follow-up changes from baseline, controlling for significantly correlated demographic variables. Longitudinal results indicated significant reductions in perinatal grief and psychological symptoms; four of the five facets of mindfulness changed in the desired direction; and resilience scores indicated thriving. The shortened, culturally adapted, MBI pilot brought about sustained, significant reductions of perinatal grief and mental health symptoms, and participants reported use of mindfulness skills in day-to-day life. This study shows that the significant mental health needs among rural women of various castes and ethnicities in Chhattisgarh following stillbirth were successfully addressed by a promising MBI with potential scalability and sustainability.
Jani, Nrupa; Vu, Lung; Kay, Lynnette; Habtamu, Kassahun; Kalibala, Samuel
Ethiopia is experiencing an increasingly urban HIV epidemic, alongside a rise in urban adolescent migration. Adolescent migrants are often confronted by unique social challenges, including living in a difficult environment, abuse and mental health problems. These issues can increase adolescents' vulnerability to HIV and compromise their capacity to protect themselves and others from HIV. We piloted and assessed the effects of a targeted psychosocial intervention to reduce mental health problems and improve HIV-related outcomes among migrant adolescents in Addis Ababa. A pre- and post-comparison design was used in a cohort of 576 female and 154 male migrant adolescents aged 15 to 18 years in Addis Ababa receiving services from two service delivery organizations, Biruh Tesfa and Retrak. We implemented a three-month client-centred, counsellor-delivered psychosocial intervention, based on findings from formative research among the same target population, to address participants' increased vulnerability to HIV. The intervention package comprised individual, group and creative arts therapy counselling sessions. Key outcome indicators included anxiety, depression, aggressive behaviour, attention problems, social problems, knowledge of HIV, safer sex practices and use of sexual health services. Longitudinal data analysis (McNemar test and random effects regression) was used to assess changes over time in key indicators by gender. For females, aggressive behaviour decreased by 60% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.4 (0.25 to 0.65)) and any mental health problem decreased by 50% (AOR: 0.5 (0.36 to 0.81)) from baseline to end line. In addition, knowledge of HIV increased by 60% (AOR: 1.6 (1.08 to 2.47)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 70% (AOR: 1.7 (1.12 to 2.51)) and HIV testing increased by 80% (AOR: 1.8 (1.13 to 2.97)). For males, HIV knowledge increased by 110% (AOR: 2.1 (1.1 to 3.94)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 290% (AOR: 3.9 (1
Kari-Koskinen, O; Karvonen, P
With the present trend away from the designing of individual buildings and towards the systematic planning of whole residential communities, it should be possible to take mental health requirements into account at the planning stage. At present, sociologists are all too seldom consulted on matters of residential planning. When discussing the relationship between housing and mental health one cannot restrict oneself only to the external aspects of the house, but rather one must also consider the opportunities available for the members of the family to satisfy their own needs, both within the home and in its immediate surroundings. Factors which may affect residential requirements include geographical location, type and standard of dwelling and time and continuity of occupation. A move between two districts or groups representing different housing norms and values may lead to withdrawal symptoms in the individual. This may arise equally well from the remoteness of the country districts as from the conflicting pressures brought on by the abundance of contacts available in the large towns. Town life tends to heighten susceptibility to neuroses and personality conflicts. The character of a residential area may affect the mental health of its occupants. Faris & Dunham (4), in studying the incidence of various types of mental illness with an urban population, observed that schizophrenia was most common among people who were in some way isolated from social involvement. The striving for spaciousness in residential areas and the creation of a "summer city" or "garden city" image or a "family-centred way of life" may lead to unexpected problems and have a variety of social consequences. Mental health difficulties have been noted, for example, among housewives in "dormitory" towns or suburbs (11). The institutions required by a community may be grouped into four categories, representing the basic needs of its members. These are (1) economic institutions, (2) social and
Providing teacher candidates with a strong foundation in mental health literacy during their teacher education program is crucial in ensuring novice teachers are prepared to support the mental health needs of their students. In addition to responding to students, teacher candidates are typically at an age when mental health disorders are common…
Blue, I; Harpham, T
It is expected that the urban population in developing countries will double in the next 30 years. While urbanization is accompanied by health problems, population density can lower public health costs. Common mental disorders, such as anxiety, depression, insomnia, fatigue, irritability, and poor memory, account for 90% of all mental disorders, cause behavioral problems in offspring, and impede recovery from physical ailments. Those who suffer most from common mental disorders include women, those between 15 and 49 years old, and low-income populations. Strong links have been established between socioenvironmental factors and common mental disorders, and an urban environment has been associated with many possible risk factors for such disorders. Only a small percentage of people with mental disorders seek primary health care and even less receive secondary- or tertiary-level care. Common mental disorders place a large burden on primary health care services, however, but most of the patients suffering from mental disorders seek care for physical disorders that mask proper diagnosis and treatment. Thus, the World Health Organization advocates the introduction of mental health components in primary health care services in developing countries. In order to reach those who remain outside of the health care system, community-based interventions such as self-help groups or efforts to promote wider social changes or address poverty should be undertaken. Mental health in developing countries is gaining attention as the attendant loss in economic productivity of human capital has become apparent.
Gruebner, Oliver; Rapp, Michael A; Adli, Mazda; Kluge, Ulrike; Galea, Sandro; Heinz, Andreas
More than half of the global population currently lives in cities, with an increasing trend for further urbanization. Living in cities is associated with increased population density, traffic noise and pollution, but also with better access to health care and other commodities. This review is based on a selective literature search, providing an overview of the risk factors for mental illness in urban centers. Studies have shown that the risk for serious mental illness is generally higher in cities compared to rural areas. Epidemiological studies have associated growing up and living in cities with a considerably higher risk for schizophrenia. However, correlation is not causation and living in poverty can both contribute to and result from impairments associated with poor mental health. Social isolation and discrimination as well as poverty in the neighborhood contribute to the mental health burden while little is known about specific interactions between such factors and the built environment. Further insights on the interaction between spatial heterogeneity of neighborhood resources and socio-ecological factors is warranted and requires interdisciplinary research.
Stein, Dan J; Giordano, James
Global mental health is a relatively new field that has focused on disparities in mental health services across different settings, and on innovative ways to provide feasible, acceptable, and effective services in poorly-resourced settings. Neuroethics, too, is a relatively new field, lying at the intersection of bioethics and neuroscience; it has studied the implications of neuroscientific findings for age-old questions in philosophy, as well as questions about the ethics of novel neuroscientific methods and interventions. In this essay, we address a number of issues that lie at the intersection of these two fields: an emphasis on a naturalist and empirical position, a concern with both disease and wellness, the importance of human rights in neuropsychiatric care, and the value of social inclusion and patient empowerment. These different disciplines share a number of perspectives, and future dialogue between the two should be encouraged.
Langberg, Joshua M; Epstein, Jeffery N; Becker, Stephen P; Girio-Herrera, Erin; Vaughn, Aaron J
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) intervention for middle school students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as implemented by school mental health (SMH) providers using a randomized trial design. Seventeen SMH providers from five school districts implemented the HOPS intervention. Forty-seven middle school students with ADHD (grades 6-8) were randomly assigned to receive the HOPS intervention or to a waitlist comparison group. Parent and teacher ratings of organizational skills and homework problems were collected pre- and post-intervention and at a 3-monoth follow-up, and school grades were also collected. Intervention participants demonstrated significant improvements relative to the waitlist comparison across parent-rated organized action ( d = .88), materials management ( d = .63), planning ( d = 1.05), and homework completion behaviors ( d = .85). Intervention participants did not make significant improvements relative to the comparison group according to teacher ratings. SMH providers were able to implement the HOPS intervention with fidelity despite the fact that no formal ongoing consultation was provided.
Shawyer, Frances; Enticott, Joanne C; Brophy, Lisa; Bruxner, Annie; Fossey, Ellie; Inder, Brett; Julian, John; Kakuma, Ritsuko; Weller, Penelope; Wilson-Evered, Elisabeth; Edan, Vrinda; Slade, Mike; Meadows, Graham N
Recovery features strongly in Australian mental health policy; however, evidence is limited for the efficacy of recovery-oriented practice at the service level. This paper describes the Principles Unite Local Services Assisting Recovery (PULSAR) Specialist Care trial protocol for a recovery-oriented practice training intervention delivered to specialist mental health services staff. The primary aim is to evaluate whether adult consumers accessing services where staff have received the intervention report superior recovery outcomes compared to adult consumers accessing services where staff have not yet received the intervention. A qualitative sub-study aims to examine staff and consumer views on implementing recovery-oriented practice. A process evaluation sub-study aims to articulate important explanatory variables affecting the interventions rollout and outcomes. The mixed methods design incorporates a two-step stepped-wedge cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT) examining cross-sectional data from three phases, and nested qualitative and process evaluation sub-studies. Participating specialist mental health care services in Melbourne, Victoria are divided into 14 clusters with half randomly allocated to receive the staff training in year one and half in year two. Research participants are consumers aged 18-75 years who attended the cluster within a previous three-month period either at baseline, 12 (step 1) or 24 months (step 2). In the two nested sub-studies, participation extends to cluster staff. The primary outcome is the Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery collected from 756 consumers (252 each at baseline, step 1, step 2). Secondary and other outcomes measuring well-being, service satisfaction and health economic impact are collected from a subset of 252 consumers (63 at baseline; 126 at step 1; 63 at step 2) via interviews. Interview-based longitudinal data are also collected 12 months apart from 88 consumers with a psychotic disorder
Ying, Liying; Wu, Lai Har; Loke, Alice Yuen
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of psychosocial interventions on the mental health, pregnancy rates, and marital function of infertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), as determined through RCT studies. Using the electronic databases PubMed, EMBase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and CAJ, a systematic literature search was conducted in July 2015. MeSH terms, key words, and free words such as "infertility," "fertilization in vitro," "psychotherapy," "intervention," "anxiety," "depression," and "marital satisfaction" were used to identify all potential studies. The quality of the studies that were included was assessed using the risk of bias assessment tool developed by the Cochrane Back Review Group. Descriptive analysis was adopted to synthesize the results. A total of 20 randomized controlled trials were included in this review. There were reports of positive effects on the anxiety levels, pregnancy rates, or marital function of infertile couples in six studies that adopted different psychosocial approaches, including mind body intervention (Eastern body-mind-spirit, Integrative body-mind-spirit, and Mind/body intervention), cognitive behavioral therapy, group psychotherapy, and harp therapy. However, there were methodological or practical issues related to measurement points and attrition rates in these studies. None of these interventions were found to be efficacious in relieving the depression or stress of individuals or couples undergoing IVF treatment. None of the included studies tackled or measured the mental health status of the couples during the most stressful time of waiting for the pregnancy results of their treatment. A complex intervention, based on sound evidence, should be developed targeting both females and males of infertile couples undergoing IVF treatment, particularly during the stressful period of waiting for the results of the pregnancy test result and after failed cycles.
... Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... emotion as well as muscle movement. For years, mental health professionals have recognized that coping with a chronic ...
Huang, Keng-Yen; Nakigudde, Janet; Calzada, Esther; Boivin, Michael J; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Children in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are burdened by significant unmet mental health needs, but this region has limited access to mental health workers and resources to address these needs. Despite the successes of numerous school-based interventions for promoting child mental health, most evidence-based interventions are not available in SSA. This study will investigate the transportability of an evidence-based program from a developed country (United States) to a SSA country (Uganda). The approach includes task-shifting to early childhood teachers and consists of professional development (five days) to introduce strategies for effective behavior management and positive teacher-student interactions, and group-based consultation (14 sessions) to support adoption of effective practices and tailoring to meet the needs of individual students. The design of this study is guided by two implementation frameworks, the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and the Teacher Training Implementation Model, that consider multidimensional aspects of intervention fidelity and contextual predictors that may influence implementation and teacher outcomes. Using a cluster randomized design, 10 schools in Uganda will be randomized to either the intervention group (five schools) or the waitlist control group (five schools). A total of 80 to 100 early childhood teachers will be enrolled in the study. Teacher utilization of evidence-based strategies and practices will be assessed at baseline, immediate post-intervention (six months after baseline), and at seven months post-intervention (during a new academic year). Fidelity measures will be assessed throughout the program implementation period (during professional development and consultation sessions). Individual teacher and contextual factors will be assessed at baseline. Data will be collected from multiple sources. Linear mixed-effect modeling, adjusting for school nesting, will be applied to address study questions. The
The emotional health and wellbeing of children and young people is of fundamental importance. Unmet mental health needs during childhood lead to difficulties in adolescence and problems in adulthood. The need to develop comprehensive prevention, early recognition and timely intervention services is essential. Despite this, many mental health problems go unnoticed or are only treated when advanced. Late intervention can often be associated with severe impairments for children and young people as well as their families. This article aims to improve nurses' understanding of children's emotional wellbeing and mental health, and identifies some of the risk and protective factors that combine to produce positive or negative outcomes. Individual and family-based psychological treatments that are available to support children are summarised. The learning activities offer nurses helpful interpersonal and practical strategies to promote emotional wellbeing and mental health in children.
Van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia Ewc; Kelders, Saskia M; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T
Web-based interventions for the early treatment of depressive symptoms can be considered effective in reducing mental complaints. However, there is a limited understanding of which elements in an intervention contribute to effectiveness. For efficiency and effectiveness of interventions, insight is needed into the use of content and persuasive features. The aims of this study were (1) to illustrate how log data can be used to understand the uptake of the content of a Web-based intervention that is based on the acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and (2) to discover how log data can be of value for improving the incorporation of content in Web-based interventions. Data from 206 participants (out of the 239) who started the first nine lessons of the Web-based intervention, Living to the Full, were used for a secondary analysis of a subset of the log data of the parent study about adherence to the intervention. The log files used in this study were per lesson: login, start mindfulness, download mindfulness, view success story, view feedback message, start multimedia, turn on text-message coach, turn off text-message coach, and view text message. Differences in usage between lessons were explored with repeated measures ANOVAs (analysis of variance). Differences between groups were explored with one-way ANOVAs. To explore the possible predictive value of the login per lesson quartiles on the outcome measures, four linear regressions were used with login quartiles as predictor and with the outcome measures (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression [CES-D] and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety [HADS-A] on post-intervention and follow-up) as dependent variables. A significant decrease in logins and in the use of content and persuasive features over time was observed. The usage of features varied significantly during the treatment process. The usage of persuasive features increased during the third part of the ACT (commitment to value-based living
Webber, Adrian; Clark, Jane; Kelly, David
Addressing the psychological distress of individuals experiencing substance use disorders has too often been relegated to the 'too hard basket', leaving those affected with little choice but to receive treatments aimed solely at addressing their drug and alcohol issues. Conversely, individuals receiving support for psychological issues are often underdiagnosed with regards to any comorbid substance misuse problems. In fact, to date, no definitive treatment model exists that gives equal focus to the treatment of both psychological well-being and substance-related addictions. This is not to suggest, however, that existing treatment programmes for substance misuse are not impacting positively on clients' mental health, rather that further research is needed in order to determine what it is that is supporting such improvements. The aim of this study, therefore, was to address this imbalance by examining the correlation between substance dependence and psychological well-being. Using a descriptive correlation design, the Severity of Dependence and Kessler 10 scales were administered to 37 inpatient and outpatient clients at a rural drug and alcohol rehabilitation service, at intake and 2 months into treatment. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and paired-samples t-tests. Positive correlative factors of improvement between substance dependence and psychological well-being were found for both groups. In light of these findings, the authors recommend that future research be undertaken to investigate the causal factors for this correlation. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Panter-Brick, Catherine; Dajani, Rana; Eggerman, Mark; Hermosilla, Sabrina; Sancilio, Amelia; Ager, Alastair
Strengthening the evidence base for humanitarian interventions that provide psychosocial support to war-affected youth is a key priority. We tested the impacts of an 8-week programme of structured activities informed by a profound stress attunement (PSA) framework (Advancing Adolescents), delivered in group-format to 12-18 year-olds in communities heavily affected by the Syrian crisis. We included both Syrian refugee and Jordanian youth. We followed an experimental design, comparing treatment youth and wait-list controls over two programme implementation cycles, randomizing to study arm in cycle 2 (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03012451). We measured insecurity, distress, mental health difficulties, prosocial behaviour and post-traumatic stress symptoms at three time-points: baseline (n = 817 youth; 55% Syrian, 43% female), postintervention (n = 463; 54% Syrian, 47% female), and follow-up (n = 212, 58% Syrian, 43% female). Regression models assessed: prospective intervention impacts, adjusting for baseline scores, trauma exposure, age, and gender; differential impacts across levels of trauma exposure and activity-based modality; and sustained recovery 1 year later. We analysed cycle-specific and cycle-pooled data for youth exclusively engaged in Advancing Adolescents and for the intent-to-treat sample. We found medium to small effect sizes for all psychosocial outcomes, namely Human Insecurity (β = -7.04 (95% CI: -10.90, -3.17), Cohen's d = -0.4), Human Distress (β = -5.78 (-9.02, -2.54), d = -0.3), and Perceived Stress (β = -1.92 (-3.05, -0.79), d = -0.3); and two secondary mental health outcomes (AYMH: β = -3.35 (-4.68, -2.02), d = -0.4; SDQ: β = -1.46 (-2.42, -0.50), d = -0.2). We found no programme impacts for prosocial behaviour or post-traumatic stress reactions. Beneficial impacts were stronger for youth with exposure to four trauma events or more. While symptoms alleviated for both intervention and control groups over time, there were sustained effects of
Masoe, Paula; Bush, Allister
This paper describes background to the development of the relatively new field of infant mental health and why this may be important for Pacific communities in Aotearoa/New Zealand (NZ) and elsewhere. There is a discussion of Samoan concepts and research that could inform infant mental health theory and practice. A Pacific home visiting programme based at Taeaomanino Trust in Porirua, Aotearoa/NZ has formed a collaboration with child and adolescent mental health service clinicians with an interest in infant mental health, to further develop infant mental health understandings and practices in this early intervention service. The benefits and practical application of this collaboration are discussed. The paper ends with a personal perspective from one of the authors on her Samoan reflection on the relevance of attachment ideas to her family relationships and work with Pacific infants, mothers and their families.
The characteristic differences among the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries in terms of trade and investment, society and cultural values, medical information and technology, and the living and working environment have become major health problems in terms of mental disorders. The purpose of this article is to identify the gaps in those aspects, to propose mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs, and to recommend policies for policy makers and research investors. A comparative analysis and literature review of existing policy, including overviews of previous research were used to generate a synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs. The review results recommend mental health and mental disorder programs for policy makers, research investors, and stakeholders in order to strengthen the directions for implementing these programs in the future. The healthcare provision in each country will not be limited only to its citizens; the healthcare markets and target groups are likely to expand to the neighboring countries in the context of changes in domestic and international factors, which have both positive and negative impacts according to the political, economic, and social situations of the influencing countries.
Jordans, Mark J D; Pigott, Hugo; Tol, Wietse A
Over one billion children under the age of 18 live in countries affected by armed conflict. This systematic review replicates an earlier study, aiming to provide a comprehensive update of the most current developments in interventions for children affected by armed conflict. For the period 2009-2015, a total of 1538 records were collected from PubMed, PsycINFO, and PILOTS. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria, and the included interventions involve data from 4858 children. Although the number of publications and level of evidence has improved since the previous review, there is still a general lack of rigor and clarity in study design and reported results. Overall, interventions appeared to show promising results demonstrating mostly moderate effect sizes on mental health and psychosocial well-being. However, these positive intervention benefits are often limited to specific subgroups. There is a need for increased diversification in research focus, with more attention to interventions that focus at strengthening community and family support, and to young children, and improvements in targeting and conceptualizing of interventions.
McAlpine, Donna D; McCreedy, Ellen; Alang, Sirry
Self-rated health is a valid measure of health that predicts quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. Its predictive value reflects a conceptualization of health that goes beyond a traditional medical model. However, less is known about self-rated mental health (SRMH). Using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey ( N = 2,547), we examine how rating your mental health as good-despite meeting criteria for a mental health problem-predicts outcomes. We found that 62% of people with a mental health problem rated their mental health positively. Persons who rated their mental health as good (compared to poor) had 30% lower odds of having a mental health problem at follow-up. Even without treatment, persons with a mental health problem did better if they perceived their mental health positively. SRMH might comprise information beyond the experience of symptoms. Understanding the unobserved information individuals incorporate into SRMH will help us improve screening and treatment interventions.
Collings, Sunny; Mathieson, Fiona; Dowell, Anthony; Stanley, James; Hatcher, Simon; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Lane, Brigitte; Munsterman, Amy
Although mild to moderate mental health problems are common and often debilitating, treatment options in primary care settings in New Zealand are often severely limited for patients with these conditions. Previously, we developed an ultra-brief intervention (UBI) to address mild to moderate psychological concerns, designed to be delivered by primary care clinicians. Recent feasibility testing, including an adaptation for Māori individuals (the indigenous people of New Zealand), showed that the brief intervention was feasible and acceptable to both clinicians and their patients. This protocol describes a large pragmatic randomized controlled trial of our UBI in primary care settings across the greater Wellington region, compared with practice as usual. We are using a two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial, with primary care practices randomized to exclusively deliver either the UBI or practice as usual to all their recruited participants. The structured, guided self-help UBI is delivered in three brief general practitioner (GP) appointments over a five week period. Participants are invited into the study based on partner primary health organization access criteria (youth, people with low income, or people with Māori or Pacific Island heritage). Improvements in mental health from baseline to post-treatment will be compared between the intervention and control groups using a mixed-models application of analysis of covariance. Data analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis, to increase the real-world relevance of UBI and to meet the study's objective of releasing UBI to primary care clinicians nationwide. The UBI is a first-line intervention tool for GPs that models the stepped care approach advocated in New Zealand, against a background of limited access to treatments for often-overlooked patient groups. It is proposed to be accessible to clinicians and patients alike, with the potential to be relevant to primary care clinicians across New Zealand
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…
With approximately 1 in 6 adults likely to experience a significant mental health problem at any one time (Office for National Statistics), research into effective interventions has never been more important. During the past decade there has been an increasing interest in the role that sport and physical activity can play in the treatment of mental health problems, and in mental health promotion. The benefits resulting from physiological changes during exercise are well documented, including improvement in mood and control of anxiety and depression. Research also suggests that socio-cultural a
Wildeboer, Gina; Kelders, Saskia M; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E W C
Research has shown that web-based interventions concerning mental health can be effective, although there is a broad range in effect sizes. Why some interventions are more effective than others is not clear. Persuasive technology is one of the aspects which has a positive influence on changing attitude and/or behavior, and can contribute to better outcomes. According to the Persuasive Systems Design Model there are various principles that can be deployed. It is unknown whether the number and combinations of principles used in a web-based intervention affect the effectiveness. Another issue in web-based interventions is adherence. Little is known about the relationship of adherence on the effectiveness of web-based interventions. This study examines whether there is a relationship between the number and combinations of persuasive technology principles used in web-based interventions and the effectiveness. Also the influence of adherence on effectiveness of web-based interventions is investigated. This study elaborates on the systematic review by  and therefore the articles were derived from that study. Only web-based interventions were included that were intended to be used on more than one occasion and studies were excluded when no information on adherence was provided. 48 interventions targeted at mental health were selected for the current study. A within-group (WG) and between-group (BG) meta-analysis were performed and subsequently subgroup analyses regarding the relationship between the number and combinations of persuasive technology principles and effectiveness. The influence of adherence on the effectiveness was examined through a meta-regression analysis. For the WG meta-analysis 40 treatment groups were included. The BG meta-analysis included 19 studies. The mean pooled effect size in the WG meta-analysis was large and significant (Hedges' g=0.94), while for the BG meta-analysis this was moderate to large and significant (Hedges' g=0.78) in favor of
At the point of civilization where we find ourselves today, in the post-modernity conditions, the responsibility of civil society is a determining factor in the overall politic of mental health. More than ever we have to think of health and mental health in particular in terms of a social dynamics where the participation of social groups and individuals in the responsibility for collective health has priority over the structures of state and institutional interventions. The responsibilities of the state, the institutions and professionals are therefore displaced and redefined while new rights emerge and with them the need for more information and control for the users who pay for health services with their taxes. The concern to adapt a system now anachronistic can only increases the problems of a society responsible for its obsolescence. The social and human costs of the radical changes needed, will in the short term, be socially less burdensome than the consequences of illusory adaptations. In this area, we can expect that nothing will be effective without the mobilisation by the state of the collective responsabilities for a social involvement in public health.
Houle, Janie; Coulombe, Simon; Radziszewski, Stephanie; Leloup, Xavier; Saïas, Thomas; Torres, Juan; Morin, Paul
In Canada, public housing programs are an important part of governmental strategies to fight poverty and public exclusion. The Flash on my neighborhood! project is a four-year multiphase community-based participatory action research strategy currently implemented in six public housing developments (n = 1009 households) across the province of Québec, Canada. The goal is to reduce the mental health disparities faced by these public housing tenants compared to the general population, while identifying which environmental and policy changes are needed to turn public housing settings into healthier environments. The protocol involves three successive, interconnected phases: 1) Strengths and needs assessment, including community outreach and recruitment of tenants to collaborate as peer researchers, an exploratory qualitative component (photovoice), a systematic neighborhood observation, and a household survey; 2) Action plan development, including a community forum and interactive capacity-building and discussion sessions; 3) Action plan implementation and monitoring. The entire intervention is evaluated using a mixed-method design, framed within a multiple case study perspective. Throughout the project and particularly in the evaluation phase, data will be collected to record a) contextual factors (tenants' previous experience of participation, history of public housing development, etc.); b) activities that took place and elements from the action plan that were implemented; and c) short- and medium-term outcomes (objective and perceived improvements in the quality of the residential setting, both physically and in terms of mental health and social capital). The study will provide unprecedented evidence-based information on the key ingredients of a collective intervention process associated with the increased collective empowerment and positive mental health of public housing tenants.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, public housing programs are an important part of governmental strategies to fight poverty and public exclusion. The Flash on my neighborhood! project is a four-year multiphase community-based participatory action research strategy currently implemented in six public housing developments (n = 1009 households across the province of Québec, Canada. The goal is to reduce the mental health disparities faced by these public housing tenants compared to the general population, while identifying which environmental and policy changes are needed to turn public housing settings into healthier environments. Methods The protocol involves three successive, interconnected phases: 1 Strengths and needs assessment, including community outreach and recruitment of tenants to collaborate as peer researchers, an exploratory qualitative component (photovoice, a systematic neighborhood observation, and a household survey; 2 Action plan development, including a community forum and interactive capacity-building and discussion sessions; 3 Action plan implementation and monitoring. The entire intervention is evaluated using a mixed-method design, framed within a multiple case study perspective. Throughout the project and particularly in the evaluation phase, data will be collected to record a contextual factors (tenants’ previous experience of participation, history of public housing development, etc.; b activities that took place and elements from the action plan that were implemented; and c short- and medium-term outcomes (objective and perceived improvements in the quality of the residential setting, both physically and in terms of mental health and social capital. Discussion The study will provide unprecedented evidence-based information on the key ingredients of a collective intervention process associated with the increased collective empowerment and positive mental health of public housing tenants.
Design of the Lifestyle Interventions for severe mentally ill Outpatients in the Netherlands (LION) trial; a cluster randomised controlled study of a multidimensional web tool intervention to improve cardiometabolic health in patients with severe mental illness
Looijmans, Anne; Jorg, Frederike; Bruggeman, Richard; Schoevers, Robert; Corpeleijn, Eva
Background: The cardiometabolic health of persons with a severe mental illness (SMI) is alarming with obesity rates of 45-55% and diabetes type 2 rates of 10-15%. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours play a large role in this. Despite the multidisciplinary guideline for SMI patients recommending to
Problem-solving therapy for depression and common mental disorders in Zimbabwe: piloting a task-shifting primary mental health care intervention in a population with a high prevalence of people living with HIV.
Chibanda, Dixon; Mesu, Petra; Kajawu, Lazarus; Cowan, Frances; Araya, Ricardo; Abas, Melanie A
There is limited evidence that interventions for depression and other common mental disorders (CMD) can be integrated sustainably into primary health care in Africa. We aimed to pilot a low-cost multi-component 'Friendship Bench Intervention' for CMD, locally adapted from problem-solving therapy and delivered by trained and supervised female lay workers to learn if was feasible and possibly effective as well as how best to implement it on a larger scale. We trained lay workers for 8 days in screening and monitoring CMD and in delivering the intervention. Ten lay workers screened consecutive adult attenders who either were referred or self-referred to the Friendship Bench between July and December 2007. Those scoring above the validated cut-point of the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ) for CMD were potentially eligible. Exclusions were suicide risk or very severe depression. All others were offered 6 sessions of problem-solving therapy (PST) enhanced with a component of activity scheduling. Weekly nurse-led group supervision and monthly supervision from a mental health specialist were provided. Data on SSQ scores at 6 weeks after entering the study were collected by an independent research nurse. Lay workers completed a brief evaluation on their experiences of delivering the intervention. Of 395 potentially eligible, 33 (8%) were excluded due to high risk. Of the 362 left, 2% (7) declined and 10% (35) were lost to follow-up leaving an 88% response rate (n = 320). Over half (n = 166, 52%) had presented with an HIV-related problem. Mean SSQ score fell from 11.3 (sd 1.4) before treatment to 6.5 (sd 2.4) after 3-6 sessions. The drop in SSQ scores was proportional to the number of sessions attended. Nine of the ten lay workers rated themselves as very able to deliver the PST intervention. We have found preliminary evidence of a clinically meaningful improvement in CMD associated with locally adapted problem-solving therapy delivered by lay health workers through routine
Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.
Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…
Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace
Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.
Fried, E.; Tuerlinckx, F.; Borsboom, D.
The decision by the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to fund only research into the neurobiological roots of mental disorders (Nature 507, 288; 2014) presumes that these all result from brain abnormalities. But this is not the case for many people with mental-health issues and we fear
van Gastel, W.A.
Cannabis use has been implicated as a risk factor for mental health problems, (subclinical) psychotic symptoms in particular. If cannabis use was a cause of these problems, cessation would lead to improved public mental health. If cannabis use was a mere consequence of a predisposition for mental
Happell, Brenda; Platania-Phung, Chris; Scott, David
The wide-ranging benefits of physical activity for consumers with mental illness are acknowledged within the mental health nursing field; however, this is not commonly translated to practice. The primary aim of this paper is to argue that mental health nurses are well positioned to, and should, provide leadership in promoting physical activity to improve the quality of care for people with mental illness. Topics addressed in this paper include the relationship between physical activity and both physical and mental health, the views and experiences of consumers with physical activity, the efficacy of physical activity interventions, the attitudes of nurses to physical activity as a component of care, barriers to a physical activity focus in care for mental illness, and the role of mental health nurses in promoting physical activity. There is a clear and important relationship between physical activity and mental health. Mental health nurses are well positioned to encourage and assist consumers to engage in physical activity, although they might lack the educational preparation to perform this role effectively. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Kumar B. Rajan
Full Text Available Purpose: This study examined secondary benefits of an individualized physical activity intervention on improving dementia family caregivers’ subjective burden, depressive symptoms and positive affect. Design and Methods: A community-based randomized controlled trial (RCT was implemented with family caregivers of persons with dementia (N = 211 who received the Enhanced Physical Activity Intervention (EPAI: treatment intervention, n = 106 or the Caregiver Skill Building Intervention (CSBI: control intervention, n = 105. Interventions were delivered over 12 months, including a baseline home visit and regularly spaced telephone calls. Data were collected in person at baseline, 6 and 12-months; and telephonically at 3 and 9-months. The EPAI integrated physical activity and caregiving content while the CSBI focused only on caregiving content. Descriptive, bivariate and intention-to-treat analyses using generalized estimating equations (GEE were performed to examine secondary benefits of the EPAI on family caregiver burden, depressive symptoms and positive affect. Results: Compared to caregivers in the CSBI group, caregivers in the EPAI significantly increased their overall and total moderate physical activity and showed a positive interaction between the intervention and time for positive affect at both six (p = 0.01 and 12-months (p = 0.03. The EPAI was significantly associated with improving burden at 3 months (p = 0.03 but had no significant effect on depressive symptoms. Implications: Caregiver involvement in an individualized physical activity intervention was associated with increased overall and total moderate physical activity and improved positive affect from baseline to 12 months. Improved positive affect may help caregivers to feel better about themselves and their situation, and better enable them to continue providing care for their family member for a longer time at lower risk to their own mental health.
Addley, K.; Boyd, S.; Kerr, R.; McQuillan, P.; Houdmont, J.; McCrory, M.
Health risk appraisals (HRA) are a common type of workplace health promotion programme offered by American employers. In the United Kingdom, evidence of their effectiveness for promoting health behaviour change remains inconclusive. This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of two HRA interventions on lifestyle parameters, mental…
Williams, Virginia; Oades, Lindsay G; Deane, Frank P; Crowe, Trevor P; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Andresen, Retta
There is growing acceptance that optimal service provision for individuals with severe and recurrent mental illness requires a complementary focus on medical recovery (i.e., symptom management and general functioning) and personal recovery (i.e., having a 'life worth living'). Despite significant research attention and policy-level support, the translation of this vision of healthcare into changed workplace practice continues to elude. Over the past decade, evidence-based training interventions that seek to enhance the knowledge, attitudes, and skills of staff working in the mental health field have been implemented as a primary redress strategy. However, a large body of multi-disciplinary research indicates disappointing rates of training transfer. There is an absence of empirical research that investigates the importance of worker-motivation in the uptake of desired workplace change initiatives. 'Autonomy' is acknowledged as important to human effectiveness and as a correlate of workplace variables like productivity, and wellbeing. To our knowledge, there have been no studies that investigate purposeful and structured use of values-based interventions to facilitate increased autonomy as a means of promoting enhanced implementation of workplace change. This study involves 200 mental health workers across 22 worksites within five community-managed organisations in three Australian states. It involves cluster-randomisation of participants within organisation, by work site, to the experimental (values) condition, or the control (implementation). Both conditions receive two days of training focusing on an evidence-based framework of mental health service delivery. The experimental group receives a third day of values-focused intervention and 12 months of values-focused coaching. Well-validated self-report measures are used to explore variables related to values concordance, autonomy, and self-reported implementation success. Audits of work files and staff work samples
Hill, Claire; Martin, Jennifer L; Thomson, Simon; Scott-Ram, Nick; Penfold, Hugh; Creswell, Cathy
This article presents an analysis of challenges and considerations when developing digital mental health innovations. Recommendations include collaborative working between clinicians, researchers, industry and service users in order to successfully navigate challenges and to ensure e-therapies are engaging, acceptable, evidence based, scalable and sustainable. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.
Keynejad, Roxanne C; Dua, Tarun; Barbui, Corrado; Thornicroft, Graham
Despite mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders being highly prevalent, there is a worldwide gap between service need and provision. WHO launched its Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) in 2008, and the Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG) in 2010. mhGAP-IG provides evidence-based guidance and tools for assessment and integrated management of priority MNS disorders in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), using clinical decision-making protocols. It targets a non-specialised primary healthcare audience, but has also been used by ministries, non-governmental organisations and academics, for mental health service scale-up in 90 countries. This review aimed to identify evidence to date for mhGAP-IG implementation in LMICs. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge/Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, LILACS, SciELO/Web of Science, Cochrane, Pubmed databases and Google Scholar for studies reporting evidence, experience or evaluation of mhGAP-IG in LMICs, in any language. Data were extracted from included papers, but heterogeneity prevented meta-analysis. We conducted a systematic review of evidence to date, of mhGAP-IG implementation and evaluation in LMICs. Thirty-three included studies reported 15 training courses, 9 clinical implementations, 3 country contextualisations, 3 economic models, 2 uses as control interventions and 1 use to develop a rating scale. Our review identified the importance of detailed reports of contextual challenges in the field, alongside detailed protocols, qualitative studies and randomised controlled trials. The mhGAP-IG literature is substantial, relative to other published evaluations of clinical practice guidelines: an important contribution to a neglected field. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Chibanda, Dixon; Cowan, Frances; Verhey, Ruth; Machando, Debra; Abas, Melanie; Lund, Crick
There is growing evidence supporting the use of lay health workers (LHWs) to address the treatment gap for common mental disorders (CMD) through task-shifting. This study looks at the experience of LHWs delivering a problem solving therapy (PST) intervention for CMD for people living with HIV (PLWH) in a primary health care setting. Semi-structured interviews of LHWs (n = 7) and PLWH (10) who received PST were carried out using thematic content analysis. Over a 4 year period LHWs developed indigenous concepts of PST which were: Opening the mind (Kuvhura pfungwa), uplifting (kusimudzira), strengthening and strengthening further (kusimbisa and kusimbisisa) respectively. Using terms locally conceived through knowledge sharing amongst LHWs made it acceptable to deliver PST as part of their daily work. Indigenous terms conceived and developed by LWHs to describe components and processes of PST contribute to the therapy's acceptability and continued use in primary care facilities.
Acute mental health care according to recent mental health legislation. Part II. Activity-based costing. ABR Janse van Rensburg1, W Jassat2. 1Division of Psychiatry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. 2School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Abstract.
Szmukler, G; Bach, M
Around the world, reports regularly expose persistent and systemic human rights violations of patients in mental health services and facilities, and of those who are unable to access needed supports. A number of factors contribute - political will; the range and quality of services available; public and professional attitudes to mental health; stigma; health professionals' training and expertise; and available resources. This paper examines one of the main determinants, the legal framework. This sets the parameters for mental health policies and services and for applicable human rights norms and standards that can be realized in practice. We provide an overview of international human rights instruments in relation to mental health disabilities, and of the major human rights violations in this area. Key implications for mental health law reform are drawn with a particular focus on discrimination and coercive interventions. The major challenges posed by the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006) are examined. Current mental health laws, to greater or lesser degrees, fail to meet the newly required standards. We discuss reforms based on 'generic law' and 'legal capacity' principles that seek to meet those standards. We outline some emergent and promising examples of reform. The role of civil society and the importance of the standing of those with mental health disabilities in this process is noted.
Hiscock, Harriet; Sciberras, Emma; Mensah, Fiona; Gerner, Bibi; Efron, Daryl; Khano, Sonia; Oberklaid, Frank
To examine whether behavioural strategies designed to improve children's sleep problems could also improve the symptoms, behaviour, daily functioning, and working memory of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the mental health of their parents. Randomised controlled trial. 21 general paediatric practices in Victoria, Australia. 244 children aged 5-12 years with ADHD attending the practices between 2010 and 2012. Sleep hygiene practices and standardised behavioural strategies delivered by trained psychologists or trainee paediatricians during two fortnightly consultations and a follow-up telephone call. Children in the control group received usual clinical care. At three and six months after randomisation: severity of ADHD symptoms (parent and teacher ADHD rating scale IV-primary outcome), sleep problems (parent reported severity, children's sleep habits questionnaire, actigraphy), behaviour (strengths and difficulties questionnaire), quality of life (pediatric quality of life inventory 4.0), daily functioning (daily parent rating of evening and morning behavior), working memory (working memory test battery for children, six months only), and parent mental health (depression anxiety stress scales). Intervention compared with control families reported a greater decrease in ADHD symptoms at three and six months (adjusted mean difference for change in symptom severity -2.9, 95% confidence interval -5.5 to -0.3, P=0.03, effect size -0.3, and -3.7, -6.1 to -1.2, P=0.004, effect size -0.4, respectively). Compared with control children, intervention children had fewer moderate-severe sleep problems at three months (56% v 30%; adjusted odds ratio 0.30, 95% confidence interval 0.16 to 0.59; PADHD symptoms was mediated through improved sleep, at three and six months, respectively. Intervention families reported greater improvements in all other child and family outcomes except parental mental health. Teachers reported improved behaviour of the
O'Campo, Patricia; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Nir, Pam; Levy, Matthew; Misir, Vachan; Chum, Antony; Arbach, Bouchra; Nisenbaum, Rosane; To, Matthew J; Hwang, Stephen W
We studied the impact of a Housing First (HF) intervention on housing, contact with the justice system, healthcare usage and health outcomes among At Home/Chez Soi randomised trial participants in Toronto, a city with an extensive service network for social and health services for individuals who are experiencing homelessness and mental illness. Participants identified as high needs were randomised to receive either the intervention which provided them with housing and supports by an assertive community treatment team (HF+ACT) or treatment as usual (TAU). Participants (N=197) had in-person interviews every 3 months for 2 years. The HF+ACT group spent more time stably housed compared to the TAU group with the mean difference between the groups of 45.8% (95% CI 37.1% to 54.4%, phousing stability and selected health and justice outcomes over 2 years in a city with many social and health services. ISRCTN42520374. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Jorm, Anthony F.
For major physical diseases, it is widely accepted that members of the public will benefit by knowing what actions they can take for prevention, early intervention, and treatment. However, this type of public knowledge about mental disorders ("mental health literacy") has received much less attention. There is evidence from surveys in several…
Stewart, Carmen López
This paper describes main facts about Chile starting with key socio-demographic, socio-economic, political, environmental, epidemiological, social support and social pathology aspects that characterize the context in which current mental and neurological policy and programmes have been put in place since 2000, as part of the National Health Plan and Health Sector Strategy Plan. The 'National Plan for Mental Health and Psychiatry', using a community psychiatry approach, has been partially implemented for people covered by the Public Health Insurance, which comprises 62% of the Chilean population (people with lower income). This paper also describes: the management, population needs and demands, financial resources, human resources in primary care, mental health specialist care and community-based care, physical capital, social capital, provision and processes, and outcomes of the plan. Strengths are analyzed, like the health reform, including its values and principles, the active participation of consumer and family groups as well as mental health NGOs, access to mental health services through primary care, quality assurance of the mental health services delivered to the population and progressive development of a culture of respect for human rights, including those of people with mental illnesses. Finally, difficulties for the advance of mental health care are also enumerated: the low priority still given to mental health compared with physical health by the country's leaders, the insufficient emphasis on mental health in both undergraduate and postgraduate professional training, the strong stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness in the general population and the advocacy by some mental health professionals of the traditional model of care (role of the psychiatric hospital).
Poole, Lucinda A; Knight, Tess; Toumbourou, John W; Lubman, Dan I; Bertino, Melanie D; Lewis, Andrew J
This paper presents findings from a multi-centre, double-blind, randomized controlled trial that tested the hypothesis that parent and youth mental health improvements would be superior in a family-based intervention for adolescent depression (BEST MOOD) compared to a treatment-as-usual supportive parenting program (PAST). Eligible participants were families with a young person aged between 12 and 18 years who met diagnostic criteria for a depressive disorder (major, minor or dysthymic). Participating families (N = 64; 73.4% of youth were female) were recruited in Victoria, Australia and allocated to treatment condition using a block randomization procedure (parallel design) with two levels of blinding. This paper reports on the trial's secondary outcomes on youth and parent mental health. General linear mixed models were used to examine the longitudinal effect of treatment group on outcome. Data were analyzed according to intention-to-treat; 31 families were analyzed in BEST MOOD, and 33 families in PAST. Parents in the BEST MOOD group experienced significantly greater reductions in stress and depressive symptoms than parents in the PAST group at 3-month follow-up. A greater reduction in parental anxiety was observed in the BEST MOOD group (d = 0.35) compared with PAST (d = 0.02), although the between-group difference was not significant. Both groups of youth showed similar levels of improvement in depressive symptoms at post-treatment (d = 0.83 and 0.80 respectively), which were largely sustained at a 3-month follow-up. The family-based BEST MOOD intervention appeared superior to treatment-as-usual (PAST) in demonstrating greater reductions in parental stress and depression. Both interventions produced large reductions in youth depressive symptoms.
Posner, Zoe; Janssen, Jessica; Roddam, Hazel
Purpose- Burnout in mental health staff is acknowledged as a major problem. The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of mental health staff views on improving burnout and mental toughness in mental health staff.\\ud Design/methodology/approach-Ten participants from two mental health rehabilitation units across the North West of England took part in a Nominal Group Technique (NGT). Participants consisted of mental health workers from varied roles in order to\\ud capture views from a...
Natalia Cámara Conde
Full Text Available The sleep disorders are among the most common behaviour problems in infancy and early childhood, not only affect children, but parents also suffer from lack of sleep which creates problems of anxiety and communication in the partner by exhaustion. One way to prevent insomnia in children is that parents know how to create the habit of sleeping with their children.The main aims of the protocol are: - To train parents to establish healthy habits for proper sleep hygiene.- Preventing sleep disorders caused by bad habits in the infant. - To prevent symptoms of anxiety due to lack of sleep in the parents.The program will consist of 6 sessions of 90 minutes long, 3 pre-natal where they thrive knowledge and 3 sessions after to exposure doubts and search for solutions. We think that cooperation between the mental health nurse specialist with the midwife it is necessary to create a program that establish a healthy dream pattern in both infants and their parents, will prevent the sleep disorders by incorrect habits and their effects
Reducing stigma among healthcare providers to improve mental health services (RESHAPE): protocol for a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial of a stigma reduction intervention for training primary healthcare workers in Nepal.
Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D; Turner, Elizabeth L; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Luitel, Nagendra P; Rai, Sauharda; Singla, Daisy R; Lamichhane, Jagannath; Lund, Crick; Patel, Vikram
Non-specialist healthcare providers, including primary and community healthcare workers, in low- and middle-income countries can effectively treat mental illness. However, scaling-up mental health services within existing health systems has been limited by barriers such as stigma against people with mental illness. Therefore, interventions are needed to address attitudes and behaviors among non-specialists. Aimed at addressing this gap, RE ducing S tigma among H ealthc A re P roviders to Improv E mental health services (RESHAPE) is an intervention in which social contact with mental health service users is added to training for non-specialist healthcare workers integrating mental health services into primary healthcare. This protocol describes a mixed methods pilot and feasibility study in primary care centers in Chitwan, Nepal. The qualitative component will include key informant interviews and focus group discussions. The quantitative component consists of a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial (c-RCT), which will establish parameters for a future effectiveness study of RESHAPE compared to training as usual (TAU). Primary healthcare facilities (the cluster unit, k = 34) will be randomized to TAU or RESHAPE. The direct beneficiaries of the intervention are the primary healthcare workers in the facilities ( n = 150); indirect beneficiaries are their patients ( n = 100). The TAU condition is existing mental health training and supervision for primary healthcare workers delivered through the Programme for Improving Mental healthcarE (PRIME) implementing the mental health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP). The primary objective is to evaluate acceptability and feasibility through qualitative interviews with primary healthcare workers, trainers, and mental health service users. The secondary objective is to collect quantitative information on health worker outcomes including mental health stigma (Social Distance Scale), clinical knowledge (mh
Li, Li; Ji, Guoping; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Hsieh, Julie; Lan, Chiao-Wen; Xiao, Yongkang
HIV has a profound impact on infected individuals and their families. This study evaluated the efficacy of an intervention aimed at improving the mental health of people living with HIV (PLH) and their family members. A randomized controlled trial of 475 PLH and 522 family members was conducted in Anhui, China. The intervention comprised activities at individual, family, and community levels. The study outcomes, which included depressive symptoms and coping with illness for the PLH and depressive symptoms and caregiver burden for the family members, were assessed at baseline and at 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. We used a mixed-effects regression model with village- and participant-level random effects to assess the intervention effect on the improvement of outcome measures. Relative to the control condition, the PLH and family members of the intervention group reported a significant reduction in depressive symptoms. The largest difference in depressive symptoms was observed at 6 months for the PLH and at 12 months for family members. Decreases in perceived caregiver burden over time were observed for family members in both conditions; however, the group difference did not reach statistical significance. Significant intervention effect on the coping with illness was reported by the PLH. The study highlights the importance of empowering families affected by HIV to confront the challenges together rather than individually. It may be optimal for future programs to include both PLH and their family members to maximize intervention effects through strengthening interactions and support within a family. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Dingman, Robert L.
Discusses the effects of Hurricane Andrew on disaster workers, followed by some reported experiences of workers as well as victims. Background on natural disasters in general is given, along with information about crisis intervention. Discusses mental health interventions and various skills needed by disaster mental health counselors. (Author/KW)
A pilot cluster randomised controlled trial of a support and training intervention to improve the mental health of secondary school teachers and students - the WISE (Wellbeing in Secondary Education) study.
Kidger, Judi; Stone, Tracey; Tilling, Kate; Brockman, Rowan; Campbell, Rona; Ford, Tamsin; Hollingworth, William; King, Michael; Araya, Ricardo; Gunnell, David
Secondary school teachers are at heightened risk of psychological distress, which can lead to poor work performance, poor quality teacher-student relationships and mental illness. A pilot cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) - the WISE study - evaluated the feasibility of a full-scale RCT of an intervention to support school staff's own mental health, and train them in supporting student mental health. Six schools were randomised to an intervention or control group. In the intervention schools i) 8-9 staff received Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training and became staff peer supporters, and ii) youth MHFA training was offered to the wider staff body. Control schools continued with usual practice. We used thematic qualitative data analysis and regression modelling to ascertain the feasibility, acceptability and potential usefulness of the intervention. Thirteen training observations, 14 staff focus groups and 6 staff interviews were completed, and 438 staff (43.5 %) and 1,862 (56.3 %) students (years 8 and 9) completed questionnaires at baseline and one year later. MHFA training was considered relevant for schools, and trainees gained in knowledge, confidence in helping others, and awareness regarding their own mental health. Suggestions for reducing the length of the training and focusing on helping strategies were made. A peer support service was established in all intervention schools and was perceived to be helpful in supporting individuals in difficulty - for example through listening, and signposting to other services - and raising the profile of mental health at a whole school level. Barriers to use included lack of knowledge about the service, concerns about confidentiality and a preference for accessing support from pre-existing networks. The WISE intervention is feasible and acceptable to schools. Results support the development of a full-scale cluster RCT, if steps are taken to improve response rates and implement the suggested improvements to the
Fuller Jeffrey D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Farmers represent a subgroup of rural and remote communities at higher risk of suicide attributed to insecure economic futures, self-reliant cultures and poor access to health services. Early intervention models are required that tap into existing farming networks. This study describes service networks in rural shires that relate to the mental health needs of farming families. This serves as a baseline to inform service network improvements. Methods A network survey of mental health related links between agricultural support, health and other human services in four drought declared shires in comparable districts in rural New South Wales, Australia. Mental health links covered information exchange, referral recommendations and program development. Results 87 agencies from 111 (78% completed a survey. 79% indicated that two thirds of their clients needed assistance for mental health related problems. The highest mean number of interagency links concerned information exchange and the frequency of these links between sectors was monthly to three monthly. The effectiveness of agricultural support and health sector links were rated as less effective by the agricultural support sector than by the health sector (p Conclusion Aligning with agricultural agencies is important to build effective mental health service pathways to address the needs of farming populations. Work is required to ensure that these agricultural support agencies have operational and effective links to primary mental health care services. Network analysis provides a baseline to inform this work. With interventions such as local mental health training and joint service planning to promote network development we would expect to see over time an increase in the mean number of links, the frequency in which these links are used and the rated effectiveness of these links.
Method: A systematic review was chosen as a design to identify primary studies that answered the following research question: What is the current evidence on interventions to promote psychiatric patients' compliance to mental health treatment? Selected electronic databases were thoroughly searched. Studies were ...
Mental health problems in deaf and severely hard of hearing children and adolescents : findings on prevalence, pathogenesis and clinical complexities, and implications for prevention, diagnosis and intervention
Gent, Tiejo van
The aim of this thesis is to expand the knowledge of mental health problems with deaf and severely hard of hearing children and adolescents in the following domains: 1. The prevalence of mental health problems; 2. Specific intra- and interpersonal aspects of pathogenesis; 3. characteristics of the
Sælid, Gry Anette; Nordahl, Hans M
Rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) is effective in reducing distress in several target groups. No other study has tested the mental health effects on adolescents in a high school setting while expanding a Cognitive Behaviour-based therapy, REBT, into the concept of mental health literacy. The format of the ABC model, which is an important element of REBT, functioned as a working manual in and between three sessions. This study tested whether knowledge and practical use of the ABC model increased self-esteem and hope, and reduced symptoms of anxiety and depression, and dysfunctional thinking. Sixty-two high school students with subclinical levels of anxiety and depression were randomly allocated into three groups; three individual REBT sessions, or three individual attentional placebo (ATP) sessions or no sessions (control). However, dysfunctional thinking, self-esteem and hope were not measured in the control group. Repeated measures with ANOVA and t-tests were conducted. Both REBT and ATP significantly reduced symptoms of anxiety and depression, but only REBT was significantly different from the control group at the six-month follow-up. Only REBT significantly reduced dysfunctional thinking, and both REBT and ATP significantly increased self-esteem and hope. REBT had both an immediate and a long-term effect. The findings show the potential positive effects of educating well-documented psychological techniques as ordinary education in school. Further research might contribute to decide whether or not to change the school system by enclosing mental health literacy classes for all students.
Objective: This is the first of three reports on a follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). In this first part, qualitative and quantitative descriptions were made of the services and of demographic and clinical data on acute mental health care users managed at HJH, in a retrospective review of ...
Introduction. Reliable data is necessary to facilitate the effective planning, management and restructuring of mental health care facilities. Access to accurate information on clinical conditions, treatment outcomes and expenditure is essential to ensure accountability, quality and cost-effective mental health care. This article is ...
Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro
... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well- being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...
Impact of a nurse-led intervention to improve screening for cardiovascular risk factors in people with severe mental illnesses. Phase-two cluster randomised feasibility trial of community mental health teams
Full Text Available Abstract Background People with severe mental illnesses (SMI are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Clinical guidelines recommend regular screening for CVD risk factors. We evaluated a nurse led intervention to improve screening rates across the primary-secondary care interface. Methods Six community mental health teams (CMHTs were randomised to receive either the nurse led intervention plus education pack (n = 3 or education pack only (n = 3. Intervention (6 months: The nurse promoted CVD screening in primary care and then in CMHTs. Patients who remained unscreened were offered screening by the nurse. After the intervention participants with SMI were recruited from each CMHT to collect outcome data. Main outcome: Numbers screened during the six months, confirmed in General Practice notes. Results All six CMHTs approached agreed to randomisation. 121 people with SMI participated in outcome interviews during two waves of recruitment (intervention arm n = 59, control arm n = 62. Participants from both arms of the trial had similar demographic profiles and rates of previous CVD screening in the previous year, with less than 20% having been screened for each risk factor. After the trial, CVD screening had increased in both arms but participants from the intervention arm were significantly more likely to have received screening for blood pressure (96% vs 68%; adjusted Odds Ratio (OR 13.6; 95% CI: 3.5-38.4, cholesterol (66.7% vs 26.9%, OR 6.1; 3.2-11.5, glucose (66.7% vs 36.5% OR 4.4; 2.7-7.1, BMI (92.5% vs 65.2% OR 6.5; 2.1-19.6, and smoking status (88.2% vs 57.8% OR 5.5; 3.2-9.5 and have a 10 year CVD risk score calculated (38.2% vs 10.9% OR 5.2 1.8-15.3. Within the intervention arm approximately half the screening was performed in general practice and half by the trial nurse. Conclusions The nurse-led intervention was superior, resulting in an absolute increase of approximately 30% more people with SMI receiving screening for each
Maguire, Tessa; Daffern, Michael; Bowe, Steven J; McKenna, Brian
To examine associations between risk of aggression and nursing interventions designed to prevent aggression. There is scarce empirical research exploring the nature and effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent inpatient aggression. Some strategies may be effective when patients are escalating, whereas others may be effective when aggression is imminent. Research examining level of risk for aggression and selection and effectiveness of interventions and impact on aggression is necessary. Archival case file. Data from clinical files of 30 male and 30 female patients across three forensic acute units for the first 60 days of hospitalisation were collected. Risk for imminent aggression as measured by the Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression, documented nursing interventions following each assessment, and acts of aggression within the 24-hours following assessment were collected. Generalised estimating equations were used to investigate whether intervention strategies were associated with reduction in aggression. When a Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression assessment was completed, nurses intervened more frequently compared to days when no Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression assessment was completed. Higher Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression assessments were associated with a greater number of interventions. The percentage of interventions selected for males differed from females; males received more pro re nata medication and observation, and females received more limit setting, one-to-one nursing and reassurance. Pro re nata medication was the most commonly documented intervention (35.9%) in this study. Pro re nata medication, limit setting and reassurance were associated with an increased likelihood of aggression in some risk bands. Structured risk assessment prompts intervention, and higher risk ratings result in more interventions. Patient gender influences the type of interventions. Some interventions are associated with
Hwang, Stephen W; Burns, Tom
Homelessness has serious implications for the health of individuals and populations. Primary health-care programmes specifically tailored to homeless individuals might be more effective than standard primary health care. Standard case management, assertive community treatment, and critical time intervention are effective models of mental health-care delivery. Housing First, with immediate provision of housing in independent units with support, improves outcomes for individuals with serious mental illnesses. Many different types of interventions, including case management, are effective in the reduction of substance misuse. Interventions that provide case management and supportive housing have the greatest effect when they target individuals who are the most intensive users of services. Medical respite programmes are an effective intervention for homeless patients leaving the hospital. Although the scientific literature provides guidance on interventions to improve the health of homeless individuals, health-care providers should also seek to address social policies and structural factors that result in homelessness.
Corrigan, Patrick W; Mittal, Dinesh; Reaves, Christina M; Haynes, Tiffany F; Han, Xiaotong; Morris, Scott; Sullivan, Greer
People with serious mental illness have higher rates of mortality and morbidity due to physical illness. In part, this occurs because primary care and other health providers sometimes make decisions contrary to typical care standards. This might occur because providers endorse mental illness stigma, which seems inversely related to prior personal experience with mental illness and mental health care. In this study, 166 health care providers (42.2% primary care, 57.8% mental health practice) from the Veteran׳s Affairs (VA) medical system completed measures of stigma characteristics, expected adherence, and subsequent health decisions (referral to a specialist and refill pain prescription) about a male patient with schizophrenia who was seeking help for low back pain due to arthritis. Research participants reported comfort with previous mental health interventions. Path analyses showed participants who endorsed stigmatizing characteristics of the patient were more likely to believe he would not adhere to treatment and hence, less likely to refer to a specialist or refill his prescription. Endorsement of stigmatizing characteristics was inversely related to comfort with one׳s previous mental health care. Implications of these findings will inform a program meant to enhance VA provider attitudes about people with mental illness, as well as their health decisions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gopalkrishnan, Narayan; Babacan, Hurriyet
Cultural diversity and its impact on mental health has become an increasingly important issue in a globalised world where the interactions between cultures continue to grow exponentially. This paper presents critical areas in which culture impacts on mental health, such as how health and illness are perceived, coping styles, treatment-seeking patterns, impacts of history, racism, bias and stereotyping, gender, family, stigma and discrimination. While cultural differences provide a number of challenges to mental health policy and practice they also provide a number of opportunities to work in unique and effective ways towards positive mental health. Ethno-specific approaches to mental health that incorporate traditional and community-based systems can provide new avenues for working with culturally diverse populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
To explore nurses' views of their role in the screening and monitoring of the physical care needs of people with serious mental illness in a mental health service provider. There is increasing awareness through research that people with serious mental illness disproportionately experience and die early from physical health conditions. Mental health nurses are best placed as front-line workers to offer screening, monitoring and interventions; however, their views on physical care interventions are not studied often. Qualitative exploratory study. The study was carried out in a mental health inpatient centre in England. Volunteer sampling was adopted for the study with a total target sample of (n = 20) nurses from three inpatient wards. Semistructured interviews were conducted with (n = 10) registered mental health nurses who had consented to take part in the study. Inductive data analysis and theme development were guided by a thematic analytic framework. Participants shared a clear commitment regarding their role regarding physical health screening and monitoring in mental health settings. Four themes emerged as follows: features of current practice and physical health monitoring; perceived barriers to physical health monitoring; education and training needs; and strategies to improve physical health monitoring. Nurses were unequivocal in their resolve to ensure good standard physical health monitoring and screening interventions in practice. However, identified obstacles have to be addressed to ensure that physical health screening and monitoring is integrated adequately in everyday clinical activities. Achieving this would require improvements in nurses' training, and an integrated multiservice and team-working approach. Attending to the physical health needs of people with serious mental illness has been associated with multiple improvements in both mental and physical health; nurses have a vital role to play in identifying and addressing causes of poor
Opsenica-Kostić Jelena J.
Full Text Available Today's generations of adolescents have grown up with information and communication technologies which have a significant place in their lives. One of the important issues in this context is the relation between the Internet and the mental health of adolescents. The first topic that this paper deals with, is the relationship between the use of the Internet and mental health, and the other is related to the planned use of the Internet for the purpose of improving wellbeing. The most common activity of young people on the Internet is social networking. Online social networks can positively affect wellbeing through facilitating self-disclosing and the availability of social support. Such findings from empirical research support the ideas of theories that emphasize the positive aspects of online relating. However, social networks (and online communication in general can also have significant negative effects on the mental health of adolescents, if they are exposed to cyberbullying. The second topic of the paper is the planned use of the Internet for the purpose of improving mental health. To young people (and to members of other age groups, as well online support groups are the most accessible nowadays, aimed at supporting a group of people with a common problem or life challenge. These forums are most often text-based and this kind of communication has a number of potential benefits for users. It is also possible to organize online interventions that promote mental health and prevent its deterioration. Research shows that online skill-based interventions can have a positive impact on adolescent mental health. The results of the online prevention interventions indicate the encouraging evidence concerning computerized cognitive behavioral therapy interventions and their impact on adolescent's anxiety and depression symptoms. Although it contains potentially negative aspects, the Internet has a positive significance and potential for the development
Christensen, H; Griffiths, K
This paper describes the informational and treatment opportunities offered by the Worldwide Web (WWW) and comments on the advantages, disadvantages and potential dangers of its role in mental health and mental health research. Two perspectives are taken: (i) the impact of the Web from the point of view of the clinician (the practitioner view) and (ii) the impact of the Web on the public's knowledge of mental health (mental health literacy; the community or public health view). These perspectives are applied to two areas of impact: (i) information and knowledge; and (ii) treatment and self-help. The Web, due to its accessibility, has advantages in providing access to information, online therapy and adjunctive therapy in mental health. Problems include information overload, poor information quality, potential harm and lack of scientific evaluation. Issues of overload and quality of information, the potential for harm and the need to evaluate interventions are not unique to the Internet. However, the Internet has special features which make these issues more prominent. The Internet is likely to increase the general public's access to information and to decrease unmet need. Sites and interventions on the Internet need to be formally evaluated.
This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.
Full Text Available This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.
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Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree
Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…
Lucero, John A.
The goals of the School Mental Health Consultation Program, a cooperative effort of the Children and Youth Service at High Plains Mental Health Center and the Unified School District 489 in Hays, Kansas, are to evaluate students' behavioral problems, to assess how students' difficulties affect teachers, and to help the consultee assess the…
Bernzweig, Jane; Ramler, Malia; Alkon, Abbey
Early childhood mental health consultation is a relationship-based intervention that promotes children's social and emotional development. Benefits include improved childhood behaviors, improved staff self-efficacy, and lowered parental stress. Child care center directors are more likely to be satisfied with consultation when they are involved in…
Protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve the mental health support and training available to secondary school teachers - the WISE (Wellbeing in Secondary Education) study.
Kidger, Judi; Evans, Rhiannon; Tilling, Kate; Hollingworth, William; Campbell, Rona; Ford, Tamsin; Murphy, Simon; Araya, Ricardo; Morris, Richard; Kadir, Bryar; Moure Fernandez, Aida; Bell, Sarah; Harding, Sarah; Brockman, Rowan; Grey, Jill; Gunnell, David
Teachers are reported to be at increased risk of common mental health disorders compared to other occupations. Failure to support teachers adequately may lead to serious long-term mental disorders, poor performance at work (presenteeism), sickness absence and health-related exit from the profession. It also jeopardises student mental health, as distressed staff struggle to develop supportive relationships with students, and such relationships are protective against student depression. A number of school-based trials have attempted to improve student mental health, but these have mostly focused on classroom based approaches and have failed to establish effectiveness. Only a few studies have introduced training for teachers in supporting students, and none to date have included a focus on improving teacher mental health. This paper sets out the protocol (version 4.4 20/07/16) for a study aiming to address this gap. Cluster randomised controlled trial with secondary schools as the unit of randomisation. Intervention schools will receive: i) Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training for a group of staff nominated by their colleagues, after which they will set up a confidential peer support service for colleagues ii) training in MHFA for schools and colleges for a further group of teachers, which will equip them to more effectively support student mental health iii) a short mental health awareness raising session and promotion of the peer support service for all teachers. Comparison schools will continue with usual practice. The primary outcome is teacher wellbeing measured using the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS). Secondary outcomes are teacher depression, absence and presenteeism, and student wellbeing, mental health difficulties, attendance and attainment. Measures will be taken at baseline, one year follow up (teachers only) and two year follow up. Economic and process evaluations will be embedded within the study. This study will establish the
Protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve the mental health support and training available to secondary school teachers – the WISE (Wellbeing in Secondary Education study
Full Text Available Abstract Background Teachers are reported to be at increased risk of common mental health disorders compared to other occupations. Failure to support teachers adequately may lead to serious long-term mental disorders, poor performance at work (presenteeism, sickness absence and health-related exit from the profession. It also jeopardises student mental health, as distressed staff struggle to develop supportive relationships with students, and such relationships are protective against student depression. A number of school-based trials have attempted to improve student mental health, but these have mostly focused on classroom based approaches and have failed to establish effectiveness. Only a few studies have introduced training for teachers in supporting students, and none to date have included a focus on improving teacher mental health. This paper sets out the protocol (version 4.4 20/07/16 for a study aiming to address this gap. Methods Cluster randomised controlled trial with secondary schools as the unit of randomisation. Intervention schools will receive: i Mental Health First Aid (MHFA training for a group of staff nominated by their colleagues, after which they will set up a confidential peer support service for colleagues ii training in MHFA for schools and colleges for a further group of teachers, which will equip them to more effectively support student mental health iii a short mental health awareness raising session and promotion of the peer support service for all teachers. Comparison schools will continue with usual practice. The primary outcome is teacher wellbeing measured using the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS. Secondary outcomes are teacher depression, absence and presenteeism, and student wellbeing, mental health difficulties, attendance and attainment. Measures will be taken at baseline, one year follow up (teachers only and two year follow up. Economic and process evaluations will be embedded within the
Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis
such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems...... and sychopathologies. In disadvantaged populations insecure and disorganized attachment are common, which points to the need of identifying early risk and effective methods of addressing such problems. This protocol describes an experimental evaluation of an indicated group-based parental educational program, Circle......, will be randomly allocated with a ratio of 2:1 into the COS-P intervention arm and into CAU. Data will be obtained at inclusion (baseline) and at follow-up when the child is 12–16 months. The primary outcome is maternal sensitivity. Secondary outcomes include quality of infant attachment, language, cognitive...
Hoch Jeffrey S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little research has been conducted in the area of depression among older home care clients using personal support services. These older adults are particularly vulnerable to depression because of decreased cognition, comorbid chronic conditions, functional limitations, lack of social support, and reduced access to health services. To date, research has focused on collaborative, nurse-led depression care programs among older adults in primary care settings. Optimal management of depression among older home care clients is not currently known. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of a 6-month nurse-led, interprofessional mental health promotion intervention aimed at older home care clients with depressive symptoms using personal support services. Methods/Design This one-group pre-test post-test study aims to recruit a total of 250 long-stay (> 60 days home care clients, 70 years or older, with depressive symptoms who are receiving personal support services through a home care program in Ontario, Canada. The nurse-led intervention is a multi-faceted 6-month program led by a Registered Nurse that involves regular home visits, monthly case conferences, and evidence-based assessment and management of depression using an interprofessional approach. The primary outcome is the change in severity of depressive symptoms from baseline to 6 months using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies in Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes include changes in the prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety, health-related quality of life, cognitive function, and the rate and appropriateness of depression treatment from baseline to 12 months. Changes in the costs of use of health services will be assessed from a societal perspective. Descriptive and qualitative data will be collected to examine the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention and identify barriers and facilitators to
Kutcher, S; Gilberds, H; Morgan, C; Greene, R; Hamwaka, K; Perkins, K
Mental health literacy is foundational for mental health promotion, prevention, stigma reduction and care. Integrated school mental health literacy interventions may offer an effective and sustainable approach to enhancing mental health literacy for educators and students globally. Through a Grand Challenges Canada funded initiative called 'An Integrated Approach to Addressing the Issue of Youth Depression in Malawi and Tanzania', we culturally adapted a previously demonstrated effective Canadian school mental health curriculum resource (the Guide) for use in Malawi, the African Guide: Malawi version (AGMv), and evaluated its impact on enhancing mental health literacy for educators (teachers and youth club leaders) in 35 schools and 15 out-of-school youth clubs in the central region of Malawi. The pre- and post-test study designs were used to assess mental health literacy - knowledge and attitudes - of 218 educators before and immediately following completion of a 3-day training programme on the use of the AGMv. Results demonstrated a highly significant and substantial improvement in knowledge ( p mental health literacy in study participants. There were no significant differences in outcomes related to sex or location. These positive results suggest that an approach that integrates mental health literacy into the existing school curriculum may be an effective, significant and sustainable method of enhancing mental health literacy for educators in Malawi. If these results are further found to be sustained over time, and demonstrated to be effective when extended to students, then this model may be a useful and widely applicable method for improving mental health literacy among both educators and students across Africa.
Bogaerts, A.F.L.; Devlieger, R.; Nuyts, E.; Witters, I.; Gyselaers, W.; Van den Bergh, B.R.H.
Objective: Lifestyle intervention could help obese pregnant women to limit their weight gain during pregnancy and improve their psychological comfort, but has not yet been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. We evaluated whether a targeted antenatal lifestyle intervention programme for obese
Radovic, Ana; Vona, Pamela L; Santostefano, Antonella M; Ciaravino, Samantha; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D
Many adolescents and adults do not seek treatment for mental health symptoms. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist individuals with mental health concerns in alleviating symptoms or increasing understanding. This study seeks to characterize apps readily available to smartphone users seeking mental health information and/or support. Ten key terms were searched in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores: mental health, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, trauma, trauma in schools, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), child trauma, and bullying. A content analysis of the first 20 application descriptions retrieved per category was conducted. Out of 300 nonduplicate applications, 208 (70%) were relevant to search topic, mental health or stress. The most common purported purpose for the apps was symptom relief (41%; n = 85) and general mental health education (18%; n = 37). The most frequently mentioned approaches to improving mental health were those that may benefit only milder symptoms such as relaxation (21%; n = 43). Most app descriptions did not include information to substantiate stated effectiveness of the application (59%; n = 123) and had no mention of privacy or security (89%; n = 185). Due to uncertainty of the helpfulness of readily available mental health applications, clinicians working with mental health patients should inquire about and provide guidance on application use, and patients should have access to ways to assess the potential utility of these applications. Strategic policy and research developments are likely needed to equip patients with applications for mental health, which are patient centered and evidence based.
King, Richard V; Burkle, Frederick M; Walsh, Lauren E; North, Carol S
Competencies for disaster mental health are essential to domestic and international disaster response capabilities. Numerous consensus-based competency sets for disaster health workers exist, but no prior study identifies and discusses competency sets pertaining specifically to disaster mental health. Relevant competency sets were identified via MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and Google Scholar searches. Sixteen competency sets are discussed, some providing core competencies for all disaster responders and others for specific responder groups within particular professions or specialties. Competency sets specifically for disaster mental health professionals are lacking, with the exception of one set that focused only on cultural competence. The identified competency sets provide guidance for educators in developing disaster mental health curricula and for disaster health workers seeking education and training in disaster mental health. Valid, criterion-based competencies are required to guide selection and training of mental health professionals for the disaster mental health workforce. In developing these competencies, consideration should be given to the requirements of both domestic and international disaster response efforts.
Tomov, Toma; Mladenova, Maya; Lazarova, Irina; Sotirov, Vladimir; Okoliyski, Mihail
The mental health profile of Bulgaria has been compiled and following analysis of both the factual findings and the process of data collection a report has been prepared. The subject of discussion in the paper concerns several major findings: the discrepancy between what the policy documents state and the actual situation in mental health; the organizational culture, which alienates; and the peculiarities of the process of change and how it is driven under political pressure from outside the country. Analysis extends to encompass the influence of the general health reform on the mental health sector, the deficits of the leadership and how they impact on the effectiveness of the system, and the interdependence between the country's economy and the health sector. A conclusion is made about the need to consolidate the public health approach using the lever of international collaboration in the field of mental health.
McBain, Ryan K; Salhi, Carmel; Hann, Katrina; Salomon, Joshua A; Kim, Jane J; Betancourt, Theresa S
One billion children live in war-affected regions of the world. We conducted the first cost-effectiveness analysis of an intervention for war-affected youth in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as a broader cost analysis. The Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI) is a behavioural treatment for reducing functional impairment associated with psychological distress among war-affected young persons. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Freetown, Sierra Leone, from July 2012 to July 2013. Participants (n = 436, aged 15-24) were randomized to YRI (n = 222) or care as usual (n = 214). Functional impairment was indexed by the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale; scores were converted to quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). An 'ingredients approach' estimated financial and economic costs, assuming a societal perspective. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were also expressed in terms of gains across dimensions of mental health and schooling. Secondary analyses explored whether intervention effects were largest among those worst-off (upper quartile) at baseline. Retention at 6-month follow-up was 85% (n = 371). The estimated economic cost of the intervention was $104 per participant. Functional impairment was lower among YRI recipients, compared with controls, following the intervention but not at 6-month follow-up, and yielded an ICER of $7260 per QALY gained. At 8-month follow-up, teachers' interviews indicated that YRI recipients observed higher school enrolment [P < 0.001, odds ratio (OR) 8.9], denoting a cost of $431 per additional school year gained, as well as better school attendance (P = 0.007, OR 34.9) and performance (P = 0.03, effect size = -1.31). Secondary analyses indicated that the intervention was cost-effective among those worst-off at baseline, yielding an ICER of $3564 per QALY gained. The YRI is not cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of three times average gross domestic product
Web-Based Interventions to Improve Mental Health, General Caregiving Outcomes, and General Health for Informal Caregivers of Adults With Chronic Conditions Living in the Community: Rapid Evidence Review.
Ploeg, Jenny; Markle-Reid, Maureen; Valaitis, Ruta; McAiney, Carrie; Duggleby, Wendy; Bartholomew, Amy; Sherifali, Diana
Most adults with chronic conditions live at home and rely on informal caregivers to provide support. Caregiving can result in negative impacts such as poor mental and physical health. eHealth interventions may offer effective and accessible ways to provide education and support to informal caregivers. However, we know little about the impact of Web-based interventions for informal caregivers of community-dwelling adults with chronic conditions. The purpose of this rapid evidence review was to assess the impact of Web-based interventions on mental health, general caregiving outcomes, and general health for informal caregivers of persons with chronic conditions living in the community. A rapid evidence review of the current literature was employed to address the study purpose. EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane, and Ageline were searched covering all studies published from January 1995 to July 2016. Papers were included if they (1) included a Web-based modality to deliver an intervention; (2) included informal, unpaid adult caregivers of community-living adults with a chronic condition; (3) were either a randomized controlled trial (RCT) or controlled clinical trial (CCT); and (4) reported on any caregiver outcome as a result of use or exposure to the intervention. A total of 20 papers (17 studies) were included in this review. Study findings were mixed with both statistically significant and nonsignificant findings on various caregiver outcomes. Of the 17 included studies, 10 had at least one significant outcome. The most commonly assessed outcome was mental health, which included depressive symptoms, stress or distress, and anxiety. Twelve papers examined the impact of interventions on the outcome of depressive symptoms; 4 found a significant decrease in depressive symptoms. Eight studies examined the outcome of stress or distress; 4 of these found a significant reduction in stress or distress as a result of the intervention. Three studies examined the
Sloan, G; Watson, H
This paper provides a critique of how Heron's six-category intervention analysis framework has been adopted by nursing in the United Kingdom (UK) as a theoretical framework in nursing research and model for clinical supervision. From this, its merits as an analytic framework and model for clinical supervision in nursing are discussed. Heron's six-category intervention analysis has been acknowledged as a means by which nursing could develop its therapeutic integrity. It has also been used as a theoretical framework in nursing research focusing on nurses' perceptions of their interpersonal style. More recently descriptions of this framework have been proposed as a structure for clinical supervision. However, its use as a theoretical framework to underpin research investigating the interpersonal skills of nurses and as a model of clinical supervision must firstly be scrutinized. Returning to Heron's original description and comparing this with its current adoption in the UK, misconceptions of this framework can be identified. Its value as an analytic tool investigating interpersonal relations in nursing has still to be evaluated. Furthermore, nursing's emphasis on certain intervention categories has undermined the potential potency of this framework and its contribution as a model for clinical supervision in nursing. We argue that Heron's six-category intervention analysis as a framework to investigate the interpersonal competence of nurses, particularly mental health nurses, requires investigation. This, in turn, would provide an opportunity to challenge the framework's theoretical standpoint. In addition to its value as an analytic tool, all six categories of Heron's framework have equal relevance to its contribution in nursing as a supervision model.
Firth, Joseph; Torous, John; Nicholas, Jennifer; Carney, Rebekah; Rosenbaum, Simon; Sarris, Jerome
Various psychological interventions are effective for reducing symptoms of anxiety when used alone, or as an adjunct to anti-anxiety medications. Recent studies have further indicated that smartphone-supported psychological interventions may also reduce anxiety, although the role of mobile devices in the treatment and management of anxiety disorders has yet to be established. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) reporting the effects of psychological interventions delivered via smartphone on symptoms of anxiety (sub-clinical or diagnosed anxiety disorders). A systematic search of major electronic databases conducted in November 2016 identified 9 eligible RCTs, with 1837 participants. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to calculate the standardized mean difference (as Hedges' g) between smartphone interventions and control conditions. Significantly greater reductions in total anxiety scores were observed from smartphone interventions than control conditions (g=0.325, 95% C.I.=0.17-0.48, psmartphone interventions were significantly greater when compared to waitlist/inactive controls (g=0.45, 95% C.I.=0.30-0.61, psmartphone interventions can match (or exceed) the efficacy of recognised treatments for anxiety has yet to established. This meta-analysis shows that psychological interventions delivered via smartphone devices can reduce anxiety. Future research should aim to develop pragmatic methods for implementing smartphone-based support for people with anxiety, while also comparing the efficacy of these interventions to standard face-to-face psychological care. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Somasundaram, D J; van de Put, W A; Eisenbruch, M; de Jong, J T
Cambodia has undergone massive psychosocial trauma in the last few decades, but has had virtually no western-style mental health services. For the first time in Cambodia a number of mental health clinics in rural areas have been started. This experience is used to discuss the risks and opportunities in introducing these services in the present war-torn situation. Basic statistics from the clinics are presented in the context of the historical and traditional setting, and the effort to maintain a culturally informed approach is described. The contrasting results in the clinics are analyzed in relation to factors intrinsic to the health care system and those related to the local population in order to highlight the issues involved in establishing future mental health services, both locally in other provinces and in situations similar to Cambodia. The efficacy of introducing low-cost, basic mental health care is shown, and related to the need to find solutions for prevailing problems on the psychosocial level. They can be introduced with modest means, and can be complementary to local health beliefs and traditional healing. In introducing mental health services, an approach is needed which adapts to the absorption potential of the health system as well as to the patients' need to find meaningful help. Existing resources, from the traditional healing sector to rudimentary village structures, cannot be neglected in the rehabilitation of the community, or in interventions to help the individual patient.
Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C.
Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ‘preventive medicine’ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ‘R’s such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073
Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C
Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health.
mental illness in the regional population HJH is supposed to serve. Therefore, only an analysis of trends for specific cohorts of in-patient users was possible. Both studies - the current review as well as the previous pilot, were retrospective descriptive clinical record reviews of mental health service delivery, training.
intervention, counseling, guidance, care coordination, and chronic illness management. Pediatric mental health care should be friendly to families and fully coordinated with the child's other health care. The presence of a child and adolescent psychiatrist and/or other mental health professionals in the primary care setting ...
Physical fitness and mental health impact of a sport-for-development intervention in a post-conflict setting: randomised controlled trial nested within an observational study of adolescents in Gulu, Uganda.
Richards, Justin; Foster, Charlie; Townsend, Nick; Bauman, Adrian
Physical inactivity contributes to poor fitness and mental health disorders. This is of concern in post-conflict low-income settings where non-communicable diseases are emerging and there is limited evidence for physical activity interventions. We examined the effects of a sport-for-development programme on adolescent physical fitness and mental health in Gulu, Uganda. We conducted a single-blinded RCT nested within an observational study with three unbalanced parallel groups. Participants were able-bodied adolescents aged 11-14 years. The intervention comprised an 11-week voluntary competitive sport-for-development football league. Participants who did not subscribe for the intervention formed a non-registered comparison group. Boys who registered for the sport-for-development programme were randomly allocated to the intervention or wait-listed. The girls programme subscription was insufficient to form a wait-list and all registrants received the intervention. Physical fitness was assessed by cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage fitness test), muscular power (standing broad jump) and body composition (BMI-for-age). Mental health was measured using the Acholi Psychosocial Assessment Instrument for local depression-like (DLS) and anxiety-like (ALS) syndromes. All randomisation was computer generated and assessors were masked to group allocation. An intention-to-treat analysis of adjusted effect size (ES) was applied. There were 1,462 adolescents in the study (intervention: boys = 74, girls = 81; wait-list: boys = 72; comparison: boys = 472, girls = 763). At four months follow-up there was no significant effect on the boys fitness when comparing intervention vs wait-listed and intervention vs non-registered groups. However, there was a negative effect on DLS when comparing boys intervention vs wait-listed (ES = 0.67 [0.33 to 1.00]) and intervention vs non-registered (ES = 0.25 [0.00 to 0.49]). Similar results were observed for ALS for boys intervention vs wait
Department of Veterans Affairs — VAMC-level statistics on the prevalence, mental health utilization, non-mental health utilization, mental health workload, and psychological testing of Veterans with...
... dialing 1-800-273-8255 and pressing 1. Mental Health Concerns There are three primary mental health concerns ... care or call 911. How Will Asking for Mental Health Treatment Affect My Career? Military personnel have always ...
Rickhi, Badri; Kania-Richmond, Ania; Moritz, Sabine; Cohen, Jordan; Paccagnan, Patricia; Dennis, Charlotte; Liu, Mingfu; Malhotra, Sonya; Steele, Patricia; Toews, John
Depression in adolescents and young adults is a major mental health condition that requires attention. Research suggests that approaches that include spiritual concepts and are delivered through an online platform are a potentially beneficial approach to treating/managing depression in this population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an 8-week online spirituality informed e-mental health intervention (the LEAP Project) on depression severity, and secondary outcomes of spiritual well-being and self-concept, in adolescents and young adults with major depressive disorder of mild to moderate severity. A parallel group, randomized, waitlist controlled, assessor-blinded clinical pilot trial was conducted in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The sample of 62 participants with major depressive disorder (DSM-IV-TR) was defined by two age subgroups: adolescents (ages 13 to 18 years; n = 31) and young adults (ages 19 to 24 years; n = 31). Participants in each age subgroup were randomized into the study arm (intervention initiated upon enrolment) or the waitlist control arm (intervention initiated after an 8-week wait period). Comparisons were made between the study and waitlist control arms at week 8 (the point where study arm had completed the intervention and the waitlist control arm had not) and within each arm at four time points over 24-week follow-up period. At baseline, there was no statistical difference between study and waitlist participants for both age subgroups for all three outcomes of interest. After the intervention, depression severity was significantly reduced; comparison across arms at week 8 and over time within each arm and both age subgroups. Spiritual well-being changes were not significant, with the exception of an improvement over time for the younger participants in the study arm (p = 0.01 at week 16 and p = 0.0305 at week 24). Self-concept improved significantly for younger participants immediately after the
Lora, A.; Sharan, P.
Background. Information is needed for development of mental health (MH) services; and particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs), where the MH systems are relatively weak. World Health Organization (WHO) has worked intensively during the last 15 years for developing a strategy in the field of MH information. Methods. The paper analyzes WHO instruments developed in this area [MH Atlas series and WHO Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS)]. Results. Data from ...
legislation humane treatment for the mentally ill. In 1913 there was a .... way, the person leaves his village and his com- munity at a time when he is ..... fective treatment? How might we predict if an epileptic patient may commit murder? We have in our mental hospital population a number of people who have murdered while ...
Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon
Objective Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organizations, countries, and regions: WHO, OECD, EU, United States, Australia, UK, and Scotland. Using Delphi method, we conducted two surveys of mental health indicators for experts in the field of mental health. The survey questionnaire included 5 domains: mental health status, mental health factor, mental health system, mental health service, and quality of mental health services. We considered 124 potential mental health indicators out of more than 600 from indicators of international organizations and foreign countries. Results We obtained the top 30 mental health indicators from the surveys. Among them, 10 indicators belong to the mental health system. The most important five mental health indicators are suicide rate, rate of increase in mental disorder treatment, burden caused by mental disorders, adequacy of identifying problems of mental health projects and deriving solutions, and annual prevalence of mental disorders. Conclusion Our study provides information about the process for indicator development and the use of survey results to measure the mental health status of the Korean population. The aim of mental health indicator development is to improve the mental health system by better grasping the current situation. We suggest these mental health indicators can monitor progress in efforts to implement reform policies, provide community services, and involve users, families and other stakeholders in mental health promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation. PMID:23251193
Mental disorders are common in almost all industrialized countries and many emerging economies. While several trials have shown that effective treatments exist for mental disorders, such as pharmacotherapy, psychological interventions, and self-help programs, the treatment gap in mental health care remains pervasive. Unrestricted access to adequate medical care for people with mental disorders will be one of the pressing public mental health tasks in the near future. In addition, scarcity of financial resources across the public mental health sector is a powerful argument for investigating innovative alternatives of delivering mental health care. Thus, one challenge that arises in modern mental health care is the development of innovative treatment concepts. One possibility for improving mental health care services is to deliver them via the Internet. Online-based mental health services have the potential to address the unmet need for mental health care.
Full Text Available Mental disorders are common in almost all industrialized countries and many emerging economies. While several trials have shown that effective treatments exist for mental disorders, such as pharmacotherapy, psychological interventions, and self-help programs, the treatment gap in mental health care remains pervasive. Unrestricted access to adequate medical care for people with mental disorders will be one of the pressing public mental health tasks in the near future. In addition, scarcity of financial resources across the public mental health sector is a powerful argument for investigating innovative alternatives of delivering mental health care. Thus, one challenge that arises in modern mental health care is the development of innovative treatment concepts. One possibility for improving mental health care services is to deliver them via the Internet. Online-based mental health services have the potential to address the unmet need for mental health care.
Full Text Available Background:Monitoring and reporting childhood mental health problems and mental health services utilization over time provide important information to identify mental health related issues and to guide early intervention. This paper aims to describe the recent prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among South Australian (SA children; to identify mental health problems associated characteristics; and to describe mental health services utilization and its related characteristics among this population. Methods:Parent-reported mental health problems were assessed against the first item of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. School-aged children were randomly sampled monthly and data were collected using a surveillance system between 2005 and 2015. Associations between mental health problems and various factors were analysed using univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression modelling. Results:Prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among children was 9.1% and 9.3% for children aged 5 to 11 years and children aged 12 to 15 years, respectively. No change in prevalence was observed during the past decade. Mental health problems were associated with male sex, long-term illness or pain, negative school experiences, not living with biological parents, and living in a rental dwelling. Less than half (48.7% of the children with mental health problems received professional help. An increasing trend was found in mental health services utilisation among children aged 5 to 15 years. Utilization of mental health services was associated with male sex, older age, long-term illness or pain, and feeling unhappy at school. Conclusion:This study reports the prevalence of parent-reported mental and mental health services utilisation among SA school-aged children. Identified characteristics associated with mental health problems and mental health services utilisation provide useful information for the planning of
Hamid, Hamada I; Everett, Anita
As Iraq faces the challenge of securing a sustainable resolution to the current violence, the burden of mental illness is likely to increase dramatically. The impact of Saddam Hussein's dictatorship, the Iran-Iraq war, U.S.-led economic sanctions, the Persian Gulf wars, and the U.S. invasion and subsequent violent insurgency have devastated Iraq's governmental and social infrastructure. Health care delivery across sectors has suffered greatly. During the reconstruction phase, the United States and coalition forces allocated resources to restructure Iraq's health care system. Many multinational organizations, governments, and policy makers had the political will as well as the financial and human resources to greatly influence Iraq's mental health program. However, the lack of an existing mental health plan stifled these efforts. Applying Kingdon's model for policy development, which includes political analysis, problem defining, and proposal drafting, the authors describe the development of Iraq's current mental health policy.
Richter, Dirk; Hoffmann, Holger
The physical environment of mental health institutions is regarded as a therapeutic agent within the treatment. There is only little scientific evidence on the consequences of architecture and design on psychiatric patients available. A systematic review was conducted on studies from adult mental health institutions. 25 studies were included into the review. Pre-post-studies and control group conditions were predominant study designs. Randomized controlled trials were not available. Interventions reached from art installations up to entire ward renovations. Outcome indicators were rather heterogeneous, including psychopathology, behavioural observations and aggression incidents. Overwhelmingly, the studies revealed positive results of interventions into the physical environment. We found positive outcomes independent from the intervention in detail. This result should be interpreted in the light of the generally low study quality and further methodological problems. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Niet, G.J. De; Tiemens, B.G.; Achterberg, T. van; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.
The present study explored the applicability of two brief evidence-based interventions to improve sleep quality in inpatient psychiatry. The study involved three comparable admission wards of a psychiatric hospital. Stimulus control was introduced at the first ward, and music-assisted relaxation at
Lamers, S.M.A.; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Steunenberg, B.; Steunenberg, B.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan
The present study aims to investigate the application of prosodic speech features in a psychological intervention based on lifereview. Several studies have shown that speech features can be used as indicators of depression severity, but these studies are mainly based on controlled speech recording
Larkin, Gregory Luke; Beautrais, Annette L; Spirito, Anthony; Kirrane, Barbara M; Lippmann, Melanie J; Milzman, David P
The burden of mental illness is profound and growing. Coupled with large gaps in extant psychiatric services, this mental health burden has often forced emergency departments (EDs) to become the de facto primary and acute care provider of mental health care in the United States. An expanded emergency medical and mental health research agenda is required to meet the need for improved education, screening, surveillance, and ED-initiated interventions for mental health problems. As an increasing fraction of undiagnosed and untreated psychiatric patients passes through the revolving doors of U.S. EDs, the opportunities for improving the art and science of acute mental health care have never been greater. These opportunities span macroepidemiologic surveillance research to intervention studies with individual patients. Feasible screening, intervention, and referral programs for mental health patients presenting to general EDs are needed. Additional research is needed to improve the quality of care, including the attitudes, abilities, interests, and virtues of ED providers. Research that optimizes provider education and training can help academic settings validate psychosocial issues as core components and responsibilities of emergency medicine. Transdisciplinary research with federal partners and investigators in neuropsychiatry and related fields can improve the mechanistic understanding of acute mental health problems. To have lasting impact, however, advances in ED mental health care must be translated into real-world policies and sustainable program enhancements to assure the uptake of best practices for ED screening, treatment, and management of mental disorders and psychosocial problems. (c) 2009 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Saymah, Dyaa; Tait, Lynda; Michail, Maria
Mental health system reform is urgently needed in Gaza to respond to increasing mental health consequences of conflict. Evidence from mental health systems research is needed to inform decision-making. We aimed to provide new knowledge on current mental health policy and legislation, and services and resource use, in Gaza to identify quality gaps and areas for urgent intervention. As part of a mixed methods study, we used the World Health Organization's Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems Version 2·2 to collect data on mental health services and resources. Data collection was carried out in 2011, based on the year 2010. Gaza's mental health policy suggests some positive steps toward reform such as supporting deinstitutionalisation of mental health services. The decrease in the number of beds in the psychiatric hospital and the progressive transition of mental healthcare toward more community based care are indicative of deinstitutionalisation. However, mental health legislation in support of deinstitutionalisation in Gaza is lacking. The integration of mental health into primary healthcare and general hospitals has not been fully achieved. Mental health in Gaza is underfunded, human rights protection of service users is absent, and human resources, service user advocacy, and mental health training are limited. Priority needs to be given to human rights protection, mental health training, and investment in human and organisational resources. Legislation is needed to support policy and plan development. The ongoing political conflict and expected increase in need for mental health services demonstrates an urgent response is necessary.
... tools and materials offering practical ways to help adolescent girls and adult women achieve better physical, mental, ... org Spanish-speaking operators available National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders 1-847-831-3438 9: ...
Sarah M. Ketelaar
Conclusion: The EMH approach to WHS improves the work functioning and mental health of nurses and allied health professionals. However, because we found small effects and participation in the offered EMH interventions was low, there is ample room for improvement.
Wissow, Lawrence S
While there is a strong case for primary prevention of mental health problems, relatively little mental health scholarship has been devoted to it in the last decade. Efforts to accelerate prevention scholarship could potentially benefit from strengthening pathways for interdisciplinary research; developing new training and working models for mental health professionals; developing a common language for public, policy, and scientific discussion of prevention; learning how to measure the common outcomes of heterogeneous interventions tailored to diverse communities.
The development and implementation of theory-driven programs capable of addressing poverty-impacted children's health, mental health, and prevention needs: CHAMP and CHAMP+, evidence-informed, family-based interventions to address HIV risk and care.
McKernan McKay, Mary; Alicea, Stacey; Elwyn, Laura; McClain, Zachary R B; Parker, Gary; Small, Latoya A; Mellins, Claude Ann
This article describes a program of prevention and intervention research conducted by the CHAMP (Collaborative HIV prevention and Adolescent Mental health Project; McKay & Paikoff, 2007 ) investigative team. CHAMP refers to a set of theory-driven, evidence-informed, collaboratively designed, family-based approaches meant to address the prevention, health, and mental health needs of poverty-impacted African American and Latino urban youth who are either at risk for HIV exposure or perinatally infected and at high risk for reinfection and possible transmission. CHAMP approaches are informed by theoretical frameworks that incorporate an understanding of the critical influences of multilevel contextual factors on youth risk taking and engagement in protective health behaviors. Highly influential theories include the triadic theory of influence, social action theory, and ecological developmental perspectives. CHAMP program delivery strategies were developed via a highly collaborative process drawing upon community-based participatory research methods in order to enhance cultural and contextual sensitivity of program content and format. The development and preliminary outcomes associated with a family-based intervention for a new population, perinatally HIV-infected youth and their adult caregivers, referred to as CHAMP+, is described to illustrate the integration of theory, existing evidence, and intensive input from consumers and healthcare providers.
The development and implementation of theory-driven programs capable of addressing poverty-impacted children’s health, mental health and prevention needs: CHAMP and CHAMP+, evidence-informed, family-based interventions to address HIV risk and care
McKay, Mary McKernan; Alicea, Stacey; Elwyn, Laura; McClain, Zachary R.B.; Parker, Gary; Small, Latoya A; Ann Mellins, Claude
This article describes a program of prevention and intervention research conducted by the CHAMP (CHAMP – Collaborative HIV prevention and Adolescent Mental health Project; McKay & Paikoff, 2007) investigative team. CHAMP refers to a set of theory-driven, evidence-informed, collaboratively-designed, family-based approaches meant to address the prevention, health and mental health needs of poverty-impacted, African American and Latino urban youth who are either at risk for HIV exposure or who are perinatally-infected and at high risk for re-infection and possible transmission. CHAMP approaches are informed by theoretical frameworks that incorporate an understanding of the critical influences of multi-level contextual factors on youth risk taking and engagement in protective health behaviors. Highly influential theories include: the Triadic Theory of Influence (TTI) (Bell, Flay, & Paikoff, 2002), Social Action Theory (SAT) (Ewart, 1991) and Ecological Developmental Perspectives (Paikoff, Traube, & McKay, 2006). CHAMP program delivery strategies were developed via a highly collaborative process drawing upon community-based participatory research methods in order to enhance cultural and contextual sensitivity of program content and format. The development and preliminary outcomes associated with a family-based intervention for a new population, perinatally HIV-infected youth and their adult caregivers, referred to as CHAMP+, is described to illustrate the integration of theory, existing evidence and intensive input from consumers and healthcare providers. PMID:24787707
Mache, Stefanie; Baresi, Lisa; Bernburg, Monika; Vitzthum, Karin; Groneberg, David
Dealing with work-related stress is highly prevalent for employees in Gynecology Medicine. Junior physicians, in particular, have to face high working demands and challenges while starting their medical career after graduation. Job resources (i.e., social support) and personal resources (coping skills) might reduce job strain. The evidence for supportive and effective mental health interventions for clinicians is limited. Offering psychosocial skill training for entrants in Gynecology Medicine is expected to be highly beneficial. Following this, the present pilot study focused on strengthening physicians' psychosocial skills and analyzed the effects of innovative training for junior gynecologists working in German hospitals. Coping skills training for junior gynecologists was offered as group training for 12 weekly sessions over a time period of 3 months. Physicians were randomized to either an intervention group (IG) receiving the training (n = 38) or a control group (CG; n = 40). Training content involved developing and learning coping skills as well as solution-focused and cognitive behavioral counselling for junior gynecologists. Study outcomes were (1) perceived occupational stress, (2) emotional exhaustion, (3) resilience coping behavior, (4) emotion regulation skills and (5) job satisfaction. Surveys were distributed at baseline (T0), after the training (T1), after 3 (T2) and 6 months (T3). Junior gynecologists (IG) reported a significant decrease in perceived job stress and emotional exhaustion from baseline to all follow-ups, whereas the control group did not show any comparable results. A clear positive value of the mental health promotion program was also noticeable with regard to job satisfaction and increased coping skills (i.e., emotion regulation). Overall satisfaction with the skill training was high: gynecologists reported high scores for training design, content, received outcome and overall satisfaction with the training. In this pilot
Mangala, R; Thara, R
Tamil cinema is a vibrant part of the lives of many in south India. A chequered history and a phenomenal growth have made this medium highly influential not only in Tamil Nadu politics, but also in the social lives of the viewers. This paper provides an overview of the growth of Tamil cinema, and discusses in detail the way mental health has been handled by Tamil films. Cinema can be used very effectively to improve awareness about mental health issues.
Full Text Available Numerous issues related to culture, occupation, gender, caste, and health, to name a few, have faced harshness of society from time immemorial. Reasons are debatable, ranging from somewhat understandable to completely unacceptable. There is no doubt that society is dynamic and it has changed its view on many of the issues with passing time. Mental health is one such issue which society has neglected for quite a long time. Even today, mental health and mentally ill people face stigma and discrimination in their family, society, and at their workplace. People do not feel comfortable talking about mental health, even if they know that there cannot be any health without a healthy mind. But, as Albert Einstein has said “learn from yesterday, live for today, and hope for tomorrow”, everything is not lost. The mentally ill patients who were once abandoned and left on their own have now started to get humane care and attention. This article discusses this very pertinent topic of changing society and mental health.
Lai, Grace Ying-Chi; Lo, Graciete; Ngo, Hong; Chou, Yuwen; Yang, Lawrence