Okkels, Niels; Kristiansen, Christina Blanner; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl; Sartorius, Norman
To provide an update on urban mental health and highlight the challenges that require urgent attention. The majority of the world's population live in towns and urbanization is expected to increase in all areas of the world. Challenges to mental health in urban areas include loneliness, violence, high crime rates, homelessness, noise and other pollutants, traffic accidents, drug abuse, and insufficiency of mental health services. Urbanization is a global and growing phenomenon that pose significant challenges to mental health and mental health services. Fast and unstructured urbanization, such as that seen in many developing countries, further exacerbates these challenges. There are promising initiatives emerging including initiatives to end homelessness, to improve access to green areas in urban environments, to provide emergency psychiatric services, and to develop new forms of mental health services adjusted to urban settings. Regrettably there are no universally accepted guidelines that would help governments in structuring health services for people with mental illness in towns and help to prevent mental health problems related to rapid urbanization.
Tarsitani, Lorenzo; Biondi, Massimo
Migration is an important risk factor for the development of common and severe mental disorders. Nevertheless, in Europe, immigrants are less likely to access community mental health care and to adhere to treatments, with consequent emergency referrals, involuntary admissions, and traumatic coercive measures. At a clinical level, changes in practices and cross-cultural skills of mental health professionals might be crucial in addressing this challenge.
The field of mobile health ("m-Health") is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally ("g-Health"). However, few of the mobile applications (apps) have been rigorously evaluated. There is little information on how valid screening and assessment tools are, which of the mobile intervention apps are effective, or how well mobile apps compare to face-to-face treatments. But how feasible is rigorous scientific evaluation with the rising demands from policy makers, business partners, and users for their quick release? In this paper, developments in m-Health tools-targeting screening, assessment, prevention, and treatment-are reviewed with examples from the field of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The academic challenges in developing and evaluating m-Health tools are being addressed. Evidence-based guidance is needed on appropriate research designs that may overcome some of the public and ethical challenges (e.g., equity, availability) and the market-driven wish to have mobile apps in the "App Store" yesterday rather than tomorrow.
Full Text Available The field of mobile health (“m-Health” is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally (“g-Health”. However, few of the mobile applications (apps have been rigorously evaluated. There is little information on how valid screening and assessment tools are, which of the mobile intervention apps are effective, or how well mobile apps compare to face-to-face treatments. But how feasible is rigorous scientific evaluation with the rising demands from policy makers, business partners, and users for their quick release? In this paper, developments in m-Health tools—targeting screening, assessment, prevention, and treatment—are reviewed with examples from the field of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The academic challenges in developing and evaluating m-Health tools are being addressed. Evidence-based guidance is needed on appropriate research designs that may overcome some of the public and ethical challenges (e.g., equity, availability and the market-driven wish to have mobile apps in the “App Store” yesterday rather than tomorrow.
Full Text Available Many LGBT forced migrants have significant and sometimesincapacitating psychological scars. Mental health providers can assistin documenting the psychological impact of anti-LGBT persecutionand its impact on the ability to secure refugee status.
The field of mobile health ("m-Health'') is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and
Vreeman, Rachel C; McCoy, Brittany M; Lee, Sonia
Mental health is a critical and neglected global health challenge for adolescents infected with HIV. The prevalence of mental and behavioural health issues among HIV-infected adolescents may not be well understood or addressed as the world scales up HIV prevention and treatment for adolescents. The objective of this narrative review is to assess the current literature related to mental health challenges faced by adolescents living with HIV, including access to mental health services, the role of mental health challenges during transition from paediatric to adult care services and responsibilities, and the impact of mental health interventions. For each of the topics included in this review, individual searches were run using Medline and PubMed, accompanied by scans of bibliographies of relevant articles. The topics on which searches were conducted for HIV-infected adolescents include depression and anxiety, transition from paediatric to adult HIV care and its impact on adherence and mental health, HIV-related, mental health services and interventions, and the measurement of mental health problems. Articles were included if the focus was consistent with one of the identified topics, involved HIV-infected adolescents, and was published in English. Mental and behavioural health challenges are prevalent in HIV-infected adolescents, including in resource-limited settings where most of them live, and they impact all aspects of HIV prevention and treatment. Too little has been done to measure the impact of mental health challenges for adolescents living with HIV, to evaluate interventions to best sustain or improve the mental health of this population, or to create healthcare systems with personnel or resources to promote mental health. Mental health issues should be addressed proactively during adolescence for all HIV-infected youth. In addition, care systems need to pay greater attention to how mental health support is integrated into the care management for HIV
Vicki A Nejtek
Full Text Available Vicki A Nejtek, Sarah Hardy, Scott WinterUniversity of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USAAbstract: The leading cause of suicide ideation, attempts, and completion in adolescents is persistent and unresolved parental conflict. National statistics show extremely high rates of childhood neglect and abuse are perpetrated most often by single mothers. Psychiatric disorders arising from maternal–child dysfunction are well-documented. However, resources to prevent offspring victimization are lacking. Here, we report maternal neglect of a 15-year-old male brought to the psychiatric emergency room for suicidal ideation. An inpatient treatment plan including pharmacotherapy, family therapy and psychological testing was initiated. The patient’s mother failed to attend clinic appointments or family therapy sessions. Clinician attempts to engage the mother in the treatment plan was met with verbal assaults, aggression, and threatening behavior. The patient decompensated in relation to the mother’s actions. Child Protective Services were contacted and a follow-up assessment with the patient and mother is pending. Psychiatric treatment of the mother may be a necessary intervention and prevention regimen for both the adolescent and the mother. Without consistent Child Protective Services oversight, medical and psychosocial follow-up, the prognosis and quality of life for this adolescent is considered very poor. Stringent mental health law and institutional policies are needed to adequately intercede and protect adolescents with mental illness.Keywords: adolescent, suicide, maternal treatment noncompliance, maternal neglect
Retamal C, Pedro; Markkula, Niina; Peña, Sebastián
This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates. In Chile, the percentage of total disease burden due to psychiatric disorders is 13% and in Finland 14%. However, the resources to address these issues are very different. Finland spends 4.5% of its health budget on mental health, while in Chile the percentage is 2.2%. This results in differences in human resources and service provision. Finland has five times more psychiatric outpatient visits, four times more psychiatrists, triple antidepressant use and twice more clinical guidelines for different psychiatric conditions. In conclusion, both countries have similar challenges but differing realities. This may help to identify gaps and potential solutions for public health challenges in Chile. Finlands experience demonstrates the importance of political will and long-term vision in the construction of mental health policies.
Mass shootings, such as the 2012 Newtown massacre, have repeatedly led to political discourse about limiting access to guns for individuals with serious mental illness. Although the political climate after such tragic events poses a considerable challenge to mental health advocates who wish to minimize unsympathetic portrayals of those with mental illness, such media attention may be a rare opportunity to focus attention on risks of victimization of those with serious mental illness and barriers to obtaining psychiatric care. Current federal gun control laws may discourage individuals from seeking psychiatric treatment and describe individuals with mental illness using anachronistic, imprecise, and gratuitously stigmatizing language. This article lays out potential talking points that may be useful after future gun violence.
Gadit, A A Muhammad
Mental health practitioners often come across a number of challenges in their clinical practice. One such challenge that posed a management dilemma presented with the history of reincarnation. This subject has been discussed in non-scientific literature at length but there is an absolute paucity in scientific literature. This paper describes a case where a boy presented with memories of previous life that started haunting him and caused significant anxiety. The subject of reincarnation needs extensive research in order to understand and manage the resultant clinical challenges.
Mitchell, D P; Betts, A; Epling, M
Employment is the cornerstone of social inclusion, the means by which individuals play a full and active part in society and has a pivotal role in helping young people to negotiate the transitional period between the child and adulthood. Employment therefore should be seen as a right and given a higher priority by health and social care agencies. There are numerous difficulties preventing some young people from achieving full employment and these are compounded for young people with concurrent mental health and substance misuse problems (dual diagnosis). The coexistence of these two problems is on the increase and they are recognized as significant barriers to employment. Unemployment may lead to social alienation, criminal or other antisocial activity and a higher incidence of suicide. Consequently, there is a danger of young unemployed people slipping into a spiral of self-defeating, antisocial and risky behaviour. There is little evidence of health and social care agencies working in partnership with voluntary sector organizations to tackle the growing problem of dual diagnosis and youth unemployment, although there are obvious linkages between employment, psychological health, social inclusion and substance misuse. It is therefore worth exploring the issues surrounding work, mental health and substance misuse in young people if we are to generate new ways of thinking about and responding to the needs of this target group. This presents a challenge to mental health services, particularly nurses who face the impact of these issues in their day to day practice but often lack the preparation and support to adequately address them.
Hahn, T; Nierenberg, A A; Whitfield-Gabrieli, S
The emerging field of 'predictive analytics in mental health' has recently generated tremendous interest with the bold promise to revolutionize clinical practice in psychiatry paralleling similar developments in personalized and precision medicine. Here, we provide an overview of the key questions and challenges in the field, aiming to (1) propose general guidelines for predictive analytics projects in psychiatry, (2) provide a conceptual introduction to core aspects of predictive modeling technology, and (3) foster a broad and informed discussion involving all stakeholders including researchers, clinicians, patients, funding bodies and policymakers.
Background. A unique feature of mental health nurses' work involves exposure to clients' descriptions of and reactions to trauma, and these experiences may indirectly cause distress to the mental health worker. This phenomenon has been termed “secondary traumatic stress” (STS) (Perez, Jones, Englert & Sachau, 2010).
Spiker, Douglas A; Hammer, Joseph H
Mental health literacy (MHL) is one increasingly researched factor thought to influence mental health behaviors. Researchers have argued for expanding the definition of MHL to include additional constructs, but no consensus has yet been reached on what constructs should be included as part of MHL. The purpose of this paper is to (i) elucidate how the expansion of the MHL construct has impeded the growth of MHL research and (ii) through the lens of construct and theory development, highlight how these challenges might be remedied. An inclusive search of the literature was undertaken to identify MHL studies. The principles of construct and theory development guided a critical analysis of MHL. The review of the literature found that MHL violates many principles of what constitutes an acceptable construct definition. To address these concerns, we proposed conceptualizing MHL as a theory and recommended principles of theory development that should be taken into consideration. A theory of MHL can guide future researchers to clearly delineate important constructs and their interrelationships. For practitioners, a theory of MHL can help inform how to improve MHL at both the individual and community level.
Full Text Available The growth of the Internet, mobile phones, social media and other digital technologies has changed our world in many ways. It has provided individuals with information that was previously only available to a select few. An example of the reach of technology is data that as of October 2012, there are over 6 billion phones worldwide (BBC, 2012. The availability of data in real time has presented hopes of intervening more efficiently and managing health problems by leveraging limited human resources. It also has an impact in changing the roles of providers and patients and in legal and ethical issues including privacy in digital health interactions. This paper will discuss why digital technology has received recent attention in the area of mental health, present some applications of technology for mental health to date, explore the challenges to full implementation in clinical settings, and present future opportunities for digital technologies.El crecimiento del Internet, los teléfonos móviles, las redes sociales y otras tecnologías digitales ha cambiado nuestro mundo de muchas maneras. Ha proporcionado a las personas con la información que antes sólo estaba disponible para un grupo selecto, por ejemplo a partir de octubre de 2012. Un ejemplo del alcance de la tecnología son los datos que dicen que hay más de 6 millones de teléfonos en todo el mundo (BBC, 2012. La disponibilidad de los datos en tiempo real a presentado la esperanza de intervenir de manera más eficiente y manejar los problemas de salud los recursos humanos limitados. También tiene un impacto en el cambio de los roles de los proveedores y los pacientes y en aspectos legales y éticos, incluyendo la privacidad en las interacciones de salud digital. Este artículo discutirá unas razones por cual la tecnología digital ha recibido atención recientemente en el área de salud mental, presentará algunas aplicaciones de la tecnología para mejorar la salud mental hasta la fecha
Nielsen, Rune K.L.; Aarseth, Espen; Poulsen, Arne
In this paper, we outline the proposed PhD project: "Challenges for Game Addiction as a Mental Health Diagnosis". The project aims to bridge gaps between the perspectives, theories and data of current research trajectories that engage with the concept of game addiction; from psychology, psychiatry......, cognitive neuroscience to media and game studies. The project has several proposed outcomes. Based on a review of the literature, the adequacy of 'game addiction' as a concept is questioned. The concept is further discussed in a historical perspective of game related pathologies and media/moral panics....... The validity of the prevalent instruments used to assess the prevalence of computer game addiction is examined in a cross-disciplinary context. The argument of the project is that research on computer game addiction is limited by mono-disciplinary approaches that fail to capture significant nuances at the cost...
Nielsen, Rune K.L.; Aarseth, Espen; Poulsen, Arne
In this paper, we outline the proposed PhD project: "Challenges for Game Addiction as a Mental Health Diagnosis". The project aims to bridge gaps between the perspectives, theories and data of current research trajectories that engage with the concept of game addiction; from psychology, psychiatry......, cognitive neuroscience to media and game studies. The project has several proposed outcomes. Based on a review of the literature, the adequacy of 'game addiction' as a concept is questioned. The concept is further discussed in a historical perspective of game related pathologies and media/moral panics....... The validity of the prevalent instruments used to assess the prevalence of computer game addiction is examined in a cross-disciplinary context. The argument of the project is that research on computer game addiction is limited by mono-disciplinary approaches that fail to capture significant nuances at the cost...
The history of the development of mental health services in Africa falls into four phases, firstly the pre-colonial phase, with care being under the traditional and spiritual healers, then the rise of asylums for mainly custodial confinement, followed by modern large asylum-like mental hospitals during and soon after the colo-.
Saavedra Solano, Nayelhi; Berenzon Gorn, Shoshana; Galván Reyes, Jorge
To present the conditions that favour or limit the integration of mental health into health centres, based on the perceptions of health workers and on observations made by researchers. A study was conducted between April 2012 and February 2014 using a non-participant observation technique plus interviews with health professionals. Descriptive exploratory study conducted in 19 health centres in Mexico City. The selection of centres and participants was intentional, followed by the snowball technique in order to reach data saturation. Two guides were use, one for collecting information during the observation and the other one for interviews. The observations were registered in field notes, while the interviews were audio recorded. All collected information was stored in Word files. The analysis of field notes consisted of three levels of reading, and the interview analysis was based on "categorisation of meanings" proposed by Kvale (1996). The aspects that favour or limit the integration of mental health services involve three broad categories: a) programs and methods that organise services, b) infrastructure and material resources and, c) human and information resources. Actions targeted at including mental health into productivity reports and into already established goals, would contribute to the integration of mental health care, as well as promoting the idea that mental health is part of overall health, and to increase the public investment in health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Oladeji, Bibilola D.; Gureje, Oye
The brain drain of medical professionals from lower-income to higher-income countries contributes to the current inequity that characterises access to mental healthcare by those in need across the world and hinders efforts to scale up mental health services in resource-constrained settings, especially in Nigeria and other West African countries. The migration of skilled workers is driven by a combination of the globalisation of the labour market and the ability of highly resourced countries t...
Oladeji, Bibilola D; Gureje, Oye
The brain drain of medical professionals from lower-income to higher-income countries contributes to the current inequity that characterises access to mental healthcare by those in need across the world and hinders efforts to scale up mental health services in resource-constrained settings, especially in Nigeria and other West African countries. The migration of skilled workers is driven by a combination of the globalisation of the labour market and the ability of highly resourced countries to attract and retain specialists from poorer countries. If we are to ameliorate the worldwide shortage of mental health professionals, we need to find innovative ways of attracting young doctors into psychiatric training in all countries. We must also introduce measures to improve health worker retention in low- and middle-income countries.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper is to assess the mental health system in Brazil in relation to the human resources and the services available to the population. Methods The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO AIMS was recently applied in Brazil. This paper will analyse data on the following sections of the WHO-AIMS: a mental health services; and b human resources. In addition, two more national datasets will be used to complete the information provided by the WHO questionnaire: a the Executive Bureau of the Department of Health (Datasus; and b the National Register of Health Institutions (CNS. Results There are 6003 psychiatrists, 18,763 psychologists, 1985 social workers, 3119 nurses and 3589 occupational therapists working for the Unified Health System (SUS. At primary care level, there are 104,789 doctors, 184, 437 nurses and nurse technicians and 210,887 health agents. The number of psychiatrists is roughly 5 per 100,000 inhabitants in the Southeast region, and the Northeast region has less than 1 psychiatrist per 100,000 inhabitants. The number of psychiatric nurses is insufficient in all geographical areas, and psychologists outnumber other mental health professionals in all regions of the country. The rate of beds in psychiatric hospitals in the country is 27.17 beds per 100,000 inhabitants. The rate of patients in psychiatric hospitals is 119 per 100,000 inhabitants. The average length of stay in mental hospitals is 65.29 days. In June 2006, there were 848 Community Psychosocial Centers (CAPS registered in Brazil, a ratio of 0.9 CAPS per 200,000 inhabitants, unequally distributed in the different geographical areas: the Northeast and the North regions having lower figures than the South and Southeast regions. Conclusion The country has opted for innovative services and programs, such as the expansion of Psychosocial Community Centers and the Return Home program to deinstitutionalize
health care and identify solutions.2 The findings highlighted fragmentation of services and the difficulties of ... depression, whereas 10 years ago it was back pain. Most recently, President Bush unveiled an action ... mental illness appears no better in Australia following the release of a report on investigations into Australia's ...
Marais, Debra Leigh; Petersen, Inge
While South Africa has a new policy framework supporting the integration of mental health care into primary health care, this is not sufficient to ensure transformation of the health care system towards integrated primary mental health care. Health systems strengthening is needed, incorporating, inter alia, capacity building and resource inputs, as well as good governance for ensuring that the relevant policy imperatives are implemented. To identify systemic factors within institutional and policy contexts that are likely to facilitate or impede the implementation of integrated mental health care in South Africa. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 key stakeholders in the Department of Health and Department of Social Development at national level, at provincial level in the North West Province, and at district level in the Dr Kenneth Kaunda district. Participants were purposively identified based on their positions and job responsibilities. Interview questions were guided by a hybrid of Siddiqi et al.'s governance framework principles and Mikkelsen-Lopez et al.'s health system governance approach. Data were analysed using framework analysis in NVivo. Facilitative factors included the recent mental health care policy framework and national action plan that embraces integrated care using a task sharing model and provides policy imperatives for the establishment of district mental health teams to facilitate the development and implementation of district mental health care plans; the roll out of the integrated chronic disease service delivery platform that can be leveraged to increase access and resources as well as decrease stigma; and the presence of NGOs that can assist with service delivery. Challenges included the low prioritisation and stigmatisation of mental illness; weak managerial and planning capacity to develop and implement mental health care plans at provincial and district level; poor pre-service training of generalists in
Wainberg, Milton L; Scorza, Pamela; Shultz, James M; Helpman, Liat; Mootz, Jennifer J; Johnson, Karen A; Neria, Yuval; Bradford, Jean-Marie E; Oquendo, Maria A; Arbuckle, Melissa R
Globally, the majority of those who need mental health care worldwide lack access to high-quality mental health services. Stigma, human resource shortages, fragmented service delivery models, and lack of research capacity for implementation and policy change contribute to the current mental health treatment gap. In this review, we describe how health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are addressing the mental health gap and further identify challenges and priority areas for future research. Common mental disorders are responsible for the largest proportion of the global burden of disease; yet, there is sound evidence that these disorders, as well as severe mental disorders, can be successfully treated using evidence-based interventions delivered by trained lay health workers in low-resource community or primary care settings. Stigma is a barrier to service uptake. Prevention, though necessary to address the mental health gap, has not solidified as a research or programmatic focus. Research-to-practice implementation studies are required to inform policies and scale-up services. Four priority areas are identified for focused attention to diminish the mental health treatment gap and to improve access to high-quality mental health services globally: diminishing pervasive stigma, building mental health system treatment and research capacity, implementing prevention programs to decrease the incidence of mental disorders, and establishing sustainable scale up of public health systems to improve access to mental health treatment using evidence-based interventions.
Babury, Mohammed Osman; Hayward, Fred Manwarren
More than 30 years of war in Afghanistan have resulted in immense policy challenges to address the resulting mental health issues. The purpose of this policy analysis is to examine the potential role of higher education in addressing the pressing mental health problems in Afghanistan's public universities and higher education institutions as a…
Scheidt, S D
Although women have made many strides in the area of leadership, stereotypes still exist that limit their power. Traditional concepts of femininity have not typically been associated with strength and competence. This article describes an inpatient unit at San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, which is led by a group of women. The unit houses a women-focused treatment team specializing in treating women who have serious mental illness with histories of severe trauma, including poverty and violence. The article describes the challenges and rewards available to women leaders in this type of setting. Four areas of women's leadership are explored: the stereotypes women have about each other as leaders, the expectations and biases of staff and trainees, the projections of patients onto women leaders, and women's leadership in relation to department administration. Strategies for addressing biases in these areas and developing women's leadership conclude the article.
Prieto-Welch, Susan L.
This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.
6.89%). In 70.68% children no clinical syndrome was associated with mental retardation. 60.35% children were offspring of consanguineous marriages. In 63.8% children the causes for mental retardation were idiopathic, and genetic causes ...
Jegannathan, Bhoomikumar; Kullgren, Gunnar; Deva, Parameshvara
Cambodia had suffered enormously due to war and internecine conflict during the latter half of the twentieth century, more so during the Vietnam War. Total collapse of education and health systems during the Pol Pot era continues to be a challenge for developing the necessary infrastructure and human resources to provide basic minimum mental health care which is compounded by the prevailing cultural belief and stigma over mental, neurological and substance abuse disorders (MNSDs). The mental health research and services in Cambodia had been predominantly 'trauma focused', a legacy of war, and there is a need to move toward epidemiologically sound public health oriented mental health policy and service development. Integrating mental health program with primary health care services with specifically stated minimum package of activities at primary level and complementary package of activities at secondary level is an opportunity to meet the needs and rights of persons with mental, neurological and substance abuse disorders (PWMNSDs) in Cambodia, provided there is mental health leadership, government commitment and political will. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The active involvement of those people who have at one time used, or who continue to use, mental health services has come to be seen as a central feature of both the policy and the practice of modern mental health care. However, while those people who use mental health services may face a variety of obstacles to active participation in their care and in the provision of mental health services more generally, this paper will draw on the work of Gilles Deleuze, arguably one of the most important philosophers of the late 20th century, to suggest that the language of psychiatry--and, in particular, the attendant valuations or 'sense' of psychiatry's diagnostic categories--serve to restrict the participation of people in their individual care and in the provision of mental health services. Accordingly, it will be suggested that the challenge, as well as the opportunity, that confronts mental health nurses is to facilitate greater, more active user participation by practising in a manner that elicits the resources, capabilities and potential that service users possess, thereby challenging the prevailing and restrictive sense of the diagnostic categories by which people are identified, and by which they come to identify themselves.
Luitel, Nagendra P; Jordans, Mark Jd; Adhikari, Anup; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Hanlon, Charlotte; Lund, Crick; Komproe, Ivan H
BACKGROUND: Globally mental health problems are a serious public health concern. Currently four out of five people with severe mental illness in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC) receive no effective treatment. There is an urgent need to address this enormous treatment gap. Changing the focus
Sowers, Jo-Ann; Swank, Paul
The impact of an intervention on the self-determination and career planning engagement of young adults with mental health challenges was studied. Sixty-seven young adults, 20 to 30 years of age, with mental health diagnoses (e.g., depression, bipolar disorder) were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Statistically significant greater increases were made by the intervention group versus the control group for self-determination and career planning engagement, and self-determination at least partially mediated increases in career planning engagement. With career planning self-determination interventions, young adults with mental health challenges might be able to achieve better career and life outcomes than is typical for this population.
Kaplan, Ida; Stow, Hardy David; Szwarc, Josef
There has been a growing recognition of the mental health needs of refugees in countries of settlement, as many are survivors of torture and other traumatic events experienced in countries of origin, during flight, and in places of temporary refuge. The challenges in providing access to services and quality mental health care arise not only from the fact that refugees generally come from cultures very different to the societies in which they settle and are not proficient in the languages of their new homes. Other significant barriers relate to the impact of the trauma and psychosocial stressors they experience despite finding apparent security. In response to the challenges, specialist agencies have developed ways of providing services that are trauma-informed, culture-informed, and holistic. This paper describes an Australian example of a mental health clinic as part of a community-based service for refugees who are survivors of torture and other traumatic events.
Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...
Robert A. Hanson
Modern life fosters confusion and encourages passivity, and youth suffer most from this pattern. The Outdoor Challenge Program enables young people to experience the active roles and the clarity of purpose called forth by a wilderness opportunity. The experience appears to enhance their mental health during and after the program.
Kitzrow, Martha Anne
Reviews literature on the changing mental health needs of today's college students and challenges posed by both the growing number of students with serious psychological problems on campus and the increased number of student seeking counseling. Implications for students, faculty, staff, and the institution are discussed along with strategies for…
Global events like wars and natural disasters have led to the refugee population reaching numbers not seen since the Second World War. Attitudes to asylum have hardened, with the potential to compromise the mental health needs of asylum seekers and refugees. The challenges in providing mental healthcare for asylum seekers and refugees include working with the uncertainties of immigration status and cultural differences. Ways to meet the challenges include cultural competency training, availability of interpreters and cultural brokers as well as appropriately adapting modes of therapy. Service delivery should support adjustment to life in a foreign country. Never has the need been greater for psychiatrists to play a leadership role in the area.
Michael Pascal Hengartner
Full Text Available Experts in personality psychology and personality disorders have long emphasised the pervasive and persistent detrimental impact of maladaptive personality traits on mental health and functioning. However, in routine psychiatric practice maladaptive personality is readily ignored and personality traits are seldom incorporated into clinical guidelines. The aim of this narrative review is to outline how pervasively personality influences public mental health and how personality thereby challenges common psychiatric practice. A comprehensive search and synthesis of the scientific literature demonstrates that maladaptive personality traits and personality disorders, in particular high neuroticism and negative affectivity, first, are risk factors for divorce, unemployment and disability pensioning; second, relate to the prevalence, incidence and co-occurrence of common mental disorders; third, impair functioning, symptom remission and recovery in co-occurring common mental disorders; and fourth, predispose to treatment resistance, non-response and poor treatment outcome. In conclusion, maladaptive personality is not only involved in the development and course of mental disorders, but also predisposes to chronicity and re-occurrence of psychopathology and reduces the efficacy of psychiatric treatments. The pernicious impact of maladaptive personality on mental health and functioning demands that careful assessment and thorough consideration of personality should be compulsory in psychiatric practice.
Ndetei, David M; Jenkins, Rachel
The aims are to examine the challenges and opportunities in the implementation of mental health information systems (MHIS) in developing countries as suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) and explored by Gulbinat et al. (2008). Special recommendations for developing countries are: 1) MHIS should be linked to the general medical information system; 2) there is need for adoption, adaptation and validation of preferably self-administered instruments that are appropriate for different levels within the health care system; 3) developing countries must adopt innovative and "unconventional" approaches through utilization of community members, traditional doctors/healers and mid-cadre health workers, in addition to general doctors, for the delivery of mental health services.
Nieminen, I; Kaunonen, M
the importance of providing support for mental health service users' (MHSUs') education. However, none of these studies explored this support in the community mental health centre setting. The range of MHSUs' educational activities identified in this study varied from participation in courses at the mental health centres to independent studies at different levels of education outside the centres. Aim (1) How do mental health professionals perceive the challenges that may limit service users' potential when they apply for, and complete, their education? (2) How do the professionals describe the methods of rehabilitation aimed at supporting the service users in achieving their educational goals? Method The data were collected from 14 mental health professionals using focus group interviews. Inductive content analysis was then performed. Results Professionals perceive that the predominance of disease and marginalization may be barriers to MHSUs' success in education. Strengthening the MHSUs' internal resources, creating a supportive environment with professional expertise available and service user-centred education appeared to support the MHSUs' educational achievements. Our findings confirm previous knowledge of a recovery-oriented approach to support MHSUs' education. However, professionals' views on this topic in the context of community mental health centres have not been investigated previously. Discussion Professionals perceive that a recovery-oriented approach to rehabilitation may support MHSUs in their educational efforts. Implications for practice A recovery-oriented approach should be adopted by all levels of the community mental health centres. MHSUs and professionals need to have a shared opinion on the definition of recovery orientation. This requires mutual discussion and a more active involvement of MHSUs in the design of their own rehabilitation process. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wei, Yifeng; Kutcher, Stan
School mental health programs from developed countries demonstrate that both the practice and research are becoming more important to policy makers, educators, health providers, parents, and other stakeholders. Some United Nations agencies and other international organizations have begun work to advance school mental health internationally. School-based mental health programming needs to be considered as part of usual child and youth mental health policies and plans, whether those are national or other jurisdictional in nature. Currently, a paucity of evidence-based and cost effective child and youth global mental health policies/programs exist, limiting school-based mental health programs being developed, implemented, or sustained.
Ozbay, Fatih; Auf der Heyde, Tanja; Reissman, Dori; Sharma, Vansh
The authors review the existing literature on the mental health impact of the September 11th attacks and the implications for disaster mental health clinicians and policy makers. The authors discuss the demographic characteristics of those affected and the state of mental health needs and existing mental health delivery services; the nature of the disaster and primary impacts on lives, infrastructure, and socioeconomic factors; the acute aftermath in the days and weeks after the attacks; the persistent mental health impact and evolution of services of the postacute aftermath; and the implications for future disaster mental health practitioners and policy makers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Okkels, Niels; Kristiansen, Christina Blanner; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl
areas include loneliness, violence, high crime rates, homelessness, noise and other pollutants, traffic accidents, drug abuse, and insufficiency of mental health services. Summary Urbanization is a global and growing phenomenon that pose significant challenges to mental health and mental health services....... Fast and unstructured urbanization, such as that seen in many developing countries, further exacerbates these challenges. There are promising initiatives emerging including initiatives to end homelessness, to improve access to green areas in urban environments, to provide emergency psychiatric services...
Hean, Sarah; Warr, Jerry; Staddon, Sue
Provision of mental health reports for defendants in contact with the criminal justice system is problematic. This paper explores factors that facilitate the flow of information on a defendant between the courts and the mental health services. It identifies key challenges to this information transfer from a court worker's perspective. It also explores potential mismatches in the expectations held by the criminal justice system and the mental health services of the timeframes in which reports should be delivered and examines the perceived usefulness of reports. In Part 1, questionnaires were distributed to a population of 2107 court workers. In Part 2, monitoring forms were completed by court and health professionals on each report request made over a seven month period. Three key challenges to information transfer were identified: delays in report production, perceived inadequacies in the report content and report funding. Perceived timelines within which respondents believed reports should be delivered varied and there is a mismatch between the expectations of the two services. Perceptions on the usefulness of court reports also varied. Poor inter-agency communications are caused by lack of a clear, shared protocol outlining agreed timelines, report content and lines of responsibility relating to resource provision. Clear service level agreements are required between services to achieve clarity.
Calderon, Jorge; Rojas, Graciela
Chile has been successful in integrating mental health and primary care. This paper describes the Chilean mental health service in primary care and the experience of scaling up a depression treatment programme. A new mental health plan is due to be introduced in 2016.
Calderon, Jorge; Rojas, Graciela
Chile has been successful in integrating mental health and primary care. This paper describes the Chilean mental health service in primary care and the experience of scaling up a depression treatment programme. A new mental health plan is due to be introduced in 2016.
Stirling, Yolande; Higgins, Kate; Petrakis, Melissa
Objective Although Australia's service and policy context differs from that of the US, studies have highlighted potential for individual placement and support (IPS) to support competitive employment outcomes for people with severe and persistent mental illness. The aim of the present study was to explore why the model is not yet widely available. Methods A document analysis was conducted to discern reasons for challenges in implementation of IPS practice principles within the Australian service context. Results The document analysis illustrated that although policy acknowledges the importance of increasing employment rates for people with severe and persistent mental illness, consistent measures, change indicators, direction and time frames are lacking in policy and strategy documentation. Further, IPS principles are not consistently evident in guiding operational documentation that government-funded Disability Employment Services (DES) programs are mandated to adhere to. Conclusions For IPS to be readily implemented, it is necessary for government to offer support to agencies to partner and formal endorsement of the model as a preferred approach in tendering processes. Obligations and processes must be reviewed to ensure that model fidelity is achievable within the Australian Commonwealth policy and service context for programs to achieve competitive employment rates comparable to the most successful international programs. What is known about the topic? The IPS model has been established as the most efficacious approach to support people with severe and persistent mental ill health to gain and sustain employment internationally, yet little is known as to why this model has had very limited uptake in the Australian adult mental health service and policy context. What does this paper add? This paper provides an investigation into the achievability of IPS within DES philosophical and contractual arrangements. What are the implications for practitioners? Mental
Park, Albert; Conway, Mike
Mental disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia are common, incapacitating, and have the potential to be fatal. Despite the prevalence and gravity of mental disorders, our knowledge concerning everyday challenges associated with them is relatively limited. One of the most studied deficits related to everyday challenges is language impairment, yet we do not know how mental disorders can impact common forms of written communication, for example, social media. The aims of this study were to investigate written communication challenges manifest in online mental health communities focusing on depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, as well as the impact of participating in these online mental health communities on written communication. As the control, we selected three online health communities focusing on positive emotion, exercising, and weight management. We examined lexical diversity and readability, both important features for measuring the quality of writing. We used four well-established readability metrics that consider word frequencies and syntactic complexity to measure writers' written communication ability. We then measured the lexical diversity by calculating the percentage of unique words in posts. To compare lexical diversity and readability among communities, we first applied pairwise independent sample t tests, followed by P value adjustments using the prespecified Hommel procedure to adjust for multiple comparison. To measure the changes, we applied linear least squares regression to the readability and lexical diversity scores against the interaction sequence for each member, followed by pairwise independent sample t tests and P value adjustments. Given the large sample of members, we also report effect sizes and 95% CIs for the pairwise comparisons. On average, members of depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia communities showed indications of difficulty expressing their ideas compared with three other
In the field of mental health, games and computerized games present questions about paradoxes, evidences, and challenges. This perspective article offers perspectives and personal opinion about these questions, evidences, and challenges with an objective of presenting several ideas and issues in this rapidly developing field. First, games raise some questions in the sense of the paradox between a game and an issue, as well as the paradox of using an amusing game to treat a serious pathology. Second, games also present evidence in the sense that they involve relationships with others, as well as learning, communication, language, emotional regulation, and hedonism. Third, games present challenges, such as the risk of abuse, the critical temporal period that may be limited to childhood, their important influence on sociocognitive learning and the establishment of social norms, and the risk of misuse of games.
Jenkins, Rachel; Othieno, Caleb; Okeyo, Stephen; Aruwa, Julyan; Kingora, James; Jenkins, Ben
Health system weaknesses in Africa are broadly well known, constraining progress on reducing the burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease (Afr Health Monitor, Special issue, 2011, 14-24), and the key challenges in leadership, governance, health workforce, medical products, vaccines and technologies, information, finance and service delivery have been well described (Int Arch Med, 2008, 1:27). This paper uses focus group methodology to explore health worker perspectives on the challenges posed to integration of mental health into primary care by generic health system weakness. Two ninety minute focus groups were conducted in Nyanza province, a poor agricultural region of Kenya, with 20 health workers drawn from a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the impact of a mental health training programme for primary care, 10 from the intervention group clinics where staff had received the training programme, and 10 health workers from the control group where staff had not received the training). These focus group discussions suggested that there are a number of generic health system weaknesses in Kenya which impact on the ability of health workers to care for clients with mental health problems and to implement new skills acquired during a mental health continuing professional development training programmes. These weaknesses include the medicine supply, health management information system, district level supervision to primary care clinics, the lack of attention to mental health in the national health sector targets, and especially its absence in district level targets, which results in the exclusion of mental health from such district level supervision as exists, and the lack of awareness in the district management team about mental health. The lack of mental health coverage included in HIV training courses experienced by the health workers was also striking, as was the intensive focus during district supervision on HIV to the detriment of other
... NIH/National Institute of Mental Health – Division of AIDS Research SAMHSA – Behavioral Health and HIV/AIDS SAMHSA – Suicide ... Office of Adolescent Health OAR NIH Office of AIDS Research OCR HHS Office for Civil Rights OFBNP HHS ...
Khan, Muhammad Naseem; Rahman, Atif; Frith, Lucy
Abstract Recently the World Health Organization (WHO) has highlighted the need to strengthen mental health systems following emergencies, including natural and manmade disasters. Mental health services need to be informed by culturally attuned evidence that is developed through research. Therefore, there is an urgent need to establish rigorous ethical research practice to underpin the evidence‐base for mental health services delivered during and following emergencies. PMID:25580875
This paper focuses on the second phase of the deinstitutionalisation of mental health care in which the development of community-based interventions are supposed to be implemented in local community mental health care systems. The challenge to sustainable implementation is illustrated by the Swedish case where the government put forward a national training program that sought to introduce Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) for people with severe mental illness. This study is based on document analysis and qualitative interviews with actors at the national, regional, and local levels covering a total of five regions and 15 municipalities that participated in the program. The analysis of the national experiences is put in relation to both research on public administration and policy analysis as well as to current research on implementation of evidence-based programs. The results showed a "drift" of the original model, which had already begun at the policy formulation stage and ended up in a large number of different local arrangements where only a few of the original components of ACT remained. We conclude that issues with implementation can only be fully understood by considering factors at different analytical levels.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the second phase of the deinstitutionalisation of mental health care in which the development of community-based interventions are supposed to be implemented in local community mental health care systems. The challenge to sustainable implementation is illustrated by the Swedish case where the government put forward a national training program that sought to introduce Assertive Community Treatment (ACT for people with severe mental illness. This study is based on document analysis and qualitative interviews with actors at the national, regional, and local levels covering a total of five regions and 15 municipalities that participated in the program. The analysis of the national experiences is put in relation to both research on public administration and policy analysis as well as to current research on implementation of evidence-based programs. The results showed a “drift” of the original model, which had already begun at the policy formulation stage and ended up in a large number of different local arrangements where only a few of the original components of ACT remained. We conclude that issues with implementation can only be fully understood by considering factors at different analytical levels.
Berking, Matthias; Wupperman, Peggilee
In recent years, deficits in emotion regulation have been studied as a putative maintaining factor and promising treatment target in a broad range of mental disorders. This article aims to provide an integrative review of the latest theoretical and empirical developments in this rapidly growing field of research. Deficits in emotion regulation appear to be relevant to the development, maintenance, and treatment of various forms of psychopathology. Increasing evidence demonstrates that deficits in the ability to adaptively cope with challenging emotions are related to depression, borderline personality disorder, substance-use disorders, eating disorders, somatoform disorders, and a variety of other psychopathological symptoms. Unfortunately, studies differ with regard to the conceptualization and assessment of emotion regulation, thus limiting the ability to compare findings across studies. Future research should systematically work to use comparable methods in order to clarify the following: which individuals have; what kinds of emotion regulation difficulties with; which types of emotions; and what interventions are most effective in alleviating these difficulties. Despite some yet to be resolved challenges, the concept of emotion regulation has a broad and significant heuristic value for research in mental health.
Adams, D; Rose, J; Jackson, N; Karakatsani, E; Oliver, C
It is well documented that mothers of children with intellectual disabilities experience elevated mental health difficulties and that these are exacerbated by the presence of challenging behaviour. However, comparatively little is known about the effect of specific coping strategies for managing such behaviours. This paper aims to document coping strategies used by mothers of children showing multiple forms of challenging behaviour and to explore how these relate to positive and negative maternal mental health. Eighty-nine mothers of children with intellectual disabilities completed questionnaires assessing maternal mental health (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Scale) and maternal coping strategies (Brief COPE). Coping strategies were not associated with child age or ability, but were associated with maternal mental health. Higher levels of problem- and positive-coping strategies were associated with higher positive affect. Although active-avoidance coping was the least frequently reported, it was associated with higher levels of negative affect and increased anxiety and depression. Moderated mediation analyses identified that active-avoidance coping mediated the relationship between the number of forms of challenging behaviour and poor maternal mental health, but only in mothers with lower levels of problem-focused coping. Active-avoidance coping is associated with poorer negative mental health in mothers of children with intellectual disabilities who have average to low levels of problem-focused coping. This is reflective of that noted within a range of populations, highlighting it as a key area for intervention.
Woodbridge, Michelle W.; Yu, Jennifer; Goldweber, Asha; Golan, Shari; Stein, BradleyD.
One key objective of California's Statewide Prevention and Early Intervention (PEI) Student Mental Health (SMH) initiative funded under Proposition 63 was to establish a formal process for ongoing collaboration between higher education systems and county mental health, and to increase collaboration among higher education campuses to improve…
Iseselo, Masunga K; Ambikile, Joel Seme
Management of patients with mental disorders is inadequate in the majority of low and middle income countries. The main treatment modality for patients with severe mental disorders in these countries is mainly pharmacological approach. Patients face many challenges in meeting medication needs. In this context, high percentages of individuals who have severe mental disorders are not treated. Regular and adequate supplies of appropriate, safe and affordable medications are some of the important aspects required for provision of quality mental health services. Psychotropic medications are an important component of holistic care that provides treatment options for those suffering from mental illnesses. In Tanzania, mental health services face many challenges including inadequate mental health care providers, infrastructure, and medication supply. Relapse is a common problem among patients attending mental health facilities. This study is aimed at exploring views and experiences of patients, caregivers and mental health care providers on the psychotropic medication in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A qualitative study was conducted, involving two focus group discussions with seven and nine caregivers in each group. Eleven in-depth interviews with four patients and seven mental health care providers at Temeke Municipality, Dar es Salaam, were conducted. Convenient sampling procedure was used to select participants for the study. Discussion and interview guides were used during data collection. Interviews were audio-recorded in Kiswahili with all study participants. The recorded interviews were transcribed and qualitative content thematic analysis was used to analyze data after translation. Four themes were identified. These include attitudes of patients towards psychotropic medication, availability of psychotropic medications, financial concerns towards psychotropic medications, and coverage of free treatment policy. The availability and affordability of psychotropic
... Mental Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Good mental health Nutrition and mental health Exercise and ... a friend. Return to top More information on Good mental health Read more from womenshealth.gov Action ...
Kpobi, Lily; Swartz, Leslie; Ofori-Atta, Angela L
One of the most successful modes of record-keeping and data collection is the use of health management information systems, where patient information and management plans are uniformly entered into a database to streamline the information and for ease of further patient management. For mental healthcare, a Mental Health Information System (MHIS) has been found most successful since a properly established and operational MHIS is helpful for developing equitable and appropriate mental health care systems. Until 2010, the system of keeping patient records and information in the Accra Psychiatric Hospital of Ghana was old and outdated. In light of this and other factors, a complete reforming of the mental health information systems in three psychiatric hospitals in Ghana was undertaken in 2010. Four years after its implementation, we explored user experiences with the new system, and report here the challenges that were identified with use of the new MHIS. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine clinical and administrative staff of the Accra Psychiatric Hospital to examine their experiences with the new MHIS. Participants in the study were in three categories: clinical staff, administrator, and records clerk. Participants' knowledge of the system and its use, as well as the challenges they had experienced in its use were explored using an interpretative phenomenological approach. The data suggest that optimal use of the current MHIS had faced significant implementation challenges in a number of areas. Central challenges reported by users included increased workload, poor staff involvement and training, and absence of logistic support to keep the system running. Setting up a new system does not guarantee its success. As important as it is to have a mental health information system, its usefulness is largely dependent on proper implementation and maintenance. Further, the system can facilitate policy transformation only when the place of mental
Hengartner, Michael Pascal
Experts in personality psychology and personality disorders have long emphasized the pervasive and persistent detrimental impact of maladaptive personality traits on mental health and functioning. However, in routine psychiatric practice, maladaptive personality is readily ignored and personality traits are seldom incorporated into clinical guidelines. The aim of this narrative review is to outline how pervasively personality influences public mental health and how personality thereby challen...
Stadnick, Nicole; Chlebowski, Colby; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit high rates of challenging behaviors that impair functioning and represent the primary presenting problem in mental health (MH) services. Obtaining symptom reports from multiple informants is critical for treatment planning. This study evaluated caregiver-teacher concordance of ratings of the…
Painter, Jon; Hastings, Richard; Ingham, Barry; Trevithick, Liam; Roy, Ashok
Introduction: Current research findings in the field of intellectual disabilities (ID) regarding the relationship between mental health problems and challenging behavior are inconclusive and/or contradictory. The aim of this study was to further investigate the putative association between these two highly prevalent phenomena in people with ID,…
Parcover, Jason; Mays, Sally; McCarthy, Amy
The mental health needs of college students are placing increasing demands on counseling center resources, and traditional outreach efforts may be outdated or incomplete. The public health model provides an approach for reaching more students, decreasing stigma, and addressing mental health concerns before they reach crisis levels. Implementing a…
Rout Bikram Keshari; Rout Susanta Kumar; Kar Durga Madhab
Mental disorders are universal and very common. No country can postpone service development until the finalization of national level epidemiological surveys. It should be noted also that such surveys are very costly and the quality of mental health research is low in most developing countries. Anxiety is the result of stressful life, peer pressure, work pressure and family issues. Cognitive, somatic, emotional and behavioural components combine to form a psychological and physiological state ...
Woodbridge, Michelle W.; Yu, Jennifer; Goldweber, Asha; Golan, Shari; Stein, Bradley D.
Across the education, public health, and human and social services arenas, there has been renewed interest in bringing agency representatives together to work on the promotion of student mental health and wellness. When effective, it is believed that collaboration among agencies can build cross-system partnerships, improve referral processes and…
Kutschera, P. C.; Caputi, Marie A.; Pelayo, Jose Maria G., III
Virtually no formal treatment protocol exists for the health/mental health care of biracial Filipino Amerasians in the Philippines. Today this large group comprises a mostly socioeconomically at risk diaspora. A recent 3-year study found depression, elevated anxiety, joblessness, social isolation, substance and alcohol abuse, and housing…
Bates, L; Stickley, T
This paper critically reviews the issues and questions surrounding the ways in which mental health nurses can best address stigma in the 21st century. It begins with a brief discussion of the nature and definition of the term stigma and explores some of the theoretical basis behind it before drawing out potential flaws in the theory and using this as the basis for an exploration of the way in which stigma is formed and shaped by public and professional attitudes. The discussion then turns to the underlying principles of contemporary mental health legislation and evaluates the tensions between various strands of UK legislation, the way in which risk is perceived and managed by practitioners, and whether risk-averse practice perpetuates stigma. This leads onto the question of how mental health law itself might contribute to the perpetuation of stigma by removing power and responsibility from the hands of service users. Finally, the discussion concludes with some suggestion about how a future change in the principles of mental health law might alter the way in which mental health problems are perceived and allow nurses to practice in a way that is less focussed on risk management and places more emphasis on recovery. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pillay, Anthony L; Willows, Clive
With increasing numbers of juveniles accused of serious crimes international concern is growing around the procedural consequences for affected individuals within the context of the law and criminal justice. Issues of culpability in children and adolescents are often raised, with much deliberation and insufficient agreement among legal and child development experts. Exactly when and to what extent juveniles can be held responsible for their action is a matter requiring careful consideration to avoid substantial erring in either direction. Although some international guiding standards and principles have been established, these are rather broad and unable to provide specific prescriptions. In addition, the assessment of criminal capacity in juveniles is a complex task, and one that is not wholly without reliability and validity problems. As in the case of South Africa and a few other countries, mental health specialists are often tasked with conducting developmental assessments to provide courts with expert evidence regarding criminal capacity. This paper examines the concept of criminal capacity in the context of the theory, controversies and challenges that affect this area of psychological focus.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent health challenges are increasing throughout the world. It has been shown that adolescents with persistent health challenges are at greater risk of having mental health problems than their healthy peers. However, these studies are mainly cross-sectional, and little is known about the transition to adulthood. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine how mental health problems in adolescents and young adults with persistent health challenges vary during adolescence and in the transition to young adulthood. Methods The study used longitudinal and time-series data from the “Young in Norway” study. A sample of adolescents was prospectively followed from adolescence to young adulthood with measures at four different time points (n = 3,087; T1–T4: 2921 adolescents (12–19 years participated at T1 and T2, while 2448 young adults participated at T3 and T4. Persistent health challenges, age, gender, mental health problems and parental socio-economic status were measured in the longitudinal survey. Regression models were applied to estimate associations between persistent health challenges (understood as having a chronic health condition or disability and mental health problems during adolescence and young adulthood. Different models were tested for chronic health conditions and disability. Results Adolescents with disability had higher scores for depressive and anxiety symptoms, loneliness and self-concept instability, and lower scores for self-worth, appearance satisfaction, scholastic competence and social acceptance compared with adolescents without disability. In young adulthood, there were also significant associations between disability and most mental health problems. The longitudinal associations between chronic health conditions and mental health problems during adolescence and young adulthood showed that significant associations between chronic health conditions and mental health problems were only
Hem, M.H.; Molewijk, A.C.; Pedersen, R.
Background: In recent years, the attention on the use of coercion in mental health care has increased. The use of coercion is common and controversial, and involves many complex ethical challenges. The research question in this study was: What kind of ethical challenges related to the use of
Hill, Claire; Martin, Jennifer L; Thomson, Simon; Scott-Ram, Nick; Penfold, Hugh; Creswell, Cathy
This article presents an analysis of challenges and considerations when developing digital mental health innovations. Recommendations include collaborative working between clinicians, researchers, industry and service users in order to successfully navigate challenges and to ensure e-therapies are engaging, acceptable, evidence based, scalable and sustainable. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.
Hem, Marit Helene; Molewijk, Bert; Pedersen, Reidar
In recent years, the attention on the use of coercion in mental health care has increased. The use of coercion is common and controversial, and involves many complex ethical challenges. The research question in this study was: What kind of ethical challenges related to the use of coercion do health care practitioners face in their daily clinical work? We conducted seven focus group interviews in three mental health care institutions involving 65 multidisciplinary participants from different clinical fields. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. We analysed the material applying a 'bricolage' approach. Basic ethical principles for research ethics were followed. We received permission from the hospitals' administrations and all health care professionals who participated in the focus group interviews. Health care practitioners describe ethical dilemmas they face concerning formal, informal and perceived coercion. They provide a complex picture. They have to handle various ethical challenges, not seldom concerning questions of life and death. In every situation, the dignity of the patient is at stake when coercion is considered as morally right, as well as when coercion is not the preferred intervention. The work of the mental health professional is a complicated "moral enterprise". The ethical challenges deserve to be identified and handled in a systematic way. This is important for developing the quality of health care, and it is relevant to the current focus on reducing the use of coercion and increasing patient participation. Precise knowledge about ethical challenges is necessary for those who want to develop ethics support in mental health care. Better communication skills among health care professionals and improved therapeutic relationships seem to be vital. A systematic focus on ethical challenges when dealing with coercion is an important step forward in order to improve health care in the mental health field.
McIntosh, Andrew M; Stewart, Robert; John, Ann; Smith, Daniel J; Davis, Katrina; Sudlow, Cathie; Corvin, Aiden; Nicodemus, Kristin K; Kingdon, David; Hassan, Lamiece; Hotopf, Matthew; Lawrie, Stephen M; Russ, Tom C; Geddes, John R; Wolpert, Miranda; Wölbert, Eva; Porteous, David J
Data science uses computer science and statistics to extract new knowledge from high-dimensional datasets (ie, those with many different variables and data types). Mental health research, diagnosis, and treatment could benefit from data science that uses cohort studies, genomics, and routine health-care and administrative data. The UK is well placed to trial these approaches through robust NHS-linked data science projects, such as the UK Biobank, Generation Scotland, and the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) programme. Data science has great potential as a low-cost, high-return catalyst for improved mental health recognition, understanding, support, and outcomes. Lessons learnt from such studies could have global implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Samele, Chiara; Forrester, Andrew; Urquía, Norman; Hopkin, Gareth
This study aimed to describe the workings of an urban male remand prison mental health service exploring the key challenges and successes, levels of integration and collaboration with other services. A purposive sampling was used to recruit key prison and healthcare professionals for in-depth interviews. A thematic analysis was used to analyse transcripts based on an initial coding frame of several predefined themes. Other key themes were also identified. Twenty-eight interviews were conducted. Prisoners referred to the service had complex, sometimes acute mental illness requiring specialist assessment and treatment. Key successes of the in-reach service included the introduction of an open referral system, locating a mental health nurse at reception to screen all new prisoners and a zoning system to prioritise urgent or non-urgent cases. Achieving an integrated system of healthcare was challenging because of the numerous internal and external services operating across the prison, a highly transient population, limited time and space to deliver services and difficulties with providing inpatient care (e.g., establishing the criteria for admission and managing patient flow). Collaborative working between prison and healthcare staff was required to enable best care for prisoners. The prison mental health in-reach service worked well in assessing and prioritising those who required specialist mental health care. Although the challenges of working within the prison context limited what the in-reach team could achieve. Further work was needed to improve the unit environment and how best to target and deliver inpatient care within the prison.
Hankir, Ahmed; Khalil, Sajjaad; Wadood, Qasim; Madarbukus, Daanyaal; Yunus, Habibah Arifah; Bibi, Saleena; Carrick, Frederick R; Zaman, Rashid
1 in 4 people experience mental health problems at some point during their lives and Muslims are no exception. Exacerbating the morbidity and mortality associated with mental health problems in Muslims is Islamophobia. Stigma and shame are major barriers to accessing and using mental health services and many Muslims with mental health problems do not receive the treatment they need. The Federation of Student Islamic Societies (FOSIS) United Kingdom branch organized a mental health conference to challenge the stigma attached to psychological problems in Muslims and to encourage care seeking in this group. We conducted a single arm, pre-post comparison study on Muslims who attended the FOSIS mental health conference in Birmingham Medical School, England. Validated stigma scales measuring knowledge, attitudes and behavior were administered on participants before and immediately after exposure to the programme. Participants were also asked to respond to statements, the items of which were on a 5-point Likert scale, about the role that Islam plays in Muslim mental health, stigma as a barrier for Muslims with mental health problems to accessing and using mental health services and if they felt inspired to challenge stigma. 50/250 (20%) of participants completed the study. There were statistically significant improvements in the 'Reported and Intended Behavior' score (p=0.0036), the 'Inspired to Take Action' Score (p=0.0202) and the 'Incorporating Islamic Principles into Mental Health Treatment for Muslims is Beneficial' score (p=0.0187). The findings of our study suggest that a 'bespoke' Muslim mental health conference comprised of talks delivered by experts in Islam and mental health and a Muslim who has first-hand experience of psychological distress might be effective at reducing mental health stigma in the Muslim community. Our results should help to inform the design, development and delivery of future Muslim mental health conferences however more robust research in
Daansen, P J; van Schilt, J
As from 2014 Dutch health insurance companies will bear the full financial risk for their clients in mental health care. Over the next years the existing risk settlement shared between insurance companies will gradually be brought to a close. Municipalities and the Ministry of Justice are already responsible for or will soon become responsible for financing health care for adolescents, patients with severe psychiatric disorders and forensic psychiatric patients. As a result, the health insurance companies are beginning to impose ever stricter conditions regarding the care 'product' they are 'buying'. To study the possible consequences, for mental health care institutions, of the increased risk to be borne by health care insurers. Use was made of relevant marketing literature and literature relating to mental health care. Studies of Dutch mental health care literature indicate that in the future the purchasing procedure will no longer consider the immediate treatment outcome as the sole performance indicator but will also take into account additional factors such as long-term improvements in patients' health, customer satisfaction and degree of patient participation, patient empowerment and autonomy. In formulating the details of their health products and business strategies, health care providers will now have to take into account not only the efficacy of the treatment they provide but also the purchasing policy and strategy of the health insurance companies.
Livet, Melanie; Fixsen, Amanda
With mental health services shifting to community-based settings, community mental health (CMH) organizations are under increasing pressure to deliver effective services. Despite availability of evidence-based interventions, there is a gap between effective mental health practices and the care that is routinely delivered. Bridging this gap requires availability of easily tailorable implementation support tools to assist providers in implementing evidence-based intervention with quality, thereby increasing the likelihood of achieving the desired client outcomes. This study documents the process and lessons learned from exploring the feasibility of adapting such a technology-based tool, Centervention, as the example innovation, for use in CMH settings. Mixed-methods data on core features, innovation-provider fit, and organizational capacity were collected from 44 CMH providers. Lessons learned included the need to augment delivery through technology with more personal interactions, the importance of customizing and integrating the tool with existing technologies, and the need to incorporate a number of strategies to assist with adoption and use of Centervention-like tools in CMH contexts. This study adds to the current body of literature on the adaptation process for technology-based tools and provides information that can guide additional innovations for CMH settings.
Hallam, K T; Bilsborough, S; de Courten, M
An increased awareness of the health benefits of walking has emerged with the development and refinement of accelerometer equipment. Evidence is beginning to highlight the value of promoting walking, particularly focusing on the Japanese mark of obtaining 10,000 steps per day. Workplace based step challenges have become popular to engage large cohorts in increasing their daily physical activity in a sustainable and enjoyable way. Findings are now highlighting the positive health effects of these medium-term programs (typically conducted over a few months) in terms of cardiovascular health, reducing diabetes risk and improving lifestyle factors such as weight and blood pressure. As yet, research has not focused on whether similar improvements in psychological health and wellbeing are present. This study investigated the impact of a 100-day, 10,000 step program on signs of depression, anxiety and stress as well as general wellbeing using standardised psychological scales. The results indicated a small but consistent effect on all of these measures of mental health over the term of the program. This effect appeared irrespective of whether a person reached the 10,000 step mark. These results highlight improved mental health and wellbeing in people undertaking this 100-day 10,000 step program and indicates the efficacy and potential of these programs for a modest, yet important improvement in mental health. Notably, targets reached may be less important than participation itself.
Lindert, Jutta; Bilsen, Johan; Jakubauskiene, Marija
Public mental health (PMH) is a major challenge for public health research and practice. This article is organized in six parts. First, we will highlight the significance of PMH; second, we will define mental health and mental disorders; third, we identify and describe determinants of mental health and mental disorders on which we worked in the past 10 years since the establishment of the PMH section such as social determinants and violence. Fourth, we will describe the development of the EUPHA PMH section and provide details on vulnerable groups in the field of PMH, on violence as a main determinant and on suicide as an outcome which affects all countries in the European region. Fifth, we describe policy and practice implications of the development of PMH and highlight the European dimension of PMH. We will conclude this article by providing an outlook on potential further development of PMH as regards research and policy and practice. Finally, we hope that the EUPHA PMH section will contribute to public health in the next 25 years and we can contribute to improvement of PMH in Europe. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi
This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.
Pomerantz, Andrew S; Corson, John A; Detzer, Mark J
A growing body of research has demonstrated the effectiveness of integrating mental/behavioral healthcare with primary care in improving health outcomes. Despite this rich literature, such demonstration programs have proven difficult to maintain once research funding ends. Much of the discussion regarding maintenance of integrated care has been focused on lack of reimbursement. However, provider factors may be just as important, because integrated care systems require providers to adopt a very different role and operate very differently from traditional mental health practice. There is also great variability in definition and operationalization of integrated care. Provider concerns tend to focus on several factors, including a perceived loss of autonomy, discomfort with the hierarchical nature of medical care and primary care settings, and enduring beliefs about what constitutes "good" treatment. Providers may view integrated care models as delivering substandard care and passively or actively resist them. Dissemination of available data regarding effectiveness of these models is essential (e.g. timeliness of treatment, client satisfaction). Increasing exposure and training in these models, while maintaining the necessary training in traditional mental health care is a challenge for training at all levels, yet the challenge clearly opens new opportunities for psychology and psychiatry.
Schreiber, Michael; McEnany, Geoffry Phillips
Since 2001, more than 2.5 million United States military personnel have been deployed for combat. Over one million have served multiple deployments. Combat generally involved repeated exposure to highly traumatic events. Personnel were also victims of military sexual trauma (MST), a major risk factor for psychiatric illness. Most survivors do not seek or receive mental health care. Stigma is one of the main barriers to that care. To explore the impact of stigma on personnel with psychiatric illness, and suggest some innovative ways to potentially reduce stigma and improve care. Cinahl and PubMed databases were searched from 2001 to 2014. Anonymity, the use of non-stigmatizing language, peer-to-peer, and stigma-reduction programs help military personnel receive mental health care. Technology offers the opportunity for effective and appropriate education and treatment. Although stigma is formidable, several innovative services are available or being developed for military victims of trauma. Commitment of resources for program development and further research to explore which interventions offer the best clinical outcomes are needed to increase efforts to combat stigma and ensure quality care.
Thela, Lindokuhle; Tomita, Andrew; Maharaj, Varsha; Mhlongo, Mpho; Burns, Jonathan K
There are few studies on the role of migration within sub-Saharan Africa and its relation to the development of mental illness. We investigated post-resettlement adaptation and mental health challenges of African refugees/migrants in Durban, South Africa. We interviewed 335 African help-seeking refugees/migrants for anxiety, depression (25-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (30-item Harvard Trauma Questionnaire). Socio-demographic and migration history, focusing on post-migration circumstances and experiences of discrimination in the host country, were obtained. Association between migration and post-settlement factors and mental health outcomes were assessed using adjusted logistic regression models. Prevalence of mental distress was high: 49.4% anxiety, 54.6% depression and 24.9% post-traumatic stress symptoms. After adjustment for family separation since migration, recent arrival in South Africa was associated with increased risk for depression (aOR = 4.0, 95% CI:1.3-11.8) and post-traumatic stress (aOR = 5.2, 95% CI:1.7-15.9), while in unadjusted models, older age on arrival was associated with anxiety (aOR = 5.3, 95% CI:1.4-19.8) and depression (aOR = 6.2, 95% CI:1.6-24.3). History of family separation since migration was independently associated with depression and post-traumatic stress in all models. Discriminatory experiences since migration was also an independent risk factor for all three mental health outcomes. Finally, being divorced/widowed was associated with an increased risk for post-traumatic stress, while higher income earners were protected against post-traumatic symptoms, even after adjustment. Refugees/migrants in South Africa show a significant burden of mental distress that is linked to challenges of adjustment in an often hostile context. Services addressing these and other health-related, social-economic needs should be developed as a priority.
... NAMI About NAMI + x IN THIS SECTION La salud mental en la comunidad latina Share NAMI Share Home ... Support Diverse Communities Latinos IN THIS SECTION La salud mental en la comunidad latina Latino Mental Health Video ...
... Health Promotion . Fact sheet no. 220. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Chronic Illness & Mental Health . Bethesda, MD: National Institutes ... of-onset distributions of mental disorders in the World Health Organization’s World Mental Health Survey Initiative. World Psychiatry. 2007; ...
Hanlon, Charlotte; Luitel, Nagendra P.; Kathree, Tasneem; Murhar, Vaibhav; Shrivasta, Sanjay; Medhin, Girmay; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Fekadu, Abebaw; Shidhaye, Rahul; Petersen, Inge; Jordans, Mark; Kigozi, Fred; Thornicroft, Graham; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Lund, Crick; Breuer, Erica; De Silva, Mary; Prince, Martin
Background Little is known about how to tailor implementation of mental health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to the diverse settings encountered within and between countries. In this paper we compare the baseline context, challenges and opportunities in districts in five LMICs (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa and Uganda) participating in the PRogramme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME). The purpose was to inform development and implementation of a comprehensive district plan to integrate mental health into primary care. Methods A situation analysis tool was developed for the study, drawing on existing tools and expert consensus. Cross-sectional information obtained was largely in the public domain in all five districts. Results The PRIME study districts face substantial contextual and health system challenges many of which are common across sites. Reliable information on existing treatment coverage for mental disorders was unavailable. Particularly in the low-income countries, many health service organisational requirements for mental health care were absent, including specialist mental health professionals to support the service and reliable supplies of medication. Across all sites, community mental health literacy was low and there were no models of multi-sectoral working or collaborations with traditional or religious healers. Nonetheless health system opportunities were apparent. In each district there was potential to apply existing models of care for tuberculosis and HIV or non-communicable disorders, which have established mechanisms for detection of drop-out from care, outreach and adherence support. The extensive networks of community-based health workers and volunteers in most districts provide further opportunities to expand mental health care. Conclusions The low level of baseline health system preparedness across sites underlines that interventions at the levels of health care organisation, health facility and
SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia
Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.
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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as defined in DSM-V, can be relevant in a variety of ways to decision-making by courts and tribunals. This includes the family, disciplinary, discrimination and criminal law contexts. By reviewing decisions made by superior courts in a number of common law jurisdictions, this article identifies a pivotal role for mental health professionals closely familiar with both the disorder and forensic exigencies to educate courts about the inner world of those with ASD. Highlighting areas of criminality that court decisions have dealt with, especially in relation to persons with Asperger's Disorder, as defined by DSM-IV, it calls for further research on the connection between ASD, on the one hand, and conduct, capacities and skills, on the other hand. It urges enhancement of awareness of the forensic repercussions of the disorder so that expert evidence can assist the courts more humanely and informedly to make criminal justice and other decisions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gopalkrishnan, Narayan; Babacan, Hurriyet
Cultural diversity and its impact on mental health has become an increasingly important issue in a globalised world where the interactions between cultures continue to grow exponentially. This paper presents critical areas in which culture impacts on mental health, such as how health and illness are perceived, coping styles, treatment-seeking patterns, impacts of history, racism, bias and stereotyping, gender, family, stigma and discrimination. While cultural differences provide a number of challenges to mental health policy and practice they also provide a number of opportunities to work in unique and effective ways towards positive mental health. Ethno-specific approaches to mental health that incorporate traditional and community-based systems can provide new avenues for working with culturally diverse populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Beck, Andrew; Virudhagirinathan, B S; Santosham, Sangita; Begum, Faiz Jahan
Although mental health workers in India across all major professional groups have identified an unmet need for training in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), the uncritical export of models of mental health, therapy provision and training to low- and middle-income countries is a problematic process. This paper describes the context for the first stand-alone CBT training programme in India, based in Chennai. This paper includes an evaluation of the first phase of the training and information from trainees regarding the quality and applicability of the training to their working context. The paper provides an overview of some of the critiques that are pertinent to this process and considers the way that the Kolb learning cycle can be used as a framework within training to go some way to addressing these difficulties.
Shernoff, Elisa S.; Bearman, Sarah Kate; Kratochwill, Thomas R.
School psychologists are uniquely positioned to support the delivery of evidence-based mental health practices (EBMHPs) to address the overwhelming mental health needs of children and youth. Graduate training programs can promote EBMHPs in schools by ensuring school psychologists enter the workplace prepared to deliver and support high-quality,…
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Petersen, Inge; Marais, Debbie; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ahuja, Shalini; Alem, Atalay; Chisholm, Dan; Egbe, Catherine; Gureje, Oye; Hanlon, Charlotte; Lund, Crick; Shidhaye, Rahul; Jordans, Mark; Kigozi, Fred; Mugisha, James; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Thornicroft, Graham
Poor governance has been identified as a barrier to effective integration of mental health care in low- and middle-income countries. Governance includes providing the necessary policy and legislative framework to promote and protect the mental health of a population, as well as health system design and quality assurance to ensure optimal policy implementation. The aim of this study was to identify key governance challenges, needs and potential strategies that could facilitate adequate integration of mental health into primary health care settings in low- and middle-income countries. Key informant qualitative interviews were held with 141 participants across six countries participating in the Emerging mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries (Emerald) research program: Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda. Data were transcribed (and where necessary, translated into English) and analysed thematically using framework analysis, first at the country level, then synthesized at a cross-country level. While all the countries fared well with respect to strategic vision in the form of the development of national mental health policies, key governance strategies identified to address challenges included: strengthening capacity of managers at sub-national levels to develop and implement integrated plans; strengthening key aspects of the essential health system building blocks to promote responsiveness, efficiency and effectiveness; developing workable mechanisms for inter-sectoral collaboration, as well as community and service user engagement; and developing innovative approaches to improving mental health literacy and stigma reduction. Inadequate financing emerged as the biggest challenge for good governance. In addition to the need for overall good governance of a health care system, this study identifies a number of specific strategies to improve governance for integrated mental health care in low- and middle-income countries. © The
vab, Vesna; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana
Mental health conceptualize a state of well-being, perceived self efficacy, competence, autonomy, intergenerational dependence and recognition of the ability to realize one's intellectual and emotional potential. Mental health care are services provided to individuals or communities by agents of the health services or professions to promote, maintain, monitor, or restore mental health. Students will become familiar with extensiveness of the problem, and levels of preventing it. It is illustra...
... to content Home Health Information Health Information Home Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental ... Gordon discusses NIMH priorities and future directions in mental health research. More Autism Awareness Month Autism Spectrum Disorder ( ...
Hamid, Hamada I; Everett, Anita
As Iraq faces the challenge of securing a sustainable resolution to the current violence, the burden of mental illness is likely to increase dramatically. The impact of Saddam Hussein's dictatorship, the Iran-Iraq war, U.S.-led economic sanctions, the Persian Gulf wars, and the U.S. invasion and subsequent violent insurgency have devastated Iraq's governmental and social infrastructure. Health care delivery across sectors has suffered greatly. During the reconstruction phase, the United States and coalition forces allocated resources to restructure Iraq's health care system. Many multinational organizations, governments, and policy makers had the political will as well as the financial and human resources to greatly influence Iraq's mental health program. However, the lack of an existing mental health plan stifled these efforts. Applying Kingdon's model for policy development, which includes political analysis, problem defining, and proposal drafting, the authors describe the development of Iraq's current mental health policy.
Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter
In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....
Physiotherapy in mental health care and psychiatry is a recognized specialty within physiotherapy. It offers a rich variety of observational and evaluation tools as well as a range of interventions that are related to the patient’s physical and mental health problems based on evidence-based literature and a 50-year history. Physiotherapy in mental health care addresses human movement, function, physical activity and exercise in individual and group therapeutic settings. Additionally, it conne...
Diez-Canseco, Francisco; CRONICAS Centro de Excelencia en Enfermedades Crónicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. Psicólogo, magíster en Salud Pública.; Ipince, Alessandra; CRONICAS Centro de Excelencia en Enfermedades Crónicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. antropóloga.; Toyama, Mauricio; CRONICAS Centro de Excelencia en Enfermedades Crónicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. Facultad de Letras y Ciencias Humanas, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima, Perú. estudiante de Psicología.; Benate-Galvez, Ysabel; Gerencia de Prestaciones Primarias de Salud, Gerencia Central de Prestaciones de Salud, Seguro Social del Perú. médico geriatra.; Galán-Rodas, Edén; Gerencia de Prestaciones Primarias de Salud, Gerencia Central de Prestaciones de Salud, Seguro Social del Perú, EsSalud. Lima, Perú. médico cirujano.; Medina-Verástegui, Julio César; Gerencia de Prestaciones Primarias de Salud, Gerencia Central de Prestaciones de Salud, Seguro Social del Perú, EsSalud. Lima, Perú. médico pediatra.; Sánchez-Moreno, David; Centro de Salud “El Progreso”, Microrred de Salud Carabayllo, Red de Salud Túpac Amaru, DISA V Lima Ciudad, Ministerio de Salud, Lima, Perú. psicólogo.; Araya, Ricardo; Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Londres, Reino Unido. médico psiquiatra, doctor en Epidemiología Psiquiátrica.; Miranda, J. Jaime; CRONICAS Centro de Excelencia en Enfermedades Crónicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. médico, magíster y doctor en Epidemiología.
In this article, the relationship between mental health and chronic non-communicable diseases is discussed as well as the possibility to address them in a comprehensive manner in the Peruvian health system. First, the prevalence estimates and the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases and mental disorders worldwide and in Peru are reviewed. Then, the detrimental impact of depression in the early stages as well as the progress of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is described. Addition...
Research suggests what many parents and early care and education staff already know: Significant numbers of young children are struggling with social, emotional, and behavioral challenges that negatively impact their functioning as family members, friends, and learners. This article explores how caregivers can foster developmental mastery and…
This study identifies essential program elements for Whatcom Discovery Center, a Northwest Educational Service District cooperative program providing academic and social/emotional development services to students who are challenged with severe social/emotional and/or chronic mental health disorders. The seven (7) Superintendents and seven (7)…
Archer, James, Jr.; Cooper, Stewart
The provision of mental health counseling within student affairs in the context of a rapidly changing society, and ever broadening demands as issues such as prevention and diversity are integrated into the scope of counseling are challenged. Part 1, "Meeting the Need for Basic Counseling Services," discusses (1) "Counseling Needs of Today's…
Sapag, Jaime C; Sena, Brena F; Bustamante, Inés V; Bobbili, Sireesha J; Velasco, Paola R; Mascayano, Franco; Alvarado, Rubén; Khenti, Akwatu
Stigma towards mental illness and addictive disorders is a global problem and one of the main obstacles in tackling this issue remains the effective integration of mental health services into primary health care (PHC). In Latin America, information has significantly increased on the existence of stigma; however, little is known about effective interventions to prevent stigma and promote recovery-oriented practices in PHC. The aim of this study is to understand the existing evidence regarding mental health stigma in PHC with a special focus on the Latin American region. A scoping review of the literature related to mental health stigma in PHC was conducted. Two hundred and seventeen articles were evaluated; 74 met inclusion criteria and 14 additional articles were selected from references of search results. Results were subdivided into five different perspectives: users, family members and significant others, health professionals, contextual factors, and potential effective interventions. Only nine studies were based in Latin America, and only one described an intervention to reduce stigma in mental health services, not specifically in PHC. We found an urgent need to develop interventions to understand and reduce stigma in PHC settings, especially in Latin America.
Toran, Hasnah; Squires, Jane; Lawrence, Karen
The Infant Mental Health system in Malaysia is described, beginning with cultural and religious practices that influence mental health practices. Second, a description of the Malaysian mental health system, including historical influences, is given. Third, policy and services for young children with mental health problems are described. Finally, recommendations for future steps for developing an effective infant mental health system are presented, including the development of infant mental health policies by the government, increased personnel training, increased community mental health resources, integration of culture into the mental health system, and finally, development of appropriate screening and assessment instruments and systems. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
... Helping Children in Rural Areas Children's Mental Health Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Mental health in childhood means reaching developmental and emotional milestones, and learning healthy social skills and how to cope when ...
... for the individual. Covering issues including perinatal psychiatric disorders, depression, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and alcohol and drug abuse - from a female perspective - Women and Mental Health will prove a valuable tool for all those working in the fields of mental health. Dora Kohen is a Consultant Psychiatrist and an Honorary Senior...
Full Text Available Issues related to the mental health of women are a priority these days. Many international organisations working in the field of psychiatry are having sections on it now. This approach can go a long way in the improvement of the available mental health services for this population.
Ardila-Gómez, Sara; Hartfiel, María Isabel; Fernández, Marina A; Ares Lavalle, Guadalupe; Borelli, Mariana; Stolkiner, Alicia
Social inclusion is a key component of transformations in mental health care, because it takes into account the benefits of community life for both those with mental illness and the other members of the community. In order to understand the scope of inclusion within mental health, 45 participants of a community center linked to a psychiatric hospital discharge program which explicitly seeks to provide social inclusion were interviewed. The possible changes in social relationships between users and other community members based in their sustained daily interactions in the community center were explored. Results suggest that the building of social bonds, as part of informal support networks, is one of the benefits of attending the community center. Positive changes in ideas regarding people with "mental illness" were also observed, although these ideas seemed to be more connected to the notion of integration than to social inclusion.
... and Family Members For Educators For Community and Faith Leaders Conversations in Your Community How To Get Help Get Immediate Help Help for Veterans and Their Families Health Insurance and Mental Health Services Participate in a ...
Persons with mental retardation face multiple emotional, cognitive and social challenges. Mental health professionals increasingly agree that individuals with mental disabilities are more vulnerable to sexual abuse and exploitation than the general population. They are particularly exposed to peril because of their often ...
Meysam Safi Keykaleh
Conclusion: Before a crisis occurs, policymakers and planners should formulate and implement educational programs along with the participation of parents and teachers in order for children to cope with conditions of disasters, and in order to promote the culture of resilience. The health system, while developing special care programs must prioritize the training of its employees in order to provide services. Most studies have attended to the incidence of symptoms of refugees’ psychological disorders, while it seems necessary to conduct intervention studies with the aim of identifying elements of risk and ways to resolve these elements.
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Public Health Agency
This leaflet outlines the signs of poor mental health and suggests steps that people can take to promote good mental health. It advises people to talk to someone if they feel that they may have a mental health problem.
Porras-Javier, Lorena; Bromley, Elizabeth; Lopez, Maria; Coker, Tumaini R
Publicly insured children needing referral to mental health (MH) services often do not access or receive services. The objective of this study was to identify gaps in communication and coordination between primary care providers (PCPs) and MH providers during the MH referral and care process for publicly insured children. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 PCPs and staff from a federally qualified health center (FQHC) and 6 MH providers and staff from two local MH clinics. Interview participants identified multiple gaps in communication throughout the care process and different phases as priorities for improvement. PCPs described primary care-MH communication challenges during early phases, while MH providers described coordination challenges in transferring patients back to primary care for ongoing mental health management. Strategies are needed to improve primary care-specialty MH communication and coordination throughout all phases of the referral and care process, particularly at initial referral and transfer back to primary care.
Callaghan, Sascha; Ryan, Christopher J
To analyse, and explain to Australasian psychiatrists, recent proposed changes to the terms of coercive treatment for mental illness in Tasmania and Victoria and to place the proposals in the context of a broader human rights framework that is likely to impact the future shape of mental health legislation more generally. The Australian law reform proposals are reviewed against the requirements of numerous human rights instruments, including the recently ratified United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Ethical and legal arguments are made to support the proposed changes and to introduce others, taking into account academic commentary on mental health law and recent empirical work on the ability to usefully categorise patients by their likelihood of harm to self and others. The Victorian and Tasmanian draft mental health bills propose a new basis for compulsory psychiatric treatment in Australasia. If they become law, coercive psychiatric treatment could only be applied to patients who lack decision-making capacity. The Tasmanian draft bill also sets a new benchmark for timely independent review of compulsory treatment. However both jurisdictions propose to retain an 'additional harm' test which must be satisfied before patients may be treated without consent. This differs from non-psychiatric cases, where if patients are unable to consent to medical treatment for themselves, they will be entitled to receive coercive treatment if it is in their best interests. The proposed changes under the Tasmanian and Victorian draft mental health bills will ensure that, in line with local and international human rights obligations, only patients who lack decision-making capacity may be coercively treated for mental illness. However the continuing 'additional harm' criteria may breach human rights obligations by imposing a discriminatory threshold for care on patients who are unable to consent to treatment for themselves. This could be avoided by
Kutcher, S.; Gilberds, H.; Morgan, C.; Greene, R.; Hamwaka, K.; Perkins, K.
Background. Mental health literacy is foundational for mental health promotion, prevention, stigma reduction and care. Integrated school mental health literacy interventions may offer an effective and sustainable approach to enhancing mental health literacy for educators and students globally. Methods. Through a Grand Challenges Canada funded initiative called ?An Integrated Approach to Addressing the Issue of Youth Depression in Malawi and Tanzania?, we culturally adapted a previously demons...
Bonelli, Raphael Maria
Since 1978, two systematic evidence-based reviews of the available data on religiosity and mental health in the field of psychiatry have been done. More than 70 % found a relationship between level of religious/spiritual involvement and less mental disorder (positive), some found mixed results (positive and negative), and only about 5 % reported more mental disorder (negative), as was originally suggested by Sigmund Freud. There is good evidence that religious involvement is correlated with better mental health in the areas of depression, substance abuse, and suicide; some evidence in stress-related disorders and dementia; insufficient evidence in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and no data in many other mental disorders. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Sivris, Kelly C; Leka, Stavroula
While attention has been paid to physical risks in the work environment and the promotion of individual employee health, mental health protection and promotion have received much less focus. Psychosocial risk management has not yet been fully incorporated in such efforts. This paper presents good practices in promoting mental health in the workplace in line with World Health Organization (WHO) guidance by identifying barriers, opportunities, and the way forward in this area. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 17 experts who were selected on the basis of their knowledge and expertise in relation to good practice identified tools. Interviewees were asked to evaluate the approaches on the basis of the WHO model for healthy workplaces. The examples of good practice for Workplace Mental Health Promotion (WMHP) are in line with the principles and the five keys of the WHO model. They support the third objective of the WHO comprehensive mental health action plan 2013-2020 for multisectoral implementation of WMHP strategies. Examples of good practice include the engagement of all stakeholders and representatives, science-driven practice, dissemination of good practice, continual improvement, and evaluation. Actions to inform policies/legislation, promote education on psychosocial risks, and provide better evidence were suggested for higher WMHP success. The study identified commonalities in good practice approaches in different countries and stressed the importance of a strong policy and enforcement framework as well as organizational responsibility for WMHP. For progress to be achieved in this area, a holistic and multidisciplinary approach was unanimously suggested as a way to successful implementation.
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others
This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…
Song, Insu; Yellowlees, Peter; Diederich, Joachim
This book introduces approaches that have the potential to transform the daily practice of psychiatrists and psychologists. This includes the asynchronous communication between mental health care providers and clients as well as the automation of assessment and therapy. Speech and language are particularly interesting from the viewpoint of psychological assessment. For instance, depression may change the characteristics of voice in individuals and these changes can be detected by a special form of speech analysis. Computational screening methods that utilise speech and language can detect subtle changes and alert clinicians as well as individuals and caregivers. The use of online technologies in mental health, however, poses ethical problems that will occupy concerned individuals, governments and the wider public for some time. Assuming that these ethical problems can be solved, it should be possible to diagnose and treat mental health disorders online (excluding the use of medication).
hospitalized, but to get inside the contemporary psychiatric institution and to participate in the social world of patients and professionals, I had to experiment with different ethnographic approaches. Ethnographies of mental health have become increasingly rare, and much research on language in psychiatric......In 2010, I began a PhD study to examine how professionals and patients talked to—and about—each other in mental health institutions in Denmark. One year later, I found myself chain-smoking, dressed in baggy clothing, and slouching on a sofa in a closed psychiatric ward. I had not myself been...... institutions is done by interview research. My study involved observing and participating in the day-to-day life at two mental health facilities: an outpatient clinic and an inpatient closed ward. The case study provides an account of some of the specific methodological problems and unanticipated events...
... violence (IPV) and women veterans More information on women veterans and mental health Recent research shows that about 25to 30 percent of veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan report symptoms of a mental disorder. Untreated mental ...
Treatment innovation in mental health is a major public-health priority. A specific sub-challenge underlying the development of new treatments is the use of digital technologies to support mental health interventions. In addition to the potential benefits of increased access to care and reduced
Health promotion is essential to improve the health status and quality of life of individuals. Promoting mental health at an individual, community and policy level is central to reducing the incidence of mental health problems, including self-harm and suicide. Men may be particularly vulnerable to mental health problems, in part because they are less likely to seek help from healthcare professionals. Although this article discusses mental health promotion and related strategies in general, th...
Mc Carthy, Jane; Graham, Margaret M; Tuohy, Dympna; O'Brien, Brid; Fahy, Anne; Hennessy, Therese; O'Sullivan, Deirdre; Markey, Kathleen
In Ireland nursing and midwifery degree programmes involve four pathways to registration. Three of which, intellectual disability and mental health nursing and midwifery require students to undertake acute medical/surgical placements offering learning opportunities caring for patients with complex needs in settings beyond their core discipline. This paper focuses on findings from a descriptive qualitative study exploring intellectual disability and mental health nursing and midwifery students experiences of such placements. Data analysis identified three themes: Getting ready, Navigating the way and Getting through. Feelings of stress and uncertainty are described by participants when moving from familiarity within a chosen discipline to an unfamiliar environment. Findings have influenced specific placement structures with local health service partners. While our study focuses on an Irish context, findings have relevance for student education in other jurisdictions. Enhancing preparation and support for students undertaking unfamiliar placements needs to be a constant endeavour. Such foundations will foster valuable experiences where students can feel part of a team, gain confidence, enhance skills and transfer meaningful learning to their core practice discipline. Further research is needed to explore the views of preceptors, ward managers and Clinical Placement Coordinators. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Braithwaite, Scott; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne
This paper reviews the research on relationships and mental health. Individuals who are more mentally healthy are more likely to select into relationships, but relationships are also demonstrably associated with mental health. The type of relationship matters - evidence suggests that more established, committed relationships, such as marriage, are associated with greater benefits than less committed unions such as cohabitation. The association between relationships and mental health is clearly bidirectional, however, stronger effects are observed when mental health is the outcome and relationships are the predictor, suggesting that the causal arrow flows more strongly from relationships to mental health than vice versa. Moreover, improving relationships improves mental health, but improving mental health does not reliably improve relationships. Our review of research corroborates the view that relationships are a keystone component of human functioning that have the potential to influence a broad array of mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hankir, Ahmed; Zaman, Rashid; Geers, Benjamin; Rosie, Gus; Breslin, Grainne; Barr, Lilly; Carrick, Frederick R; Anderson, Sal
There is a preponderance of mental health problems in students on a global scale which can have a considerable effect on their academic performance and a profound impact on their quality of life. Many universities offer free counselling services however despite this a recent study in the US revealed that up to 84% of students who screened positive for depression or anxiety did not receive any treatment. There are many obstacles that students with mental health problems encounter that prevents them from receiving care, foremost among these is stigma. Film based interventions are showing promise at challenging stigma which can subsequently lower the barriers to accessing and using mental health services for students who need them. We conducted a single-arm, pre-post comparison study on arts students from the London College of Communication. Participants were exposed to the Wounded Healer film, a motion picture featuring a protagonist who is a doctor with first-hand experience of psychological distress. Validated stigma scales on knowledge (Mental Health Knowledge Schedule (MAKS)), behaviour (Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale (RIBS)) and attitudes (Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill (CAMI)) were administered on participants before and immediately after exposure to the intervention. 21/28 (78%) of the participants recruited for the study responded. The mean age of respondents was 22 years (Std. Dev 2.20). There was an increase in the MAKS score after students viewed the Wounded Healer film indicating lower levels of stigma in mental health knowledge however this change was not statistically significant. A previous study on the Wounded Healer film demonstrated a reduction in stigma among healthcare students. The results of this pilot study, however, suggest that a film featuring a protagonist who is not from the same background as the audience may not be effective at reducing mental health stigma in that group. This is consistent with the results of recent
This article charts the historical development of the discipline of global mental health, whose goal is to improve access to mental health care and reduce inequalities in mental health outcomes between and within nations. The article begins with an overview of the contribution of four scientific foundations toward the discipline's core agenda: to scale up services for people with mental disorders and to promote their human rights. Next, the article highlights four recent, key events that are indicative of the actions shaping the discipline: the Mental Health Gap Action Programme to synthesize evidence on what treatments are effective for a range of mental disorders; the evidence on task shifting to nonspecialist health workers to deliver these treatments; the Movement for Global Mental Health's efforts to build a common platform for professionals and civil society to advocate for their shared goal; and the Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health, which has identified the research priorities that, within the next decade, can lead to substantial improvements in the lives of people living with mental disorders. The article ends by examining the major challenges for the field, and the opportunities for addressing them in the future.
Vida cotidiana após adoecimento mental: desafio para atenção em saúde mental Vida cotidiana después de la enfermedad mental: desafío para la atención en salud mental The effect of mental illness on the activity of daily living: a challenge for mental health care
Mariana Moraes Salles
esta población. CONCLUSIONES: Se indica que los servicios sustitutivos deben valorizar las pequeñas actividades de la vida cotidiana que generan autonomía e inician un proceso de construcción de un lugar social, sin olvidar los grandes desafíos como la inclusión en el mercado de trabajo y las relaciones afectivas.OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of mental illness on the activity of daily living among individuals living in the community and to examine the options of those individuals for social inclusion. METHODS: This qualitative study was guided by Agnes Heller's conceptualization of daily life. The sample consisted of 13 individuals who received care in a psychiatric hospital and 9 of their family members. Data were analyzed through content analysis. RESULTS: Mental illness affected an individual's social participation and his or her activities of daily living. Although there were less opportunities for social inclusion, individuals with mental illness continued to be able to find other social possibilities. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health services valued the importance of daily life activities, which can promote autonomy and a place in society. It is important to recognize the challenges of individuals with mental illness for inclusion in the job market and interpersonal relationships.
Kari-Koskinen, O; Karvonen, P
With the present trend away from the designing of individual buildings and towards the systematic planning of whole residential communities, it should be possible to take mental health requirements into account at the planning stage. At present, sociologists are all too seldom consulted on matters of residential planning. When discussing the relationship between housing and mental health one cannot restrict oneself only to the external aspects of the house, but rather one must also consider the opportunities available for the members of the family to satisfy their own needs, both within the home and in its immediate surroundings. Factors which may affect residential requirements include geographical location, type and standard of dwelling and time and continuity of occupation. A move between two districts or groups representing different housing norms and values may lead to withdrawal symptoms in the individual. This may arise equally well from the remoteness of the country districts as from the conflicting pressures brought on by the abundance of contacts available in the large towns. Town life tends to heighten susceptibility to neuroses and personality conflicts. The character of a residential area may affect the mental health of its occupants. Faris & Dunham (4), in studying the incidence of various types of mental illness with an urban population, observed that schizophrenia was most common among people who were in some way isolated from social involvement. The striving for spaciousness in residential areas and the creation of a "summer city" or "garden city" image or a "family-centred way of life" may lead to unexpected problems and have a variety of social consequences. Mental health difficulties have been noted, for example, among housewives in "dormitory" towns or suburbs (11). The institutions required by a community may be grouped into four categories, representing the basic needs of its members. These are (1) economic institutions, (2) social and
Providing teacher candidates with a strong foundation in mental health literacy during their teacher education program is crucial in ensuring novice teachers are prepared to support the mental health needs of their students. In addition to responding to students, teacher candidates are typically at an age when mental health disorders are common…
Gruebner, Oliver; Rapp, Michael A; Adli, Mazda; Kluge, Ulrike; Galea, Sandro; Heinz, Andreas
More than half of the global population currently lives in cities, with an increasing trend for further urbanization. Living in cities is associated with increased population density, traffic noise and pollution, but also with better access to health care and other commodities. This review is based on a selective literature search, providing an overview of the risk factors for mental illness in urban centers. Studies have shown that the risk for serious mental illness is generally higher in cities compared to rural areas. Epidemiological studies have associated growing up and living in cities with a considerably higher risk for schizophrenia. However, correlation is not causation and living in poverty can both contribute to and result from impairments associated with poor mental health. Social isolation and discrimination as well as poverty in the neighborhood contribute to the mental health burden while little is known about specific interactions between such factors and the built environment. Further insights on the interaction between spatial heterogeneity of neighborhood resources and socio-ecological factors is warranted and requires interdisciplinary research.
... Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... emotion as well as muscle movement. For years, mental health professionals have recognized that coping with a chronic ...
Trombley, Janna; Chalupka, Stephanie; Anderko, Laura
: Climate change is an enormous challenge for our communities, our country, and our world. Recently much attention has been paid to the physical impacts of climate change, including extreme heat events, droughts, extreme storms, and rising sea levels. However, much less attention has been paid to the psychological impacts. This article examines the likely psychological impacts of climate change, including anxiety, stress, and depression; increases in violence and aggression; and loss of community identity. Nurses can play a vital role in local and regional climate strategies by preparing their patients, health care facilities, and communities to effectively address the anticipated mental health impacts of climate change.
Innovating team-based outpatient mental health care in the Veterans Health Administration: Staff-perceived benefits and challenges to pilot implementation of the Behavioral Health Interdisciplinary Program (BHIP).
Barry, Catherine N; Abraham, Kristen M; Weaver, Kendra R; Bowersox, Nicholas W
In the past decade, the demand for Veterans Health Administration (VHA) mental health care has increased rapidly. In response to the increased demand, the VHA developed the Behavioral Health Interdisciplinary Program (BHIP) team model as an innovative approach to transform VHA general outpatient mental health delivery. The present formative evaluation gathered information about pilot implementation of BHIP to understand the struggles and successes that staff experienced during facility transitions to the BHIP model. Using a purposive, nonrandom sampling approach, we conducted 1-on-1, semistructured interviews with 37 licensed and nonlicensed clinical providers and 13 clerical support staff assigned to BHIP teams in 21 facilities across the VHA. Interviews revealed that having actively involved facility mental health leaders, obtaining adequate staffing for teams to meet the requirements of the BHIP model, creating clear descriptions and expectations for team member roles within the BHIP framework, and allocating designated time for BHIP team meetings challenged many VHA sites but are crucial for successful BHIP implementation. Despite the challenges, staff reported that the transition to BHIP improved team work and improved patient care. Staff specifically highlighted the potential for the BHIP model to improve staff working relationships and enhance communication, collaboration, morale, and veteran treatment consistency. Future evaluations of the BHIP implementation process and BHIP team functioning focusing on patient outcomes, organizational outcomes, and staff functioning are recommended for fully understanding effects of transitioning to the BHIP model within VHA general mental health clinics and to identify best practices and areas for improvement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
The characteristic differences among the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries in terms of trade and investment, society and cultural values, medical information and technology, and the living and working environment have become major health problems in terms of mental disorders. The purpose of this article is to identify the gaps in those aspects, to propose mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs, and to recommend policies for policy makers and research investors. A comparative analysis and literature review of existing policy, including overviews of previous research were used to generate a synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs. The review results recommend mental health and mental disorder programs for policy makers, research investors, and stakeholders in order to strengthen the directions for implementing these programs in the future. The healthcare provision in each country will not be limited only to its citizens; the healthcare markets and target groups are likely to expand to the neighboring countries in the context of changes in domestic and international factors, which have both positive and negative impacts according to the political, economic, and social situations of the influencing countries.
This book highlights a broad range of issues on mental health and illness in large cities. It presents the epidemiology of mental disorders in cities, cultural issues of urban mental health care, and community care in large cities and urban slums. It also includes chapters on homelessness, crime...... and racism - problems that are increasingly prevalent in many cities world wide. Finally, it looks at the increasing challenges of mental disorders in rapidly growing cities. The book is aimed at an international audience and includes contributions from clinicians and researchers worldwide....
In the United Kingdom, contemporary mental health rehabilitation services evolved during the period of deinstitutionalisation. They focus on people with complex psychosis, a "low volume, high needs" group which is at risk of social exclusion. Without these specialist services, this group is at risk of becoming stuck in a hospital or in other facilities that do not enable them to achieve their optimal level of autonomy. When a "whole system" of rehabilitative care is provided, including specialist inpatient facilities and supported accommodation, the majority are able to progress in their recovery and live successfully in the community. Rehabilitation is a complex intervention; current and further research is needed to identify the specific aspects of treatment and support it delivers that are most effective in enabling recovery and social inclusion for those with the most complex and long-term mental health needs.
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…
Musyimi, Christine W.; Mutiso, Victoria N.; Ndetei, David M.; Henderson, David C.; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.
Task-shifting in mental health such as engaging Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs) in appropriate management of mental disorders is crucial in reducing global mental health challenges. This study aims to determine the outcomes of using evidence-based mental health Global Action Programme
Siriwanarangsan, Porntep; Liknapichitkul, Dusit; Khandelwal, Sudhir K
Thailand, a constitutional monarchy, has undergone a rapid shift in its demography and economy in last two decades. This has put a great burden on the health services, including mental health care of the country. The current emphasis of the Ministry of Public Health is to change its role from health care provider to policymaker and regulator of standards, and to provide technical support to health facilities under its jurisdiction as well as in the private sector. The Department of Mental Health, established in 1994, has laid down a mental health policy that aims to promote mental health care within the community with the help of people's participation in health programmes. Focus has been placed on developing suitable and efficient technology by seeking cooperation both within and outside the Ministry of Public Health. Consequently, the Department of Mental Health has been receiving increasing budgetary allocations. Since there is a paucity of trained manpower, the emphasis is being laid on the utilization of general health care for mental health care. Some of the specific interventions are community services, prison services, psychiatric rehabilitation, and use of media in mental health operations. There have been active efforts towards international cooperation for developing technologies for specific programmes. Private and non-governmental organizations are supported and encouraged to provide mental health care to the marginalized sections of society. Efforts have also been made by the Department of Mental Health to inspect and raise the efficiency of its operations to result in quality service.
Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.
Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…
Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace
Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.
Fried, E.; Tuerlinckx, F.; Borsboom, D.
The decision by the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to fund only research into the neurobiological roots of mental disorders (Nature 507, 288; 2014) presumes that these all result from brain abnormalities. But this is not the case for many people with mental-health issues and we fear
van Gastel, W.A.
Cannabis use has been implicated as a risk factor for mental health problems, (subclinical) psychotic symptoms in particular. If cannabis use was a cause of these problems, cessation would lead to improved public mental health. If cannabis use was a mere consequence of a predisposition for mental
Johnson, Jennifer E; Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Peabody, Marlanea E; Shefner, Ruth T; Fernandes, Karen M; Rosen, Rochelle K; Zlotnick, Caron
Incarcerated women with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders (COD) face complex psychosocial challenges at community reentry. This study used qualitative methods to evaluate the perspectives of 14 prison and aftercare providers about service delivery challenges and treatment needs of reentering women with COD. Providers viewed the needs of women prisoners with COD as distinct from those of women with substance use alone and from men with COD. Providers described optimal aftercare for women with COD as including contact with the same provider before and after release, access to services within 24-72 hours after release, assistance with managing multiple social service agencies, assistance with relationship issues, and long-term follow-up. Providers also described larger service system and societal issues, including systems integration and ways in which a lack of prison and community aftercare resources impacted quality of care and reentry outcomes. Practice and policy implications are provided.
Adelman, Howard S; Taylor, Linda
Health policy and practice call for health and mental health parity and for a greater focus on universal interventions to promote, prevent, and intervene as early after problem onset as is feasible. Those in the public health field are uniquely positioned to help promote the mental health of young people and to reshape how the nation thinks about and addresses mental health. And schools are essential partners for doing the work.
DeLoach, Kendra P.; Dvorsky, Melissa; Miller, Elaine; Paget, Michael
Students with emotional and behavioral challenges are significantly impacted by mental health issues. Teachers and other school staff need mental health knowledge to work more effectively with these students. Collaboration with mental health professionals and sharing of information is essential. [For complete volume, see ED539318.
Smith, A P
The objective of the present investigation was to study the relationship between breakfast consumption and subjective reports of mental health and health-related behaviours in a general population sample (126 subjects aged between 20 and 79 years). Individuals who consumed a cereal breakfast each day were less depressed, less emotionally distressed and had lower levels of perceived stress than those who did not eat breakfast each day. Those who consumed breakfast had a healthier lifestyle than the others in that they were less likely to be smokers, drank less alcohol and had a healthier diet. However, the relationship between cereal breakfast consumption and mental health did not reflect these differences in the smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. In conclusion, there is an association between breakfast consumption and well-being which cannot entirely be accounted for by differences in other aspects of diet or smoking and alcohol consumption. Further intervention studies are now needed to establish whether causal relationships and mechanisms underlie the associations seen in this study.
Acute mental health care according to recent mental health legislation. Part II. Activity-based costing. ABR Janse van Rensburg1, W Jassat2. 1Division of Psychiatry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. 2School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Abstract.
Stewart, Carmen López
This paper describes main facts about Chile starting with key socio-demographic, socio-economic, political, environmental, epidemiological, social support and social pathology aspects that characterize the context in which current mental and neurological policy and programmes have been put in place since 2000, as part of the National Health Plan and Health Sector Strategy Plan. The 'National Plan for Mental Health and Psychiatry', using a community psychiatry approach, has been partially implemented for people covered by the Public Health Insurance, which comprises 62% of the Chilean population (people with lower income). This paper also describes: the management, population needs and demands, financial resources, human resources in primary care, mental health specialist care and community-based care, physical capital, social capital, provision and processes, and outcomes of the plan. Strengths are analyzed, like the health reform, including its values and principles, the active participation of consumer and family groups as well as mental health NGOs, access to mental health services through primary care, quality assurance of the mental health services delivered to the population and progressive development of a culture of respect for human rights, including those of people with mental illnesses. Finally, difficulties for the advance of mental health care are also enumerated: the low priority still given to mental health compared with physical health by the country's leaders, the insufficient emphasis on mental health in both undergraduate and postgraduate professional training, the strong stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness in the general population and the advocacy by some mental health professionals of the traditional model of care (role of the psychiatric hospital).
Posner, Zoe; Janssen, Jessica; Roddam, Hazel
Purpose- Burnout in mental health staff is acknowledged as a major problem. The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of mental health staff views on improving burnout and mental toughness in mental health staff.\\ud Design/methodology/approach-Ten participants from two mental health rehabilitation units across the North West of England took part in a Nominal Group Technique (NGT). Participants consisted of mental health workers from varied roles in order to\\ud capture views from a...
Doesum, K.T.M. van; Riebschleger, J.; Carroll, J.; Grové, C.; Lauritzen, C.; Mordoch, E.; Skerfving, A.
Research substantiates children of parents with mental disorders including substance abuse face increased risk for emotional and behavioral problems. Although evidence suggests that support programs for children enhance resiliency, recruiting children to these groups remains problematic. This study
Szmukler, G; Bach, M
Around the world, reports regularly expose persistent and systemic human rights violations of patients in mental health services and facilities, and of those who are unable to access needed supports. A number of factors contribute - political will; the range and quality of services available; public and professional attitudes to mental health; stigma; health professionals' training and expertise; and available resources. This paper examines one of the main determinants, the legal framework. This sets the parameters for mental health policies and services and for applicable human rights norms and standards that can be realized in practice. We provide an overview of international human rights instruments in relation to mental health disabilities, and of the major human rights violations in this area. Key implications for mental health law reform are drawn with a particular focus on discrimination and coercive interventions. The major challenges posed by the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006) are examined. Current mental health laws, to greater or lesser degrees, fail to meet the newly required standards. We discuss reforms based on 'generic law' and 'legal capacity' principles that seek to meet those standards. We outline some emergent and promising examples of reform. The role of civil society and the importance of the standing of those with mental health disabilities in this process is noted.
Full Text Available Health agencies in refugee camps face the dual challenge of, firstly,convincing both camp populations and the international communitythat mental health disorders deserve treatment as much as any otherillness – and, secondly, building enough trust to encourage people toseek that treatment.
Kliewer, Stephen P.; McNally Melissa; Trippany, Robyn L.
Deinstitutionalization has had a significant impact on the mental health system, including the client, the agency, and the counselor. For clients with serious mental illness, learning to live in a community setting poses challenges that are often difficult to overcome. Community mental health agencies must respond to these specific needs, thus…
Goswami, Nandu; Roessler, Andreas; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Steptoe, Andrew
At orthostatic vasovagal syncope there appears to be a sudden withdrawl of sympathetic activity. As mental challenge activates the sympathetic system, we hypothesized that doing mental arithmetic in volunteers driven to the end point of their cardiovascular stability may delay the onset of orthostatic syncope. We investigated this in healthy male subjects. Each subject underwent a head up tilt (HUT) + graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) up to presyncope session (control) to determine the orthostatic tolerance time, OTT (Time from HUT commencement to development of presyncopal symptoms/signs). Once the tolerance time was known, a randomized crossover protocol was used: either 1) Repeat HUT + LBNP to ensure reproducibility of repeated run or 2) HUT + LBNP run but with added mental challenge (two min before the expected presyncope time). Test protocols were separated by two weeks. Our studies on five male test subjects indicate that mental challenge improves orthostatic tolerance significantly. Additional mental loading could be a useful countermeasure to alleviate the orthostatic responses of persons, particularly in those with histories of dizziness on standing up, or to alleviate hypotension that frequently occurs during hemodialysis or on return to earth from the spaceflight environment of microgravity.
Knowledge transfer: a worldwide challenge in child mental health: a recommendation to the readership of CAPMH concerning the revised version of the IACAPAP Textbook of Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Maier, Anna T; Brown, Rebecca C; Fegert, Joerg M
Transfer of knowledge is an important issue throughout all scientific disciplines, especially in the medical and psycho-social field. The issue of worldwide knowledge transfer in child mental health is one of the aims and goals of the journal Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health (CAPMH). The demand for mental health training is high worldwide, and especially in low- to lower-middle income countries, where inadequate access to knowledge resources in the field of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) is prevalent. At the same time, many of these countries are showing an increased risk for mental health issues in children and adolescents. The International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions (IACAPAP) Textbook of Child and Adolescent Mental Health counters this problem. It is an open-access e-textbook aiming to provide an overview of current and established treatment and practical approaches for child and adolescent psychiatrists, psychotherapists and allied (mental health) professionals worldwide. First published in 2012, the updated and revised version was launched in 2015. The aim of this commentary is to review and disseminate the usefulness and practicability of content and further material included in the new version of the textbook. Overall, the textbook contains ten sections divided into 59 chapters, with a total of 1435 pages. The original version of the textbook was written in English. The revised version contains translations of 49 chapters into different languages (to date French, Spanish, Hebrew, Arabic, Portuguese, Russian, Norwegian and/or Japanese), with additional material for knowledge dissemination and self-directed learning (e.g. videos and quizzes) for several chapters. The textbook and the add-on materials for dissemination are of high quality and convey a great introduction to important topics concerning mental health. Apart from knowledge transfer, there is a pragmatic focus on clinical
Objective: This is the first of three reports on a follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). In this first part, qualitative and quantitative descriptions were made of the services and of demographic and clinical data on acute mental health care users managed at HJH, in a retrospective review of ...
Introduction. Reliable data is necessary to facilitate the effective planning, management and restructuring of mental health care facilities. Access to accurate information on clinical conditions, treatment outcomes and expenditure is essential to ensure accountability, quality and cost-effective mental health care. This article is ...
Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro
... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well- being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...
countries, among others the increased challenges and risks involved in the increasing partnerships formation across the ethnic borders to health systems. To help meet this challenge, this project has two objectives. The objective in the first is to gain insights about the dynamics of intermarriage...... couples experiencing mental health problems. The theoretical framework of the project is interdisciplinary, combining transnationalism, narrative approach and life-course perspectives. Some statistical data pertaining to phenomenon of intermarriage in Denmark will also be presented. The investigation...
Military Medicine, Vol. 177, No. 3, March 2012, pp. 278–283. Cifu, David X., and Cory Blake , “Re-Establishing Normalcy,” in David X. Cifu and Cory... Blake , eds., Overcoming Post-Deployment Syndrome: A Six-Step Mission to Health, New York: DemosHealth, 2011. Clark-Hitt, Rose, Sandi W. Smith, and...Challenge Stigmatizing Attitudes and Promote Mental Health in Teenagers,” Journal of Mental Health, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2006, pp. 243–250. Evans-Lacko, Sara
Nizamie, S Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N A
Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health.
This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.
Full Text Available This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.
... and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Use and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you know that addiction ... Plus – also en Español Treatment Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA): SAMHSA’s National Helpline: 1-800-662- ...
Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree
Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…
Lucero, John A.
The goals of the School Mental Health Consultation Program, a cooperative effort of the Children and Youth Service at High Plains Mental Health Center and the Unified School District 489 in Hays, Kansas, are to evaluate students' behavioral problems, to assess how students' difficulties affect teachers, and to help the consultee assess the…
Burau, Viola; Carstensen, Kathrine; Fredens, Mia; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm
There is an increased interest in improving the physical health of people with mental illness. Little is known about implementing health promotion interventions in adult mental health organisations where many users also have physical health problems. The literature suggests that contextual factors are important for implementation in community settings. This study focused on the change process and analysed the implementation of a structural health promotion intervention in community mental health organisations in different contexts in Denmark. The study was based on a qualitative multiple-case design and included two municipal and two regional provider organisations. Data were various written sources and 13 semi-structured interviews with 22 key managers and frontline staff. The analysis was organised around the four main constructs of Normalization Process Theory: Coherence, Cognitive Participation, Collective Action, and Reflexive Monitoring. Coherence: Most respondents found the intervention to be meaningful in that the intervention fitted well into existing goals, practices and treatment approaches. Cognitive Participation: Management engagement varied across providers and low engagement impeded implementation. Engaging all staff was a general problem although some of the initial resistance was apparently overcome. Collective Action: Daily enactment depended on staff being attentive and flexible enough to manage the complex needs and varying capacities of users. Reflexive Monitoring: During implementation, staff evaluations of the progress and impact of the intervention were mostly informal and ad hoc and staff used these to make on-going adjustments to activities. Overall, characteristics of context common to all providers (work force and user groups) seemed to be more important for implementation than differences in the external political-administrative context. In terms of research, future studies should adopt a more bottom-up, grounded description of context
Maria Cristina Ventura Couto
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever e analisar a situação atual de desenvolvimento da política pública brasileira de saúde mental infantil e juvenil, com foco nos Centros de Atenção Psicossocial Infanto-juvenil e na rede intersetorial potencial de atenção à saúde mental infantil e juvenil que engloba outras políticas relacionadas à criança e ao adolescente em âmbito nacional. MÉTODO: Análise de publicações e dados oficiais do governo brasileiro sobre a implantação e/ou distribuição de serviços públicos nacionais relacionados à criança e ao adolescente. RESULTADOS: A política brasileira de saúde mental infantil e juvenil tem como ação central a implementação de Centros de Atenção Psicossocial Infanto-Juvenil para atendimento dos casos de transtornos mentais que envolvem prejuízos funcionais severos e persistentes. Existe uma rede intersetorial potencial de cuidado que pode se efetivar com a articulação das ações específicas de saúde mental infantil e juvenil nos setores da saúde geral/atenção básica, educação, assistência social e justiça/direitos. Esta articulação será de grande importância para o atendimento de problemas mais freqüentes, que envolvem prejuízos mais pontuais. DISCUSSÃO: No Brasil, o incremento do sistema de cuidados depende da expansão da rede de serviços de saúde mental infantil e juvenil, dos mais aos menos especializados, e de sua articulação efetiva com outros setores públicos dedicados ao cuidado da infância e adolescência.OBJECTIVE: To describe and analyze current developments in the Brazilian child and adolescent mental health public policy, focusing on the Centers for Psychosocial Care for Children and Adolescents and in a potential child and adolescent mental health care system, derived from other child and adolescent public policies in the national context. METHOD: Examination of publications and official data produced by the Brazilian government about the implementation
Radovic, Ana; Vona, Pamela L; Santostefano, Antonella M; Ciaravino, Samantha; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D
Many adolescents and adults do not seek treatment for mental health symptoms. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist individuals with mental health concerns in alleviating symptoms or increasing understanding. This study seeks to characterize apps readily available to smartphone users seeking mental health information and/or support. Ten key terms were searched in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores: mental health, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, trauma, trauma in schools, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), child trauma, and bullying. A content analysis of the first 20 application descriptions retrieved per category was conducted. Out of 300 nonduplicate applications, 208 (70%) were relevant to search topic, mental health or stress. The most common purported purpose for the apps was symptom relief (41%; n = 85) and general mental health education (18%; n = 37). The most frequently mentioned approaches to improving mental health were those that may benefit only milder symptoms such as relaxation (21%; n = 43). Most app descriptions did not include information to substantiate stated effectiveness of the application (59%; n = 123) and had no mention of privacy or security (89%; n = 185). Due to uncertainty of the helpfulness of readily available mental health applications, clinicians working with mental health patients should inquire about and provide guidance on application use, and patients should have access to ways to assess the potential utility of these applications. Strategic policy and research developments are likely needed to equip patients with applications for mental health, which are patient centered and evidence based.
King, Richard V; Burkle, Frederick M; Walsh, Lauren E; North, Carol S
Competencies for disaster mental health are essential to domestic and international disaster response capabilities. Numerous consensus-based competency sets for disaster health workers exist, but no prior study identifies and discusses competency sets pertaining specifically to disaster mental health. Relevant competency sets were identified via MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and Google Scholar searches. Sixteen competency sets are discussed, some providing core competencies for all disaster responders and others for specific responder groups within particular professions or specialties. Competency sets specifically for disaster mental health professionals are lacking, with the exception of one set that focused only on cultural competence. The identified competency sets provide guidance for educators in developing disaster mental health curricula and for disaster health workers seeking education and training in disaster mental health. Valid, criterion-based competencies are required to guide selection and training of mental health professionals for the disaster mental health workforce. In developing these competencies, consideration should be given to the requirements of both domestic and international disaster response efforts.
Tomov, Toma; Mladenova, Maya; Lazarova, Irina; Sotirov, Vladimir; Okoliyski, Mihail
The mental health profile of Bulgaria has been compiled and following analysis of both the factual findings and the process of data collection a report has been prepared. The subject of discussion in the paper concerns several major findings: the discrepancy between what the policy documents state and the actual situation in mental health; the organizational culture, which alienates; and the peculiarities of the process of change and how it is driven under political pressure from outside the country. Analysis extends to encompass the influence of the general health reform on the mental health sector, the deficits of the leadership and how they impact on the effectiveness of the system, and the interdependence between the country's economy and the health sector. A conclusion is made about the need to consolidate the public health approach using the lever of international collaboration in the field of mental health.
First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Challenges to Public Health. Tracing of the infection. Isolation of patients to stop spread. Laboratory diagnosis. Hospitalization &Treatment. Stock pile & supply of drugs. Planning & mitigation. Information to public. Support to SEARO countries.
Kutcher, S; Gilberds, H; Morgan, C; Greene, R; Hamwaka, K; Perkins, K
Mental health literacy is foundational for mental health promotion, prevention, stigma reduction and care. Integrated school mental health literacy interventions may offer an effective and sustainable approach to enhancing mental health literacy for educators and students globally. Through a Grand Challenges Canada funded initiative called 'An Integrated Approach to Addressing the Issue of Youth Depression in Malawi and Tanzania', we culturally adapted a previously demonstrated effective Canadian school mental health curriculum resource (the Guide) for use in Malawi, the African Guide: Malawi version (AGMv), and evaluated its impact on enhancing mental health literacy for educators (teachers and youth club leaders) in 35 schools and 15 out-of-school youth clubs in the central region of Malawi. The pre- and post-test study designs were used to assess mental health literacy - knowledge and attitudes - of 218 educators before and immediately following completion of a 3-day training programme on the use of the AGMv. Results demonstrated a highly significant and substantial improvement in knowledge ( p mental health literacy in study participants. There were no significant differences in outcomes related to sex or location. These positive results suggest that an approach that integrates mental health literacy into the existing school curriculum may be an effective, significant and sustainable method of enhancing mental health literacy for educators in Malawi. If these results are further found to be sustained over time, and demonstrated to be effective when extended to students, then this model may be a useful and widely applicable method for improving mental health literacy among both educators and students across Africa.
Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C.
Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ‘preventive medicine’ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ‘R’s such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073
Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C
Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health.
mental illness in the regional population HJH is supposed to serve. Therefore, only an analysis of trends for specific cohorts of in-patient users was possible. Both studies - the current review as well as the previous pilot, were retrospective descriptive clinical record reviews of mental health service delivery, training.
Department of Veterans Affairs — VAMC-level statistics on the prevalence, mental health utilization, non-mental health utilization, mental health workload, and psychological testing of Veterans with...
... dialing 1-800-273-8255 and pressing 1. Mental Health Concerns There are three primary mental health concerns ... care or call 911. How Will Asking for Mental Health Treatment Affect My Career? Military personnel have always ...
Marsella, Anthony J.
Presents an overview of current knowledge regarding urbanization, mental health, and social deviancy. Discusses definitional, conceptual and methodological issues and challenges, and provides a review of the international research literature on the topic. Offers recommendations for improving research efforts. Contains over 100 references. (MMU)
Lora, A.; Sharan, P.
Background. Information is needed for development of mental health (MH) services; and particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs), where the MH systems are relatively weak. World Health Organization (WHO) has worked intensively during the last 15 years for developing a strategy in the field of MH information. Methods. The paper analyzes WHO instruments developed in this area [MH Atlas series and WHO Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS)]. Results. Data from ...
legislation humane treatment for the mentally ill. In 1913 there was a .... way, the person leaves his village and his com- munity at a time when he is ..... fective treatment? How might we predict if an epileptic patient may commit murder? We have in our mental hospital population a number of people who have murdered while ...
Global health has been defined as an area of study, research, and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. This article provides an overview of some central issues in global mental health in three parts. The first part demonstrates why mental health is relevant to global health by examining three key principles of global health: priority setting based on the burden of health problems, health inequalities and its global scope in particular in relation to the determinants and solutions for health problems. The second part considers and addresses the key critiques of global mental health: (a) that the "diagnoses" of mental disorders are not valid because there are no biological markers for these conditions; (b) that the strong association of social determinants undermines the use of biomedical interventions; (c) that the field is a proxy for the expansion of the pharmaceutical industry; and (d) that the actions of global mental health are equivalent to "medical imperialism" and it is a "psychiatric export." The final part discusses the opportunities for the field, piggybacking on the surge of interest in global health more broadly and on the growing acknowledgment of mental disorders as a key target for global health action. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon
Objective Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organizations, countries, and regions: WHO, OECD, EU, United States, Australia, UK, and Scotland. Using Delphi method, we conducted two surveys of mental health indicators for experts in the field of mental health. The survey questionnaire included 5 domains: mental health status, mental health factor, mental health system, mental health service, and quality of mental health services. We considered 124 potential mental health indicators out of more than 600 from indicators of international organizations and foreign countries. Results We obtained the top 30 mental health indicators from the surveys. Among them, 10 indicators belong to the mental health system. The most important five mental health indicators are suicide rate, rate of increase in mental disorder treatment, burden caused by mental disorders, adequacy of identifying problems of mental health projects and deriving solutions, and annual prevalence of mental disorders. Conclusion Our study provides information about the process for indicator development and the use of survey results to measure the mental health status of the Korean population. The aim of mental health indicator development is to improve the mental health system by better grasping the current situation. We suggest these mental health indicators can monitor progress in efforts to implement reform policies, provide community services, and involve users, families and other stakeholders in mental health promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation. PMID:23251193
Full Text Available Background Mental, neurological, and substance (MNS use disorders are a leading cause of disability worldwide; specifically in Peru, MNS affect 1 in 5 persons. However, the great majority of people suffering from these disorders do not access care, thereby making necessary the improvement of existing conditions including a major rearranging of current health system structures beyond care delivery strategies. This paper reviews and examines recent developments in mental health policies in Peru, presenting an overview of the initiatives currently being introduced and the main implementation challenges they face. Methods Key documents issued by Peruvian governmental entities regarding mental health were reviewed to identify and describe the path that led to the beginning of the reform; how the ongoing reform is taking place; and, the plan and scope for scale-up. Results Since 2004, mental health has gained importance in policies and regulations, resulting in the promotion of a mental health reform within the national healthcare system. These efforts crystallized in 2012 with the passing of Law 29889 which introduced several changes to the delivery of mental healthcare, including a restructuring of mental health service delivery to occur at the primary and secondary care levels and the introduction of supporting services to aid in patient recovery and reintegration into society. In addition, a performance-based budget was approved to guarantee the implementation of these changes. Some of the main challenges faced by this reform are related to the diversity of the implementation settings, eg, isolated rural areas, and the limitations of the existing specialized mental health institutes to substantially grow in parallel to the scaling-up efforts in order to be able to provide training and clinical support to every region of Peru. Conclusion Although the true success of the mental healthcare reform will be determined in the coming years, thus far, Peru
Toyama, Mauricio; Castillo, Humberto; Galea, Jerome T.; Brandt, Lena R.; Mendoza, María; Herrera, Vanessa; Mitrani, Martha; Cutipé, Yuri; Cavero, Victoria; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Miranda, J. Jaime
Background: Mental, neurological, and substance (MNS) use disorders are a leading cause of disability worldwide; specifically in Peru, MNS affect 1 in 5 persons. However, the great majority of people suffering from these disorders do not access care, thereby making necessary the improvement of existing conditions including a major rearranging of current health system structures beyond care delivery strategies. This paper reviews and examines recent developments in mental health policies in Peru, presenting an overview of the initiatives currently being introduced and the main implementation challenges they face. Methods: Key documents issued by Peruvian governmental entities regarding mental health were reviewed to identify and describe the path that led to the beginning of the reform; how the ongoing reform is taking place; and, the plan and scope for scale-up. Results: Since 2004, mental health has gained importance in policies and regulations, resulting in the promotion of a mental health reform within the national healthcare system. These efforts crystallized in 2012 with the passing of Law 29889 which introduced several changes to the delivery of mental healthcare, including a restructuring of mental health service delivery to occur at the primary and secondary care levels and the introduction of supporting services to aid in patient recovery and reintegration into society. In addition, a performance-based budget was approved to guarantee the implementation of these changes. Some of the main challenges faced by this reform are related to the diversity of the implementation settings, eg, isolated rural areas, and the limitations of the existing specialized mental health institutes to substantially grow in parallel to the scaling-up efforts in order to be able to provide training and clinical support to every region of Peru. Conclusion: Although the true success of the mental healthcare reform will be determined in the coming years, thus far, Peru has achieved a
... tools and materials offering practical ways to help adolescent girls and adult women achieve better physical, mental, ... org Spanish-speaking operators available National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders 1-847-831-3438 9: ...
Mental disorders are common in almost all industrialized countries and many emerging economies. While several trials have shown that effective treatments exist for mental disorders, such as pharmacotherapy, psychological interventions, and self-help programs, the treatment gap in mental health care remains pervasive. Unrestricted access to adequate medical care for people with mental disorders will be one of the pressing public mental health tasks in the near future. In addition, scarcity of financial resources across the public mental health sector is a powerful argument for investigating innovative alternatives of delivering mental health care. Thus, one challenge that arises in modern mental health care is the development of innovative treatment concepts. One possibility for improving mental health care services is to deliver them via the Internet. Online-based mental health services have the potential to address the unmet need for mental health care.
Full Text Available Mental disorders are common in almost all industrialized countries and many emerging economies. While several trials have shown that effective treatments exist for mental disorders, such as pharmacotherapy, psychological interventions, and self-help programs, the treatment gap in mental health care remains pervasive. Unrestricted access to adequate medical care for people with mental disorders will be one of the pressing public mental health tasks in the near future. In addition, scarcity of financial resources across the public mental health sector is a powerful argument for investigating innovative alternatives of delivering mental health care. Thus, one challenge that arises in modern mental health care is the development of innovative treatment concepts. One possibility for improving mental health care services is to deliver them via the Internet. Online-based mental health services have the potential to address the unmet need for mental health care.
Catherine Claire Moravac
Full Text Available This study conducted in Toronto, Canada, explored the perceptions of women living in homeless shelters and women with severe mental health challenges about the factors influencing their decision-making processes regarding breast and cervical cancer screening. Twenty-six in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted. The objectives of this research were (i to provide new insights about women’s decision-making processes, (ii to describe the barriers to and facilitators for breast and cervical cancer screening, and (iii to offer recommendations for future outreach, education, and screening initiatives developed specifically for under/never-screened marginalized women living in urban centers. This exploratory study utilized thematic analysis to broaden our understanding about women’s decision-making processes. A constructed ontology1 was used in an attempt to understand and describe participants’ constructed realities. The epistemological framework was subjective and reflected co-created knowledge. The approach was hegemonic, values-based, and context-specific. The aim of the analysis was to focus on meanings and actions with a broader view to identify the interplay between participants’ narratives and social structures, medical praxis, and policy implications. Results from 26 qualitative interviews conducted in 2013–2014 provided insights on both positive and negative prior cancer screening experiences, the role of power and trust in women’s decision-making, and areas for improvement in health care provider/patient interactions. Outcomes of this investigation contribute to the future development of appropriately designed intervention programs for marginalized women, as well as for sensitivity training for health care providers. Tailored and effective health promotion strategies leading to life-long cancer screening behaviors among marginalized women may improve clinical outcomes, decrease treatment costs, and save lives.
Mangala, R; Thara, R
Tamil cinema is a vibrant part of the lives of many in south India. A chequered history and a phenomenal growth have made this medium highly influential not only in Tamil Nadu politics, but also in the social lives of the viewers. This paper provides an overview of the growth of Tamil cinema, and discusses in detail the way mental health has been handled by Tamil films. Cinema can be used very effectively to improve awareness about mental health issues.
McCann, Edward; Sharek, Danika
The views and opinions of people who use mental health services are being increasingly acknowledged in relation to rights-based, socially-inclusive, and recovery-oriented care. However, little is known of the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in this respect. The aim of the present study was to explore the experiences and needs of LGBT people in relation to mental health services. The study was an exploratory design utilizing mixed methods. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected using a survey instrument (n = 125) and in-depth semistructured interviews (n = 20) with a sample of people who had completed the survey. This paper will report on the findings from the interview data. The data were thematically analysed, and the main themes that emerged included accessing services, treatment choices, mental health service experiences, and other supports. The findings inform the discussion, and recommendations are made in terms of future mental health practice, education, and research. © 2014 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Susanta Kumar Padhy; Sidharth Sarkar; Mahima Panigrahi; Surender Paul
We all know that 2014 has been declared as the hottest year globally by the Meteorological department of United States of America. Climate change is a global challenge which is likely to affect the mankind in substantial ways. Not only climate change is expected to affect physical health, it is also likely to affect mental health. Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more numb...
Full Text Available Numerous issues related to culture, occupation, gender, caste, and health, to name a few, have faced harshness of society from time immemorial. Reasons are debatable, ranging from somewhat understandable to completely unacceptable. There is no doubt that society is dynamic and it has changed its view on many of the issues with passing time. Mental health is one such issue which society has neglected for quite a long time. Even today, mental health and mentally ill people face stigma and discrimination in their family, society, and at their workplace. People do not feel comfortable talking about mental health, even if they know that there cannot be any health without a healthy mind. But, as Albert Einstein has said “learn from yesterday, live for today, and hope for tomorrow”, everything is not lost. The mentally ill patients who were once abandoned and left on their own have now started to get humane care and attention. This article discusses this very pertinent topic of changing society and mental health.
Berring, Lene Lauge; Pedersen, Liselotte; Buus, Niels
Managing aggression in mental health hospitals is an important and challenging task for clinical nursing staff. A majority of studies focus on the perspective of clinicians, and research mainly depicts aggression by referring to patient-related factors. This qualitative study investigates how...... aggression is communicated in forensic mental health nursing records. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the discursive practices used by forensic mental health nursing staff when they record observed aggressive incidents. Textual accounts were extracted from the Staff Observation Aggression Scale....... These antecedents, combined with the aggression incident itself, created stereotyping representations of forensic psychiatric patients as deviant, unpredictable and dangerous. Patient and staff identities were continually (re)produced by an automatic response from the staff that was solely focused on the patient...
Parameshvara Deva, M
Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be
R Srinivasa Murthy
Full Text Available Development of mental health care for the total population is a challenge in all countries. Common challenges are accessibility, acceptability, affordability and stigma. There has been a progress in shifting the location of mental health services from jails, to asylums, to psychiatric hospitals, to general hospitals to community care facilities over the last three hundred years. Developing mental health services presents both universal and local challenges. There are advantages in collaboration across countries. Past efforts have taken advantage of collaboration to develop innovative approaches to care, tools for measuring impact of services, training methodology and evaluation of impact of interventions. Collaboration allows for bringing together wide ranging experiences and expertise, increase the size of the populations and understand the differences that influence development of mental health care. World Health Organization has pioneered collaborative projects in the past. The development of mhGAP Guidelines for non-specialists in recent times illustrates the value of collaboration. World Psychiatric Association promoted fighting stigma by bringing together over 20 countries. Grand Challenges Canada initiative is another example in this field. India has contributed to development of mental health services by focusing the importance of family in mental health care, integration of mental health with general health care, demonstrating the effectiveness of community care, revitalizing the traditional practices like yoga/meditation and presenting a different approach to psychotherapy. International collaboration for developing mental health services presents a win-win situation for all the partners and should be utilized to a greater extent.
Palermo, George B
The deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill which started in the 1960s greatly contributed to the overcrowding of judicial systems throughout the world. In the ensuing years, the actors involved in the adversarial system present in United States courts, a system that is primarily interested in assessing the culpability of the offender, have come to realize that the system is lacking therapeutic and reintegrative approaches to offenders, especially those who are mentally ill. Therapeutic jurisprudence, an interdisciplinary science, addresses this problematic situation of the mentally ill. It offers a fresh insight into the potentially beneficial and detrimental effects of legal decisions and views one of the roles of law as that of a healing agent. At present, many states have instituted mental health courts based on these concepts, incorporating previous drug court experiences. Their goal is to avoid the criminalization of the mentally ill and their recidivism through the creation of special programs. This article describes the mental health court programs of Washoe County and Clark County, Nevada, their organization, their therapeutic goals, and their success in keeping mentally ill offenders out of the correctional system, while improving their mental condition. In so doing, the program has lightened the load of the overburdened courts and has greatly diminished the financial burden incurred for court trials and jail and prison stays. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hewitt, J L
Mental health policy development in the UK has become increasingly dominated by the assumed need to prevent violence and alleviate public concerns about the dangers of the mentally ill living in the community. Risk management has become the expected focus of contemporary mental health services, and responsibility has increasingly been devolved to individual service professionals when systems fail to prevent violence. This paper analyses the development of mental health legislation and its impact on services users and mental health professionals at the micro level of service delivery. Historical precedence, media influence and public opinion are explored, and the reification of risk is questioned in practical and ethical terms. The government's newest proposals for compulsory treatment in the community are discussed in terms of practical efficacy and therapeutic impact. Dangerousness is far from being an objectively observable phenomenon arising from clinical pathology, but is a formulation of what is partially knowable through social analysis and unknowable by virtue of its situation in individual psychic motivation. Risk assessment can therefore never be completely accurate, and the solution of a 'better safe than sorry' approach to mental health policy is ethically and pragmatically flawed.
Meurk, Carla; Leung, Janni; Hall, Wayne; Head, Brian W; Whiteford, Harvey
Growing evidence attests to the efficacy of e-mental health services. There is less evidence on how to facilitate the safe, effective, and sustainable implementation of these services. We conducted a systematic review on e-mental health service use for depressive and anxiety disorders to inform policy development and identify policy-relevant gaps in the evidence base. Following the PRISMA protocol, we identified research (1) conducted in Australia, (2) on e-mental health services, (3) for depressive or anxiety disorders, and (4) on e-mental health usage, such as barriers and facilitators to use. Databases searched included Cochrane, PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase, ProQuest Social Science, and Google Scholar. Sources were assessed according to area and level of policy relevance. The search yielded 1081 studies; 30 studies were included for analysis. Most reported on self-selected samples and samples of online help-seekers. Studies indicate that e-mental health services are predominantly used by females, and those who are more educated and socioeconomically advantaged. Ethnicity was infrequently reported on. Studies examining consumer preferences found a preference for face-to-face therapy over e-therapies, but not an aversion to e-therapy. Content relevant to governance was predominantly related to the organizational dimensions of e-mental health services, followed by implications for community education. Financing and payment for e-services and governance of the information communication technology were least commonly discussed. Little research focuses explicitly on policy development and implementation planning; most research provides an e-services perspective. Research is needed to provide community and policy-maker perspectives. General population studies of prospective treatment seekers that include ethnicity and socioeconomic status and quantify relative preferences for all treatment modalities are necessary.
Full Text Available La Organización Mundial de la Salud ha establecido un programa especial denominado "Naciones unidas para la salud mental" con el fin de fomentar la salud mental en poblaciones subatendidas, con particular énfasis en las mujeres, los niños, los adolescentes, los refugiados y los pueblos indígenas. Uno de los objetivos del programa es crear una mayor conciencia entre el público y los gobiernos acerca del costo social y económico de los trastornos mentales y del abuso de sustancias. Un segundo objetivo es identificar y promover estrategias de colaboración para mejorar la salud mental que se puedan poner en práctica por medio de proyectos de cooperación técnica de nivel nacional dirigidos por las organizaciones del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en colaboración con otras organizaciones internacionales gubernamentales y no gubernamentales. Ya están en marcha varios proyectos de demostración y otros se están planificando.
Full Text Available La Organización Mundial de la Salud ha establecido un programa especial denominado "Naciones unidas para la salud mental" con el fin de fomentar la salud mental en poblaciones subatendidas, con particular énfasis en las mujeres, los niños, los adolescentes, los refugiados y los pueblos indígenas. Uno de los objetivos del programa es crear una mayor conciencia entre el público y los gobiernos acerca del costo social y económico de los trastornos mentales y del abuso de sustancias. Un segundo objetivo es identificar y promover estrategias de colaboración para mejorar la salud mental que se puedan poner en práctica por medio de proyectos de cooperación técnica de nivel nacional dirigidos por las organizaciones del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en colaboración con otras organizaciones internacionales gubernamentales y no gubernamentales. Ya están en marcha varios proyectos de demostración y otros se están planificando.
Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of craniofacial and dental anomalies among different developmental disorders in mentally challenged subjects of various special schools. Material and Methods : A cross sectional study was conducted in four rehabilitation centers for mentally disabled subjects in Bhopal City. Atotal o f296 subjects with age range of 5-15 years were screened and findings were recorded in specially prepared proforma. Results: Among 296 subjects, 73 were of Down′s syndrome (DS, 168 of mental retardation (MR, 31 of autism (AT and 24 of cerebral Palsy (CP. The anomalies were found to be predominant in syndromic mental disability compared to non-syndromic disorders. High vault palate was the most common developmental anomaly amongst all the four disabilities. Gingivitis & hypersalivation was noted as an additional finding in all the subgroups. Conclusion: Craniofacial and dental anomalies usually supplement mentally challenged children, leading to poor performance of stomatognathic complex. Therefore critical appraisal of oral health status of such subjects is imperative.
... 8255) . Health Topics and Resources Featured Health Topics Anxiety Disorders Depression Eating Disorders Bipolar Disorder (Manic-Depressive Illness) Schizophrenia Borderline Personality Disorder Suicide Prevention Attention Deficit ...
Ali, Mana K; Hack, Samantha M; Brown, Clayton H; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Lijuan; Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Park, Stephanie G; Dixon, Lisa B; Kreyenbuhl, Julie A
Black consumers with serious mental illness (SMI) face significant challenges in obtaining quality mental health care and are at risk for experiencing significant disparities in mental health care outcomes, including recovery from mental illness. Patient-provider interactions may partly contribute to this disparity. The purpose of the current study was to understand the effects of race, psychosis, and therapeutic alliance on mental health recovery orientation among Veterans with SMI. Participants were Veterans who had an SMI being treated at two Veteran Affairs outpatient mental health clinics by a psychiatrist or nurse practitioner. Participants completed the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale (BASIS-24), Mental Health Recovery Measure, and patient-report Scale to Assess the Therapeutic Relationship (STAR-P) which includes three subscales: positive collaboration, positive clinician input, and non-supportive clinician input. Regression analyses were used to determine interactive effects of race, psychosis severity, and therapeutic alliance variables. The sample was 226 Veterans (50% black, 50% white). Black participants were slightly older (p mental health recovery (p mental health recovery orientation for black participants. Conversely, for white participants, positive collaboration had little effect on the negative relationship between psychosis severity and mental health recovery orientation. Increased levels of psychosis may inhibit patients' perceptions of their ability to recover from SMI. However, for black participants, positive collaboration with mental health providers may moderate the effects of psychotic symptomatology.
Current media campaigns, realized within national campaigns and actions on mental health prevention and promotion, are considered in this paper, in the context of expert public relation, as well as the whole society, towards mental health. Mental health promotion is determined as a range of activities by which individuals, community and society are being enabled to take control over mental health determinants and to improve it, but also as an action for improvement of mental health posi...
The aims of this paper are: (i) to give an overview of the use and maturation of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in mental health services research, (ii) to indicate areas in which mental health may present particular challenges, and (iii) to outline necessary steps to strengthen the capacity to conduct better quality ...
Shamblin, Sherry R.
Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation (ECMHC) has been linked to increased teacher competence and efficacy, as well as increased social skills and decreased challenging behaviors for participating children (Green, 2009). Partnerships for Early Childhood Mental Health ("Partnerships") is an ECMHC program in Southeastern Ohio. This…
In the context of post-apartheid South Africa mental health professionals are increasingly faced with the complexities linked to people leaving the country, those left behind and those returning. In an attempt to illustrate the mental health challenges linked to the South African migration phenomenon, this article will firstly ...
Mental health has in recent years emerged as an issue of concern for university students globally, obstructing the completion of studies, according to delegates attending the 2016. Global Summit on Student Affairs and Services. “We are seeing increases in mental health challenges worldwide – more stress, more anxiety ...
Background: Recognition of mental health problems among children continues to be a diagnostic challenge especially in resource poor countries where integration of such services within the primary health care framework has not been fully successfully. Objective: To document the prevailing mental services among ...
Abou-Saleh, Mohammed T; Christodoulou, George N
Refugees have high rates of mental health morbidity as a result of conflict. However, their needs for mental healthcare and psychosocial support are often unmet, despite the efforts of professional and humanitarian organisations. The war refugee crisis is a global challenge that needs a global solution. We call on all governments, regional and international organisations to take responsible humanitarian actions to intervene and support people affected by these disasters and for all humanity to unite against the forces of injustice and degradation. The thematic papers in this issue report on the Syrian crisis from a variety of perspectives.
Mayeya, John; Chazulwa, Roy; Mayeya, Petronella Ntambo; Mbewe, Edward; Magolo, Lonia Mwape; Kasisi, Friday; Bowa, Annel Chishimba
This country profile for Zambia was compiled between 1998 and 2002. The objectives of the exercise were to first of all avail policymakers, other key decision makers and leaders in Zambia, information about mental health in Zambia in order to assist policy and services development. Secondly, to facilitate comparative analyses of mental health services between countries. The work involved formation of a core group of experts who coordinated the collection of information from the various organizations in Zambia. The information was later shared to a broad spectrum of stakeholders for consensus. A series of focus group discussions (FGDs) supplemented the information collected. There are various factors that contribute to mental health in Zambia. It is clear from the Zambian perspective that social, demographic, economic, political, environmental, cultural and religious influences affect the mental health of the people. With a population of 10.3 million and annual growth rate of 2.9%, Zambia is one of the most urbanized countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty levels stood at 72.9% in 1998. In terms of unemployment, the most urbanized provinces, Lusaka (the capital city), and the copper-belt are the most affected. The gross domestic product (GDP) is US$3.09 billion dollars while per capita income is US$300. The total budget allocation for health in the year 2002 was 15% while the proportion of the GDP per capita expenditure for health was 5.6%. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rates stand at 20% among the reproductive age group 15-49 years. Political instability and wars in neighbouring states has resulted in an influx of refugees. Environmental factors affecting the country include natural and man-made disasters such as floods and drought, mine accidents, and deforestation. To a large extent in Zambia, people who are mentally ill are stigmatized, feared, scorned at, humiliated and condemned. However, caring for mental ill health in old age is positively perceived. It is
Gulsum Ozge Doganavsargil Baysal
Full Text Available Stigmatizasyon represent a chronic negative interaction with the environment that most of people with a of diagnosis mental disorders. Different types of stigma may have harmful effects. Poor psychological well being, poor quality of life and poor self esteem are related stigmatization. In this article, definition and mechanism of stigmatization, influenced factors and consequences of stigmatization are reviewed. Stigmatization is a modifiable environmental risk factor. Integrating approaches against stigma in treatment may represent cost-effective way to reduce the risk of relapse and poor outcome occasioned by chronic exposure to stigma. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 239-251
... Article: Readmission After Pediatric Mental Health Admissions. Article: Care Coordination for Youth With Mental Health Disorders in Primary... Article: Increased prescription rates of anxiolytics and hypnotics ...
Opsenica-Kostić Jelena J.
Full Text Available Today's generations of adolescents have grown up with information and communication technologies which have a significant place in their lives. One of the important issues in this context is the relation between the Internet and the mental health of adolescents. The first topic that this paper deals with, is the relationship between the use of the Internet and mental health, and the other is related to the planned use of the Internet for the purpose of improving wellbeing. The most common activity of young people on the Internet is social networking. Online social networks can positively affect wellbeing through facilitating self-disclosing and the availability of social support. Such findings from empirical research support the ideas of theories that emphasize the positive aspects of online relating. However, social networks (and online communication in general can also have significant negative effects on the mental health of adolescents, if they are exposed to cyberbullying. The second topic of the paper is the planned use of the Internet for the purpose of improving mental health. To young people (and to members of other age groups, as well online support groups are the most accessible nowadays, aimed at supporting a group of people with a common problem or life challenge. These forums are most often text-based and this kind of communication has a number of potential benefits for users. It is also possible to organize online interventions that promote mental health and prevent its deterioration. Research shows that online skill-based interventions can have a positive impact on adolescent mental health. The results of the online prevention interventions indicate the encouraging evidence concerning computerized cognitive behavioral therapy interventions and their impact on adolescent's anxiety and depression symptoms. Although it contains potentially negative aspects, the Internet has a positive significance and potential for the development
In many low and middle income countries, attention to mental illness remains compartmentalized and consigned as a matter for specialist policy. Despite great advances in global mental health, mental health policy and practice dovetail only to a limited degree with social development efforts. They often lag behind broader approaches to health and development. This gap ignores the small but growing evidence that social development unavoidably impacts the mental health of those affected, and that this influence can be both positive and negative. This article examines the theoretical and practical challenges that need to be overcome for a more effective integration of social development and mental health policy. From a theoretical perspective, this article demonstrates compatibility between social development and mental health paradigms. In particular, the capability approach is shown to provide a strong framework for integrating mental health and development. Yet, capability-oriented critiques on 'happiness' have recently been applied to mental health with potentially detrimental outcomes. With regard to policy and practice, horizontal and vertical integration strategies are suggested. Horizontal strategies require stronger devolution of mental health care to the primary care level, more unified messages regarding mental health care provision and the gradual expansion of mental health packages of care. Vertical integration refers to the alignment of mental health with related policy domains (particularly the social, economic and political domains). Evidence from mental health research reinforces aspects of social development theory in a way that can have tangible implications on practice. First, it encourages a focus on avoiding exclusion of those affected by or at risk of mental illness. Secondly, it underscores the importance of the process of implementation as an integral component of successful policies. Finally, by retaining a focus on the individual, it seeks to
Objective: This is the second of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). Objectives for the review were to provide realistic estimates of cost for unit activities and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate cost centre management. Method: The study described ...
Introduction. To assess the use of space requires the review of activities performed and functions executed. The assessment of the use and structuring of space for acute mental health care necessitates the review of all operational areas and related activities incorporated in the care program. At the same time appropriate ...
Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sidharth; Panigrahi, Mahima; Paul, Surender
We all know that 2014 has been declared as the hottest year globally by the Meteorological department of United States of America. Climate change is a global challenge which is likely to affect the mankind in substantial ways. Not only climate change is expected to affect physical health, it is also likely to affect mental health. Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more number of farmer suicides. Droughts otherwise can lead to impaired mental health and stress. Increased frequency of disasters with climate change can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and depression. Changes in climate and global warming may require population to migrate, which can lead to acculturation stress. It can also lead to increased rates of physical illnesses, which secondarily would be associated with psychological distress. The possible effects of mitigation measures on mental health are also discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of what can and should be done to tackle the expected mental health issues consequent to climate change.
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.
This comprehensive course from the Practical Nursing series of competency-based curricula is designed to prepare students for employment by systematically guiding the students' learning activities from the simple to the complex. These materials prepare health care practitioners to function effectively in the rapidly changing health care industry.…
Cachia, John M.;
Mental ill-health imposes a huge burden on individuals, their families, society, health systems and the economy. Mental health care remains a neglected area of health policy in too many countries. This statement by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD 2014) confirms the overall bleak assessment of the reaction to mental ill-health that prevails worldwide even in well-developed economies. Mental ill-health has accompanying costs in terms o...
Richard Frank; Thomas G. McGuire
Are many prisoners in jail or prison because of their mental illness? And if so, is mental health treatment a cost-effective way to reduce crime and lower criminal justice costs? This paper reviews and evaluates the evidence assessing the potential of expansion of mental health services for reducing crime. Mental illness and symptoms of mental illness are highly prevalent among adult and child criminal justice populations. The association between serious mental illness and violence and arrest...
Full Text Available Few people with mental disorders in low and middle-income countries (LMICs receive treatment, in part because mental disorders are highly stigmatized and do not enjoy priority and resources commensurate with their burden on society. Advocacy has been proposed as a means of building political will and community support for mental health and reducing stigma, but few studies have explored the practice and promise of advocacy in LMICs.We conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with leaders in health and mental health in Zimbabwe to explore key stakeholder perceptions on the challenges and opportunities of the country's mental health system. We coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method, informed by principles of grounded theory. Few interview questions directly concerned advocacy, yet in our analysis, advocacy emerged as a prominent, cross-cutting theme across participants and interview questions.Two thirds of the respondents discussed advocacy, often in depth, returning to the concept throughout the interview and emphasizing their belief in advocacy's importance. Participants described six distinct components of advocacy: the advocates, to whom they advocate ("targets", what they advocate for ("asks", how advocates reach their targets ("access", how they make their asks ("arguments", and the results of their advocacy ("outcomes".Despite their perception that mental health is widely misunderstood and under-appreciated in Zimbabwe, respondents expressed optimism that strategically speaking out can reduce stigma and increase access to care. Key issues included navigating hierarchies, empowering service users to advocate, and integrating mental health with other health initiatives. Understanding stakeholder perceptions sets the stage for targeted development of mental health advocacy in Zimbabwe and other LMICs.
Hendler, Reuben; Kidia, Khameer; Machando, Debra; Crooks, Megan; Mangezi, Walter; Abas, Melanie; Katz, Craig; Thornicroft, Graham; Semrau, Maya; Jack, Helen
Few people with mental disorders in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) receive treatment, in part because mental disorders are highly stigmatized and do not enjoy priority and resources commensurate with their burden on society. Advocacy has been proposed as a means of building political will and community support for mental health and reducing stigma, but few studies have explored the practice and promise of advocacy in LMICs. We conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with leaders in health and mental health in Zimbabwe to explore key stakeholder perceptions on the challenges and opportunities of the country's mental health system. We coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method, informed by principles of grounded theory. Few interview questions directly concerned advocacy, yet in our analysis, advocacy emerged as a prominent, cross-cutting theme across participants and interview questions. Two thirds of the respondents discussed advocacy, often in depth, returning to the concept throughout the interview and emphasizing their belief in advocacy's importance. Participants described six distinct components of advocacy: the advocates, to whom they advocate ("targets"), what they advocate for ("asks"), how advocates reach their targets ("access"), how they make their asks ("arguments"), and the results of their advocacy ("outcomes"). Despite their perception that mental health is widely misunderstood and under-appreciated in Zimbabwe, respondents expressed optimism that strategically speaking out can reduce stigma and increase access to care. Key issues included navigating hierarchies, empowering service users to advocate, and integrating mental health with other health initiatives. Understanding stakeholder perceptions sets the stage for targeted development of mental health advocacy in Zimbabwe and other LMICs.
... HealthPersistent Depressive Disorder (PDD)Managing Daily StressDepressionGrieving: Facing Illness, Death, and Other LossesTherapy and CounselingUnderstanding Your Teen’s Emotional HealthGeneralized Anxiety Disorder Home Prevention and Wellness Emotional Well-Being Mental ...
Skingsley, David; Bradley, Eleanor J; Nolan, Peter
To outline the development and content of a 'top-up' neuropharmacology module for mental health nurse prescribers and consider how much pharmacology training is required to ensure effective mental health prescribing practice. Debate about the content of prescribing training courses has persisted within the United Kingdom since the mid-1980s. In early 2003 supplementary prescribing was introduced and gave mental health nurses the opportunity to become prescribers. The challenge of the nurse prescribing curriculum for universities is that they have only a short time to provide nurses from a range of backgrounds with enough knowledge to ensure that they meet agreed levels of competency for safe prescribing. There is growing concern within mental health care that the prescribing of medication in mental health services falls short of what would be deemed good practice. Over the past two decades, nurse training has increasingly adopted a psychosocial approach to nursing care raising concerns that, although nurses attending prescribing training may be able to communicate effectively with service users, they may lack the basic knowledge of biology and pharmacology to make effective decisions about medication. Following the completion of a general nurse prescribing course, mental health nurses who attended were asked to identify their specific needs during the evaluation phase. Although they had covered basic pharmacological principles in their training, they stated that they needed more specific information about drugs used in mental health; particularly how to select appropriate drug treatments for mental health conditions. This paper describes how the nurses were involved in the design of a specific module which would enable them to transfer their theoretical leaning to practice and in so doing increase their confidence in their new roles. The findings of this study suggest that the understanding and confidence of mental health nurse prescribers about the drugs they
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ISBN 978-92-837-2022-5 Single copies of this publication or of a part of it may be made for individual use only by those organisations or individuals...Health Status on Military Fitness, HFM-164/RTG on Psychological Aspects of Health Behaviours on Deployed Military Operations, HFM-175/RTG Medically...dstl.gov.uk Dr. R. (Roos) DELAHAIJ Research Scientist, Behavioural Societal Sciences TNO P.O. Box 23, Kampweg 5 3769 ZE, Soesterberg
Somasundaram, D J; van de Put, W A
An effort is being made in Cambodia to involve grass-roots personnel in the integration of the care of the mentally ill into a broad framework of health services. This undertaking is examined with particular reference to the work of the Transcultural Psychosocial Organization.
Sipe, Theresa Ann; Finnie, Ramona K.C.; Knopf, John A.; Qu, Shuli; Reynolds, Jeffrey A.; Thota, Anilkrishna B.; Hahn, Robert A.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Hennessy, Kevin D.; McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Anderson, Clinton W.; Azrin, Susan; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Gelenberg, Alan J.; Vernon-Smiley, Mary E.; Nease, Donald E.
Context Health insurance benefits for mental health services typically have paid less than benefits for physical health services, resulting in potential underutilization or financial burden for people with mental health conditions. Mental health benefits legislation was introduced to improve financial protection (i.e., decrease financial burden) and to increase access to, and use of, mental health services. This systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of mental health benefits legislation, including executive orders, in improving mental health. Evidence acquisition Methods developed for the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to identify, evaluate, and analyze available evidence. The evidence included studies published or reported from 1965 to March 2011 with at least one of the following outcomes: access to care, financial protection, appropriate utilization, quality of care, diagnosis of mental illness, morbidity and mortality, and quality of life. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Evidence synthesis Thirty eligible studies were identified in 37 papers. Implementation of mental health benefits legislation was associated with financial protection (decreased out-of-pocket costs) and appropriate utilization of services. Among studies examining the impact of legislation strength, most found larger positive effects for comprehensive parity legislation or policies than for less-comprehensive ones. Few studies assessed other mental health outcomes. Conclusions Evidence indicates that mental health benefits legislation, particularly comprehensive parity legislation, is effective in improving financial protection and increasing appropriate utilization of mental health services for people with mental health conditions. Evidence is limited for other mental health outcomes. PMID:25998926
Chen, Martin K.
One of the major problems in measuring community mental health status is the lack of consensus among mental health workers in psychiatry, psychology, sociology, and epidemiology as to what constitutes mental illness. Additionally, changing social mores preclude a definition of mental illness in behavioral terms. An operational definition of mental…
Larson, Satu; Chapman, Susan; Spetz, Joanne; Brindis, Claire D
Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers (SBHCs) may be one strategy to decrease health disparities. Empirical studies between 2003 and 2013 of US pediatric populations and of US SBHCs were included if research was related to childhood trauma's effects, mental health care disparities, SBHC mental health services, or SBHC impact on academic achievement. Eight studies show a significant risk of mental health disorders and poor academic achievement when exposed to childhood trauma. Seven studies found significant disparities in pediatric mental health care in the US. Nine studies reviewed SBHC mental health service access, utilization, quality, funding, and impact on school achievement. Exposure to chronic childhood trauma negatively impacts school achievement when mediated by mental health disorders. Disparities are common in pediatric mental health care in the United States. SBHC mental health services have some showed evidence of their ability to reduce, though not eradicate, mental health care disparities. © 2017, American School Health Association.
Nicaise, Pablo; Dubois, Vincent; Lorant, Vincent
Most mental health care delivery systems in welfare states currently face two major issues: deinstitutionalisation and fragmentation of care. Belgium is in the process of reforming its mental health care delivery system with the aim of simultaneously strengthening community care and improving integration of care. The new policy model attempts to strike a balance between hospitals and community services, and is based on networks of services. We carried out a content analysis of the policy blueprint for the reform and performed an ex-ante evaluation of its plan of operation, based on the current knowledge of mental health service networks. When we examined the policy's multiple aims, intermediate goals, suggested tools, and their articulation, we found that it was unclear how the new policy could achieve its goals. Indeed, deinstitutionalisation and integration of care require different network structures, and different modes of governance. Furthermore, most of the mechanisms contained within the new policy were not sufficiently detailed. Consequently, three major threats to the effectiveness of the reform were identified. These were: issues concerning the relationship between network structure and purpose, the continued influence of hospitals despite the goal of deinstitutionalisation, and the heterogeneity in the actual implementation of the new policy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Despite the developments both in hard and soft law policies in the European Union in relation to mental health and psychosocial risks in the workplace, a review of these policies at EU level has not been conducted to identify strengths, weaknesses, and gaps to be addressed in the future. Keeping in mind that the aim should be to engage employers in good practice, ideally such policies should include key definitions and elements of the psychosocial risk management process, covering risk factors, mental health outcomes, risk assessment and preventive actions, or interventions. The current paper aims to fill this gap by reviewing hard and soft law policies on mental health in the workplace and psychosocial risks applicable at EU level and conducting a gap analysis according to a set of dimensions identified in models of good practice in this area. Our review of ninety-four policies in total revealed several gaps, especially in relation to binding in comparison to nonbinding policies. These are discussed in light of the context of policy-making in the EU, and recommendations are offered for future actions in this area.
Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya; Iavicoli, Sergio; Di Tecco, Cristina
Despite the developments both in hard and soft law policies in the European Union in relation to mental health and psychosocial risks in the workplace, a review of these policies at EU level has not been conducted to identify strengths, weaknesses, and gaps to be addressed in the future. Keeping in mind that the aim should be to engage employers in good practice, ideally such policies should include key definitions and elements of the psychosocial risk management process, covering risk factors, mental health outcomes, risk assessment and preventive actions, or interventions. The current paper aims to fill this gap by reviewing hard and soft law policies on mental health in the workplace and psychosocial risks applicable at EU level and conducting a gap analysis according to a set of dimensions identified in models of good practice in this area. Our review of ninety-four policies in total revealed several gaps, especially in relation to binding in comparison to nonbinding policies. These are discussed in light of the context of policy-making in the EU, and recommendations are offered for future actions in this area.
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Burns, J K
The relationship between poverty and mental health is indisputable. However, to have an influence on the next set of sustainable global development goals, we need to understand the causal relationships between social determinants such as poverty, inequality, lack of education and unemployment; thereby clarifying which aspects of poverty are the key drivers of mental illness. Some of the major challenges identified by Lund (2014) in understanding the poverty-mental health relationship are discussed including: the need for appropriate poverty indicators; extending this research agenda to a broader range of mental health outcomes; the need to engage with theoretical concepts such as Amartya Sen's capability framework; and the need to integrate the concept of income/economic inequality into studies of poverty and mental health. Although income inequality is a powerful driver of poor physical and mental health outcomes, it features rarely in research and discourse on social determinants of mental health. This paper interrogates in detail the relationships between poverty, income inequality and mental health, specifically: the role of income inequality as a mediator of the poverty-mental health relationship; the relative utility of commonly used income inequality metrics; and the likely mechanisms underlying the impact of inequality on mental health, including direct stress due to the setting up of social comparisons as well as the erosion of social capital leading to social fragmentation. Finally, we need to interrogate the upstream political, social and economic causes of inequality itself, since these should also become potential targets in efforts to promote sustainable development goals and improve population (mental) health. In particular, neoliberal (market-oriented) political doctrines lead to both increased income inequality and reduced social cohesion. In conclusion, understanding the relationships between politics, poverty, inequality and mental health
Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee
In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.
Gigantesco, Antonella; Lega, Ilaria
One fifth of workers reports experiencing stress in the work environment in Europe. A number of studies show that psychosocial stressors in the workplace are associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes, including symptoms of anxiety and depression. The present paper: briefly describes the characteristics of occupational stress and the main psychosocial stressful risk factors in the work environment; reports the main results of studies on psychosocial risk factors in the work environment as risk factor for common mental disorders; presents findings from an Italian study aimed at assessing prevalence of common mental disorders and workplace psychosocial stressors in a sample of hospital employees; provides the "Working conditions Questionnaire", a validated self-administered instrument to assess perceived stress in the workplace; this questionnaire includes the assessment of organizational justice.
Sluyter, G V
The principles and techniques of total quality management (TQM) have only recently been applied to the field of mental health. This article reviews issues and offers some preliminary observations, based on the author's consultation and training work with ten state-operated mental health organizations in Missouri (Jul 1, 1994-Jun 30, 1995). Since many mental health organizations have operated in the public sector as part of large, hierarchical state agencies, the legacy of bureaucratic structures and a command and control leadership style may pose additional challenges. Two types of training have proven helpful in the Missouri project: general overview or awareness training for all staff and specialized training for team leaders and facilitators. To be successful with TQM, mental health organizations should clearly delineate their governing ideas, continuously reinforce them with all staff, and use the ideas as a measuring stick for progress. Some of the organizations in the Missouri project link their governing ideas and strategic planning efforts with critical success factors and the measurement methodology to track them. This dimension, which may include a quality council, a quality department, and quality improvement (QI) teams, also extends to the way in which facilities are organized and function. The structure evolving from a team-oriented, time-limited, data-based, and problem-solving approach can facilitate the functioning of the entire organization. The philosophy and techniques of TQM are as applicable to mental health as to health care in general--the question is one more of motivation than of fit.
The subject of place is salient certainly when deliberating the health of prisoners as a social group. This paper provides an overview and assessment of health and place in relation to mental health and the prison locale. Particular attention is devoted to prison culture, both staff and inmate. The incarceration experience (i.e. the nature of enforced residence in the prison environment) can affect negatively prisoners' mental health. The mental health of the prison population is poor, and mental health services in the prison setting have need of further improvement. However, the provision of mental healthcare and the pursuit of good mental health in the prison milieu are challenging. The prison-based-exceedingly complex-three-way relationship between culture-mental and health-mental healthcare is debated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sanchez, Francis; Gaw, Albert
Filipino Americans are the second-fastest-growing Asian immigrant group in the United States, following the Chinese. Yet there exists a dearth of information on mental health issues concerning Filipino Americans, who represent a diverse mixture of culture, beliefs, and practices and vary widely from other minorities as well as from the larger population. This group has experienced emotional and behavioral challenges in acclimatizing to Western culture. Their historical underpinnings, native core values, and traditions exert a crucial influence on their mental well-being. Filipino Americans underutilize existing mental health care services that are culturally, socially, and linguistically incompatible with their needs. Along with stigma, the adherence of traditional practices and healing methods remains a formidable barrier to the appropriate provision of care. The authors review factors influencing perceptions of mental health and illness, including religion, family, support systems, coping styles, and indigenous culture-bound traits. Recommendations for treatment consist of a structured, culturally sensitive, comprehensive approach that addresses the individual as well as the cultural milieu.
Mental Health Services in South Africa: Taking stock. ... African Journal of Psychiatry ... At primary care level key challenges include- training and supervision of staff in the detection and management of common mental disorders, and the development of community-based psychosocial rehabilitation programmes for people ...
van Ours, J.C.; Williams, J.
This paper investigates whether cannabis use leads to worse mental health. To do so, we account for common unobserved factors affecting mental health and cannabis consumption by modeling mental health jointly with the dynamics of cannabis use. Our main finding is that using cannabis increases the
National Technical Assistance Center on Transition, 2016
Recently researchers have begun focusing on young adults with mental health disorders transitioning into adulthood. Research exploring the importance of mental health support in secondary transition have yielded positive outcomes. For example, strong collaboration between educational and mental health agencies ensuring academic, employment, and…
This paper discusses the use of bilingual workers who do not have formal mental health training as mediators and providers of mental health care for refugees. The introduction provides a background discussion of the need for refugee mental health services, the characteristics of bilingual mental health workers, and the work places and expectations…
Stein, Dan J; Giordano, James
Global mental health is a relatively new field that has focused on disparities in mental health services across different settings, and on innovative ways to provide feasible, acceptable, and effective services in poorly-resourced settings. Neuroethics, too, is a relatively new field, lying at the intersection of bioethics and neuroscience; it has studied the implications of neuroscientific findings for age-old questions in philosophy, as well as questions about the ethics of novel neuroscientific methods and interventions. In this essay, we address a number of issues that lie at the intersection of these two fields: an emphasis on a naturalist and empirical position, a concern with both disease and wellness, the importance of human rights in neuropsychiatric care, and the value of social inclusion and patient empowerment. These different disciplines share a number of perspectives, and future dialogue between the two should be encouraged.
Asher, Laura; Fekadu, Abebaw; Hanlon, Charlotte
Purpose of review\\ud The aim was to synthesise recent evidence on schizophrenia illness experience and outcomes and models of care in low and middle-income countries (LMIC).\\ud \\ud Recent findings\\ud There is a plurality of explanatory models for psychosis and increasing evidence that context influences experiences of stigma. People with schizophrenia in LMIC are vulnerable to food insecurity, violence and physical health problems, in addition to unmet needs for mental healthcare. Family supp...
At the point of civilization where we find ourselves today, in the post-modernity conditions, the responsibility of civil society is a determining factor in the overall politic of mental health. More than ever we have to think of health and mental health in particular in terms of a social dynamics where the participation of social groups and individuals in the responsibility for collective health has priority over the structures of state and institutional interventions. The responsibilities of the state, the institutions and professionals are therefore displaced and redefined while new rights emerge and with them the need for more information and control for the users who pay for health services with their taxes. The concern to adapt a system now anachronistic can only increases the problems of a society responsible for its obsolescence. The social and human costs of the radical changes needed, will in the short term, be socially less burdensome than the consequences of illusory adaptations. In this area, we can expect that nothing will be effective without the mobilisation by the state of the collective responsabilities for a social involvement in public health.
Keller, Eric J
This study sought to identify and examine less commonly discussed challenges to positive mental health faced by medical students, residents, and physicians with hopes of improving current efforts to protect the mental health of these groups. Additionally, this work aimed to suggest an innovative means of preventing poor mental health during medical education. Literature on medical student, resident, and physician mental health was carefully reviewed and a number of psychiatrists who treat physician-patients were interviewed. The culture of medicine, medical training, common physician psychology and identity, and conflicting professional expectations all seem to contribute to poor mental health among medical students, residents, and physicians. Many current efforts may be more successful by better addressing the negative effects of these characteristics of modern medicine. Programs aimed at promoting healthy mental lifestyles during medical education should continue to be developed and supported to mitigate the deleterious effects of the challenging environment of modern medicine. To improve these efforts, educators may consider incorporating philosophical discussions on meaning and fulfillment in life between medical students and faculty. Through medical school faculty members sharing and living out their own healthy outlooks on life, students may emulate these habits and the culture of medicine may become less challenging for positive mental health.
Angier, J J
Consumer health information as applied to mental health includes areas such as the diagnosis, management, and treatment of mental illness, as well as self-help, emotional wellness, and the relationship between life events, stress, and disease. This paper presents issues specific to the provision of mental health information to the layperson, e.g., confidentiality, literacy, competence, the social stigma of mental illness, the state of the art in psychiatry, popular psychology, and treatment f...
Wainer, J; Chesters, J
This paper explores the relationship between rural places and mental health. It begins with a definition of mental health and an outline of the data that have led to the current concern with promoting positive mental health. We then consider aspects of rural life and place that contribute to positive mental health or increase the likelihood of mental health problems. Issues identified include environment, place, gender identity, violence and dispossession and the influence of the effects of structural changes in rural communities. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the determinants of resilience in rural places, including social connectedness, valuing diversity and economic participation.
Full Text Available This article deals with questions of mental health among students of pedagogical universities. There were analysed differences in the level of mental health among sporting and non-sporting students. Two methods were used in the inquiry. Stepanov's questionnaire was used to estimate the level of mental health, Gundarov's questionnaire was used to evaluate psychical satisfaction. The sample consisted of 263 sporting students (athletes and 288 non-sporting students. Results have shown that the level of mental health among sporting students was higher than the level of mental health among non-sporting students.
Cobigo, Virginie; Stuart, Heather
Recent research on approaches to improving social inclusion for people with mental disabilities is reviewed. We describe four approaches (or tools) that can be used to improve social inclusion for people with mental disabilities: legislation, community-based supports and services, antistigma/antidiscrimination initiatives, and system monitoring and evaluation. While legislative solutions are the most prevalent, and provide an important framework to support social inclusion, research shows that their full implementation remains problematic. Community-based supports and services that are person-centered and recovery-oriented hold considerable promise, but they are not widely available nor have they been widely evaluated. Antistigma and antidiscrimination strategies are gaining in popularity and offer important avenues for eliminating social barriers and promoting adequate and equitable access to care. Finally, in the context of the current human rights and evidence-based health paradigms, systematic evidence will be needed to support efforts to promote social inclusion for people with mental disabilities, highlight social inequities, and develop best practice approaches. Tools that promote social inclusion of persons with mental disabilities are available, though not yet implemented in a way to fully realize the goals of current disability discourse.
Smart, D; Pollard, C; Walpole, B
The aim of this study was to: (i) develop a triage scale consistent with the National Triage Scale (NTS) for patients with mental health problems attending emergency departments; and (ii) to reduce emergency waiting times, transit times and improve skills assessing mental health problems. We developed a Mental Health Triage Scale (MHTS) consistent with the NTS. The MHTS was then implemented using a structured education package, and evaluated from March to August 1994. Further evaluation occurred after 2 years. A four-tiered MHTS was produced: category 2, violent, aggressive or suicidal, danger to self or others or with police escort; category 3, very distressed or psychotic, likely to deteriorate, situational crisis, danger to self or others; category 4, long-standing semi-urgent mental health disorder, supporting agency present; and category 5, long-standing non-acute mental health disorder, no support agency present. Patients with illness, injury or self-harm were triaged using combined mental health and medical information. Mean emergency waiting times and transit times were reduced. More consistent triaging for mental health patients occurred, and more consistent admission rates by urgency. Reduced mental health 'did not waits' showed improved customer satisfaction. Mental Health Triage Scale was considered appropriate by liaison psychiatry and its use has continued at 2 years follow-up. A systematic approach to mental health triaging produced a workable scale, reduced waiting times, transit times, and provided effective and consistent integration of mental health patients into a general emergency department.
Christensen, Anne Illemann; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette
analysed by means of logistic regression models. Results: Men and women with poor mental health are characterized by being single, having a long-term illness, not being able to rely on help from others in case of illness and by feeling that family and friends demand too much of them. Men with poor mental...... health were further characterized by being a heavy smoker, and having a BMI below 25. Women with poor mental health were further characterized by being 16-44 years old and sedentary in leisure time. CONCLUSIONS THE PREVALENCE OF POOR MENTAL HEALTH IS HIGHER AMONG WOMEN THAN MEN, AND DIFFERENT FACTORS...... CHARACTERIZE MEN AND WOMEN WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH THE PRESENT FINDINGS SUPPORT THE NOTION THAT BOTH SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS AND LIFESTYLE FACTORS ARE INDEPENDENTLY RELATED WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH WE SUGGEST TAKING INTO ACCOUNT ALL THESE AREAS OF LIFE WHEN PLANNING ACTIVITIES TO PREVENT POOR MENTAL HEALTH AND WHEN...
Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender
Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738
... concept which is clearly differentiated from mental illness and psychopathology. The second part of the book focuses on the theory and practice of mental health promotion through applications to policy, assessment, consultation, and to education and training in mental health promotion. Drawing on a wealth of international literature Keith Tudor offe...
Learning can be hindered by students' mental health. Given the increased reports of mental health concerns among college students, it is imperative that we understand how best to provide supports to this population to help them learn and succeed. This is particularly significant given the body of research that demonstrates how mental illness may…
This book highlights a broad range of issues on mental health and illness in large cities. It presents the epidemiology of mental disorders in cities, cultural issues of urban mental health care, and community care in large cities and urban slums. It also includes chapters on homelessness, crime...
Ali, Mana K.; Hack, Samantha M.; Brown, Clayton H.; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Lijuan; Klingaman, Elizabeth; Park, Stephanie G.; Dixon, Lisa B.; Kreyenbuhl, Julie A.
Black consumers with serious mental illness (SMI) face significant challenges in obtaining quality mental health care and are at risk for experiencing significant disparities in mental health care outcomes, including recovery from mental illness. Patient-provider interactions may partly contribute to this disparity. The purpose of the current study was to understand the effects of race, psychosis, and therapeutic alliance on mental health recovery orientation among Veterans with SMI. Participants were Veterans who had an SMI being treated at two Veteran Affairs outpatient mental health clinics by a psychiatrist or nurse practitioner. Participants completed the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale (BASIS-24), Mental Health Recovery Measure, and patient-report Scale to Assess the Therapeutic Relationship (STAR-P) which includes three subscales: positive collaboration, positive clinician input, and non-supportive clinician input. Regression analyses were used to determine interactive effects of race, psychosis severity, and therapeutic alliance variables. The sample was 226 Veterans (50% black, 50% white). Black participants were slightly older (p < .05), had higher baseline psychosis (p < .05), higher mental health recovery (p < .05), and perceived less non-supportive clinician input (p < .01) than white participants. Regression analyses indicated a significant three-way interaction among race, psychosis, and positive collaboration (p < .01). Greater positive collaboration attenuated the negative effect of higher levels of psychosis on mental health recovery orientation for black participants. Conversely, for white participants, positive collaboration had little effect on the negative relationship between psychosis severity and mental health recovery orientation. Increased levels of psychosis may inhibit patients’ perceptions of their ability to recover from SMI. However, for black participants, positive collaboration with mental health providers may moderate
Bergin, M; Wells, John S G; Owen, Sara
This paper seeks to advance the debate that considers critical realism as an alternative approach for understanding gender and mental health and its relatedness to mental health research and practice. The knowledge base of how 'sex' and 'gender' affect mental health and illness is expanding. However, the way we conceptualize gender is significant and challenging as quite often our ability to think about 'gender' as independent of 'sex' is not common. The influences and interplay of how sex (biological) and gender (social) affect mental health and illness requires consideration. Critical realism suggests a shared ontology and epistemology for the natural and social sciences. While much of the debate surrounding gender is guided within a constructivist discourse, an exploration of the concept 'gender' is reflected on and some key realist propositions are considered for mental health research and practice. This is achieved through the works of some key realist theorists. Critical realism offers potential for research and practice in relation to gender and mental health because it facilitates changes in our understanding, while simultaneously, not discarding that which is already known. In so doing, it allows the biological (sex) and social (gender) domains of knowledge for mental health and illness to coexist, without either being reduced to or defined by the other. Arguably, greater depth and explanations for gender and mental health issues are presented within a realist metatheory.
Full Text Available Since the 1960s, we have witnessed the development and growth of community mental health care that continues to dominate mental health policy and practice. Several high-income countries have implemented community mental health care programmes but for many others, including mostly low- and middle-income countries, it remains an aspiration. Although community mental health care has been positive for many service users, it has also had severe shortcomings. Expectations that it would lead to fuller social integration have not been fulfilled and many service users remain secluded in sheltered or custodial environments with limited social contacts and no prospect of work. Others receive little or no service at all. In today’s complex landscape of increasingly specialised services for people with mental health problems, the number of possible interfaces between services is increasing. Together with existing uneven financing systems and a context of constant change, these interfaces are challenging us to develop effective care pathways adjusted to the needs of service users and their carers. This discussion paper reviews the developments in community mental health care over the recent years and puts forward the concept of “Meta-Community Mental Health Care”. “Meta-Community Mental Health Care” embraces pluralism in understanding and treating psychiatric disorders, acknowledges the complexities of community provision, and reflects the realities and needs of the current era of care.
Glied, Sherry; Frank, Richard G
Mental illnesses provide a difficult set of challenges to American health and social institutions. Those challenges have been a continuous concern of David Mechanic's over the course of his career. In this article we trace the development of modern economic and organizational structures that drive the delivery of mental health care in the early part of the twenty-first century. We show how the nature of mental disorders themselves and the treatment for addressing those illnesses pose fundamental difficulties to health care organizational and financing structures. We analyze the factors that have caused the dramatic changes in how American society has addressed mental illnesses over the past fifty years. Specifically, we note the central influence that mainstream health, income support, and disability programs have had in shaping mental health care. We argue that the interaction of the unique features of mental illnesses and changes in mainstream health and social policy led mental health care to evolve so differently from general medical care. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.
During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction.
Bruland, Dirk; Kornblum, Katharina; Harsch, Stefanie; Bröder, Janine; Okan, Orkan; Bauer, Ullrich
Students Having Parents with Mental Health Issues and Teachers' Mental Health Literacy Mental health issues of parents of school children often negatively affects the children as well, including their school performance and social behavior in the school setting. Teachers are then required to take actions with regards to supporting children in their coping with and mastering of their home situation and their responds to educational demands. As such, schools' and teachers' actions can either support affected children and fulfill a protective function or respond inappropriately, with negative impact on the affected children. Although the societal discussion about and acceptance of mental illnesses have increased in recent years, scientific knowledge on how well teachers are prepared for meeting the needs of affected students remains insufficient. Therefore, this research study examines teachers' attitudes towards, knowledge about, and competencies regarding children affected by a mentally ill parent. 15 in-depth interviews and 3 focus groups (n = 11) with teachers from primary and secondary schools were conducted and systematically analyzed. Although burdens in the family are perceived as major influences on children's school day and performance, teachers report to not feel sufficiently prepared for and uncertain about supporting and coping with the special needs of affected students. Instead they report to "learn from a case to case" basis. Recognizing the family situation of children with mentally ill parents is reported to be especially difficult for teachers. Responding inadequately and insensitive to the needs of affected children was perceived as a serious burden for teachers themselves. While schools can function as entry points to professional social help systems, teachers frequently reported barriers and challenges in accessing, communicating, and collaborating with these systems. The practical implications of these results regarding the "Mental Health
East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C
The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations
The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations
... normal or healthy. For example, if you have bipolar disorder, you might think your mood swings are just ... patient-with-mental-symptoms. Accessed June 10, 2016. Bipolar disorder. The National Institute of Mental Health. https://www. ...
Vostanis, Panos; O'Reilly, Michelle; Taylor, Helen; Day, Crispin; Street, Cathy; Wolpert, Miranda; Edwards, Ruth
The importance of joint working between educational and child mental health professionals is well documented but there are numerous challenges and only limited training models. While the evidence base and training programmes for educationalists regarding child mental health is growing, training mental health professionals about education is more…
van Dusseldorp, Loes R L C; van Meijel, Berno K G; Derksen, Jan J L
The aim of this study is to gain insight into the level of emotional intelligence of mental health nurses in the Netherlands. The focus in research on emotional intelligence to date has been on a variety of professionals. However, little is known about emotional intelligence in mental health nurses. The emotional intelligence of 98 Dutch nurses caring for psychiatric patients is reported. Data were collected with the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory within a cross-sectional research design. The mean level of emotional intelligence of this sample of professionals is statistically significant higher than the emotional intelligence of the general population. Female nurses score significantly higher than men on the subscales Empathy, Social Responsibility, Interpersonal Relationship, Emotional Self-awareness, Self-Actualisation and Assertiveness. No correlations are found between years of experience and age on the one hand and emotional intelligence on the other hand. The results of this study show that nurses in psychiatric care indeed score above average in the emotional intelligence required to cope with the amount of emotional labour involved in daily mental health practice. The ascertained large range in emotional intelligence scores among the mental health nurses challenges us to investigate possible implications which higher or lower emotional intelligence levels may have on the quality of care. For instance, a possible relation between the level of emotional intelligence and the quality of the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship or the relation between the level of emotional intelligence and the manner of coping with situations characterised by a great amount of emotional labour (such as caring for patients who self-harm or are suicidal). © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Larson, Satu; Chapman, Susan; Spetz, Joanne; Brindis, Claire D.
Background: Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers…
Schools face increasing demands to support the mental health needs of students and families; some estimate that 80 percent of students receive mental health services at school. Thus, schools face two daunting challenges: (1) to provide effective mental health support to students and (2) to address how mental health needs affect other students,…
Abdolsattar Shahi; Ibrahim Ghaffari; Khalil Ghasemi
Background: Marital satisfaction is an important component of the marriage. Mental health as a component of the personal characteristic also related with marital satisfaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between mental health and marital satisfaction of couples.Methods: Three hundred couples from high-risk area of Gorgan – North of Iran were selected. Association between men's and women’s mental health level was measured using General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-...
Scholz, Brett; Bocking, Julia; Happell, Brenda
Stigmatizing views towards consumers may be held even by those working within mental health organizations. Contemporary mental health policies require organizations to work collaboratively with consumers in producing and delivering services. Using social exchange theory, which emphasises mutual exchange to maximise benefits in partnership, the current study explores the perspectives of those working within organizations that have some level of consumer leadership. Interviews were conducted with 14 participants from a range of mental health organizations. Data were transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analytic and discursive psychological techniques. Findings suggest stigma is still prevalent even in organizations that have consumers in leadership positions, and consumers are often perceived as less able to work in mental health organizations than non-consumers. Several discourses challenged such a view - showing how consumers bring value to mental health organizations through their expertise in the mental health system, and their ability to provide safety and support to other consumers. Through a social exchange theory lens, the authors call for organizations to challenge stigma and promote the value that consumers can bring to maximize mutual benefits. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Literacia em saúde mental de adolescentes e jovens: conceitos e desafios Literacía de la salud mental de la adolescencia y juventud: conceptos y desafíos Mental health literacy of teenagers and youth: concepts and challenges
Luís Manuel de Jesus Loureiro
también un modelo de literacía de la salud, así como aquellos conceptos clave relacionados con ella, es decir: la educación para la salud, la promoción y la comunicación de la salud. Se cuestiona, asimismo, la capacidad de ampliación de esta cuestión en el contexto de las nuevas herramientas para la promoción de la salud, tales como Internet, y su potencial y utilidad en la mejora de los conocimientos sobre la salud mental de los adolecentes y jóvenes.Health literacy, understood as a constellation of cognitive and social skills and competences that allow individuals to access, understand and use information in the health domain, has been, during the last decade, viewed as a fundamental dimension of health promotion and mental illness prevention programmes. In this article, the health literacy concept and mental health literacy are presented and critically analyzed, discussing their scope and applicability, in terms of the emerging challenges that are placed on mental health education and sensitization programs for teenagers and young people. Because literacy is as relevant as it is complex (Nutbeam, 2009, a health literacy model is also presented, as well as the principal concepts related to it, namely: health education, health promotion and health communication. The extension of this theme to the area of new tools at the service of health promotion is also debated, as in the case of the Web and its potential and utility in increasing the mental health literacy of teenagers and young people.
Efird, Jimmy T; Bith-Melander, Pollie
Refugees represent a diverse group of displaced individuals with unique health issues and disease risks. The obstacles facing this population have their origins in war, violence, oppression, exploitation, and fear of persecution. Regardless of country of origin, a common bond exists, with refugees often confronting inadequate healthcare resources, xenophobia, discrimination, and a complex web of legal barriers in their new homelands. In many cases, the plight of refugees is multigenerational, manifesting as mental health issues, abuse, poverty, and family disruption. The health trajectory of refugees remains an ongoing commitment and challenge.
... for mental disorders is enormous 4. Primary care for mental health enhances access 5. Primary care for mental health promotes respect of human rights 6. Primary care for mental health is affordab...
Full Text Available Mental illness stigma has been the focus of increasing attention in the past few years, with an exponential increase in scientific publications on the subject. This phenomenon is a source of suffering for the patient undermining the achievement of personal goals and full social integration. In this article, the authors present a selective review of the literature on mental illness stigma, going through its definition, origins, repercussions, patients’ subjective experiences and strategies to challenge stigma. The literature presents stigma as being a complex phenomenon, whose definitions derive from different epis- temological roots (sociology, psychology and psychiatry. Its impact on the lives of people with a mental illness is well acknowledged and seems to translate into decreased opportunities, loss of self-esteem and self-concept, decreased quality of life, social support and empowerment, thus limiting the adoption or performance of regular social roles. Stigma has also been shown to compromise access to health care, not only psychiatric treatment but also general medical care, thus increasing the morbidity and mortality in this vulnerable population. A considerable amount of effort has been put into the comprehension of this phenomenon and to designing strategies for fighting stigma, which also include promoting health-care professionals’ awareness of the topic in order to improve clinical practice and global quality of care.
Background: A unique feature of mental health nurses' work involves exposure to clients' descriptions of and reactions to trauma, and these experiences may indirectly cause distress to the mental health worker. This phenomenon has been termed “secondary traumatic stress” (STS) (Perez, Jones, Englert & Sachau, 2010).
discussion. The first conclusion suggests that research in child development generally, and child mental health specifically, does not incorporate the social ecology of the child is seriously flawed. There is a broad recognition within most sectors of society that the quality of civic engagement is of critical importance to community efforts to improve the health and well-being of children. This is true for all communities and families, regardless of their levels of material wealth and educational achievement. It is also well understood that poverty undermines the well-being and life chances of children. For this reason, the third conclusion requires that intensive, sustained efforts be made to eradicate poverty and reverse the current economic trend toward growing economic disparity. The implications of this knowledge for the practice of child psychiatry are not new ones. In many ways, they advocate for a re-examination of the historical roots of the field as it defined approaches to juvenile justice, school counseling, and early intellectual enrichment for economically disadvantaged preschool children. All these efforts were sensitive to children's social environment, and child psychiatrists viewed their success in taking on the challenges of changing schools, courts, and community and family environments. These challenges hardly have been overcome. The requirements of understanding and evaluating community supports for children are a fundamental component in the training and practice of child psychiatry. To quote the U.S. Surgeon General in a preamble to the recent Report on Child Mental Health: One way to ensure that our health system meets children's mental health needs is to move toward a community based health system that balances health promotion, disease prevention, early detection and universal access.
Townley, Greg; Brown, Molly; Sylvestre, John
Community psychology is rooted in community mental health research and practice and has made important contributions to this field. Yet, in the decades since its inception, community psychology has reduced its focus on promoting mental health, well-being, and liberation of individuals with serious mental illnesses. This special issue endeavors to highlight current efforts in community mental health from our field and related disciplines and point to future directions for reengagement in this area. The issue includes 12 articles authored by diverse stakeholder groups. Following a review of the state of community mental health scholarship in the field's two primary journals since 1973, the remaining articles center on four thematic areas: (a) the community experience of individuals with serious mental illness; (b) the utility of a participatory and cross-cultural lens in our engagement with community mental health; (c) Housing First implementation, evaluation, and dissemination; and (d) emerging or under-examined topics. In reflection, we conclude with a series of challenges for community psychologists involved in future, transformative, movements in community mental health. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.
Salize, Hans Joachim; Rössler, Wulf; Becker, Thomas
Germany turned towards community-based mental health care in the mid seventies, during a general climate of social and political reform. The continuing deinstitutionalisation process and the implementation of community mental health services was considerably affected by the reunification of East and West Germany in 1990, which required dramatic changes in the structure and quality of the mental health care system of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). Overall, German mental health care is organised as a subsidiary system, where planning and regulating mental health care is the responsibility of the 16 federal states. So German mental health care provision is spread among many sectors and characterised by considerable regional differences. A key characteristic is the particularly wide gap between inpatient and outpatient services, which are funded separately and staffed by different teams. In 2003 the total number of psychiatric beds was a mere two thirds of the overall bed capacity in 1991, the first year as a re-unified Germany, when psychiatric beds in East and West Germany totalled 80,275. From 1970 onwards the number of psychiatric beds was cut by roughly half. So the momentum of the reform has been strong enough to assimilate the completely different mental health care system of the former German Democratic Republic and, in the course of a decade, to re-structure mental health services for an additional 17-18 million new inhabitants. In an ongoing struggle to adapt to changing administrative set-ups, legal frameworks, and financial constraints, psychiatry in Germany in currently facing specific problems and is seriously challenged to defend to considerable achievements of the past. A major obstacle to achieving this aim lies in the fragmented system of mental health care provision and mental health care funding.
Hann, Katrina; Pearson, Heather; Campbell, Doris; Sesay, Daniel; Eaton, Julian
Mental health advocacy groups are an effective way of pushing the mental health agenda and putting pressure on national governments to observe the right to health; however, there is limited research that highlights best practices for such groups in low-resource settings. In an effort to improve the scaling up of mental health in Sierra Leone, stakeholders came together to form the country's first mental health advocacy group: the Mental Health Coalition - Sierra Leone. Since its inception, the group has worked towards raising the profile of mental health in Sierra Leone and developing as an advocacy organisation. The study's aim was to investigate views on enabling factors and barriers associated with mental health advocacy in a low-income country using a community-based participatory approach and qualitative methodology. Focus groups (N=9) were held with mental health stakeholders, and key informant interviews (N=15) were conducted with advocacy targets. Investigators analysed the data collaboratively using coding techniques informed by grounded theory. Investigators reveal viewpoints on key factors in networking, interacting with government actors, and awareness raising that enabled mental health advocacy aims of supporting policy, service delivery, service user rights, training for service delivery, and awareness raising. The investigators outline viewpoints on barriers for advocacy aims in framing the issue of mental health, networking, interacting with government actors, resource mobilization, and awareness raising. The findings outline enabling factors, such as networking with key stakeholders, and barriers, such as lack of political will, for achieving mental health advocacy aims within a low-resource setting, Sierra Leone. Stakeholder coalitions can further key policy development aims that are essential to strengthen mental health systems in low-resource settings.
Cook, R J; Ortega-Ortiz, A; Romans, S; Ross, L E
Where legal systems allow therapeutic abortion to preserve women's mental health, practitioners often lack access to mental health professionals for making critical diagnoses or prognoses that pregnancy or childcare endangers patients' mental health. Practitioners themselves must then make clinical assessments of the impact on their patients of continued pregnancy or childcare. The law requires only that practitioners make assessments in good faith, and by credible criteria. Mental disorder includes psychological distress or mental suffering due to unwanted pregnancy and responsibility for childcare, or, for instance, anticipated serious fetal impairment. Account should be taken of factors that make patients vulnerable to distress, such as personal or family mental health history, factors that may precipitate mental distress, such as loss of personal relationships, and factors that may maintain distress, such as poor education and marginal social status. Some characteristics of patients may operate as both precipitating and maintaining factors, such as poverty and lack of social support.
Phillip T. Slee
Full Text Available Although there is increasing recognition internationally of the significance of social and emotional health and wellbeing for the healthy development of young people, the levels of support that governments provide for mental health policy and programme initiatives vary widely. In this paper, consideration is given to Australia's approach to mental health promotion from early years to secondary school, including specific reference to the KidsMatter Primary mental health promotion, prevention and early intervention initiative. Although it is now well established that schools provide important settings for the promotion of mental health initiatives, there are significant challenges faced in effectively implementing and maintaining the delivery of evidence-based practice in school settings, including concerns about quality assurance in processes of implementation, translation, dissemination and evaluation.
Vincent, Stéphanie; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; W. Jepsen, Peter
Public concern about soldiers’ mental health has increased over the last decade. Yet the large literature on the mental health problems of returning soldiers relies primarily on self-reported measures that may suffer from non-response bias, usually refers to older conflicts, and focuses mainly...... on specific diagnoses such as PTSD. Another challenge is that the differences between soldiers and non-soldiers are not necessarily causal, instead possibly reflecting an underlying propensity towards active military service. Using the objective measures of hospitalizations and the purchase of mental health...... medication, this paper is the first to investigate the effect of recent military deployments on a broader measure of mental health, for a full population of Danish soldiers and a comparison group of eligible men. We exploit a panel of Danish health administrative records and use propensity score matching...
Rakesh Kumar Chadda
Full Text Available Community mental health refers to the treatment of persons with mental disorders in the community. In the earlier periods, treatment of patients with mental illness was limited to the mental hospitals or asylums. This paper traces the beginnings of community psychiatry in India from the time Dr. Vidya Sagar initiated his famous experiment of treating patients with mental illnesses along with family members in tents outside the mental hospital, Amritsar. It then discusses the role of the National Mental Health Program and the District Mental Health Program. The role of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability in leading onto the development of the current Mental Health Care Bill, 2013 is discussed. Authors critically evaluate some of the merits and drawbacks of the Bill as related to recent developments in community mental health in India.
Prieto Rodríguez, Adriana
Information regarding the mental health situation, both at global and national levels, is updated. In the first place, the basic concepts and problems regarding mental health are presented. The burden of disease is also presented, bearing in mind that in developed countries deeper depression occupies second place and in developing countries comes fourth. On the other hand, depressive disorders represent 17% of DALYs. The mental health situation in Colombia is also presented, including its epi...
Riek, Laurel D.
This chapter discusses the existing and future use of robotics and intelligent sensing technology in mental health care. While the use of this technology is nascent in mental health care, it represents a potentially useful tool in the practitioner's toolbox. The goal of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the field, discuss the recent use of robotics technology in mental health care practice, explore some of the design issues and ethical issues of using robots in this space, and fi...
Jagger, C; Ritchie, K; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
The increase in life expectancy observed over the last decade has particular relevance for mental health conditions of old age, such as dementia. Although mental disorders have been estimated to be responsible for 60% of all disabilities, until recently population health indicators such as health...
The health impacts of climate change are being increasingly recognized, but mental health is often excluded from this discussion. In this issue we feature a collection of articles on climate change and mental health that highlight important directions for future research.
... psychiatric disorders, the biological and endocrinological concomitants of mental health, and eating disorders, perinatal psychiatric disorders, and the long term effects of abuse - helping readers...
Blue, I; Harpham, T
It is expected that the urban population in developing countries will double in the next 30 years. While urbanization is accompanied by health problems, population density can lower public health costs. Common mental disorders, such as anxiety, depression, insomnia, fatigue, irritability, and poor memory, account for 90% of all mental disorders, cause behavioral problems in offspring, and impede recovery from physical ailments. Those who suffer most from common mental disorders include women, those between 15 and 49 years old, and low-income populations. Strong links have been established between socioenvironmental factors and common mental disorders, and an urban environment has been associated with many possible risk factors for such disorders. Only a small percentage of people with mental disorders seek primary health care and even less receive secondary- or tertiary-level care. Common mental disorders place a large burden on primary health care services, however, but most of the patients suffering from mental disorders seek care for physical disorders that mask proper diagnosis and treatment. Thus, the World Health Organization advocates the introduction of mental health components in primary health care services in developing countries. In order to reach those who remain outside of the health care system, community-based interventions such as self-help groups or efforts to promote wider social changes or address poverty should be undertaken. Mental health in developing countries is gaining attention as the attendant loss in economic productivity of human capital has become apparent.
.... Exploring issues covering psychological, social, and cultural aspects of mental health problems, it looks at epidemiological data that shows increased frequency in different clinical aspects of many...
Lee, Hyo Jung; Ju, Young Jun; Park, Eun-Cheol
Despite the positive effect of community-based mental health centers, the utilization of professional mental health services appears to be low. Therefore, we analyzed the relationship between regional recognition of mental health centers and utilization of professional mental health services. We used data from the Community Health Survey (2014) and e-provincial indicators. Only those living in Seoul, who responded that they were either feeling a lot of stress or depression, were included in the study. Multiple logistic regression analysis using generalized estimating equations was performed to examine both individual- and regional-level variables associated with utilization of professional mental health services. Among the 7338 participants who reported depression or stress, 646 (8.8%) had consulted a mental health professional for their symptoms. A higher recognition rate of mental health centers was associated with more utilization of professional mental health services (odds ratio [OR]=1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03-1.07). Accessibility to professional mental health services could be improved depending on the general population's recognition and attitudes toward mental health centers. Therefore, health policy-makers need to plan appropriate strategies for changing the perception of mental health services and informing the public about both the benefits and functions of mental health centers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Islam, Farah; Khanlou, Nazilla; Macpherson, Alison; Tamim, Hala
To determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of past-year mental health consultation for Ontario's adult (18 + years old) immigrant populations. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2012 was used to calculate the prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation by service provider type. Characteristics associated with mental health consultation were determined by carrying out multivariable logistic regression analysis on merged CCHS 2008-2012 data. Adult immigrant populations in Ontario (n = 3995) had lower estimated prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation across all service provider types compared to Canadian-born populations (n = 14,644). Amongst those who reported past-year mental health consultation, 57.89% of Ontario immigrants contacted their primary care physician, which was significantly higher than the proportion who consulted their family doctor from Canadian-born populations (45.31%). The factors of gender, age, racial/ethnic background, education level, working status, food insecurity status, self-perceived health status, smoking status, alcohol drinking status, years since immigration, and age at time of immigration were significantly associated with past-year mental health consultation for immigrant populations. Ontario's adult immigrant populations most commonly consult their family doctor for mental health care. Potential exists for expanding the mental health care role of primary care physicians as well as efforts to increase accessibility of specialized mental health services. Integrated, coordinated care where primary care physicians, specialized mental health professionals, social workers, and community educators, etc. working together in a sort of "one-stop-shop" may be the most effective way to mitigate gaps in the mental health care system. In order to effectively tailor mental health policy, programming, and promotion to suit the needs of immigrant populations initiatives that focus on
Jagger, C; Ritchie, K; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
The increase in life expectancy observed over the last decade has particular relevance for mental health conditions of old age, such as dementia. Although mental disorders have been estimated to be responsible for 60% of all disabilities, until recently population health indicators such as health...... expectancies have concentrated on calculating disability-free life expectancy based on physical functioning. In 1994, a European Network for the Calculation of Health Expectancies (Euro-REVES) was established, one of its aims being the development and promotion of mental health expectancies. Such indicators...... may have an important role in monitoring future changes in the mental health of populations and predicting service needs. This article summarizes the proceedings and recommendations of the first European Conference on Mental Health Expectancy....
Stanojević Dragana Z.
Full Text Available The concept of positive mental health represents not merely the absence of mental disease but presence of high level of happiness and well-being. In this paper we mentioned shortly the earliest concept of mental health, presented by Marie Jahoda in the mid-twentieth century. After that, we described two traditions in understanding and researching of subjective well-being: hedonic and eudaimonic approach. First approach focuses on investigation of positive affects and happiness as emotional and life satisfaction as cognitive component of subjective well-being. Second tradition emphasizes potentials and competences that person develops to the highest level, in personal and social area. Both psychological and social well-being are core concept of positive mental health psychology, designated together as positive functioning. The psychological well-being comprises six dimensions: self-acceptance, positive relations with others, environmental mastery, autonomy, purpose of life and personal growth. Social well-being consists of five dimensions: social integration, social acceptance, social contribution, social actualization and social coherence. By integrating hedonic and eudaimonic well-being as well as absence of mental disease, Corey Keyes introduced concept of complete mental health. People with complete mental health have reported absence of disease during past year and presence of high level of emotional, psychological and social well-being (flourishing. People with incomplete mental health have also reported absence of mental disease but low level of positive functioning (languishing. Keyes thought there are people with complete and incomplete mental illness; both groups report presence of mental disease, but second group has high level of positive functioning. Models of positive mental health are widely used in research studies as well as in programs for prevention and promotion of mental health. .
Ryan, Brigid; Goding, Margaret; Fenner, Patricia; Percival, Steven; Percival, Wendy; Latai, Leua; Petaia, Lisi; Pulotu-Endemann, Fuimaono Karl; Parkin, Ian; Tuitama, George; Ng, Chee
To pilot an art and mental health project with Samoan and Australian stakeholders. The aim of this project was to provide a voice through the medium of art for people experiencing mental illness, and to improve the public understanding in Samoa of mental illness and trauma. Over 12 months, a series of innovative workshops were held with Samoan and Australian stakeholders, followed by an art exhibition. These workshops developed strategies to support the promotion and understanding of mental health in Samoa. Key stakeholders from both art making and mental health services were engaged in activities to explore the possibility of collaboration in the Apia community. The project was able to identify the existing resources and community support for the arts and mental health projects, to design a series of activities aimed to promote and maintain health in the community, and to pilot these programs with five key organizations. This project demonstrates the potential for art and mental health projects to contribute to both improving mental health and to lowering the personal and social costs of mental ill health for communities in Samoa. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Full Text Available Jane Burns, Emma Birrell Young and Well Cooperative Research Centre, Abbotsford, VIC, Australia Abstract: International studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness, and the fundamental contribution it make to the overall disease burden, is greatest in children and young people. Despite this high burden, adolescents and young adults are the least likely population group to seek help or to access professional care for mental health problems. This issue is particularly problematic given that untreated, or poorly treated, mental disorders are associated with both short- and long-term functional impairment, including poorer education and employment opportunities, potential comorbidity, including drug and alcohol problems, and a greater risk for antisocial behavior, including violence and aggression. This cycle of poor mental health creates a significant burden for the young person, their family and friends, and society as a whole. Australia is enviably positioned to substantially enhance the well-being of young people, to improve their engagement with mental health services, and – ultimately – to improve mental health. High prevalence but potentially debilitating disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are targeted by the specialized youth mental health service, headspace: the National Youth Mental Health Foundation and a series of Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centres, will provide early intervention specialist services for low prevalence, complex illnesses. Online services, such as ReachOut.com by Inspire Foundation, Youthbeyondblue, Kids Helpline, and Lifeline Australia, and evidence-based online interventions, such as MoodGYM, are also freely available, yet a major challenge still exists in ensuring that young people receive effective evidence-based care at the right time. This article describes Australian innovation in shaping a comprehensive youth mental health system, which is informed by an evidence
Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis
such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems...... and sychopathologies. In disadvantaged populations insecure and disorganized attachment are common, which points to the need of identifying early risk and effective methods of addressing such problems. This protocol describes an experimental evaluation of an indicated group-based parental educational program, Circle......, will be randomly allocated with a ratio of 2:1 into the COS-P intervention arm and into CAU. Data will be obtained at inclusion (baseline) and at follow-up when the child is 12–16 months. The primary outcome is maternal sensitivity. Secondary outcomes include quality of infant attachment, language, cognitive...
Wilson, Rhonda L; Wilson, G Glenn; Usher, Kim
The mental health of people in rural communities is influenced by the robustness of the mental health ecosystem within each community. Theoretical approaches such as social ecology and social capital are useful when applied to the practical context of promoting environmental conditions which maximise mental health helping capital to enhance resilience and reduce vulnerably as a buffer for mental illness. This paper explores the ecological conditions that affect the mental health and illness of people in rural communities. It proposes a new mental health social ecology framework that makes full use of the locally available unique social capital that is sufficiently flexible to facilitate mental health helping capital best suited to mental health service delivery for rural people in an Australian context.
Happell, Brenda; Wilson, Rhonda; McNamara, Paul
Mental Health First Aid training is designed to equip people with the skills to help others who may be developing mental health problems or experiencing mental health crises. This training has consistently been shown to increase: (1) the recognition of mental health problems; (2) the extent to which course trainees' beliefs about treatment align with those of mental health professionals; (3) their intentions to help others; and (4) their confidence in their abilities to assist others. This paper presents a discussion of the potential role of Mental Health First Aid training in undergraduate mental health nursing education. Three databases (CINAHL, Medline, and PsycINFO) were searched to identify literature on Mental Health First Aid. Although Mental Health First Aid training has strong benefits, this first responder level of education is insufficient for nurses, from whom people expect to receive professional care. It is recommended that: (1) Mental Health First Aid training be made a prerequisite of preregistration nurse education, (2) registered nurses make a larger contribution to addressing the mental health needs of Australians requiring care, and (3) current registered nurses take responsibility for ensuring that they can provided basic mental health care, including undertaking training to rectify gaps in their knowledge.
Tse, Wai S; Siu, Angela F Y; Wong, Tracy K Y
This study aims to explore the interrelationship among maternal oxytocin (OT) responsiveness, maternal mental health, maternal parenting behavior, and mental health of children under a free-play interaction. 61 mother-child dyads were recruited for the study. Maternal mental health problem and parenting self-efficacy were measured using self-reported questionnaires. The mental health problems of children were also evaluated using a mother-reported questionnaire. Furthermore, salivary OT was collected before and after a standardized 10min free-play interaction. Parenting behaviors, including eye gaze and touch, were measured during the free-play interaction. Maternal OT responsiveness was significantly associated with less maternal mental health problem, touch frequency, and mental health problem of children but not with parenting self-efficacy. In the multivariate linear regression analysis that considers maternal OT responsiveness and maternal and children's mental health problems, maternal OT responsiveness was not associated with the mental health problems of children. This result suggested that maternal mental health problem played a mediational role between maternal OT responsiveness and the mental health problem of children. Results supported the assertion that maternal OT responsiveness contributed to the increased risk of maternal mental health problems and, subsequently, the risk of mental health problems of their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thompson, Debbe; Canada, Ashanti; Bhatt, Riddhi; Davis, Jennifer; Plesko, Lisa; Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen; Zakeri, Issa
Little is known about effective eHealth recruitment methods. This paper presents recruitment challenges associated with enrolling African-American girls aged 8-10 years in an eHealth obesity prevention program, their effect on the recruitment plan, and potential implications for eHealth research. Although the initial recruitment strategy was…
Fisher, Elisa; Hasselberg, Michael; Conwell, Yeates; Weiss, Linda; Padrón, Norma A; Tiernan, Erin; Karuza, Jurgis; Donath, Jeremy; Pagán, José A
Health care delivery and payment systems are moving rapidly toward value-based care. To be successful in this new environment, providers must consistently deliver high-quality, evidence-based, and coordinated care to patients. This study assesses whether Project ECHO ® (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) GEMH (geriatric mental health)-a remote learning and mentoring program-is an effective strategy to address geriatric mental health challenges in rural and underserved communities. Thirty-three teleECHO clinic sessions connecting a team of specialists to 54 primary care and case management spoke sites (approximately 154 participants) were conducted in 10 New York counties from late 2014 to early 2016. The curriculum consisted of case presentations and didactic lessons on best practices related to geriatric mental health care. Twenty-six interviews with program participants were conducted to explore changes in geriatric mental health care knowledge and treatment practices. Health insurance claims data were analyzed to assess changes in health care utilization and costs before and after program implementation. Findings from interviews suggest that the program led to improvements in clinician geriatric mental health care knowledge and treatment practices. Claims data analysis suggests that emergency room costs decreased for patients with mental health diagnoses. Patients without a mental health diagnosis had more outpatient visits and higher prescription and outpatient costs. Telementoring programs such as Project ECHO GEMH may effectively build the capacity of frontline clinicians to deliver high-quality, evidence-based care to older adults with mental health conditions and may contribute to the transformation of health care delivery systems from volume to value.
Li, Jie; Li, Juan; Huang, Yuanguang; Thornicroft, Graham
In order to reduce the huge treatment gap in mental health, WHO has called for integrating mental health into primary care. The purposes of this study are to provide a training course to improve the community mental health staff's knowledge of mental health and reduce stigma related to mental illness, as well as to evaluate the impact of this training on knowledge and stigma. The training intervention was a one day course for community mental health staff in Guangzhou, China. Evaluation questionnaires were given before and after the training session. Mental health knowledge was assessed using two vignettes. Stigma was evaluated by the Mental Illness: Clinicians' Attitudes Scale (MICA) and the Reported and Intended Behavior Scale (RIBS). A total of 99 community mental health staff from eight regions in Guangzhou, China were recruited for the study. The training course did not lead to a significant improvement of participants' levels of mental health knowledge. The mean score of MICA decreased from 47.92 ± 8.63 to 43.53 ± 9.61 after the training (t = 6.64, P training course is an effective way to improve community mental health staff's attitudes toward people with mental illness in the short term, as well as to lessen the social distance between staff and people with mental illness.
Mohamadi, Khosro; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Fathi Ashtiani, Ali; Azad Fallah, Parviz; Ebadi, Abbas; Yahaghi, Emad
Background: Promoting mental health and preventing mental disorders are of the main concerns for every country. Achieving these goals requires effective indexes for evaluating mental health. Therefore, to develop mental health enhancement programs in Iran, there is a need to measure the state of mental health in Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to select a set of mental health indicators that can be used to monitor the status of mental health in Iran. Materials and Methods: This research wo...
Stein, Dan J; He, Yanling; Phillips, Anthony; Sahakian, Barbara J; Williams, John; Patel, Vikram
Global mental health has emerged as an important specialty. It has drawn attention to the burden of mental illness and to the relative gap in mental health research and services around the world. Global mental health has raised the question of whether this gap is a developmental issue, a health issue, a human rights issue, or a combination of these issues-and it has raised awareness of the need to develop new approaches for building capacity, mobilising resources, and closing the research and treatment gap. Translational neuroscience has also advanced. It comprises an important conceptual approach to understanding the neurocircuitry and molecular basis of mental disorders, to rethinking how best to undertake research on the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of these disorders, with the ultimate aim to develop entirely new approaches to prevention and intervention. Some apparent contrasts exist between these fields; global mental health emphasises knowledge translation, moving away from the bedside to a focus on health systems, whereas translational neuroscience emphasises molecular neuroscience, focusing on transitions between the bench and bedside. Meanwhile, important opportunities exist for synergy between the two paradigms, to ensure that present opportunities in mental health research and services are maximised. Here, we review the approaches of global mental health and clinical neuroscience to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and intervention, and make recommendations for facilitating an integration of these two perspectives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The deaths of mentally ill patients transferred from Life. Esidimeni health facilities in Gauteng province, South. Africa to 27 unlicensed non- governmental organizations. (NGOs) is a sober reflection of how we as a society perceive and care for mentally ill people. As of 15 February 2017, the. Health ombudsman Professor.
The professionalization of psychology yielded many advantages, but also led to a main focus on psychopathology in mental health care. This thesis investigated an additional positive approach to mental health, focusing on positive feelings and life satisfaction (emotional well-being) and optimal
We want to learn from university students about your experiences and perspectives on mental health and well-being in the context of being a student. Your input can help us develop evidence-based intervention programs that can help address the mental health needs of students. This survey should take 15-20 minutes to complete.
Paul, Karsten I.; Moser, Klaus
The effect of unemployment on mental health was examined with meta-analytic methods across 237 cross-sectional and 87 longitudinal studies. The average overall effect size was d = 0.51 with unemployed persons showing more distress than employed persons. A significant difference was found for several indicator variables of mental health (mixed…
Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.
Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…
Iqbal, Naved; Singh, Archana; Aleem, Sheema
Although traditional meditation has been found to be effective in improving physical and mental health of subjects, there was a paucity of research of the effect of active or dynamic meditation on these variables. Therefore, the present study was aimed at studying the effect of dynamic meditation on mental health of the subjects. Total sample of the present study comprised 60 subjects, 30 each in experimental and control group. Subjects in experimental group were given 21-day training in dynamic meditation. Mental health of the experimental and control group subjects was measured in pre- and post-condition with the help of Mental Health Inventory developed by Jagadish and Srivastava (Mental Health inventory, Manovaigyanik Parikshan Sansthan, Varanasi, 1983). Obtained data were analyzed with the help of ANCOVA. In post-condition, experimental group scored better than control group on integration of personality, autonomy and environmental mastery. Effect sizes of dynamic meditation on these dimensions of mental health were large. However, experimental group and control group did not differ significantly on positive self-evaluation, perception of reality and group-oriented attitude dimensions of mental health in post-condition. Overall, dynamic meditation training was effective in improving mental health of the subjects.
Webster, Jeffrey Dean; Webster, J.D.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas
Objectives: The relationships between wisdom and age and between wisdom and mental health are complex with empirical results often inconsistent. We used a lifespan sample and broad, psychometrically sound measures of wisdom and mental health to test for possible age trends in wisdom and its
Husky, M.M.; Keyes, K.M.; Hamilton, A.; Stragalinou, A.; Pez, O.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Kovess-Masfety, V.
Background: Offspring of individuals with alcohol use disorders have been shown to have elevated risk for mental health problems. Objectives: To examine the association between maternal problem drinking and child mental health as assessed by three informants in three European countries. Methods:
Ackerman, Mary Lou; Virani, Tazim; Billings, Barry
Barriers such as stigma and access issues prevent 60% of Canadians with mental health issues from seeking help. Saint Elizabeth Health Care's IntelligentCare™ Platform supports a range of digital health solutions for holistic health including three specific innovations: a secure social networking tool, an artificial intelligence-driven assistant that uses conversational cognitive behaviour therapy techniques, and a mobile mindfulness meditation application that generates personalized meditation suggestions. People use these self-help tools to cope with their mental health challenges. Healthcare providers are encouraged to explore the benefits and drawbacks of digital solutions for mental health, and consider the new skills, ethical implications and research opportunities that are needed when supporting patients who use these digital tools. © 2017 Longwoods Publishing.
Choon Guan Lim
Full Text Available In recent decades, there have been concerted efforts to improve mental health services for youths alongside the challenges of rising healthcare costs and increasing demand for mental health needs. One important phenomenon is the shift from traditional clinic-based care to community-based mental health services to improve accessibility to services and provide patient-centred care. In this article, we discuss the child and adolescent community mental health efforts within the Asia-Pacific region. We also discuss Singapore’s community and school-based mental health service, known as the Response, Early Intervention and Assessment in Community Mental Health (REACH. This article discusses how REACH has evolved over the years in response to the changing needs of youths in Singapore. Finally, we discuss the current challenges and future directions for youth mental health care.
Lim, Choon Guan; Loh, Hannah; Renjan, Vidhya; Tan, Jason; Fung, Daniel
In recent decades, there have been concerted efforts to improve mental health services for youths alongside the challenges of rising healthcare costs and increasing demand for mental health needs. One important phenomenon is the shift from traditional clinic-based care to community-based mental health services to improve accessibility to services and provide patient-centred care. In this article, we discuss the child and adolescent community mental health efforts within the Asia-Pacific region. We also discuss Singapore's community and school-based mental health service, known as the Response, Early Intervention and Assessment in Community Mental Health (REACH). This article discusses how REACH has evolved over the years in response to the changing needs of youths in Singapore. Finally, we discuss the current challenges and future directions for youth mental health care.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Healthcare Cost Report Information System (HCRIS) Dataset - Community Mental Health Center (CMHC). This data was reported on form CMS-2088-92. The data in this...
Full Text Available This article describes experiences in implementing a community mental health and development project in a rural district in southern India, including the position of persons with mental illness when the project was initiated, the challenges the faced and the strategies that were developed to overcome these challenges. The authors conclude that when services are locally available, persons with mental illness can be treated and rehabilitated within their own community. They can live with dignity and their rights are respected. There is a great need for inclusion of persons with mental illness in the existing developmental activities and in disabled persons’ organizations.doi 10.5463/DCID.v22i2.58
Grandjean Bamberger, Simon; Vinding, Anker Lund; Larsen, Anelia
Although limited evidence is available, organisational change is often cited as the cause of mental health problems. This paper provides an overview of the current literature regarding the impact of organisational change on mental health. A systematic search in PUBMED, PsychInfo and Web...... of Knowledge combining MeSH search terms for exposure and outcome. The criterion for inclusion was original data on exposure to organisational change with mental health problems as outcome. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were included. We found in 11 out of 17 studies, an association between...... organisational change and elevated risk of mental health problems was observed, with a less provident association in the longitudinal studies. Based on the current research, this review cannot provide sufficient evidence of an association between organisational change and elevated risk of mental health problems...
Williams, S S; Hewage, S N; Karandawala, I R
To review the number of research publications in the field of mental health in Sri Lanka from 1900 to 2009. A search of all publications in psychiatry and mental health from Sri Lanka was conducted using Pubmed, all medical journals published in Sri Lanka and researchers. The identified papers were reviewed for their content and categorised as research in psychiatry and mental health, based on strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 207 papers were identified. The first mental health research publication from Sri Lanka is in 1964. The last decade (2000-2009) accounted for 62% of the publications with the majority of the papers being published in indexed journals. The Ceylon Medical Journal carried the most number of papers and the topic on which most of the research was conducted was suicide and deliberate self harm. There is an increasing trend towards research in to psychiatry and mental health in Sri Lanka.
Masoe, Paula; Bush, Allister
This paper describes background to the development of the relatively new field of infant mental health and why this may be important for Pacific communities in Aotearoa/New Zealand (NZ) and elsewhere. There is a discussion of Samoan concepts and research that could inform infant mental health theory and practice. A Pacific home visiting programme based at Taeaomanino Trust in Porirua, Aotearoa/NZ has formed a collaboration with child and adolescent mental health service clinicians with an interest in infant mental health, to further develop infant mental health understandings and practices in this early intervention service. The benefits and practical application of this collaboration are discussed. The paper ends with a personal perspective from one of the authors on her Samoan reflection on the relevance of attachment ideas to her family relationships and work with Pacific infants, mothers and their families.
Madsen, Ida E H; Tripathi, Manisha; Borritz, Marianne
associated with a decreased level of mental health. This association was stronger for employees with poor baseline mental health and tended to be more pronounced among older employees. Among participants with poor baseline mental health, the association was explained by neither psychological demands nor...... decision latitude. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the prevention of unnecessary work tasks may benefit employee mental health, particularly among employees with pre-existing mental health problems.......OBJECTIVES: According to the "stress-as-offense-to-self" perspective, work tasks that are considered unnecessary or unreasonable - so-called "illegitimate work tasks" - are likely to elicit stress-reactions. Previous studies, mostly cross-sectional, have shown that illegitimate tasks are associated...
Baillargeon, Jacques; Hoge, Stephen K; Penn, Joseph V
The purpose of the paper is to discuss the formidable challenges to community reentry and reintegration faced by U.S. prison inmates with serious mental illness and to describe various strategies for improving transitional services for these individuals. We review epidemiologic data supporting the high prevalence of severe mental illness in U.S. prisons as well as the historical factors underlying the criminalization of the mentally ill. The importance and challenges of providing adequate psychiatric care for mentally ill prisoners during their incarceration are discussed. We also review the numerous psychosocial and economic challenges confronting these individuals upon their release from prison, such as unemployment and vulnerability to homelessness, as well as specific barriers they may encounter in attempting to access community-based mental health services. We follow with a discussion of some of the more promising strategies for improving the transition of the mentally ill from prison to the community. In the final sections, we review the evidence for a relationship between serious mental illness and recidivism and briefly discuss emerging alternatives to incarceration of the mentally ill.
Yarns, Brandon C; Abrams, Janet M; Meeks, Thomas W; Sewell, Daniel D
There are approximately one million older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults in the USA. Their mental health issues result from interactions between genetic factors and stress associated with membership in a sexual minority group. Although advancements in acceptance and equal treatment of LGBT individuals have been occurring, sexual minority status remains associated with risks to physical and mental well-being. Older LGBT adults are more likely to have experienced mistreatment and discrimination due to living a majority of their lives prior to recent advancements in acceptance and equal treatment. All LGBT adults experience one common developmental challenge: deciding if, when, and how to reveal to others their gender identity and/or sexual orientation. LGBT individuals have higher rates of anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders and also are at increased risk for certain medical conditions like obesity, breast cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Improved education and training of clinicians, coupled with clinical research efforts, holds the promise of improved overall health and life quality for older LGBT adults.
Redknap, Robina; Twigg, Di; Rock, Daniel; Towell, Amanda
Historically, mental health services have faced challenges in their ability to attract and retain a competent nursing workforce in the context of an overall nursing shortage. The current economic downturn has provided some respite; however, this is likely to be a temporary reprieve, with significant nursing shortages predicted for the future. Mental health services need to develop strategies to become more competitive if they are to attract and retain skilled nurses and avoid future shortages. Research demonstrates that creating and maintaining a positive nursing practice environment is one such strategy and an important area to consider when addressing nurse retention. This paper examines the impact the nursing practice environment has on nurse retention within the general and mental health settings. Findings indicate, that while there is a wealth of evidence to support the importance of a positive practice environment on nurse retention in the broader health system, there is little evidence specific to mental health. Further research of the mental health practice environment is required. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Hendler, Reuben; Kidia, Khameer; Machando, Debra; Crooks, Megan; Mangezi, Walter; Abas, Melanie; Katz, Craig; Thornicroft, Graham; Semrau, Maya
Introduction Few people with mental disorders in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) receive treatment, in part because mental disorders are highly stigmatized and do not enjoy priority and resources commensurate with their burden on society. Advocacy has been proposed as a means of building political will and community support for mental health and reducing stigma, but few studies have explored the practice and promise of advocacy in LMICs. Methods We conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with leaders in health and mental health in Zimbabwe to explore key stakeholder perceptions on the challenges and opportunities of the country’s mental health system. We coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method, informed by principles of grounded theory. Few interview questions directly concerned advocacy, yet in our analysis, advocacy emerged as a prominent, cross-cutting theme across participants and interview questions. Results Two thirds of the respondents discussed advocacy, often in depth, returning to the concept throughout the interview and emphasizing their belief in advocacy’s importance. Participants described six distinct components of advocacy: the advocates, to whom they advocate (“targets”), what they advocate for (“asks”), how advocates reach their targets (“access”), how they make their asks (“arguments”), and the results of their advocacy (“outcomes”). Discussion Despite their perception that mental health is widely misunderstood and under-appreciated in Zimbabwe, respondents expressed optimism that strategically speaking out can reduce stigma and increase access to care. Key issues included navigating hierarchies, empowering service users to advocate, and integrating mental health with other health initiatives. Understanding stakeholder perceptions sets the stage for targeted development of mental health advocacy in Zimbabwe and other LMICs. PMID:27607240
Molodynski, Andrew; Cusack, Christina; Nixon, Jurua
Recent reports have highlighted human rights concerns in Ugandan mental healthcare. This article describes the current situation in terms of healthcare funding and provision, concerns regarding legislation, and health inequalities. Possible reasons for the difficult situation are briefly discussed, including the economy, pervasive stigma and ongoing unrest in the region. We then describe some encouraging initiatives in Uganda that are empowering those with mental health problems to have a better quality of life and identify opportunities for change.
Jenkins, Rachel; Baingana, Florence; Belkin, Gary; Borowitz, Michael; Daly, Anthony; Francis, Paul; Friedman, Jed; Garrison, Preston; Kauye, Felix; Kiima, David; Mayeya, John; Mbatia, Joseph; Tyson, Stewart; Njenga, Frank; Gureje, Oye; Sadiq, Sabah
This article synthesizes the views of participants in two roundtables that were convened in Nairobi (March 2007) and London (July 2008) to identify key challenges to the prioritization of mental health in Africa and possible solutions. Participants included leading development experts and policy makers from head and country offices of international donors, national directors of mental health for several African countries, key mental health and public health professionals, epidemiologists, and an international nongovernmental organization. The challenges they identified to mainstreaming mental health include lack of understanding of the contribution of mental disorders to morbidity and mortality, competition for limited resources within health reform efforts, poor distribution of interventions and lack of inclusion of mental health among core generic health indicators, lack of economic research evidence, lack of a strategic approach to human resources planning, lack of partnerships with the social development sector, and mental health professionals' need for public health skills to effectively conduct national advocacy. Potential solutions include further investment in economic research, better strategic identification of the levers and entry points for integrating mental health into health sector reform plans, more vigorous engagement of mental health professionals in general health sector reforms, strengthening the linkage between mental health and social development, and intensive resource mobilization. In summary, partnerships, underpinned by collaborative training, research, and mutual dialogue with other health and nonhealth sectors, are needed.
Rr Dian Tristiana
Conclusion: Families whose members suffered from mental illness still experienced barriers in relation to mental health services even with universal health coverage. Improved mental health services are related to the health insurance coverage, affordability, availability of mental health services and stigma reduction in the health professionals and wide community.
Hoge, Charles W; Auchterlonie, Jennifer L; Milliken, Charles S
than 50% of those referred for a mental health reason were documented to receive follow-up care although less than 10% of all service members who received mental health treatment were referred through the screening program. Combat duty in Iraq was associated with high utilization of mental health services and attrition from military service after deployment. The deployment mental health screening program provided another indicator of the mental health impact of deployment on a population level but had limited utility in predicting the level of mental health services that were needed after deployment. The high rate of using mental health services among Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans after deployment highlights challenges in ensuring that there are adequate resources to meet the mental health needs of returning veterans.
Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.
The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…
Xu, Xiuying; Li, Xin-Min; Xu, Dongmei; Wang, Wenqiang
The mental health service model and policy have undergone dramatic changes and are moving toward the establishment of integrated service network-based community mental health services in China. But there are still some issues, such as shortage of resources, a relatively low rate of psychiatric treatment, lack of the knowledge about mental health in the general population, and stigma associated with mental disorders. This paper summarizes the history of psychiatric and mental health nursing in China and analyzes the characteristics of the current situation. There are healthcare challenges for psychiatric and mental health nurses with the mental health services reform by government, and in this paper we discuss future trends and provide suggestions for development of the psychiatric nursing profession, and mental health services reform. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Seibt, Reingard; Spitzer, Silvia; Druschke, Diana; Scheuch, Klaus; Hinz, Andreas
Teaching profession is characterised by an above-average rate of psychosomatic and mental health impairment due to work-related stress. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mental health in female teachers. A sample of 630 female teachers (average age 47 ± 7 years) participated in a screening diagnostic inventory. Mental health was surveyed with the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. The following parameters were measured: specific work conditions (teacher-specific occupational history), scales of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire as well as cardiovascular risk factors, physical complaints (BFB) and personal factors such as inability to recover (FABA), sense of coherence (SOC) and health behaviour. First, mentally fit (MH(+)) and mentally impaired teachers (MH(-)) were differentiated based on the GHQ-12 sum score (MH(+): teachers showed evidence of mental impairment. There were no differences concerning work-related and cardiovascular risk factors as well as health behaviour between MH(+) and MH(-). Binary logistic regressions identified 4 predictors that showed a significant effect on mental health. The effort-reward-ratio proved to be the most relevant predictor, while physical complaints as well as inability to recover and sense of coherence were identified as advanced predictors (explanation of variance: 23%). Contrary to the expectations, classic work-related factors can hardly contribute to the explanation of mental health. Additionally, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour have no relevant influence. However, effort-reward-ratio, physical complaints and personal factors are of considerable influence on mental health in teachers. These relevant predictors should become a part of preventive arrangements for the conservation of teachers' health in the future.
Full Text Available Objective: Teaching profession is characterised by an above-average rate of psychosomatic and mental health impairment due to work-related stress. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mental health in female teachers. Material and Methods: A sample of 630 female teachers (average age 47±7 years participated in a screening diagnostic inventory. Mental health was surveyed with the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. The following parameters were measured: specific work conditions (teacher-specific occupational history, scales of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI Questionnaire as well as cardiovascular risk factors, physical complaints (BFB and personal factors such as inability to recover (FABA, sense of coherence (SOC and health behaviour. Results: First, mentally fit (MH+ and mentally impaired teachers (MH- were differentiated based on the GHQ-12 sum score (MH+: < 5; MH-: ≥ 5; 18% of the teachers showed evidence of mental impairment. There were no differences concerning work-related and cardiovascular risk factors as well as health behaviour between MH+ and MH-. Binary logistic regressions identified 4 predictors that showed a significant effect on mental health. The effort-reward-ratio proved to be the most relevant predictor, while physical complaints as well as inability to recover and sense of coherence were identified as advanced predictors (explanation of variance: 23%. Conclusion: Contrary to the expectations, classic work-related factors can hardly contribute to the explanation of mental health. Additionally, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour have no relevant influence. However, effort-reward-ratio, physical complaints and personal factors are of considerable influence on mental health in teachers. These relevant predictors should become a part of preventive arrangements for the conservation of teachers' health in the future.
Farrington, Conor; Aristidou, Angela; Ruggeri, Kai
Two phenomena have become increasingly visible over the past decade: the significant global burden of disease arising from mental illness and the rapid acceleration of mobile phone usage in poorer countries. Mental ill-health accounts for a significant proportion of global disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs), especially in poorer countries where a number of factors combine to exacerbate issues of undertreatment. Yet poorer countries have also witnessed significant investments in, and dramatic expansions of, mobile coverage and usage over the past decade. The conjunction of high levels of mental illness and high levels of mobile phone usage in poorer countries highlights the potential for "mH(2)" interventions--i.e. mHealth (mobile technology-based) mental health interventions--to tackle global mental health challenges. However, global mental health movements and initiatives have yet to engage fully with this potential, partly because of scepticism towards technological solutions in general and partly because existing mH(2) projects in mental health have often taken place in a fragmented, narrowly-focused, and small-scale manner. We argue for a deeper and more sustained engagement with mobile phone technology in the global mental health context, and outline the possible shape of an integrated mH(2) platform for the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of mental health. Existing and developing mH(2) technologies represent an underutilised resource in global mental health. If development, evaluation, and implementation challenges are overcome, an integrated mH2 platform would make significant contributions to mental healthcare in multiple settings and contexts.
To assist in improving team working in Community Mental Health Teams (CMHTs), the Mental Health Commission formulated a user-friendly but yet-to-be validated 25-item Mental Health Team Development Audit Tool (MHDAT).
Potvin-Boucher, Jacqueline; Szumilas, Magdalena; Sheikh, Tabinda; Kutcher, Stan
Enhancement of mental health literacy is a mental health promotion strategy that may be effective at destigmatizing mental illness and increasing self-seeking behavior. Transitions is a mental health literacy program intended to heighten students' awareness and discussion of mental health problems and promote help-seeking behaviors. Transitions…
Santangelo, Peter; Procter, Nicholas; Fassett, Denise
How mental health nursing is differentiated from other disciplines and professions, and what special contribution mental health nurses make to health services, is a question at the heart of contemporary practice. One of the significant challenges for mental health nurses is identifying, developing and advancing those aspects of their practice that they consider differentiate them in the multi-disciplinary mental health care team and to articulate clearly what a mental health nurse is and does. This paper draws on data from interviews with 36 mental health nurses in Australia who identified their practice as autonomous. Participants were asked the question, "What's special about mental health nursing?" Constructivist grounded theory techniques were applied to the research process. Findings were formulated and expressed as the 'Ten P's of the professional profile that is mental health nursing', which are 'present', 'personal', 'participant partnering', 'professional', 'phenomenological', 'pragmatic', 'power-sharing', 'psycho-therapeutic', 'proud' and 'profound'. The combined elements of the findings present a theoretical construct of mental health nursing practice as something distinctive and special. It provides a model and exemplar for contemporary practice in mental health nursing, embracing the role of mental health nurses in the health care workforce as being well placed as providers of productive and effective care. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Eells, Gregory T.
Alcohol and substance disorders. Life-threatening eating disorders. Suicidal behaviors. Students' mental-health needs continue to garner considerable attention at colleges and universities--as well as among the public and in the press when a high-profile tragedy occurs. Institutions and the boards of trustees that govern them are challenged with…
Schuengel, C.; de Schipper, J.C.; Sterkenburg, P.S.; Kef, S.
Background: Attachment theory is highly influential in child and adult mental health research and practice. Research and practice have started now to explore the potential value of an attachment perspective for understanding and alleviating the challenges that persons with intellectual disabilities
The aim of this study was to find out challenges in the promotion of the teachers' mental health for them to create an environment that promotes quality teaching and learning in dysfunctional secondary schools in Mutale area in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province. Quantitative research design was used, collecting data ...
... is of particular concern in low and middle-income countries where mental health services are already scarce. It is likely that strategies for improvement will need to be comprehensive and innovative, taking advantage of opportunities and meeting challenges faced in the developing world. African Journal of Psychiatry Vol.
Promotion of mental health for adolescents has become an emerging global concern since in its absence brings in a myriad of challenges for adolescents in the form of antisocial behaviour, unwanted pregnancies, abortions, sexually transmitted infections and HIV among other problems. The study examined the need for ...
The origins and evolution of psychiatry as a medical discipline since the end of the 18th century have been influenced by society's beliefs about the 'nature of man', the dominant forms of social organisation, and the level of technology which could be mobilised to modify human behaviour. These are also the themes from which politics develop. Throughout the past two centuries and up to the present day, two distinct streams can be traced in the political history of psychiatry: first, psychiatry as social control of deviance; and secondly, psychiatry as advocacy of the 'right to be different'. The 'third psychiatric revolution' which is now in progress in many parts of the world has been inspired by the second set of beliefs. It has already produced positive effects on the quality of life of many patients but is also experiencing certain setbacks. The extent to which the new approach to mental health care delivery will benefit patients and society depends not so much on psychiatry as a discipline as on the perceptions and actions of politicians.
Full Text Available Background: Marital satisfaction is an important component of the marriage. Mental health as a component of the personal characteristic also related with marital satisfaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between mental health and marital satisfaction of couples.Methods: Three hundred couples from high-risk area of Gorgan – North of Iran were selected. Association between men's and women’s mental health level was measured using General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28. Marital satisfaction measured by Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire among married couples. Data was analyzed using multiple regression and analysis of variance modelling.Results: Results indicated that marital satisfaction was predicted by the person’s mental health level. Findings also showed that depression and anxiety were significantly associated with marital satisfaction. 52.5% of studied individuals had mental disorders at the clinical level (p≤0/05. Marital satisfaction in this population was 51.7%. Conclusions: The study confirmed that mental health is an important predictor of marital satisfaction. Improving mental health may lead to improve marital satisfaction.
Full Text Available This paper considers indications and obstacles for the development of primary mental health care practice in both developed and under-developed countries. Both are considered as this represents the South African reality. While a significant body of literature has documented the need for primary mental health care, the obstacles (especially in terms of the commodification of health to its fruition are seldom addressed.
Jessecae K. Marsh PhD; Amanda L. Romano BA
Background: Past research shows that people believe psychologically caused mental disorders are helped by different treatments than biologically caused mental disorders. However, it is unknown how people think about treatment when limited information is known to identify the disorder. Objective: Our objective was to explore how laypeople judged the helpfulness of treatments when a limited set of mental health symptoms is presented. Method: Across four experiments, Mechanical Turk and college ...
Kim, Jaemin; Agic, Branka; McKenzie, Kwame
A recent migration trend from Korea is transnational family arrangement where mothers migrate with children to English-speaking countries, while the fathers stay in the home country. Mothers in these families may experience more challenges than other family members because they have to adjust to a new country, new parenting role and family separation. But little is known about their mental health. This article scopes the evidences in the literature on impact of transnational family arrangement and migration on the mental health of Korean transnational mothers. A comprehensive search was undertaken in 16 databases and 17 studies were identified. The evidence on the mental health of Korean transnational mothers was analyzed into two themes: (1) challenges and life difficulties, (2) psychological and emotional states. In relation to the life difficulties such as role changes, adaptation in the host country and lack of social support, the mothers reported anxiety, depression, increased psychological distress and feeling of isolation. Positive perceptions such as sense of empowerment and increased self-confidence were also reported. The evidence suggests that there may be a potential for vulnerability to mental health problems in Korean transnational mothers. More research is needed to assess their mental health and to identify the risk factors. © The Author(s) 2014.
Cristiane Seixas Duarte
Full Text Available This paper examines challenges and current issues involved in measuring exposure to different types of violence which are associated mental health problems in children and adolescents. Standardized measures suitable for epidemiological studies, selected based on their relevance in the current literature, are briefly described and commented. The assessment of child's exposure to violence may focus on a specific event (e.g., kidnapping, a specific context (e.g., war or even of a certain type of exposure (e.g., intrafamilial physical violence. The assessment of child mental health after exposure to violence has traditionally focused on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD - most frequently measured through non-diagnostic scales. However, other mental health reactions may be present and screening as well as diagnostic instruments which may be used to assess these reactions are also described. Two issues of emerging importance - the assessment of impairment and of traumatic grief in children - are also presented. Availability of culturally appropriate instruments is a crucial step towards proper identification of child mental health problems after exposure to violence.Este artigo examina os desafios e perspectivas atuais envolvidos na mensuração da exposição a diferentes tipos de violência e problemas de saúde mental em crianças e adolescentes. Instrumentos padronizados apropriados para estudos epidemiológicos, selecionados com base em sua relevância na literatura, são brevemente descritos e comentados. A avaliação de exposição à violência em crianças pode dizer respeito a um evento específico (como sequestro ou um contexto específico (como guerra ou mesmo um determinado tipo de exposição (como violência física intrafamiliar. A avaliação da saúde mental infantil após a exposição à violência tradicionalmente concentrou-se na avaliação do transtorno de estresse pós-traumático (TEPT - freqüentemente avaliado atrav
Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including 4 General Practitioners to 35,000 population, compared with 1 GP per 1700 population in the UK. Methods We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1, which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad. Additional file 1 Public Perception of Mental Illness Questionnaire. Click here for file Results The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness. Conclusions This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.
Soares, Amanda Gonçalves Simões; Estanislau, Gustavo; Brietzke, Elisa; Lefèvre, Fernando; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca
OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6%) showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools. PMID:26039397
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give a short description of the most important developments of mental health services in Finland during the 1990s, examine their influences on the organisation and provision of services, and describe shortly some national efforts to handle the new situation. The Finnish mental health service system experienced profound changes in the beginning of the 1990s. These included the integration of mental health services, being earlier under own separate administration, with other specialised health services, decentralisation of the financing of health services, and de-institutionalisation of the services. The same time Finland underwent the deepest economic recession in Western Europe, which resulted in cut-offs especially in the mental health budgets. Conducting extensive national research and development programmes in the field of mental health has been one typically Finnish way of supporting the mental health service development. The first of these national programmes was the Schizophrenia Project 1981–97, whose main aims were to decrease the incidence of new long-term patients and the prevalence of old long-stay patients by developing an integrated treatment model. The Suicide Prevention Project 1986–96 aimed at raising awareness of this special problem and decreasing by 20% the proportionally high suicide rate in Finland. The National Depression Programme 1994–98 focused at this clearly increasing public health concern by several research and development project targeted both to the general population and specifically to children, primary care and specialised services. The latest, still on-going Meaningful Life Programme 1998–2003 which main aim is, by multi-sectoral co-operation, to improve the quality of life for people suffering from or living with the threat of mental disorders. Furthermore, the government launched in 1999 a new Goal and Action Programme for Social Welfare and Health Care 2000–2003, in
Ponce, Allison N; Rowe, Michael
Citizenship is an approach to supporting the social inclusion and participation in society of people with mental illnesses. It is receiving greater attention in community mental health discourse and literature in parallel with increased awareness of social determinants of health and concern over the continued marginalization of persons with mental illness in the United States. In this article, we review the definition and principles of our citizenship framework with attention to social participation and access to resources as well as rights and responsibilities that society confers on its members. We then discuss our citizenship research at both individual and social-environmental levels, including previous, current, and planned efforts. We also discuss the role of community psychology and psychologists in advancing citizenship and other themes relevant to a citizenship perspective on mental health care and persons with mental illness. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.
Happell, Brenda; Platania-Phung, Chris; Scott, David
The wide-ranging benefits of physical activity for consumers with mental illness are acknowledged within the mental health nursing field; however, this is not commonly translated to practice. The primary aim of this paper is to argue that mental health nurses are well positioned to, and should, provide leadership in promoting physical activity to improve the quality of care for people with mental illness. Topics addressed in this paper include the relationship between physical activity and both physical and mental health, the views and experiences of consumers with physical activity, the efficacy of physical activity interventions, the attitudes of nurses to physical activity as a component of care, barriers to a physical activity focus in care for mental illness, and the role of mental health nurses in promoting physical activity. There is a clear and important relationship between physical activity and mental health. Mental health nurses are well positioned to encourage and assist consumers to engage in physical activity, although they might lack the educational preparation to perform this role effectively. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Liangas, Georgios; Athanasou, James A
It has been proposed that legislation for same-sex marriage has a positive mental health benefit. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the empirical and conceptual links between same-sex marriage and mental health. There are substantive methodological issues in the four surveys and comparisons undertaken. Difficulties with the validity of the evidence are discussed. Conceptual difficulties in the arguments relating to victimisation as well as the psychology of marriage are highlighted. It was concluded that it is premature to make claims of causality vis-a-vis same-sex marriage legislation and mental health. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
With approximately 1 in 6 adults likely to experience a significant mental health problem at any one time (Office for National Statistics), research into effective interventions has never been more important. During the past decade there has been an increasing interest in the role that sport and physical activity can play in the treatment of mental health problems, and in mental health promotion. The benefits resulting from physiological changes during exercise are well documented, including improvement in mood and control of anxiety and depression. Research also suggests that socio-cultural a
The emotional health and wellbeing of children and young people is of fundamental importance. Unmet mental health needs during childhood lead to difficulties in adolescence and problems in adulthood. The need to develop comprehensive prevention, early recognition and timely intervention services is essential. Despite this, many mental health problems go unnoticed or are only treated when advanced. Late intervention can often be associated with severe impairments for children and young people as well as their families. This article aims to improve nurses' understanding of children's emotional wellbeing and mental health, and identifies some of the risk and protective factors that combine to produce positive or negative outcomes. Individual and family-based psychological treatments that are available to support children are summarised. The learning activities offer nurses helpful interpersonal and practical strategies to promote emotional wellbeing and mental health in children.
Stotland, Nada Logan
Reproductive rights are essential to the recognition/treatment of women as full-fledged human beings/citizens. Barriers to reproductive rights pose a grave danger to women's well-being. This article explores the origins of these barriers, their nature, and their impact on mental health. The most controversial relationship is between induced abortion and mental health. Barriers, misinformation, and coercion affecting contraceptive, abortion, and pregnancy care are an ongoing danger to women's mental health and the well-being of their families. Mental health professionals are best qualified, and have an obligation, to know the facts, apply them, and provide accurate information to protect women's health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Interprofessional care within many clinical and community mental health teams in Australia require staff to work collaboratively and outside their traditional scope. Whilst shared decision making and interprofessional collaboration are important approaches in supporting an individual’s recovery journey, working interprofessionally can create issues within teams when determining and defining ways to respond, care and support people with mental illness. The aim of this report is to examine workforce perspectives regarding an interprofessional postgraduate learning approach in mental health practice. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with eight mental health stakeholders. Findings indicate that practitioner learning needs are dependent on practice setting (i.e. hospital/clinical vs. community and professional background (i.e. social work, nursing. Learning needs were related to the application of practice frameworks (therapeutic relationship, recovery and professional identity and the workforce issues for employers (qualifications and skills. Overall interprofessional understanding and collaboration were seen as an essential requirement in ensuring an evidence based response to improve quality of life and economic and social participation for consumers. Tension between professional identities and the need for mental health practitioners to operate successfully within interprofessional contexts provides a challenge for postgraduate higher education providers. Keywords: Inter-professional; multidisciplinary; mental health; postgraduate; higher education
Most developing countries and indeed many African countries have been undertaking reforms of the mental health policies and strategies to improve access and equity for the community to mental health and psychiatric services. This has been in conformity with a health policy philosophy which emphasize decentralization ...
Childhood mental disorders affect between 13%-20% of children in the United States (US) annually and impact the child, family, and community. Literature suggests associations exist between environmental and children’s mental health such as air pollution with autism and ADHD...
rates of mental illness and low knowledge is arguably even more discordant. A South African study, that formed part of an international survey of mental health advocacy group members suffering from mood and anxiety disorders, revealed that most participants waited 3-5 years before seeking help and stated reasons such ...
Khan, Fary; Amatya, Bhasker
The current global refugee crisis poses major challenges in providing effective healthcare to refugees, particularly for non-communicable diseases management and disability. This article provides an overview of refugee health and potential challenges from the rehabilitation perspective. A literature search (both academic and grey literature) was conducted using medical and health science electronic databases and internet search engines (2001-2016). Both authors independently selected studies. Due to heterogeneity amongst identified articles, a narrative analysis was performed for best-evidence synthesis to outline the current health and rehabilitation status of refugees and existing gaps in care. Data suggest that infectious diseases requiring treatment in refugees are a minority; whilst non-communicable diseases, musculoskeletal conditions are prevalent. Many refugees arrive with complex health needs. One in 6 refugees have a physical health problem severely affecting their lives and two-thirds experience mental health problems, signifying the important role of rehabilitation. Refugees face continued disadvantage, poverty and dependence due to lack of cohesive support in their new country, which are determinants of both poor physical and mental health. This is compounded by language barriers, impoverishment, and lack of familiarity with the local environment and healthcare system. In Australia, there are concerns about sexual and gender-based violence in off-shore detention camps. Targeted physical and cognitive rehabilitative strategies have much to offer these vulnerable people to allow for improved activity and participation. Strong leadership and effective action from national and international bodies is urgently needed to develop comprehensive rehabilitation-inclusive medical care for refugees.
Phoenix, Bethany J; Hurd, Manton; Chapman, Susan A
Expansion of health insurance coverage under the Accountable Care Act has meant that millions of people are now insured for mental health treatment, but with no significant increase in the mental health workforce. Services of psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners (PMHNPs) may be best utilized to improve access to and quality of public mental health services if the financial, political, scope of practice, and treatment model barriers that limit their ability or willingness to practice in these settings are better understood. This article reports qualitative results from a study that assessed barriers and best practices in the use of PMHNPs in county mental health services in California. Results indicate that PMHNPs are valued for their "whole person" perspective, collaborative approach, and interpersonal communication skills, but that significant knowledge gaps, regulatory constraints, and bureaucratic barriers in public mental health systems inhibit PMHNPs from practicing at the top of their scope.
Wang, Jingyi; He, Yanling; Jiang, Qing; Cai, Jun; Wang, Weiling; Zeng, Qingzhi; Miao, Juming; Qi, Xuejun; Chen, Jianxin; Bian, Qian; Cai, Chun; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Ziqing; Zhang, Mingyuan
Background The recent adoption of China's new national mental health law provides a good opportunity to obtain baseline information about community mental health literacy in the country. Aim Assess knowledge and attitudes about mental disorders among residents in Shanghai. Methods A total of 1953 residents aged 15 or above selected from all 19 districts in Shanghai completed two self-report questionnaires – the Mental Health Knowledge Questionnaire (MHKQ) and the Case Assessment Questionnaire (CAQ). MHKQ total scores range from 0 to 20 (higher scores indicate better mental health literacy). The CAQ presents respondents with five case vignettes and possesses nine questions after each vignette measuring respondents' knowledge and attitudes towards these mental illnesses. Results Correct response rates for the 20 MHKQ items ranged from 26 to 98%, with a mean rate of 72%. The internal consistency (alpha) of the 20 items on the MHKQ was 0.69, but this decreased to 0.59 after removing four items about mental health promotion. A 5-factor model for the 20 items in the MHKQ was identified using exploratory factor analysis on one-half of the surveys, but the model was only partially validated in the confirmatory factor analysis using the second half of the surveys. On the CAQ, rates of correct recognition of mania, depression, schizophrenia with positive symptoms, schizophrenia with negative symptoms and anxiety were 42%, 35%, 30%, 19% and 21%, respectively. Work stress (37.3%), problems with thinking (30.0%) and negative life events (24.4%) were reported to be the three main causes of mental disorders. Seeing a counselor (34.2%) or a psychiatrist (33.3%) were the two most common suggestions for help-seeking. Higher education and younger age were related with better mental health literacy and higher rates of recognition of common mental disorders. Conclusions Mental health literacy in Shanghai appears to be increasing, but the reliability and validity of the instruments
Veale, Jaimie F; Watson, Ryan J; Peter, Tracey; Saewyc, Elizabeth M
This study documented the prevalence of mental health problems among transgender youth in Canada and made comparisons with population-based studies. This study also compared gender identity subgroups and age subgroups (14-18 and 19-25). A nonprobability sample of 923 transgender youth from Canada completed an online survey. Participants were recruited through community organizations, health care settings, social media, and researchers' networks. Mental health measures were drawn from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey and the Canadian Community Health Survey. Transgender youth had a higher risk of reporting psychological distress, self-harm, major depressive episodes, and suicide. For example, 65% of transgender 14- to 18-year olds seriously considered suicide in the past year compared with 13% in the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey, and only a quarter of participants reported their mental health was good or excellent. Transgender boys/men and nonbinary youth were most likely to report self-harm and overall mental health remained stable across age subgroups. Although a notable minority of transgender youth did not report negative health outcomes, this study shows the mental health disparities faced by transgender youth in Canada are considerable. Copyright Â© 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Janse VAN Rensburg, E S; Poggenpoel, M; Myburgh, C P H
South African student nurses experience emotional discomfort that might influence their adjustment and coping while working with mentally challenged individuals. Adjustment and coping might impact on their mental health and support needed while working in this challenging context. Student nurses working with mentally challenged individuals experience emotional discomfort that may result in work-related stress. The experiences of student nurses working with mentally challenged individuals were explored and described as it may influence their adjustment, coping and result in work-related stress, impacting on their mental health. The study used a qualitative, explorative, descriptive, contextual research design with a case study as strategy. Thirteen student nurses from a specific higher educational institution in Gauteng, South Africa, participated in the focus group interviews. The researcher utilized reflective journals, a reflective letter, naïve sketches, drawings and field notes to collect data. Data analysis was done according to Tesch's descriptive method of open coding and theme analysis. A central storyline emerged where student nurses described working with mentally challenged individuals as a process of personal transformation that was initiated by an engagement on a deeper emotional level with these individuals. The process of personal transformation started a journey towards the discovery of meaning for the self, as student nurses. Student nurses working in challenging environments during their training may experience emotional discomfort and need additional support in coping and adjustment within this context. The nurse educator plays an important role in providing this support to manage work-related stress as well as in creating learning opportunities for the student nurses working in challenging contexts. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.
... Plaza Hotel, 10 Thomas Circle, NW., Washington, DC 20005. Contact Person: Megan Kinnane, Ph.D... Health Special Emphasis Panel; Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health. Date: November 8, 2012. Time: 12...
The number of children with mental challenges is large and growing at an alarming rate in India. Approximately 1% of children have an Autism Spectrum Disorder, while an estimated 2-5% have an auditory processing disorder. Such children face obstacles to communication, and this makes it more difficult for doctors to treat ...
The number of children with mental challenges is large and growing at an alarming rate in India. Approximately 1% of children have an Autism Spectrum Disorder, while an estimated 2-5% have an auditory processing disorder. Such children face obstacles to communication, and this makes it more difficult for doctors to treat ...
Atterbury, Kendall; Rowe, Michael
In this article, we address the issue of community mental health and the common good via an applied theory of citizenship to support the social inclusion, empowerment, and inclusion of persons diagnosed with psychiatric disorders. We begin by discussing citizenship, and the concept of the common good, in regard to historical conceptions of citizenship, including the historical exclusion of women, people of color, persons with mental illness, and others. We then review the development of our citizenship framework in response to the limitations of even the most innovative community mental health interventions, specifically the practice of mental health outreach to persons who are homeless. We review findings from three citizenship research studies - a community-level intervention, an individual- and group-level intervention, and development of an individual instrument of citizenship - along with brief comments on current citizenship research. We conclude with a discussion of the challenges of realizing both the individual and collective potential of, and challenges to, the citizenship framework in relation to current and future community mental health systems of care. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
There has been a tendency by some social scientists and the media to claim that in advanced western societies like Britain and the US mental illness has been increasing and mental well-being declining over the period since the Second World War. In this paper I consider the evidence that is invoked in making such claims, along with the counter-evidence. In order to assess the evidence it is essential to take account of the different ways mental illness and mental well-being are measured and the definitions the measures embed. I argue that when the findings from studies using similar measures at different points in time are compared, there is little evidence of consistent secular increases in mental illness or declines in mental well-being. I suggest that such claims are encouraged by two main factors: first and most importantly, the major changes that have occurred in the official boundaries of mental disorder over the post-war period, which have also changed the ideas and perceptions of professionals and the public about mental health and illness; and second, the ready way in which data on mental health and illness can be used to support criticism of certain features of present-day society. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blegen, Nina Elisabeth; Severinsson, Elisabeth
Mental health nurses are agents of change, and their leadership, management role and characteristics exist at many levels in health care. Previous research presents a picture of mental health nurses as subordinate and passive recipients of the leader's influence and regard leadership and management as distinct from the nurses' practical work. The aim was to provide a synthesis of the studies conducted and to discuss the relationship between nursing leadership and nursing management in the context of mental health nursing. A literature search was conducted using EBSCO-host, Academic Search Premier, Science Direct, CINAHL and PubMed for the period January 1995-July 2010. Leadership and management in the context of mental health nursing are human activities that imply entering into mutual relationships. Mental health nurses' leadership, management and transformational leadership are positively related in terms of effectiveness and nurses' skills. It is important to consider mental health nurses' management as a form of leadership similar to or as a natural consequence of transformational leadership (TL) and that ethical concerns must be constantly prioritized throughout every level of the organization. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Mitchell, P; Malak, A; Small, D
This paper presents results from research that explored the roles of bilingual professionals in community mental health services in the Sydney metropolitan area of New South Wales. There were two main objectives to the research: (i) to identify and describe the roles of bilingual professionals that are important in improving the quality of community mental health services for clients from non-English-speaking backgrounds (NESB); and (ii) to identify and describe the factors that facilitate and inhibit the conduct of these roles. Data collection involved indepth interviews with bilingual professionals and team leaders in community mental health services and various other community health services; and various staff responsible for policy and service development with regard to cultural diversity. Bilingual mental health workers were found to have at least four critical roles. These were (i) direct clinical service provision to NESB clients; (ii) mental health promotion and community development; (iii) cultural consultancy; and (iv) service development. Respondents reported that the latter three roles were seriously underdeveloped compared to the clinical service provision role. It is critical that service managers implement strategies to make better use of the linguistic and cultural skills of bilingual professionals. In addition to their role in clinical service provision ways must be found to facilitate the community-focused, cultural consultancy and service development roles of bilingual professionals employed in mental health services.
Kokai, Masahiro; Fujii, Senta; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Edwards, Glen
The purpose of the present article was to review the literature on disaster mental health in relation to natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, typhoons and cyclones throughout Asia. Articles reviewed show that disaster psychiatry in Asia is beginning to emerge from and leave behind the stigma attached to mental health. The emergence of the acceptance of disaster mental health throughout Asia can be attributed in part to the acceptance of the notion of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This has allowed greater involvement of mental health professionals in providing ongoing support to survivors of natural disasters as well as providing greater opportunities for further research. Also, articles reviewed in the present paper commonly suggested the need for using standardized diagnostic tools for PTSD to appropriately interpret the discrepancy of results among studies. The importance of post-disaster support services and cultural differences is highlighted.
Gladding, Samuel T.
Describes the benefits of combining poetic expression with computers in promoting positive mental health. Discuses prescriptive poetry, composition, computerized poetic exercises, computers and poetry for groups and families, computerized poetic records, and poetic communication. (JAC)
Fuller Jeffrey D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Farmers represent a subgroup of rural and remote communities at higher risk of suicide attributed to insecure economic futures, self-reliant cultures and poor access to health services. Early intervention models are required that tap into existing farming networks. This study describes service networks in rural shires that relate to the mental health needs of farming families. This serves as a baseline to inform service network improvements. Methods A network survey of mental health related links between agricultural support, health and other human services in four drought declared shires in comparable districts in rural New South Wales, Australia. Mental health links covered information exchange, referral recommendations and program development. Results 87 agencies from 111 (78% completed a survey. 79% indicated that two thirds of their clients needed assistance for mental health related problems. The highest mean number of interagency links concerned information exchange and the frequency of these links between sectors was monthly to three monthly. The effectiveness of agricultural support and health sector links were rated as less effective by the agricultural support sector than by the health sector (p Conclusion Aligning with agricultural agencies is important to build effective mental health service pathways to address the needs of farming populations. Work is required to ensure that these agricultural support agencies have operational and effective links to primary mental health care services. Network analysis provides a baseline to inform this work. With interventions such as local mental health training and joint service planning to promote network development we would expect to see over time an increase in the mean number of links, the frequency in which these links are used and the rated effectiveness of these links.
... health and public welfare resources; including— (i) Community mental health centers; (ii) Nursing homes... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106... Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan includes services in public institutions for mental...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child mental health. 1304.24 Section 1304.24... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.24 Child mental health. (a) Mental health... concerns about their child's mental health; (ii) Sharing staff observations of their child and discussing...
Provision of mental health services is in a state of ?ux as the Patient Protection and A¤ordable Care Act a¤ects provision and cost of medical care and state policymakers grapple with di¢ cult tradeo¤s between budget balance and provi- sion of public medical care. Mental health care provision is actually a relatively small part of the total cost of medical care provision.
Bohnenkamp, Jill H.; Stephan, Sharon H.; Bobo, Nichole
School nurses play a critical role in the provision of mental health services in the school environment and are valuable members of the coordinated student mental health team. They possess expertise to navigate in today's complicated educational and health care systems, and it is estimated that school nurses spend 33% of their time addressing…
Aziz, A A; Salina, A A; Abdul Kadir, A B; Badiah, Y; Cheah, Y C; Nor Hayati, A; Ruzanna, Z Z; Sharifah Suziah, S M; Chee, K Y
The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR) collects information about patients with mental disorder in Malaysia. This information allows us to estimate the incidence of selected mental disorders, and to evaluate risk factors and treatment in the country. The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR) presented its first report in 2004, a year after its establishment. The report focused on schizophrenia as a pioneer project for the National Mental Health Registry. The development of the registry has progressed with data collected from government-based facilities, the academia and the private sector. The 2003-2005 report was recently published and distributed. Since then the registry has progressed to include suicides and other mental illnesses such as depression. The NMHR Report 2003-2005 provides detailed information about the profile of persons with Schizophrenia who presented for the first time to various psychiatry and mental health providers throughout Malaysia. More detailed description regarding pharmacotherapy is reported and few cross tabulations done in an effort to provide better understanding and more clinically meaningful reports.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between religiosity and mental health has been a perennial source of controversy. This paper reviews the scientific evidence available for the relationship between religion and mental health. METHOD: The authors present the main studies and conclusions of a larger systematic review of 850 studies on the religion-mental health relationship published during the 20th Century identified through several databases. The present paper also includes an update on the papers published since 2000, including researches performed in Brazil and a brief historical and methodological background. DISCUSSION: The majority of well-conducted studies found that higher levels of religious involvement are positively associated with indicators of psychological well-being (life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, and higher morale and with less depression, suicidal thoughts and behavior, drug/alcohol use/abuse. Usually the positive impact of religious involvement on mental health is more robust among people under stressful circumstances (the elderly, and those with disability and medical illness. Theoretical pathways of the religiousness-mental health connection and clinical implications of these findings are also discussed. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that religious involvement is usually associated with better mental health. We need to improve our understanding of the mediating factors of this association and its use in clinical practice.
Tampubolon, Gindo; Hanandita, Wulung
Community and facility studies in developing countries have generally demonstrated an inverse relationship between poverty and mental health. However, recent population-based studies contradict this. In India and Indonesia the poor and non-poor show no difference in mental health. We revisit the relationship between poverty and mental health using a validated measure of depressive symptoms (CES-D) and a new national sample from Indonesia - a country where widespread poverty and deep inequality meet with a neglected mental health service sector. Results from three-level overdispersed Poisson models show that a 1% decrease in per capita household expenditure was associated with a 0.05% increase in CES-D score (depressive symptoms), while using a different indicator (living on less than $2 a day) it was estimated that the poor had a 5% higher CES-D score than the better off. Individual social capital and religiosity were found to be positively associated with mental health while adverse events were negatively associated. These findings provide support for the established view regarding the deleterious association between poverty and mental health in developed and developing countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
May 8, 2003 ... ing to Mental Health Care Users. The Act specifies and contextualizes various rights ... health status; Disclosure of information; Limitation on intimate adult relationships; Rights to representation; ... tion is provided - within the financial constraints available. If litigation is to be avoided, health professionals ...
Dang, Hoang-Minh; Ngo, Victoria; Pollack, Amie; Sang, David; Lam, Trung T.; Nguyen, My Loc Thi; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Tran, Nam; Tran, Cong; Do, Khanh N.
In this paper, we discuss development of the Vietnam National University graduate Clinical Psychology Program, which has the goal of training both Vietnamese researchers who will develop and evaluate culturally appropriate mental health treatments, as well as Vietnamese clinicians who will implement and help disseminate these evidence-based treatments. We first review the background situation in Vietnam regarding mental health, and its infrastructure and training needs, and discuss the process through which the decision was made to develop a graduate program in clinical psychology as the best approach to address these needs. We then review the development process for the program and its current status, and our focus on the schools as a site for service provision and mental health task shifting. Finally, we outline future goals and plans for the program, and discuss the various challenges that the program has faced and our attempts to resolve them. PMID:21785513
Somasundaram, D J; van de Put, W A; Eisenbruch, M; de Jong, J T
Cambodia has undergone massive psychosocial trauma in the last few decades, but has had virtually no western-style mental health services. For the first time in Cambodia a number of mental health clinics in rural areas have been started. This experience is used to discuss the risks and opportunities in introducing these services in the present war-torn situation. Basic statistics from the clinics are presented in the context of the historical and traditional setting, and the effort to maintain a culturally informed approach is described. The contrasting results in the clinics are analyzed in relation to factors intrinsic to the health care system and those related to the local population in order to highlight the issues involved in establishing future mental health services, both locally in other provinces and in situations similar to Cambodia. The efficacy of introducing low-cost, basic mental health care is shown, and related to the need to find solutions for prevailing problems on the psychosocial level. They can be introduced with modest means, and can be complementary to local health beliefs and traditional healing. In introducing mental health services, an approach is needed which adapts to the absorption potential of the health system as well as to the patients' need to find meaningful help. Existing resources, from the traditional healing sector to rudimentary village structures, cannot be neglected in the rehabilitation of the community, or in interventions to help the individual patient.
Jepson, Lisa; Juszczak, Linda; Fisher, Martin
Describes the mental-health and medical services provided at a high-school-based service center. Five years after the center's inception mental health visits had quadrupled. One third of students utilizing the center reported substance abuse within their family. Other reasons for center use included pregnancy, suicidal ideation, obesity,…
Corrigan, Patrick W; Mittal, Dinesh; Reaves, Christina M; Haynes, Tiffany F; Han, Xiaotong; Morris, Scott; Sullivan, Greer
People with serious mental illness have higher rates of mortality and morbidity due to physical illness. In part, this occurs because primary care and other health providers sometimes make decisions contrary to typical care standards. This might occur because providers endorse mental illness stigma, which seems inversely related to prior personal experience with mental illness and mental health care. In this study, 166 health care providers (42.2% primary care, 57.8% mental health practice) from the Veteran׳s Affairs (VA) medical system completed measures of stigma characteristics, expected adherence, and subsequent health decisions (referral to a specialist and refill pain prescription) about a male patient with schizophrenia who was seeking help for low back pain due to arthritis. Research participants reported comfort with previous mental health interventions. Path analyses showed participants who endorsed stigmatizing characteristics of the patient were more likely to believe he would not adhere to treatment and hence, less likely to refer to a specialist or refill his prescription. Endorsement of stigmatizing characteristics was inversely related to comfort with one׳s previous mental health care. Implications of these findings will inform a program meant to enhance VA provider attitudes about people with mental illness, as well as their health decisions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Krishnaswamy, Saroja; Subramaniam, Kavitha; Indran, Tishya; Low, Wah-Yun
Disasters, natural or man-made, bring numerous health care challenges. In any crisis, mental health programs are a requirement during both the acute and postemergency phases. In the Asian tsunami on December 26, 2004, some of the northwestern coastal areas of Malaysia, particularly the island of Penang, were affected with devastating effects on the residents. Such disasters can predispose to mental health problems among the affected people. An early mental health intervention program was carried out in Balik Pulau, Penang, an area badly affected by the tsunami. The objective of the intervention program was to identify the victims, counsel them, make referrals if necessary, and provide help and resources to prevent the development of mental health problems. Penang residents identified as tsunami victims by the local health authorities were recruited. A group of health care workers, school teachers, village authorities, and volunteers were trained to carry out the crisis intervention program by health care workers experienced in crisis interventions. A total of 299 adults participated in the crisis intervention program, with follow-up assessments being made 4 to 6 weeks later. At the follow-up assessment, 1% of the victims had a problem and they were then referred for further medical assessment. This indicates that the intervention program in the first 2 weeks after the tsunami disaster with referrals to medical services may have helped stabilize the victims.
Krebs, Teri S; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan
The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population. Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale), mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive), symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis), and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted) reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote), or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems. We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems.
Teri S Krebs
Full Text Available The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline.To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population.Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale, mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive, symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis, and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events.21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote, or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems.We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems.
Jessecae K. Marsh PhD
Full Text Available Background: Past research shows that people believe psychologically caused mental disorders are helped by different treatments than biologically caused mental disorders. However, it is unknown how people think about treatment when limited information is known to identify the disorder. Objective: Our objective was to explore how laypeople judged the helpfulness of treatments when a limited set of mental health symptoms is presented. Method: Across four experiments, Mechanical Turk and college undergraduate participants (N = 331 read descriptions displaying sets of three mental health symptoms and rated how helpful pharmaceuticals, counseling, or alternative medicine would be on a 0 (not at all helpful to 100 (completely helpful scale. We measured judgments for perceived mental and medical symptoms (Experiment 1 and how judgments were influenced by symptom severity (Experiment 2, duration (Experiment 3, and if alternative medicine and conventional treatments were used in conjunction (Experiment 4. Results: Perceived mental symptoms were rated as helped by counseling, while perceived medical symptoms were rated as helped by medication. Alternative medicine was never rated as extremely helpful. For example, in Experiment 1, counseling (mean [M] = 80.1 was rated more helpful than pharmaceuticals (M = 50.5; P < 0.001 or alternative medicine (M = 45.1; P < 0.001 for mental symptoms, and pharmaceuticals (M = 62.6 was rated more helpful than counseling (M = 36.1; P < 0.001 or alternative medicine (M = 47.5; P < 0.001 for medical symptoms. This pattern held regardless of severity, duration, or the adjunct use of alternative medicine. Limitations: We employed a general population sample and measured hypothetical treatment judgments. Conclusions: Mental health symptoms viewed as problems of the mind are thought to need different treatment than mental health symptoms seen as problems of the body.
Khan, Shahbaz Ali; Chauhan, V S; Timothy, A; Kalpana, S; Khanam, Shagufta
Hajj pilgrimage, in Saudi Arabia, is one of the world's largest religious mass gatherings. We have similar mass gathering scenarios in India such as the Amarnath Yatra and Kumbh. A unique combination of physical, physiological, and psychological factors makes this pilgrimage a very stressful milieu. We studied the emergence of psychopathology and its determinants, in this adverse environment in mass gathering situation, in Indian pilgrims on Hajj 2016. This is a descriptive study analyzing the mental morbidity in 1.36 lakh Indian pilgrims during Hajj 2016, using SPSS software version 19. Totally 182 patients reported psychological problems. Twenty-two patients (12%) required admission. Twelve (6.8%) pilgrims reported a past history of a mental illness. One hundred and sixty-five (93.2%) patients never had any mental symptoms earlier in life. The most common illnesses seen were stress related (45.7%) followed by psychosis (9.8%), insomnia (7.3%), and mood disorders (5.6%). The most common symptoms recorded were apprehension (45%), sleep (55%), anxiety (41%), and fear of being lost (27%). Psychotropics were prescribed for 46% of pilgrims. All patients completed their Hajj successfully and returned to India. Cumulative stress causes full spectrum of mental decompensation, and prompt healing is aided by simple nonpharmacological measures including social support and counseling in compatible sociolinguistic milieu.
Shahbaz Ali Khan
Full Text Available Background: Hajj pilgrimage, in Saudi Arabia, is one of the world's largest religious mass gatherings. We have similar mass gathering scenarios in India such as the Amarnath Yatra and Kumbh. A unique combination of physical, physiological, and psychological factors makes this pilgrimage a very stressful milieu. We studied the emergence of psychopathology and its determinants, in this adverse environment in mass gathering situation, in Indian pilgrims on Hajj 2016. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study analyzing the mental morbidity in 1.36 lakh Indian pilgrims during Hajj 2016, using SPSS software version 19. Results: Totally 182 patients reported psychological problems. Twenty-two patients (12% required admission. Twelve (6.8% pilgrims reported a past history of a mental illness. One hundred and sixty-five (93.2% patients never had any mental symptoms earlier in life. The most common illnesses seen were stress related (45.7% followed by psychosis (9.8%, insomnia (7.3%, and mood disorders (5.6%. The most common symptoms recorded were apprehension (45%, sleep (55%, anxiety (41%, and fear of being lost (27%. Psychotropics were prescribed for 46% of pilgrims. All patients completed their Hajj successfully and returned to India. Conclusions: Cumulative stress causes full spectrum of mental decompensation, and prompt healing is aided by simple nonpharmacological measures including social support and counseling in compatible sociolinguistic milieu.
Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Eriksson, Johan G.
Environmental adversities in pre- and early postnatal life may have life-long consequences. Based upon a series of epidemiological and clinical studies and natural experiments, this review describes how the early life environment may affect psychological functions and mental disorders later in life.
Full Text Available Participation in mental health care poses many challenges for mental health service users and service providers. Consideration of these issues for improving the integration of service user participation in mental health care can help to inform integrated care within health care systems, broadly. This paper argues for practicing greater empathy and teaching it, stigma reduction, changing what we measure, valuing the intrinsic aspects of care more, employing more people with lived experience within mental health services, raising the visibility of service users as leaders and our teachers within services and redefining integrated care from the service user perspective.
Sarkin, Andrew; Lale, Rachel; Sklar, Marisa; Center, Kimberly C; Gilmer, Todd; Fowler, Chris; Heller, Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D
This paper describes how individuals struggling with severe mental illness experience stigma along multiple dimensions including their experiences of discrimination by others, their unwillingness to disclose information about their mental health, and their internalization or rejection of the negative and positive aspects of having mental health problems. This cross-sectional study employs descriptive analyses and linear regression to assess the relationship between demographics, mental health diagnoses and self-reported stigma among people receiving mental health services in a large and ethnically diverse county public mental health system (n = 1,237) in 2009. We used the King Stigma Scale to measure three factors related to stigma: discrimination, disclosure, and positive aspects of mental illness. Most people (89.7 %) reported experiencing some discrimination from having mental health problems. Regression analyses revealed that younger people in treatment experienced more stigma related to mental health problems. Women reported experiencing more stigma than men, but men were less likely to endorse the potentially positive aspects of facing mental health challenges than women. Although people with mood disorders reported more discomfort with disclosing mental illness than people with schizophrenia, they did not report experiencing more discrimination than people with schizophrenia. Study findings suggest that the multidimensional experiences of stigma differ as a function of age, gender, and diagnosis. Importantly, these findings should inform anti-stigma efforts by describing different potential treatment barriers due to experiences of stigma among people using mental health services, especially among younger people and women who may be more susceptible to stigma.
Full Text Available Using cross-disciplinary perspectives from artistic research, aesthetic theory, and mental health care, this article discusses qualities in sensuous surroundings in mental health facilities. Although the background for the article is in the increased awareness in aesthetic research concerning sensuous surroundings and their connection to health and well-being, this aesthetic research is only reflected to a small extent in research on mental health care surroundings. A further development of these perspectives is suggested in this article by introducing the concept of life forms from the art theorist Nicolas Bourriaud and the concepts of presentation and perception in theatrical communication from theatre researcher Willmar Sauter. These theories are discussed and exemplified on the basis of data from two mental health care wards: one from a psychogeriatric ward and the other from a polyclinic for eating disorders. Some essential qualities identified in the examples were that aesthetic environment and activity could be seen as formative to the “inner landscape”, and that different forms of sensuous activation and interaction could help patients escape communicative isolation. It is further demonstrated how participatory strategies can challenge artistic practice and that art can contribute to a health promoting and communicative space in mental health care. In the discussion section, it is argued that an activating, and possibly empowering, environment can be created through an increased awareness of the aesthetic strategies used in health care institutions. The study seeks to contribute to knowledge transfer in artistic practice and healthcare practice, as a part of a cross-disciplinary art didactic discourse, which intends to address specific societal challenges.
Full Text Available The world population reached 7 billion in 2012, which is 6 billion more than in 1800. This remarkable population growth is the result of several factors like advances in the medical, technological and public health systems resulting in the control and treatment of communicable diseases, the control of pandemics, the end of large-scale wars, improvements in living conditions and the revolutions in the field of agriculture. Because of all these factors, there has been a considerable improvement in the life expectancy of human beings. There is also an alarming reduction in fertility rates. The combination of declining fertility rate and augmented life expectancies has led to a change in the demographics of the population with the strata of older individuals growing faster than the younger individuals. The aging of populations is poised to become the next global public health challenge. Advances in medicine and socioeconomic development have substantially reduced mortality and morbidity rates due to infectious conditions and, to some extent, non-communicable diseases. These demographic and epidemiological changes, coupled with rapid urbanization, modernization, globalization, and accompanying changes in risk factors and lifestyles, have increased the prominence of chronic non-infective conditions. Health systems need to find effective strategies to extend health care and to respond to the needs of older adults. This review highlights the pathophysiology of aging, biological and physiological changes, impact of aging on health, epidemiological transitions, multi-morbidity in elderly and challenges for health care system.
Keshvari, Mahrokh; Yamani, Niko; Adibi, Peyman; Shahnazi, Hossein
Media play crucial role in disseminating health information. Due to the importance of accurate health news reports, and the national need to professionalism in health journalism, this study aimed to investigate the characteristics of health journalists, and health reporting status and the challenges involved. Using consensus sampling, this descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on all health news reporters in Isfahan (34 journalists) in 2015-2016. Data collection was done via a researcher-made questionnaire. Content validity of the questionnaire was determined by qualitative method and based on the opinions of six experts. The test-retest reliability coefficient was 98.0. Data analysis was done by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 16 and descriptive statistics and content analysis were used for analyzing the responses to two open questions. Among 34 journalists, 56% were women and 44% men; the majority of journalists (65%) had no specialized training on health reporting, 35% of journalists were not able to understand the health issues, and the knowledge of medical terminology in 59% of them was moderate to low. The most important required skill for reporters was the ability to interpret medical research reports (88%), 97% were eager to participate in specialized health education. Our study showed that health journalists lacked knowledge and specialized training for dissemination of health news. This has brought about serious challenges. Thus, development and implementation of training courses in close collaboration with educational department of the Ministry of Health and news programs professionals at Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting is highly recommended.
Full Text Available Background: Media play crucial role in disseminating health information. Due to the importance of accurate health news reports, and the national need to professionalism in health journalism, this study aimed to investigate the characteristics of health journalists, and health reporting status and the challenges involved. Materials and Methods: Using consensus sampling, this descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on all health news reporters in Isfahan (34 journalists in 2015–2016. Data collection was done via a researcher-made questionnaire. Content validity of the questionnaire was determined by qualitative method and based on the opinions of six experts. The test–retest reliability coefficient was 98.0. Data analysis was done by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 16 and descriptive statistics and content analysis were used for analyzing the responses to two open questions. Results: Among 34 journalists, 56% were women and 44% men; the majority of journalists (65% had no specialized training on health reporting, 35% of journalists were not able to understand the health issues, and the knowledge of medical terminology in 59% of them was moderate to low. The most important required skill for reporters was the ability to interpret medical research reports (88%, 97% were eager to participate in specialized health education. Conclusions: Our study showed that health journalists lacked knowledge and specialized training for dissemination of health news. This has brought about serious challenges. Thus, development and implementation of training courses in close collaboration with educational department of the Ministry of Health and news programs professionals at Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting is highly recommended.
Alfredsson, Maria; San Sebastian, Miguel; Jeghannathan, Bhoomikumar
Cambodia is a country where the resources for treating mental health disorders are far from sufficient. One strategy to narrow the treatment gap is to integrate mental health into primary health care (PHC). Understanding the knowledge and attitudes towards mental health integration that health-care workers have is important for assessing the challenges and opportunities when planning a potential integration project. The aim of this study was to assess these basic conditions in Lvea Em District, Cambodia. A structured self-reporting questionnaire regarding attitudes and knowledge about mental health and its integration into PHC was collected from 75 health-care workers in Lvea Em District, Cambodia in October 2015. Firstly, descriptive analyses were carried out, and secondly, linear regression analyses to assess the relationship between attitudes and socio-demographic variables were conducted. There was clear support towards integrating mental health services into PHC among these participants as 81.3% were interested in personally delivering mental health care at their units. Respondents who reported having received some kind of mental health-care training tended to have a more positive attitude towards mentally ill people (p = 0.005) and those who thought there was a high need for mental health care had a more favourable attitude towards the integration of mental health services (p = 0.007). The most important finding from this survey was the willingness and the acceptance of the need for integration of mental health care. This enhances the feasibility of integrating mental health services at the PHC level. Improving the competence of mental health care in these settings will likely help to reduce the treatment gap for mental, neurological and substance use disorders in Cambodia.
Van Schrojenstein Lantman M
Full Text Available Marith Van Schrojenstein Lantman,1 Marlou Mackus,1 Leila S Otten,1 Deborah de Kruijff,1 Aurora JAE van de Loo,1,2 Aletta D Kraneveld,1,2 Johan Garssen,1,3 Joris C Verster1,2,4 1Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia Background: Mental resilience can be seen as a trait that enables an individual to recover from stress and to face the next stressor with optimism. People with resilient traits are considered to have a better mental and physical health. However, there are limited data available assessing the relationship between resilient individuals and their perspective of their health and immune status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between mental resilience, perceived health, and perceived immune status. Methods: A total of 779 participants recruited at Utrecht University completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, the brief resilience scale for the assessment of mental resilience, the immune function questionnaire (IFQ, and questions regarding their perceived health and immune status. Results: When correcting for gender, age, height, weight, smoker status, amount of cigarettes smoked per week, alcohol consumption status, amount of drinks consumed per week, drug use, and frequency of past year drug use, mental resilience was significantly correlated with perceived health (r=0.233, p=0.0001, perceived immune functioning (r=0.124, p=0.002, and IFQ score (r=−0.185, p=0.0001. Conclusion: A significant, albeit modest, relationship was found between mental resilience and perceived immune functioning and health. Keywords: mental resilience, immune functioning, health, vitality, quality of life
Funakoshi, Akiko; Miyamoto, Yuki; Kayama, Mami
This paper is a report of a study to describe the support behaviours practised by managers of community mental health nurses (CMHNs) who provide homecare for people with mental illness, and to identify factors related to those behaviours. Homecare of mentally ill clients can prevent hospital readmission, provide rehabilitation, and include support for medication adherence, personal relationships, mental health, activities of daily living, as well as supporting informal caregivers. However, this work is stressful for CMHNs, who can themselves develop mental health problems and suffer burnout. Therefore support for these nurses is essential. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 nurse managers in 2004. A constant comparative data collection and analysis process was used, and a core category identified. Four categories of managerial support behaviour were identified: (1) 'modifying client-nurse relationships'; (2) 'ensuring community mental health nurse safety'; (3) 'providing emotional support'; (4) 'providing opportunities for skill development'. 'To continue homecare for clients in need' emerged as a core category, representing the ultimate purpose of managerial support behaviours. Moreover, the timing of managerial support behaviours was influenced by the quality and length of the client-nurse relationship. The managerial support behaviours reported in the present study may be useful in other cultural contexts. Further research is needed to evaluate their effectiveness for CMHNs in other settings in Japan and other countries.
Barling, Julian; Cloutier, Anika
While employees' mental health is the focus of considerable attention from researchers, the public, and policymakers, leaders' mental health has almost escaped attention. We start by considering several reasons for this, followed by discussions of the effects of leaders' mental health on their own leadership behaviors, the emotional toll of high-quality leadership, and interventions to enhance leaders' mental health. We offer 8 possible directions for future research on leaders' mental health. Finally, we discuss methodological obstacles encountered when investigating leaders' mental health, and policy dilemmas raised by leaders' mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Christensen, H; Griffiths, K
This paper describes the informational and treatment opportunities offered by the Worldwide Web (WWW) and comments on the advantages, disadvantages and potential dangers of its role in mental health and mental health research. Two perspectives are taken: (i) the impact of the Web from the point of view of the clinician (the practitioner view) and (ii) the impact of the Web on the public's knowledge of mental health (mental health literacy; the community or public health view). These perspectives are applied to two areas of impact: (i) information and knowledge; and (ii) treatment and self-help. The Web, due to its accessibility, has advantages in providing access to information, online therapy and adjunctive therapy in mental health. Problems include information overload, poor information quality, potential harm and lack of scientific evaluation. Issues of overload and quality of information, the potential for harm and the need to evaluate interventions are not unique to the Internet. However, the Internet has special features which make these issues more prominent. The Internet is likely to increase the general public's access to information and to decrease unmet need. Sites and interventions on the Internet need to be formally evaluated.
Historically, nurses have lacked recognition for the work they do, especially in the area of mental health. There is a shortage of qualified mental health nurses to meet the demand for services. Many rural areas in the United States have few or no mental health services to offer communities. Encouraging positive attitudes toward mental health…
As the industrial world has transformed toward a service economy, a particular interest has developed in mental health problems at the workplace. The risk for burnout is significantly increased in certain occupations, notably for health care workers. Beyond the effects of an extensive workload, many working hours, or long night shifts, the medical field has specific stressors. Physicians work in emotionally demanding environments with patients, families, or other medical staff. They must make quick decisions while faced with a quite frequent information overload. All of these stressors have to be weighed against a rapidly changing organizational context within medicine. Today, economics objectives have priority over medical values in health care. In principal, mental health workers should experience similar work stressors and the same contextual factors as health professionals from other medical disciplines. However, several studies have identified stressors that are unique to the psychiatric profession. These challenges range from the stigma of this profession, to particularly demanding relationships with patients and difficult interactions with other mental health professionals as part of multidisciplinary teams to personal threats from violent patients. Other sources of stress are a lack of positive feedback, low pay, and a poor work environment. Finally, patient suicide is a major stressor, upon which a majority of mental health workers report post-traumatic stress symptoms.
Giacco, Domenico; Matanov, Aleksandra; Priebe, Stefan
The article reviews recent evidence on improving access to mental healthcare for immigrants and best practice of care provision. Language barriers, different beliefs and explanatory models of illness, confidentiality concerns, stigma, reluctance to seek psychological help outside families, and social deprivation may prevent immigrants from accessing mental healthcare. Pathways are influenced by families, primary care practitioners, voluntary organizations, and social services. Interpreting services are often not available, and data documentation on immigrants' use of services is inconsistent. Nonmedical specific services for immigrants can be effective in outreach activities. Cultural training of staff can improve clinicians' attitudes and patients' satisfaction with care. Integrative approaches between primary and mental healthcare, psychoeducational programs, and technological innovations have been developed to improve access to care. Immigrants can face significant barriers in accessing mental healthcare. Strategies to overcome these barriers are as follows: increased coordination and communication between voluntary organizations, social services and mental health services; training of staff on cross-cultural issues; integration of mental healthcare with primary care; psychoeducational initiatives focused on families and broader social groups; and technology-based interventions.
Originating in Australia, 'Mental Health First Aid' (MHFA) is a way of providing support to someone who is experiencing a mental health problem before professional help is obtained. Positive evaluations have shown that it both increases confidence while decreasing stigmatizing attitudes. However, the evidence base surrounding the delivery of basic mental health programmes remains underdeveloped. This descriptive qualitative study explored the views and experiences of 14 MHFA instructors from across Wales through semi-structured interviews, as a means to identify the experience of course delivery from their perspective. Data were collected between January and April 2009. The study found individuals benefited from being an MHFA instructor through increased confidence and self-development. However, instructors encountered logistical difficulties in course delivery and noted that as attendees related to the course material, they wished to discuss their own mental health problems during the course. This created considerable challenges for instructors, who noted both positive and negative impacts on themselves, and on their expectations of the role of becoming MHFA instructors. In conclusion, basic mental health training courses must build a clear infrastructure, ongoing quality assurance processes and reliable support structures to train, support and monitor those delivering them. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.
Abdallah S. Daar
Full Text Available Urgent action is needed to address mental health issues globally. In Africa, where mental health disorders account for a huge burden of disease and disability, and where in general less than 1% of the already small health budgets are spent on these disorders, the need for action is acute and urgent. Members of the World Health Organization, including African countries, have adopted a Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan. Africa now has an historic opportunity to improve the mental health and wellbeing of its citizens, beginning with provision of basic mental health services and development of national mental health strategic plans (roadmaps. There is need to integrate mental health into primary health care and address stigma and violations of human rights. We advocate for inclusion of mental health into the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, and for the convening of a special UN General Assembly High Level Meeting on Mental Health within three years.
Johannsen, Gundi Schrötter; Elstad, Toril
, social incluison and integration for people who live with mental health problems. Aiming to support people in daily life, community mental health services that facilitate active participation are encouraged internationally (WHO 2001b, 2005,2013). From these perspectives, we will present our studies from......This chapter aims to contribute to an understanding of the social dimension the concept of participation and the meaning participation can have for mental health and identity. In order to increase participation, it is important to support the personal recovery process of each individual. However...... since participation can function as a link between individuals and society, health and welfare services should also provide opportunities for social inclusion and reciprocal relationships. According to the theories of Goffman (1967) and Mead (1934/1967) face-toface interaction is of central importance...
Mental health research has received relatively little philanthropic support in Australia compared with other areas of health research. Philanthropic trusts do not generally provide recurrent funding or make grants for that perceived to be the responsibility of the state or the market. The emergence of 'strategic philanthropy' however, provides potential for mental health researchers to form partnerships with philanthropic foundations, particularly on initiatives that are focused on prevention and innovative and sustainable models with the capacity to 'go to scale' across the service system.
Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine; Greenland, Population Study
-94 and 1997-98, two health interview surveys were conducted among Inuit in Greenland and Inuit migrants in Denmark. The response rates were 71 and 55%. Information on mental health was obtained from 1388 and 1769 adults. As indicators of mental health, the prevalence of potential psychiatric cases according...... of Greenland. In Greenland, women were more often GHQ-cases and had suicidal thoughts more often than men. The association between language and GHQ-cases is presumed to operate through socioeconomic factors. It is necessary to modify the common notion that rapid societal development is in itself a cause...
... Childbearing Deaths Deaths and Mortality Leading Causes of Death Life Expectancy Race and Ethnicity Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population Health of ...
van den Brink, Rob H. S.; Broer, Jan; Tholen, Alfons J.; Winthorst, Wim H.; Visser, Ellen; Wiersma, Durk
Background: The police are considered frontline professionals in managing individuals experiencing mental health crises. This study examines the extent to which these individuals are disconnected from mental health services, and whether the police response has an influence on re-establishing
Yahraes, Herbert; And Others
Prepared by the National Institute of Mental Health staff and grantees, this report gives not only the quantitative research data, but also demonstrations of community mental health efforts that serve as excellent models for other communities to follow. Chapter I presents An Introduction: The Setting and an Overview; Chapter II, Studies of Rural…
Wechsler, Nick D.; Woodlock, Kelly K.
Many professionals who work with very young children and their families have not received training in infant mental health (IMH). The Ounce of Prevention Fund recognized this unmet need and formed a multidisciplinary support network for teams of home visitors, parent group facilitators, community program supervisors, and mental health clinicians.…
Narayan, Choudhary Laxmi; Shikha, Deep
Although there was a rich tradition of legal system in Ancient India, the present judicial system of the country derives largely from the British system and is based on English Common Law, a system of law based on recorded judicial precedents. Earlier legislations in respect of mental health were primarily concerned with custodial aspects of persons with mental illness and protection of the society. Indian laws are also concerned with determination of competency, diminished responsibility and...
Robertson, Peter J.
Career guidance may have the potential to promote public health by contributing positively to both the prevention of mental health conditions and to population level well-being. The policy implications of this possibility have received little attention. Career guidance agencies are well placed to reach key target groups. Producing persuasive…
Föcker, Manuel; Antel, Jochen; Ring, Stefanie; Hahn, Denise; Kanal, Özlem; Öztürk, Dana; Hebebrand, Johannes; Libuda, Lars
While vitamin D is known to be relevant for bone health, evidence has recently accumulated for an impact on mental health. To identify the potential benefits and limitations of vitamin D for mental health, an understanding of the physiology of vitamin D, the cut-off values for vitamin D deficiency and the current status of therapeutic trials is paramount. Results of a systematic PUBMED search highlight the association of vitamin D levels and mental health conditions. Here, we focus on children and adolescents studies as well as randomized controlled trials on depression in adults. 41 child and adolescent studies were identified including only 1 randomized controlled and 7 non-controlled supplementation trials. Overall, results from 25 cross-sectional studies as well as from 8 longitudinal studies suggest a role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of mental disorders in childhood and adolescence. Findings from supplementation trials seem to support this hypothesis. However, randomized controlled trials in adults revealed conflicting results. Randomized controlled trials in childhood and adolescents are urgently needed to support the potential of vitamin D as a complementary therapeutic option in mental disorders. Study designs should consider methodological challenges, e.g., hypovitaminosis D at baseline, appropriate supplementation doses, sufficient intervention periods, an adequate power, clinically validated diagnostic instruments, and homogenous, well-defined risk groups.
Priebe, Stefan; Matanov, Aleksandra; Barros, Henrique; Canavan, Reamonn; Gabor, Edina; Greacen, Tim; Holcnerová, Petra; Kluge, Ulrike; Nicaise, Pablo; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Díaz-Olalla, José Manuel; Strassmayr, Christa; Schene, Aart H.; Soares, Joaquim J. F.; Tulloch, Simon; Gaddini, Andrea
Providing mental health care to socially marginalized groups is a challenge. There is limited evidence on what form of mental health-care generic (i.e. not targeting a specific social group) and group-specific services provide to socially marginalized groups in Europe. To describe the
DiPlacito-DeRango, Maria Lucia
Despite marked improvements, intervention for students with a mental health problem or illness in Canadian higher education settings remains not yet successful, mature, or sustainable. A number of challenges have been identified as contributory to the shortcomings surrounding student mental health in colleges and universities. In this paper, I…
Shanley, Eamon; Jubb-Shanley, Maureen
The aim of this paper was to describe a newly-developed system of mental health nurse counselling (coping focus counselling (CFC)) for people with serious and complex mental health needs. The system is based on the recovery alliance theory (RAT) of mental health nursing. The paper identifies shortcomings in current practices in psychotherapy and counselling in the exclusive use of techniques from a single approach, for example, cognitive behaviour therapy, client-centred therapy, attachment theory, or Gestalt theory. It also discusses the opposite dangers of the use of many techniques from different approaches, without a clear rationale for their selection. CFC was developed to avoid these practices. It accommodates the selective use of techniques from different approaches. Techniques selected are viewed as deriving their meanings from the theoretical framework into which they are assimilated, namely RAT, and no longer take the same meaning from the theory from which they originated. Central to this integrative process is the use of the concept of coping. Other distinguishing features of CFC are the use of everyday language in using the system and the reaffirmation of the nurse-client relationship within a working alliance as the basis in which the CFC operates. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Full Text Available Background : "Crime" is increasing day by day in our society not only in India but also all over the world. In turn, the number of prisoners is also increasing at the same rate. They remain imprisoned for a long duration or in some cases for the whole life. Living in a prison for long time becomes difficult for all inmates. So they often face adjustment and mental health problems. Recent findings suggest that mental illness rate in prison is three times higher than in the general population. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the adjustment and the mental health problem and its relation in the prisoners. Materials and Methods : In the present study, 37 male prisoners of district jail of Dhanbad District of Jharkhand were selected on purposive sampling basis. Each prisoner was given specially designed Performa - Personal Data Sheet, General Health Questionnaire-12 and Bell Adjustment Inventory. Appropriate statistical tools were used to analyze the data. Results: The results obtained showed poor adjustment in social and emotional areas on the adjustment scale. The study also revealed a significant association between adjustment and mental health problem in the prisoners. Conclusion: The prisoners were found to have poor social and emotional adjustment which has strong association with their mental health.
Houle, Jason N
Current evidence suggests that the rise in home foreclosures that began in 2007 created feelings of stress, vulnerability, and sapped communities of social and economic resources. Minority and low SES communities were more likely to be exposed to predatory lending and hold subprime mortgages, and were the hardest hit by the foreclosure crisis. Little research has examined whether and how the foreclosure crisis has undermined population mental health. I use data from 2245 counties in 50 U.S. states to examine whether living in high foreclosure areas is associated with residents' mental health and whether the foreclosure crisis has the potential to exacerbate existing disparities in mental health during the recessionary period. I use county-level data from RealtyTrac and other data sources, and individual-level data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey from 2006 to 2011. I find that - net of time invariant unobserved between-county differences, national time trends, and observed confounders - a rise in a county's foreclosure rate is associated with a decline in residents' mental health. This association is especially pronounced in counties with a high concentration of low SES and minority residents, which supports the perspective that the foreclosure crisis has the potential to exacerbate existing social disparities in mental health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Burns, Carol Rhonda; Lagdon, Susan; Boyda, David; Armour, Cherie
A consistent conclusion within the extant literature is that victimization and in particular polyvictimization leads to adverse mental health outcomes. A large body of literature exists as it pertains to the association between victimisation and mental health in studies utilising samples of childhood victims, female only victims, and samples of male and female victims; less research exists as it relates to males victims of interpersonal violence. The aim of the current study was therefore to identify profiles of interpersonal victimizations in an exclusively male sample and to assess their differential impact on a number of adverse mental health outcomes. Using data from 14,477 adult males from Wave 2 of the NESARC, we identified interpersonal victimization profiles via Latent Class Analysis. Multinomial Logistic Regression was subsequently utilized to establish risk across mental health disorders. A 4-class solution was optimal. Victimisation profiles showed elevated odds ratios for the presence of mental health disorders; suggesting that multiple life-course victimisation typologies exists, and that victimization is strongly associated with psychopathology. Several additional notable findings are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper aims to share the experience carried on in the Social Enterprises which are part of the Mental Health System of the state of Chubut (Argentina) since 2009. First, the context of the founding of the social enterprises inside a program which involves the government and the civil society in line with the state policies is presented, taking labour as a paradigm of psychosocial rehabilitation of people with mental suffering in effective interaction with other people from the community. Then, testimonies of entrepreneurs, as well as their definition of the enterprise and their personal experiences when participating in it are presented. Finally, the future challenges of this type of practice is summarised.
Ayers, John W; Althouse, Benjamin M; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Rosenquist, J Niels; Ford, Daniel E
Population mental health surveillance is an important challenge limited by resource constraints, long time lags in data collection, and stigma. One promising approach to bridge similar gaps elsewhere has been the use of passively generated digital data. This article assesses the viability of aggregate Internet search queries for real-time monitoring of several mental health problems, specifically in regard to seasonal patterns of seeking out mental health information. All Google mental health queries were monitored in the U.S. and Australia from 2006 to 2010. Additionally, queries were subdivided among those including the terms ADHD (attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder); anxiety; bipolar; depression; anorexia or bulimia (eating disorders); OCD (obsessive-compulsive disorder); schizophrenia; and suicide. A wavelet phase analysis was used to isolate seasonal components in the trends, and based on this model, the mean search volume in winter was compared with that in summer, as performed in 2012. All mental health queries followed seasonal patterns with winter peaks and summer troughs amounting to a 14% (95% CI=11%, 16%) difference in volume for the U.S. and 11% (95% CI=7%, 15%) for Australia. These patterns also were evident for all specific subcategories of illness or problem. For instance, seasonal differences ranged from 7% (95% CI=5%, 10%) for anxiety (followed by OCD, bipolar, depression, suicide, ADHD, schizophrenia) to 37% (95% CI=31%, 44%) for eating disorder queries in the U.S. Several nonclinical motivators for query seasonality (such as media trends or academic interest) were explored and rejected. Information seeking on Google across all major mental illnesses and/or problems followed seasonal patterns similar to those found for seasonal affective disorder. These are the first data published on patterns of seasonality in information seeking encompassing all the major mental illnesses, notable also because they likely would have gone undetected using
Durbin, Anna; Durbin, Janet; Hensel, Jennifer M; Deber, Raisa
Integrating care for physical health and behavioural health (mental health and addictions) has been a longstanding challenge, although research supports the clinical and cost effectiveness of integrated care for many clients. In one such model, primary care (PC) physicians work with specialist physicians and non-physician providers (NPPs) to provide mental health and addictions care in PC settings. This Ontario, Canada-focused policy analysis draws on research evidence to examine potential barriers and enablers to this model of integrated care, focusing on mental health. Funding challenges pertain to incentivizing PC physicians to select patients with mental illness, include NPPs on the treatment team, and collaborate with specialist providers. Legal/regulatory challenges pertain to NPP scopes of practice for prescribing and counselling. Integrated care also requires revising the role of the physician and distribution of functions among the team. Policy support to integrate addictions treatment in PC may face similar challenges but requires further exploration.
Gevers, Aník; Dartnall, Elizabeth
In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.
Full Text Available In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV. However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.
Full Text Available Background: There is a significant proportion of workers with mental disorders who either are struggling at work or who are trying to return to work from a disability leave. Objective: Using a population-based survey of working adults in Ontario, Canada, this paper examines the perceptions of workers towards mental disorders in the workplace. Methods: Data are from a sample of 2219 working adults identified through random digit dialing who either completed a telephone questionnaire administered by professional interviewers or a web-based survey. Results: A third of workers would not tell their managers if they experienced mental health problems. Rather than a single factor, workers more often identified a combination of factors that would encourage disclosure to their managers. One of the most identified disincentives was the fear of damaging their careers. The most pervasive reasons for concerns about a colleague with a mental health problem included safety and the colleague's reliability. Conclusion: Although critical for workers who experience a mental disorder and who find work challenging, a significant proportion do not seek support. One barrier is fear of negative repercussions. Organizations' policies can create safe environments and the provision of resources and training to managers that enable them to implement them. By making disclosure safe, stigma and the burden of mental disorders in the workplace can be decreased.
Dewa, C S
There is a significant proportion of workers with mental disorders who either are struggling at work or who are trying to return to work from a disability leave. Using a population-based survey of working adults in Ontario, Canada, this paper examines the perceptions of workers towards mental disorders in the workplace. Data are from a sample of 2219 working adults identified through random digit dialing who either completed a telephone questionnaire administered by professional interviewers or a web-based survey. A third of workers would not tell their managers if they experienced mental health problems. Rather than a single factor, workers more often identified a combination of factors that would encourage disclosure to their managers. One of the most identified disincentives was the fear of damaging their careers. The most pervasive reasons for concerns about a colleague with a mental health problem included safety and the colleague's reliability. Although critical for workers who experience a mental disorder and who find work challenging, a significant proportion do not seek support. One barrier is fear of negative repercussions. Organizations' policies can create safe environments and the provision of resources and training to managers that enable them to implement them. By making disclosure safe, stigma and the burden of mental disorders in the workplace can be decreased.
Puentes, William J; Bradway, Christine K; Aselage, Melissa
Within the older adult population, certain idiosyncratic aspects of mental illness add to the challenges of helping clients manage these disorders. Older adults are more likely than younger populations to experience physiologically based comorbidities, a dynamic that further strains coping capacities. Barriers to the provision of comprehensive mental health nursing care for older adults include myths and stigmas about aging and mental health. Nurse educators are challenged to move students toward a more positive, empirically based approach to the care of older adults' mental health. In this article, background information supporting the importance of working to improve students' knowledge of and attitudes toward mental illness in older adults is provided. Specific teaching strategies in the areas of older adult mental health, dementia, and delirium are discussed. Resources to support the incorporation of these strategies into nursing curricula are described. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
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McAlpine, Donna D; McCreedy, Ellen; Alang, Sirry
Self-rated health is a valid measure of health that predicts quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. Its predictive value reflects a conceptualization of health that goes beyond a traditional medical model. However, less is known about self-rated mental health (SRMH). Using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey ( N = 2,547), we examine how rating your mental health as good-despite meeting criteria for a mental health problem-predicts outcomes. We found that 62% of people with a mental health problem rated their mental health positively. Persons who rated their mental health as good (compared to poor) had 30% lower odds of having a mental health problem at follow-up. Even without treatment, persons with a mental health problem did better if they perceived their mental health positively. SRMH might comprise information beyond the experience of symptoms. Understanding the unobserved information individuals incorporate into SRMH will help us improve screening and treatment interventions.
There is scant but growing data about the mental health challenges and problems specific to graduate students. Nevertheless, the experience of graduate education can be extremely demanding and stressful and data suggest that graduate students are at higher risk for suicide than undergraduates and that when graduate students die by suicide it is more often related to academic stresses. This presentation will review what we know about the mental health of higher ed students in general and the growing body information about graduate student mental health. Finally, strategies that may be implemented to support the mental health of graduate students will be reviewed. none.
Mcluckie, Alan; Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Weaver, Cynthia
Background Enhancement of mental health literacy for youth is a focus of increasing interest for mental health professionals and educators alike. Schools are an ideal site for addressing mental health literacy in young people. Currently, there is limited evidence regarding the impact of curriculum-based interventions within high school settings. We examined the effect of a high-school mental health curriculum (The Guide) in enhancing mental health literacy in Canadian schools. Methods We cond...
Full Text Available Objective This study aims to explore medical students’ social representations of mental ill health in older adults. Method It comprises an exploratory and qualitative investigation based on the theory of social representations. Two focus groups with pre-clinical medics (group 1, N=4; group 2, N=4 and 10 individual interviews with clinical medical students were conducted. Thematic analysis at a latent level explored meanings and differences between groups. Results Three overarching themes reflect participants’ representations of mental health problems in later life – mental ill health in old age, polarisation of care, and challenges to care. Primary health care appears as an important strategy to overcome barriers to mental health care in the community. Nevertheless, disqualifying representations, stigma and organization of services constitute the main challenges to quality mental health care in later life. Conclusion This paper highlights the need to address cultural and organizational barriers to promote quality care.
Morozov, Petr Victorovich
Despite being a pressing problem, the influence of urbanization on mental health is still underestimated in Russia. Although few studies on the topic in recent years were available, viewpoints of the expert community in Russia will be presented. Intensive urbanization impacts on the living conditions of the majority of the country's population being associated with mass migration of the population, a change in the structure of employment, the restructuring of family relations, and the need to adapt to unaccustomed living conditions. Modern urbanization can adversely affect mental health due to stressful factors related to overpopulation, environmental contamination, poverty, violence, and lack of social support. The main factors that directly affect mental health in Russia are consequences of urbanization such as:The society and the Government are taking a number of measures to prevent the consequences of urbanization (restrictions in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco, mass green plantations, a ban on noise in the evening, closure of landfills, etc.).
Eglee Duran Rodríguez
Full Text Available The article reports the results of the project “Mental health and emotional expression in Facebook”. The research was approached from the qualitative paradigm under virtual ethnographic approach, interpreting the findings through their own players and triangulated with the views of researchers and experts in the area of mental health, emotions and information technology and communication. We concluded that a good part of users vented their secrets on Facebook, where they are able to confide and express a range of emotions and intimacies that in the real context is unlikely to give. Along these findings show that the use of Facebook serves as a space for emotional expression impacting the mental and emotional health.
Horvath, Sarah; Schreiber, Courtney A
The early medical literature on mental health outcomes following abortion is fraught with methodological flaws that can improperly influence clinical practice. Our goal is to review the current medical literature on depression and other mental health outcomes for women obtaining abortions. The Turnaway Study prospectively enrolled 956 women seeking abortion in the USA and followed their mental health outcomes for 5 years. The control group was comprised of women denied abortions based on gestational age limits, thereby circumventing the major methodological flaw that had plagued earlier studies on the topic. Rates of depression are not significantly different between women obtaining abortion and those denied abortion. Rates of anxiety are initially higher in women denied abortion care. Counseling on decision-making for women with unintended pregnancies should reflect these findings.
The author is looking into the problem of multidisciplinarity in mental health : through a theoretical conception of mental disease and from a more practical point of view through the actual functionning of a treating team in mental health. He tries to develop two thesis : 1) physical or social criteria cannot define madness, it has to be studied from a psychological point of view : madness is a personal as well as a psychical fate, a difficulty in facing the different levels and crisis of existence where the physical and social factors are secondary : the specific character of mental health resides in its psychological dimension; 2) the functioning of the treating team is analyzed according to three main models : autocratic, anarchic and democratic : the concept of a treating team in mental health can only be understood if each of its members express himself in an autonomous way and according to his own competencies with regard to the public : this would protect the multidisciplinary team from the dangers of an autocratic leadership or of an anarchic functioning.
Calvo, Rafael Alejandro; Dinakar, Karthik; Picard, Rosalind; Christensen, Helen; Torous, John
We describe an initiative to bring mental health researchers, computer scientists, human-computer interaction researchers, and other communities together to address the challenges of the global mental ill health epidemic. Two face-to-face events and one special issue of the Journal of Medical Internet Research were organized. The works presented in these events and publication reflect key state-of-the-art research in this interdisciplinary collaboration. We summarize the special issue articles and contextualize them to present a picture of the most recent research. In addition, we describe a series of collaborative activities held during the second symposium and where the community identified 5 challenges and their possible solutions. ©Rafael Alejandro Calvo, Karthik Dinakar, Rosalind Picard, Helen Christensen, John Torous. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 09.02.2018.
Bromet, Evelyn J
The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental
Willging, Cathleen E.; Israel, Tania; Ley, David; Trott, Elise M.; DeMaria, Catherine; Joplin, Aaron; Smiley, Verida
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) people are affected by mental health disparities, especially in rural communities. We trained peer advocates in rural areas in the fundamentals of mental health, outreach, education, and support for this population. The peer advocates were coached by licensed mental health professionals. We evaluated this process through iterative qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews and written logs from coaches and advocates. The six major themes comprising the results centered on (1) coaching support, (2) peer advocate skills and preparation, (3) working with help seekers, (4) negotiating diversity, (5) logistical challenges in rural contexts, and (6) systemic challenges. We concluded that peer advocacy for LGBTQ people with mental distress offers an affirmative, community-based strategy to assist the underserved. To be successful, however, peer advocates will likely require ongoing training, coaching, and infrastructural support to negotiate contextual factors that can influence provision of community resources and support to LGBTQ people within rural communities. PMID:27458498
Solano Murcia, Martha Inés; Vasquez Cardozo, Socorro
The following article arises from the study "Representaciones sociales en el campo de la salud mental" (Social Representations in the Mental Health Field), in which the objective was to address the social representations in the family context; concerning caring, as well as the burden it implies using a qualitative method. The corpus was built based on the analysis and interpretation gathered from families with mental illness members. There were 17 individual interviews, 13 group interviews and one family group of three generations, held regarding the clinical care of the family member. These interviews were held at three different hospitals in Bogota. The representation of "a family" constitutes the structuring of the meanings of family relationships that cope with mental illness built upon the social and historical life of its members. The three comprehensive categories were: a) Family in good times and bad times; b) mental illness in family interactions, and c) Care and burden. Socially speaking, mental illness can lead to dehumanization, in that it discriminates and stigmatizes, even within the family unit. Caring for a family member with mental illness comes about by hierarchical order, self assignation, and by institutionalization. This latter occurs due to lack of caregivers or because the family does not consider their home the best place to care for such a patient. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Husky, Mathilde M; Keyes, Katherine; Hamilton, Ava; Stragalinou, Anastasia; Pez, Ondine; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane
Offspring of individuals with alcohol use disorders have been shown to have elevated risk for mental health problems. To examine the association between maternal problem drinking and child mental health as assessed by three informants in three European countries. Data were drawn from the School Child Mental Health in Europe study. Maternal alcohol use was assessed using the alcohol use disorders identification test. Child mental health was assessed using the mother and teacher versions of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire, and the child self-reported Dominic interactive. Analyses were performed on 2,678 individuals, 6-11 year olds. Adjusting for variables associated with maternal drinking, among children eight years old or younger, excessive drinking was not significantly associated with mental health problems, whether reported by the mother, teacher or by the child. However, among girls eight years old and above, problem drinking was associated with conduct problems as reported by the mother (OR = 4.19), teacher reported total difficulties (OR = 4.69), and peer relationship problems (OR = 8.86). It was also associated with the presence of any child-reported disorder (OR = 3.88), externalizing (OR = 5.55) and internalizing disorders (OR = 4.42). Conclusions/Importance: Adjusting for sociodemographic variables and for psychological distress, maternal problem drinking was not significantly associated with child mental health problems in boys or in girls ages six to eight. The association was only present among girls ages 8-11. Examining relationships between mothers and their daughters in the peripubertal period may be a critical window for the development of effective intervention strategies.
Backović Dušan V.
Full Text Available Introduction. Medical studies bring many stressful activities to students. Prolonged stress can make adverse effects to mental health and lead to further professional burnout. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the association of stress impact and adverse effects of medical studies with psychological distress among medical students. Methods. The cross sectional study was conducted on 367 fourthyear medical students of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade, by means of the anonymous questionnaire, containing: sociodemographic data, selfreported health status and stressful influences of studying activities. Mental health status was estimated by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12. Results. More than 50% of students perceive frequent feeling of psychic tension, and one third has problems with insomnia. Nearly onehalf of students assessed their general stress level as moderate or high. Exams were estimated as high stressor in 63.1% of all students. Stressful effects of communication with teaching staff were reported by one quarter of the examinees. The scores of GHQ12 were above the threshold in 55.6 % of all students. Mental health problems among students were most significantly associated with stressful experience during exams and contacts with teaching staff. Conclusion. Academic stress makes great influence on mental health of medical students. Reduction of stress effects should be directed to optimization of the examination process and improvement of communication skills. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 175078
Backović, Dusan V; Maksimović, Milos; Davidović, Dragana; Zivojinović, Jelena Ilić; Stevanović, Dejan
Medical studies bring many stressful activities to students. Prolonged stress can make adverse effects to mental health and lead to further professional burnout. The aim of this study was to assess the association of stress impact and adverse effects of medical studies with psychological distress among medical students. The cross sectional study was conducted on 367 fourth-year medical students of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade, by means of the anonymous questionnaire, containing: socio-demographic data, self-reported health status and stressful influences of studying activities. Mental health status was estimated by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). More than 50% of students perceive frequent feeling of psychic tension, and one third has problems with insomnia. Nearly one-half of students assessed their general stress level as moderate or high. Exams were estimated as high stressor in 63.1% of all students. Stressful effects of communication with teaching staff were reported by one quarter of the examinees. The scores of GHQ-12 were above the threshold in 55.6% of all students. Mental health problems among students were most significantly associated with stressful experience during exams and contacts with teaching staff. Academic stress makes great influence on mental health of medical students. Reduction of stress effects should be directed to optimization of the examination process and improvement of communication skills.
Bayrampour, Hamideh; Hapsari, Ayu Pinky; Pavlovic, Jelena
poor perinatal mental health is linked to various adverse pregnancy and child outcomes. Despite having a holistic philosophy of care, similar to other maternity care settings, perinatal mental health issues often remain under-diagnosed and untreated in midwifery settings. to determine midwives' perceived barriers to the screening, referral, and management of perinatal mental health issues. integrative review. the following databases were searched: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and PsycINFO. We included qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods studies published in a peer-reviewed journal in English. Two reviewers independently extracted data and subsequently integrated the extracted data into a single data matrix. The data matrix was compared iteratively across primary data sources to identify themes and sub-themes. The identified barriers to screening, management and referrals were subsequently categorized into provider-level and system-level barriers. The relevance and methodological quality of the included studies were evaluated using appropriate checklists. three hundreds and fifty six articles were retrieved. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were included. Insufficient/lack of training, lack of clarity regarding the scope of practice and time constraints were common provider level barriers across various stages of addressing mental health issues from identification to management. The system-level barriers were more complex and diverse and included unclear pathways and unlinked services, lack of local guidelines or policies, continuity of care, structured office procedures, clinical support and supervision and accessible educational resources, scarcity of available referral resources, complex bureaucratic processes and challenges related to expansion of the scope of practice. training, expansion of the scope of practice and collaborative care are central for successful screening, management and appropriate and timely referrals of perinatal mental
Mental disorders are highly prevalent across all health settings. Where they are co-morbid with other chronic physical disorders, a complex bidirectional relationship exists between them. While mental disorders may result in an increase in adverse healthrelated outcomes, they are amenable to cost-effective treatments.
Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte
Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…
Heslop, Karen Ruth; Wynaden, Dianne Gaye
Sustaining a fall during hospitalization reduces a patient's ability to return home following discharge. It is well accepted that factors, such as alteration in balance, functional mobility, muscle strength, and fear of falling, are all factors that impact on the quality of life of elderly people following a fall. However, the impact that falls have on mental health outcomes in older adult mental health patients remains unexplored. The present study reports Health of the Nation Outcome Scale scores for people over the age of 65 (HoNOS65+), which were examined in a cohort of 65 patients who sustained a fall and 73 non-fallers admitted to an older adult mental health service (OAMHS). Results were compared with state and national HoNOS65+ data recorded in Australian National Outcome Casemix Collection data to explore the effect that sustaining a fall while hospitalized has on mental health outcomes. Australian state and national HoNOS65+ data indicate that older adults generally experience improved HoNOS65+ scores from admission to discharge. Mental health outcomes for patients who sustained a fall while admitted to an OAMHS did not follow this trend. Sustaining a fall while admitted to an OAMHS negatively affects discharge mental health outcomes. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Hodges, Craig A; O'Brien, Matthew S; McGorry, Patrick D
Mental health is the number one health issue affecting young people in Australia today, yet only one in four of these young people receive professional help. Approximately 14% of 12- to 17-year-olds and 27% of 18- to 25-year-olds experience mental health problems each year. However, many do not have ready access to treatment or are reluctant to seek that help. These issues might be exacerbated in the rural and remote regions of Australia where sociocultural barriers such as stigma, lack of anonymity and logistic difficulties including cost and availability of transport can hinder young people accessing mental health services. headspace: the National Youth Mental Health Foundation has been funded to address these issues. headspace will provide funding for the establishment of communities of youth services across Australia, provide national and local community awareness campaigns and plans, establish a centre of excellence that will identify and disseminate evidence-based practice in addressing youth mental health issues, and translate findings into education and training programs that are targeted at service providers to work with youth mental health. The communities of youth services will build the capacity of local communities to identify early, and provide effective responses to, young people aged 12-25 years with mental health and related substance use disorders. Specific approaches in rural, regional and remote areas will be developed as well as specific programs to involve young Indigenous people.
Richardson, Thomas; Elliott, Peter; Roberts, Ron; Jansen, Megan
Purpose: Previous cross-sectional research has examined effect of loneliness on mental health. This study aimed to examine longitudinal relationships in students. Design/Methodology: 454 British undergraduate students completed measures of loneliness and mental health at four time points.Findings: After controlling for demographics and baseline mental health, greater loneliness predicted greater anxiety, stress, depression and general mental health over time. There was no evidence that mental...
A Agência Nacional de Saúde e a política de saúde mental no contexto do sistema suplementar de assistência à saúde: avanços e desafios The Brazilian National Health Agency and the mental health policy in the context of the private health system: developments and challenges
Rachel Torres Salvatori
Full Text Available O presente estudo trata das políticas de saúde mental conduzidas pela Agência Nacional de Saúde Suplementar - ANS, no cenário da assistência dispensada pelos planos privados de assistência à saúde. Dessa forma, analisa o modelo de regulação econômica e assistencial do setor suplementar, a forma de atuação da ANS como organismo regulador e o tratamento dispensado à assistência à saúde mental nos normativos emanados pela Agência. Concluiu-se que, apesar de avanços como a obrigatoriedade de cobertura para todas as doenças listadas na CID-10, a inclusão do tratamento das tentativas de suicídio e das lesões autoinfligidas, o atendimento por uma equipe multiprofissional, a ampliação do número de sessões com psicólogo, com terapeuta ocupacional e de psicoterapia, e a inclusão do hospital-dia na rede credenciada da operadora, a assistência à saúde mental ainda é pouco normatizada pelos regramentos vigentes no sistema de atenção à saúde suplementar, existindo muitas lacunas a serem preenchidas. A regulamentação dos mecanismos de coparticipação e franquia, a coparticipação crescente como limitador da internação psiquiátrica sem o repensar em uma rede substitutiva e a limitação do número de sessões de psicoterapia de crise são alguns dos desafios colocados para a ANS, no sentido de que esta cumpra realmente o seu papel institucional de promoção da defesa do interesse público na assistência suplementar à saúde.This work analyses the mental health policy-making activity of the Brazilian National Health Agency (ANS, responsible for controlling health insurance companies. Three points are discussed: a the framework of an economic and private health assistance regulatory activity, b the ANS and its regulation activity and c the rules produced by ANS in the mental health care field. It was concluded that, despite advances like the legal obligation to ensure medical treatment to all the diseases listed in
Hastings, Todd; Kroposki, Margaret; Williams, Gail
Nursing program graduates rarely choose mental health nursing as a career. A quasi-experimental study was conducted to examine attitudes of 310 nursing students towards persons with mental illness. Students completed surveys on the first and last days of their program's psychiatric mental health nursing course. The pre- and post-test survey analysis indicated that students improved their attitude, knowledge and preparedness to care for persons with mental illness. However, students maintained little interest in working as a mental health nurse. Modifications in mental health nursing courses could be made to improve students' interest in choosing a career in mental health nursing.
Stewart, Donna Eileen; Vigod, Simone Natalie
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is common worldwide and occurs in more than one-third of American women and psychiatric patients. As well as physical injuries, it may cause mental health sequelae, such as depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, psychosis, inability to trust others, self-harm, and a host of psychosomatic conditions, that may be referred to psychiatrists. It is imperative that psychiatrists know the risk factors, how to assist disclosure of IPV, and how to safely respond. Psychiatrists must know the best evidence-based management of IPV and its mental health sequelae to best assist patients who have been exposed to IPV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Callaly, Tom; Arya, Dinesh
To discuss change management as applicable to mental health. As mental health care grows increasingly complex, and the network of accountability widens, change is both inevitable and necessary. Strategies to introduce change effectively are essential. Resistance by medical staff to change often has a sound basis and must be acknowledged and explored. Change in clinical systems and practice is facilitated by careful planning and preparation, and by engaging clinicians in all phases of the change process; change will fail if this is not achieved. A number of management models facilitate the understanding and process of change.
Full Text Available Autonomy is one of the most important variable that influences adolescent’s mental health. Though there have been many studies conducted on autonomy, there is no commonly accepted definition for it. Two approaches concerning autonomy have a dominant effect on studies. These are explanations of cultural psychology and psychoanalytic approach (autonomy as independent and explanation of Self Determination Theory (autonomy as self endorsed functioning about autonomy. This study aims to review main approaches related to autonomy and relations between autonomy and mental health.
Full Text Available There has been an increase in the emphasis on the positive feelings and strengths of individuals in the mental health by the emergence of positive psychology approach. Positive psychology approach points to the potential of positive emotions contributing to clients' well-being, and various studies in this framework show that gratitude as a positive feeling has become one of the tools used to improve clients’ mental health. In this review study, the concept of gratitude, which is quite old in various fields but is a current topic in the field of psychology, is handled in various dimensions and some suggestions are given for practitioners and researchers in this framework.
Eisenberg, Daniel; Druss, Benjamin G
In all countries of the world, fewer than half of people with mental disorders receive treatment. This treatment gap is commonly attributed to factors such as consumers' limited knowledge, negative attitudes, and financial constraints. In the context of other health behaviors, such as diet and exercise, behavioral economists have emphasized time preferences and procrastination as additional barriers. These factors might also be relevant to mental health. We examine conceptually and empirically how lack of help-seeking for mental health conditions might be related to time preferences and procrastination. Our conceptual discussion explores how the interrelationships between time preferences and mental health treatment utilization could fit into basic microeconomic theory. The empirical analysis uses survey data of student populations from 12 colleges and universities in 2011 (the Healthy Minds Study, N=8,806). Using standard brief measures of discounting, procrastination, and mental health (depression and anxiety symptoms), we examine the conditional correlations between indicators of present-orientation (discount rate and procrastination) and mental health symptoms. The conceptual discussion reveals a number of potential relationships that would be useful to examine empirically. In the empirical analysis depression is significantly associated with procrastination and discounting. Treatment utilization is significantly associated with procrastination but not discounting. The empirical results are generally consistent with the idea that depression increases present orientation (reduces future orientation), as measured by discounting and procrastination. These analyses have notable limitations that will require further examination in future research: the measures are simple and brief, and the estimates may be biased from true causal effects because of omitted variables and reverse causality. There are several possibilities for future research, including: (i
Hine, Rochelle Helena; Maybery, Darryl; Goodyear, Melinda Jane
Social connection is a fundamental human need, but challenging for individuals with characteristics that are socially stigmatized. Parenting with mental illness presents obstacles, as well as opportunities, for connection. In the present study, we examined connectedness within a personal recovery paradigm for rural mothers with a mental illness. In-depth interviews with 17 mothers with a mental illness, utilizing constructivist grounded theory, resulted in six categories of meaning, including 'yearning for connection', 'connecting intensely', 'encountering rejection and exclusion', 'choosing isolation', 'being known', and 'finding peers/helping others'. Women expressed a strong desire for connection, but for many, prior experiences of trauma and rejection created barriers to the development of trust, preventing some women from seeking opportunities for connection. Connectedness to self and significant others, and a broader life meaning and purpose can support and expedite personal recovery from mental illness for rural women. However the factors that contribute to the mental illness might also inhibit the development of trust needed to attain social connection. Increasing connectedness in mothers with mental illness is a complex endeavour requiring concerted focus as distinct from other service-delivery goals. The perinatal period could be a key time for intervention. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Kutcher, S.; Wei, Y.; McLuckie, A.; Bullock, L.
Mental disorders make up close to one-third of the global burden of disease experienced during adolescence. Schools can play an important role in the promotion of positive mental health as well as an integral role in the pathways into mental health care for adolescents. In order for schools to effectively address the mental health problems of…
Despite the alarming prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders in South Africa, mental health care remains under-resourced. The Mental Health Framework Policy of South Africa outlined the objective to integrate mental health into primary health care. The aim is to make mental health care more accessible, affordable and acceptable. Practitioners, however, find the application of the policy challenging. The identification of challenges can guide efforts to create conditions favourable to the implementation of the policy. To explore and describe primary health practitioners' experience of the integration of mental health into primary health care. A mixed-method exploratory descriptive design was used to collect quantitative data by means of a structured questionnaire from a purposive sample consisting of 95 primary health care practitioners and qualitative data from a sub-sample of 12 participants by means of semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using mixed-method analysis. The results indicated that though progress has been made in the implementation of the integration of mental health into primary health care, several challenges remain. The identified challenges may contribute to inconsistent care and difficulties such as unidentified symptoms, defaulting treatment and the revolving-door phenomenon. Recommendations were made based on the findings of the study.
Hopton, John; Coppock, Vicki
.... By evaluating the impact on psychiatric thought of the social and political movements of the 1960s and 1970s - such as anti-racism, anti-psychiatry and radical feminism - the authors argue that these movements led to challenges to the legitimacy of psychiatry. Using theoretical frameworks borrowed from critical criminology, these competing critiques ar...
Malla, Ashok; Iyer, Srividya; McGorry, Patrick; Cannon, Mary; Coughlan, Helen; Singh, Swaran; Jones, Peter; Joober, Ridha
The objective of this review is to report on recent developments in youth mental health incorporating all levels of severity of mental disorders encouraged by progress in the field of early intervention in psychotic disorders, research in deficiencies in the current system and social advocacy. The authors have briefly reviewed the relevant current state of knowledge, challenges and the service and research response across four countries (Australia, Ireland, the UK and Canada) currently active in the youth mental health field. Here we present information on response to principal challenges associated with improving youth mental services in each country. Australia has developed a model comprised of a distinct front-line youth mental health service (Headspace) to be implemented across the country and initially stimulated by success in early intervention in psychosis; in Ireland, Headstrong has been driven primarily through advocacy and philanthropy resulting in front-line services (Jigsaw) which are being implemented across different jurisdictions; in the UK, a limited regional response has addressed mostly problems with transition from child-adolescent to adult mental health services; and in Canada, a national multi-site research initiative involving transformation of youth mental health services has been launched with public and philanthropic funding, with the expectation that results of this study will inform implementation of a transformed model of service across the country including indigenous peoples. There is evidence that several countries are now engaged in transformation of youth mental health services and in evaluation of these initiatives.
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Relations With Other Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health...
Full Text Available Protecting and promoting of mental health is one of the major application areas of public health. In particular, Toxoplasma gondii, which is a protozoal zoonosis common in Turkey, it is closely related to veterinary public health. In recent years, T.gondii can induce behavioral changes, may play a role in schizophrenia as an etiologic factor. Results of the recently performed studies shows that T.gondii may be a potential factor for some neuropathological changes in brain and suicide attemption. The purpose of this review is to present the data on recent epidemiology of T.gondii, mental health effects (changes in behavior, suicide, etc., the relationship between T.gondii and schizophrenia and offer some recommendations for protecting of public health. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(2.000: 199-208
implement a cost centred management approach. References. 1. Draft report: Cost Analysis Tool. Simplifying cost analysis for managers and staff of healthcare services. New York. 2000;. EngenderHealth. 2. Olukoga A. Unit costs of inpatient days in district hospitals in South. Africa. Singapore Med J 2007; 48 (2): pp143. 3.
Berenice Scaletzky Knuth
Full Text Available AbstractThe scope of this article is to deter mine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD and Depression among Community Health Agents (CHA and employees of Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS. It is a cross-sectional descriptive study involving the target population of Community Health Workers and Psychosocial Care Center workers, linked to the Municipal Health Department of Pelotas in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul. The presence of common mental disorders was considered when the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ was > 7 and the occurrence of depression when BDI > 12. In total, 257 professionals participated in the study. Among mental health professionals (n = 119, the prevalence of CMDs was 25.2% and depression was 23.5%, while the prevalence of CMDs was 48.6% and depression was 29% among CHA (n = 138. The ratio of CMDs between the two groups of professionals was statistically different (p < 0.001. In this study, it was observed that the CAPS professionals are more adapted to work issues, with less perceived health problems arising from work and with a lower prevalence of mental disorders compared to CHA.
Sirdifield, Coral; Owen, Sara
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how the role in offender mental health for the probation service described in policy translates into practice through exploring staff and offenders' perceptions of this role in one probation trust. In particular, to examine barriers to staff performing their role and ways of overcoming them. Design/methodology/approach Qualitative secondary analysis of data from semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 11 probation staff and nine offenders using the constant comparative method. Findings Both staff and offenders defined probation's role as identifying and monitoring mental illness amongst offenders, facilitating access to and monitoring offenders' engagement with health services, and managing risk. Barriers to fulfilling this role included limited training, a lack of formal referral procedures/pathways between probation and health agencies, difficulties in obtaining and administering mental health treatment requirements, problems with inter-agency communication, and gaps in service provision for those with dual diagnosis and personality disorder. Strategies for improvement include improved training, developing a specialist role in probation and formalising partnership arrangements. Research limitations/implications Further research is required to explore the transferability of these findings, particularly in the light of the recent probation reforms. Originality/value This is the first paper to explore how staff and offenders perceive probation's role in offender mental health in comparison with the role set out in policy.
Trabalhadores em saúde mental: contradições e desafios no contexto da reforma psiquiátrica Trabajadores del área de salud mental: contradicciones y desafíos en el contexto de la reforma psiquiátrica Mental health workers': contradictions and challenges in the psychiatric reform context
Leandro Barbosa de Pinho
cuidar de la locura en el servicio. Se espera que este estudio pueda ayudar en la problematización del movimiento de reforma psiquiátrica en el contexto brasileño.This study analyzes the mental health workers discourse, pointing directions, doubts and uncertainties about the formation of the community mental health service team. The corpus consists in interviews applied in 2006 to 17 of 25 mental health workers in a substitutive service in a city in southern Brazil. The methodological device which subsidizes the systematization of the data is the "axiological-discursive diagram", constructed from the Critical Discourse Analysis theoretical framework. It was found that the operational uncertainty that joins the team and its fragments at the same time, is related to a cascade of possibilities, which began operating in the very vagueness of the objects and instruments of work in mental health and ending on the difficulty of identifying who are the professionals who must take care of madness in the service. We hope this study can help in questioning the movement of psychiatric reform in the Brazilian context.
Armstrong, Jenna M; Owens, Caitlyn R; Haskett, Mary E
The link between youth homelessness and mental health functioning was examined using state population-representative 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data. The moderating role of victimization and perceived teacher support also was examined. Consistent with hypotheses, results indicated that homelessness was associated with greater mental health challenges, more victimization, and less teacher support. The association between homelessness and mental health was not moderated by perceived teacher support. However, victimization experiences served as a moderator such that more victimization exacerbated the effect of homelessness on mental health challenges. This study supports the utility of the YRBS for gaining understanding of the experiences and needs of youth experiencing homelessness and adds to the growing literature on predictors of individual differences in mental health functioning of these vulnerable youth.
Mental illness is common, under detected and often poorly managed in residential aged care facilities. These concerns have achieved greater prominence as the worldwide population ages. Over 80% of people in nursing home care fulfill criteria for one or more psychiatric disorders in an environment that often presents significant difficulties for assessment and treatment. This article aims to provide an overview of the important mental health issues involved in providing medical care for patients with behavioural and psychological problems in residential aged care facilities. Recent developments in education and training, service development and assessment and treatment strategies show some promise of improving the outcome for aged care residents with mental health problems. This is of especial relevance for primary care physicians who continue to provide the bulk of medical care for this population.
To describe the background in general culture, public and professional discourse against which mental health care reform initiatives in Eastern Europe need to be seen. An account of some key aspects of sociopolitical and cultural transition in Eastern European countries is given, and core results of a research project on attitudes and needs assessment in psychiatry in six Eastern European countries are reported. In post-totalitarian cultures mental health reforms impinge on imagination in ways which are not easy to predict. Some of the reasons for this are traced to the psychiatric practices under the system of total control, e.g. dispensary care, political abuse, reification of classificatory terms. Data on a study of attitudes suggest that institutions had replaced community life in those parts of Europe. It is predicted that with time trust in the capacity of community to contain mental illness will be regained.
Furnham, A; Trezise, L
Because of the psychological stress associated with university life and the physical and mental stress associated with migration, researchers have become interested in psychological problems of foreign students. In this study four groups of foreign students from different parts of the world were compared with two British groups on a self-report measure of mental health. No sex differences were found yet the overseas students, as a whole, showed significantly more disturbance than either British control or first-year subjects. However, despite many differences between their countries of origin there were no significant differences between any of the overseas groups on the total scale score or any sub-scores. Further, with the exception of Malaysian students, the British subjects were significantly more satisfied with their social lives than the other groups. These findings are discussed in terms of the literature on life events and illness, culture shock and migration and mental health.
... December 11, 2013 • Science Update Join NIMH’s Jovier Evans, Ph.D., Chief of the Geriatric Translational Neuroscience ... 50 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality . NIH Senior Health , with resources from the NIH ...
Jorm, Anthony F.
For major physical diseases, it is widely accepted that members of the public will benefit by knowing what actions they can take for prevention, early intervention, and treatment. However, this type of public knowledge about mental disorders ("mental health literacy") has received much less attention. There is evidence from surveys in several…
Hyvonen, S; Nikkonen, M
The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the content of mental health care from the practitioner's point of view. The specific aim of this paper was to outline the types of mental health care tools and the ways in which they are used by primary health care practitioners. The data were derived from interviews with doctors and nurses (n = 29) working in primary health care in six different health care centres of the Pirkanmaa region in Finland. The data were analysed by using qualitative content analysis. The tools of mental health care used in primary health care were categorized as communicative, ideological, technical and collaborative tools. The interactive tools are either informative, supportive or contextual. The ideological tools consist of patient initiative, acceptance and permissiveness, honesty and genuineness, sense of security and client orientation. The technical tools are actions related to the monitoring of the patient's physical health and medical treatment. The collaborative tools are consultation and family orientation. The primary health care practitioner him/herself is an important tool in mental health care. On the one hand, the practitioner can be categorized as a meta-tool who has control over the other tools. On the other hand, the practitioner him/herself is a tool in the sense that s/he uses his/her personality in the professional context. The professional skills and attitudes of the practitioner have a significant influence on the type of caring the client receives. Compared with previous studies, the present informants from primary health care seemed to use notably versatile tools in mental health work. This observation is important for the implementation and development of mental health practices and education.
Borgelt, Emily L.; Buchman, Daniel Z.; Illes, Judy
Images of brain function, popularly called “neuroimages,” have become a mainstay of contemporary communication about neuroscience and mental health. Paralleling media coverage of neuroimaging research and the high visibility of clinics selling scans is pressure from sponsors to move basic research about brain function along the translational pathway. Indeed, neuroimaging may offer benefits to mental health care: early or tailored intervention, opportunities for education and planning, and access to resources afforded by objectification of disorder. However, risks of premature technology transfer, such as misinterpretation, misrepresentation, and increased stigmatization, could compromise patient care. The insights of stakeholder groups about neuroimaging for mental health care are a largely untapped resource of information and guidance for translational efforts. We argue that the insights of key stakeholders—including researchers, healthcare providers, patients, and families—have an essential role to play upstream in professional, critical, and ethical discourse surrounding neuroimaging in mental health. Here we integrate previously orthogonal lines of inquiry involving stakeholder research to describe the translational landscape as well as challenges on its horizon. PMID:23097640
Emily L. Borgelt
Full Text Available Images of brain function, popularly called neuroimages, have become a mainstay of contemporary communication about neuroscience and mental health. Paralleling media coverage of neuroimaging research and the high visibility of clinics selling scans is pressure from sponsors to move basic research about brain function along the translational pathway. Indeed, neuroimaging benefit mental health care with early or tailored intervention, opportunities for education and planning, and access to resources afforded by objectification of disorder. However, risks of premature technology transfer, such as misinterpretation, misrepresentation, and increased stigmatization, could compromise patient care.Stakeholder views on neuroimaging for mental health care are a largely untapped resource of information and guidance for translational efforts. We argue that the insights of key stakeholders – researchers, healthcare providers, patients, and families - have an essential role to play upstream in professional, critical, and ethical discourse about neuroimaging in mental health. Here we integrate previously orthogonal lines of inquiry involving stakeholder research to describe the translational landscape as well as challenges on its horizon.
Shared decision making (SDM) in mental health care involves clinicians and patients working together to make decisions. The key elements of SDM have been identified, decision support tools have been developed, and SDM has been recommended in mental health at policy level. Yet implementation remains limited. Two justifications are typically advanced in support of SDM. The clinical justification is that SDM leads to improved outcome, yet the available empirical evidence base is inconclusive. The ethical justification is that SDM is a right, but clinicians need to balance the biomedical ethical principles of autonomy and justice with beneficence and non-maleficence. It is argued that SDM is "polyvalent", a sociological concept which describes an idea commanding superficial but not deep agreement between disparate stakeholders. Implementing SDM in routine mental health services is as much a cultural as a technical problem. Three challenges are identified: creating widespread access to high-quality decision support tools; integrating SDM with other recovery-supporting interventions; and responding to cultural changes as patients develop the normal expectations of citizenship. Two approaches which may inform responses in the mental health system to these cultural changes - social marketing and the hospitality industry - are identified. © 2017 World Psychiatric Association.