Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play ...
... Soomaali (Somali) MP3 EthnoMed Spanish (español) Expand Section Mental Disorders: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Enfermedades mentales: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine ...
. Amongst DSM's most vocal 'insider' critics has been Thomas Insel, Director of the US National Institute of Mental Health. Insel has publicly criticised DSM's adherence to a symptom-based classification of mental disorder, and used the weight ...
Soria, Virginia; Uribe, Javiera; Salvat-Pujol, Neus; Palao, Diego; Menchón, José Manuel; Labad, Javier
The immune system is a key element in the organism's defence system and participates in the maintenance of homeostasis. There is growing interest in the aetiopathogenic and prognostic implications of the immune system in mental disorders, as previous studies suggest the existence of a dysregulation of the immune response and a pro-inflammatory state in patients with mental disorders, as well as an increased prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases or receiving immune treatments. This study aims to conduct a narrative review of the scientific literature on the role of Psychoneuroimmunology in mental disorders, with special focus on diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic issues. The development of this body of knowledge may bring in the future important advances in the vulnerability, aetiopathogenic mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of some mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking coagulation and some psychiatric disorders.
The characteristic differences among the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries in terms of trade and investment, society and cultural values, medical information and technology, and the living and working environment have become major health problems in terms of mental disorders. The purpose of this article is to identify the gaps in those aspects, to propose mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs, and to recommend policies for policy makers and research investors. A comparative analysis and literature review of existing policy, including overviews of previous research were used to generate a synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs. The review results recommend mental health and mental disorder programs for policy makers, research investors, and stakeholders in order to strengthen the directions for implementing these programs in the future. The healthcare provision in each country will not be limited only to its citizens; the healthcare markets and target groups are likely to expand to the neighboring countries in the context of changes in domestic and international factors, which have both positive and negative impacts according to the political, economic, and social situations of the influencing countries.
Vieira Karen F
Full Text Available Abstract According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable to the manner in which individual healthcare providers diagnose mental disorders, this noticeable distribution can be also explained by studies which show that a lack of certain dietary nutrients contribute to the development of mental disorders. Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population in America and other developed countries; and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders. Studies have shown that daily supplements of vital nutrients often effectively reduce patients' symptoms. Supplements that contain amino acids also reduce symptoms, because they are converted to neurotransmitters that alleviate depression and other mental disorders. Based on emerging scientific evidence, this form of nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for controlling major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD, addiction, and autism. The aim of this manuscript is to emphasize which dietary supplements can aid the treatment of the four most common mental disorders currently affecting America and other developed countries: major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. Most antidepressants and other prescription drugs cause severe side effects, which usually discourage patients from taking their medications. Such
Streiner, David L; Cairney, John
..., and analyses the prevalence of several significant mental disorders in the population. The collection also includes essays on stigma, mental disorder and the criminal justice system, and mental health among women, children, workers, and other demographic groups. Focusing on Canadian scholarship, yet wide-reaching in scope, Mental Disorder in C...
Goodwin, Renee D; Cowles, Robert A; Galea, Sandro; Jacobi, Frank
Although previous studies have suggested an association between various gastrointestinal disorders and mood and anxiety disorders, no previous study has examined the relationship between a diagnosis of gastritis and mood and anxiety disorders in the community. This work aimed to investigate the association between physician-diagnosed gastritis and DSM-IV mood and anxiety disorders among adults in the general population, and to examine sex differences in these relationships. Data were drawn from a population-based, representative sample of 4181 adults aged 18-79 in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey. Anxiety disorders (27.0% vs. 15.3%) and affective disorders (20.1% vs. 11.5%) were significantly more common among adults with compared to without a diagnosis of gastritis. Lifetime and current physician diagnosed gastritis were associated with an increased prevalence of panic attacks, social phobia, any mood disorder and major depression, compared to those without gastritis. There were no significant sex differences in these associations. A diagnosis of gastritis appears to be associated with significantly increased odds of mood and anxiety disorders among adults in the general population. Contrary to findings from animal studies, we found the relationship between gastritis and mood/anxiety consistent among both sexes. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Rießland-Seifert, Angelika; Fasching, Peter; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Hofmann, Peter; Toplak, Hermann
Psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are common in patients with diabetes mellitus. There is a twofold increase in depression which is associated with suboptimal glycemic control and increased morbidity and mortality. Other psychiatric disorders with a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus are cognitive impairment, dementia, disturbed eating behaviour, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and borderline personality disorder. The coincidence of mental disorders and diabetes mellitus has unfavourable influences on metabolic control and micro- and macroangiopathic late complications. Improvement of therapeutic outcome is a challenge in the modern health care system. The intentions behind this position paper are to rise awareness of this special set of problems, to intensify cooperation between involved health care providers and to reduce incidence of diabetes mellitus as well as morbidity and mortality from diabetes in this patient group.
Harat, Marek; Rudaś, Marcin
The surgical treatment of mental disorders--the authors present the neuroanatomical base of stereotactic operations on the limbic system in patients with the mental disorders. Four main procedures are discussed: anterior cinguotomy, anterior capsulotomy, subcaudate tractotomy, limbic leucotomy. On the ground of available literature the authors present the results of these operations which are performed with the use of stereotactic equipment guided by MRI and CT. In this article the indications for different surgical procedures are presented and refer mainly to depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety. The authors present the principles of qualification and the exclusion criteria of the patients in the countries in which these kinds of operations are performed.
Flórez Quintero, Daian Tatiana
A problem for both philosophers of Psychiatry and Psychiatrists within the domain of nosology is to determine which could be the more appropriate model to classify mental illnesses. Such an endeavor also requires questioning the very nature of mental illness. While trying to cope with the philosophical challenges of such a task, Peter Zachar purports to show that the nosological work in Psychiatry should not adhere to the model of natural kinds. He even considers that it is mistaken to treat mental disorders as natural kinds. Nonetheless, Zachar's view on the existence of natural kinds-even in domains where there is little room for doubting about their existence, like Chemistry-is very unstable. In 2001 he holds that there are no natural kinds, but in 2008 he argues that his objections to the model of natural kinds are more the manifestation of his skepticism against a tradition. Although the problem of the existence of natural kinds shall not be dealt with in this article, a brief description on how deflated is Zachar's view on this matter in 2008 is presented, with the central part of the article devoted to reconstruct and examine his rationale for the thesis that mental disorders are not natural kinds. In the critical section of this paper, it is suggested that, although Zachar's thesis may be right, the arguments he gives to support it are quite flawed. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Sports psychiatry has developed for the past 3 decades as an emerging field within psychiatry and sports medicine. An International society has been established in 1994 and also national interest groups were implemented, mostly within the national organizations for psychiatry, some also containing the topic of exercise treatment of mental disorders. Where are we now 30 years later? We systematically but also selectively review the medical literature on exercise, sport, psychiatry, mental health and mental disorders and related topics. The number of publications in the field has increased exponentially. Most topics keep remaining on the agenda, e.g., head trauma and concussion, drug abuse and doping, performance enhancement, overtraining, ADHD or eating disorders. Supported by the growing literature, evidence-based recommendations have become available now in many clinical areas. A relatively new phenomenon is muscle dysmorphia, observed in weightlifters, bodybuilders but also in college students and gym users. Further, sports therapy of mental disorders has been studied by more and more high-quality randomized controlled clinical trials. Mostly as a complementary treatment, however, for some disorders already with a 1a evidence level, e.g., depression, dementia or MCI but also post-traumatic stress disorder. Being grown up and accepted nowadays, sports psychiatry still represents a fast-developing field. The reverse side of the coin, sport therapy of mental disorders has received a scientific basis now. Who else than sports psychiatry could advance sport therapy of mental disorders? We need this enthusiasm for sports and psychiatry for our patients with mental disorders and it is time now for a broadening of the scope. Optimized psychiatric prevention and treatment of athletes and ideal sport-related support for individuals with mental disorders should be our main purpose and goal.
Birket-Smith, M.; Rasmussen, A.
major depression, six (7.0%) minor depression, six (7.0%) anxiety disorder, two unspecified somatoform disorder, seven (8.1%) dementia, one alcohol abuse and one psychosis. Three of the patients were in long-term psychopharmacological treatment. Although the cardiologists predicted mental disorder...... and mental problems in each patient on visual analogue scales (VAS-som and VAS-men). The current treatments, including psychiatric and psychological treatments, were noted, and the survival was followed for 3 years. Of the 86 patients included, 34 (40%) had a diagnosis of mental disorder. Eleven (12.8%) had...... significantly better than chance, none of the patients was in relevant treatment for their mental disorder. At 3-year follow-up, 20 (24%) of the patients had died. Age and severity of heart disease predicted mortality, while the presence of a mental disorder did not. Mental disorders, especially depression...
May 1, 2014 ... the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) questionnaire and the alternative medicine inquiry form. Participants: One hundred ... cases, mental disorders may coexist with these diseases, and patients may resort to ... is a relationship between DM and anxiety disorder, and female diabetic ...
Wędrychowicz, Andrzej; Zając, Andrzej; Pilecki, Maciej; Kościelniak, Barbara; Tomasik, Przemysław J
Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that is essential to regulation of metabolism in humans. A new approach to mental disorders led to research on involvement of adipokines in the etiology of mental disorders and mood states and their impact on the health status of psychiatric patients, as well as the effects of treatment for mental health disorders on plasma levels of adipokines. There is evidence that disturbances in adipokine secretion are important in the pathogenesis, clinical pr...
BATEMAN, ANTHONY; FONAGY, PETER
Mentalizing is the process by which we make sense of each other and ourselves, implicitly and explicitly, in terms of subjective states and mental processes. It is a profoundly social construct in the sense that we are attentive to the mental states of those we are with, physically or psychologically. Given the generality of this definition, most mental disorders will inevitably involve some difficulties with mentalization, but it is the application of the concept to the tre...
In recent years, the network approach to psychopathology has been advanced as an alternative way of conceptualizing mental disorders. In this approach, mental disorders arise from direct interactions between symptoms. Although the network approach has led to many novel methodologies and substantive
Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT) are chronic disorders with which mental disorders may coexist and for which patients may resort to alternative medicine use. Alternative and complementary medicine is a treatment option that patients tend to use. This study is to determine the prevalence of mental ...
Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Jensen, Hans Henrik
and related disorders, other psychotic disorders, adjustment, personality, alcohol and substance-use-related disorders were significantly associated with low IQ scores, but this association remained significant for the four non-psychotic disorders only when adjusting for comorbid diagnoses. For most......BACKGROUND: Most research investigating the relationship between IQ and risk of mental disorder has focused on schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the relationship between IQ test scores in early adulthood and various mental disorders. METHOD: For 3289 men from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort...... diagnostic categories, test scores were positively associated with the length of the interval between testing and first admission. ICD mood disorders as well as neuroses and related disorders were not significantly associated with low IQ scores. CONCLUSIONS: Low IQ may be a consequence of mental disease...
Birket-Smith, M.; Rasmussen, A.
The objective of the study was to compare the frequency of mental disorders in cardiology outpatients to the number of patients with psychological problems identified by cardiologists. In a cardiology outpatient service, 103 consecutive patients were asked to participate in the study. Of these 86...... and mental problems in each patient on visual analogue scales (VAS-som and VAS-men). The current treatments, including psychiatric and psychological treatments, were noted, and the survival was followed for 3 years. Of the 86 patients included, 34 (40%) had a diagnosis of mental disorder. Eleven (12.8%) had...... were included and screened for mental disorder with the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) psychosis screening, the Clock Drawing Test, and the WHO-5 Well-being Index. The cardiologists were asked to rate the severity of somatic...
Giummarra, Melita J.; Haslam, Nick
The structure of lay people's concepts of childhood mental disorder was investigated in a questionnaire study and examined for convergence with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). Eighty-four undergraduates who had no formal education in abnormal psychology rated 54 conditions--36 DSM-IV childhood disorders and 18 non-disorders--on…
Full Text Available Introduction: A successful treatment of any disorder, condition or disease requires timely detection and accurate diagnostics. This is precisely what is missing in individuals with a dual diagnosis of an intellectual disability and a mental disorder, both in Macedonia and worldwide. In order to overcome the deficiencies in the treatment, and to improve the quality of life for these individuals as well, they should be detected on time and then approached with diagnosing and preparation of a plan for treating them. Goal: The main goal of this research is obtaining a result of the presence of intellectual disability among institutionalized individuals with mental disorders on the basis of the type of mental disorder, the age and the gender of the person. Also, one of the main goals is presenting the mental deterioration in individuals with mental disorders, as well as its connection with the age of the individuals with mental disorder. Despite having the basic goals, this research, as well as research on this subject from all over the world, serves as an example for raising the awareness about the diversity and atypical presentations of the patients with a dual diagnosis of intellectual disability and mental disorder. Methodology: For achieving the goal and tasks of this research, 50 individuals with different diagnosis of mental disorder, different age and different gender were tested. The sample that took part in this research was a suitable sample, i.e. individuals that during the research were hospitalized in the below mentioned public health institution. The research took place in PHI Psychiatric Hospital „Skopje“ from Skopje. For collecting the data in this research, as well as for achieving the goals of the research, two methods, three research techniques and two instruments were used. The methods that were used during this research included the method of comparative analysis and the method of correlation analysis, while the techniques
Marcus, Marsha D; Wildes, Jennifer E
Using Wakefield's conceptualization of mental disorder as "harmful mental dysfunction" (Wakefield, Am Psychol, 47, 373-388, 1992), we examined the evidence for including obesity as a mental disorder in DSM-V. We searched computer databases and examined reference lists from review articles published in the last 10 years to identify empirical papers relevant to the present review. Obesity is a condition of heterogeneous etiology that is harmful for most individuals. However, there is scant evidence that obesity, in general, is caused by mental dysfunction. Although recent work examining the neurocircuitry of energy balance has suggested that mental dysfunction may be involved in the etiology of specific obesity phenotypes, findings are too preliminary to support classification of obesity as a mental disorder. Nevertheless, there is evidence that obesity is related to mental disorder and many of the medications used to treat psychiatric illness. There is little evidence for including obesity as a mental disorder in DSM-V. However, results confirm the importance of monitoring adiposity routinely among patients with psychiatric illness.
Leweke, Frank; Leichsenring, Falk; Kruse, Johannes; Hermes, Sandra
Alexithymia is characterized by restrictions in the perception, differentiation and regulation of affects. It is considered to be an important vulnerability factor for the development of mental disorders. Little is known, however, of whether alexithymia is associated with specific mental disorders. Data from 1,461 patients of an outpatient clinic for psychosomatic medicine with various mental disorders (depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, adjustment disorders, somatoform disorders, eating disorders, and psychological and behavioral factors of physical illness) were collected between January 2007 and October 2009. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was administered to study alexithymia. The diagnoses were made following ICD-10 guidelines. In our sample, the total prevalence of alexithymia (TAS-20 ≥ 61) was 21.36%. The percentage of alexithymic patients was significantly increased in the group of patients with depressive disorders (26.9%) as compared to other diagnostic groups. Using TAS-20 as a continuous measure, multiple hierarchical regression analyses revealed that higher TAS-20 total scores were significantly associated with depressive and anxiety disorders. However, after controlling for the level of depression, the association of anxiety disorders with alexithymia was no longer significant. With regard to TAS-20 subscales, 'difficulty describing feelings' (subscale 2) was also significantly related to depressive disorders. According to the results, the prevalence of alexithymia is relatively high in patients with mental disorders. The increased prevalence of highly alexithymic subjects suggests that alexithymia is associated with a higher vulnerability to mental illness. The prevalence of alexithymia was especially increased for depressive disorders. Thus, further evidence supporting the concept of 'alexithymic depression' was provided. From a therapeutic perspective, treatments should be developed that take the specific needs of highly
Rojas, Graciela; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Castro, Ariel; Guajardo, Viviana; Torres, Pamela; Díaz, Berta
Chile is receiving immigrant populations coming from other Latin-American countries. To determine the prevalence of Common Mental Disorders (CMD) among immigrants who live in Independencia, a quarter in Santiago, Chile. A cross sectional study was carried out in the primary health care clinic and in the state-funded school of Independencia. A representative sample of 282 adults and 341 children were interviewed. Mental disorders were diagnosed using CIS-R and MINI structured interviews. The interviewed immigrants came mostly from Peru. The prevalence of mental disorders in the adult population was 17.8% and among children, it was 29.3%. The adult immigrants have a lower prevalence of mental disorders than the Chilean population but it increases among children. Barriers of access to health services, that should be solved, were detected.
Full Text Available Mental disorder merupakan bentuk gangguan dan kekacauan fungsi mental yang disebabkan oleh kegagalan mereaksinya mekanisme adaptasi dari fungsi-fungsi kejiwaan/ terhadap stimuli eksternal dan ketegangan-ketegangan sehingga muncul gangguan pada struktur kejiwaan. Gangguan mental Merupakan totalitas kesatuan dari ekspresi mental yang patologis terhadap stimuli sosial, yang dikombinasikan dengan factor-faktor sekunder lainnya. Seperti halnya rasa pusing, sesak nafas, demam panas dan nyeri-nyeri pada lambung sebagai pertanda permulaan dari penyakit jasmani, maka mental disorder itu mempunyai pertanda awal antara lain: cemas, ketakutan, pahit hati, dengki, apatis, cemburu, iri, marah secara eksplosif, asosial, ketegangan kronis, dan lain sebagainya. Maka kesehatan mental yang baik itu, berarti mempunyai perasaan positif tentang diri sendiri, mampu menyelesaikan masalah dan tekanan hidup sehari-hari, dan bisa membentuk dan menjaga hubungan baik dengan orang lain. Selama ini kita sudah memahami pentingnya menjaga kesehatan fisik. Tapi menjaga kesehatan mental juga sama pentingnya dengan kesehatan fisik. Kenyataannya, kesehatan mental yang buruk akan mengakibatkan kesehatan fisik yang buruk pula. kata kunci: Mental Disorder, Gangguan Jiwa, Kekalutan Mental. THE INTRODUCTION OF THE EARLY PATIENTS WITH MENTAL DISORDER. Mental disorder is a form of disruption and chaos mental function that is caused by the failure of mereaksinya adaptation mechanism of psychological functions/ against external stimuli and tensions so that appears on the structure of the disorders psychological disorders. Mental disturbances is the totality of the unity of mental expression pathological culture toward social stimuli, combined with the factor of other secondary factor. Like a sense of dizziness, breathing difficulties, hot Fever and pain in the pain in the stomach as a sign of the beginning of
Vinkers, David J.; De Beurs, Edwin; Barendregt, Marko; Rinne, Thomas; Hoek, Hans W.
Background Previous studies of relationships between mental disorder and crime have tended to group the mental disorders, the crimes or both, leaving uncertainty about a more specific mental disorder: crime relationships. Objective To examine the relationship between types of mental disorder and
Jacobs, David H.
"Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition" ("DSM-5") promises a refined definition of mental disorder, which is tantamount to acknowledging that prior "DSM" definitions have failed to clarify what mental disorder is and why a person should be considered mentally disordered. Since the…
... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.125 Diagnosis of mental disorders. (a) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder does not conform to DSM-IV or is not supported by the... substantiate the diagnosis. (b) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder is changed, the rating agency shall...
Takahashi, Hidehiko; Suhara, Tetsuya
Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques have made it possible to measure changes in neurochemical components in living human brain. PET can be used to investigate various brain functions such as receptors, transporters, enzymes and various biochemical pathways; therefore, it could be a powerful tool for molecular imaging of mental disorders. Since the pathophysiology of schizophrenia has been discussed with a functional alteration of dopaminergic transmission in the brain, we have focused the dopaminergic components for the research target of schizophrenia using PET. Using high affinity ligand [ 11 C]FLB 457, we found reduced D 2 receptor binding in the anterior cingulate cortex of patients with schizophrenia, and a significant negative correlation was observed between D 2 receptor binding and the positive symptom score. Subregions of interest were defined on the thalamus using individual magnetic resonance images. D 2 receptor binding was also lower in the central medial and posterior subregions of the thalamus in patients with schizophrenia. Alterations in D 2 receptor function in the extrastriatal region may underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. On the other hand D 1 receptor binding was found to be lower in the prefrontal cortex and a significant negative correlation was observed between D 1 receptor binding and the negative symptom score. Abnormality of D 1 receptor function would be at the bottom of the negative symptoms and cognitive impairment of schizophrenia. Regarding the effect of antipsychotics on dopamine D 2 receptor, occupancy and it's time-course have been measured in a living body using PET. This approach can provide in vivo pharmacological evidences of antipsychotics and establish the rational therapeutic strategy. PET is a powerful tool not only in the field of brain research but also drug discovery. (author)
I. A. Kelmanson
Full Text Available The paper presents the study of the association between sleep disturbances and mental retardation in children. Attention is paid to the instant connection between sleep neurophysiology and intellectual progress, as well as between sleep disorders and the pathogenesis of mental retardation in children. The data on characteristic forms of sleep disturbances, including bed-time resistance, frequent night awakenings, parasomnias, abnormal sleep structure, and notably reduced REM-sleep proportion are provided. The potential role of abnormal melatonin production in the origins of sleep disturbances in children with mental retardation is discussed. Certain approaches to pharmacological and non-pharmacological corrections of sleep disorders are outlined.
Eaton, Nicholas R; Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Krueger, Robert F; Campbell, W Keith; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S
Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) shows high rates of comorbidity with mood, anxiety, substance use, and other personality disorders. Previous bivariate comorbidity investigations have left NPD multivariate comorbidity patterns poorly understood. Structural psychopathology research suggests that two transdiagnostic factors, internalizing (with distress and fear subfactors) and externalizing, account for comorbidity among common mental disorders. NPD has rarely been evaluated within this framework, with studies producing equivocal results. We investigated how NPD related to other mental disorders in the internalizing-externalizing model using diagnoses from a nationally representative sample (N = 34,653). NPD was best conceptualized as a distress disorder. NPD variance accounted for by transdiagnostic factors was modest, suggesting its variance is largely unique in the context of other common mental disorders. Results clarify NPD multivariate comorbidity, suggest avenues for classification and clinical endeavors, and highlight the need to understand vulnerable and grandiose narcissism subtypes' comorbidity patterns and structural relations.
Kelleher, Ian; DeVylder, Jordan E
Hallucinations are classically associated with psychotic disorders. Recent research, however, has highlighted that hallucinations frequently occur outside of the context of psychosis. Despite this, to our knowledge, there has been no epidemiological research to compare the prevalence of hallucinations across common mental disorders with the prevalence in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey ( n = 7403), we investigated the prevalence of hallucinations in individuals with a range of mental disorders and BPD. Hallucinations were prevalent in all disorders (range 11-24%). Hallucinations were no more prevalent in individuals with BPD (13.7%) than in individuals with a (non-psychotic) mental disorder (12.6%) (χ 2 = 0.03, P = 0.92). © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.
Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per
of the present study for Common Mental Disorders - Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ). METHODS: It is validity tested in a well-defined Danish population comprising all persons on continuous sickness absence just exceeding eight weeks. CMD-SQ is composed of SCL-SOM (somatization), Whiteley-7 (illness worry...... and conviction), SCL-ANX4 (anxiety), SCL-DEP6 (depression), SCL-8 (emotional disorder), and CAGE (alcohol dependency). RESULTS: Of 2,414 incident persons on long-term sickness absence within one year, 1,121 participated in the study by filling in CMD-SQ and a subsample of 337 was diagnosed by a psychiatric......AIMS: Mental disorders often go undetected in primary care, for persons awarded disability pension, and in sick-leave certificates. No validity tests of instruments for detection and measurement of mental disorders have been performed in long-term sickness absence (LSA). This is the aim...
Full Text Available Objective To examine the predictive role of the Military Mental Disorder Prediction Scale on the mental disorder of new recruits.Methods The present study examined 115 new recruits diagnosed with mental disorder and 115 healthy new recruits.The recruits were tested using the Military Mental Disorder Prediction Scale.The discriminant function was built by discriminant analysis method.The current study analyzed the predictive value of 11 factors(family medical record and past medical record(X1,growth experience(X2,introversion(X3,stressor(X4,poor mental defense(X5,social support(X6,psychosis(X7,depression(X8,mania(X9,neurosis(X10,and personality disorder(X11 aside from lie factor on the mental disorder of new recruits.Results The mental disorder group has higher total score and factor score in family medical record and past medical record,introversion,stressor,poor mental defense,social support,psychosis,depression,mania,neurosis,personality disorder,and lie than those of the contrast group(P < 0.01.For the score of growth experience factor,that of the mental disorder group is higher than the score of the contrast group(P < 0.05.All 11 factors except the lie factor in the Mental Disorder Prediction Scale are taken as independent variables by enforced introduction to obtain the Fisher linear discriminant function as follows: The mental disorder group=-7.014-0.278X1+1.556X2+1.563X3+0.878X4+0.183X5-0.845X6-0.562X7-0.353X8+1.246X9-0.505X10+1.029X11.The contrast group=-2.971+0.056X1+2.194X2+0.707X3+0.592X4-0.086X5-0.888X6-0.133X7-0.360X8+0.654X9-0.467X10+0.308X11.The discriminant function has an accuracy rate of 76.5% on the new recruits with mental disorders and 100% on the healthy new recruits.The total accurate discrimination rate is 88.3% and the total inaccurate discrimination rate is 11.7%.Conclusion The Military Mental Disorder Prediction Scale has a high accuracy rate on the prediction of mental disorder of new recruits and is worthy of
Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Christensen, Helen; Mackinnon, Andrew J
There is a need for brief, accurate screening when assessing multiple mental disorders. Two-stage hierarchical screening, consisting of brief pre-screening followed by a battery of disorder-specific scales for those who meet diagnostic criteria, may increase the efficiency of screening without sacrificing precision. This study tested whether more efficient screening could be gained using two-stage hierarchical screening than by administering multiple separate tests. Two Australian adult samples (N=1990) with high rates of psychopathology were recruited using Facebook advertising to examine four methods of hierarchical screening for four mental disorders: major depressive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder and social phobia. Using K6 scores to determine whether full screening was required did not increase screening efficiency. However, pre-screening based on two decision tree approaches or item gating led to considerable reductions in the mean number of items presented per disorder screened, with estimated item reductions of up to 54%. The sensitivity of these hierarchical methods approached 100% relative to the full screening battery. Further testing of the hierarchical screening approach based on clinical criteria and in other samples is warranted. The results demonstrate that a two-phase hierarchical approach to screening multiple mental disorders leads to considerable increases efficiency gains without reducing accuracy. Screening programs should take advantage of prescreeners based on gating items or decision trees to reduce the burden on respondents. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gosden, Niels Patrick; Kramp, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm
This study describes associations between mental disorders and charges of violence among remanded adolescents. 100 15–17 year old boys from East Denmark, consecutively remanded during one year, were interviewed with SCAN, K-SADS and SCID-II to obtain past year ICD-10 diagnoses. There was no stati......This study describes associations between mental disorders and charges of violence among remanded adolescents. 100 15–17 year old boys from East Denmark, consecutively remanded during one year, were interviewed with SCAN, K-SADS and SCID-II to obtain past year ICD-10 diagnoses...... violence and mental disorder among adults were not replicated in this male adolescent remand population. A developmental hypothesis is proposed....
Afifi, Tracie O.; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Boyle, Michael; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Sareen, Jitender
Background: Nationally representative Canadian data on the prevalence of child abuse and its relation with mental disorders are lacking. We used contemporary, nationally representative data to examine the prevalence of 3 types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse and exposure to intimate partner violence) and their association with 14 mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Methods: We obtained data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health, collected from the 10 provinces. Respondents aged 18 years and older were asked about child abuse and were selected for the study sample (n = 23 395). The survey had a multistage stratified cluster design (household response rate 79.8%). Results: The prevalence of any child abuse was 32% (individual types ranged from 8% to 26%). All types of child abuse were associated with all mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.4 to 7.9). We found a dose–response relation, with increasing number of abuse types experienced corresponding with greater odds of mental conditions. Associations between child abuse and attention deficit disorder, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts showed stronger effects for women than men. Interpretation: We found robust associations between child abuse and mental conditions. Health care providers, especially those assessing patients with mental health problems, need to be aware of the relation between specific types of child abuse and certain mental conditions. Success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:24756625
Afifi, Tracie O; MacMillan, Harriet L; Boyle, Michael; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Sareen, Jitender
Nationally representative Canadian data on the prevalence of child abuse and its relation with mental disorders are lacking. We used contemporary, nationally representative data to examine the prevalence of 3 types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse and exposure to intimate partner violence) and their association with 14 mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. We obtained data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health, collected from the 10 provinces. Respondents aged 18 years and older were asked about child abuse and were selected for the study sample (n = 23,395). The survey had a multistage stratified cluster design (household response rate 79.8%). The prevalence of any child abuse was 32% (individual types ranged from 8% to 26%). All types of child abuse were associated with all mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.4 to 7.9). We found a dose-response relation, with increasing number of abuse types experienced corresponding with greater odds of mental conditions. Associations between child abuse and attention deficit disorder, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts showed stronger effects for women than men. We found robust associations between child abuse and mental conditions. Health care providers, especially those assessing patients with mental health problems, need to be aware of the relation between specific types of child abuse and certain mental conditions. Success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. © 2014 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.
Joshi, Rajesh Subhash; Somani, Abhishek Arun Kumar
Ocular problems are common in mentally retarded children. Due to population growth these problems are increasing. Prevalence rate is variable from region to region. Data on ocular problems in mentally retarded school children is lacking in this region. The aim of the present study was to identify the ocular disorders in children with mental retardation attending special schools in a district and to study their relationship with the degree of retardation. A total of 241 mentally retarded school children in the age group of 6-16 years attending special schools for the mentally retarded children in a district in central India were examined by a team of ophthalmologist, psychiatrist, and a resident in ophthalmology department of a medical college. Complete ocular examination was done. Ocular problems were identified and categorized according to the intelligent quotient. One hundred and twenty four children (51.45%) had ocular problems. Strabismus (10.37%) and refractive error (20.75%) were the common ocular problems seen in this study. An association was found between the severity of mental retardation and ocular problems (P<0.005). However, no association was seen between the severity of mental retardation and strabismus and refractive error. A high prevalence of ocular problems was seen in mentally retarded school children. Children with mental retardation should undergo annual ophthalmological check up. Early detection and correction of ocular problems will prevent visual impairment in future.
Cramer, A.O.J.; Borsboom, D.; Scott, R.A.; Kosslyn, S.M.
What is the nature of mental disorders such as major depression and panic disorder? Are mental disorders analogous to tumors, in that they exist as separate entities somewhere in people's minds? Do mental disorders cause symptoms such as insomnia and fatigue? Until very recently, it was exactly this
Salize, Hans J; Werner, Amelie; Jacke, Christian O
Mentally ill homeless persons are among the most neglected or marginalized patient groups. Their needs for mental healthcare are widely unmet. The current economic crisis probably accelerates the social decline and deterioration of physical and mental health in high-risk groups worldwide and increases the need for appropriate treatments, services, and prevention strategies. Research on service provision for mentally disordered homeless people (from 2010 to 2012) covers the following issues: epidemiology of mental ill health among homeless persons, service delivery and healthcare utilization, specific treatments, specific high-risk groups among homeless persons, and subjective experience with mental health service provision. The number of studies published on these issues between 2010 and 2012 may suggest an awareness for the need for adequate service provision of this marginalized clientele. Research evidence is still not sufficient. The majority of studies are from the United States. The methodological quality of the studies is still moderate, being descriptive in nature or applying qualitative approaches to small samples. Included are usually easy to access patients from inner-city regions. There is an encouraging trend to focus on younger age groups that supports the focus on primary or secondary prevention strategies for homelessness and mental disorders.
Kryspin-Exner, Ilse; Felnhofer, Anna; Kothgassner, Oswald D
The emersion of the Internet did not only change human communication and information seeking, it also contributed to manifold alterations in the manifestation, perception and treatment of mental disorders. Thus, one focus of current psychological research lies on the relationship between the new medium and psychosocial functioning. This review embraces recent results on this topic following a discussion from two different perspectives: first, it poses the question, whether the Internet - due to its very specific character - is capable of creating new mental disorders and second, it asks whether rare disorders may possibly be uncovered by the Internet or if already known disorders may be sustained and intensified by the online medium. Accordingly, the first part of this review deals with the conceptual basis of problematic Internet use, Internet addiction and problematic online-gaming as an example of specific internet use. Predisposing psychosocial factors, such as social isolation, depression and compulsive behavior are reviewed as potential triggers for these new internet- related disorders. The second part however draws upon two already existing groups of psychological disorders: eating disorders in relation to Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia on the one hand and Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) on the other hand. Recent research is discussed to explore the sustaining and intensifying effect of the Internet on these disorders.
Martín Padilla, Ernesto; Obando Posada, Diana; Sarmiento Medina, Pedro
Identify attitudes and behaviors that evidence and characterize family adherence to treatment in patients with severe mental disorder. Qualitative descriptive, from an interpretative social approach. Chia, Colombia, with professionals in the psychiatric and geriatric settings. Twelve professionals in psychiatry, nursing and psychology, with experience in care of patients with serious mental disorder and their families. Intentional sampling. Twelve semi-structured interviews were carried out. The analysis strategy was made from the procedures of constant comparison and open coding of the grounded theory. As validation strategies, triangulation was done between researchers and methods, as interviews and results survey. Two categories of family adherence were defined: family and treatment (treatment cooperation, knowledge about the disease and attention to the disease evolution), and family attitudes towards the patient (patient's care, patient's promotion of autonomy, and affective attachment with the patient). A third category showed aspects that diminished family adherence, such as lack or distortion of information regarding mental disorder, or family and patient endurance attitudes. Participants agree about the relevance of the construct named «family adherence», which describes the behaviors and attitudes of the family regarding the treatment of patients with severe mental disorder. Family adherence can be seen as active participation behavior, but also as a process of strengthening relationships, which can reduce the burden and suffering on family members, caregivers and patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
These guidelines are intended as a reference document to assist HIV nurse and doctor clinicians in managing mental health disorders. It is intended to improve awareness, knowledge and capacity to support patients living with HIV and mental health disorders.
Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Hvidtjørn, Dorte
To assess the mental health of children born after fertility treatment by comparing their risk of mental disorders with that of spontaneously conceived children.......To assess the mental health of children born after fertility treatment by comparing their risk of mental disorders with that of spontaneously conceived children....
Introduction: To comply with its new mental health bill, Ghana needs to integrate mental health within other health and social services. Mental disorders represent 9% of disease burden in Ghana. Women are more affected by common mental disorders, and are underrepresented in treatment settings. This study examines ...
De Oliveira, C; Rahioui, H; Smadja, M; Gorsane, M A; Louppe, F
The borderline personality disorder is a complex psychiatric disorder that represents a high number of patients in a psychiatric adult service. Even if some therapies have shown to be effective in the therapeutic care of the borderline personality disorder they only target certain symptoms (e.g. anxiety, sadness, self-mutilation). The aim of this paper is to introduce a therapeutic model little known in France: the mentalization based therapy (MBT) developed in 2004 by Bateman and Fonagy. This therapeutic model apprehends the borderline personality disorder in all its complexity and is based on two main concepts: Bowlby's attachment theory and the concept of mentalization. The MBT is based on the hypothesis that a deficit of mentalization leads to the development of borderline disorder. The capacity of mentalization, also known as reflexive function, is acquired in infancy through interpersonal relationships, in particular those of attachment, and is the ability to understand the mental state (emotions, needs, thoughts, etc.) of oneself and others which underlies explicit behaviour. This reflexive capacity is of a better quality when the person has a secure attachment style. Indeed, borderline patients have, mainly, a deficit of mentalization capacity associated with an insecure attachment style. Thus, the main objective of the Bateman and Fonagy approach is to develop and reinforce the mentalization capacity through a therapeutic relationship as a secure base, a group therapy and the concept of insight. Classically, MBT is structured over a period of 18 months divided into 3 distinct phases distributed in two therapeutic axes: group and individual therapy. The initial phase aims to engage the patient in the therapy by evaluating attachment style, mentalization's ability, interpersonal functioning; providing psychoeducation about borderline disorder and establishing a therapeutic contract. To evaluate attachment style, the authors strongly recommend the use of the
A link between mental disorder and freedom is clearly present in the introduction of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). It mentions "an important loss of freedom" as one of the possible defining features of mental disorder. Meanwhile, it remains unclear how "an important loss of freedom" should be understood. In order to get a clearer view on the relationship between mental disorder and (a loss of) freedom, in this article, I will explore the link between mental disorder and free will. I examine two domains in which a connection between mental disorder and free will is present: the philosophy of free will and forensic psychiatry. As it turns out, philosophers of free will frequently refer to mental disorders as conditions that compromise free will and reduce moral responsibility. In addition, in forensic psychiatry, the rationale for the assessment of criminal responsibility is often explained by referring to the fact that mental disorders can compromise free will. Yet, in both domains, it remains unclear in what way free will is compromised by mental disorders. Based on the philosophical debate, I discuss three senses of free will and explore their relevance to mental disorders. I conclude that in order to further clarify the relationship between free will and mental disorder, the accounts of people who have actually experienced the impact of a mental disorder should be included in future research.
A link between mental disorder and freedom is clearly present in the introduction of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). It mentions “an important loss of freedom” as one of the possible defining features of mental disorder. Meanwhile, it remains unclear how “an important loss of freedom” should be understood. In order to get a clearer view on the relationship between mental disorder and (a loss of) freedom, in this article, I will explore the link between mental disorder and free will. I examine two domains in which a connection between mental disorder and free will is present: the philosophy of free will and forensic psychiatry. As it turns out, philosophers of free will frequently refer to mental disorders as conditions that compromise free will and reduce moral responsibility. In addition, in forensic psychiatry, the rationale for the assessment of criminal responsibility is often explained by referring to the fact that mental disorders can compromise free will. Yet, in both domains, it remains unclear in what way free will is compromised by mental disorders. Based on the philosophical debate, I discuss three senses of free will and explore their relevance to mental disorders. I conclude that in order to further clarify the relationship between free will and mental disorder, the accounts of people who have actually experienced the impact of a mental disorder should be included in future research. PMID:20931360
Berenice Scaletzky Knuth
Full Text Available AbstractThe scope of this article is to deter mine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD and Depression among Community Health Agents (CHA and employees of Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS. It is a cross-sectional descriptive study involving the target population of Community Health Workers and Psychosocial Care Center workers, linked to the Municipal Health Department of Pelotas in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul. The presence of common mental disorders was considered when the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ was > 7 and the occurrence of depression when BDI > 12. In total, 257 professionals participated in the study. Among mental health professionals (n = 119, the prevalence of CMDs was 25.2% and depression was 23.5%, while the prevalence of CMDs was 48.6% and depression was 29% among CHA (n = 138. The ratio of CMDs between the two groups of professionals was statistically different (p < 0.001. In this study, it was observed that the CAPS professionals are more adapted to work issues, with less perceived health problems arising from work and with a lower prevalence of mental disorders compared to CHA.
Antoniadis, D; Gouti, A; Kaloudi, E; Τourlende, N; Douzenis, A; Christodoulou, C; Lykouras, L; Livaditis, M; Samakouri, M
Attitudes and beliefs of the population regarding the mentally ill have been universally subject of many researches. Research of different groups' opinion for mental disorders has given remarkable findings that assist in the right design of psychiatric services. Objective of this thesis is to study the attitude of students towards mental illness. In particular, it intends to study the differences derived from the age, gender, place of birth, kind of studies, year of study, duration of stay at the place of studies and the existence of mental disorders in the student's family. Data were collected from 536 students randomly selected from Universities and Technological Institutions both in Athens and Thessaloniki. In general, the participants are being divided based on the subject of their studies in undergraduates of human sciences, exact sciences, social and health sciences. The short version of the scale "Community Attitudes Toward the Mentality III" (CAMI) was used, which consists of 26 questions sorted to four subscales (domination scale, humanism scale, social exclusion scale and the scale measuring the community beliefs regarding the care of mentally ill), along with a special questionnaire in order to collect social and demographic data. Students' attitudes towards mental illness are influenced by demographic factors, the department they are studying at and the year of study. Female gender (p=0.000), personal contact with mentally ill (p=0.012), studying in Universities (p=0.031) and especially social sciences (p=0.009) are associated with positive attitudes. On the contrary, less years of studying are associated with negative attitudes whereas older students appear to score less in the Domination Scale (p=0.000). It is significant that the place of birth (p=0,335) and the duration of stay at the place of studies (r=0.735) did not show any association with the variables studied in this research. However these results cannot be compared with older researches
Gottlieb, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm; Kørner, Alex
as sanctions in criminal cases, the court will request a psychiatric report. They may furthermore ask a medical expert consultation board, the Danish Medico-Legal Council, for an opinion on the mental status of the defendant. Aims: To describe a sample of offenders falling under §69 and the use of the section...... and the final verdicts on socio-demographic, health and criminal items, and the data were computerized. Results: The sample was characterized by severe criminality and mental disorder. Forty-six percent (138/298) were sentenced by the court to a psychiatric measure instead of punishment. Conclusions...
Ogloff, James R P; Talevski, Diana; Lemphers, Anthea; Wood, Melisa; Simmons, Melanie
Despite the number of studies investigating co-occurring disorders, and more recently, co-occurring disorders and criminal offending, few studies have considered samples from forensic mental health services. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between mental illness, substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder, and offending. The prevalence of co-occurring disorders was investigated in 130 male offenders who had contact with the statewide forensic mental health service in Victoria, Australia. Offense histories and severity of offending were compared among participants diagnosed with a single mental illness (or no mental illness), co-occurring mental illness and substance use, and co-occurring disorders plus antisocial personality disorder. The majority of participants had co-occurring mental and substance use disorders; a significant minority met the criteria for antisocial personality disorder. Participants with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders, and those who had an additional diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, were responsible for more serious and frequent offending than those with mental illness alone. Forensic mental health services must take into account the effect that co-occurring disorders have on clients' functioning and offending. Those who work with people with psychiatric disabilities and co-occurring substance use disorders must ensure that the substance disorders are addressed to help ensure recovery from the mental illness and to reduce the likelihood of offending. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Wahlbeck, Kristian; Westman, Jeanette; Nordentoft, Merete
People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision.......People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision....
... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38 U.S.C...
Full Text Available In the introduction, the author states that sociological theories explaining mental disorders in the narrow sense have originated as an opposition to medical, i.e. biological model of interpreting mental disorders. With regard to this, the following sociological theories explaining mental disorders are presented in more detail: theory of anomie by Durkheim and Merton (with Merton’s typology of deviant behavior, social roles theory by Parsons, labeling theory by Scheff and other authors, theoretical career model of the mentally ill, the concept of psychic disorder of etnomethodology and finally, the anti-psychiatric interpretation of mental disorders. It is concluded that, although historically older, sociological theories of the onset of mental disorders are filling the epistemological void that occurred in understanding the role of society on the whole and a series of social factors particularly on the different aspects of understanding mental disorders.
Mataix-Cols, David; Pertusa, Alberto
Background: The inclusion of a new mental disorder in the nomenclature is not a trivial matter. Many have highlighted the risks of an ever-increasing number of mental disorders and of overpathologizing human behaviour. Given the proposed inclusion of a new hoarding disorder (HD) in DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,…
This paper sets out Kant's anthropological account of mental disorder. I begin with a discussion of the nature of Kant's 'pragmatic anthropology' and the implications of the fact that his discussion of mental disorder takes place in that context. I then set out Kant's taxonomy of the mind and discuss the various disorders affecting the cognitive faculty and the faculties of feeling and desire. I end with a brief discussion of Kant's views on the causes, preventions, and treatments of mental disorder.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.
This factsheet describes the different mental, emotional, and behavior problems that can occur during childhood and adolescence. The incidence and symptoms of the following disorders are discussed: (1) anxiety disorders (including phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder);…
Dammeyer, Jesper Herup
The population of people with congenital deafblindness faces challenges concerning communication and mobility. Due to the significance of the sensory loss it is difficult to diagnose mental and behavioral disorders. This article investigates the prevalence of mental and behavioral disorders among...... 95 congenitally deafblind adults. Seventy-four percent were found to have a mental and/or behavioral diagnose. Mental retardation was found among 34%, psychosis among 13%. Mental and behavioral disorders, especially with symptoms of psychosis and mental retardation, are common among people...
Wahlström, M; Sihvo, S; Haukkala, A; Kiviruusu, O; Pirkola, S; Isometsä, E
Few studies investigated the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by subjects with mental disorders. We examined the relationship between depressive, anxiety and alcohol-use disorders and their comorbidity, as well as the relationship between use of CAM and use of mental health services. The Finnish adult (> or =30 years) population-based Health 2000 Study (n = 5987) collected information on use of CAM plus health and mental health care services. Generalised anxiety disorder and panic disorder were positively associated and alcohol abuse was negatively associated with use of CAM. The prevalence was highest in persons with comorbidity of anxiety and depressive disorders. The use or perceived usefulness of mental health services did not differ between CAM users and other participants. The relationship between the use of CAM and mental disorders appears to vary depending on the type of mental disorder. Use of CAM seems unrelated to the use and the perceived usefulness of mental health services.
Bor, William; Dakin, Jean
To describe the conceptual confusion, inconsistency and discrimination within some state and territory education systems towards children with mental disorders. Reforms are required to achieve a consistent Australia wide framework for the classification of childhood mental disorders as disabilities. The mental health diagnostic assessment to qualify for disability status needs to be simplified when participation in complex evaluation procedures is not possible.
Lara, Diogo R
Caffeine intake is so common that its pharmacological effects on the mind are undervalued. Since it is so readily available, individuals can adjust their own dose, time of administration and dose intervals of caffeine, according to the perceived benefits and side effects of each dose. This review focuses on human studies of caffeine in subjects with and without psychiatric disorders. Besides the possibility of mild drug dependence, caffeine may bring benefits that contribute to its widespread use. These benefits seem to be related to adaptation of mental energy to the context by increasing alertness, attention, and cognitive function (more evident in longer or more difficult tasks or situations of low arousal) and by elevating mood. Accordingly, moderate caffeine intake (effects on depression and ADHD have been insufficiently studied. Conversely, in rare cases high doses of caffeine can induce psychotic and manic symptoms, and more commonly, anxiety. Patients with panic disorder and performance social anxiety disorder seem to be particularly sensitive to the anxiogenic effects of caffeine, whereas preliminary data suggests that it may be effective for some patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The threshold for the anxiogenic effect of caffeine is influenced by a polymorphism of the A2A receptor. In summary, caffeine can be regarded as a pharmacological tool to increase energy and effortful behavior in daily activities. More populational (cross-sectional and prospective) and experimental studies are necessary to establish the role of caffeine intake in psychiatric disorders, especially its putative efficacy on depressive mood and cognitive/attentional disorders.
Daquin, Jane C; Daigle, Leah E
There is evidence that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of victimisation in prison. It is unclear whether this risk of victimisation varies across types of disorders or symptoms and what role mental health treatment has on victimisation risk in this context. To examine the relationship between specific mental disorders, psychiatric symptoms, and victimisation in prison and the effect of treatment for the disorders on victimisation risk. Using a nationally-representative sample of prisoners, path analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between mental disorder and victimisation. The analyses also examined whether receiving mental health treatment in prison affected any such relationship. Victimisation risk varied with the type of mental disorder or symptoms. Depression, personality disorder, hopelessness, paranoia, and hallucinations were associated with increased victimisation risk. Psychotic illnesses were otherwise negatively associated with victimisation. Receiving mental health treatment in prison was associated with greater risk of victimisation there. Receiving treatment appeared to mediate the relationship between mental disorders, symptoms, and victimisation. The findings suggest that not all inmates with mental disorders are at an increased risk of victimisation. Further, mental health treatment in prison also appears to be a risk factor of victimisation. More research is needed to further elucidate the relationship between mental disorders, treatment, and victimisation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The high economic and social costs associated with the 'common mental disorders', and the need to scale up appropriate care services, are now widely recognized, but responses vary from country to country. In Britain, a current government initiative to promote psychological therapy is driven both by economic pressures and by research on the factors of happiness, or life-satisfaction. This article provides a short critical review of the project. A health policy analysis, with regard to problem definition; objectives; sources of information; criteria for evaluation; impact on existing services, and comparison with alternative strategies. The new programme, Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT), aims to expand treatment services by training 3,600 'psychological therapists' in cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), which they will then apply in the wider community. This service, with an initial budget of 173 million pounds sterling, will provide treatment for depression and chronic anxiety from local centres across the country. The programme is intended to pay for itself by reducing incapacity costs. Closer examination, however, raises questions concerning the project's theoretical basis, logistics and research methodology, and casts doubt on its advantages over alternative approaches. The IAPT project is ill-designed to achieve its objectives and unsuitable as a model for treatment and care of the common mental disorders in other countries. An alternative strategy, based on closer integration of community mental health and primary health care, should be tested and on previous experience seems likely to prove more cost-effective.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental and behavioral disorders among adults with Usher syndrome have been discussed and reported in some case studies but no research has been reported on children with Usher syndrome. Methods This article investigates the prevalence and characteristics of mental and behavioral disorders among 26 children, 3-17 years of age, with Usher syndrome. Results Six of the 26 children were diagnosed with a mental or behavioral disorder (1 with schizophrenia and mild mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and severe mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and mild mental retardation, 1 with mild mental retardation, and 2 with conduct disorder. Another 3 children had had a mental or behavioral disorder previously in their childhood. Conclusion Even though vision impairment first manifests in late childhood, some children with Usher syndrome seem to develop mental and behavioral disorders during childhood. The aetiology and treatment of mental and behavioral disorders among children with Usher syndrome are discussed. Children with Usher syndrome and their parents may need clinical support during early childhood to prevent development of mental and behavioral disorders.
Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte
Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…
Objective: To provide estimates of the prevalence of selected mental disorders in the Western Cape, based on the consensus achieved by a working group .... generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, and 5.0% .... South Africa. • Barnard EJ, Gagiano CA, Joubert G. Patients with chronic mental illness.
According to the predominant view within contemporary philosophy of psychiatry, mental disorders involve essentially personal and societal values, and thus, the concept of mental disorder cannot, even in principle, be elucidated in a thoroughly objective manner. Several arguments have been adduced in support of this impossibility thesis. My critical examination of two master arguments advanced to this effect by Derek Bolton and Jerome Wakefield, respectively, raises serious doubts about their soundness. Furthermore, I articulate an alternative, thoroughly objective, though in part normative, framework for the elucidation of the concept of mental disorder. The concepts of mental dysfunction and impairment of basic psychological capacities to satisfy one's basic needs are the building blocks of this framework. I provide an argument for the objective harmfulness of genuine mental disorders as patterns of mental dysfunctions with objectively negative biotic values, as well as a formally correct definition of the concept of mental disorder. Contrary to the received view, this objective framework allows for the possibility of genuine mental disorders due to adverse social conditions, as well as for quasi-universal mental disorders. I conclude that overall, the project of providing an objective account of the concept of mental disorder is far from impossible, and moreover, that it is, at least in principle, feasible.
Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic renal failure and dialysis are complicated situations that affect on somatic and mental status of patients. In this study, relation between stress, renal diseas, dialysis and mental disorders was determined. Methods. In a case control study in Noor hospital"s dialysis ward (affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services the mental status of 30 end stage renal disease (ESRD patients were compaired with well matched control group by MMPI. Results. Hypochondriasis (Hs, depression (D, hysteria (Hy psychastenia (Pt and schizophrenia (Sc were observed in ESRD patients more than controls (P < 0.05. Means of sociopathy (Pd, paranoia (Pa and hypomania (Ma had no difference between groups (P > 0.05. Realy sadness and dysphoria, rumintion with illness, obsession, anxiety, compulsion, impaired process of thinking, isolation tendency and odd sensation in patients were more than control group (P < 0.05. Discussion. Chronic diseases have psychological complication and as a stress must cope and adjust with it. So, these patients and their families must be educated about coping mechanism. When the patients and their families have good coping mechanism, they would be able tolerate these streses.
Forman-Hoffman, Valerie L; Batts, Kathryn R; Hedden, Sarra L; Spagnola, Kathy; Bose, Jonaki
To examine the prevalence and correlates of mental disorder comorbidity in the adult U.S. household population. Data are from a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized, civilian adults aged 18 years or older (n = 5653) who participated in the 2008-2012 Mental Health Surveillance Study. Mental disorders, including substance use disorders, were assessed by clinical interviewers using a semistructured diagnostic instrument. Analyses examined co-occurrence of mental disorders and associations with sociodemographic, functional impairment, and treatment correlates. Approximately one-third of adults (31.1%, or more than 15 million) with a past-year mental disorder had a co-occurring mental disorder. Correlates of comorbidity in adjusted models included being of young age, being of non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, having low family income, and living in a large metropolitan area. Adults with comorbid mental disorders had lower mean levels of functioning and were more likely to report past-year treatment than adults with a single disorder; they also had higher estimates of past-year perceived unmet need for care (21.7% vs. 11.6%, P mental disorder have a co-occurring mental disorder. Elucidating factors associated with co-occurrence may lend clues to shared etiologies, help improve prevention efforts, facilitate early identification, and improve treatment regimens. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wittchen Hans-Ulrich; Knappe Susanne; Andersson Gerhard; Araya Ricardo; Banos Rivera Rosa M; Barkham Michael; Bech Per; Beckers Tom; Berger Thomas; Berking Matthias; Berrocal Carmen; Botella Christina; Carlbring Per; Chouinard Guy; Colom Francesc
Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories principles and methodological approaches to understand mental health abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may help to depict the advances needed to inform future research agendas specifically on mental health and mental disorders. From an integrative psychological perspective most maladaptive health behaviours...
Moscovici, Leonardo; de Azevedo-Marques, Joao Mazzoncini; Bolsoni, Lívia Maria; Rodrigues-Junior, Antonio Luiz; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo
Aim To compare the impact of three different approaches to primary care mental health on the prevalence of mental disorders. Millions of people suffer from mental disorders. As entry point into the health service, primary healthcare plays an important role in providing mental health prevention and treatment. Random sample of households in three different areas of the city of Ribeirão Preto (state of São Paulo, Brazil) were selected, and 20 trained medical students conducted interviews using a mental health screening instrument, the Mini-Screening of Mental Disorders, and a socio-demographic datasheet. Primary care mental health was provided in each area through a specific approach. The influence of the area of residence and the socio-demographic variables on the prevalence of mental disorder was explored and analyzed by univariate binary logistic regression and then by a multiple logistic regression model. Findings A total of 1545 subjects were interviewed. Comparison between the three areas showed a significantly higher number of people with mental disorders in the area covered by the primary care team that did not have physicians with specific primary care mental health training, even when this association was adjusted for the influence of age, education, and socio-economic status. Our results suggest that residing in areas with family physicians with mental health training is associated with a lower prevalence of mental disorders.
Breslau, J.; Miller, E.; Jin, R.; Sampson, N. A.; Alonso, J.; Andrade, L. H.; Bromet, E. J.; de Girolamo, G.; Demyttenaere, K.; Fayyad, J.; Fukao, A.; Gălăon, M.; Gureje, O.; He, Y.; Hinkov, H. R.; Hu, C.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Matschinger, H.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sagar, R.; Scott, K. M.; Kessler, R. C.
Objective Estimate predictive associations of mental disorders with marriage and divorce in a cross-national sample. Method Population surveys of mental disorders included assessment of age at first marriage in 19 countries (n = 46 128) and age at first divorce in a subset of 12 countries (n = 30 729). Associations between mental disorders and subsequent marriage and divorce were estimated in discrete time survival models. Results Fourteen of 18 premarital mental disorders are associated with lower likelihood of ever marrying (odds ratios ranging from 0.6 to 0.9), but these associations vary across ages of marriage. Associations between premarital mental disorders and marriage are generally null for early marriage (age 17 or younger), but negative associations come to predominate at later ages. All 18 mental disorders are positively associated with divorce (odds ratios ranging from 1.2 to 1.8). Three disorders, specific phobia, major depression, and alcohol abuse, are associated with the largest population attributable risk proportions for both marriage and divorce. Conclusion This evidence adds to research demonstrating adverse effects of mental disorders on life course altering events across a diverse range of socioeconomic and cultural settings. These effects should be included in considerations of public health investments in preventing and treating mental disorders. PMID:21534936
Breslau, J; Miller, E; Jin, R; Sampson, N A; Alonso, J; Andrade, L H; Bromet, E J; de Girolamo, G; Demyttenaere, K; Fayyad, J; Fukao, A; Gălăon, M; Gureje, O; He, Y; Hinkov, H R; Hu, C; Kovess-Masfety, V; Matschinger, H; Medina-Mora, M E; Ormel, J; Posada-Villa, J; Sagar, R; Scott, K M; Kessler, R C
Estimate predictive associations of mental disorders with marriage and divorce in a cross-national sample. Population surveys of mental disorders included assessment of age at first marriage in 19 countries (n = 46,128) and age at first divorce in a subset of 12 countries (n = 30,729). Associations between mental disorders and subsequent marriage and divorce were estimated in discrete time survival models. Fourteen of 18 premarital mental disorders are associated with lower likelihood of ever marrying (odds ratios ranging from 0.6 to 0.9), but these associations vary across ages of marriage. Associations between premarital mental disorders and marriage are generally null for early marriage (age 17 or younger), but negative associations come to predominate at later ages. All 18 mental disorders are positively associated with divorce (odds ratios ranging from 1.2 to 1.8). Three disorders, specific phobia, major depression, and alcohol abuse, are associated with the largest population attributable risk proportions for both marriage and divorce. This evidence adds to research demonstrating adverse effects of mental disorders on life course altering events across a diverse range of socioeconomic and cultural settings. These effects should be included in considerations of public health investments in preventing and treating mental disorders. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
de Jonge, Peter; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Lim, Carmen C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bunting, Brendan; Chatterji, Somnath; Ciutan, Marius; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Torres, Yolanda; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate
The patterns of comorbidity among mental disorders have led researchers to model the underlying structure of psychopathology. While studies have suggested a structure including internalizing and externalizing disorders, less is known with regard to the cross-national stability of this model. Moreover, little data are available on the placement of eating disorders, bipolar disorder and psychotic experiences (PEs) in this structure. We evaluated the structure of mental disorders with data from the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, including 15 lifetime mental disorders and six PEs. Respondents (n = 5478-15 499) were included from 10 high-, middle- and lower middle-income countries across the world aged 18 years or older. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to evaluate and compare the fit of different factor structures to the lifetime disorder data. Measurement invariance was evaluated with multigroup CFA (MG-CFA). A second-order model with internalizing and externalizing factors and fear and distress subfactors best described the structure of common mental disorders. MG-CFA showed that this model was stable across countries. Of the uncommon disorders, bipolar disorder and eating disorder were best grouped with the internalizing factor, and PEs with a separate factor. These results indicate that cross-national patterns of lifetime common mental-disorder comorbidity can be explained with a second-order underlying structure that is stable across countries and can be extended to also cover less common mental disorders.
Kessler, Ronald C; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Chatterji, Somnath; Lee, Sing; Ormel, Johan; Ustün, T Bedirhan; Wang, Philip S
The paper reviews recent findings from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys on the global burden of mental disorders. The WMH surveys are representative community surveys in 28 countries throughout the world aimed at providing information to mental health policy makers about the prevalence, distribution, burden, and unmet need for treatment of common mental disorders. The first 17 WMH surveys show that mental disorders are commonly occurring in all participating countries. The inter-quartile range (IQR: 25th-75th percentiles) of lifetime DSM-IV disorder prevalence estimates (combining anxiety, mood, externalizing, and substance use disorders) is 18.1-36.1%. The IQR of 12-month prevalence estimates is 9.8-19.1%. Prevalence estimates of 12-month Serious Mental Illness (SMI) are 4-6.8% in half the countries, 2.3-3.6% in one-fourth, and 0.8-1.9% in one-fourth. Many mental disorders begin in childhood-adolescence and have significant adverse effects on subsequent role transitions in the WMH data. Adult mental disorders are found to be associated with such high role impairment in the WMH data that available clinical interventions could have positive cost-effectiveness ratios. Mental disorders are commonly occurring and often seriously impairing in many countries throughout the world. Expansion of treatment could be cost-effective from both employer and societal perspectives.
Chavez, Mark; Insel, Thomas R.
The mission of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is to reduce the burden of mental and behavioral disorders through research, and eating disorders embody an important fraction of this burden. Although past and current research has provided important knowledge regarding the etiology, classification, pathophysiology, and treatment of…
Objective: This study looks at how the WHO programme Mental Disorders in Primary Care should be adapted for GPs in the South African context in order to positively impact the recognition and management of mental disorders. Design: Participatory action research was used to adapt the WHO programme. There were 3 ...
Background: Medical students are at risk of common mental disorders due to difficulties of adjustment to the medical school environment, exposure to death and human suffering. However there is limited data on this aspect. Therefore, the current study assessed the magnitude of common mental disorders and contributing ...
Background: There is relatively little data on the relationship between lifetime mental disorders and suicidal behaviour in low and middle income countries. This study examines the relationship between lifetime mental disorders, and subsequent suicide ideation, plans, and suicide attempts in South Africa. Method: A ...
In this article, I address the issue of comorbidity and its prevalence in the prior "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM") classification systems. The focus on the topography or form of presenting problems as the venue for determining mental disorders is scrutinized as the possible cause. Addressing the…
Sep 3, 2017 ... Cite as: Kerebih H, Ajaeb M, Hailesilassie H. Common mental disorders among medical students in Jimma University, SouthWest Ethiopia. Afri. Health Sci. 2017 ... Common mental disorders (CMD) include anxiety, de- pression, and .... entered into statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 20).
Bogren, Mats; Mattisson, Cecilia; Horstmann, Vibeke
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how first incidence of various mental disorders changed between the periods of 1947-1972 to 1972-1997 in the Lundby cohort. METHOD: First-incidence rates of mental disorders were calculated for two 25 year periods and ten 5 year periods. RESULTS: From 1947-1972 to 1972-1...
Hoerr, Jordan; Fogel, Joshua; Van Voorhees, Benjamin
This paper examines the ecological association of dietary food intake with mental health outcomes on the group level across countries. Published data from the World Mental Health Survey were used to compare lifetime prevalence of four categories of mental health disorders (anxiety disorders, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, and substance use disorders) with a country's fish/seafood and sugar/sweetener supply quantity using the Spearman rank correlation. Data were compared for 17 countries across the world. Sugar and sweetener supply quantity was significantly and positively associated with anxiety disorders (rho=0.75, p=0.001), mood disorders (rho=0.75, p=0.001), impulse control disorders (rho=0.78, p=0.001), and substance use disorders (rho=0.68, p=0.007). Fish and seafood supply quantity had no significant association with any mental health disorders. Mental health disorders represent a significant health problem around the world. Public health measures aimed at improving the quality and availability of a nation's food supply could have a significant positive impact on mental health. Further randomized studies are needed to further validate the study findings. Copyright © 2016 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stein, Dan J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Liu, Zharoui; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O’Neill, Siobhan; Viana, Maria Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Angermeyer, Mattias C.; Benjet, Corina; de Graaf, Ron; Ferry, Finola; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Hu, Chiyi; Kawakami, Norito; Haro, Josep Maria; Piazza, Marina; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J; Xavier, Miguel; Lim, Carmen C.W.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate
Background Previous work has suggested significant associations between various psychological symptoms (e.g. depression, anxiety, anger, alcohol abuse) and hypertension. However, the presence and extent of associations between common mental disorders and subsequent adult onset of hypertension remains unclear. Further, there is little data available on how such associations vary by gender or over life course. Methods Data from the World Mental Health Surveys (comprising 19 countries, and 52,095 adults) were used. Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of common mental disorders and subsequent onset of hypertension, with and without psychiatric comorbidity adjustment. Variations in the strength of associations by gender and by life course stage of onset of both the mental disorder and hypertension were investigated. Results After psychiatric comorbidity adjustment, depression, panic disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, alcohol abuse, and drug abuse were significantly associated with subsequent diagnosis of hypertension (with ORs ranging from 1.1 to 1.6). Number of lifetime mental disorders was associated with subsequent hypertension in a dose-response fashion. For social phobia and alcohol abuse, associations with hypertension were stronger for males than females. For panic disorder, the association with hypertension was particularly apparent in earlier onset hypertension. Conclusions Depression, anxiety, impulsive eating disorders, and substance use disorders disorders were significantly associated with the subsequent diagnosis of hypertension. These data underscore the importance of early detection of mental disorders, and of physical health monitoring in people with these conditions.. PMID:24342112
Eplov, Lene; Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Jespersen, Ejgil
The Danish Government Committee on Psychiatry states that recovery-oriented rehabilitation is an important framework and direction in psychiatry. Recovery-oriented rehabilitation means that the intervention is based on best practice. It is also based on four values: self-determination, person inv...... involvement, self-determination/choice and growth potential. A comprehensive national plan of action on how to develop a recovery-oriented rehabilitation to Danish citizens with mental disorders is recommended.......The Danish Government Committee on Psychiatry states that recovery-oriented rehabilitation is an important framework and direction in psychiatry. Recovery-oriented rehabilitation means that the intervention is based on best practice. It is also based on four values: self-determination, person...
Kessler, Ronald C.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Chatterji, Somnath; Lee, Sing; Ormel, Johan; Uestuen, T. Bedirhan; Wang, Philip S.
Aims - The paper reviews recent findings from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys oil the global burden of mental disorders. Methods - The WMH surveys are representative community surveys in 28 countries throughout the world aimed at providing information to mental health policy makers about
Scott, Kate M.; Von Korff, Michael; Ormel, Johan; Zhang, Ming-yuan; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Alonso, Jordi; Kessler, Ronald C.; Tachimori, Hisateru; Karam, Elie; Levinson, Daphna; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Posada-Villa, Jose; Gasquet, Isabelle; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Borges, Guilherme; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Herman, Allen; Haro, Josep Maria
Objective: Our objectives were (a) to determine which common mental disorders are associated with asthma in the general population after controlling for age and sex, and (b) to assess whether the associations of mental disorders with asthma are consistent across diverse countries. Method: Eighteen
Full Text Available The most recent research on psychosis and violence shows a significant positive association between both, although the risk of violence on psychosis is much lower than the risk of violence in substance abuse or personality disorders; and, in a general way, the predicting fac- tors for violence in patients are the same than in individuals without mental disorders. Psychiatrists and clinical or forensic psycholo- gists frequently have to predict violent behaviour. Since the 90s, instruments that evaluate the risk of violence have been developed, based on statistical methods to improve the efficacy of the evaluation. The best known are Psychology Checklist-Revised, Historical Risk Management-20 and Violence Risk Appraisal Guide. Several investigators consider these instruments essential for more rigorous predictions, as they are superior to clinical methods; other investigators state that the main advantage of these instruments is the fact that they sumarise the most recent advances in these areas, so that clinicians can make evidence based decisions.
Alonso, Jordi; de Jonge, Peter; Lim, Carmen C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Liu, Zhaorui; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Viana, Maria Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Borges, Guilherme; Ciutan, Marius; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Fiestas, Fabian; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kessler, Ronald C; Lépine, Jean Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Posada-Villa, Jose; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J; Scott, Kate M
Associations between asthma and anxiety and mood disorders are well established, but little is known about their temporal sequence. We examined associations between a wide range of DSM-IV mental disorders with adult onset of asthma and whether observed associations remain after mental comorbidity adjustments. During face-to-face household surveys in community-dwelling adults (n = 52,095) of 19 countries, the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders. Asthma was assessed by self-report of physician's diagnosis together with age of onset. Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent adult onset asthma, without and with comorbidity adjustment. 1860 adult onset (21 years+) asthma cases were identified, representing a total of 2,096,486 person-years of follow up. After adjustment for comorbid mental disorders several mental disorders were associated with subsequent adult asthma onset: bipolar (OR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.3-2.5), panic (OR = 1.4; 95%CI 1.0-2.0), generalized anxiety (OR = 1.3; 95%CI 1.1-1.7), specific phobia (OR = 1.3; 95%CI 1.1-1.6); post-traumatic stress (OR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.1-1.9); binge eating (OR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.2-2.9) and alcohol abuse (OR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.1-2.0). Mental comorbidity linearly increased the association with adult asthma. The association with subsequent asthma was stronger for mental disorders with an early onset (before age 21). A wide range of temporally prior mental disorders are significantly associated with subsequent onset of asthma in adulthood. The extent to which asthma can be avoided or improved among those with early mental disorders deserves study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Conclusions: There are statistical differences of disability prevalence attributed to mental disorders by people and region in China. Service use in disabled people with mental disorders is insufficient.
Antunes, Ana; Frasquilho, Diana; Azeredo-Lopes, Sofia; Neto, Daniel; Silva, Manuela; Cardoso, Graça; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel
Common mental disorders are highly prevalent and disabling, leading to substantial individual and societal costs. This study aims to characterize the association between disability and common mental disorders in Portugal, using epidemiological data from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Twelve-month common mental disorders were assessed with the CIDI 3.0. Disability was evaluated with the modified WMHS WHODAS-II. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between disability and each disorder or diagnostic category (mood or anxiety disorders). Among people with a common mental disorder, 14.6% reported disability. The specific diagnoses significantly associated with disability were post-traumatic stress disorder (OR: 6.69; 95% CI: 3.20, 14.01), major depressive disorder (OR: 3.49; 95% CI: 2.13, 5.72), bipolar disorder (OR: 3.41; 95% CI: 1.04, 11.12) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR: 3.14; 95% CI: 1.43, 6.90). Both categories of anxiety and mood disorders were significantly associated with disability (OR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.23, 2.86 and OR: 3.94; 95% CI: 2.45, 6.34 respectively). The results of this study add to the current knowledge in this area by assessing the disability associated with common mental disorders using a multi-dimensional instrument, which may contribute to mental health policy efforts in the development of interventions to reduce the burden of disability associated with common mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Orlovska, Sonja; Vestergaard, Claus Hostrup; Bech, Bodil Hammer
IMPORTANCE Streptococcal infection has been linked with the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorders, a concept termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS). However, previous studies of this association have......). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This large-scale study investigating key aspects of the PANDAS hypothesis found that individuals with a streptococcal throat infection had elevated risks of mental disorders, particularly OCD and tic disorders. However, nonstreptococcal throat infection was also associated...
Washburn, Jason J.; Romero, Erin Gregory; Welty, Leah J.; Abram, Karen M.; Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Paskar, Leah D.
Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a serious public and mental health concern. Understanding how well conduct disorder (CD) and other mental disorders predict the development of APD among youths involved in the juvenile justice system is critical for prevention. The authors used a stratified random sample of 1,112 detained youths to examine…
Feijó, Denise; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Camara, Volney Magalhães
The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of suspected cases of common mental disorders (CMD) on Brazilian civil aviation pilots and to investigate associations between CMD, demographics, and labor variables. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted on 807 working pilots between October 2009 and October 2010 using a self-administered questionnaire to obtain sociodemographic data and information about workload. CMD prevalence was estimated with the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 items (SRQ-20). Multiple logistic regression was used in statistical data analyses. The overall prevalence of CMD was 6.7% with the cutoff point of 8 used in this study, i.e., scores greater than or equal to 8 in SRQ-20 define positive cases. Using alternative cutoffs, the prevalence was 9.2% (cut off point 7) or 12% (cutoff point 6). Among the individuals who did not exercise, 10.2% presented suspected CMD. Among those with a heavy workload, 23.7% presented scores indicating suspected CMD. Only variables relating to workload and the practice of physical activity were significantly correlated with the estimate of CMD after multivariate analysis. Regular physical exercise afforded a possible protective effect against suspected cases of CMD, while there was a higher prevalence of suspected cases among subjects with heavy workloads. The inclusion of the topic of mental health among the targets and priorities of civil aviation in Brazil is imperative. Addressing issues such as the regular practice of physical activity and workload can contribute to achieving a better balance between flight safety and productivity.
Full Text Available Abstract Due to several socio-political factors, to many psychiatrists only a strictly objective definition of mental disorder, free of value components, seems really acceptable. In this paper, I will explore a variant of such an objectivist approach to defining metal disorder, natural function objectivism. Proponents of this approach make recourse to the notion of natural function in order to reach a value-free definition of mental disorder. The exploration of Christopher Boorse's 'biostatistical' account of natural function (1 will be followed an investigation of the 'hybrid naturalism' approach to natural functions by Jerome Wakefield (2. In the third part, I will explore two proposals that call into question the whole attempt to define mental disorder (3. I will conclude that while 'natural function objectivism' accounts fail to provide the backdrop for a reliable definition of mental disorder, there is no compelling reason to conclude that a definition cannot be achieved.
Due to several socio-political factors, to many psychiatrists only a strictly objective definition of mental disorder, free of value components, seems really acceptable. In this paper, I will explore a variant of such an objectivist approach to defining metal disorder, natural function objectivism. Proponents of this approach make recourse to the notion of natural function in order to reach a value-free definition of mental disorder. The exploration of Christopher Boorse's 'biostatistical' account of natural function (1) will be followed an investigation of the 'hybrid naturalism' approach to natural functions by Jerome Wakefield (2). In the third part, I will explore two proposals that call into question the whole attempt to define mental disorder (3). I will conclude that while 'natural function objectivism' accounts fail to provide the backdrop for a reliable definition of mental disorder, there is no compelling reason to conclude that a definition cannot be achieved.
It is helpful to establish whether the SMD (psychosis or manic epi- sode) is due to an underlying primary mental disorder or is secondary to HIV infection. Primary disorders require the initiation of psycho- tropic treatment and an assessment of whether HIV disease is currently contributing to the disorder. If patients do not ...
Thisted, Cecilie Nørby; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Bjerrum, Merete
Purpose The aim was to aggregate knowledge about the opportunities, challenges and need for support employees with common mental disorders experience in relation to work participation in order to develop recommendations for practice. Methods A meta-synthesis was conducted using a meta...... findings. One synthesized finding indicates that a strong work identity and negative perceptions regarding mental disorders can impede work participation, creating an essential need for a supportive work environment. The other reveals that the diffuse nature of the symptoms of mental disorders causes...
Shinden, Yoshiaki; Kijima, Yuko; Hirata, Munetsugu; Nakajo, Akihiro; Tanoue, Kiyonori; Arigami, Takaaki; Kurahara, Hiroshi; Maemura, Kosei; Natsugoe, Shoji
Severe mental disorders are thought to affect the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer because of their lower awareness and understanding of the disease and their reduced ability to cooperate with medical staff. We analyzed the clinical features of patients with breast cancer and pre-existing mental disorders such as schizophrenia, dementia, and intellectual disability. We reviewed the records of 46 patients who were diagnosed with schizophrenia, dementia, or intellectual disability, before being diagnosed with breast cancer. Three patients had more than 2 mental disorders. All patients underwent curative surgical treatment between September 1992 and January 2015. Patients' clinicopathological information was compared with a control group of 727 breast-cancer patients without mental disorders seen during the same period. Patients with mental disorders were less likely to be aware of their own breast cancer; the lesions were often found by other people such as family, care staff, and medical staff. Breast cancer patients with mental disorders had significantly more advanced T factors and overall stage at the time of surgery than their counterparts without mental illness, more patients underwent total mastectomy, and fewer patients underwent postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. Biological markers such as estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression were not significantly different between groups. Disease-free survival and overall survival were not significantly different between groups. Patients with mental disorders receive less postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy; however, their outcomes were not worse than those of patients without mental disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Nina Arkadyevna Tyuvina
Full Text Available The authors analyze the data available in the literature on sleep disorders and their correction in the population and in patients with mental disorders and give their experience in using zolpidem (sanval to treat insomnia in different mental diseases. The clinical features of sleep disorders are characterized in neurotic and affective disorders, schizophrenia, and organic brain injuries. Indications for the use of sanval both alone and in combination with other psychotropic drugs (antidepressants and antipsychotics with a sedative effect for the therapy of sleep disorders within the framework of mental disorders are discussed. Sanval is shown to be highly effective and well tolerated in 100psychiatric in- and outpatients. No dependence on this drug and withdrawal syndrome permit sanval to be used as long-term courses in patients with chronic permanent insomnia and at an old age.
Seyede Salehe Mortazavi
Conclusions: Physical activity significantly prevents mental disorder in older adults. Although it has effects on anxiety, social dysfunction, and depression, the greatest influence is on improving the somatization symptoms.
Stein, Dan J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Liu, Zharoui; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Viana, Maria Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Angermeyer, Mattias C.; Benjet, Corina; de Graaf, Ron; Ferry, Finola; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Hu, Chiyi; Kawakami, Norito; Haro, Josep Maria; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J.; Xavier, Miguel; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.
Background: Previous work has suggested significant associations between various psychological symptoms (e. g., depression, anxiety, anger, alcohol abuse) and hypertension. However, the presence and extent of associations between common mental disorders and subsequent adult onset of hypertension
Telles-Correia, Diogo; Saraiva, Sérgio; Gonçalves, Jorge
There are several reasons why a definition for mental disorder is essential. Among these are not only reasons linked to psychiatry itself as a science (nosology, research) but also to ethical, legal, and financial issues. The first formal definition of mental disorder resulted from a deep conceptual analysis led by Robert Spitzer. It emerged to address several challenges that psychiatry faced at the time, namely to serve as the starting point for an atheoretical and evidence-based classification of mental disorders, to justify the removal of homosexuality from classifications, and to counter the arguments of antipsychiatry. This definition has been updated, with some conceptual changes that make it depart from the main assumptions of Spitzer's original definition. In this article, we intend to review the factors that substantiated the emergence of the first formal definition of mental disorder that based all its later versions.
Wilton, Geoff; Stewart, Lynn A
Whether a diagnosis of a mental disorder contributes to the risk of poorer correctional outcomes is controversial. This study aimed to clarify the extent to which mental and substance use disorders individually and in combination contribute to correctional outcomes in order to determine optimal treatment and promote public safety. Differences were examined between four groups of federal offenders in Canada (N=715): those with a mental disorder only, those with a substance use disorder only, those with co-occurring mental and substance use disorders, and those with no disorder. Groups were compared on profiles, criminal histories, charges while incarcerated (institutional charges), and reconvictions after release from incarceration by using chi-square tests and Cox regression analyses that controlled for risk factors. Of the four groups, those with co-occurring disorders had the most substantial criminal histories and the highest rates of institutional charges, transfers to segregation while incarcerated, and reconvictions. The group with only mental disorders had outcomes intermediate between the groups with only substance use disorders and the group with neither type of disorder. Having a substance use disorder appeared to be the key factor contributing to poorer correctional outcomes for offenders with mental disorders. Psychiatric services in correctional facilities must screen for substance use disorders and, if they are present, ensure provision of treatment to improve quality of life for this population and promote public safety.
Matthys, W.C.H.J.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.
This review discusses neurobiological studies of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder within the conceptual framework of three interrelated mental domains: punishment processing, reward processing, and cognitive control. First, impaired fear conditioning, reduced cortisol reactivity to
Balbir S Deswal
Full Text Available Background: The WHO Global Burden of Disease study estimates that mental and addictive disorders are among the most burdensome in the world, and their burden will increase over the next decades. The mental and behavioral disorders account for about 12% of the global burden of disease. However, these estimates and projections are based largely on literature review rather than cross-national epidemiological surveys. In India, little is known about the extent, severity and unmet need of treatment mental disorders. Thus, there was a need to carry out rigorously implemented general population surveys that estimate the prevalence of mental disorders among urban population at Pune, Maharashtra. The study attempted to address unmet need and to form a basis for formulating the mental health need of the community. Objective: The study was undertaken to estimate the lifetime prevalence and 12 month prevalence of specific mental disorders in urban population, socio-demographic correlates of mental disorders and to assess the service utilization in individuals with mental disorders. Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken among adults aged 18 years and above living in house hold and in geographical area of Pune , Maharashtra. A minimum sample of 3000 completed interviews was planned using representative probabilities to population size (PPS sampling method which ensured equal probability for every eligible member. Data listing was obtained from Census Office from recent census of 2001 data. The face to face interviews were undertaken in homes using fully structured interview schedule of World Mental Health Survey Initiative duly revised Version of WHO- Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0 by trained investigators. Clinical reappraisal was carried out using Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN among ten percent of diagnosed cases selected randomly. Data were entered into DDE (Blaize Software and analyzed using
Wright, A G C; Simms, L J
Psychiatric co-morbidity is extensive in both psychiatric settings and the general population. Such co-morbidity challenges whether DSM-based mental disorders serve to effectively carve nature at its joints. In response, a substantial literature has emerged showing that a small number of broad dimensions - internalizing, externalizing and psychoticism - can account for much of the observed covariation among common mental disorders. However, the location of personality disorders within this emerging metastructure has only recently been studied, and no studies have yet examined where pathological personality traits fit within such a broad metastructural framework. We conducted joint structural analyses of common mental disorders, personality disorders and pathological personality traits in a sample of 628 current or recent psychiatric out-patients. Bridging across the psychopathology and personality trait literatures, the results provide evidence for a robust five-factor metastructure of psychopathology, including broad domains of symptoms and features related to internalizing, disinhibition, psychoticism, antagonism and detachment. These results reveal evidence for a psychopathology metastructure that (a) parsimoniously accounts for much of the observed covariation among common mental disorders, personality disorders and related personality traits, and (b) provides an empirical basis for the organization and classification of mental disorder.
Auerbach, R P; Alonso, J; Axinn, W G; Cuijpers, P; Ebert, D D; Green, J G; Hwang, I; Kessler, R C; Liu, H; Mortier, P; Nock, M K; Pinder-Amaker, S; Sampson, N A; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Al-Hamzawi, A; Andrade, L H; Benjet, C; Caldas-de-Almeida, J M; Demyttenaere, K; Florescu, S; de Girolamo, G; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Karam, E G; Kiejna, A; Kovess-Masfety, V; Lee, S; McGrath, J J; O'Neill, S; Pennell, B-E; Scott, K; Ten Have, M; Torres, Y; Zaslavsky, A M; Zarkov, Z; Bruffaerts, R
Although mental disorders are significant predictors of educational attainment throughout the entire educational career, most research on mental disorders among students has focused on the primary and secondary school years. The World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys were used to examine the associations of mental disorders with college entry and attrition by comparing college students (n = 1572) and non-students in the same age range (18-22 years; n = 4178), including non-students who recently left college without graduating (n = 702) based on surveys in 21 countries (four low/lower-middle income, five upper-middle-income, one lower-middle or upper-middle at the times of two different surveys, and 11 high income). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence and age-of-onset of DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavioral and substance disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). One-fifth (20.3%) of college students had 12-month DSM-IV/CIDI disorders; 83.1% of these cases had pre-matriculation onsets. Disorders with pre-matriculation onsets were more important than those with post-matriculation onsets in predicting subsequent college attrition, with substance disorders and, among women, major depression the most important such disorders. Only 16.4% of students with 12-month disorders received any 12-month healthcare treatment for their mental disorders. Mental disorders are common among college students, have onsets that mostly occur prior to college entry, in the case of pre-matriculation disorders are associated with college attrition, and are typically untreated. Detection and effective treatment of these disorders early in the college career might reduce attrition and improve educational and psychosocial functioning.
Auerbach, Randy P.; Alonso, Jordi; Axinn, William G.; Cuijpers, Pim; Ebert, David D.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Hwang, Irving; Kessler, Ronald C.; Liu, Howard; Mortier, Philippe; Nock, Matthew K.; Pinder-Amaker, Stephanie; Sampson, Nancy A.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura H.; Benjet, Corina; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Karam, Elie G.; Kiejna, Andrzej; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; McGrath, John J.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Scott, Kate; ten Have, Margreet; Torres, Yolanda; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Zarkov, Zahari; Bruffaerts, Ronny
Background Although mental disorders are significant predictors of educational attainment throughout the entire educational career, most research on mental disorders among students has focused on the primary and secondary school years. Methods The World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys were used to examine the associations of mental disorders with college entry and attrition by comparing college students (n = 1,572) and nonstudents in the same age range (18–22; n = 4,178), including nonstudents who recently left college without graduating (n = 702) based on surveys in 21 countries (4 low/lower-middle income, 5 upper middle-income, 1 lower-middle or upper-middle at the times of two different surveys, and 11 high income). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence and age-of-onset of DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavioural and substance disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results One-fifth (20.3%) of college students had 12-month DSM-IV/CIDI disorders. 83.1% of these cases had pre-matriculation onsets. Disorders with pre-matriculation onsets were more important than those with post-matriculation onsets in predicting subsequent college attrition, with substance disorders and, among women, major depression the most important such disorders. Only 16.4% of students with 12-month disorders received any 12-month healthcare treatment for their mental disorders. Conclusions Mental disorders are common among college students, have onsets that mostly occur prior to college entry, in the case of pre-matriculation disorders are associated with college attrition, and are typically untreated. Detection and effective treatment of these disorders early in the college career might reduce attrition and improve educational and psychosocial functioning. PMID:27484622
Mukolo, Abraham; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Wallston, Kenneth A.
Objective: To describe the state of the literature on stigma associated with children's mental disorders and highlight gaps in empirical work. Method: We reviewed child mental illness stigma articles in (English only) peer-reviewed journals available through Medline and PsychInfo. We augmented these with adult-oriented stigma articles that focus…
seyed kamal Solati dehkordi
Conclusion: There is a strong relationship between psychological factors and IBS. Mental abnormalities such as depression, distress and somatic symptoms are prevalent among these individuals. So, paying attention to these mental disorders and use of non-medicinal treatment modalities along with medicinal treatments can lead to the reduction of treatment expense and better symptomatic therapy.
Objective: A randomized placebo-controlled trial of treatment for common mental disorders in Goa, India found that psychological treatment ... Conclusion: The severe nature of life problems faced by some patients with common mental .... the study period and were free to leave the study at any time. No restrictions were ...
Amanda J Baxter
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Population-based studies provide the understanding of health-need required for effective public health policy and service-planning. Mental disorders are an important but, until recently, neglected agenda in global health. This paper reviews the coverage and limitations in global epidemiological data for mental disorders and suggests strategies to strengthen the data. METHODS: Systematic reviews were conducted for population-based epidemiological studies in mental disorders to inform new estimates for the global burden of disease study. Estimates of population coverage were calculated, adjusted for study parameters (age, gender and sampling frames to quantify regional coverage. RESULTS: Of the 77,000 data sources identified, fewer than 1% could be used for deriving national estimates of prevalence, incidence, remission, and mortality in mental disorders. The two major limitations were (1 highly variable regional coverage, and (2 important methodological issues that prevented synthesis across studies, including the use of varying case definitions, the selection of samples not allowing generalization, lack of standardized indicators, and incomplete reporting. North America and Australasia had the most complete prevalence data for mental disorders while coverage was highly variable across Europe, Latin America, and Asia Pacific, and poor in other regions of Asia and Africa. Nationally-representative data for incidence, remission, and mortality were sparse across most of the world. DISCUSSION: Recent calls to action for global mental health were predicated on the high prevalence and disability of mental disorders. However, the global picture of disorders is inadequate for planning. Global data coverage is not commensurate with other important health problems, and for most of the world's population, mental disorders are invisible and remain a low priority.
Baxter, Amanda J.; Patton, George; Scott, Kate M.; Degenhardt, Louisa; Whiteford, Harvey A.
Background Population-based studies provide the understanding of health-need required for effective public health policy and service-planning. Mental disorders are an important but, until recently, neglected agenda in global health. This paper reviews the coverage and limitations in global epidemiological data for mental disorders and suggests strategies to strengthen the data. Methods Systematic reviews were conducted for population-based epidemiological studies in mental disorders to inform new estimates for the global burden of disease study. Estimates of population coverage were calculated, adjusted for study parameters (age, gender and sampling frames) to quantify regional coverage. Results Of the 77,000 data sources identified, fewer than 1% could be used for deriving national estimates of prevalence, incidence, remission, and mortality in mental disorders. The two major limitations were (1) highly variable regional coverage, and (2) important methodological issues that prevented synthesis across studies, including the use of varying case definitions, the selection of samples not allowing generalization, lack of standardized indicators, and incomplete reporting. North America and Australasia had the most complete prevalence data for mental disorders while coverage was highly variable across Europe, Latin America, and Asia Pacific, and poor in other regions of Asia and Africa. Nationally-representative data for incidence, remission, and mortality were sparse across most of the world. Discussion Recent calls to action for global mental health were predicated on the high prevalence and disability of mental disorders. However, the global picture of disorders is inadequate for planning. Global data coverage is not commensurate with other important health problems, and for most of the world's population, mental disorders are invisible and remain a low priority. PMID:23826081
Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Ramos, Mariana; Samalvides, Frine; Vega-Dienstmaier, Johann; Kruger, Hever
BACKGROUND: Traffic related injuries are leading contributors to burden of disease worldwide. In developing countries a high proportion of them can be attributed to public transportation vehicles. Several mental disorders including alcohol and drug abuse, psychotic disorders, mental stress, productivity pressure, and low monetary income were found predictors of high rates of traffic related injuries in public transportation drivers. The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of com...
Baxter, Amanda J; Patton, George; Scott, Kate M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Whiteford, Harvey A
Population-based studies provide the understanding of health-need required for effective public health policy and service-planning. Mental disorders are an important but, until recently, neglected agenda in global health. This paper reviews the coverage and limitations in global epidemiological data for mental disorders and suggests strategies to strengthen the data. Systematic reviews were conducted for population-based epidemiological studies in mental disorders to inform new estimates for the global burden of disease study. Estimates of population coverage were calculated, adjusted for study parameters (age, gender and sampling frames) to quantify regional coverage. Of the 77,000 data sources identified, fewer than 1% could be used for deriving national estimates of prevalence, incidence, remission, and mortality in mental disorders. The two major limitations were (1) highly variable regional coverage, and (2) important methodological issues that prevented synthesis across studies, including the use of varying case definitions, the selection of samples not allowing generalization, lack of standardized indicators, and incomplete reporting. North America and Australasia had the most complete prevalence data for mental disorders while coverage was highly variable across Europe, Latin America, and Asia Pacific, and poor in other regions of Asia and Africa. Nationally-representative data for incidence, remission, and mortality were sparse across most of the world. Recent calls to action for global mental health were predicated on the high prevalence and disability of mental disorders. However, the global picture of disorders is inadequate for planning. Global data coverage is not commensurate with other important health problems, and for most of the world's population, mental disorders are invisible and remain a low priority.
Ana Bernarda Ludermir
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To investigate the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence during pregnancy. METHODS : A cross sectional study was carried out with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18-49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Program in the city of Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Common mental disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Intimate partner violence was defined as psychologically, physically and sexually abusive acts committed against women by their partners. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were estimated for the association studied utilizing logistic regression analysis. RESULTS : The most common form of partner violence was psychological. The prevalence of common mental disorders was 71.0% among women who reported all form of violence in pregnancy and 33.8% among those who did not report intimate partner violence. Common mental disorders were associated with psychological violence (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.8;3.5, even without physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence was combined with physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher (OR 3.45; 95%CI 2.3;5.2. CONCLUSIONS : Being assaulted by someone with whom you are emotionally involved can trigger feelings of helplessness, low self-esteem and depression. The pregnancy probably increased women`s vulnerability to common mental disorders
Scott, Kate M; Lim, Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Hu, Chiyi; de Jonge, Peter; Kawakami, Norito; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; O'Neill, Siobhan; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Torres, Yolanda; Kessler, Ronald C
It is clear that mental disorders in treatment settings are associated with a higher incidence of chronic physical conditions, but whether this is true of mental disorders in the community, and how generalized (across a range of physical health outcomes) these associations are, is less clear. This information has important implications for mental health care and the primary prevention of chronic physical disease. To investigate associations of 16 temporally prior DSM-IV mental disorders with the subsequent onset or diagnosis of 10 chronic physical conditions. Eighteen face-to-face, cross-sectional household surveys of community-dwelling adults were conducted in 17 countries (47,609 individuals; 2,032,942 person-years) from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2011. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to retrospectively assess the lifetime prevalence and age at onset of DSM-IV-identified mental disorders. Data analysis was performed from January 3, 2012, to September 30, 2015. Lifetime history of physical conditions was ascertained via self-report of physician's diagnosis and year of onset or diagnosis. Survival analyses estimated the associations of temporally prior first onset of mental disorders with subsequent onset or diagnosis of physical conditions. Most associations between 16 mental disorders and subsequent onset or diagnosis of 10 physical conditions were statistically significant, with odds ratios (ORs) (95% CIs) ranging from 1.2 (1.0-1.5) to 3.6 (2.0-6.6). The associations were attenuated after adjustment for mental disorder comorbidity, but mood, anxiety, substance use, and impulse control disorders remained significantly associated with onset of between 7 and all 10 of the physical conditions (ORs [95% CIs] from 1.2 [1.1-1.3] to 2.0 [1.4-2.8]). An increasing number of mental disorders experienced over the life course was significantly associated with increasing odds of onset or diagnosis of all 10 types of physical conditions, with
Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Loera, Gustavo; Geraghty, Estella M.; Ton, Hendry; Lim, Carmen C. W.; de Jonge, Peter; Kessler, Ronald C.; Posada-Villa, Jose; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Hu, Chiyi; Fiestas, Fabian; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamoi, Giovanni; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Have, Margreet ten; O'Neill, Siobhan; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; Florescu, Silvia; Haro, Josep Maria; Scott, Kate M.
Objective: We investigated the associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent arthritis onset, with and without mental disorder comorbidity adjustment. We aimed to determine whether specific types of mental disorders and increasing numbers of mental disorders were associated with the
Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Knappe, Susanne; Andersson, Gerhard
Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories, principles, and methodological approaches to understand mental health, abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope, current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may...... help to depict the advances needed to inform future research agendas specifically on mental health and mental disorders. From an integrative psychological perspective, most maladaptive health behaviours and mental disorders can be conceptualized as the result of developmental dysfunctions...... of psychological functions and processes as well as neurobiological and genetic processes that interact with the environment. The paper presents and discusses an integrative translational model, linking basic and experimental research with clinical research as well as population-based prospective...
He, Y; Zhang, M; Lin, E H B; Bruffaerts, R; Posada-Villa, J; Angermeyer, M C; Levinson, D; de Girolamo, G; Uda, H; Mneimneh, Z; Benjet, C; de Graaf, R; Scott, K M; Gureje, O; Seedat, S; Haro, J M; Bromet, E J; Alonso, J; von Korff, M; Kessler, R
Prior studies in the USA have reported higher rates of mental disorders among persons with arthritis but no cross-national studies have been conducted. In this study the prevalence of specific mental disorders among persons with arthritis was estimated and their association with arthritis across diverse countries assessed. The study was a series of cross-sectional population sample surveys. Eighteen population surveys of household-residing adults were carried out in 17 countries in different regions of the world. Most were carried out between 2001 and 2002, but others were completed as late as 2007. Mental disorders were assessed with the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI). Arthritis was ascertained by self-report. The association of anxiety disorders, mood disorders and alcohol use disorders with arthritis was assessed, controlling for age and sex. Prevalence rates for specific mental disorders among persons with and without arthritis were calculated and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were used to estimate the association. After adjusting for age and sex, specific mood and anxiety disorders occurred among persons with arthritis at higher rates than among persons without arthritis. Alcohol abuse/dependence showed a weaker and less consistent association with arthritis. The pooled estimates of the age- and sex-adjusted ORs were about 1.9 for mood disorders and for anxiety disorders and about 1.5 for alcohol abuse/dependence among persons with versus without arthritis. The pattern of association between specific mood and anxiety disorders and arthritis was similar across countries. Mood and anxiety disorders occur with greater frequency among persons with arthritis than those without arthritis across diverse countries. The strength of association of specific mood and anxiety disorders with arthritis was generally consistent across disorders and across countries.
Phan Minh Trang
Full Text Available Studies in high-income countries have shown an association between heatwaves and hospital admissions for mental disorders. It is unknown whether such associations exist in subtropical nations like Vietnam. The study aim was to investigate whether hospital admissions for mental disorders may be triggered, or exacerbated, by heat exposure and heatwaves, in a low- and middle-income country, Vietnam. For this, we used data from the Hanoi Mental Hospital over five years (2008-2012 to estimate the effect of heatwaves on admissions for mental disorders. A zero-inflated negative binomial regression model accounting for seasonality, time trend, days of week, and mean humidity was used to analyse the relationship. Heatwave events were mainly studied as periods of three or seven consecutive days above the threshold of 35°C daily maximum temperature (90th percentile. The study result showed heatwaves increased the risk for admission in the whole group of mental disorders (F00-79 for more persistent heatwaves of at least 3 days when compared with non-heatwave periods. The relative risks were estimated at 1.04 (0.95-1.13, 1.15 (1.005-1.31, and 1.36 (1-1.90 for a one-, three- and seven-day heatwave, respectively. Admissions for mental disorders increased among men, residents in rural communities, and the elderly population during heatwaves. The groups of organic mental disorders, including symptomatic illnesses (F0-9 and mental retardation (F70-79, had increased admissions during heatwaves. The findings are novel in their focus on heatwave impact on mental diseases in a population habituating in a subtropical low- and middle-income country characterized by rapid epidemiological transitions and environmental changes.
Trang, Phan Minh; Rocklöv, Joacim; Giang, Kim Bao; Kullgren, Gunnar; Nilsson, Maria
Studies in high-income countries have shown an association between heatwaves and hospital admissions for mental disorders. It is unknown whether such associations exist in subtropical nations like Vietnam. The study aim was to investigate whether hospital admissions for mental disorders may be triggered, or exacerbated, by heat exposure and heatwaves, in a low- and middle-income country, Vietnam. For this, we used data from the Hanoi Mental Hospital over five years (2008-2012) to estimate the effect of heatwaves on admissions for mental disorders. A zero-inflated negative binomial regression model accounting for seasonality, time trend, days of week, and mean humidity was used to analyse the relationship. Heatwave events were mainly studied as periods of three or seven consecutive days above the threshold of 35°C daily maximum temperature (90th percentile). The study result showed heatwaves increased the risk for admission in the whole group of mental disorders (F00-79) for more persistent heatwaves of at least 3 days when compared with non-heatwave periods. The relative risks were estimated at 1.04 (0.95-1.13), 1.15 (1.005-1.31), and 1.36 (1-1.90) for a one-, three- and seven-day heatwave, respectively. Admissions for mental disorders increased among men, residents in rural communities, and the elderly population during heatwaves. The groups of organic mental disorders, including symptomatic illnesses (F0-9) and mental retardation (F70-79), had increased admissions during heatwaves. The findings are novel in their focus on heatwave impact on mental diseases in a population habituating in a subtropical low- and middle-income country characterized by rapid epidemiological transitions and environmental changes.
Demyttenaere, K; Bruffaerts, R; Posada-Villa, J; Gasquet, [No Value; Kovess, [No Value; Lepine, JP; Angermeyer, MC; Bernert, S; de Girolamo, G; Morosini, P; Polidori, G; Kikkawa, T; Kawakami, N; Ono, Y; Takeshima, T; Uda, H; Karam, EG; Fayyad, JA; Karam, AN; Mneimneh, ZN; Medina-Mora, ME; Borges, G; Lara, C; de Graaf, R; Ormel, J; Gureje, O; Shen, YC; Huang, YQ; Zhang, MY; Alonso, J; Haro, JM; Vilagut, G; Bromet, EJ; Gluzman, S; Webb, C; Kessler, RC; Merikangas, KR; Anthony, JC; Von Korff, MR; Wang, PS; Alonso, J; Brugha, TS; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Lee, S; Heeringa, S; Pennell, BE; Zaslavsky, AM; Ustun, TB; Chatterji, S
Context Little is known about the extent or severity of untreated mental disorders, especially in less-developed countries. Objective To estimate prevalence, severity, and treatment of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders in 14 countries (6
José Luis Jiménez López
Full Text Available High demand of care and the academic burden of courses of specialization in medicine affect the mental health of medical residents with events ranging from simple emotional discomfort to development of affective disorders in susceptible individuals. The suicide of physicians has produced programs for their attention in some countries. We present the first mental health clinic for residents of a high specialty hospital in Mexico, focused on the prevention of suicide and depression, treatment of mental disorders and mental health promotion. Unlike the reports of other countries, we get participation of more than 95%, we provide appropriate treatment and follow-up to residents with mental disorder, and there has not been a consummate suicide. We assume that the use of different strategies (scrutiny, adapting models of prevention of suicide as a peer and gatekeeper training, informative sessions of mental health promotion and stigma, interventions targeted at individuals and groups with conflicts has been useful against barriers that do not allow doctors to identify the risk of suicide warning signs, seek help for mental disorder, and seek to improve their mental health.
Wittchen, H.-U.; Knappe, S.; Andersson, G.; Araya, R.; Banos Rivera, R.M.; Barkham, M.; Bech, P.; Beckers, T.; Berger, T.; Berking, M.; Berrocal, C.; Botella, C.; Carlbring, P.; Chouinard, G.; Colom, F.; Csillag, C.; Cuijpers, P.; David, D.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Essau, C.A.; Fava, G.A.; Goschke, T.; Hermans, D.; Hofmann, S.G.; Lutz, W.; Muris, P.; Ollendick, T.H.; Raes, F.; Rief, W.; Riper, H.; Tossani, E.; van der Oord, S.; Vervliet, B.; Haro, J.M.; Schumann, G.
Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories, principles, and methodological approaches to understand mental health, abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope, current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may
Wahlbeck, Kristian; Westman, Jeanette; Nordentoft, Merete; Gissler, Mika; Laursen, Thomas Munk
People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision. To evaluate trends in health outcomes of people with serious mental disorders. We examined nationwide 5-year consecutive cohorts of people admitted to hospital for mental disorders in Denmark, Finland and Sweden in 1987-2006. In each country the risk population was identified from hospital discharge registers and mortality data were retrieved from cause-of-death registers. The main outcome measure was life expectancy at age 15 years. People admitted to hospital for a mental disorder had a two- to threefold higher mortality than the general population in all three countries studied. This gap in life expectancy was more pronounced for men than for women. The gap decreased between 1987 and 2006 in these countries, especially for women. The notable exception was Swedish men with mental disorders. In spite of the positive general trend, men with mental disorders still live 20 years less, and women 15 years less, than the general population. During the era of deinstitutionalisation the life expectancy gap for people with mental disorders has somewhat diminished in the three Nordic countries. Our results support further development of the Nordic welfare state model, i.e. tax-funded community-based public services and social protection. Health promotion actions, improved access to healthcare and prevention of suicides and violence are needed to further reduce the life expectancy gap.
This paper discusses interrelations between creativity, mental disorders and their treatment. The psychology of creativity is very important for successful psychopharmacotherapy, but our knowledge about creativity is still insufficient. Even that which is known is not within the armamentarium of most practicing psychiatrists. In the first part of this article creativity and possible associations between creativity, mental health, and well-being are described. The second part deals with the intriguing relationship between creativity and mental disorders. The third part emphasizes the role of creativity in the treatment of mental disorders. This paper ends by underlining the importance of a creativity-enhancing oriented, and personal recovery-focused psychopharmacotherapy in helping psychiatric patients achieve fulfilled and purposeful lives.
more than 15% of South African adults are infected with HIV,3 and 16%, 10% and 13% of South African adults have had an anxiety, mood or substance-related disorder in their lifetime.4. Better understanding of the inter-relationships between common mental disorders and HIV/AIDS-related behaviours and risk perception ...
or illness in the family, interpersonal violence, financial difficulties) have commonly been associated with risk of mood and anxiety disorders.8-11 Past studies have also linked distal events, such as adversities in childhood (e.g. parental death/separation/divorce), to the onset of common mental disorders in adulthood.8,12 A ...
There are few data from South Africa and other low- and middle-income countries on how mental disorders in childhood and adolescence may influence different aspects of socio-economic position, including educational attainment. We examined the association between early-onset disorders and subsequent educational ...
Bould, Helen; Koupil, Ilona; Dalman, Christina; DeStavola, Bianca; Lewis, Glyn; Magnusson, Cecilia
To investigate which parental mental illnesses are associated with eating disorders in their offspring. We used data from a record-linkage cohort study of 158,679 children aged 12-24 years at the end of follow-up, resident in Stockholm County from 2001 to 2007, to investigate whether different parental mental illnesses are risk factors for eating disorders in their offspring. The outcome measure was diagnosis of any eating disorder, either from an ICD or DSM-IV code, or inferred from an appointment at a specialist eating disorder clinic. Mental illness in parents is a risk factor for eating disorders in female offspring (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) 1.57 (95% CI 1.42, 1.92), p eating disorders is increased if there is a parental diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (AHR 2.28 (95% CI 1.39, 3.72), p = 0.004), personality disorder (AHR 1.57 (95% CI 1.01, 2.44), p = 0.043) or anxiety/depression (AHR 1.57 (95% CI 1.32, 1.86), p disorder (AHR 1.25 (95% CI 0.74, 2.13), p = 0.40). There is no support for a relationship between parental substance misuse and eating disorders in children (AHR 1.08 (95% CI 0.82, 1.43), p = 0.57). Parental mental illness, specifically parental anxiety, depression, bipolar affective disorder, and personality disorders, are risk factors for eating disorders in their offspring. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nicolas, C; Chawky, N; Jourdan-Ionescu, C; Drouin, M-S; Page, C; Houlfort, N; Beauchamp, G; Séguin, M
According to the World Health Organization, depression has become the leading cause of disability in the world, contributing significantly to the burden of health issues especially in the industrialized countries. This is a major public health problem, with potential impact on work climates, productivity at work and the continued existence of the organizations. Some recent studies have examined potential links between professional factors and common mental health disorders, but none have demonstrated a direct causal link. In the present study, we explored possible links between work-related stressors and common mental health disorders, with the objective of determining priority mental health prevention axes. The study used a life trajectory method. We compared professional stressors and difficulties present in other spheres of life in the last five years between two groups: a group of 29 participants with common mental health disorders during the last five years (depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, substance use disorders, pathological gambling), and a group of 29 participants who have not experienced a mental health disorder in the last five years. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with the participants using a life course analysis method. Each participant was interviewed during two or three meetings of two to three hour duration. Questions regarding difficulties in different spheres of life and mental health were asked. More precisely, data were collected with regards to the presence or absence of mental health disorders in the last five years and the nature of mental health disorders and difficulties. Moreover, we collected data pertaining to the most important positive and negative events in different spheres of life that were present in the last five years, including family life, romantic relationships, social life, academic difficulties, losses and separations, episodes of personal difficulties, financial difficulties as well as
Ngui, Emmanuel M; Khasakhala, Lincoln; Ndetei, David; Roberts, Laura Weiss
The global burden of neuropsychiatry diseases and related mental health conditions is enormous, underappreciated and under resourced, particularly in the developing nations. The absence of adequate and quality mental health infrastructure and workforce is increasingly recognized. The ethical implications of inequalities in mental health for people and nations are profound and must be addressed in efforts to fulfil key bioethics principles of medicine and public health: respect for individuals, justice, beneficence, and non-malfeasance. Stigma and discrimination against people living with mental disorders affects their education, employment, access to care and hampers their capacity to contribute to society. Mental health well-being is closely associated to several Millennium Development Goals and economic development sectors including education, labour force participation, and productivity. Limited access to mental health care increases patient and family suffering. Unmet mental health needs have a negative effect on poverty reduction initiatives and economic development. Untreated mental conditions contribute to economic loss because they increase school and work absenteeism and dropout rates, healthcare expenditure, and unemployment. Addressing unmet mental health needs will require development of better mental health infrastructure and workforce and overall integration of mental and physical health services with primary care, especially in the developing nations.
Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis
Full Text Available Background and problem statement: Integrated care for mental disorders aims to encompass forms of collaboration between different health care settings for the treatment of mental disorders. To this end, it requires integration at several levels, i.e. integration of psychiatry in medicine, of the psychiatric discourse in the medical discourse; of localization of mental health care and general health care facilities; and of reimbursement systems. Description of policy practice: Steps have been taken in the last decade to meet these requirements, enabling psychiatry to move on towards integrated treatment of mental disorder as such, by development of a collaborative care model that includes structural psychiatric consultation that was found to be applicable and effective in several Dutch health care settings. This collaborative care model is a feasible and effective model for integrated care in several health care settings. The Bio Psycho Social System has been developed as a feasible instrument for assessment in integrated care as well.Discussion: The discipline of Psychiatry has moved from anti-psychiatry in the last century, towards an emancipated medical discipline. This enabled big advances towards integrated care for mental disorder, in collaboration with other medical disciplines, in the last decade.Conclusion: Now is the time to further expand this concept of care towards other mental disorders, and towards integrated care for medical and mental co-morbidity. Integrated care for mental disorder should be readily available to the patient, according to his/her preference, taking somatic co-morbidity into account, and with a focus on rehabilitation of the patient in his or her social roles.
Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter
Mentalization is the process by which we implicitly and explicitly interpret the actions of ourselves and others as meaningful based on intentional mental states (e.g., desires, needs, feelings, beliefs, and reasons). This process is disrupted in individuals with comorbid antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD), who tend to misinterpret others' motives. Antisocial characteristics stabilize mentalizing by rigidifying relationships within prementalistic ways of functioning. However, loss of flexibility makes the person vulnerable to sudden collapse when the schematic representation is challenged. This exposes feelings of humiliation, which can only be avoided by violence and control of the other person. The common path to violence is via a momentary inhibition of the capacity for mentalization. In this article, the authors outline their current understanding of mentalizing and its relation to antisocial characteristics and violence. This is illustrated by a clinical account of mentalization-based treatment adapted for antisocial personality disorder. Treatment combines group and individual therapy. The focus is on helping patients maintain mentalizing about their own mental states when their personal integrity is challenged. A patient with ASPD does not have mental pain associated with another's state of mind; thus, to generate conflict in ASPD by thinking about the victim will typically be ineffective in inducing behavior change.
Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter
Mentalization is the process by which we implicitly and explicitly interpret the actions of ourselves and others as meaningful based on intentional mental states (e.g., desires, needs, feelings, beliefs, and reasons). This process is disrupted in individuals with comorbid antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD), who tend to misinterpret others' motives. Antisocial characteristics stabilize mentalizing by rigidifying relationships within prementalistic ways of functioning. However, loss of flexibility makes the person vulnerable to sudden collapse when the schematic representation is challenged. This exposes feelings of humiliation, which can only be avoided by violence and control of the other person. The common path to violence is via a momentary inhibition of the capacity for mentalization. In this article, the authors outline their current understanding of mentalizing and its relation to antisocial characteristics and violence. This is illustrated by a clinical account of mentalization-based treatment adapted for antisocial personality disorder. Treatment combines group and individual therapy. The focus is on helping patients maintain mentalizing about their own mental states when their personal integrity is challenged. A patient with ASPD does not have mental pain associated with another's state of mind; thus, to generate conflict in ASPD by thinking about the victim will typically be ineffective in inducing behavior change. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc
Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Markser, Valentin Z
The prevalence of psychiatric conditions among elite athletes is still under debate. More and more evidence has accumulated that high-performance athletes are not protected from mental disorders as previously thought. The authors discuss the issue of the sport specificity of selected mental diseases in elite athletes. Specific aspects of eating disorders, exercise addiction, chronic traumatic encephalopathy and mood disorders in the context of overtraining syndrome are examined. In particular, the interrelationship between life and work characteristics unique to elite athletes and the development of mental disorders are reviewed. Differences of clinical presentation and some therapeutic consequences are discussed. The authors suggest that the physical and mental strains endured by elite athletes might influence the onset and severity of their psychiatric disorder. Beside the existing research strategies dealing with the amount of exercise, its intensity and lack of recreation experienced by athletes, further research on psycho-social factors is needed to better understand the sport-specific aetiology of mental disorders in high-performance athletes.
Bruffaerts, Ronny; Posada-Villa, Jose; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Gureje, Oye; Huang, Yueqin; Hu, Chiyi; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Hinkov, Hristo Ruskov; Karam, Elie G.; Borges, Guilherme; Florescu, Silvia E.; Williams, David R.; Demyttenaere, Koen; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Matschinger, Herbert; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Ono, Yutaka; de Graaf, Ron; Browne, Mark Oakley; Bunting, Brendan; Xavier, Miguel; Haro, Josep Maria; Kessler, Ronald C.
Background Previous research suggests that many people receiving mental health treatment do not meet criteria for a mental disorder but are rather ‘the worried well’. Aims To examine the association of past-year mental health treatment with DSM-IV disorders. Method The World Health Organization’s World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys interviewed community samples of adults in 23 countries (n = 62 305) about DSM-IV disorders and treatment in the past 12 months for problems with emotions, alcohol or drugs. Results Roughly half (52%) of people who received treatment met criteria for a past-year DSM-IV disorder, an additional 18% for a lifetime disorder and an additional 13% for other indicators of need (multiple subthreshold disorders, recent stressors or suicidal behaviours). Dose-response associations were found between number of indicators of need and treatment. Conclusions The vast majority of treatment in the WMH countries goes to patients with mental disorders or other problems expected to benefit from treatment. PMID:25395690
Torales, Julio; Barrios, Iván; González, Israel
Patients with mental disorders are subject to a greater number of risk factors for oral and dental disease than the general population. This is mostly caused by the side effects of the medications that they receive, lack of self-care, difficulty to access health services, a negative attitude towards healthcare providers, and patients lack of cooperation in dental treatments. The most common psychiatric disorders in our population are depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and dementia. In disorders such as anxiety and depression, the main issue is the loss of interest in self-care, which results in a poor hygiene. The most frequent oral and dental diseases in these patients are dental cavities and periodontal disease. The purpose of this brief review is to provide up-to-date information about the management of oral and dental diseases of patients with mental disorders.
Mental disorders constitute 13% of the global disease burden. Schizophrenia, major depressive disorders (MDD) and bipolar disorders are among the most disabling disorders. Some of the inflammatory markers such as homocysteine, tumor necrosis alpha (TNF), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin (IL)-6 have a contribution to influence mental disorder. The serum concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) wasusedas a nonspecific index of systemic inflammation. Elevated levels of CRP as evidence for an inflammatory etiology of schizophrenia, and as indicators of more severe clinical symptoms and psychopathology of schizophrenia. The inflammatory marker also increases in the depressed patient. Proinflammatory cytokines might inhibit hippocampal neurogenesis which could lead to a reduced hippocampal volume, which is in depression. Anxiety symptoms were correlated to increase cytokine levels. Elevated inflammation in particular found in both men and women with the onset of anxiety disorder later in life.
Buchanan, Alec; Zonana, Howard
An offender's punishment can be reduced when a court decides that his mental disorder reduces his responsibility for what he did. Courts have sought to establish whether a mentally disordered offender's responsibility is reduced by asking whether his disorder caused the crime. Acceptance of this "causation by mental disorder" criterion has fluctuated, however. This may be because causal explanations are not the types of explanations we are accustomed to offering for the kinds of acts that bring defendants, and psychiatric witnesses, to court. More often, we offer what philosophers have called "possibility" explanations for these acts. The application of psychiatry to possibility explanations has not been widely explored. It offers the potential for the improved use of psychiatric evidence in criminal proceedings.
Yahata, Noriaki; Kasai, Kiyoto; Kawato, Mitsuo
Psychiatry research has long experienced a stagnation stemming from a lack of understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of phenomenologically defined mental disorders. Recently, the application of computational neuroscience to psychiatry research has shown great promise in establishing a link between phenomenological and pathophysiological aspects of mental disorders, thereby recasting current nosology in more biologically meaningful dimensions. In this review, we highlight recent investigations into computational neuroscience that have undertaken either theory- or data-driven approaches to quantitatively delineate the mechanisms of mental disorders. The theory-driven approach, including reinforcement learning models, plays an integrative role in this process by enabling correspondence between behavior and disorder-specific alterations at multiple levels of brain organization, ranging from molecules to cells to circuits. Previous studies have explicated a plethora of defining symptoms of mental disorders, including anhedonia, inattention, and poor executive function. The data-driven approach, on the other hand, is an emerging field in computational neuroscience seeking to identify disorder-specific features among high-dimensional big data. Remarkably, various machine-learning techniques have been applied to neuroimaging data, and the extracted disorder-specific features have been used for automatic case-control classification. For many disorders, the reported accuracies have reached 90% or more. However, we note that rigorous tests on independent cohorts are critically required to translate this research into clinical applications. Finally, we discuss the utility of the disorder-specific features found by the data-driven approach to psychiatric therapies, including neurofeedback. Such developments will allow simultaneous diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders using neuroimaging, thereby establishing 'theranostics' for the first time in clinical
Full Text Available The European migrant crisis is one of the 21st century’s biggest challenges so far. Forced migration touches millions of peoples’ life. Some societies have sent many immigrants abroad, some have received or hosted, and still others have been in transit along paths of migration. Refugee mental health is a psychiatric challenge of the century. The demand for mental healthcare among people fleeing war and persecution can only grow further.
Zvereva M. V.
Full Text Available The article presents analyze the phenomenon of procrastination and indirect manifestations of aggression in young people in normal health and mental disorders. Procrastination - a frequent phenomenon among young people, for this category the term “academic procrastination”; the high level of the various manifestations of aggression can also accompany adolescents in health and disease. The purpose of research is analysis of the relationship of procrastination and manifestations of aggression in health and mental disorders in adolescence. A complex of methods of psychological diagnosis, which included: questionnaire “Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students” (PASS, Solomon & Rothblum, 1984 Rosenzweig Frustration Test, Wagners Hand Test. We studied two samples of subjects 18-25 years: a control group of healthy young people (boys and girls - 61 people, the experimental group - young people of both sexes who had mental disorders (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, affective disorders bipolar disorder, personality disorder – 57. The results indicate the presence of the specific nature of components procrastination and indirect aggression manifestations of different levels at a young age for mental pathology
Mental disorders are common in almost all industrialized countries and many emerging economies. While several trials have shown that effective treatments exist for mental disorders, such as pharmacotherapy, psychological interventions, and self-help programs, the treatment gap in mental health care remains pervasive. Unrestricted access to adequate medical care for people with mental disorders will be one of the pressing public mental health tasks in the near future. In addition, scarcity of financial resources across the public mental health sector is a powerful argument for investigating innovative alternatives of delivering mental health care. Thus, one challenge that arises in modern mental health care is the development of innovative treatment concepts. One possibility for improving mental health care services is to deliver them via the Internet. Online-based mental health services have the potential to address the unmet need for mental health care.
Full Text Available Mental disorders are common in almost all industrialized countries and many emerging economies. While several trials have shown that effective treatments exist for mental disorders, such as pharmacotherapy, psychological interventions, and self-help programs, the treatment gap in mental health care remains pervasive. Unrestricted access to adequate medical care for people with mental disorders will be one of the pressing public mental health tasks in the near future. In addition, scarcity of financial resources across the public mental health sector is a powerful argument for investigating innovative alternatives of delivering mental health care. Thus, one challenge that arises in modern mental health care is the development of innovative treatment concepts. One possibility for improving mental health care services is to deliver them via the Internet. Online-based mental health services have the potential to address the unmet need for mental health care.
Quitian, Hoover; Ruiz-Gaviria, Rafael E; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rondón, Martin
Poverty has been associated in some studies with poorer outcomes in mental problems and disorders. A circular relationship has been considered in which poverty fosters the appearance of mental illness and this facilitates greater poverty. There are no studies in Colombia on this subject. To describe the association between mental problems and disorders and poverty according to the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) in Colombia. Using the 2015 National Mental Health Survey, adjusted with the expansion factors for the population. The prevalences of mental problems and disorders obtained through semi-structured interviews employing the instruments SRQ-20, AUDIT C and A, modified PCL, familiar APGAR and CIDI CAPI. The poverty status was determined by the MPI. A total of 13,200 households were interviewed, of which 13.5% were classified as in a poverty condition, 6.3% of the adolescents of poor households reported a life-time prevalence of any mental disorder, and 4.6% in the last 12 months. On the other hand, the prevalences for the same age group not in a poverty condition were 7.2% and 3.3%, respectively. For adults in poverty, the prevalence of life-time mental disorders were 9.2%, with 4.3% in the last year, while those not considered poor showed prevalences of 9.1% and 3.9% for the same time periods. For the population of Colombia, there is a relationship between not being able to access the basic basket of goods and the presence of mental diseases, although there does not seems to be an association between an increase in poverty and the deterioration of mental health. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Fone, David Lawrence; Dunstan, Frank David John; John, Ann; Lloyd, Keith
Background The relationship between the Mental Illness Needs Index (MINI) and the common mental disorders is not known.\\ud \\ud Aims To investigate associations between the small-area MINI score and common mental disorder at individual level.\\ud \\ud Method Mental health status was measured using the Mental Health Inventory of the Short Form 36 instrument (SF–36). Data from the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs population survey were analysed in multilevel models of 10 653 individuals aged 18–...
McLaughlin, Katie A; Gadermann, Anne M; Hwang, Irving; Sampson, Nancy A; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura Helena; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo Ruskov; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Aimee Nasser; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Murphy, Samuel D; Nizamie, S Haque; Posada-Villa, José; Williams, David R; Kessler, Ronald C
Associations between specific parent and offspring mental disorders are likely to have been overestimated in studies that have failed to control for parent comorbidity. To examine the associations of parent with respondent disorders. Data come from the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health Surveys (n = 51 507). Respondent disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and parent disorders with informant-based Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria interviews. Although virtually all parent disorders examined (major depressive, generalised anxiety, panic, substance and antisocial behaviour disorders and suicidality) were significantly associated with offspring disorders in multivariate analyses, little specificity was found. Comorbid parent disorders had significant sub-additive associations with offspring disorders. Population-attributable risk proportions for parent disorders were 12.4% across all offspring disorders, generally higher in high- and upper-middle- than low-/lower-middle-income countries, and consistently higher for behaviour (11.0-19.9%) than other (7.1-14.0%) disorders. Parent psychopathology is a robust non-specific predictor associated with a substantial proportion of offspring disorders.
McLaughlin, Katie A.; Gadermann, Anne M.; Hwang, Irving; Sampson, Nancy A.; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura Helena; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo Ruskov; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Aimee Nasser; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Murphy, Samuel D.; Nizamie, S. Haque; Posada-Villa, José; Williams, David R.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Background Associations between specific parent and offspring mental disorders are likely to have been overestimated in studies that have failed to control for parent comorbidity. Aims To examine the associations of parent with respondent disorders. Method Data come from the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health Surveys (n = 51 507). Respondent disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and parent disorders with informant-based Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria interviews. Results Although virtually all parent disorders examined (major depressive, generalised anxiety, panic, substance and antisocial behaviour disorders and suicidality) were significantly associated with offspring disorders in multivariate analyses, little specificity was found. Comorbid parent disorders had significant sub-additive associations with offspring disorders. Population-attributable risk proportions for parent disorders were 12.4% across all offspring disorders, generally higher in high- and upper-middle- than low-/lower-middle-income countries, and consistently higher for behaviour (11.0-19.9%) than other (7.1-14.0%) disorders. Conclusions Parent psychopathology is a robust non-specific predictor associated with a substantial proportion of offspring disorders. PMID:22403085
Marcela Franklin Salvador de Mendonça
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of intimate partner violence against women reported in the last 12 months and seven years with the incidence of common mental disorders. METHODS A prospective cohort study with 390 women from 18 to 49 years, registered in the Family Health Program of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco; from July 2013 to December 2014. The Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20 assessed mental health. Intimate partner violence consists of concrete acts of psychological, physical or sexual violence that the partner inflicts on the woman. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RR of the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence. RESULTS The incidence of common mental disorders was 44.6% among women who reported intimate partner violence in the last 12 months and 43.4% among those who reported in the past seven years. Mental disorders remained associated with psychological violence (RR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.9–4.7 and RR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.0–3.7 in the last 12 months, and seven years, respectively, even in the absence of physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence were related to physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher, both in the last 12 months (RR = 3.1; 95%CI 2.1–4.7 and in the last seven years (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.7–3.8. CONCLUSIONS Intimate partner violence is associated with the incidence of common mental disorders in women. The treatment of the consequences of IPV and support for women in seeking protection for themselves for public services is essential.
Reiter, Melanie; Bock, Astrid; Althoff, Marie-Luise; Taubner, Svenja; Sevecke, Kathrin
Mentalization Based Treatment of an Adolescent Girl with Conduct Disorder This paper will give a short overview on the theoretical concept of mentalization and its specific characteristics in adolescence. A previous study on Mentalization based treatment for adolescents (MBT-A) demonstrated the effectiveness of MBT-A for the treatment of adolescents with symptoms of deliberate self-harm (Rossouw u. Fonagy, 2012). Based on the results of this study Taubner, Gablonski, Sevecke, and Volkert (in preparation) developed a manual for mentalization based treatment for adolescents with conduct disorders (MBT-CD). This manual represents the foundation for a future study on the efficacy of the MBT-A for this specific disorder in young people. The present case report demonstrates the application of specific MBT interventions, as well as the therapeutic course over one year in a 16-year old girl who fulfilled all criteria of a conduct disorder. During the course of treatment, the de-escalating relationship-oriented therapeutic approach can be considered as a great strength of MBT-A, especially for patients with conduct disorders. The clinical picture, as well as the psychological assessment, showed a positive progress over the course of treatment. Despite frequent escalations, forced placements due to acute endangerment of self and others, and a precarious situation with the patient's place of residence towards the end of therapy, MBT-A treatment enabled the patient to continually use the evolved mentalizing capabilities as a resource.
Viviane Ferrari Gomes
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this study reports an association between Common Mental Disorders and the socio-demographic and pharmacotherapy profiles of 106 patients cared for by a Primary Health Care unit in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. METHOD: this is a cross-sectional descriptive exploratory study with a quantitative approach. Structured interviews and validated instruments were used to collect data. The Statistical Package for Social Science was used for analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of Common Mental Disorders was 50%. An association was found between Common Mental Disorders and the variables occupation, family income, number of prescribed medications and number of pills taken a day. Greater therapy non-adherence was observed among those who tested positive for Common Mental Disorders. CONCLUSION: this study's results show the importance of health professionals working in PHC to be able to detect needs of a psychological nature among their patients and to support the implementation of actions to prevent the worsening of Common Mental Disorders.
Cabrera Mateos, J L; Touriño González, R; Núñez González, E
Despite its high prevalence, mental disorders are often underdiagnosed. To determine the magnitude of the underdiagnosis mental disorders and its associated characteristics. A descriptive cross-sectional study performed in Lanzarote (2011) on 310 patients selected by cluster random sampling. A self-completed questionnaire was used that contained the General Health Questionnaire-28, as well as structured interview using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview to confirm the diagnosis of mental disorder. The current diagnosis registered in the DRAGO-AP electronic medical record was also recorded. Of the 75 patients detected with the interview, 14 (18.67%) had a diagnosis recorded in the medical record (sensitivity=0.19; IC 95% CI; 0.09-28). The positive predictive value of being in the medical record was 0.56. With respect to sensitivity, only the "number of visits made to the health centre in the last 3 months" was significantly higher in the group of patients also with a diagnosis of any mental disorder in the medical record (5 vs. 2.77; p=.002). There is an important underdiagnosis of the mental disorders in our environment. More visits to the health centre are associated with this diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Rune Kristian Lundedal
"addiction" and describes how gambling disorder (the only officially recognized behavioral addiction) came to be defined as an addiction. Chapter 2 will take a look at the negative consequences of video game play that are most commonly cited in the literature on game addiction. This review will show how...... "video game addiction" exists. The chapter highlights potential problems that arise when psychiatric disorders are transferred across cultures. The dissertation concludes that there is insufficient scientific evidence to support the notion that "Internet gaming disorder" is an addictive disorder....
Hope, Sigrun; Melle, Ingrid; Aukrust, Pål; Agartz, Ingrid; Lorentzen, Steinar; Steen, Nils Eiel; Djurovic, Srdjan; Ueland, Thor; Andreassen, Ole A.
Background Severe mental disorders are associated with elevated levels of inflammatory markers. In the present study, we investigated whether osteoprotegerin (OPG), a member of the tumour necrosis factor receptor family involved in calcification and inflammation, is elevated in patients with severe mental disorders. Methods We measured the plasma levels of OPG in patients with severe mental disorders (n = 312; 125 with bipolar disorder and 187 with schizophrenia) and healthy volunteers (n = 239). Results The mean plasma levels of OPG were significantly higher in patients than in controls (t531 = 2.6, p = 0.01), with the same pattern in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The increase was significant after adjustment for possible confounding variables, including age, sex, ethnic background, alcohol consumption, liver and kidney function, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune diseases and levels of cholesterol, glucose and C-reactive protein. Limitations Owing to the cross-sectional design, it is difficult to determine causality. Conclusion Our results indicate that elevated OPG levels are associated with severe mental disorders and suggest that mechanisms related to calcification and inflammation may play a role in disease development. PMID:20569643
Gong, An Tong; Furnham, Adrian
This study was concerned with the general mental health literacy of lay people in mainland China. It replicates in part many studies done in America, Australia, and Europe. A total of 212 participants were asked to read vignettes depicting people with schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, depression, bipolar disorder, stress, child attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), child depression, and child "daily troubles." For each vignette they were asked to label the vignette character's main problem, to evaluate various suggestions for helping that person, to rate their attitudes towards the character, and finally their confidence in all their responses. Overall ADHD was the best identified, and bipolar disorder and stress were the least frequently identified mental health disorders. Professional help from a psychologist/psychiatrist was most frequently endorsed for all disorders, which was followed by help from parents or friends. No significant correlation was found between psychological knowledge and "correct" recognition as defined by the psychiatric label. The findings were discussed in relation to the Chinese language and culture, social beliefs about mental disorders, and suggestions for improvements in mental health literacy. Limitations of this study were also acknowledged, particularly with respect to sampling. Suggestions for future work research were considered. © 2014 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Aim The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the association between mental disorder and risk of sexual HIV transmission in a low-income country with a generalized HIV epidemic. Specific objectives were to investigate in Uganda, (1) the association between common mental disorder and sexual risk behaviour, (2) how severe mental disorder could influence sexual risk behaviour, (3) the prevalence of HIV in persons with severe mental disorder, and (4) the association of severe mental d...
Esan, Oluyomi B; Kola, Lola; Gureje, Oye
Mental disorders are associated with a loss in earnings both at the individual and societal level. Very few studies have addressed the issue of the cost of mental illness in Sub-saharan Africa. These studies have been largely hospital based, localized, and have addressed only a few mental disorders using very small sample sizes. To examine the impact of mental disorders on earnings of affected persons. Mental disorders on and personal earnings were assessed in a representative sample of 1,889 Nigerians aged 18-64 years in an epidemiological survey. Version 3.0 of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI) was used to assess mental disorders. Respondents were also asked to report their personal earnings before tax in the past 12 months, while authors predicted personal earnings in the same period from information about 12 month and life time DSM IV mental disorders among respondents. A 12 month prevalence of Serious Mental Illness (SMI) was found in 0.5% of the sample while other 12 month disorders had a prevalence of 4.83%. The prevalence of other lifetime disorders was 4.14%. The mean annual impact of serious mental illness was 60,126 Naira (US$ 463). At the level of the society the annual impact was 21.6 billion Naira (US$ 166.2 million). Mental disorders have an enormous individual and societal financial burden. This impact appears more severe in males. Mental disorders have enormous negative impacts on earnings both at the individual and societal level. This analysis highlights the financial value of lost earnings in the absence of such disorders. An increase in spending on mental health based on proportionate economic burden of mental disorders may substantially reduce financial losses due to mental disorders. In the present study, only the indirect health care costs have been assessed. Future research should consider direct costs.
Introduction: Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is characterised by deficits in affect and impulse regulation, along with interpersonal difficulties (Lieb et al., 2004). It is thought to develop through a complex relationship between adverse childhood events, such as childhood abuse and genetics. A recent developmental model of BPD and one that is gaining popularity focuses on mentalization. Following their exposition of the mentalizing model of BPD, Bateman and Fonagy deve...
Turner, Aaron P; Alschuler, Kevin N; Hughes, Abbey J; Beier, Meghan; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Sloan, Alicia P; Ehde, Dawn M
Among individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), mental health comorbidities play a significant role in contributing to secondary disability and detracting from quality of life. This review examines current evidence surrounding three mental health issues of particular relevance to MS: depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. We review what is known of the prevalence, correlates, screening mechanisms, and current treatment of each issue and provide recommendations for future areas of research.
Barbosa, Jaqueline Almeida Guimarães; Giami, Alain; Freitas, Maria Imaculada de Fátima
The goal of this study was to understand the ways of living and thinking about sexuality of people with mental disorders. Open interviews were conducted with men and women in public mental health services in Brazil. Transcrips were examined based on the proposal of sexual scripts. Major imbalances coming from conceptions of masculinity and femininity in society were identified in the sexual scripts experienced by these men and women. Interviewees have little pleasure in their sexual lives, wi...
surgical procedures in bipolar disorder have generated mixed results. It should be noted that most studies had been conducted during the 1950's and 1960's. In a more recent study with a 7 year follow-up, it was found that limbic leucotomy did not significantly improve mania symptoms in bipolar disorder as compared to ...
Andrade, Laura Helena; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Andreoni, Solange; Silveira, Camila Magalhães; Alexandrino-Silva, Clovis; Siu, Erica Rosanna; Nishimura, Raphael; Anthony, James C.; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Kessler, Ronald C.; Viana, Maria Carmen
Background World population growth is projected to be concentrated in megacities, with increases in social inequality and urbanization-associated stress. São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) provides a forewarning of the burden of mental disorders in urban settings in developing world. The aim of this study is to estimate prevalence, severity, and treatment of recently active DSM-IV mental disorders. We examined socio-demographic correlates, aspects of urban living such as internal migration, exposure to violence, and neighborhood-level social deprivation with 12-month mental disorders. Methods and Results A representative cross-sectional household sample of 5,037 adults was interviewed face-to-face using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), to generate diagnoses of DSM-IV mental disorders within 12 months of interview, disorder severity, and treatment. Administrative data on neighborhood social deprivation were gathered. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate individual and contextual correlates of disorders, severity, and treatment. Around thirty percent of respondents reported a 12-month disorder, with an even distribution across severity levels. Anxiety disorders were the most common disorders (affecting 19.9%), followed by mood (11%), impulse-control (4.3%), and substance use (3.6%) disorders. Exposure to crime was associated with all four types of disorder. Migrants had low prevalence of all four types compared to stable residents. High urbanicity was associated with impulse-control disorders and high social deprivation with substance use disorders. Vulnerable subgroups were observed: women and migrant men living in most deprived areas. Only one-third of serious cases had received treatment in the previous year. Discussion Adults living in São Paulo megacity had prevalence of mental disorders at greater levels than similar surveys conducted in other areas of the world. Integration of mental health promotion and care into the
Laura Helena Andrade
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: World population growth is projected to be concentrated in megacities, with increases in social inequality and urbanization-associated stress. São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA provides a forewarning of the burden of mental disorders in urban settings in developing world. The aim of this study is to estimate prevalence, severity, and treatment of recently active DSM-IV mental disorders. We examined socio-demographic correlates, aspects of urban living such as internal migration, exposure to violence, and neighborhood-level social deprivation with 12-month mental disorders. METHODS AND RESULTS: A representative cross-sectional household sample of 5,037 adults was interviewed face-to-face using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, to generate diagnoses of DSM-IV mental disorders within 12 months of interview, disorder severity, and treatment. Administrative data on neighborhood social deprivation were gathered. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate individual and contextual correlates of disorders, severity, and treatment. Around thirty percent of respondents reported a 12-month disorder, with an even distribution across severity levels. Anxiety disorders were the most common disorders (affecting 19.9%, followed by mood (11%, impulse-control (4.3%, and substance use (3.6% disorders. Exposure to crime was associated with all four types of disorder. Migrants had low prevalence of all four types compared to stable residents. High urbanicity was associated with impulse-control disorders and high social deprivation with substance use disorders. Vulnerable subgroups were observed: women and migrant men living in most deprived areas. Only one-third of serious cases had received treatment in the previous year. DISCUSSION: Adults living in São Paulo megacity had prevalence of mental disorders at greater levels than similar surveys conducted in other areas of the world. Integration of mental health promotion
Sharp, Carla; Kalpakci, Allison
The current special issue focuses on the potential of mentalizing as a translational construct for the understanding and treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Mentalizing, which provides the central construct around which mentalization-based therapy (MBT) and theory is organized, refers to the capacity to meaningfully reflect on the mind of others as well as the self. In this introductory article to the special issue, we begin by discussing the need for and nature of translational research. We contend that translational research in mental health and personality disorder, in particular, lags behind that of other medical disorders because of the challenges inherent in meeting translational criteria. We discuss these criteria and we demonstrate the potential of the construct of mentalizing to meet translational criteria in the context of BPD. This article thereby provides the context for the other 3 papers in this special issue which each represent a different point along the translational spectrum. In all, our aim is to provide a foundation for the further evaluation of the usefulness and potential of mentalizing as translational construct in the context of BPD. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Ormel, Johan; Von Korff, Michael; Burger, Huibert; Scott, Kate; Demyttenaere, Koen; Huang, Yue-qin; Posada-Villa, José; Pierre Lepine, Jean; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Kawakami, Norito; Karam, Elie; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Gureje, Oye; Williams, David; Haro, Josep Maria; Bromet, Evelyn J; Alonso, Jordi; Kessler, Ron
While depression and heart disease often co-occur in Western countries, less is known about the association of anxiety and alcohol use disorders with heart disease and about the cross-cultural consistency of this association. Consistency across emotional disorders and cultures would suggest that relatively universal mechanisms underlie the association. Surveys with 18 random population samples of household-residing adults in 17 countries in Europe, the Americas, the Middle East, Africa, Asia and the South Pacific were carried out. Medically recognized heart disease was ascertained by self-report. Mental disorders were assessed with the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview, a fully structured diagnostic interview. Specific mood and anxiety disorders occurred among persons with heart disease at rates higher than those among persons without heart disease. Adjusted for sex and age, the pooled odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were 2.1 (1.9-2.5) for mood disorders, 2.2 (1.9-2.5) for anxiety disorders and 1.4 (1.0-1.9) for alcohol abuse/dependence among persons with versus those without heart disease. These patterns were similar across countries. An excess of anxiety disorders and that of mood disorders are found among persons with heart disease. These associations hold true across countries despite substantial between-country differences in culture and mental disorder prevalence rates. These results suggest that similar mechanisms underlie the association and that a broad spectrum of mood-anxiety disorders should be considered in research on the comorbidity of mental disorders and heart disease.
Williams, Marian E.; Haranin, Emily C.
Up to 70% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a co-occurring mental health disorder; however, many clinicians feel unprepared to serve children with complex co-occurring conditions. This study surveyed 64 mental health clinicians working in 21 publically-funded mental health agencies in a large urban setting to explore their…
Ventegodt, Søren; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Neikrug, Shimshon; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav
We believe that holistic medicine can be used for patient's with mental health disorders. With holistic psychiatry, it is possible to help the mentally ill patient to heal existentially. As in holistic medicine, the methods are love or intense care, winning the trust of the patient, getting permission to give support and holding, and daring to be fully at the patient's service. Our clinical experiences have led us to believe that mental health patient's can heal if only you can make him or he...
Eating Disorders are a group of mental disorders with considerable peculiarities and present a challenge for both the scientific community and the general public. More specific in our country a great attention and concern has being observed recently, caused to some extend by the role of public media, as they turned to "inform" about these disorders. Popular television programs are frequently focusing on famous individuals suffering from the disorder. Or they deal with dramatic presentation of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) cases, as they describe their wander around from inpatient services of general hospitals to private practices either of psychiatrists who only prescribed psychopharmaceutics drugs or gynecologists who recommended oral contraceptives.
Søgaard, Hans Jørgen
Common Mental Disorders (CMD) such as depression, anxiety, and somatoform disorders impose heavy burdens on individuals and on society in the form of sickness absence. CMD are frequently undetected in primary care which postpone the initiation of proper treatment. This seriously worsens return...... to work (RTW). Comorbidity with somatic disorders also worsens RTW. CMD are, controlled for lifestyle, independent causes for the development of chronic and disabling somatic disorders. Collaborative care seems to be most effective intervention with regard to RTW. In this dissertation, the intervention...
Holmes, Emily A; Geddes, John R; Colom, Francesc; Goodwin, Guy M
Cognitions in the form of mental images have a more powerful impact on emotion than their verbal counterparts. This review synthesizes the cognitive science of imagery and emotion with transdiagnostic clinical research, yielding novel predictions for the basis of emotional volatility in bipolar disorder. Anxiety is extremely common in patients with bipolar disorder and is associated with increased dysfunction and suicidality, yet it is poorly understood and rarely treated. Mental imagery is a neglected aspect of bipolar anxiety although in anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and social phobia focusing on imagery has been crucial for the development of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). In this review we present a cognitive model of imagery and emotion applied to bipolar disorder. Within this model mental imagery amplifies emotion, drawing on Clark's cyclical panic model [(1986). A cognitive approach to panic. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24, 461-470]. We (1) emphasise imagery's amplification of anxiety (cycle one); (2) suggest that imagery amplifies the defining (hypo-) mania of bipolar disorder (cycle two), whereby the overly positive misinterpretation of triggers leads to mood elevation (escalated by imagery), increasing associated beliefs, goals, and action likelihood (all strengthened by imagery). Imagery suggests a unifying explanation for key unexplained features of bipolar disorder: ubiquitous anxiety, mood instability and creativity. Introducing imagery has novel implications for bipolar treatment innovation--an area where CBT improvements are much-needed.
Forensic mental health services exist in a nebulous space at the intersection of two different systems-criminal justice and mental health-and the entanglement of these systems poses intricate problems for psychiatrists. This article discusses the present circumstances of forensic mental health services in Japan, focusing on trends in prison psychiatry. In the traditional Japanese system, offenders with mental disorders were treated within general psychiatry as involuntarily admitted patients, or within the prison system as mentally ill inmates. As a consequence of recent legal reform, however, this situation has radically changed. The Medical Treatment and Supervision Act of 2005 aimed to provide intensive psychiatric treatment to offenders with mental disorders, attaching great importance to their reintegration into society. Under the new system, a person who commits a serious criminal offense in a state of insanity or diminished capacity shall be referred by the public prosecutor to the district court; following a treatment order of the court, the person shall be treated in psychiatric facilities established by the law. While the new system is expected to play a role in the context of specialist forensic psychiatry, its distinction from general psychiatry remains unclear. For example, persons who commit serious crimes, such as assault, in an acute psychotic state are occasionally admitted to general psychiatric hospitals, even if they meet the criteria for a treatment order under the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act. The relationship between prison psychiatry and specialist forensic psychiatry is still more problematic. Compared to the intensive, rehabilitation-oriented care provided under the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act, mental health services in penal institutions have a number of disadvantages, and it is unlikely that mentally ill prisoners have benefited from the recent progress in forensic psychiatry. Statistics show that the number of
Gillies, Donna; Buykx, Penny; Parker, Alexandra G; Hetrick, Sarah E
Approximately 25% of people will be affected by a mental disorder at some stage in their life. Despite the prevalence and negative impacts of mental disorders, many people are not diagnosed or do not receive adequate treatment. Therefore primary health care has been identified as essential to improving the delivery of mental health care. Consultation liaison is a model of mental health care where the primary care provider maintains the central role in the delivery of mental health care with a mental health specialist providing consultative support. Consultation liaison has the potential to enhance the delivery of mental health care in the primary care setting and in turn improve outcomes for people with a mental disorder. To identify whether consultation liaison can have beneficial effects for people with a mental disorder by improving the ability of primary care providers to provide mental health care. We searched the EPOC Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and bibliographic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO, in March 2014. We also searched reference lists of relevant studies and reviews to identify any potentially relevant studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which compared consultation liaison to standard care or other service models of mental health care in the primary setting. Included participants were people attending primary care practices who required mental health care or had a mental disorder, and primary care providers who had direct contact with people in need of mental health care. Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of identified studies against the inclusion criteria and extracted details including the study design, participants and setting, intervention, outcomes and any risk of bias. We resolved any disagreements by discussion or referral to a third author. We contacted trial authors to obtain any missing information.We collected and
Sachdev, Perminder S; Mohan, Adith; Taylor, Lauren; Jeste, Dilip V
After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Assess the changes in DSM-5 relative to earlier versions.• Evaluate the implications of the DSM-5 for practicing geriatric psychiatrists. About every 20 years, the American Psychiatric Association revises its official classification of mental disorders. The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was published in 2013, prompting considerable commentary, debate, and criticism. This article briefly describes the process leading up to DSM-5 and the main changes from the previous version (DSM-IV) that would be of interest to a geriatric psychiatrist. The changes in the areas of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depressive disorders, and anxiety disorders have been many, but the majority of them are minor and unlikely to have major treatment implications. The classification of neurocognitive disorders, however, has seen a major revision and elaboration in comparison to DSM-IV; of special note is the introduction of "mild and major neurocognitive disorders," the latter equated with dementia. A common language has also been introduced for the criteria for the various etiological subtypes of neurocognitive disorders. All physicians treating patients with neurocognitive disorders should familiarize themselves with these criteria. Their use in research has the potential to harmonize the field.
Sachdev, Perminder S.; Mohan, Adith; Taylor, Lauren; Jeste, Dilip V.
About every 20 years, the American Psychiatric Association revises its official classification of mental disorders. The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was published in 2013, exciting considerable commentary, debate and criticism. This article briefly describes the process that led to the DSM-5 and the main changes from the previous version (DSM-IV) that would be of interest to a geriatric psychiatrist. While there have been a number of changes in the areas of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depressive disorders and anxiety disorders, the majority of these changes are minor and unlikely to have major treatment implications. The classification of neurocognitive disorders has however seen a major revision and elaboration in comparison with DSM-IV, with the introduction of Mild and Major Neurocognitive Disorders, the latter equated with dementia. A common language is introduced for the criteria of the various etiological subtypes of neurocognitive disorders. All physicians treating patients with neurocognitive disorders should familiarize themselves with these criteria. Their use in research has the potential to harmonize the field. PMID:26332215
José Luis Jiménez López; Jesús Arenas Osuna
High demand of care and the academic burden of courses of specialization in medicine affect the mental health of medical residents with events ranging from simple emotional discomfort to development of affective disorders in susceptible individuals. The suicide of physicians has produced programs for their attention in some countries. We present the first mental health clinic for residents of a high specialty hospital in Mexico, focused on the prevention of suicide and depression, treatment o...
Full Text Available Fanny Helena Martins Salles,1 Pedro San Martin Soares,1 Carolina David Wiener,1 Thaise Campos Mondin,1 Paula Moraes da Silva,1 Karen Jansen,1–3 Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza,1 Ricardo Azevedo da Silva,1 Jean Pierre Oses1–3 1Translational Science on Brain Disorders, Department of Health and Behavior, Catholic University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; 2Translational Psychiatry Program, 3Center of Excellence on Mood Disorders, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth Medical School, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Nerve growth factor (NGF is an important member of the neurotrophin family and its alteration has been associated with psychiatric disorders. Functionality consists of the activities that an individual can perform, as well as their social participation, which is an important factor in analyzing the carrier living conditions of subjects with psychiatric suffering. Several studies have evaluated functionality in bipolar disorder; however, no studies have evaluated the functionality in other mental disorders. There are also few studies investigating the association between functionality and the biological bases of mental disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the serum NGF levels in psychiatric patients and to verify a possible association between the serum neurotrophic levels and functionality. This was a cross-sectional study with a convenient sample obtained from the Public Mental Health Service from the south of Brazil. The final sample was composed of 286 patients enrolled from July 2013 to October 2014. Data was collected using a sociodemographic questionnaire, and the diagnosis was confirmed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I and a Functioning Assessment Short Test. The serum NGF levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistic
Dawson, John B
How should the mental element be defined in the legal standards governing a person's 'sectioning' or placement under the Mental Health Act (MHA)? This article considers how this mental element is defined in many MHAs in Australasia: via a statutory list of disorders of mental function said to 'characterise' the necessary state of mind. This article assesses the assumptions behind the adoption of this approach. It discusses the views of several English law reform committees that have explored how the mental element should be defined. It examines the philosophy of psychiatry, expounded clearly by Aubrey Lewis, that lies behind the Australasian approach, one that emphasises the need to identify mental disturbance by reference to disorders of 'part-function of the mind', not by reference to behaviour alone. It considers how the Australasian statutes address the question of personality disorder's covered by the Act. In conclusion, it endorses cautiously the Australasian approach, principally on the ground that it may contribute positively to the conduct of review proceedings for compulsory patients under the Act. It may concentrate the attention of tribunals on particular features of the patient's mental state, on how those features are linked to associated dangers or risks, and on how the presence of those features may justify placing decisions about the patient's treatment in others' hands. Throughout, comparisons are made with the manner in which the mental element has been defined in mental health legislation for England and Wales. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Lopes, Claudia S; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; dos Santos, Debora França; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; de Carvalho, Kenia Mara Baiocchi; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of common mental disorders in Brazilian adolescent students, according to geographical macro-regions, school type, sex, and age. METHODS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents who participated in the Cardiovascular Risk Study in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national, school-based study conducted in 2013-2014 in cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. A self-administered questionnaire and an electronic data collector were employed. The presence of common mental disorders was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We estimated prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of common mental disorders by sex, age, and school type, in Brazil and in the macro-regions, considering the sample design. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders was of 30.0% (95%CI 29.2-30.8), being higher among girls (38.4%; 95%CI 37.1-39.7) when compared to boys (21.6%; 95%CI 20.5-22.8), and among adolescents who were from 15 to 17 years old (33.6%; 95%CI 32.2-35.0) compared to those aged between 12 and 14 years (26.7%; 95%CI 25.8-27.6). The prevalence of common mental disorders increased with age for both sexes, always higher in girls (ranging from 28.1% at 12 years to 44.1% at 17 years) than in boys (ranging from 18.5% at 12 years to 27.7% at 17 years). We did not observe any significant difference by macro-region or school type. Stratified analyses showed higher prevalence of common mental disorders among girls aged from 15 to 17 years of private schools in the North region (53.1; 95%CI 46.8-59.4). CONCLUSIONS The high prevalence of common mental disorders among adolescents and the fact that the symptoms are often vague mean these disorders are not so easily identified by school administrators or even by health services. The results of this study can help the proposition of more specific prevention and control measures, focused on highest risk subgroups. PMID:26910549
Lizeretti, Nathalie P; Extremera, Natalio; Rodríguez, Ana
Research in emotional regulation has revealed that difficulties in the use and processing of affective information constitute a key factor in most mental disorders. To evaluate perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) deficits in patients with diverse psychopathological disorders and their relationship with clinical symptoms. Differences in PEI have been identified between a clinical group (n = 163) and a group of non-clinical individuals (n = 163). In the clinical group, the patients met DSM diagnostic criteria for one of the following: anxiety disorder, mood disorder, substance abuse disorder, psychotic disorder or borderline personality disorder. The PEI and clinical symptoms were assessed using the Spanish version of the TMMS-24 and the SCL-90-R, respectively. Patients from clinical group show higher levels of attention to feelings, but lower scores in abilities to manage effectively their negative emotional states compared to participants from non-clinical control group. Similarly, significant differences in PEI levels between different diagnostic groups were found. Our study provides preliminary evidence that deficits in PEI are related to the presence and severity of clinical symptoms in patients with different mental disorders.
This study examines the relationship between lifetime mental disorders, and subsequent suicide ideation, plans, and suicide attempts in South Africa. Method: A national survey of 4185 South African adults was conducted using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to generate ...
Objective: To provide estimates of the prevalence of selected mental disorders in the Western Cape, based on the consensus achieved by a working group established for this purpose. Method: An expert working group was established to provide technical expertise for the project. Potential risk factors likely to influence local ...
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of serious mental disorders in a prison population in Durban, South Africa, one of the largest prisons in the Southern hemisphere. Method: 193 prisoners were interviewed using the Mini Neuro-psychiatric Interview, a screening questionnaire and a ...
CENTERWALL, WILLARD R.; CENTERWALL, SIEGRIED A.
ADDRESSED TO PUBLIC HEALTH WORKERS AND PHYSICIANS IN GENERAL PRACTICE, THE PAMPHLET INTRODUCES METHODS OF DETECTING AND MANAGING PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION. INFORMATION, UPDATED FROM THE 1961 EDITION, IS INCLUDED ON THE INCIDENCE AND GENETICS, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND CLINICAL COURSE OF THE…
The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) is on its way and will most likely be published in 2013. The chair of the task force of this significant project, Dr David Kupfer, was in the Netherlands at a national psychiatry conference to give an update on its progress.
Svennerlind, Christer; Nilsson, Thomas; Kerekes, Nóra; Andiné, Peter; Lagerkvist, Margareta; Forsman, Anders; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Malmgren, Helge
Historically, the Swedish criminal justice system conformed to other Western penal law systems, exempting severely mentally disordered offenders considered to be unaccountable. However, in 1965 Sweden enforced a radical penal law abolishing exceptions based on unaccountability. Mentally disordered offenders have since then been subjected to various forms of sanctions motivated by the offender's need for care and aimed at general prevention. Until 2008, a prison sentence was not allowed for offenders found to have committed a crime under the influence of a severe mental disorder, leaving forensic psychiatric care the most common sanction in this group. Such offenders are nevertheless held criminally responsible, liable for damages, and encumbered with a criminal record. In most cases, such offenders must not be discharged without the approval of an administrative court. Two essentially modern principles may be discerned behind the "Swedish model": first, an attempted abolishment of moral responsibility, omitting concepts such as guilt, accountability, atonement, and retribution, and, second, the integration of psychiatric care into the societal reaction and control systems. The model has been much criticized, and several governmental committees have suggested a re-introduction of a system involving the concept of accountability. This review describes the Swedish special criminal justice provisions on mentally disordered offenders including the legislative changes in 1965 along with current proposals to return to a pre-1965 system, presents current Swedish forensic psychiatric practice and research, and discusses some of the ethical, political, and metaphysical presumptions that underlie the current system. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Assessment of Common Perinatal Mental Disorders in a Selected District. Hospital of the Eastern Province in Rwanda. Marie Providence Umuziga1, Oluyinka Adejumo2, Michael Hynie3. 1University of Rwanda, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Rwanda. 2University of the Western Cape, Community and Health ...
Forty-one patients had more than one disease occurring in an individual. Cardiovascular diseases were the commonest occurring medical problems; degenerative, neoplastic and infectious diseases were also common. Mental disorders were diagnosed in only 2% of the patients with one case of Alzheimer's disease.
L.M. van Ravesteyn (Leontien)
textabstractMental disorders are a major cause of disability among women during the perinatal period and have consequences for her unborn child as well. There is a lack of evidence-based treatment algorithms due to the complicated risk-benefit analysis for both mother and her unborn child. This
Alonso, Jordi; Buron, Andrea; Rojas-Farreras, Sonia; de Graaf, Ron; Haro, Josep M; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Kovess, Viviane; Matschinger, Herbert; Vilagut, Gemma
Severe mental disorders are associated with social distance from the general population, but there is lack of data on the stigma reported by individuals with common mental disorders. To identify the correlates and the impact of stigma among individuals with common mental disorders. Cross-sectional, household interview survey of 8796 representing the non-institutionalized adults of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain. Two perceived stigma questions (embarrassment and discrimination) were asked to respondents with significant disability. Health-related quality of life measured by the SF-12, work and activity limitation and social limitation were also assessed. Among the 815 participants with a 12-month mental disorder and significant disability, 14.8% had perceived stigma. Stigma was significantly associated with low education, being married/living with someone and being unemployed. Perceived stigma was associated with decreased quality of life (SF-12 PCS score -4.65; pstigma if they have lower education, are married, or are unemployed. Perceived stigma is associated with considerably decrease in quality of life and role functioning. Health professionals and society at large must be aware of these findings, which suggest that fighting stigma should be a public health priority.
Smith, David T.
This paper reviews literature and clinical experiences on the neurobiological and psychological aspects of sleep in children with mental retardation. The lack of a universal, operational definition of sleep disorders is noted, and a study is cited in which 61% of a group of 20 children (ages 2-13) with developmental disabilities were found to have…
Jaqueline Almeida Guimarães Barbosa
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to understand the ways of living and thinking about sexuality of people with mental disorders. Open interviews were conducted with men and women in public mental health services in Brazil. Transcrips were examined based on the proposal of sexual scripts. Major imbalances coming from conceptions of masculinity and femininity in society were identified in the sexual scripts experienced by these men and women. Interviewees have little pleasure in their sexual lives, with recurrent complaints of sexual abuse, even by steady partners; prejudice; and lack of affection in their relationships. Additionally, they were found to have few self-care skills concerning sexual health, in a context marked by social exclusion. The results showed the need to promote sexual health as a human right, and fight gender stereotypes, which cause so much damage to the sexual health of people with mental disorders.
Sugai, Yuuichi; Nakayama, Hirosi; Tatemichi, Nobuhiro
Computed tomography (CT) was employed to follow up 28 patients with senile mental disorders (52 to 84 years of age) over a period of one to six and a half years after the first presentation. The first CT scans showed ventricular enlargement in many instances, which made it difficult to distinguish functional from degenerative diseases. The yearly rate of ventricular enlargement was, therefore, obtained on sequential CT scannings. The yearly rate of ventricular enlargement was high, which was associated with progression of the disease in the group with Alzheimer's disease. In the group with functional diseases, however, ventricular enlargement and progression were independent of each other. Both the yearly rate of ventricular enlargement and mental function significantly correlated with decreased adaptation of daily life. Periodical CT scanning and clinical observation over a certain period may offer useful information on the differential diagnosis and prognosis of senile mental disorders. (Namekawa, K.)
Gunn, Anthony; Menzies, Ross G; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Lowe, Robyn; Iverach, Lisa; Heard, Robert; Block, Susan
The purpose of this study was to evaluate anxiety and psychological functioning among adolescents seeking speech therapy for stuttering using a structured, diagnostic interview and psychological questionnaires. This study also sought to determine whether any differences in psychological status were evident between younger and older adolescents. Participants were 37 stuttering adolescents seeking stuttering treatment. We administered the Computerized Voice Version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, and five psychometric tests. Participants were classified into younger (12-14 years; n=20) and older adolescents (15-17 years; n=17). Thirty-eight percent of participants attained at least one diagnosis of a mental disorder, according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; APA, 2000), with the majority of these diagnoses involving anxiety. This figure is double current estimates for general adolescent populations, and is consistent with our finding of moderate and moderate-severe quality of life impairment. Although many of the scores on psychological measures fell within the normal range, older adolescents (15-17 years) reported significantly higher anxiety, depression, reactions to stuttering, and emotional/behavioral problems, than younger adolescents (12-14 years). There was scant evidence that self-reported stuttering severity is correlated with mental health issues. There are good reasons to believe these results are conservative because many participants gave socially desirable responses about their mental health status. These results reveal a need for large-scale, statistically powerful assessments of anxiety and other mental disorders among stuttering adolescents with reference to control populations. The reader will be able to: (a) explain the clinical importance of assessing for mental health with stuttering adolescents, (b) state the superior method for adolescent mental
Nuijten, M.B.; Deserno, M.K.; Cramer, A.O.J.; Borsboom, D.
Mental disorders have traditionally been conceptualized as latent variables, which impact observable symptomatology. Recent alternative approaches, however, view mental disorders as systems of mutually reinforcing symptoms, and utilize network models to analyze the structure of these symptom-symptom
Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker
Estimates of lifetime risk of suicide in mental disorders were based on selected samples with incomplete follow-up.......Estimates of lifetime risk of suicide in mental disorders were based on selected samples with incomplete follow-up....
Kawakami, Norito; Abdulghani, Emad Abdulrazaq; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Fayyad, John; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Lakoma, Matthew D; Leblanc, William; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Malhotra, Savita; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Oakley Browne, Mark A; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C
Better information on the human capital costs of early-onset mental disorders could increase sensitivity of policy makers to the value of expanding initiatives for early detection and treatment. Data are presented on one important aspect of these costs: the associations of early-onset mental disorders with adult household income. Data come from the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health Surveys in 11 high-income, five upper-middle income, and six low/lower-middle income countries. Information about 15 lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders as of age of completing education, retrospectively assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used to predict current household income among respondents aged 18 to 64 (n = 37,741) controlling for level of education. Gross associations were decomposed to evaluate mediating effects through major components of household income. Early-onset mental disorders are associated with significantly reduced household income in high and upper-middle income countries but not low/lower-middle income countries, with associations consistently stronger among women than men. Total associations are largely due to low personal earnings (increased unemployment, decreased earnings among the employed) and spouse earnings (decreased probabilities of marriage and, if married, spouse employment and low earnings of employed spouses). Individual-level effect sizes are equivalent to 16% to 33% of median within-country household income, and population-level effect sizes are in the range 1.0% to 1.4% of gross household income. Early mental disorders are associated with substantial decrements in income net of education at both individual and societal levels. Policy makers should take these associations into consideration in making health care research and treatment resource allocation decisions. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kawakami, Norito; Abdulghani, Emad Abdulrazaq; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Fayyad, John; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Lakoma, Matthew D.; LeBlanc, William; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Malhotra, Savita; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C.
Background Better information on the human capital costs of early-onset mental disorders could increase sensitivity of policy-makers to the value of expanding initiatives for early detection-treatment. Data are presented on one important aspect of these costs: the associations of early-onset mental disorders with adult household income. Methods Data come from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in eleven high income, five upper-middle income, and six low/lower-middle income countries. Information about 15 lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders as of age of completing education, retrospectively assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used to predict current household income among respondents ages 18-64 (n = 37,741) controlling for level of education. Gross associations were decomposed to evaluate mediating effects through major components of household income. Results Early-onset mental disorders are associated with significantly reduced household income in high and upper-middle income countries but not low/lower-middle income countries, with associations consistently stronger among women than men. Total associations are largely due to low personal earnings (increased unemployment, decreased earnings among the employed) and spouse earnings (decreased probabilities of marriage and, if married, spouse employment and low earnings of employed spouses). Individual-level effect sizes are equivalent to 16-33% of median within-country household income, while population-level effect sizes are in the range 1.0-1.4% of Gross Household Income. Conclusions Early mental disorders are associated with substantial decrements in income net of education at both individual and societal levels. Policy-makers should take these associations into consideration in making healthcare research and treatment resource allocation decisions. PMID:22521149
Tegethoff, Marion; Stalujanis, Esther; Belardi, Angelo; Meinlschmidt, Gunther
The objective was to estimate temporal associations between mental disorders and physical diseases in adolescents with mental-physical comorbidities. This article bases upon weighted data (N = 6483) from the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (participant age: 13-18 years), a nationally representative United States cohort. Onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition lifetime mental disorders was assessed with the fully structured World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, complemented by parent report. Onset of lifetime medical conditions and doctor-diagnosed diseases was assessed by self-report. The most substantial temporal associations with onset of mental disorders preceding onset of physical diseases included those between affective disorders and arthritis (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.36, 95%-confidence interval (CI) = 1.95 to 5.77) and diseases of the digestive system (HR = 3.39, CI = 2.30 to 5.00), between anxiety disorders and skin diseases (HR = 1.53, CI = 1.21 to 1.94), and between substance use disorders and seasonal allergies (HR = 0.33, CI = 0.17 to 0.63). The most substantial temporal associations with physical diseases preceding mental disorders included those between heart diseases and anxiety disorders (HR = 1.89, CI = 1.41 to 2.52), epilepsy and eating disorders (HR = 6.27, CI = 1.58 to 24.96), and heart diseases and any mental disorder (HR = 1.39, CI = 1.11 to 1.74). Findings suggest that mental disorders are antecedent risk factors of certain physical diseases in early life, but also vice versa. Our results expand the relevance of mental disorders beyond mental to physical health care, and vice versa, supporting the concept of a more integrated mental-physical health care approach, and open new starting points for early disease prevention and better treatments, with relevance for various medical disciplines.
Full Text Available The objective was to estimate temporal associations between mental disorders and physical diseases in adolescents with mental-physical comorbidities.This article bases upon weighted data (N = 6483 from the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (participant age: 13-18 years, a nationally representative United States cohort. Onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition lifetime mental disorders was assessed with the fully structured World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, complemented by parent report. Onset of lifetime medical conditions and doctor-diagnosed diseases was assessed by self-report.The most substantial temporal associations with onset of mental disorders preceding onset of physical diseases included those between affective disorders and arthritis (hazard ratio (HR = 3.36, 95%-confidence interval (CI = 1.95 to 5.77 and diseases of the digestive system (HR = 3.39, CI = 2.30 to 5.00, between anxiety disorders and skin diseases (HR = 1.53, CI = 1.21 to 1.94, and between substance use disorders and seasonal allergies (HR = 0.33, CI = 0.17 to 0.63. The most substantial temporal associations with physical diseases preceding mental disorders included those between heart diseases and anxiety disorders (HR = 1.89, CI = 1.41 to 2.52, epilepsy and eating disorders (HR = 6.27, CI = 1.58 to 24.96, and heart diseases and any mental disorder (HR = 1.39, CI = 1.11 to 1.74.Findings suggest that mental disorders are antecedent risk factors of certain physical diseases in early life, but also vice versa. Our results expand the relevance of mental disorders beyond mental to physical health care, and vice versa, supporting the concept of a more integrated mental-physical health care approach, and open new starting points for early disease prevention and better treatments, with relevance for various medical disciplines.
Harrowell, Ian; Hollén, Linda; Lingam, Raghu; Emond, Alan
To assess the relationship between developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and mental health outcomes in late adolescence. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Moderate-to-severe DCD was defined at 7 to 8 years according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria. Mental health was assessed at 16 to 18 years using self-reported questionnaires: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire, and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale. Logistic and linear regressions assessed the associations between DCD and mental health, using multiple imputation to account for missing data. Adjustments were made for socio-economic status, IQ, and social communication difficulties. Adolescents with DCD (n=168) had an increased risk of mental health difficulties (total Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire score) than their peers (n=3750) (odds ratio 1.78, 95% confidence interval 1.12-2.83, adjusted for socio-economic status and IQ). This was, in part, mediated through poor social communication skills. Adolescent females with DCD (n=59) were more prone to mental health difficulties than males. Greater mental well-being was associated with better self-esteem (β 0.82, pmental health difficulties in late adolescence. Interventions that aim to promote resilience in DCD should involve improving social communication skills and self-esteem. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Mac Keith Press.
Kamenov, Kaloyan; Cabello, Maria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla; Raggi, Alberto; Anczewska, Marta; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis
Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness) and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality.
Holka-Pokorska, Justyna; Jarema, Marek; Wichniak, Adam
Today, infertility is an increasingly common medical and social problem. Treatment of infertility has been revolutionised by the introduction and continuous improvement of assisted reproductive technology (ART). In most countries an increase in the frequency of performing of such procedures is observed. Infertility, mental disorders and infertility treatment are related in a very complex way. Most research indicates that the presence of psychiatric disorders (including depressive disorders which is the most common among them) in patients treated for infertility, can affect the efficacy of gynaecological therapy. According to other studies an ineffective treatment for infertility could be an independent risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders (particularly psychotic disorders and addiction ). Despite the increasing prevalence of assisted reproduction technologies (ART), there are no uniform standards for psychological and psychiatric procedures in the case of mental health complications of the diagnosis and treatment of infertility. The aim of this paper was the analysis of the studies concerning the mental health aspects in the course of the infertility treatment. The studies were analysed in terms of their relevance to clinical practice in the field of psychiatric and psychological support for patients treated for infertility.
Wu, Monica S; Hamblin, Rebecca J; Storch, Eric A
With many youth presenting to primary care settings for mental health difficulties, knowledge of the respective evidence-based psychotherapies is imperative in ensuring that these youth receive the appropriate interventions in a timely manner. Most frequently, children present with internalizing and/or externalizing disorders, which cover a broad range of common pediatric mental disorders. Treatments of these disorders generally incorporate cognitive and/or behavioral components, which are derived from theoretical underpinnings and empirical support. Although the interventions share common components, they are distinctive in nature and are further tailored toward the idiosyncratic needs of children and their families. Careful consideration of the apposite intervention and individual needs of youth are pertinent to the effective amelioration of symptomology.
Søgaard, Hans Jørgen
Background. Undetected Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) amongst people on sick leave complicate rehabilitation and return to work because appropriate treatments are not initiated. Aims. The aim of this study is to estimate (1) the frequencies of CMD, (2) the predictors of undetected CMD, and (3......) the rate of return to work among sick listed individuals without a psychiatric disorder, who are registered on long-term sickness absence (LSA). Methods. A total of 2,414 incident individuals on LSA with a response rate of 46.4%, were identified for a two-phase study. The subsample of this study involved...... individuals registered on LSA who were sick-listed without a psychiatric sick leave diagnosis. In this respect, Phase 1 included 831 individuals, who were screened for mental disorders. In Phase 2, following the screening of Phase 1, 227 individuals were thoroughly examined by a psychiatrist applying Present...
Scott, K.M.; Bruffaerts, R.; Simon, G.E.; Alonso, J.; Angermeyer, M.; de Girolamo, G.; Demyttenaere, K.; Gasquet, I.; Haro, J.M.; Karam, E.; Kessler, R.C.; Levinson, D.; Mora, M.E.M.; Browne, M.A.O.; Ormel, J.; Villa, J.P.; Uda, H.; Von Korff, M.
Objectives: (1) To investigate whether there is an association between obesity and mental disorders in the general populations of diverse countries, and (2) to establish whether demographic variables (sex, age, education) moderate any associations observed. Design: Thirteen cross-sectional, general
Boschman, J. S.; van der Molen, H. F.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.
To gain insight into (1) the prevalence and incidence of common mental disorders (CMD) and low work ability among bricklayers and construction supervisors; (2) the impact of CMD on current work ability and work ability 1 year later and (3) the added value of job-specific questions about work ability
Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rincón, Carlos Javier; Urrego-Mendoza, Zulma
Indigenous people represent 5% of the world population and one-third of the poor ones. Alcoholism rates, substance abuse problems, and mental disorders are shown to be higher than the general population. An analysis was made of the data from the National Mental Health Survey 2015. In this survey, it was asked if self-recognition as a native was according to the culture, the people, or physical features. A total of 902 indigenous people were surveyed, corresponding to 8.3% of the surveyed adult population. The majority (39.5%) lived in the Pacific region, with 23.7% Atlantic region, and 20% in the Eastern region. More than one-quarter (26.6%) reported a status of poverty, 31.7% spoke the language of their people, and 17.8% reported displacement due to violence. Mental health was defined as, "having good physical health, to eat, sleep and rest, by 42.9%. As regards problems and mental disorders, 8% reported excessive consumption and 7.9% a risk consumption of alcohol. As regards general psychopathology, measured by the (Self-reporting questionnaire) SRQ, 8.1% of the population had symptoms. The life prevalences of anxiety and depressive mental disorders were reported by 6.7% women and 8.4% men, and the associated risk factors that show higher risk were: aged between 18 to 44 years, not speaking the language of their people, living in Bogota, living in urban areas, and consuming psychoactive substances and tobacco. People who recognised themselves as indigenous have higher rates of displacement by violence, report problems and common mental disorders that are associated with factors consistent with loss of cultural characteristics. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.
Boonmann, C.; van Vugt, L.S.; Jansen, L.M.C.; Colins, O.F.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.
The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of mental disorders in juveniles who sexually offended (JSOs). A meta-analysis was performed based on studies reporting on the prevalence rates of mental disorders in JSOs. Furthermore, differences in mental disorders between JSOs and
... CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Adjudication § 147.11 Guideline I—Emotional, mental, and personality disorders. (a) The concern: Emotional, mental, and personality disorders can cause a significant deficit in an... professional that an individual's previous emotional, mental, or personality disorder is cured, under control...
Ormel, Johan; Petukhova, Maria; Chatterji, Somnath; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Burger, Huibert; Demyttenaere, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Maria Haro, Josep; Hwang, Irving; Karam, Elie; Kawakami, Norito; Lepine, Jean Pierre; Elena Medina-Mora, Maria; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy; Scott, Kate; Uestuen, T. Bedirhan; Von Korff, Michael; Williams, David R.; Zhang, Mingyuan; Kessler, Ronald C.
Background Advocates of expanded mental health treatment assert that mental disorders are as disabling as physical disorders, but little evidence supports this assertion. Aims To establish the disability and treatment of specific mental and physical disorders in high-income and low- and
Tassone-Monchicourt, C; Daumerie, N; Caria, A; Benradia, I; Roelandt, J-L
Image of Madness was always strongly linked with the notion of "dangerousness", provoking fear and social exclusion, despite the evolution of psychiatric practices and organisation, and the emphasis on user's rights respect. Mediatization and politicization of this issue through news item combining crime and mental illness, reinforce and spread out this perception. This paper presents a review of the litterature on social perceptions associating "dangerousness", "Insanity" and "mental illness", available data about the link between "dangerous states" and "psychiatric disorders", as well as the notion of "dangerousness" and the assessment of "dangerous state" of people suffering or not from psychiatric disorders. MAPPING OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS: The French Survey "Mental Health in General Population: Images and Realities (MHGP)" was carried out between 1999 and 2003, on a representative sample of 36.000 individuals over 18 years old. It aims at describing the social representations of the population about "insanity/insane" and "mental illness/mentally ill". The results show that about 75% of the people interviewed link "insanity" or "mental illness" with "criminal or violent acts". Young people and those with a high level of education more frequently categorize violent and dangerous behaviours in the field of Mental illness rather than in that of madness. CORRELATION BETWEEN DANGEROUS STATE AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS: in the scientific literature, all experts reject the hypothesis of a direct link between violence and mental disorder. Besides, 2 tendencies appear in their conclusions: on one hand, some studies establish a significative link between violence and severe mental illness, compared with the general population. On the other hand, results show that 87 to 97% of des aggressors are not mentally ills. Therefore, the absence of scientific consensus feeds the confusion and reinforce the link of causality between psychiatric disorders and violence. OFFICIAL
Struzik, Marta; Wilczyński, Krzysztof M; Chałubiński, Jacek; Mazgaj, Elżbieta; Krysta, Krzysztof
Comorbidity is a term defined as the presence of two or more conditions occurring either at the same time or having a close relationship to the same individual. World Health Organization (WHO) define it as the "co-occurrence in the same individual of a psychoactive substance use disorder and another psychiatric disorder". Progressive deinstitutionalisation, despite indisputable benefits and improvement of life quality in psychiatric patients, resulted in appearance of new burdens, such as deterioration of family life. Furthermore, wide availability of alcoholic beverages and drugs in communities where the patients live, led comorbid substance abuse disorders to emerge as one of the biggest challenges in the modern psychiatry. There is a limited amount of data concerning the background of the patients with a dual diagnosis, available in the literature, and therefore our aim was to create a sociodemographic profile of such individuals. The study was conducted among the patients treated in a drug rehabilitation centre of the Upper Silesian Association "Familia" in Gliwice, Poland using authors' own questionnaire, consisting of 75 items. The study group consisted of 9 females and 91 males (n=100), average age of the patients equalled 29.7 years (95%CI: 28.5-31 years; min/max value: 20/48 years), all the patients had an established dual diagnosis. 66% of the study group was single, with permanent residency, living with family either in city (47%) or in village (19%). Remaining 34% was spread through the other options (1-4%), with the highest percentage in "single, with permanent residency, living alone in the city" (4%). Obtained data, demonstrated high homogeneity among the patients with a dual diagnosis in terms of a socio-demographical profile.
Süheyla DODAN BULUT
Full Text Available Compulsive hoarding is a problem characterized with excessive collection and accumulation, failure to discard the excess amount of collected items. Although it is considered to be a symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder in DSMIV- TR (Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fourth edition text revision, it is thought that compulsive hoarding and OCD may have different biological, cognitive and behavioral mechanisms and compulsive hoarding may be associated with many other psychological illnesses. For these reasons, in DSM-5 (Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fifth edition hoarding disorder diagnosis is located under the classification of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. In this case report, three cases classified in different diagnostic categories according to DSM-IV-TR will be mentioned and hoarding disorder will be discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent developments in Global Workspace theory suggest that human consciousness can suffer interpenetrating dysfunctions of mutual and reciprocal interaction with embedding environments which will have early onset and often insidious staged developmental progression, possibly according to a cancer model, in which a set of long-evolved control strategies progressively fails. Methods and results A rate distortion argument implies that, if an external information source carries a damaging 'message', then sufficient exposure to it, particularly during critical developmental periods, is sure to write a sufficiently accurate image of it on mind and body in a punctuated manner so as to initiate or promote similarly progressively punctuated developmental disorder, in essence either a staged failure affecting large-scale brain connectivity, which is the sine qua non of human consciousness, or else damaging the ability of embedding goal contexts to contain conscious dynamics. Conclusion The key intervention, at the population level, is clearly to limit exposure to factors triggering developmental disorders, a question of proper environmental sanitation, in a large sense, primarily a matter of social justice which has long been known to be determined almost entirely by the interactions of cultural trajectory, group power relations, and economic structure, with public policy. Intervention at the individual level appears limited to triggering or extending periods of remission, representing reestablishment of an extensive, but largely unexplored, spectrum of evolved control strategies, in contrast with the far better-understood case of cancer.
Mundt, Adrian P.; Alvarado, Rubén; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Poblete, Catalina; Villagra, Carolina; Kastner, Sinja; Priebe, Stefan
Objective High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. Method A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. Results Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1) for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0) for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8) for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1) for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2) for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3) for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, pprison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; pprison population than in the general population. Conclusions Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders. PMID:23894415
Fursland, Anthea; Watson, Hunna J
Eating disorders are common but underdiagnosed illnesses. Help-seeking for co-occurring issues, such as anxiety and depression, are common. To identify the prevalence of eating problems, using the SCOFF, and eating disorders when screening positive on the SCOFF (i.e., ≥2), among patients seeking help for anxiety and depression at a community-based mental health service. Patients (N = 260) consecutively referred and assessed for anxiety and depression treatment were administered the SCOFF screening questionnaire and a semi-structured standardized diagnostic interview during routine intake. 18.5% (48/260) scored ≥2 on the SCOFF, indicating eating problems. Of these, 41% (19/48) met criteria for an eating disorder. Thus, overall, 7.3% (19/260) of the sample met criteria for a DSM-IV eating disorder. Those scoring ≥2 on the SCOFF were more likely to: be female (p = 0.001), younger (p = 0.003), and have a history of self-harm (p eating disorders are a hidden phenomenon in general outpatient mental health. By using a standardized diagnostic interview to establish diagnosis rather than self- or staff-report, the study builds on limited previous findings. The naturalistic study setting shows that screening for eating disorders can be easily built into routine intake practice, and successfully identifies treatment need. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Newbury-Helps, John; Feigenbaum, Janet; Fonagy, Peter
This study was designed to test the hypothesis that individuals with antisocial, particularly violent, histories of offending behavior have specific problems in social cognition, notably in relation to accurately envisioning mental states. Eighty-three male offenders on community license, 65% of whom met the threshold for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), completed a battery of computerized mentalizing tests requiring perspective taking (Perspectives Taking Test), mental state recognition from facial expression (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test), and identification of mental states in the context of social interaction (Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition). The results were compared with a partially matched sample of 42 nonoffending controls. The offender group showed impaired mentalizing on all of the tasks when compared with the control group for this study when controlling for demographic and clinical variables, and the offending group performed poorly in comparisons with participants in published studies, suggesting that limited capacity to mentalize may be part of the picture presented by individuals with histories of offending behavior. Offenders with ASPD demonstrated greater difficulty with mentalizing than non-ASPD offenders. Mentalization subscales were able to predict offender status and those with ASPD, indicating that specific impairments in perspective taking, social cognition, and social sensitivity, as well as tendencies toward hypomentalizing and nonmentalizing, are more marked in individuals who meet criteria for a diagnosis of ASPD. Awareness of these deficits may be helpful to professionals working with offenders, and specifically addressing these deficits may be a productive aspect of therapy for this "hard to reach" clinical group.
Wittchen, H U; Jacobi, F; Rehm, J; Gustavsson, A; Svensson, M; Jönsson, B; Olesen, J; Allgulander, C; Alonso, J; Faravelli, C; Fratiglioni, L; Jennum, P; Lieb, R; Maercker, A; van Os, J; Preisig, M; Salvador-Carulla, L; Simon, R; Steinhausen, H-C
To provide 12-month prevalence and disability burden estimates of a broad range of mental and neurological disorders in the European Union (EU) and to compare these findings to previous estimates. Referring to our previous 2005 review, improved up-to-date data for the enlarged EU on a broader range of disorders than previously covered are needed for basic, clinical and public health research and policy decisions and to inform about the estimated number of persons affected in the EU. Stepwise multi-method approach, consisting of systematic literature reviews, reanalyses of existing data sets, national surveys and expert consultations. Studies and data from all member states of the European Union (EU-27) plus Switzerland, Iceland and Norway were included. Supplementary information about neurological disorders is provided, although methodological constraints prohibited the derivation of overall prevalence estimates for mental and neurological disorders. Disease burden was measured by disability adjusted life years (DALY). Prevalence: It is estimated that each year 38.2% of the EU population suffers from a mental disorder. Adjusted for age and comorbidity, this corresponds to 164.8million persons affected. Compared to 2005 (27.4%) this higher estimate is entirely due to the inclusion of 14 new disorders also covering childhood/adolescence as well as the elderly. The estimated higher number of persons affected (2011: 165m vs. 2005: 82m) is due to coverage of childhood and old age populations, new disorders and of new EU membership states. The most frequent disorders are anxiety disorders (14.0%), insomnia (7.0%), major depression (6.9%), somatoform (6.3%), alcohol and drug dependence (>4%), ADHD (5%) in the young, and dementia (1-30%, depending on age). Except for substance use disorders and mental retardation, there were no substantial cultural or country variations. Although many sources, including national health insurance programs, reveal increases in sick leave
Lepièce, Brice; Reynaert, Christine; Jacques, Denis; Zdanowicz, Nicolas
Since 2010, the Belgian mental healthcare system has been involved in a structural reform: the main objective of this reorganisation is to foster the reintegration in the community of patients suffering from a mental health disorder. In parallel, the role of mental health professionals has evolved these last years: from a strictly clinical role, to the preoccupation with the rehabilitation of social competencies such as enhancing patients' abilities to return to work. The aim of this paper is to explore, specifically for patients hospitalized for a common mental health disorder, the predictive variables of returning to work within 6 months after hospitalization (RTW6). Our sample was extracted from routinely collected data during the patients' hospital stay (10 days) at the Psychosomatic Rehabilitation Day Centre of CHU Godinne. A sample of 134 patients participated in our study. Those patients were contacted 6 months after their hospitalization to assess resumption of work. We found that a patient's sociodemographicand socioeconomic variables, and depressive symptoms at the beginning of hospitalization were not predictive of return to work within 6 months (RTW6). On the other hand, duration of absence from work before hospitalization and the diagnosis of a major depression in particular were negatively associated with RTW6, whereas improvement of depressive symptoms during hospitalization stay was positively associated to RTW6. Our study identified the diagnosis of major depression and the duration of absence from work before hospitalization as two important risk factors impeding a fast return to work for patients hospitalised for a common mental health disorder. As the preoccupation with patients' abilities to return to work is now on the agenda of mental health professionals, special support and supervision should be dedicated to the more vulnerable patients.
Søgaard, Hans Jørgen
Common Mental Disorders (CMD) such as depression, anxiety, and somatoform disorders impose heavy burdens on individuals and on society in the form of sickness absence. CMD are frequently undetected in primary care which postpone the initiation of proper treatment. This seriously worsens return...... to work (RTW). Comorbidity with somatic disorders also worsens RTW. CMD are, controlled for lifestyle, independent causes for the development of chronic and disabling somatic disorders. Collaborative care seems to be most effective intervention with regard to RTW. In this dissertation, the intervention...... the half was unrecognized. RTW was improved for individuals with an unrecognized CMD and sick-listed from full-time work. A screening instrument was developed and the implications of screening are discussed. The book is of interest for primary care and RTW rehabilitation officers....
Kelleher, I; Ramsay, H; DeVylder, J
Recent research has demonstrated a strong relationship between psychotic experiences and suicidal behaviour. No research to date, however, has investigated the role of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in this relationship, despite the fact that BPD is highly comorbid with common mental disorders and is associated with both recurrent suicidal behaviour and psychotic experiences. This paper examined the relationship between psychotic experiences and suicide attempts, including interrelationships with BPD and common mental disorders. We used the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Study, a stratified, multistage probability sample of households in England, which recruited a nationally representative sample aged 16 years and older. Participants were assessed for common mental disorders, BPD (clinical and subclinical), suicidal behaviour, and psychotic experiences. Approximately 4% of the total sample (n = 323) reported psychotic experiences. Psychotic experiences were associated with increased odds of suicide attempts in individuals with BPD (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.03-4.85), individuals with a common mental disorder (OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.37-4.43), individuals without a common mental disorder (OR = 3.99, 95% CI = 2.47-6.43), and individuals with neither a common mental disorder nor BPD (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 1.71-5.98). Psychotic experiences are associated with high odds of suicidal behaviour in individuals with and without psychopathology. This relationship is not explained by clinical or subclinical BPD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kukla, Urszula; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Chronowska, Justyna; Krzystanek, Marek; Okopień, BogusŁaw
Mental disorders accompanying digestive system diseases constitute interdisciplinary yet scarcely acknowledged both diagnostic and therapeutic problem. One of the mostly recognized examples is coeliac disease where patients endure the large spectrum of psychopathological symptoms, starting with attention deficit all the way down to the intellectual disability in extreme cases. It has not been fully explained how the pathomechanism of digestive system diseases affects patient's mental health, however one of the hypothesis suggests that it is due to serotonergic or opioid neurotransmission imbalance caused by gluten and gluten metabolites effect on central nervous system. Behavioral changes can also be invoked by liver or pancreatic diseases, which causes life-threatening abnormalities within a brain. It occurs that these abnormalities reflexively exacerbate the symptoms of primary somatic disease and aggravate its course, which worsens prognosis. The dominant mental disease mentioned in this article is depression which because of its effect on a hypothalamuspituitary- adrenal axis and on an autonomic nervous system, not only aggravates the symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases but may accelerate their onset in genetically predisposed patients. Depression is known to negatively affects patients' ability to function in a society and a quality of their lives. Moreover, as far as children are concerned, the occurrence of digestive system diseases accompanied by mental disorders, may adversely affect their further physical and psychological development, which merely results in worse school performance. All those aspects of mental disorders indicate the desirability of the psychological care for patients with recognized digestive system disease. The psychological assistance should be provided immediately after diagnosis of a primary disease and be continued throughout the whole course of treatment. © 2015 MEDPRESS.
Cailhol, L; Jeannot, M; Rodgers, R; Guelfi, J D; Perez-Diaz, F; Pham-Scottez, A; Corcos, M; Speranza, M
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is believed to be frequent among adolescents. While several prospective studies have assessed the use of mental health services among adults who suffer from BPD, few studies have provided adolescent data. This paper presents findings from the first assessment point of the European Research Network on Borderline Personality Disorder (EURNET BPD) study. In this study, we describe lifetime treatment utilization for 85 adolescents with BPD (Mean age: 16.3 years old). In line with adult findings, adolescents with BPD reported greater mental healthcare service use (outpatient: 98%; inpatient: 79%) compared to controls. Phenothiazine, a sedative neuroleptic, was the most frequently prescribed treatment. 47% of patients had received psychotherapy; in one our of three cases this was psychodynamic therapy. Patients who had received psychotherapy did not differ on any psychopathological variables from those who did not receive psychotherapy; however, psychotherapy was more frequent among females.
Lebowitz, Matthew S.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung
Mental disorders are increasingly understood in terms of biological mechanisms. We examined how such biological explanations of patients’ symptoms would affect mental health clinicians’ empathy—a crucial component of the relationship between treatment-providers and patients—as well as their clinical judgments and recommendations. In a series of studies, US clinicians read descriptions of potential patients whose symptoms were explained using either biological or psychosocial information. Biological explanations have been thought to make patients appear less accountable for their disorders, which could increase clinicians’ empathy. To the contrary, biological explanations evoked significantly less empathy. These results are consistent with other research and theory that has suggested that biological accounts of psychopathology can exacerbate perceptions of patients as abnormal, distinct from the rest of the population, meriting social exclusion, and even less than fully human. Although the ongoing shift toward biomedical conceptualizations has many benefits, our results reveal unintended negative consequences. PMID:25453068
Wang, Dongxin; Liu, Xuejun; Zhou, Bin; Kuang, Weiping; Guo, Tiansheng
Deep brain stimulation is a method that involves using an electric stimulus on a specific target in the brain with stereotaxis. It is a minimally invasive, safe, adjustable and reversible nerve involvement technology. At present, this technique is widely applied to treat movement disorders and has produced promising effects on mental symptoms, including combined anxiety and depression. Deep brain stimulation has therefore been employed as a novel treatment for depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, habituation, Tourette's syndrome, presenile dementia, anorexia nervosa and other refractory mental illnesses. Many encouraging results have been reported. The aim of the present review was to briefly describe the mechanisms, target selection, side effects, ethical arguments and risks associated with deep brain stimulation. Although deep brain stimulation is a developing and promising treatment, a large amount of research is still required to determine its curative effect, and the selection of patients and targets must be subjected to strict ethical standards.
Wang, Dongxin; Liu, Xuejun; Zhou, Bin; Kuang, Weiping; Guo, Tiansheng
Deep brain stimulation is a method that involves using an electric stimulus on a specific target in the brain with stereotaxis. It is a minimally invasive, safe, adjustable and reversible nerve involvement technology. At present, this technique is widely applied to treat movement disorders and has produced promising effects on mental symptoms, including combined anxiety and depression. Deep brain stimulation has therefore been employed as a novel treatment for depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, habituation, Tourette's syndrome, presenile dementia, anorexia nervosa and other refractory mental illnesses. Many encouraging results have been reported. The aim of the present review was to briefly describe the mechanisms, target selection, side effects, ethical arguments and risks associated with deep brain stimulation. Although deep brain stimulation is a developing and promising treatment, a large amount of research is still required to determine its curative effect, and the selection of patients and targets must be subjected to strict ethical standards. PMID:29250146
Bruffaerts, Ronny; Vilagut, Gemma; Demyttenaere, Koen; Alonso, Jordi; Alhamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura Helena; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn; Bunting, Brendan; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; He, Yanling; Hinkov, Hristo; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Matschinger, Herbert; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M; Varghese, Matthew; Williams, David R; Xavier, Miguel; Kessler, Ronald C
Mental and physical disorders are associated with total disability, but their effects on days with partial disability (i.e. the ability to perform some, but not full-role, functioning in daily life) are not well understood. To estimate individual (i.e. the consequences for an individual with a disorder) and societal effects (i.e. the avoidable partial disability in the society due to disorders) of mental and physical disorders on days with partial disability around the world. Respondents from 26 nationally representative samples (n = 61 259, age 18+) were interviewed regarding mental and physical disorders, and day-to-day functioning. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) was used to assess mental disorders; partial disability (expressed in full day equivalents) was assessed with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule in the CIDI 3.0. Respondents with disorders reported about 1.58 additional disability days per month compared with respondents without disorders. At the individual level, mental disorders (especially post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and bipolar disorder) yielded a higher number of days with disability than physical disorders. At the societal level, the population attributable risk proportion due to physical and mental disorders was 49% and 15% respectively. Mental and physical disorders have a considerable impact on partial disability, at both the individual and at the societal level. Physical disorders yielded higher effects on partial disability than mental disorders.
Full Text Available Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC/norepinephrine (NE system is regarded as a critical part of the central “stress circuitry,” whose major function is to induce “fight or flight” behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty. The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear, but also for fight (anger. Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. “Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush” and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders.
Lijun, Cui; Ke-Qing, Li; Xiuli, Sun; Ze, Cui; Qinpu, Jiang; Yanchao, Han; Lianghui, Gao; Yang, Zhang; Jianfeng, Li; Yongqiao, Liu; Laohu, Yang; Hua, Lv
To investigate the sleep characteristics of a community sample of patients with 13 types of mental disorders. Subjects aged 18 years and older were sampled from the Epidemiologic Sites Survey of Mental Illness at a mental health center in Hebei Province, Baoding, China, from October 2004 to March 2005. The study group included 1,874 subjects who met the diagnostic criteria of 13 types of mental disorders according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders-Patient Edition (major depressive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, dysthymic disorder, bipolar affective disorder, somatoform disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, specific phobia, schizophrenia, adjustment disorder, social phobia, and alcohol abuse and dependence.) The control group included 15,117 subjects without mental disorders. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality, and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) was used to assess social life function. The prevalence of sleep disorders was 11.6% in the survey respondents. The prevalence of sleep disturbances in the group with 13 types of mental disorders ranged from 19.30% to 69.92%. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of sleep disorders between the study group (48.61%) and the control group (5.55%; P sleep disturbance in subjects with major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder was 69.92% and 58.27%, respectively. Longer sleep latency and shorter sleep duration were the most common features of low quality sleep in patients with mental disorders. There was a significant difference in sleep latency and duration in subjects with major depressive disorder (P disorder (P disorder (P Sleep medication was used most by subjects with schizophrenia and least by those with social phobia. Daytime dysfunction was most notable in subjects with major depressive disorder. Subjects with mental disorders with sleep disorders
de Jonge, P; Wardenaar, K J; Hoenders, H R; Evans-Lacko, S; Kovess-Masfety, V; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Al-Hamzawi, A; Alonso, J; Andrade, L H; Benjet, C; Bromet, E J; Bruffaerts, R; Bunting, B; Caldas-de-Almeida, J M; Dinolova, R V; Florescu, S; de Girolamo, G; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Hu, C; Huang, Y; Karam, E G; Karam, G; Lee, S; Lépine, J-P; Levinson, D; Makanjuola, V; Navarro-Mateu, F; Pennell, B-E; Posada-Villa, J; Scott, K; Tachimori, H; Williams, D; Wojtyniak, B; Kessler, R C; Thornicroft, G
A substantial proportion of persons with mental disorders seek treatment from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professionals. However, data on how CAM contacts vary across countries, mental disorders and their severity, and health care settings is largely lacking. The aim was therefore to investigate the prevalence of contacts with CAM providers in a large cross-national sample of persons with 12-month mental disorders. In the World Mental Health Surveys, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to determine the presence of past 12 month mental disorders in 138 801 participants aged 18-100 derived from representative general population samples. Participants were recruited between 2001 and 2012. Rates of self-reported CAM contacts for each of the 28 surveys across 25 countries and 12 mental disorder groups were calculated for all persons with past 12-month mental disorders. Mental disorders were grouped into mood disorders, anxiety disorders or behavioural disorders, and further divided by severity levels. Satisfaction with conventional care was also compared with CAM contact satisfaction. An estimated 3.6% (standard error 0.2%) of persons with a past 12-month mental disorder reported a CAM contact, which was two times higher in high-income countries (4.6%; standard error 0.3%) than in low- and middle-income countries (2.3%; standard error 0.2%). CAM contacts were largely comparable for different disorder types, but particularly high in persons receiving conventional care (8.6-17.8%). CAM contacts increased with increasing mental disorder severity. Among persons receiving specialist mental health care, CAM contacts were reported by 14.0% for severe mood disorders, 16.2% for severe anxiety disorders and 22.5% for severe behavioural disorders. Satisfaction with care was comparable with respect to CAM contacts (78.3%) and conventional care (75.6%) in persons that received both. CAM contacts are common in persons with severe mental
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traffic related injuries are leading contributors to burden of disease worldwide. In developing countries a high proportion of them can be attributed to public transportation vehicles. Several mental disorders including alcohol and drug abuse, psychotic disorders, mental stress, productivity pressure, and low monetary income were found predictors of high rates of traffic related injuries in public transportation drivers. The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders in the population of public transportation drivers of buses and rickshaws in Lima, Peru. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross sectional study. A sample of bus and rickshaw drivers was systematically selected from formal public transportation companies using a snowball approach. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires for assessing major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms, alcohol abuse, and burnout syndrome. Socio demographic information was also collected. The analyses consisted of descriptive measurement of outcomes taking into account both between and within cluster standard deviation (BCSD and WCSD. A total of 278 bus and 227 rickshaw drivers out of 25 companies agreed to participate in the study. BCSD for major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms and burnout syndrome was not found significant (p>0.05. The estimated prevalence of each variable was 13.7% (IC95%: 10.7-16.6%, 24.1% (IC95%: 19.4-28.8% and 14.1% (IC95%: 10.8-17.4% respectively. The estimated prevalence of alcohol abuse was 75.4% (IC95%: 69-81.7%, BCSD = 12.2%, WCSD = 41.9%, intra class correlation (ICC: 7.8%. CONCLUSION: Common mental disorders such as alcohol abuse, major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms and burnout syndrome presented higher rates in public transportation drivers than general population.
Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Ramos, Mariana; Samalvides, Frine; Vega-Dienstmaier, Johann; Kruger, Hever
Traffic related injuries are leading contributors to burden of disease worldwide. In developing countries a high proportion of them can be attributed to public transportation vehicles. Several mental disorders including alcohol and drug abuse, psychotic disorders, mental stress, productivity pressure, and low monetary income were found predictors of high rates of traffic related injuries in public transportation drivers. The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders in the population of public transportation drivers of buses and rickshaws in Lima, Peru. Cross sectional study. A sample of bus and rickshaw drivers was systematically selected from formal public transportation companies using a snowball approach. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires for assessing major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms, alcohol abuse, and burnout syndrome. Socio demographic information was also collected. The analyses consisted of descriptive measurement of outcomes taking into account both between and within cluster standard deviation (BCSD and WCSD). A total of 278 bus and 227 rickshaw drivers out of 25 companies agreed to participate in the study. BCSD for major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms and burnout syndrome was not found significant (p>0.05). The estimated prevalence of each variable was 13.7% (IC95%: 10.7-16.6%), 24.1% (IC95%: 19.4-28.8%) and 14.1% (IC95%: 10.8-17.4%) respectively. The estimated prevalence of alcohol abuse was 75.4% (IC95%: 69-81.7%, BCSD = 12.2%, WCSD = 41.9%, intra class correlation (ICC): 7.8%). Common mental disorders such as alcohol abuse, major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms and burnout syndrome presented higher rates in public transportation drivers than general population.
Abstract in English Background: Mental health and physical health are substantially associated with each other. The early recognition of co-occurring mental-physical conditions, as well as the early recognition of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying somatic symptoms, might be of special relevance for a better understanding of early phases of disorder development and hence prevention. Aim: To examine associations between symptoms of mental disorders (depressive symptoms and gambli...
Ormel, Johan; Oerlemans, Anoek; Raven, Dennis; Laceulle, O.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364227885; Hartman, Catharina; Veenstra, Rene; Verhulst, F; Vollebergh, W.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090632893; Rosmalen, J.G.M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Oldehinkel, Tineke
Background. Various sources indicate that mental disorders are the leading contributor to the burden of disease among youth. An important determinant of functioning is current mental health status. This study investigated whether psychiatric history has additional predictive power when predicting
Ormel, J; Oerlemans, A M; Raven, D; Laceulle, O M; Hartman, C A; Veenstra, R.; Verhulst, F C; Vollebergh, W; Rosmalen, J G M; Reijneveld, S A; Oldehinkel, A J
Background. Various sources indicate that mental disorders are the leading contributor to the burden of disease among youth. An important determinant of functioning is current mental health status. This study investigated whether psychiatric history has additional predictive power when predicting
Young, S; Sedgwick, O; Perkins, D; Lister, H; Southgate, K; Das, M; Kumari, V; Bishopp, D; Gudjonsson, G H
There are very few, if any, valid and victim-specific situation empathy measures available at present for use with mentally disordered offenders. The aim of this study was to validate a modified version (VERA-2) of the Victim Empathy Response Assessment (VERA) tool which was developed earlier (Young et al., 2008) to enable victim-specific situation empathy measurement in offenders. A total of 55 mentally disordered in-patients residing in a maximum security hospital were assessed on VERA-2 as well as on measures of antisocial personality traits, global affective empathy, violent cognitions, and reported remorse for the index offence. The VERA-2 cognitive and affective empathy scales were negatively correlated with antisocial personality traits and violent cognitions, and positively related to remorse for the index offence. Global affective empathy was positively related to VERA-2 affective empathy. Participants with a history of sexual offending had significantly higher cognitive empathy than other offenders. Acceptance of violence and remorse for the index offence were the best predictors of both cognitive and affective empathy. The findings suggest that the VERA-2 is a valid instrument for measuring victim empathy among mentally disordered offenders, and may prove useful in the context of future risk assessment and outcomes in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Loera, Gustavo; Geraghty, Estella M; Ton, Hendry; Lim, Carmen C W; de Jonge, Peter; Kessler, Ronald C; Posada-Villa, José; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Hu, Chiyi; Fiestas, Fabian; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Kovess-Masféty, Viviane; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Nakane, Yoshibumi; ten Have, Margreet; O'Neill, Siobhan; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; de Almeida, José Miguel Caldas; Florescu, Silvia; Haro, Josep Maria; Scott, Kate M
We investigated the associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent arthritis onset, with and without mental disorder comorbidity adjustment. We aimed to determine whether specific types of mental disorders and increasing numbers of mental disorders were associated with the onset of arthritis later in life. Data were collected using face-to-face household surveys, conducted in 19 countries from different regions of the world (n=52,095). Lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed retrospectively with the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI). Arthritis was assessed by self-report of lifetime history of arthritis and age at onset. Survival analyses estimated the association of initial onset of mental disorders with subsequent onset of arthritis. After adjusting for comorbidity, the number of mood, anxiety, impulse-control, and substance disorders remained significantly associated with arthritis onset showing odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.2 to 1.4. Additionally, the risk of developing arthritis increased as the number of mental disorders increased from one to five or more disorders. This study suggests links between mental disorders and subsequent arthritis onset using a large, multi-country dataset. These associations lend support to the idea that it may be possible to reduce the severity of mental disorder-arthritis comorbidity through early identification and effective treatment of mental disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Micoulaud-Franchi, J A; Quiles, C; Masson, M
Psychiatry as a discipline should no longer be grounded in the dualistic opposition between organic and mental disorders. This non-dualistic position refusing the partition along functional versus organic lines is in line with Jean Delay, and with Robert Spitzer who wanted to include in the definition of mental disorder discussed by the DSM-III task force the statement that "mental disorders are a subset of medical disorders". However, it is interesting to note that Spitzer and colleagues ingeniously introduced the definition of "mental disorder" in the DSM-III in the following statement: "there is no satisfactory definition that specifies precise boundaries for the concept "mental disorder" (also true for such concepts as physical disorder and mental and physical health)". Indeed, as for "mental disorders", it is as difficult to define what they are as it is to define what constitutes a "physical disorder". The problem is not the words "mental" or "organic" but the word "disorder". In this line, Wakefield has proposed a useful "harmful dysfunction" analysis of mental disorder. They raise the issue of the dualistic opposition between organic and mental disorders, and situate the debate rather between the biological/physiological and the social. The paper provides a brief analysis of this shift on the question of what is a mental disorder, and demonstrates that a mental disorder is not more "organic" than any other medical condition. While establishing a dichotomy between organic and psychiatry is no longer intellectually tenable, the solution is not to reduce psychiatric and non-psychiatric disorders to the level of "organic disorders" but rather to continue to adopt both a critical and clinically pertinent approach to what constitutes a "disorder" in medicine. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
McGrath, John J.; Saha, Sukanta; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Browne, Mark Oakley; Caldas de Almeida, Jose M.; Chiu, Wai Tat; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Have, Margreet ten; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Sampson, Nancy; Posada-Villa, José; Kendler, Kenneth; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective While it is now recognized that psychotic experiences (PEs) are associated with an increased risk of later mental disorders, we lack a detailed understanding of the reciprocal time-lagged relationships between first onsets of PEs and mental disorders. Methods The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys assessed lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset of PEs and 21 common DSM-IV mental disorders among 31,261 adult respondents from 18 countries. Results Temporally primary PEs were significantly associated with subsequent first onset of 8 of the 21 mental disorders (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, adult separation anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, alcohol abuse), with ORs (95%CI) ranging from 1.3 (1.2–1.5; major depressive disorder) to 2.0 (1.5–2.6; bipolar disorder). In contrast, 18 of 21 primary mental disorders were significantly associated with subsequent first onset of PEs, with ORs (95% CI) ranging from 1.5 (1.0–2.1; childhood separation anxiety disorder) to 2.8 (1.0–7.8; anorexia nervosa). Conclusions While temporally primary PEs are associated with an elevated risk of several subsequent mental disorders, we found that most mental disorder are associated with an elevated risk of subsequent PEs. Further investigation of the underlying factors accounting for these time-order relationships might shed light on the etiology of PEs. PMID:26988628
Galvez, Juan Francisco; Thommi, Sairah; Ghaemi, S Nassir
There is growing interest to understand the role of positive psychological features on the outcomes of medical illnesses. Unfortunately this topic is less studied in relation to mental health, and almost completely neglected in relation to one of the most common severe psychiatric illnesses, bipolar disorder. Certain specific psychological characteristics, that are generally viewed as valuable and beneficial morally or socially, may grow out of the experience of having this affective disorder. We describe the sources, research and impact of these positive psychological traits in the lives of persons with bipolar disorder based on the few published literature available to date. These include, but are not limited to: spirituality, empathy, creativity, realism, and resilience. After an extensive search in the literature, we found 81 articles that involve descriptions of positive psychological characteristics of bipolar disorder. We found evidence for enhancement of the five above positive psychological traits in persons with bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is associated with the positive psychological traits of spirituality, empathy, creativity, realism, and resilience. Clinical and research attention to preserving and enhancing these traits may improve outcomes in bipolar disorder. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rapsey, Charlene M; Lim, Carmen C W; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, J M; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Hu, Chiyi; Kessler, Ronald C; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Murphy, Sam; Ono, Yutaka; Piazza, Maria; Posada-Villa, Jose; ten Have, Margreet; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Scott, Kate M
COPD and mental disorder comorbidity is commonly reported, although findings are limited by substantive weaknesses. Moreover, few studies investigate mental disorder as a risk for COPD onset. This research aims to investigate associations between current (12-month) DSM-IV mental disorders and COPD, associations between temporally prior mental disorders and subsequent COPD diagnosis, and cumulative effect of multiple mental disorders. Data were collected using population surveys of 19 countries (n=52,095). COPD diagnosis was assessed by self-report of physician's diagnosis. The World Mental Health-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) was used to retrospectively assess lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV disorders. Adjusting for age, gender, smoking, education, and country, survival analysis estimated associations between first onset of mental disorder and subsequent COPD diagnosis. COPD and several mental disorders were concurrently associated across the 12-month period (ORs 1.5-3.8). When examining associations between temporally prior disorders and COPD, all but two mental disorders were associated with COPD diagnosis (ORs 1.7-3.5). After comorbidity adjustment, depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and alcohol abuse were significantly associated with COPD (ORs 1.6-1.8). There was a substantive cumulative risk of COPD diagnosis following multiple mental disorders experienced over the lifetime. Mental disorder prevalence is higher in those with COPD than those without COPD. Over time, mental disorders are associated with subsequent diagnosis of COPD; further, the risk is cumulative for multiple diagnoses. Attention should be given to the role of mental disorders in the pathogenesis of COPD using prospective study designs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rapsey, Charlene M.; Lim, Carmen C.W.; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, J.M.; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Hu, Chiyi; Kessler, Ronald C.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Elena Medina-Mora, María; Murphy, Sam; Ono, Yutaka; Piazza, Maria; Posada-Villa, Jose; ten Have, Margreet; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Scott, Kate M.
Objectives COPD and mental disorder comorbidity is commonly reported, although findings are limited by substantive weaknesses. Moreover, few studies investigate mental disorder as a risk for COPD onset. This research aims to investigate associations between current (12-month) DSM-IV mental disorders and COPD, associations between temporally prior mental disorders and subsequent COPD diagnosis, and cumulative effect of multiple mental disorders. Methods Data were collected using population surveys of 19 countries (n = 52,095). COPD diagnosis was assessed by self-report of physician's diagnosis. The World Mental Health-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) was used to retrospectively assess lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV disorders. Adjusting for age, gender, smoking, education, and country, survival analysis estimated associations between first onset of mental disorder and subsequent COPD diagnosis. Results COPD and several mental disorders were concurrently associated across the 12-month period (ORs 1.5–3.8). When examining associations between temporally prior disorders and COPD, all but two mental disorders were associated with COPD diagnosis (ORs 1.7–3.5). After comorbidity adjustment, depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and alcohol abuse were significantly associated with COPD (ORs 1.6–1.8). There was a substantive cumulative risk of COPD diagnosis following multiple mental disorders experienced over the lifetime. Conclusions: Mental disorder prevalence is higher in those with COPD than those without COPD. Over time, mental disorders are associated with subsequent diagnosis of COPD; further, the risk is cumulative for multiple diagnoses. Attention should be given to the role of mental disorders in the pathogenesis of COPD using prospective study designs. PMID:26526305
Fassino, S; Amianto, F; Sobrero, C; Abbate Daga, G
Research investigating the relationship between mental disorders and personality traits leads to interesting results. Individuals affected by several mental disorders have been worldwide assessed according to the psychobiological model of personality. This review aims to explore which temperament and character traits are recurrent in mental disorders and to highlight what traits may be shared determinants or consequences of the expression of a mental disorder. Systematic search of Medline database between 1998 and 2011 has been conducted to select the studies exploring the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) dimensions in the most relevant axis I psychiatric disorders. Of the 110 studies that were retrieved, 88 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were analyzed. High HA (HA) and low self-directedness are recurrent and can be considered as a "personality core" regardless of the diagnosis. They may be risk factors and relapse-related, they can indicate incomplete remission or chronic course of mental disorders, and consistently influence patients' functioning. Furthermore, they can be modified by medications or psychotherapy and represent outcome predictors of treatments. This "core" may represent a personality diathesis to psychopathology. Relational environment can influence the development of both temperament and character, thus prevention of mental disorders should promote a positive development of these traits. Although further research is needed, psychotherapeutic interventions should be performed also considering that mental disorders could benefit from HA desensitization and SD reinforcement. Finally, these traits may be used to provide diagnostic, prognostic, quality of life and efficacy inferences on psychiatric treatments.
Xu, Guangming; Chen, Gong; Zhou, Qin; Li, Ning; Zheng, Xiaoying
Population aging is accelerating across the world, and older people have a higher risk of mental disorders. Most studies focus on one mental disorder, and only report the current prevalence. Besides, these studies use screening scales for symptoms of mental disorders, which may induce biased results. In this study, we used data for diagnoses based on SCID that had been administered by trained psychiatrists to explore the 1-month and lifetime prevalence of mental disorders among a Chinese aged cohort. Data for this study was derived from the Tianjin Mental Health Survey. Participants were first screened using a General Health Questionnaire and 9 additional items on other risk factors for mental disorders, and then diagnosed with the Chinese version of Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) Axis I disorders. A total of 3,325 people aged 60 and above had valid information, and 1,486 completed the SCID interview. The weighted 1-month prevalence of mental disorders was 14.27%, whereas the lifetime prevalence of mental disorders was 24.20%. Most of these participants were female, older, currently not married, of lower education level, and with poor family economic status. Organic mental disorders had the highest 1-month prevalence (4.45%), whereas mood disorder was highest for the lifetime prevalence (9.75%). Older Chinese people had a high prevalence of mental disorders. Further research and health services innovations are needed to address the high prevalence in these subgroups among older people.
... disorder and/or agoraphobia 9413Anxiety disorder, not otherwise specified Dissociative Disorders 9416Dissociative amnesia; dissociative fugue; dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder...-mental disorders. 4.130 Section 4.130 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS...
Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Boden, Joseph M
Research on the links between abortion and mental health has been limited by design problems and relatively weak evidence. To examine the links between pregnancy outcomes and mental health outcomes. Data were gathered on the pregnancy and mental health history of a birth cohort of over 500 women studied to the age of 30. After adjustment for confounding, abortion was associated with a small increase in the risk of mental disorders; women who had had abortions had rates of mental disorder that were about 30% higher. There were no consistent associations between other pregnancy outcomes and mental health. Estimates of attributable risk indicated that exposure to abortion accounted for 1.5% to 5.5% of the overall rate of mental disorders. The evidence is consistent with the view that abortion may be associated with a small increase in risk of mental disorders. Other pregnancy outcomes were not related to increased risk of mental health problems.
Viana, Maria Carmen; Lim, Carmen C W; Garcia Pereira, Flavia; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Cardoso, Graça; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M
Associations between depression/anxiety and pain are well established, but its directionality is not clear. We examined the associations between temporally previous mental disorders and subsequent self-reported chronic back/neck pain onset, and investigated the variation in the strength of associations according to timing of events during the life course, and according to gender. Data were from population-based household surveys conducted in 19 countries (N = 52,095). Lifetime prevalence and age of onset of 16 mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and the occurrence and age of onset of back/neck pain were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Survival analyses estimated the associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent back/neck pain onset. All mental disorders were positively associated with back/neck pain in bivariate analyses; most (12 of 16) remained so after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Early-onset disorders were stronger predictors of pain; when adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, this remained the case for depression/dysthymia. No gender differences were observed. In conclusion, individuals with mental disorder, beyond depression and anxiety, are at higher risk of developing subsequent back/neck pain, stressing the importance of early detection of mental disorders, and highlight the need of assessing back/neck pain in mental health clinical settings. Previous mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition are positively associated with subsequent back/neck pain onset, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Earlier-onset mental disorders are stronger predictors of subsequent pain onset, compared with later-onset disorders
Balyakina, Elizabeth; Mann, Christopher; Ellison, Michael; Sivernell, Ron; Fulda, Kimberly G; Sarai, Simrat Kaur; Cardarelli, Roberto
The criminal justice system is the primary service delivery system for many adults with drug and alcohol dependence, mental health, and other health service needs. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between risk of future offense, mental health status and co-occurring disorders in a large substance abuse diversion probationer population. A purposive sample of 2,077 probationers completed an assessment to screen for mental health disorders, substance use disorders, risk of future crime and violence, and several demographic characteristics. Probationers who screened positive for co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders were significantly more likely to be at higher risk of future crime and violence compared to probationers who screened positive for only substance use, only a mental health disorder, or no substance use or mental health disorder. Implications for substance use and mental health service delivery are discussed, and recommendations are made for further research.
Catanesi, Roberto; Rocca, Gabriele; Candelli, Chiara; Carabellese, Felice
Matricide is one of the rarest of reported murders and has always been considered one of the most abhorrent crimes. Psychiatric investigations as to why a son might murder his mother yield indications of a high rate of mental illness, primarily psychotic disorders, in perpetrators. In an attempt to gain an in-depth understanding of the role of the mother-son bond in the etiology of matricide by mentally disordered sons, this article presents a qualitative study of nine cases of matricide examined at two Italian Forensic Psychiatry Departments between 2005 and 2010 and retrospective analysis of forensic psychiatry reports on the offenders. Most matricides suffered from psychotic disorders, especially schizophrenia. Nevertheless, not all the perpetrators had psychotic symptoms at the time of the crime. A "pathologic" mother-son bond was found in all cases. However, mental illness is not the only variable related to matricide and, taken alone, is not enough to explain the crime. Several factors in the history of the mother and son need to be probed, especially how their relationship developed over the years. The peculiar dynamics of the mother-son relationship and the unique personalities and life experiences of both subjects are the real key to cases of matricide. © The Author(s) 2014.
Byrd, Kia; Gelaye, Bizu; Tadessea, Mahlet G; Williams, Michelle A; Lemma, Seblewengel; Berhanec, Yemane
To estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs) and examine the association of sleep disorders with presence of CMDs. A self-administered questionnaire was used to ascertain demographic information and behavioral characteristics among 2,645 undergraduate students in Ethiopia. Standard questionnaires were used to assess CMDs, evening chronotype, sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. A total of 716 students (26.6%) were characterized as having CMDs. Female students had higher prevalence of CMDs (30.6%) compared to male students (25.4%). After adjusting for potential confounders, daytime sleepiness (OR=2.02; 95% CI 1.64-2.49) and poor sleep quality (OR=2.36; 95% CI 1.91-2.93) were associated with increased odds of CMDs. There is a high prevalence of CMDs comorbid with sleep disorders among college students.
Priebe, S.; Bogic, M.; Ajdukovic, D.; Franciskovic, T.; Galeazzi, G.M.; Kucukalic, A.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Morina, N.; Popovski, M.; Wang, D.; Schützwohl, M.
Context: War experience may affect mental health. However, no community-based study has assessed mental disorders several years after war using consistent random sampling of war-affected people across several Western countries. Objectives: To assess current prevalence rates of mental disorders in an
Bonin, Jean-Pierre; Fournier, Louise; Blais, Régis
The aim of this study is to describe distinct typologies among mentally ill users of resources for homeless people, in order to inform the targeted development of mental health services to address their varied needs. Data came from a survey of clientele of resources for homeless persons in Montreal and Quebec (N = 757) and this study includes the 369 people from this sample who met DSM-IV criteria for serious mental disorders at any point in their lifetime. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis was run with mental health service utilization in the past 12 months (dependent variable), and variables from Pescosolido's Model (independent variables). Cluster analysis identified six types of homeless persons with mental disorders: women; men with schizophrenia; previously depressed or alcoholic men; men with current depressive disorders; men with comorbidity; and men who were previously homeless. Results are discussed concerning the mental health service use, and needs of these different groups.
Wittchen, H U; Jacobi, F; Rehm, J
To provide 12-month prevalence and disability burden estimates of a broad range of mental and neurological disorders in the European Union (EU) and to compare these findings to previous estimates. Referring to our previous 2005 review, improved up-to-date data for the enlarged EU on a broader range...... of disorders than previously covered are needed for basic, clinical and public health research and policy decisions and to inform about the estimated number of persons affected in the EU....
Calugi, Simona; Avaldi, Vera Maria; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Rucci, Paola; Fantini, Maria Pia
To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with eating disorders referred to Community Mental Health Centers (CMHCs) in the Department of Mental Health of Bologna, Italy, and to evaluate the number and type of interventions delivered. Adult patients with eating disorders who had a first contact with CMHCs between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were extracted from Bologna Local Health Authority database. Moreover, the hospital discharge records of patients were linked to the mental health information system of Bologna. Among the 276 patients with eating disorders identified, 59 (21.4%) were diagnosed as anorexia nervosa, 77 (27.9%) as bulimia nervosa and 140 (50.7%) as eating disorders not otherwise specified. The mean age of the sample was 37.3 (SD = 13.4), with no significant differences among the three diagnostic groups. The number of CMHCs outpatients increased each year from 2007 to 2011 and decreased in 2012. The proportion of new patients by year comprised about 50% of the total of patients. Psychotherapy accounted for about 10% of the interventions. Day-hospital and hospital admissions concerned 6.1 and 11.6% of the sample. CMHCs are part of the system of care outlined by the Regional policies for eating disorders and are responsible for providing the first level of outpatient care to adults. To date, there is the need to extend our monitoring across the whole system of care, to assess the implementation of specific and effective strategies to decrease the age of access of patients and to improve the quality of care delivered with the inclusion of evidence-based treatments in the process of care.
Babbitt, Kriste E; Bailey, Kala J; Coverdale, John H; Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B
Pregnant women with major mental disorders present obstetricians with a range of clinical challenges, which are magnified when a psychotic or agitated patient presents in labor and there is limited time for decision making. This article provides the obstetrician with an algorithm to guide professionally responsible decision making with these patients. We searched for articles related to the intrapartum management of pregnant patients with major mental disorders, using 3 main search components: pregnancy, chronic mental illness, and ethics. No articles were found that addressed the clinical ethical challenges of decision making during the intrapartum period with these patients. We therefore developed an ethical framework with 4 components: the concept of the fetus as a patient; the presumption of decision-making capacity; the concept of assent; and beneficence-based clinical judgment. On the basis of this framework we propose an algorithm to guide professionally responsible decision making that asks 5 questions: (1) Does the patient have the capacity to consent to treatment?; (2) Is there time to attempt restoration of capacity?; (3) Is there an opportunity for substituted judgment?; (4) Is the patient accepting treatment?; (5) Is there an opportunity for active assent?; and (6) coerced clinical management as the least worst alternative. The algorithm is designed to support a deliberative, clinically comprehensive, preventive-ethics approach to guide obstetricians in decision making with this challenging population of patients. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: This study analyses some psychological variables related to susceptibility to mental disorders in medical students. Methods: A sample of 209 first- and second-year medical students was evaluated using the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and three questionnaires: Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and UNCAHS scale of STRAIN. Results: Thirty percent of the students suffered from emotional distress as measured by de GHQ-28, and showed significantly higher scores on trait anxiety, sensitivity to punishment and reward scales, and had higher levels of strain both in the academic environment and their personal life. Women scored significantly higher than men on trait anxiety and sensitivity to reward. Logistical regression found that trait anxiety and strain in non-academic life were the best predictors of the development of a mental disorder. Conclusions: The study confirms the usefulness of the STAI for detecting psychological distress and the validity of the SPSRQ for identifying subjects likely to present emotional distress when facing high environmental demands. Subjects most likely to present with mental illness are those who evaluate their personal (non-academic lives as more stressful.
Ceusters, Werner; Jensen, Mark; Diehl, Alexander D
At the heart of the Research Domain Criteria for Mental Disorders is a matrix in which functional aspects of behavior are related to genotypic and (endo-)phenotypic research findings, and the various techniques through which they can been observed. The matrix is work in progress. As such it currently suffers from several shortcomings, the resolution of which, we contend, are essential to success of NIMH's goal of fostering translational science on mental disorders. Using well-established criteria for assessing the terminological and ontological quality of biomedical representations we identified the major problems to be (1) the abundant presence of terms that lack face value, (2) the absence of what the exact nature of the represented relationships are, and (3) referential imprecision with respect to the intended granularity of what the terms denote. We propose to eliminate these shortcomings by resorting to definitions and formal representations under the umbrella of Ontological Realism as they already have been developed in the areas of mental health, anatomy and biological functions.
McDonald, Scott D; Mickens, Melody N; Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Mutchler, Brian J; Ellwood, Michael S; Castillo, Teodoro A
Depression and other mental disorders are more prevalent among individuals living with spinal cord injury (SCI) than in the community at large, and have a strong association with quality of life. Yet little is known about the prevalence and predictors of mental disorders among U.S. military Veterans living with SCI. The primary aim of this study was to present an estimate of mental disorder point prevalence in this population. The secondary aim was to examine the relationship of mental disorders to demographics, injury characteristics, and other clinically relevant features such as impairment from mental health problems and life satisfaction. Cross-sectional. A SCI & Disorders Center at a U.S. Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Administrative and medical records of 280 Veterans who attended annual comprehensive SCI evaluations were evaluated. Demographics, injury characteristics, self-reported mental and emotional functioning (i.e. SF-8 Health Survey), and clinician-determined mental disorder diagnoses were attained. Overall, 40% of patients received at least one mental disorder diagnosis, most commonly depressive disorders (19%), posttraumatic stress disorder (12%), and substance or alcohol use disorders (11%). Several patient characteristics predicted mental disorders, including age, racial minority identity, non-traumatic SCI etiology, and incomplete (i.e. AIS D) vs. complete injury. Mental disorders were associated with greater impairment from health and mental health-related problems and less satisfaction with life. Mental disorders are common among outpatients receiving VA specialty care for SCI. These findings highlight the importance of having adequate and effective available mental health services available for Veterans with SCI.
Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Caron, Jean
This study sought to identify profiles associated with substance dependence only, mental disorders only and co-occurring disorder respectively, using a broad range of socio-demographic, socio-economic, health beliefs, clinical and health services utilization variables concurrently. Based on a broad analytic framework, 423 participants diagnosed with substance dependence only, mental disorders only or co-occurring disorders within a 12-months period were studied. The study used comparison analysis, and a multinomial logistic regression model. Participants with dependence only and mental disorders only were in contrast in terms of gender, age, marital status, self-perception of physical health, perception of the physical conditions of their neighbourhood, impulsiveness, psychological distress and visit with a family physician in previous 12-months, while those with co-occurring disorders were in an intermediary position between the other two groups. Public authorities should especially promote strategies that could increase the capacity of family physicians to take care of individuals with substance dependence only.
We examined the recent reasons for hindering antipsychotic medications during pregnancy in Japan. We retrospectively analyzed the medical charts of all women who gave birth after 22 weeks' gestation at Japanese Red Cross Katsushika Maternity Hospital from August 2016 to July 2017. Four pregnant women with mental disorders (three schizophrenia and one adjustment disorder) kept the interruption of medications under their partners' compulsion. All of their partners had a history of mental disorders (two schizophrenia, one anxiety disorder and one adjustment disorder). In cases of pregnancy requiring mental health care, mental health care on partners seemed to be also needed.
Adrian P Mundt
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. METHOD: A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. RESULTS: Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1 for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0 for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8 for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1 for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2 for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3 for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, p<0.05 and illicit drug use (3.3% vs. 0.6% males with drug abuse, Z=2.04, p<0.05; 2.6% vs. 0.1% females with drug abuse, Z=5.36, p<0.001; 3.4% vs. 1.1% males with drug dependence, Z=3.70; p<0.001. Dysthymia (6.5% vs. 15.6%, Z=-2.39, p<0.05, simple (3.3% vs. 11.5%, Z=-3.13, p<0.001 and social phobias (3.9% vs. 9.7%, Z=2.38, p<0.05 were significantly less frequent in the female prison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; p<0.05 and dependence (2.7% vs. 8.2%; Z=-5.24; p<0.001 were less prevalent in the male prison population than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders.
Piazza, Marina; Fiestas, Fabián
To estimate the annual prevalence of eighteen mental disorders, their sociodemographic correlates and the frequency of use of mental health services by individuals aged 18 to 65 in five cities of Peru. The World Mental Health Survey in Peru used the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, which provides diagnoses according to DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. It was performed with a multistage probabilistic sample in Lima, Arequipa, Huancayo, Iquitos and Chiclayo between July 2004 and December 2005. The prevalence of mental disorders in the last twelve months was 13.5%, the most frequent being anxiety (7.9%), mood (3.5%), impulse control (3.5%) and substance misuse (1.7%). The widowed, separated and divorced showed a greater risk of disorders in the last year than those who were married or partners living together. Only 32.8% of those who had severe mental health disorders in the last twelve months received any kind of treatment. Among those with moderate or mild disorders, 18.1% and 15.4% received treatment, respectively. More than 13 out of 100 Peruvians reported having a mental health disorder in the last year. The magnitude of mental health disorders and the gap in those receiving care highlights the urgent need to direct care and resources towards the detection and timely treatment of mental diseases in Peru.
Andrade, Gabriela Oliveira; Dantas, Rosa Amélia Andrade
Anaesthesiology is a specialty whose specificity of the working process results in high levels of stress as an inevitable condition - a particularly worrying situation in the daily life of these professionals. This study, based on data from national and international literature, aims to discuss the basis of the occurrence of mental and behavioural disorders or of psychopathological injuries (psychological distress) related to working activity in anesthesiologists. A literature review was conducted, with papers selected from Medline and Lilacs databases, published between 2000 and 2012 in Portuguese, English and Spanish, and addressing the possible association between occupational hazards of the anaesthesiologist profession and mental health problems and psychic distress. Twenty-six publications were listed. Several aspects of the anesthesiologist's work are important points to better understand the relationship between mental health at work and working organization. Poor temporal structuring of work, conflictuous interpersonal relationships and poor control over the activity itself may be mentioned as illness enhancers. The working organization, when not appropriate, is an important occupational risk factor for the life and mental health of workers, mainly of professionals focused on the care of people. This paper focuses on anesthesiologists, who are constantly exposed to stressful and anxiogenic factors. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Grimm, D; Assouline, B; Piero, A
Autism Spectrum Disorders belong to Pervasive Development Disorders. Although access to education is recommended by the French National High Authority for Health (HAS), the practice remains limited and the reasons for the low education rate of these children have still not been sufficiently explored in the literature. The main objective of this study was to analyze the links between Autism Spectrum Disorder without mental retardation, psychiatric comorbidity and education. The secondary objective was to analyze the cognitive and contextual factors that could limit educational inclusion. Eighty-three autistic patients (3-18years old; 73 males and 10 females) with childhood autism, atypical autism or Asperger's syndrome (criteria from the International Classification of Diseases-10) without mental retardation and in education were assessed at the Alpine Centre for Early Diagnosis of Autism. The sample included 45 subjects with childhood autism, 12 subjects with atypical autism and 26 subjects with Asperger's syndrome. The diagnosis was based on the Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised (ADI-R), in accordance with the recommendations of the HAS, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV). Our results showed that childhood autism and atypical autism were mainly found in nursery and primary school, whereas Asperger's syndrome was mainly found in secondary school (Chi(2)=18.23; df=6; Pautism and atypical autism were more likely to receive the support of a special educational assistant (Chi(2)=15.61; df=2; Pautism and atypical autism (respectively, F=23.11, PAutism Spectrum Disorders and neuropsychological functioning, as assessed by WISC-IV, along a continuum that ranges from childhood autism (more needs and deficits) to atypical autism to Asperger's syndrome. The Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) and the Processing Speed Index (PSI) could be used to evaluate the number of hours of support needed
Unützer, J; Klap, R; Sturm, R; Young, A S; Marmon, T; Shatkin, J; Wells, K B
The study examined the relationship between mental disorders and the use of complementary and alternative medicine. Data from a national household telephone survey conducted in 1997-1998 (N=9,585) were used to examine the relationships between use of complementary and alternative medicine during the past 12 months and several demographic variables and indicators of mental disorders. Structured diagnostic screening interviews were used to establish diagnoses of probable mental disorders. Use of complementary and alternative medicine during the past 12 months was reported by 16.5% of the respondents. Of those respondents, 21.3% met diagnostic criteria for one or more mental disorders, compared to 12.8% of respondents who did not report use of alternative medicine. Individuals with panic disorder and major depression were significantly more likely to use alternative medicine than those without those disorders. Respondents with mental disorders who reported use of alternative medicine were as likely to use conventional mental health services as respondents with mental disorders who did not use alternative medicine. We found relatively high rates of use of complementary and alternative medicine among respondents who met criteria for common mental disorders. Practitioners of alternative medicine should look for these disorders in their patients, and conventional medical providers should ask their depressed and anxious patients about the use of alternative medicine. More research is needed to determine if individuals with mental disorders use alternative medicine because conventional medical care does not meet their health care needs.
Kuipers, Greet S; van Loenhout, Zara; van der Ark, L Andries; Bekker, Marrie H J
To investigate the relationships of attachment security and mentalization with core and co-morbid symptoms in eating disorder patients. We compared 51 eating disorder patients at the start of intensive treatment and 20 healthy controls on attachment, mentalization, eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, personality disorders, psycho-neuroticism, autonomy problems and self-injurious behavior, using the Adult Attachment Interview, the SCID-I and II and several questionnaires. Compared with the controls, the eating disorder patients showed a higher prevalence of insecure attachment; eating disorder patients more often than controls received the AAI classification Unresolved for loss or abuse. They also had a lower level of mentalization and more autonomy problems. In the patient group eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, psycho-neuroticism and autonomy problems were neither related to attachment security nor to mentalization; self-injurious behavior was associated with lesser attachment security and lower mentalization; borderline personality disorder was related to lower mentalization. In the control group no relations were found between attachment, mentalization and psychopathologic variables. Eating disorder patients' low level of mentalization suggests the usefulness of Mentalization Based Treatment techniques for eating disorder treatment, especially in case of self-injurious behavior and/or co-morbid borderline personality disorder.
Fiestas, Fabián; Piazza, Marina
To determine the lifetime prevalence of 18 mental disorders and to establish the pattern that those disorders have with the age of onset in five cities of Peru. As part of the World Mental Health Survey, the study in Peru followed a probabilistic multistage sample of people between 18 and 65 years old in Lima, Chiclayo, Arequipa, Huancayo and Iquitos. The desktop version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered. The lifetime prevalence of at least one mental disorder was 29% (SE 1.2), and the prevalence of at least two or three was 10.5% (SE 0.7) and 4% (SE 0.4), respectively. Anxiety disorders were more common with 14.9% (SE 0.9) prevalence, followed by mood disorders with 8.2% (SE 0.5), impulse control disorders with 8.1% (SE 0.8), and substance use disorders (5.8%; SE 0.3). The age of onset was earlier for anxiety disorders (15 years old) and for impulse control disorders (20 years old). Younger respondents were more likely to have a mental disorder. Almost a third of the adult population of five cities in Peru has had some psychiatric disorder at a given time in their lives, and comorbidity is common. Most disorders begin before age 30.
Seedat, Soraya; Scott, Kate Margaret; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Berglund, Patricia; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Demyttenaere, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Maria Haro, Josep; Jin, Robert; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Medina Mora, Maria Elena; Ono, Yutaka; Ormel, Johan; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Williams, David; Kessler, Ronald C.
Context: Gender differences in mental disorders, including more anxiety and mood disorders among women and more externalizing disorders among men, are found consistently in epidemiological surveys. The gender roles hypothesis suggests that these differences narrow as the roles of women and men
McGrath, John J; Saha, Sukanta; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn J; Browne, Mark Oakley; Caldas de Almeida, Jose M; Chiu, Wai Tat; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Ten Have, Margreet; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lim, Carmen C W; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Sampson, Nancy; Posada-Villa, José; Kendler, Kenneth S; Kessler, Ronald C
While it is now recognized that psychotic experiences are associated with an increased risk of later mental disorders, we lack a detailed understanding of the reciprocal time-lagged relationships between first onsets of psychotic experiences and mental disorders. Using data from World Health Organization World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys, the authors assessed the bidirectional temporal associations between psychotic experiences and mental disorders. The WMH Surveys assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of psychotic experiences and 21 common DSM-IV mental disorders among 31,261 adult respondents from 18 countries. Discrete-time survival models were used to examine bivariate and multivariate associations between psychotic experiences and mental disorders. Temporally primary psychotic experiences were significantly associated with subsequent first onset of eight of the 21 mental disorders (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, adult separation anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, and alcohol abuse), with odds ratios ranging from 1.3 (95% CI=1.2-1.5) for major depressive disorder to 2.0 (95% CI=1.5-2.6) for bipolar disorder. In contrast, 18 of 21 primary mental disorders were significantly associated with subsequent first onset of psychotic experiences, with odds ratios ranging from 1.5 (95% CI=1.0-2.1) for childhood separation anxiety disorder to 2.8 (95% CI=1.0-7.8) for anorexia nervosa. While temporally primary psychotic experiences are associated with an elevated risk of several subsequent mental disorders, these data show that most mental disorders are associated with an elevated risk of subsequent psychotic experiences. Further investigation of the underlying factors accounting for these time-order relationships may shed light on the etiology of psychotic experiences.
Wittchen, H U; Jacobi, F; Rehm, J
To provide 12-month prevalence and disability burden estimates of a broad range of mental and neurological disorders in the European Union (EU) and to compare these findings to previous estimates. Referring to our previous 2005 review, improved up-to-date data for the enlarged EU on a broader ran...
Wittchen, H U; Jacobi, F; Rehm, J
To provide 12-month prevalence and disability burden estimates of a broad range of mental and neurological disorders in the European Union (EU) and to compare these findings to previous estimates. Referring to our previous 2005 review, improved up-to-date data for the enlarged EU on a broader range...
Xu, Junfang; Wang, Jian; Wimo, Anders; Qiu, Chengxuan
Mental disorders represent a major contributor to disease burden worldwide. We sought to quantify the national economic burden of mental disorders in China. We used a prevalence-based, bottom-up approach to estimate the economic costs of mental disorders in 2005-2013 in China. Prevalence data were derived from a national survey. Cost data were derived from the electronic health records of two psychiatric hospitals that consisted of 25,289 outpatients (10%) and inpatients (90%) who were diagnosed with a mental disorder. Cost items included direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and indirect costs. The total annual costs of mental disorders in China increased from $1,094.8 in 2005 to $3,665.4 in 2013 for individual patients, and from $21.0 billion to $88.8 billion for the whole society. The total costs of mental disorders in 2013 accounted for more than 15% of the total health expenditure in China, and 1.1% of China's gross domestic product. If the needs of the professional care for all patients with mental illnesses were fully met, the potential economic costs would have been almost five times higher than the actual estimated costs. Mental disorders imposed a huge economic burden on individuals and the society in China. A nation-wide strategic action plan for preventing mental disorders and promoting mental health and well-being is in urgent need to reduce the individual and societal costs of mental illnesses.
Restrepo, Paula Andrea
Full Text Available In Colombia, there are few studies on the association of psychosocial and environmental factors with the most prevalent mental disorders; such studies are important due to the context of violence, social insecurity, and job and economic instability in the country. The objective of this study was to identify the psychosocial and environmental risk factors for mental disorders, in users of psychological services in Colombia. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a Questionnaire to evaluate the Axis-IV of the DSM-IV-TR were applied to 490 participants. The analysis comprised descriptive statistics and risk factors. As risk factors for depression, there were identified housing problems, access to health care services, problems related to the primary group, economics, problems of the social environment, and labor. For generalized anxiety, there were identified economic and education issues. For panic disorders, the risk factors were related to social environment, and for social phobia, the risk factors were problems in education, work and social environment
Bogusz, Renata; Humeniuk, Ewa
Every mental disorder may cause a number of negative consequences in the personal lives of the patients and their families as well as in their social relations. Acceptance of the disease is a crucial factor in the process of coping with the problems resulting from it. Acceptance of the disease may significantly influence the reduction of negative emotional reactions it causes. Consequently, it may contribute to better adaptation of the patients and hence may facilitate the process of recovery. The study attempts to define the socio-psychological conditioning of the degree of disease acceptance among patients treated for psychical disorders. Opinion surveys were carried out in 2013 among a group of 240 patients treated in Mental Health Clinic in Chełm, eastern Poland. The study applied Acceptance Illness Scale - AIS B. Felton, T. A. Revenson, G.A. Hinrichsen, adapted in Poland by Z. Juczyński, as well as a socio-demographic questionnaire. The analysis of the obtained results revealed a similar level of acceptance of such diseases as anxiety disorders (24.41±8.52), depression (22.80±7.51) and personality disorders (23.89±7.89). The medical records of all patients fitted among the low average. The greatest problem in the researched group related to the social consequences of the psychical disorders. Those questioned were afraid of the negative reactions of others and of being a burden to their families. The level of acceptance was not correlated with independent variables (age, gender, education, place of residence, general well-being).
Kuipers, G.S.; van Loenhout, Z.; van der Ark, L.A.; Bekker, M.H.J.
Objective: To investigate the relationships of attachment security and mentalization with core and co-morbid symptoms in eating disorder patients. Method: We compared 51 eating disorder patients at the start of intensive treatment and 20 healthy controls on attachment, mentalization, eating disorder
Wiklund, Johan; Hatak, Isabella; Patzelt, Holger; Shepherd, Dean
Mental disorders are prevalent, place considerable burden on the economy and lead to suffering for those with the disorders and their loved ones. However, there is a flipside. Evidence suggests that people with mental disorders can flourish and productively contribute to society through
Martorell, Almudena; Gutiérrez-Recacha, Pedro; Irazábal, Marcia; Marsà, Ferrán; García, Mercedes
Family impact (or family burden) is a concept born in the field of mental health that has successfully been exported to the ambit of intellectual disability (ID). However, differences in family impact associated with severe mental health disorders (schizophrenia), to ID or to mental health problems in ID should be expected. Seventy-two adults with intellectual disability clients of the Carmen Pardo-Valcarce Foundation's sheltered workshops and vocational employment programmes in Madrid (Spain), 203 adults diagnosed with schizophrenia from four Spanish Community Mental Health Services (Barcelona, Madrid, Granada and Navarra) and 90 adults with mental health problems in ID (MH-ID) from the Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu Health Care Site in Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain) were asked to participate in the present study along with their main caregivers. Family impact experienced by caregivers was assessed with the ECFOS-II/SOFBI-II scale (Entrevista de Carga Familiar Objetiva y Subjetiva/Objective and Subjective Family Burden Interview). In global terms, results showed that the higher family impact was found between caregivers to people with MH-ID. The interaction of both conditions (ID and mental health problems) results in a higher degree of burden on families than when both conditions are presented separately. There was also an impact in caregivers to people with schizophrenia, this impact being higher than the one detected in caregivers to people with intellectual disability. Needs of caregivers to people with disability should be addressed specifically in order to effectively support families. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Scott, Kate M.; Alonso, Jordi; de Jonge, Peter; Carmen Viana, Maria; Liu, Zhaorui; O'Neill, Siobhan; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Stein, Dan J.; Angermeyer, Matthias; Benjet, Corina; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Firuleasa, Ingrid-Laura; Hu, Chiyi; Kiejna, Andrzej; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose A.; Khalaf, Mohammad Salih; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective: Recent research demonstrating concurrent associations between mental disorders and peptic ulcers has renewed interest in links between psychological factors and ulcers. However, little is known about associations between temporally prior mental disorders and subsequent ulcer onset. Nor
Full Text Available Background Attachment is one of the more important developmental aspects for predicting a person’s level of adaptation and mental health. Previous research in this area suggests a relationship between insecure attachment and behavioural disorders, deviations as well as depression and other affective disorders. The goal of this study was to determine the relationships between adolescents’ attachment patterns and aggression as well as internalisation and externalisation of problems – expressed as a tendency to assume the role of the victim or the perpetrator. We hypothesised that insecure patterns of attachment foster both aggression (as a personality feature and a tendency towards mental health issues, through increasing the frequency of entering the role of a victim or a perpetrator. participants and procedure One hundred and twenty individuals aged 14-19 took part in the study, mainly high school and university students. The study was conducted in groups, with the consent of participants and their parents. The following methods were used to assess the variables: The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA, the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ and the Mini Direct and Indirect Aggression Inventory (Mini-DIA. Results Our results suggest that a relationship exists between aggressiveness and trust in the relationship with one’s mother, as well as between hostility and alienation with regards to one’s mother and father. Insecure attachment is a significant risk factor for mental health disorders, and it fosters both externalisation and internalisation behaviours. Conclusions We interpret the results as suggesting that attachment organisation plays an important role in a wide array of aspects of adolescent psychosocial development.
Seow, Lee Seng Esmond; Chua, Boon Yiang; Xie, Huiting; Wang, Jia; Ong, Hui Lin; Abdin, Edimansyah; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily
Background The current study aimed to explore the correct recognition of mental disorders across dementia, alcohol abuse, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), schizophrenia and depression, along with its correlates in a nursing student population. The belief in a continuum of symptoms from mental health to mental illness and its relationship with the non-identification of mental illness was also explored. Methods Five hundred students from four nursing institutions in Singapore participated i...
Cía, Alfredo H; Stagnaro, Juan Carlos; Aguilar Gaxiola, Sergio; Vommaro, Horacio; Loera, Gustavo; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Sustas, Sebastían; Benjet, Corina; Kessler, Ronald C
Although the Global Burden of Disease Study estimated that depressive disorders and anxiety disorders are the second and fifth leading causes of disability in Argentina, these estimates were based on imputations rather than epidemiological data. The policy implications of these results for the necessary expansion of mental health services in Argentina are sufficiently great that more direct estimates of the population burdens of common mental disorders are needed. Therefore, the purpose is to present the first results regarding lifetime prevalence, projected lifetime risk up to age 75, age-of-onset, cohort effects and socio-demographic correlates of DSM-IV mental disorders among adults (18+) from the general population of urban areas of Argentina. A multistage clustered area probability household survey was administered to 3927 individuals using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Lifetime prevalence of any disorder was 29.1% and projected lifetime risk at age 75 was 37.1%. Median age-of-onset of any disorder was 20 years of age. Disorders with highest lifetime prevalence were major depressive disorder (8.7%), alcohol abuse (8.1%), and specific phobia (6.8%). Anxiety disorders were the most prevalent group of disorder (16.4%) followed by mood (12.3%), substance (10.4%), and disruptive behavior disorders (2.5%). Women had greater odds of anxiety and mood disorders; men had greater odds of substance disorders. Age-at-interview was inversely associated with lifetime risk of any disorder. The results provide direct evidence for high lifetime societal burdens of common mental disorders in Argentina due to a combination of high prevalence and early age-of-onset.
Honjo, Kaori; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Sakurai, Keiko
An inverse association between socioeconomic status (SES) and mental health has been previously well reported, but the evidence is limited in Asian populations. We therefore investigated the association of SES and subjective mental health and prevalence of any mental disorders in the general population of Japan. We used data from the World Mental Health Japan Survey of 1,496 randomly selected people aged 20 years and older in Japan. Information on education level and household income were used as objective SES indicators, and subjective social status (SSS) was measured by responses to a question regarding social position. We calculated odds ratios of SES indicators for poor subjective mental health and 12-month prevalence of any mental disorders. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95 % confidence interval (CI)) of respondents who rated themselves as lower than middle status in the country (low SSS group) for poor subjective mental health was 2.24 (95 % CI: 1.41, 3.57) with reference to those who rated themselves as higher than middle status (high SSS group). Similarly, inverse associations of education level and household income with poor subjective mental health were identified. A J-shaped association was confirmed between SSS and 12-month prevalence of any mental disorders. The adjusted OR (95 % CI) of SSS for any mental diseases was 0.53 (95 % CI: 0.32, 0.86) for the middle SSS group and 1.61 (95 % CI: 0.96, 2.72) for the low SSS group, compared with the high SSS group. Those associations were not attenuated when objective SES indicators were adjusted. We found inversely linear associations between subjective and objective SES and poor subjective mental health among Japanese men and women. SSS was not significantly associated with 12-month prevalence of any mental disorders. Substantial social inequalities in mental health were identified in Japan, which has been considered an egalitarian society with relatively few inequalities in health.
Zabala-Baños, M C; Segura, A; Maestre-Miquel, C; Martínez-Lorca, M; Rodríguez-Martín, B; Romero, D; Rodríguez, M
To determine the lifetime and monthly prevalence of people with mental disorders and its association with sociodemographic factors and criminal risk in three Spanish prisons (Ocaña, Madrid I, II and VI). Cross-sectional epidemiological study of a sample of 184 inmates. Socio-demographic and criminal data were collected by an ad hoc interview. Mental disorders were assessed with the clinical version of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Life prevalence of mental disorders was 90.2%. The most common mental disorders and substance abuse or dependence was 72.3%, followed by mood disorder (38.5%) and psychotic disorders (34.2%). Moreover, the prevalence of any mental disorder in the last month was 52.2%. The main psychotic disorder (20.7%) was followed by substance abuse or dependence (18.5%), and mood disorder state (13%). A socio-demographic profile as a risk for each disorder was found. The prevalence of people with mental disorders is very high in Spanish prisons, and is associated with a distinct demographic profile. It is essential to continue researching this reality, translating the results into therapeutic and preventive action adapted to the status of inmates to reduce social inequalities in this high priority public health situation.
Full Text Available background: Mental disorders remain serious mental health problems in Indonesia. In 2007 there were 0,46 percent of the total population in Indonesia had high risk of schizophrenia. There are many people with severe mental disorders who do not receive medical treatment or dropped out from medical treatment and then put in physical restraint. Methods:The analysis was based on previous study on the elimination program for physical restraints in 2011. The methods were by collecting news, research results and reviews about stigma and management on people with severe mental disorders. results showed that suspect mental disorders people who had physical restraints by their families was the last alternative of mental disorders management after all medical treatment seek by the families. But the families and communities unknowing early detection and post-treatment management at the Mental Health Hospital causes the patient did not treated properly. People with mental disorders frequently also stigmatized on their neighbourhood. The stigma attached to the patient them selves and their families. Health and socio-cultural’s consequences of stigma in people with mental disorders were as not treated optimally, dropout from the treatment, had physical restraint and incorrect understanding about people with mental disorders. conclutions:The conclusions are that it needs to socialize about early detection of mental disorders sympton to community to prevent delays on early phase treatment that could be cured. Besides empowering people is needed to improve knowledge about mental disorders and emotional disturbance at certain levels in order to avoid the stigma against people with mental disorders.
Gershon, Elliot S; Alliey-Rodriguez, Ney
Recent genetic findings of high-impact genetic variants in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) must lead to profound changes in genetic and family counseling. The authors present risk calculations, discuss the ethical implications of these findings, and outline the changes now required in the risk counseling process. The authors use data from recent mega-analyses and reviews of common and rare risk variants in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and ASD to calculate risks of illness based on genetic marker tests. They then consider new ethical issues in mental disorders presented by these risks, including within-family conflicts over genetic testing; effects of genetic discoveries on stigma, abortion, preimplantation procedures, and population screening for susceptibility; and genetic tests as a factor in marital choice. New structural mutations (de novo copy number variants [CNVs], which are chromosomal microdeletions and micro-duplications) are present in 4%27% of patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or ASD and can occur almost anywhere in the genome. For a person with a de novo CNV, the absolute risk of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or ASD is 14%, much higher than the population risk. Rare CNVs have also been identified that are generally not new mutations but constitute very high-effect risk factors, ranging up to 82%. A substantial minority of patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and ASD have high-impact detectable genetic events. This greatly changes psychiatric genetic counseling for these patients and families. A psychotherapeutic approach may be needed as a routine part of risk counseling, particularly for resolution of ethical issues and for within-family stigma and conflicts over genetic test results.
Ormel, Johan; Petukhova, Maria; Chatterji, Somnath; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Bromet, Evelyn J; Burger, Huibert; Demyttenaere, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hwang, Irving; Karam, Elie; Kawakami, Norito; Lépine, Jean Pierre; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Posada-Villa, José; Sampson, Nancy; Scott, Kate; Ustün, T Bedirhan; Von Korff, Michael; Williams, David R; Zhang, Mingyuan; Kessler, Ronald C
Advocates of expanded mental health treatment assert that mental disorders are as disabling as physical disorders, but little evidence supports this assertion. To establish the disability and treatment of specific mental and physical disorders in high-income and low- and middle-income countries. Community epidemiological surveys were administered in 15 countries through the World Health Organization World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative. Respondents in both high-income and low- and middle-income countries attributed higher disability to mental disorders than to the commonly occurring physical disorders included in the surveys. This pattern held for all disorders and also for treated disorders. Disaggregation showed that the higher disability of mental than physical disorders was limited to disability in social and personal role functioning, whereas disability in productive role functioning was generally comparable for mental and physical disorders. Despite often higher disability, mental disorders are under-treated compared with physical disorders in both high-income and in low- and middle-income countries.
Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J; Iacono, William G
While dimensional models of psychopathology have delineated two broad factors underlying common mental disorders--internalizing and externalizing--it is unclear where bipolar disorder and nonaffective psychoses fit in relation to this structure and to each other. Given their low prevalence rates in the general population, these disorders generally tend to be excluded from such models. The current study used the person-centered approach of latent class analysis (LCA) to evaluate this question. LCA of diagnostic data from an epidemiological sample, the National Comorbidity Survey (n = 5,877), was undertaken. Diagnoses utilized in analyses included mania, nonaffective psychoses, specific phobia, social phobia, agoraphobia, panic disorder, major depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, and conduct disorder. Results indicated that a 5-class LCA model optimally fit the data. Four of the classes mirrored those found in dimensional models--a class with few disorders, and 3 others with primarily fear, distress, and externalizing disorders. However, the fifth class--which is not evident in dimensional models--was unique in that it was the only one in which individuals demonstrated significant probabilities of both manic episodes and nonaffective psychoses in addition to markedly high levels of internalizing and externalizing disorders. This finding has important implications for nosological classification of psychopathology. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
The aim of this work is to provide empirical evidence regarding types and increasing prevalence of mental disorders affecting Polish working population in the years 2014-2016. The research questions concerned the specific characteristics of the types of mental disorders and their prevalence as well as the differences between males and females. Types of mental disorders were investigated using a clinical method, a structured interview, as well as medical record data gathered in the years 2014-2016 in one mental health treatment center. The study was conducted in the population of 1578 working individuals aged 18-64 years old, in various forms of employment, including flexible employment (self-employment, task assignment agreement) and contract employment. The research population consisted of 998 females and 580 males, aged 18-64 years old. The study aimed at investigating types and the prevalence rate of mental disorders developed in the examined working Poles, also with reference to the sex of the study participants as well as the age at which they started seeking treatment. The prevailing disorders include neurotic disorders; diagnosed according to the 10th Revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) classification as a range of anxiety disorders, mixed anxiety-depressive disorders, stress-related and somatoform disorders; as well as personality disorders. The prevalence rate of the aforementioned disorders was found to be higher among working females than in the group of working males. The overall study conclusions based on the research data analysis point to the fact that the prevalence rate of various types of mental disorders displayed by the examined working males and females increased significantly in the years 2014-2016. Med Pr 2018;69(1):13-28. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Paul, Mohd Altaf; Khan, Waheeda
Prevalence of mental disorders among children is affected by armed conflict and same is true in protracted conflict of Kashmir, where the ongoing conflict has affected mental health of children badly. In order to understand mental health condition of school going children, the present study was designed to study the nature and prevalence of mental disorders among school children in Kashmir valley. The present study employed multi-stage sampling and multi-informant reporting of mental health problems in children. A sample of 1000 school children was taken from 12 schools of Shopian district through systematic random sampling method. Data was collected at different levels of screening by using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) (Teacher form) and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory (MINI-Kid). Socio-demographic data sheet was included to gather relevant information. The prevalence rates of mental disorders among school children were presented at different levels of screening. It was found to be 27.1% based on SDQ and 22.2% when assessed by MINI-Kid at second level of screening. The most commonly found mental disorders were of anxiety (8.5%), followed by mood disorders (6.3%) and then behavioural disorders (4.3%). Percentage of schoolgoing children with mental disorders in Kashmir is much more than in other states of India. The political conflict in the state and lack of mental health facilities give rise to high prevalence rates of mental disorders and warrant our urgent attention.
Zachar, Peter; Kendler, Kenneth S
The proposals to include a menstruation-related mood disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition (DSM-III-R), and DSM-IV led to intense public and behind-the-scenes controversy. Although the controversies surrounding the DSM-5 revision were greater in number than the controversies of the earlier revisions, the DSM-5 proposal to include a menstruation-related mood disorder was not among them. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder was made an official disorder in the DSM-5 with no significant protest. To understand the factors that led to this change, we interviewed those psychiatrists and psychologists who were most involved in the DSM-IV revision. On the basis of these interviews, we offer a list of empirical and nonempirical considerations that led to the DSM-IV compromise and explore how key alterations in these considerations led to a different outcome for the DSM-5.
ten Have, M.; Nuyen, J.; Beekman, A.T.F.; de Graaf, R.
Background Detailed population-based survey information on the relationship between the severity of common mental disorders (CMDs) and treatment for mental health problems is heavily based on North American research. The aim of this study was to replicate and expand existing knowledge by studying
Full Text Available Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by poor motor proficiency that interferes with an individual’s activities of daily living. These problems in motor coordination are prevalent despite children’s intelligence levels. Common symptoms include marked delays in achieving motor milestones and clumsiness, typically associated with poor balance, coordination, and especially handwriting skills. Currently, DCD is said to impact about 2-7% of school-age children. More importantly, DCD is considered to be one of the major health problems among school-aged children worldwide, with unique consequences to physical and mental health. Because these children and adolescents often experience difficulties participating in typical childhood activities (e.g., riding a bike, they tend be more sedentary, more overweight/obese, at a higher risk for coronary vascular disease, and have lower cardiorespiratory and physical fitness than their typically developing peers. From another perspective, the motor difficulties have also been linked to an increased risk for mental health issues, such as higher anxiety and depression. The understanding of the health consequences associated with DCD offers practical applications for the understanding of the mechanisms and intervention protocols that can improve the consequences of this condition. In this review, I will explore such consequences and provide evidence for the implementation of interventions that focus on improving physical and mental health in this population.
Muschalla, Beate; Rau, Heinrich; Willmund, Gerd Dieter; Knaevelsrud, Christine
Posttraumatic mental disorders may occur with different affect qualities. Best known is posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a conditioned anxiety reaction with intrusions. Another event-related mental disorder is posttraumatic embitterment (PTED), characterized by affect of embitterment and thoughts of revenge, occurring after an event deeply hurting basic beliefs. Knowing about associated disability is important for treatment and sociomedical decisions. This is the first study to explore work-disability in patients with PTSD, PTED, and not-event-related common mental disorder (CMD). In this observational study, 101 soldiers (85% men, 31 years, 50% experienced expedition abroad) with different mental disorders were investigated concerning common mental disorders (MINI) and accompanying work capacity impairment (Mini-ICF-APP). Interviews were conducted by a state-licensed psychotherapist with expertise in sociomedical description of (work) capacity impairment. Patients with PTSD, PTED, and other CMD were compared concerning their degrees and pattern of work capacity impairment. PTSD patients (n = 23) were more strongly impaired in mobility as compared to patients with other CMD (n = 64) or PTED. Patients with PTED (n = 14) were more impaired in interactional capacities (contacts with others, group integration) as compared to patients with other CMD or PTSD. PTSD patients need support to improve mobility in (work-relevant) traffic situations. Apart from this, they are not specifically more or less impaired than patients with other CMD. PTED patients should get attention concerning their interactional problems as these may disturb esprit de corps, which is an essential requirement for service in the armed forces. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Ebneter, Daria S; Latner, Janet D
The aim of the current article was to compare stigmatizing attitudes toward eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED), with stigma toward another weight-related condition (obesity) and a non-weight-related mental disorder (major depressive disorder [MDD]). Participants (N = 447) read five vignettes describing a woman with AN, BN, BED, obesity, or MDD and responded to questionnaires examining stigmatizing attitudes. The targets with EDs were blamed more for their condition than the targets with MDD, whereas persons with obesity were held more responsible for their condition than any other target. On the other hand, the target with MDD was perceived as more impaired than any other target. Lack of self-discipline was attributed more to the development of BED and obesity than to any other condition. Stigmatizing attitudes vary across mental health disorders, and future research should aim to specifically target stigmatizing beliefs to reduce and prevent discrimination toward mental health disorders and obesity.
Augusto, Viviane Gontijo; Perina, Keity Cristina Bueno; Penha, Daniel Silva Gontijo; Dos Santos, Daiane Carolina Alves; Oliveira, Valéria Aparecida Souza
To evaluate the prevalence of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) and its association with perceived stress and common mental disorder (CMD) in academic students. This is s transversal observational study conducted at Universidade de Minas Gerais , Divinópolis Unit, in health science courses. To investigate the prevalence of TMD, the anamnestic index by Fonseca was used. Stress was assessed by the perceived stress scale, translated and adapted for the Brazilian population in 2006. To track CMD, we used the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.0, adopting a 5% significance level. The prevalence of TMD in the sample was 71.9%, distributed as follows: Light TMD (50.0%), moderate (16.4%) and severe (5.5%), being more frequent among women (76.4%). Common mental disorders were present in 29.9% of participants. The average perceived stress was 30.9. The results of this study allow us to conclude that there is a statistically significant correlation between TMD and variables such as parafunctional habits, perceived stress and CMD. Level of Evidence II, Development of diagnostic criteria on consecutive patients (with universally applied reference "gold" standard).
Munthe, Christian; Radovic, Susanna; Anckarsäter, Henrik
This paper analyses ethical issues in forensic psychiatric research on mentally disordered offenders, especially those detained in the psychiatric treatment system. The idea of a 'dual role' dilemma afflicting forensic psychiatry is more complicated than acknowledged. Our suggestion acknowledges the good of criminal law and crime prevention as a part that should be balanced against familiar research ethical considerations. Research aiming at improvements of criminal justice and treatment is a societal priority, and the total benefit of studies has to be balanced against the risks for research subjects inferred by almost all systematic studies. Direct substantial risks must be balanced by health benefits, and normal informed consent requirements apply. When direct risks are slight, as in register-based epidemiology, lack of consent may be counter-balanced by special measures to protect integrity and the general benefit of better understanding of susceptibility, treatment and prevention. Special requirements on consent procedures in the forensic psychiatric context are suggested, and the issue of the relation between decision competence and legal accountability is found to be in need of further study. The major ethical hazard in forensic psychiatric research connects to the role of researchers as assessors and consultants in a society entertaining strong prejudices against mentally disordered offenders.
Mehta, N; Mehta, S
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder has been included as a separate diagnostic entity in the chapter of 'Depressive Disorders' of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5). The antecedent, concurrent, and predictive diagnostic validators of premenstrual dysphoric disorder have been reviewed by a sub-workgroup of the DSM-5 Mood Disorders Work Group, which includes a panel of experts on women's mental health. Contributions from the Asian continent have been mainly in the form of prevalence studies. Genetic and neurobiological domains of premenstrual dysphoric disorder largely remain untouched in Asia and offer a potential area for investigation.
Cailhol, L; Thalamas, C; Garrido, C; Birmes, P; Lapeyre-Mestre, M
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability and impulsivity. Several North American prospective studies support the high level of mental health care utilization in this population. There is little data in other systems of health organization, such as France. Furthermore, little is known on the variables associated with the mental health service utilization among BPD patients. The main objective was to compare the utilization of mental health care among BPD patients, to the general population and patients with another personality disorder (PD) and to describe the demographic and clinical factors associated with the group of patients who use the most health care. A multi-center (5 public and private centers), epidemiological study. Data were collected prospectively (database of an insurance fund covering 80% of the population) and viewed, retrospectively. We used the data collected during the five years previously to the inclusion. Inclusion criteria were age (18-60 years) and membership in the health insurance fund targeted. Patients on legal protection, forced hospitalization, with a chronic psychotic disorder, manic, mental retardation, or not reading French were excluded. First, four groups were composed: BPD, other PD, control groups for PD and other PD. The first two groups were recruited from a screening of inpatients including a self-administered questionnaire (Personality Disorder Questionnaire 4+). Assessment by a psychologist including the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SIDP-IV) was given straight to those who had a score above 28. This questionnaire allowed us to distinguish one group of subjects with BPD and a group with other PD (without BPD). Clinical evaluation included Axis I (MINI), Axis II (SIDP-IV), psychopathological features (YSQ-I, DSQ-40), demographic variables and therapeutic alliance (Haq-II). Matched controls (age, sex) composed the 3rd and 4th group (BPD control and
Mendonça, Marcela Franklin Salvador de; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda
To investigate the association of intimate partner violence against women reported in the last 12 months and seven years with the incidence of common mental disorders. A prospective cohort study with 390 women from 18 to 49 years, registered in the Family Health Program of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco; from July 2013 to December 2014. The Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) assessed mental health. Intimate partner violence consists of concrete acts of psychological, physical or sexual violence that the partner inflicts on the woman. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RR) of the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence. The incidence of common mental disorders was 44.6% among women who reported intimate partner violence in the last 12 months and 43.4% among those who reported in the past seven years. Mental disorders remained associated with psychological violence (RR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.9-4.7 and RR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.0-3.7 in the last 12 months, and seven years, respectively), even in the absence of physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence were related to physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher, both in the last 12 months (RR = 3.1; 95%CI 2.1-4.7) and in the last seven years (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.7-3.8). Intimate partner violence is associated with the incidence of common mental disorders in women. The treatment of the consequences of IPV and support for women in seeking protection for themselves for public services is essential. Investigar a associação da violência por parceiros íntimos relatada contra as mulheres nos últimos 12 meses e últimos sete anos com a incidência dos transtornos mentais comuns. Estudo de coorte prospectivo com 390 mulheres de 18 a 49 anos, cadastradas no Programa Saúde da Família da cidade do Recife, PE, entre julho de 2013 e dezembro de 2014. A saúde mental foi avaliada pelo Self Reporting
Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders
the employee is able to work regular hours. We use combined survey and register data about 226 long-term sick-listed employees with mental disorders and 638 employees with physical disorders. Our analyses show that part-time sick-listing significantly reduces the duration until returning to regular working...... hours for employees with physical disorders. In contrast, we find that part-time sick-listing does not reduce durations for employees with mental disorders. The analyses also illustrate the importance of adjusting for unobserved differences between part-time sick-listed and full-time sick...... for these employees suggests that employers and colleagues may be less supportive of and more uncomfortable with employees with mental disorders than with employees with physical disorders. Furthermore, mental disorders are often more diffuse and ‘invisible’ than physical disorders, possibly making accommodating...
Recently, we have been providing comprehensive treatment for pregnant women with mental disorders involving specialists from multiple fields in cooperation with local administrative agencies. In this study, we examined the outcomes of treatment for women with perinatal mental disorders in our institute to evaluate the effect of our recent approach to improve perinatal mental health. We retrospectively compared the outcomes between pregnant women with mental disorders who delivered from April 2015 to March 2017 with those from April 2009 to March 2011. We examined the following: presence or absence of necessity of medication, self-interruption of medication, deterioration/relapse of mental disorders, and administrative support. There was no significant difference in the rate of pregnant women with mental disorders between the two periods (3.2 versus 3.2%, respectively, p = .94). The rates of patients requiring medication and those with self-interruption of medication did not reach significance (p = .90 and .19, respectively) between the two periods; however, the rate of patients with deterioration/relapse of mental disorders decreased significantly during pregnancy and postpartum (20.3 versus 10.7 and 7.3 versus 1.7%, p = .04 and .03, respectively). On the other hand, the patients receiving administrative supports increased significantly over the total study period (p < .01). It was suggested that our recent active management of pregnant women with mental disorders might have contributed to prevent the deterioration/relapse of mental disorders during pregnancy and postpartum.
Frounfelker, Rochelle; Gilman, Stephen E; Betancourt, Theresa S; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ono, Yutaka; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Popovici, Daniela G; Ten Have, Margreet; Kessler, Ronald C
Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/region of terror in World War II with a range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Adults (n = 3370) who lived in countries directly involved in World War II in Europe and Japan were administered structured diagnostic interviews of lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders. The associations of war-related traumas with subsequent disorder onset-persistence were assessed with discrete-time survival analysis (lifetime prevalence) and conditional logistic regression (12-month prevalence). Respondents who were civilians in a war zone/region of terror had higher lifetime risks than other respondents of major depressive disorder (MDD; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and anxiety disorder (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0). The association of war exposure with MDD was strongest in the early years after the war, whereas the association with anxiety disorders increased over time. Among lifetime cases, war exposure was associated with lower past year risk of anxiety disorders (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.7). Exposure to war in World War II was associated with higher lifetime risk of some mental disorders. Whether comparable patterns will be found among civilians living through more recent wars remains to be seen, but should be recognized as a possibility by those projecting future needs for treatment of mental disorders.
Frounfelker, Rochelle; Gilman, Stephen E.; Betancourt, Theresa S.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G.; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ono, Yutaka; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Popovici, Daniela G.; Have, Margreet ten; Kessler, Ronald C.
Purpose Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/region of terror in World War II with a range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Methods Adults (n= 3,370)who lived in countries directly involved in World War II in Europe and Japan were administered structured diagnostic interviews of lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders. The associations of war-related traumas with subsequent disorder onset-persistence were assessed with discrete-time survival analysis (lifetime prevalence) and conditional logistic regression (12-month prevalence). Results Respondents who were civilians in a war zone/region of terror had higher lifetime risks than other respondents of major depressive disorder (MDD; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and anxiety disorder (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0). The association of war exposure with MDD was strongest in the early years after the war, whereas the association with anxiety disorders increased over time. Among lifetime cases, war exposure was associated with lower past year risk of anxiety disorders. (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.7). Conclusions Exposure to war in World War II was associated with higher lifetime risk of some mental disorders. Whether comparable patterns will be found among civilians living through more recent wars remains to be seen, but should be recognized as a possibility by those projecting future needs for treatment of mental disorders. PMID:29119266
Miller, Elizabeth; Breslau, Joshua; Petukhova, Maria; Fayyad, John; Green, Jennifer Greif; Kola, Lola; Seedat, Soraya; Stein, Dan J; Tsang, Adley; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena; Demyttenaere, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Tomov, Toma; Kessler, Ronald C
Mental disorders may increase the risk of physical violence among married couples. To estimate associations between premarital mental disorders and marital violence in a cross-national sample of married couples. A total of 1821 married couples (3642 individuals) from 11 countries were interviewed as part of the World Health Organization's World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Sixteen mental disorders with onset prior to marriage were examined as predictors of marital violence reported by either spouse. Any physical violence was reported by one or both spouses in 20% of couples, and was associated with husbands' externalising disorders (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.3). Overall, the population attributable risk for marital violence related to premarital mental disorders was estimated to be 17.2%. Husbands' externalising disorders had a modest but consistent association with marital violence across diverse countries. This finding has implications for the development of targeted interventions to reduce risk of marital violence.
Toussaint, Loren L; Whipple, Mary O; Vincent, Ann
Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder are common in fibromyalgia patients. This study compared post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls and determined whether patient-control differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms mediated differences in mental health. In all, 30 patients and 30 healthy controls completed questionnaires assessing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health. Fibromyalgia patients had greater symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health than controls. Patient-control differences in mental health symptoms were fully or partially mediated by differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Healthcare providers should understand the role of trauma as management of trauma symptoms may be one strategy for improving mental health.
van der Westhuizen, Claire; Wyatt, Gail; Williams, John K.; Stein, Dan J.; Sorsdahl, Katherine
Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of mental disorders amongst injured emergency centre (EC) patients in low- and middle-income countries. Patients presenting with either an intentional or unintentional injury were recruited (n=200). Mental health, injury and psychological trauma histories were assessed. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were conducted and predictors for current mental disorder were identified. Diagnostic criteria for a current mental disorder, including substance use disorders, were met by 59.5% of participants. Compared to those with an unintentional injury, intentionally injured participants were more likely to be diagnosed with a current mental disorder (66.9% vs 48.8%; p=0.01). High frequencies of previous intentional injuries predicted for current mental disorder (OR = 1.460, 95% CI 1.08-1.98), while male gender and witnessed community violence predicted substance use disorder diagnoses. Findings indicate that injured EC patients, particularly those with intentional injuries, are at risk for mental disorders. Psychosocial interventions in the EC context can potentially make an important contribution in reducing the burden of mental disorders and injuries in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:25126754
DSM-IV disorders.18 These DSM-IV disorders included anxiety disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder), mood disorders (major depressive disorder), substance use disorders (alcohol and drug abuse and dependence), and disorders associated ...
Butler, Margaret; Warfa, Nasir; Khatib, Yasmin; Bhui, Kamaldeep
Global migration is reaching record high levels and UK migrant groups comprise an increasing proportion of the total population. The migratory process causes stress that can affect mental health. There is limited consistent empirical evidence of a longitudinal nature to explain the association between migration and mental health. This review aims to examine the evidence of a relationship between migration and common mental disorder (CMD) amongst migrants over time. A comprehensive search of medical and psychiatric databases for global quantitative empirical studies investigating incidence of CMD amongst adult migrants from 1975 to July 2012 was conducted. Declines in rates of CMD amongst migrants over time were reported by two thirds of the 18 studies reviewed, less than one third of which were statistically significant. On the contrary, three studies showed an increased rate of CMD, one statistically significant. Individual psychological resources, social support, the acculturation process, cultural variations and time since relocation are identified as statistically significant protective factors against the development of CMD amongst migrants. New enlightening points include the significant impact of varying patterns of psychological distress, of which negative is the most adverse for CMD. Migration is an extremely complex process. Further clarification is needed to gain deeper understanding of the relationship between migration and CMD to address contradictions in the literature and health inequalities amongst migrants.
Icick, R; Kovess, V; Gasquet, I; Lépine, J-P
The burden of health problems, including mental disorders, can be assessed in several ways such as through healthcare costs or loss of productivity. Their impact on daily activities as a whole has received much less attention, especially in France. Therefore, we undertook the analysis of the French general population data from the World Mental Health (WMH) surveys promoted by the World Health Organization (WHO) assessing the number of days out of role due to common mental and physical disorders. Face-to-face interviews were carried out with 2894 respondents (45.9% pooled response rate). Presence of ten chronic physical disorders and nine mental disorders was assessed for each respondent along with information about the number of days in the past month each respondent reported being totally unable to work or carry out their other normal daily activities because of problems with either physical or mental health. Multiple regression analysis was used to estimate associations of specific conditions and comorbidities with days out of role, after controlling for basic socio-demographics. One thousand four hundred and thirty-six subjects reporting at least one core-symptom of a mental disorder underwent the whole assessment. The mean annual number of days out of role was high among those with at least one mental disorder (24.2±8.3). The population attributable risk proportion (PARP), i.e. the proportion of days out of role that would have been avoided if the considered disorder had remitted, was also estimated. Mental disorders as a whole accounted for 49.5% of the PARP. French data on days out of role from the WHO WMH surveys showed the high burden of mental illness in the general population. These results may have been underestimated, taking into account that subjects who were hospitalized at the time of recruitment, whose disorders might also account for a high proportion of days out of role, could not be assessed with our design. Common health conditions, especially
McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L; Robinson, Jo C
This study assessed relationships between homelessness, mental disorder, and incarceration. Using archival databases that included all 12,934 individuals who entered the San Francisco County Jail system during the first six months of 2000, the authors assessed clinical and behavioral characteristics associated with homelessness and incarceration. In 16 percent of the episodes of incarceration, the inmates were homeless, and in 18 percent of the episodes, the inmates had a diagnosis of a mental disorder; 30 percent of the inmates who were homeless had a diagnosis of a mental disorder during one or more episodes. Seventy-eight percent of the homeless inmates with a severe mental disorder had co-occurring substance-related disorders. Inmates with dual diagnoses were more likely to be homeless and to be charged with violent crimes than other inmates. Multiple regression analyses showed that inmates who were homeless and had co-occurring severe mental disorders and substance-related disorders were held in jail longer than other inmates who had been charged with similar crimes. People who were homeless and who were identified as having mental disorders, although representing only a small proportion of the total population, accounted for a substantial proportion of persons who were incarcerated in the criminal justice system in this study's urban setting. The increased duration of incarceration associated with homelessness and co-occurring severe mental disorders and substance-related disorders suggests that jails are de facto assuming responsibility for a population whose needs span multiple service delivery systems.
Butler, Alexandra; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Lipman, Ellen Louise; MacMillan, Harriet L; Gonzalez, Andrea; Gorter, Jan Willem; Georgiades, Kathy; Speechley, Kathy N; Boyle, Michael H; Ferro, Mark A
Methodologically, to assess the feasibility of participant recruitment and retention, as well as missing data in studying mental disorder among children newly diagnosed with chronic physical conditions (ie, multimorbidity). Substantively, to examine the prevalence of multimorbidity, identify sociodemographic correlates and model the influence of multimorbidity on changes in child quality of life and parental psychosocial outcomes over a 6-month follow-up. Prospective pilot study. Two children's tertiary-care hospitals. Children aged 6-16 years diagnosed in the past 6 months with one of the following: asthma, diabetes, epilepsy, food allergy or juvenile arthritis, and their parents. Response, participation and retention rates. Child mental disorder using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview at baseline and 6 months. Child quality of life, parental symptoms of stress, anxiety and depression, and family functioning. All outcomes were parent reported. Response, participation and retention rates were 90%, 83% and 88%, respectively. Of the 50 children enrolled in the study, the prevalence of multimorbidity was 58% at baseline and 42% at 6 months. No sociodemographic characteristics were associated with multimorbidity. Multimorbidity at baseline was associated with declines over 6 months in the following quality of life domains: physical well-being, β=-4.82 (-8.47, -1.17); psychological well-being, β=-4.10 (-7.62, -0.58) and school environment, β=-4.17 (-8.18, -0.16). There was no association with parental psychosocial outcomes over time. Preliminary evidence suggests that mental disorder in children with a physical condition is very common and has a negative impact on quality of life over time. Based on the strong response rate and minimal attrition, our approach to study child multimorbidity appears feasible and suggests that multimorbidity is an important concern for families. Methodological and substantive findings from this pilot study have
Suetani, Shuichi; Saha, Sukanta; Milad, Adam; Eakin, Elizabeth; Scott, James G; McGrath, John J
To explore the association between histories of common mental disorders, delusional-like experiences, and recent physical activity using a large nationally representative population-based sample from Australia. We predicted that a past history of a common mental disorder or delusional-like experiences would be associated with insufficient physical activity. The study was based on the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing 2007 (n = 8841). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify a lifetime and past year history of common mental disorders and delusional-like experiences. Physical activity over the preceding week was estimated using the questions based on the Active Australia survey with respondents classified as (a) insufficiently physically active versus (b) sufficiently physically active based on national recommendations. We examined the relationship between the variables of interest using logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Almost half of the participants (46.0%) were classified as sufficiently physically active. Compared to those with no past mental disorder, those with lifetime or past year history of common mental disorders did not differ on recent physical activity status. Furthermore, we found no significant association between the number of lifetime mental disorders or the presence of delusional-like experience and recent physical activity status. Our findings suggest that a diagnosis of common mental disorder, with or without recent symptoms and comorbid diagnoses, or even having self-ascribed perception of poor mental well-being, is not associated with insufficient physical activity.
Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, Jeanette; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg
Survivors of childhood cancer are known to be at risk for long-term physical and mental effects. However, little is known about how cancers can affect mental health in the siblings of these patients. We aimed to assess the long-term risks of mental disorders in survivors of childhood cancer and t...
HIV risk behavior was significantly related to alcohol use (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Mental health services provide an important context for HIV/AIDS interventions in resource‑constrained countries like Nigeria. Keywords: Human immuno virus, Mental health, Psychiatric patients, Risk behavior, Severe mental disorders ...
Frances, Allen; Sreenivasan, Shoba; Weinberger, Linda E
Civil commitment under the sexually violent predator (SVP) statutes requires the presence of a statutorily defined diagnosed mental disorder linked to sexual offending. As a consequence of broad statutory definitions and ambiguously written court decisions, a bright line separating an SVP mental disorder from ordinary criminal behavior is difficult to draw. Some forensic evaluators reject whole categories of DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Text Revision) diagnoses as qualifying disorders (e.g., personality and substance abuse disorders), while others debate whether recurrent rape constitutes a paraphilic disorder. We argue that the ramifications of the SVP process, in representing both the balancing of public safety and the protection of an individual's right to liberty, demand that decisions about what is a legally defined mental disorder not be made in an arbitrary and idiosyncratic manner. Greater clarity and standardization must come from both sides: the legalists who interpret the law and the clinicians who apply and work under it.
Vizin, Gabriella; Unoka, Zsolt
Our review is an overview of research literature aimed at evaluating the differential association of shame with various mental disorders. In the first part of this review, we present questionnaire and experimental methods applied in clinical trials for measuring shame. In the second part of our review, we review research that investigated the association between shame, and shame induced behavioral and emotional reactions, as well as the following mental disorders: anxiety disorders (social phobia, PTSD, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobias, OCD), mood disorders (unipolar depression, bipolar disorder), suicide attempts, self-harm behavior, eating disorders, somatization, personality disorders, aggression, addictions, autism and paranoia. The results of the reviewed studies suggest that this excessive emotional state associated with negative self-esteem on global self plays a central role in mental disorders, although shame is very rarely applied as diagnostic criterion in DSM.
Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Aulí, Javier; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Gil, Fabián; Garzón, Daniel; Casas, Germán
The 2015 National Mental Health Survey aimed to expand our knowledge about the real mental state of children in Colombia, taking into account the fact that most mental disorders in adults begin during childhood or adolescence. It is essential to have an improved knowledge of the magnitude of this issue and to design timely interventions that reduce long term complications. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the disorders in the last 12 months and 30 days according to the DSM-IV, as well as to collect data about social and demographic variables. The structured Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-P), which provides DSM-IV diagnoses, was applied to carers of non-institutionalised children between 7 and 11 years old. The disorders evaluated included: major depressive disorder, dysthymia, generalised anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in its three kinds (mixed, inattentive, and hyperactive), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. The instrumentation was computer-assisted. Prevalences of the disorders are present both in the last 30 days and in the last 12 months. In general, there is a prevalence of any of the disorders of 3% (95% CI, 2.2-4.0) in the last 30 days, and 4.7% (95% CI, 3.6-6.2) in the last 12 months. When evaluated individually, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is the most frequent disorder, with a prevalence of 2.3% and 3.0% in the last 30 days and the last 12 months, respectively. In addition, the disorders that are known to frequently begin during childhood are the most common disorders in the age group studied, with a prevalence of 2.5% in the last 30 days and 3.2% in the last year. The 2015 National Mental Health Survey provides precise information about the real mental situation in children between the ages of 7 and 11 years in Colombia, compared with past epidemiological studies in the country, which were restricted to specific populations. By
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.
Increasingly, people receiving public-supported health care are seeking help for and/or presenting with both substance abuse and mental disorders. People with these co-occurring disorders often require help from many different care systems. Consequently, no single system of care is adequately prepared to help people with both mental and substance…
Michon, H. W. C.; ten Have, M.; Kroon, H.; van Weeghel, J.; de Graaf, R.; Schene, A. H.
Background. Both mental disorders and personality characteristics are associated with impaired work functioning, but these determinants have not yet been studied together. The aim of this paper is to examine the impairing effects that mental disorders and personality characteristics (i.e.
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Jonkers, Ruud; Moen, Maarten; Verhagen, Evert; Wylleman, Paul; Kerkhoffs, Gino
Objective: Scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders in elite sports is scarce. Consequently, the objectives of the study were to (i) establish the 12-month incidence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD; distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol
Frances, Allen; Jones, K. Dayle
Up until now, social workers have depended on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM") as the primary diagnostic classification for mental disorders. However, the "DSM-5" revision includes scientifically unfounded, inadequately tested, and potentially dangerous diagnoses that may lead them…
Hemelrijk, E.; van Ballegooijen, W.; Donker, T.; van Straten, A.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.
Background: Common mental disorders have been found to be related to suicidal ideation and behavior. Research in the field of web-based interventions for common mental disorders, however, usually excludes participants with a suicidal risk, although a large proportion of participants might suffer
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino
To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep
Birket-Smith, Morten; Hansen, Baiba H; Hanash, Jamal A
disorder with the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders; Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Non-Patient Edition, psychosis screening; the Clock Drawing Test; and the WHO-5 Well-Being Index. The cardiologists were asked in each patient to rate the severity of somatic disease and mental...
Roelen, C. A. M.; Norder, G.; Koopmans, P. C.; van Rhenen, W.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Bultmann, U.
Purpose To investigate return to work (RTW) in employees sick-listed with mental disorders classified according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Methods Sickness absences (SA) medically certified as emotional disturbance (ICD-10 R45) or mental and behavioral disorders (ICD-10
Mikkelsen, Stine Schou; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Eliasen, Marie
Few studies on the associations between pre-morbid IQ and mental disorders are based on comprehensive assessment of intelligence in both women and men and include a wide range of confounding variables. Thus, the objective of the present study was to examine the association between pre-morbid IQ...... and hospitalisation with any mental disorder, including possible gender differences in the association....
Usefulness of radiological examination of uranium in diagnosis of mental disorders (schizophrenia, affective psychosis, senile psychosis, chronic alcoholism, reactive psychosis) was proved in this study. Especially computerized tomography seems to be useful in revealing of organic background for mental disorders. (author). 123 refs, 32 tabs
Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh; Bultmann, Ute; Steenstra, Ivan
This study aims to determine the prevalence and duration of sickness benefit claims due to mental disorders and their association with economic activity, sex, age, work-relatedness and income replacement using a population-based study of sickness benefit claims (> 15 days) due to mental disorders in
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event is...
Pedrão, Luiz Jorge; Galera, Sueli Aparecida Frari; Silva, Maria Concepcion Pezo; Cazenave Gonzalez, Angelica; Costa Júnior, Moacyr Lobo da; Souza, Maria Conceição Bernardo de Mello E; Senmache, Gricelda Uceda
This study aimed to draw a profile of nursing graduate students' attitudes towards mental disorders in three different cultures: Brazil, Chile and Peru. The opinion scale for mental disorders was applied. The results showed statistically significant differences (5%) in terms of authoritarianism, mental hygiene ideology, serial restriction and minority vision, which were favorable to Brazilian students. As to the factor interpersonal etiology, the results were favorable to Peruvians, while the results for etiology of mental strain were favorable to Chileans. There was no statistical evidence to confirm any difference in terms of benevolence. These results reveal that Brazilian students present more positive attitudes towards mental disorders, as they showed to be less authoritarian, restrictive and discriminative than the Chilean and Peruvian students. Therefore, they are more likely to develop a more therapeutic behavior towards people with mental disorders.
Fletcher, Jesse B; Reback, Cathy J
Homelessness is associated with increased prevalence of mental health disorders, substance use disorders and mental health/substance use disorder comorbidity in the United States of America. Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) living in the United States are at increased risk for homelessness, and have also evidenced elevated mental health and substance use disorder prevalence relative to their non-MSM male counterparts. Secondary analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial estimating the diagnostic prevalence of substance use/mental health disorder comorbidity among a sample of homeless, substance-dependent MSM (DSM-IV verified; n = 131). The most prevalent substance use/mental health disorder comorbidities were stimulant dependence comorbid with at least one depressive disorder (28%), alcohol dependence comorbid with at least one depressive disorder (26%) and stimulant dependence comorbid with antisocial personality disorder (25%). Diagnostic depression and antisocial personality disorder both demonstrated high rates of prevalence among homeless, substance-dependent (particularly stimulant and alcohol dependent) MSM. [Fletcher JB, Reback CJ. Mental health disorders among homeless, substance-dependent men who have sex with men. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;36:555-559]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Braquehais, María Dolores; Valero, Sergi; Matalí, Josep Lluís; Bel, Miquel Jordi; Montejo, José Eduardo; Nasillo, Viviana; Arteman, Antoni; Padrós, Jaume; Bruguera, Eugeni; Casas, Miquel
To explore if the Barcelona Integral Care Program for Doctors with mental disorders (PAIMM, in Catalan) has achieved its goal of enhancing earlier and voluntary help-seeking amongst sick doctors. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 1363 medical records of physicians admitted to the inpatient and outpatient units of the PAIMM from February 1st, 1998 until December 31st, 2011. The sample was divided into 3 time periods: 1998-2004, 2005-2007 and 2008-2011 (477, 497, and 389 cases, respectively). The mean age at admission decreased (F = 77.57, p doctors may feel encouraged to seek help in non-punitive programs specially designed for them and where treatment becomes mandatory only when there is risk or evidence of malpractice.
The presentation will introduce a successful method of helping students with mental, neurological and psychosocial problems that is being developed at the University of Aarhus in Denmark. It includes learning disabilities at university because of schizophrenia, personality disorders, autism...... into the cultural, social and technical space of the educational system. The method, which has certain resemblances with the practices of men toring, tutoring and coaching, has its basis in a certain understanding of academic education and knowledge as an art or a craft. In other words getting academic training...... is in many ways similar to being put to a trade, and important for the academic success of the students is their ability to learn certain explicit and tacit abilities. To study medicine, law or arts the students have to learn how to study medicine, law or arts and that includes learning certain study...
are categorized according to 10 categories as a basis for addressing the development of the students learning competencies through the use of 7 types of methodical intervention. The model provides the opportunity to make a determined effort to improve the students’ opportunity to participate in the learning......The session aims at presenting a learning-based model for how to conduct a comprehensive psychological evaluation of the learning resources and challenges amongst students with mental and behavioral disorders. In the learning assessment model the learning resources and challenges of the students...... environment and learning processes of the educational setting. The objective of this session is to strengthen the educational awareness and conceptualization of students' relevant difficulties as learning difficulties...
Zhang, Tian-Hong; Xiao, Ze-Ping; Wang, Lan-Lan; Dai, Yun-Fei; Zhang, Hai-Yin; Qiu, Jian-Yin; Tao, Ming-Yi; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiao; Yu, Jun-Han; Wu, Yan-Ru; Jiang, Wen-Hui
To study the prevalence and risk factors for personality disorder (PD) outpatients attending in for psychiatric and psychological counseling in Shanghai. 3075 subjects were sampled by systematic sampling method from outpatients in psycho-counseling clinics and psychiatric clinics in Shanghai Mental Health Center. Based on DSM-IV criteria, personality disorders were assessed by both questionnaires (personality diagnostic questionnaire, PDQ-4+) and interviews (structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis II, SCID-II). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the significant independent contributor to PD. 71.3% of the outpatients were found having pathological personality by using questionnaire of self rating PD scale. 982 outpatients (31.9%) met criteria for at least one personality disorder by using structured clinical interview. Younger age (OR = 1.8, 95%CI: 1.5 - 2.1), single or divorced (OR = 1.6, 95%CI: 1.4 - 1.9), psychological counseling outpatients (OR = 1.2, 95%CI: 1.1 - 1.3), mood and outpatients with neurosis disorders (OR = 1.7, 95%CI: 1.4 - 2.0) were more frequently assigned as personality disorders. Data from logistic regression analysis showed that patients of tender age, not nurtured and raised by their parents, with introvert characters were related risk factors of PD. High prevalence rate of PD was found in this sample of Chinese outpatients, especially in those psychological counseling outpatients with mood or neurosis disorders. More attention should be paid to the recognition and intervention of PD in outpatients with mental disorders.
Barbosa, Jaqueline Almeida Guimarães; de Souza, Marina Celly Martins Ribeiro; Freitas, Maria Imaculada de Fátima
To understand the impact of sexual violence suffered by women with mental disorders based on self-reports of these experiences. The reports emerged from open interviews with women receiving care at public mental health services in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. These interviews were part of a larger research project that had the overall objective of investigating how this population group lives and thinks sexuality, in order to contribute to actions to promote sexual health. Data collection took place in 2008. Seventeen women with age between 18 and 68 years were interviewed. Fourteen reported having had stable relationships, but only three were still in these relationships. Most of the stable relationships had not been formalized into marriage. Two participants were widows and 13 had children. All the participants reported difficulties in living with their partners and children and having few friends and little family support. The instability of relationships was attributed to situations of aggression, infidelity, and use of drugs and alcohol. Seven women reported having been victims of physical violence within the family, mostly from partners. Two participants reported never having had sexual relations. Health care professionals must be trained to encourage the report of sexual violence by women and adequately handle the situation. Intersectoral actions to deal with this issue are also essential.
Frías, Víctor M; Fortuny, Joan R; Guzmán, Sergio; Santamaría, Pilar; Martínez, Montserrat; Pérez, Víctor
The stigma associated with mental illness is a health problem, discriminating and limiting the opportunities for sufferers. Social contact with people suffering a mental disorder is a strategy used to produce changes in population stereotypes. The aim of the study was to examine differences in the level of stigma in samples with social contact and the general population. The study included two experiments. The first (n=42) included players in an open football league who played in a team with players with schizophrenia. In the second included, a sample without known contact (n=62) and a sample with contact (n=100) were compared. The evaluation tool used was AQ-27, Spanish version (AQ-27-E). The mean difference between the two samples of each of the 9 subscales was analyzed. In the first experiment, all the subscales had lower scores in post-contact than in pre-contact, except for responsibility. The two subscales that showed significant differences were duress (t=6.057, p=.000) and Pity (t=3.661, p=.001). In the second experiment, seven subscales showed a significance level (p=<.05). Segregation and responsibility and did not. It is observed that the social contact made in daily situations can have a positive impact on the reduction of stigma. This can help to promote equality of opportunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Paños-Martínez, Montserrat; Patró-Moncunill, Ester; Santiago-Barragán, Ángel-María; Marti-Mestre, Marc; Torralbas-Ortega, Jordi; Escayola-Maranges, Anna; Granero-Lázaro, Alberto
To identify the prevalence of the cardiovascular risk (RCV) in users with a Severe Mental Disorder (SMD) attended in mental health service in ParcTaulí (Sabadell - Barcelona). This is an observational, descriptive and transversal study of the factors of cardiovascular risk in 789 users with SMD. The instrument used was the scale of assessment of the Registre Gironí del Cor, which estimates the risk of cardiovascular disease. 26.6% of the sample has RCV (22.5% moderate, 3.8% high and 0.3% very high). The analysis of the modifiable risk factors shows that 16.5% of the patients are hypertensive, 55.2% are smokers, 19.77% have hyperglycaemia (8.2% of whom are diagnosed of diabetes mellitus), 40.2% have obesity, 36.2% overweight and 47.27% hypercholesterolemia. The study confirms that the prevalence of the RVC in SMD users is greater than the RCV in general population and it's associated to the presence of modifiable risk factors. Health education carried out by nurses is the best to prevent the RCV in SMD users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Litz, Megan; Rigby, Andrea; Rogers, Ann M; Leslie, Douglas L; Hollenbeak, Christopher S
Mental health disorders are common among bariatric surgery patients. Mental health disorders, particularly depression, have been associated with poorer surgical outcomes, indicating the bariatric surgery patient population warrants special clinical attention. Our study sought to examine the effect of diagnosed mental health disorders on 30-day readmission for those undergoing bariatric surgery in hospitals across Pennsylvania from 2011 to 2014. We used Pennsylvania Healthcare Cost Containment Council data to perform this analysis. Inclusion criteria encompassed patients aged>18 years who underwent bariatric surgery at any hospital or freestanding surgical facility in Pennsylvania between 2011 and 2014. Mental health disorders were identified using predetermined International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision codes. Logistic regression was used to model the risk of 30-day readmission and estimate the effect of mental health disorders on 30-day readmission. Of the 19,259 patients who underwent bariatric surgery, 40.3% had a diagnosed mental health disorder; 6.51% of all patients were readmitted within 30 days. Patients with a diagnosed mental health disorder had 34% greater odds of readmission (odds ratio = 1.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.19-1.51) relative to patients with no diagnosed mental health disorder. Patients with major depressive disorder/bipolar disorder had 46% greater odds of being readmitted compared with patients with no major depressive disorder/bipolar disorder diagnosis. Study findings imply the need for risk assessment of patients before postoperative discharge. Given that patients with mental health diagnoses are at increased risk of 30-day readmission after bariatric surgery, they may benefit from additional discharge interventions designed to attenuate potential readmissions. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The problem of tolerance to persons with mental disorders is actual and practically meaningful both for the state and society. 97 Moscow citizens aged 21 to 55 were interviewed in order to study the attitude of the society to people with mental disorders. The research data are presented. Survey results reflect the general tendencies towards the formation of a tolerant attitude towards persons with mental pathology.
Merten, Eva Charlotte; Cwik, Jan Christopher; Margraf, J?rgen; Schneider, Silvia
During the past 50?years, health insurance providers and national registers of mental health regularly report significant increases in the number of mental disorder diagnoses in children and adolescents. However, epidemiological studies show mixed effects of time trends of prevalence of mental disorders. Overdiagnosis in clinical practice rather than an actual increase is assumed to be the cause for this situation. We conducted a systematic literature search on the topic of overdiagnosis of m...
Ioana Mihaela Tomulescu
Full Text Available This study is about the incidence of hearing-speaking disorders in a population with mental deficiency. We studied 596 children interned in Neurology and Psychiatry Clinical Hospital of Oradea during the 1999 - 2001 period. In 596 children, 393 presented different types of mental deficiency. The most frequent disorders observed are hearing loss or deafness, deaf-mutism, mutism and speaking retardation. Also, we related an increased frequency in rural area and in group of children with severe mental deficiency.
van Ditzhuijzen, Jenneke; Ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; Lugtig, Peter; van Nijnatten, Carolus H C J; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
Research in the field of mental health consequences of abortion is characterized by methodological limitations. We used exact matching on carefully selected confounders in a prospective cohort study of 325 women who had an abortion of an unwanted pregnancy and compared them 1-to-1 to controls who did not have this experience. Outcome measures were incidence and recurrence of common DSM-IV mental disorders (mood, anxiety, substance use disorders, and the aggregate measure 'any mental disorder') as measured with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) version 3.0, in the 2.5-3 years after the abortion. Although non-matched data suggested otherwise, women in the abortion group did not show significantly higher odds for incidence of 'any mental disorder', or mood, anxiety and substance use disorders, compared to matched controls who were similar in background variables but did not have an this experience. Having an abortion did not increase the odds for recurrence of the three disorder categories, but for any mental disorder the higher odds in the abortion group remained significant after matching. It is unlikely that termination of an unwanted pregnancy increases the risk on incidence of common mental disorders in women without a psychiatric history. However, it might increase the risk of recurrence among women with a history of mental disorders. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Astrocytes play an essential role in supporting brain functions in physiological and pathological states. Modulation of their pathophysiological responses have beneficial actions on nerve tissue injured by brain insults and neurodegenerative diseases, therefore astrocytes are recognized as promising targets for neuroprotective drugs. Recent investigations have identified several astrocytic mechanisms for modulating synaptic transmission and neural plasticity. These include altered expression of transporters for neurotransmitters, release of gliotransmitters and neurotrophic factors, and intercellular communication through gap junctions. Investigation of patients with mental disorders shows morphological and functional alterations in astrocytes. According to these observations, manipulation of astrocytic function by gene mutation and pharmacological tools reproduce mental disorder-like behavior in experimental animals. Some drugs clinically used for mental disorders affect astrocyte function. As experimental evidence shows their role in the pathogenesis of mental disorders, astrocytes have gained much attention as drug targets for mental disorders. In this article, I review functional alterations of astrocytes in several mental disorders including schizophrenia, mood disorder, drug dependence, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The pharmacological significance of astrocytes in mental disorders is also discussed.
Anestis, Michael D; Anestis, Joye C; Zawilinski, Laci L; Hopkins, Tiffany A; Lilienfeld, Scott O
Equine-related treatments (ERT) for mental disorders are becoming increasingly popular for a variety of diagnoses; however, they have been subjected only to limited systematic investigation. To examine the quality of and results from peer-reviewed research on ERT for mental disorders and related outcomes. Peer-reviewed studies (k = 14) examining treatments for mental disorders or closely related outcomes were identified from databases and article reference sections. All studies were compromised by a substantial number of threats to validity, calling into question the meaning and clinical significance of their findings. Additionally, studies failed to provide consistent evidence that ERT is superior to the mere passage of time in the treatment of any mental disorder. The current evidence base does not justify the marketing and utilization of ERT for mental disorders. Such services should not be offered to the public unless and until well-designed studies provide evidence that justify different conclusions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Alexandre Martins Valença
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is a serious public health problem that concerns and faces our society. The prevalence, magnitude and consequences of this problem have merited growing attention by health researchers and human rights scholars. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a review of the literature regarding the relationship between mental disorders, sexual offences and those of development. METHODS: A bibliographic research was performed in PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO and Lilacs, employing the terms "sexual crime", "sexual offence", "mental disorder", "mental retardation", "developmental disability" and its combinations. RESULTS: The mental disorders and developmental disorders more frequently related to the perpetration of sexual offences were schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and mental retardation. DISCUSSION: The detection and treatment of psychiatric morbidity among sexual offenders in health and criminal justice systems, which may contribute to a lower risk of recidivism of this sexual behaviour, is important.
Danek, Michał; Danek, Janusz; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander
Many animal models in different species have been developed for mental and behavioral disorders. This review presents large animals (dog, ovine, swine, horse) as potential models of this disorders. The article was based on the researches that were published in the peer-reviewed journals. Aliterature research was carried out using the PubMed database. The above issues were discussed in the several problem groups in accordance with the WHO International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10thRevision (ICD-10), in particular regarding: organic, including symptomatic, disorders; mental disorders (Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease, pernicious anemia and hepatic encephalopathy, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease); behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (alcoholic intoxication, abuse of morphine); schizophrenia and other schizotypal disorders (puerperal psychosis); mood (affective) disorders (depressive episode); neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder); behavioral syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors (anxiety disorders, anorexia nervosa, narcolepsy); mental retardation (Cohen syndrome, Down syndrome, Hunter syndrome); behavioral and emotional disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). This data indicates many large animal disorders which can be models to examine the above human mental and behavioral disorders.
Sareen, Jitender; Cox, Brian J; Afifi, Tracie O; Stein, Murray B; Belik, Shay-Lee; Meadows, Graham; Asmundson, Gordon J G
Although military personnel are trained for combat and peacekeeping operations, accumulating evidence indicates that deployment-related exposure to traumatic events is associated with mental health problems and mental health service use. To examine the relationships between combat and peacekeeping operations and the prevalence of mental disorders, self-perceived need for mental health care, mental health service use, and suicidality. Cross-sectional, population-based survey. Canadian military. A total of 8441 currently active military personnel (aged 16-54 years). The DSM-IV mental disorders (major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, and alcohol dependence) were assessed using the World Mental Health version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, a fully structured lay-administered psychiatric interview. The survey included validated measures of self-perceived need for mental health treatment, mental health service use, and suicidal ideation. Lifetime exposure to peacekeeping and combat operations and witnessing atrocities or massacres (ie, mutilated bodies or mass killings) were assessed. The prevalences of any past-year mental disorder assessed in the survey and self-perceived need for care were 14.9% and 23.2%, respectively. Most individuals meeting the criteria for a mental disorder diagnosis did not use any mental health services. Deployment to combat operations and witnessing atrocities were associated with increased prevalence of mental disorders and perceived need for care. After adjusting for the effects of exposure to combat and witnessing atrocities, deployment to peacekeeping operations was not associated with increased prevalence of mental disorders. This is the first study to use a representative sample of active military personnel to examine the relationship between deployment-related experiences and mental health problems. It provides
Eaton, N R; Krueger, R F; Keyes, K M; Skodol, A E; Markon, K E; Grant, B F; Hasin, D S
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) shows high levels of co-morbidity with an array of psychiatric disorders. The meaning and causes of this co-morbidity are not fully understood. Our objective was to investigate and clarify the complex co-morbidity of BPD by integrating it into the structure of common mental disorders. We conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on diagnostic interview data from a representative US population-based sample of 34 653 civilian, non-institutionalized individuals aged ≥18 years. We modeled the structure of lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses of BPD and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia, social phobia, specific phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence, marijuana dependence, and any other drug dependence. In both women and men, the internalizing-externalizing structure of common mental disorders captured the co-morbidity among all disorders including BPD. Although BPD was unidimensional in terms of its symptoms, BPD as a disorder showed associations with both the distress subfactor of the internalizing dimension and the externalizing dimension. The complex patterns of co-morbidity observed with BPD represent connections to other disorders at the level of latent internalizing and externalizing dimensions. BPD is meaningfully connected with liabilities shared with common mental disorders, and these liability dimensions provide a beneficial focus for understanding the co-morbidity, etiology and treatment of BPD.
MacEwan, Joanna P; Seabury, Seth; Aigbogun, Myrlene Sanon; Kamat, Siddhesh; van Eijndhoven, Emma; Francois, Clement; Henderson, Crystal; Citrome, Leslie
The objectives of this study were to assess the level of private and public investment in research and development of treatments for schizophrenia and other mental disorders compared to other diseases in order to present data on the economic burden and pharmaceutical innovation by disease area, and to compare the level of investment relative to burden across different diseases. The levels of investment and pharmaceutical innovation relative to burden across different diseases were assessed. Disease burden and prevalence for mental disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder); cancer; rheumatoid arthritis; chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder; diabetes; cardiovascular disease; and neurological disorders (dementia and epilepsy) were estimated from literature sources. Pharmaceutical treatment innovation was measured by the total number of drug launches and the number of drugs launched categorized by innovativeness. Research and development expenditures were estimated using published information on annual public and domestic private research and development expenditures by disease area. Lastly, investment relative to disease burden was measured among the set of disease classes for which all three measures were available: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neurology (dementia and epilepsy combined). The level of investment and pharmaceutical innovation in mental disorders was comparatively low, especially relative to the burden of disease. For mental disorders, investment was $3.1 per $1,000 burden invested in research and development for schizophrenia, $1.8 for major depressive disorder, and $0.4 for bipolar disorder relative to cancer ($75.5), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ($9.4), diabetes ($7.6), cardiovascular disease ($6.3), or rheumatoid arthritis ($5.3). Pharmaceutical innovation was also low
Beck, Emma; Sharp, Carla; Poulsen, Stig
Background: Insecure attachment is a precursor and correlate of borderline personality disorder. According to the mentalization-based theory of borderline personality disorder, the presence of insecure attachment derails the development of the capacity to mentalize, potentially resulting...... to evaluate this mediational model with parent and peer attachment as separate concepts and the first to do so in a sample of adolescents who meet full or sub-threshold criteria for borderline personality disorder. Findings incrementally support that mentalizing capacity and attachment insecurity, also...... in relation to peers, are important concepts in theoretical approaches to the development of borderline personality disorder in adolescence. Clinical implications are discussed....
Shang, Li-Li; Huang, Yue-Qin; Liu, Zhao-Rui; Chen, Hong-Guang
Mental disorders are strongly associated with disabilities. National survey on disability could provide a reliable basis for policymaking in care and rehabilitation of disabled persons. This study aimed to describe the disability prevalence rates attributed to mental disorders, their distribution by sociodemographic factors, and utilizations of service. This study is a secondary data analysis of the Second National Sample Survey on Disability in 2006. The disability and severity were assessed using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Mental disorders were diagnosed according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders. Using descriptive and analytic epidemiological methods, prevalence rates of disability attributed to mental disorders and service use were calculated. Data of 2,526,145 respondents were analyzed. The disability prevalence rate attributed to mental disorders in China was 6.3‰, accounting for 9.9% of all disabled people. Regarding disability prevalence attributed to mental disorders, it showed that gender, residential area, marital status, education level, and economic area were related to the prevalence distributions. The proportions of mild disability were highest in the disabled people with onset age of 18-64 years, while the proportion of extremely severe disability was highest in the disabled people with onset age of 65 years and above. Only 58.6% of disabled people attributed to mental disorders used some of the services. There are statistical differences of disability prevalence attributed to mental disorders by people and region in China. Service use in disabled people with mental disorders is insufficient.
Bruffaerts, Ronny; Demyttenaere, Koen; Kessler, Ronald C; Tachimori, Hisateru; Bunting, Brendan; Hu, Chiyi; Florescu, Silvia; Haro, Josep Maria; Lim, Carmen C W; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Medina Mora, Maria Elena; Piazza, Marina; Piotrowski, Patryk; Posada-Villa, Jose; Salih Khalaf, Mohammad; ten Have, Margreet; Xavier, Miguel; Scott, Kate M
Although there is a significant association between preexisting depression and later onset of chronic headache, the extent to which other preexisting mental disorders are associated with subsequent onset of headache in the general population is not known. Also unknown is the extent to which these associations vary by gender or by life course. We report global data from the WHO's World Mental Health surveys (n = 52,095), in which, by means of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-3.0, 16 mental disorders from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, were retrospectively assessed in terms of lifetime prevalence and age of onset. Frequent or severe headaches were assessed using self-reports. After adjustment for covariates, survival models showed a moderate but consistent association between preexisting mood (odds ratios [ORs] = 1.3-1.4), anxiety (ORs = 1.2-1.7), and impulse-control disorders (ORs = 1.7-1.9) and the subsequent onset of headache. We also found a dose-response relationship between the number of preexisting mental disorders and subsequent headache onset (OR ranging from 1.9 for 1 preexisting mental disorder to 3.4 for ≥5 preexisting mental disorders). Our findings suggest a consistent and pervasive relationship between a wide range of preexisting mental disorders and the subsequent onset of headaches. This highlights the importance of assessing a broad range of mental disorders, not just depression, as specific risk factors for the subsequent onset of frequent or severe headaches. This study shows that there is a temporal association between a broad range of preexisting mental disorders and the subsequent onset of severe or frequent headaches in general population samples across the world. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Harnish, Autumn; Corrigan, Patrick; Byrne, Thomas; Pinals, Debra A; Rodrigues, Stephanie; Smelson, David
This pilot study examined whether substance use or mental illness was more stigmatizing among individuals with co-occurring mental health and substance abuse problems. This study included 48 individuals with co-occurring substance use and mental health problems enrolled in a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services funded treatment program. Subjects received a baseline assessment that included addiction, mental health, and stigma measures. The sample consisted primarily of White males with an average age of 38 years. Substance abuse was found to be more stigmatizing than mental illness, F(1, 47) = 14.213, p co-occurring disorders with a greater focus on substance abuse.
Hoertel, Nicolas; McMahon, Kibby; Olfson, Mark; Wall, Melanie M; Rodríguez-Fernández, Jorge Mario; Lemogne, Cédric; Limosin, Frédéric; Blanco, Carlos
Recent theories have proposed a metastructure that organizes related mental disorders into broad dimensions of psychopathology (i.e., internalizing and externalizing dimensions). Prevalence rates of most mental disorders, when examined independently, are substantially lower in older than in younger adults, which may affect this metastructure. Within a nationally representative sample, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; N = 43,093), we developed a dimensional liability model of common psychiatric disorders to clarify whether aging affects specific disorders or general dimensions of psychopathology. Significant age differences existed across age groups (18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-75 and 75+), such that older adults showed lower prevalence rates of most disorders compared to younger adults. We next investigated patterns of disorder comorbidity for past-year psychiatric disorders and found that a distress-fear-externalizing liability model fit the data well. This model was age-group invariant and indicated that the observed lower prevalence of mental disorders with advancing age originates from lower average means on externalizing and internalizing liability dimensions. This unifying dimensional liability model of age and mental disorder comorbidity can help inform the role of aging on mental disorder prevalence for research and intervention efforts, and service planning for the impending crisis in geriatric mental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Musculoskeletal disorders represent a major issue in the military setting. Musculoskeletal disorders and mental disorders (MSD are a major cause of disability in the working population. Musculoskeletal disorders and premature tiredness caused by work are arisen from incompatible individual work capacity and job demands. Physical and psychology condition may lead to the generation, amplification musculoskeletal disorders. Musculoskeletal disorders and mental health disorders are high in military personnel. The purpose of this study was Assessment Mental Health and musculoskeletal disorders in military personnel. In this cross-sectional study 70 personnel military participated in May 2016. Cornell Questionnaire and Mental health inventory (MHI-28 were used for data gathering. Finally, Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20, descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation test and One Way Anova test. The findings of the current study showed that personnel situation of mental health were in moderate condition (56.01±13.3. Results Cornell Questionnaire showed that the most of musculoskeletal disorders were respectively in the back (46%, shoulder (34% and wrist (31%. Also Pearson correlation test showed significantly associated between musculoskeletal disorders and mental health (r=0.72 (p-value=0.001. One Way Anova test showed that with increase age (p
Hausberg, Maria Christina; Schulz, Holger; Piegler, Theo; Happach, Claas Gerhard; Klöpper, Michael; Brütt, Anna Levke; Sammet, Isa; Andreas, Sylke
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a self-rating scale for a differentiated assessment of mentalization. A pool of 40 items was developed and evaluated on n=434 inpatients with mental disorders at three time points. Symptom severity, self-injuring behavior, suicidal tendency and attachment style were also assessed. A varimax-rotated factor analysis supported the extraction of four factors. The model fit was checked by confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency of the mentalization questionnaire (MZQ) was .81. The relation between symptom severity and MZQ scores was found to be significant, and significant group differences were found between patients displaying self-injuring behavior and those who did not as well as between patients with and without suicide attempts. The MZQ can be considered as a practicable self-rated instrument with acceptable reliability and sufficient validity to assess at least aspects of mentalization in patients with mental disorders.
Salize, H J; Dillmann-Lange, C; Kentner-Figura, B; Reinhard, I
This study aims to assess the psychiatric morbidity of persons at risk of homelessness and to analyze correlations and risk factors between homelessness and mental disorders. The sample included 101 citizens of Mannheim, Germany, who were immediately threatened by eviction. Mental disorders were diagnosed using a standardized test, and other factors were also assessed. Data from August 2000 to June 2002 were collected. Acute mental disorders requiring treatment were determined in 79.3% of the study sample. Addiction disorders (alcoholism) played a major role. Personality, anxiety, and affective disorders were even more frequent than in a control group of homeless people in the same region, whereas schizophrenia and other mental disorders were similarly prevalent. Regression analyses confirmed unemployment, alcoholism, and male gender as the most important risk factors for homelessness among people threatened by eviction. The results suggest that prevention strategies should be multidimensional and interdisciplinary.
Matthys, Walter; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Schutter, Dennis J L G
This review discusses neurobiological studies of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder within the conceptual framework of three interrelated mental domains: punishment processing, reward processing, and cognitive control. First, impaired fear conditioning, reduced cortisol reactivity to stress, amygdala hyporeactivity to negative stimuli, and altered serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmission suggest low punishment sensitivity, which may compromise the ability of children and adolescents to make associations between inappropriate behaviors and forthcoming punishments. Second, sympathetic nervous system hyporeactivity to incentives, low basal heart rate associated with sensation seeking, orbitofrontal cortex hyporeactiviy to reward, and altered dopamine functioning suggest a hyposensitivity to reward. The associated unpleasant emotional state may make children and adolescents prone to sensation-seeking behavior such as rule breaking, delinquency, and substance abuse. Third, impairments in executive functions, especially when motivational factors are involved, as well as structural deficits and impaired functioning of the paralimbic system encompassing the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortex, suggest impaired cognitive control over emotional behavior. In the discussion we argue that more insight into the neurobiology of oppositional defiance disorder and conduct disorder may be obtained by studying these disorders separately and by paying attention to the heterogeneity of symptoms within each disorder.
Full Text Available Background: This study examined the tendency and suicidal behavior rates of Chinese adult inpatients with different types of mental disorders from 2010 to 2015. The aim was to provide some interesting clues for further studies. Methods: Adult patients with mental disorders who were hospitalized in Beijing Anding hospital from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2015 were included. Chi-square tests were used to compare the difference among inpatients with mental disorders by gender and year. Frequency, trend and suicidal behavior rates of inpatients with mental disorders were graphed. Results: A total of 17,244 psychiatric adult inpatients were included in our study. About 53.2% of the inpatients had mood disorders, followed by schizophrenia, which accounted for 34.6%. The proportion of female inpatients with mental disorders was larger than that of males (52.6% to 47.4%. Of the total, 3296 psychiatric inpatients were recognized as having suicidal behaviors. The rate of suicidal behavior among all inpatients was 19.1%, and it varied over the years. The suicidal behavior rate of female inpatients with mood disorders was much higher than that of the corresponding male inpatients. Conclusions: The presence of suicidal behavior varied among people with different types of mental disorders. For each type of mental illness, identifying the risk of specific suicide behavior would help tailor-make preventive efforts accordingly.
N Mutiso, Victoria; W Musyimi, Christine; Tele, Albert; Ndetei, David M
The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, comorbidity and socio-demographic correlates of common mental disorders among orphan and vulnerable children (OVCs) in residential care. The Youth Self Report (YSR) instrument was adapted for use and administered to 630 OVCs aged 10-18 years in four institutions operating within the Eastern province of Kenya. We estimated the prevalence of YSR syndromes and used logistic regression analyses to examine socio-demographic factors associated with each disorder. The prevalence of any mental disorder according to YSR syndrome scale was 30.8% (95% CI 27.1-34.6). Female gender and older children were less likely to be associated with risk of scoring in the clinical range of the mental disorders. The presence of multiple mental problems was seen among 16.7% of the children. Of the 16.7%, 5.6% had one comorbid mental disorder and 11.1% had three to eight mental disorders. We found a high prevalence of mental disorders and co-occurring disorders among the OVCs in residential institutions in Kenya. There is need for an alternative approach that can reach out to critical numbers of children for screening and public health, rather than purely clinical approach. The capacity for these institutions should also be regulated and more efforts focusing on improving the quality of care in the facilities taken into account at all times.
Kühne, Franziska; Meister, Ramona; Jansen, Alessa; Härter, Martin; Moritz, Steffen; Kriston, Levente
Introduction Whereas the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy has been demonstrated for a variety of mental disorders, there is still need for improvement, especially regarding less prevalent or more severe disorders. Recently, metacognitive interventions have been developed and are now available for a variety of diagnoses. Still, a systematic review investigating the effectiveness of different metacognitive interventions for various mental disorders is missing. Methods and analysis Rand...
Weijers, Jonas; ten Kate, Coriene; Eurelings-Bontekoe, Elisabeth; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Rampaart, Rutger; Bateman, Anthony; Selten, Jean-Paul
Background Many patients with a non-affective psychotic disorder suffer from impairments in social functioning and social cognition. To target these impairments, mentalization-based treatment for psychotic disorder, a psychodynamic treatment rooted in attachment theory, has been developed. It is expected to improve social cognition, and thereby to improve social functioning. The treatment is further expected to increase quality of life and the awareness of having a mental disorder, and to red...
Fujiwara, Takeo; Kawakami, Norito
It is well known that childhood adversities (CAs) are a significant risk factor for mental disorders in later life. However, it is uncertain whether a similar association between CAs and mental disorders can be found in Japan. Few studies have employed an appropriate statistical model that takes into account the high comorbidity of CAs. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the association between CAs and the onset of mental disorders in Japan. We used the data from the World Mental Health Japan, 2002-2004 (n=1722). Respondents completed diagnostic interviews (the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview) that assessed lifetime prevalence of 15 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders--Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) disorders. Associations of 12 retrospectively reported CAs with the lifetime prevalence of mental disorders were estimated using discrete-time survival analysis. Of the study sample, 32% reported as having experienced at least 1 CA during childhood. The studied CAs were highly comorbid. Parental mental illness showed significant sub-additive effects. The presence of 3 CAs showed a significant interactive effect on any mental health disorder. The number of CAs had a strong interactive effect on the onset of anxiety disorders. Predictive effects of CAs were found only among childhood onset mental disorders. It was confirmed that CAs are one of predictors of the onset of DSM-IV mental disorders, especially during childhood, in Japan. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Coles, Meredith E; Coleman, Shannon L
Anxiety disorders represent the single largest mental health problem in the United States [Greenberg et al., 1999. J Clin Psychiatry 60:427-435; Rice and Miller, 1998. Br J Psychiatry 173:4-9]. However most individuals with anxiety disorders never seek treatment [Henderson et al., 2002. Can J Psychiatry 47:819-824; Mojtabai et al., 2002. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59:77-84; Roness et al., 2005. Acta Psychiatr Scand 111:51-58]. Deficits in the ability to recognize anxiety disorders and beliefs about them, (i.e., "mental health literacy") may contribute to low levels of help seeking. Survey data assessing mental health literacy for multiple anxiety disorders and for depression were collected from 284 undergraduate students enrolled in psychology courses at a public university in the United States. Specifically, respondents were presented with vignettes portraying individuals experiencing various forms of mental illness and were asked to label the disorder, its cause and whether or not they would recommend treatment. Findings showed that social phobia and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) were associated with recognition rates that were generally high and similar to depression (approximately 80%). In contrast, less than half of the respondents labeled panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) correctly. Symptoms of OCD were attributed to mental illness by approximately 50% of respondents, but such attributions were rare for the other anxiety disorders studied (mental health literacy of the general public may be even lower.
Golenkov, Andrei; Large, Matthew; Nielssen, Olav; Tsymbalova, Alla
There are few studies of the relationship between mental disorder and homicide offences from regions with high rates of homicide. We examined the characteristics and psychiatric diagnoses of homicide offenders from the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation, a region of Russia with a high total homicide rate. In the 30 years between 1981 and 2010, 3414 homicide offenders were the subjected to pre-trial evaluations by experienced psychiatrists, almost half of whom (1596, 46.7%) met the international classification of diseases (ICD) 10 criteria for at least one mental disorder. The six most common individual diagnoses were alcohol dependence (15.9%), acquired organic mental disorder (7.3%), personality disorder (7.1%), schizophrenia (4.4%) and intellectual disability (3.6%). More than one disorder was found in 7.4% of offenders and alcohol dependence was the most frequently diagnosed co-morbid disorder. One in ten offenders were found to be not criminally responsible for their actions. Few homicides involved the use of substances other than alcohol, and firearms were used in 1.6% of homicides. The finding that people with mental disorders other than psychosis committed a high proportion of homicides in a region with a high rate of homicide, suggests that people with mental disorders are vulnerable to similar sociological factors to those that contribute to homicide offences by people who do not have mental disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Naidoo, S; Mkize, D L
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of serious mental disorders in a prison population in Durban, South Africa, one of the largest prisons in the Southern hemisphere. 193 prisoners were interviewed using the Mini Neuro-psychiatric Interview, a screening questionnaire and a demographic questionnaire. The study demonstrated that 55.4% of prisoners had an Axis 1 disorder. The commonest disorder being substance and alcohol use disorders (42.0%). 23.3% of prisoners were diagnosed with current psychotic, bipolar, depressive and anxiety disorders. 46.1% were diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. The majority of prisoners diagnosed as having an Axis 1 disorder in this study, were neither diagnosed nor treated in prison. There is a high prevalence of mental disorders among prisoners in a prison population in Durban, South Africa. The majority of these prisoners are untreated in prison, related to non detection of the mental disorder. Greater mental health awareness and provision of mental health services focusing on staff training programmes to detect mental illnesses are needed and further research is recommended throughout South Africa.
Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Ramirez, Sandra; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Rodriguez, Maria Nelcy; Rodríguez, Andrea; Rengifo, Henrey
The prevalence of chronic conditions is increasing globally and this phenomenon covers pediatric populations. There is a relationship between chronic conditions and mental health problems, which has been insufficiently studied in the case of children. To measure the frequency of problems and mental disorders in the Colombian population between 7 and 11 years, depending on the presence or absence of chronic conditions. The information pertains to the National Survey of Mental Health of Colombia 2015, an observational cross-sectional nationally representative for the group between 7 and 11 years old. Mental problems where measure with the Reporting Questionnaire for Children (RQC), the 12 month prevalence of seven mental disorders were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version parents (DISC-P) and a list of chronic conditions. Univariate and stratification analysis of the data were performed. 41.6% of the children with no chronic conditions, 56.7% of the children with 1 chronic condition and 70.8% in those with 2 or more have at least one RQC symptom; the highest prevalence of mental health symptoms are those with chronic inflammatory lung disease, followed by diabetes mellitus and allergies. The prevalence of one or more mental disorders in children without chronic conditions is 3.1% while those with at least 1 is 13.8%. A higher prevalence of mental disorders in children and its association with chronic conditions justifies further studies that address this issue and develop strategies with multidisciplinary interventions. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Islam, Md Manirul; Jahan, Nasim; Hossain, Md Delwar
Violence affects 15-75% of women across the globe and has a significant impact on their health, well-being, and rights. While quantitative research links it to poor mental health, there is a lack of qualitative enquiry in how women experience it, and how it is related to the mental disorders in Bangladesh. This information is important in understanding the situation and structuring a locally appropriate and culturally sensitive program. We adopted a phenomenological approach and conducted 16 in-depth interviews, three informal interviews, one focus group discussion, and one key informant interview. We also reviewed published reports and documents. We followed criterion sampling in selecting women with mental disorders who experienced violence. We explored their experiences and understanding of the issues and described the phenomenon. We found that Bangladesh society was largely controlled by men, and marriage was often forced on women. Women often were blamed for any mishap in the family and married women were under social and emotional pressure to keep the marital relationship going even when painful. We found all forms of violence (physical, emotional, sexual etc.) and most of the time found more than one type in women with mental disorders. Sexual violence is a reality for some women but rarely discussed. We found the society very tolerant with mental disorder patients and those who resorted to violence against them.We identified four theoretical understandings about the role of violence in mental disorders. Sometimes the violence predisposed the mental illness, sometimes it precipitated it, while other times it maintained and was a consequence of it. Sometimes the violence may be unrelated to the mental illness. The relationships were complex and depended on both the type of mental disorder and the nature and intensity of the violence. We found most of the time that more than one type of violence was involved and played more than one role, which varied across
Lund, Crick; Brooke-Sumner, Carrie; Baingana, Florence; Baron, Emily Claire; Breuer, Erica; Chandra, Prabha; Haushofer, Johannes; Herrman, Helen; Jordans, Mark; Kieling, Christian; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Morgan, Ellen; Omigbodun, Olayinka; Tol, Wietse; Patel, Vikram; Saxena, Shekhar
Mental health has been included in the UN Sustainable Development Goals. However, uncertainty exists about the extent to which the major social determinants of mental disorders are addressed by these goals. The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual framework for the social determinants of mental disorders that is aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals, to use this framework to systematically review evidence regarding these social determinants, and to identify potential mechanisms and targets for interventions. We did a systematic review of reviews using a conceptual framework comprising demographic, economic, neighbourhood, environmental events, and social and culture domains. We included 289 articles in the final Review. This study sheds new light on how the Sustainable Development Goals are relevant for addressing the social determinants of mental disorders, and how these goals could be optimised to prevent mental disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper considers various philosophical problems arising from Kant's account of mental disorder. Starting with the reasons why Kant considered his theory of mental disorder important, I then turn to the implications of this theory of Kant's metaphysics, epistemology and ethics. Given Kant's account of insanity as 'a totally different standpoint... from which one sees all objects differently' (7: 216), the Critique of Pure Reason should be read as offering a more social epistemology than typically recognized. Also, mental disorders that seem to undermine human freedom and rationality raise problems for Kant's moral philosophy that his pragmatic anthropology helps to mitigate. Finally, I propose some implications of Kant's account of mental disorder for contemporary work on mental illness.
Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Abdin, Edimansyah; Chong, Siow Ann; Sambasivam, Rajeswari; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Seow, Esmond; Picco, Louisa; Pang, Shirlene; Lim, Susan; Subramaniam, Mythily
The Positive Mental Health (PMH) instrument was developed and validated to assess the level of PMH and its six dimensions in a multi-ethnic general population sample. This cross-sectional study examines the psychometric properties of the instrument for assessing the level of PMH among help-seeking patients with mental disorders. The PMH instrument was tested among 360 out-patients with schizophrenia, depression or anxiety spectrum disorders, seeking treatment at a tertiary psychiatric hospital and its affiliated clinics in Singapore. All participants completed the PMH instrument along with measures of life satisfaction, mental and overall health and happiness. Reliability (internal consistency), construct (Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM)) and criterion (convergent and divergent) validity of the PMH instrument were tested in this population. Items were also tested for item response theory and differential item functioning (IRT-DIF). ESEM on the PMH instrument showed good fit with the model reflecting six factors (general coping, personal growth and autonomy, spirituality, interpersonal skills, emotional support, and global affect). Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's alpha >0.85) for the instrument and its six subscales. The PMH instrument fulfilled expected correlations with related constructs and demonstrated adequate item discrimination and difficulty estimates; however, significant DIF was noted for few items for age, gender and ethnicity groups. The PMH instrument is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring PMH dimensions in patients with mental disorders. Further studies in larger samples are needed to assess the impact of DIF on PMH scores. The implications for the shift in focus from just the negative aspects of mental disorders to including positive components in the assessment of patients with mental disorders are immense, and can be applied in routine mental health practice and policy making.
Serra, Marianna; Lai, Alessandra; Buizza, Chiara; Pioli, Rosaria; Preti, Antonio; Masala, Carmelo; Petretto, Donatella Rita
The negative attitudes surrounding mental disorders and their treatment are a major obstacle to the correct identification and treatment of emerging psychopathologies. The purpose of this study was to investigate mental health literacy in a large and representative sample of high school students in Italy, via a booklet containing several questionnaires delivered to 1032 teenagers. The items in the questionnaires probed knowledge about mental health and illness, stigmatization, stereotypes, behaviors, opinions, and attitudes. In general, the students had a reasonable knowledge of mental disorders and were able to distinguish these from somatic disorders. However, a large portion of the students nourished some misconceptions about mental disorders and was also rather skeptical about the effectiveness of treatment or the chance of recovery for people with severe mental disorders. Nevertheless, roughly half of the students reported being willing to provide help to someone with a mental disorder when in need. Poor mental health literacy is a major barrier to seeking help and receiving effective treatment. Young people are the ideal target of raising awareness and antistigma campaigns because they are at a higher risk for developing a psychopathology.
Julia Luise Magaard
Full Text Available Patients' causal beliefs about their mental disorders are important for treatment because they affect illness-related behaviours. However, there are few studies exploring patients' causal beliefs about their mental disorder.(a To qualitatively explore patients' causal beliefs of their mental disorder, (b to explore frequencies of patients stating causal beliefs, and (c to investigate differences of causal beliefs according to patients' primary diagnoses.Inpatients in psychosomatic rehabilitation were asked an open-ended question about their three most important causal beliefs about their mental illness. Answers were obtained from 678 patients, with primary diagnoses of depression (N = 341, adjustment disorder (N = 75, reaction to severe stress (N = 57 and anxiety disorders (N = 40. Two researchers developed a category system inductively and categorised the reported causal beliefs. Qualitative analysis has been supplemented by logistic regression analyses.The causal beliefs were organized into twelve content-related categories. Causal beliefs referring to "problems at work" (47% and "problems in social environment" (46% were most frequently mentioned by patients with mental disorders. 35% of patients indicate causal beliefs related to "self/internal states". Patients with depression and patients with anxiety disorders stated similar causal beliefs, whereas patients with reactions to severe stress and adjustment disorders stated different causal beliefs in comparison to patients with depression.There was no opportunity for further exploration, because we analysed written documents.These results add a detailed insight to mentally ill patients' causal beliefs to illness perception literature. Additionally, evidence about differences in frequencies of causal beliefs between different illness groups complement previous findings. For future research it is important to clarify the relation between patients' causal beliefs and the chosen treatment.
Stewart, Lynn A; Farrell-MacDonald, Shanna; Feeley, Stacey
The Community Mental Health Initiative (CMHI) is mandated to assist offenders with serious mental disorders in their transition from institutions to the community, but this incorporates different styles of service. An important unanswered question is whether these are equivalent. Our aim was to compare outcomes for different intervention styles within the CMHI, a programme for serious offenders in prison who also have at least one major mental disorder. Our specific research questions were as follows: do outcomes differ according to whether offenders with mental health difficulties receive (1) clinical discharge planning only; (2) community mental health services only; (3) the combined services or (4) none, although meeting criteria for any CMHI service? Survival analyses, controlling for variables with a significant effect on recidivism or return to prison, were used to test for differences in recidivism or return to prison rates between the intervention and no-intervention groups during a fixed follow-up period. Men receiving only community mental health services had a significantly lower risk of returning to custody and of recidivism than men receiving discharge planning alone or no community mental health service at all, even after controlling for potential confounders including age, number of previous imprisonments and number of previous community failures. The advantages were apparent within 3-6 months and sustained for up to 4 years. Provision of specialised community mental health services for higher-risk male offenders with a mental disorder may reduce recidivism in the short and longer term - within 3 months and up to 4 years respectively. Statistical modelling also pointed to the need to include treatment for substance abuse and assistance in identifying stable accommodation and brokerage of community services among the interventions and services. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Veisani, Yousef; Mohamadian, Fathola; Delpisheh, Ali
Little information exists on the association between comorbidities of mental disorders and suicidal ideation in developing countries. The current study examined the relationship between the presence of comorbid mental disorders and suicidal ideation in the adult population. This cross-sectional study was conducted using the cluster random sampling method in 3 steps. Data were collected from a household assets survey and the self-administered 28-item General Health Questionnaire as first step in screening, and the Persian version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition - Text Revision was used in the second stage to determine the prevalence of mental disorders. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to investigate the associations between mental disorders and suicidal ideation. Of the 763 participants, 199 (26.1%) had 1 or more mental disorder. Forty-two (71.4%) subjects with comorbidities had a history of suicidal ideation, whereas 59 (7.7%) of all participants had a history of suicidal ideation. We found that major depressive disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder were the most predictive of suicidal ideation in both sexes. The odds ratio for suicidal ideation associated with having 3 comorbid disorders was 2.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40 to 14.12) in males and 3.06 (95% CI, 1.25 to 15.22) in females. Consistent with pervious data, our results confirmed that mental disorders and comorbidities of mental disorders were important predictors of suicidal ideation. Our findings are very useful for applied intervention programs to reduce the suicide rate in regions in which it is high.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Little information exists on the association between comorbidities of mental disorders and suicidal ideation in developing countries. The current study examined the relationship between the presence of comorbid mental disorders and suicidal ideation in the adult population. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted using the cluster random sampling method in 3 steps. Data were collected from a household assets survey and the self-administered 28-item General Health Questionnaire as first step in screening, and the Persian version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition - Text Revision was used in the second stage to determine the prevalence of mental disorders. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to investigate the associations between mental disorders and suicidal ideation. RESULTS Of the 763 participants, 199 (26.1% had 1 or more mental disorder. Forty-two (71.4% subjects with comorbidities had a history of suicidal ideation, whereas 59 (7.7% of all participants had a history of suicidal ideation. We found that major depressive disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder were the most predictive of suicidal ideation in both sexes. The odds ratio for suicidal ideation associated with having 3 comorbid disorders was 2.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40 to 14.12 in males and 3.06 (95% CI, 1.25 to 15.22 in females. CONCLUSIONS Consistent with pervious data, our results confirmed that mental disorders and comorbidities of mental disorders were important predictors of suicidal ideation. Our findings are very useful for applied intervention programs to reduce the suicide rate in regions in which it is high.
Sareen, Jitender; Belik, Shay-Lee; Afifi, Tracie O; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Cox, Brian J; Stein, Murray B
We investigated mental disorders, suicidal ideation, self-perceived need for treatment, and mental health service utilization attributable to exposure to peacekeeping and combat operations among Canadian military personnel. With data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.2 Canadian Forces Supplement, a cross-sectional population-based survey of active Canadian military personnel (N = 8441), we estimated population attributable fractions (PAFs) of adverse mental health outcomes. Exposure to either combat or peacekeeping operations was associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (men: PAF = 46.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 27.3, 62.7; women: PAF = 23.6%; 95% CI = 9.2, 40.1), 1 or more mental disorder assessed in the survey (men: PAF = 9.3%; 95% CI = 0.4, 18.1; women: PAF = 6.1%; 95% CI = 0.0, 13.4), and a perceived need for information (men: PAF = 12.3%; 95% CI = 4.1, 20.6; women: PAF = 7.9%; 95% CI = 1.3, 15.5). A substantial proportion, but not the majority, of mental health-related outcomes were attributable to combat or peacekeeping deployment. Future studies should assess traumatic events and their association with physical injury during deployment, premilitary factors, and postdeployment psychosocial factors that may influence soldiers' mental health.
Kionna Oliveira Bernardes Santos
Full Text Available Background. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 is widely used for evaluating common mental disorders. However, few studies have evaluated the SRQ-20 measurements performance in occupational groups. This study aimed to describe manifestation patterns of common mental disorders symptoms among workers populations, by using latent class analysis. Methods. Data derived from 9,959 Brazilian workers, obtained from four cross-sectional studies that used similar methodology, among groups of informal workers, teachers, healthcare workers, and urban workers. Common mental disorders were measured by using SRQ-20. Latent class analysis was performed on each database separately. Results. Three classes of symptoms were confirmed in the occupational categories investigated. In all studies, class I met better criteria for suspicion of common mental disorders. Class II discriminated workers with intermediate probability of answers to the items belonging to anxiety, sadness, and energy decrease that configure common mental disorders. Class III was composed of subgroups of workers with low probability to respond positively to questions for screening common mental disorders. Conclusions. Three patterns of symptoms of common mental disorders were identified in the occupational groups investigated, ranging from distinctive features to low probabilities of occurrence. The SRQ-20 measurements showed stability in capturing nonpsychotic symptoms.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological migrants has a special background compared with other types of migrant. However, the mental health status of ecological migrants who were expected to benefit from a massive “ecological migration project” initiated by the Chinese government is unknown. This study aims to explore the influence of environmental change on individuals’ mental health and to improve current understanding of the mechanisms that mental disorders occurred. Methods The data were extracted from a cross-sectional study. Anxiety disorders, mood disorders and substance use disorders were assessed using the Chinese version WHO-CIDI. The prevalence of mental disorders was stratified by migration status into ecological migrant, local resident and original resident groups. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate the risk of prevalence among these three groups. Results After controlling for gender, ethnicity, age, marriage, and education, the migrants had lower risk of mental disorders than original residents [OR = 0.70 (95 % CI: 0.57–0.86], p < 0.001, but had a higher risk of mental disorders than local residents [OR = 1.29 (95 % CI: 1.06–1.55], p = 0.007. Conclusion The ecological migration project may be beneficial to people’s mental health by improving their living environment and social economy.
Li, Ziyao; Zhang, Jie
The strain theory of suicide postulates that psychological strains usually precede mental disorders including suicidal behavior. Lack of coping skills is one of the four strains. This article focuses on the effect of lack of coping skills on individual mental disorders and suicide. Data including 392 suicide cases and 416 community-living controls were from a large psychological autopsy study conducted in rural China. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R were used for the diagnosis of mental disorders. Coping skills were measured by the Coping Response Inventory. The logical analysis and cognitive avoidance coping skills were negatively associated with mental disorders, whereas the taking problem-solving action and acceptance/resignation coping skills were positively associated with mental disorders. This study supports the hypothesis that lack of coping skills to certain strains is likely to lead to mental disorders and suicidal behavior. Improving people's coping strategies may be an effective way to lower the prevalence of mental disorders and suicide.
Cooper, Jessica A; Marsh, Jessecae K
Research suggests that expertise in a specific category domain influences categorization. Work related to beliefs about mental disorders finds that laypeople treat mental disorders as if they do have causal essences, while clinicians do not-differences that may be attributable to expertise (Ahn, Flanagan, Marsh, & Sanislow, 2006). To test whether reduced beliefs in essences are indicative of an overall influence of expertise or a demonstration of a phenomenon specific to expertise in the mental health domain we compared beliefs about mental and medical disorders held by practicing physicians (n = 43; 19 primary care and 24 non-psychiatry specialists) and laypeople (n = 40). We found differences between these groups in beliefs held concerning the necessity of removing shared category features to effectively cure disorders. While laypeople endorsed the idea that the cause needed to be removed to cure both mental and medical disorders, this endorsement decreased with expertise. Primary care providers were less willing to endorse this for mental disorders than for medical disorders. Our results support the notion that the reduction of beliefs concerning the existence of essences is a unique effect of expertise in the mental health domain, and does not extend to other areas of expertise. In physicians, this reduction of essentialist beliefs was most evident in questions regarding treatment. Similarities and differences to the results from Ahn et al. (2006) are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ehsan, Annahita M; De Silva, Mary J
This study aims to systematically review all published quantitative studies examining the direct association between social capital and common mental disorders (CMD). Social capital has potential value for the promotion and prevention of CMD. The association between different types of social capital (individual cognitive and structural, and ecological cognitive and structural) and CMD must be explored to obtain conclusive evidence regarding the association, and to ascertain a direction of causality. 10 electronic databases were searched to find studies examining the association between social capital and CMD published before July 2014. The effect estimates and sample sizes for each type of social capital were separately analysed for cross-sectional and cohort studies. From 1857 studies retrieved, 39 were selected for inclusion: 31 cross-sectional and 8 cohort studies. 39 effect estimates were found for individual level cognitive, 31 for individual level structural, 9 for ecological level cognitive and 11 for ecological level structural social capital. This review provides evidence that individual cognitive social capital is protective against developing CMD. Ecological cognitive social capital is also associated with reduced risk of CMD, though the included studies were cross-sectional. For structural social capital there was overall no association at either the individual or ecological levels. Two cross-sectional studies found that in low-income settings, a mother's participation in civic activities is associated with an increased risk of CMD. There is now sufficient evidence to design and evaluate individual and ecological cognitive social capital interventions to promote mental well-being and prevent CMD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Pinna, Federica; Tusconi, Massimo; Dessì, Claudio; Pittaluga, Giuseppe; Fiorillo, Andrea; Carpiniello, Bernardo
Numerous studies conducted in inpatient settings have highlighted how mental disorders are associated with an increased risk of violence, particularly during acute phases. However, to date a more limited number of studies have been performed to assess the risk of violence in outpatients, particularly in Italy. The present study aims to evaluate the prevalence of violent events in a sample of patients in charge of a community mental health center in Italy. Based on data obtained from standardized clinical records, a retrospective study was undertaken to investigate acts of violence (physical aggression only) in a total of 678 patients (Males=308, 45.4%) in charge of a university mental health center; patients were mainly affected by anxiety disorders (30.7%), depressive disorder (17.2%), bipolar disorder (18.3%) and schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders (25.0%). 27.6% of the sample had committed at least one act of violence during their lifetime, 10.5% over the previous year. 56.7% of those who committed violence acts had acted violently twice or more during their lifetime. A significant association of lifetime violence was found with gender (male), younger age, low education, unemployment, living with parents. With regard to diagnosis, a significant association was found with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, personality disorders, mental retardation, and comorbidity between two or more psychiatric disorders. Violence was moreover associated with early age at onset and at first psychiatric treatment, longer duration of the disorder, previous hospital admissions, previous violent events. Violent behavior is relatively common among outpatients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Svahn, M.F.; Hargreave, M.; Nielsen, T.S.S.
register-based cohort study included all 2 412 721 children born in Denmark between 1969 and 2006. All children were followed from date of birth until date of hospital contact for a mental disorder, date of emigration, date of death or 31 December 2009, whichever occurred first. PARTICIPANTS...... of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (HR 1.36; 95% CI 1.29-1.45) compared with children born to women without fertility problems. The risk estimates did not change markedly when analyses were performed separately for mental disorders diagnosed during childhood (0-19 years) and in young adulthood (20...... related to the underlying infertility or to fertility treatment procedures. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: This is the first report on mental disorders in adulthood among children born to women with fertility problems. Furthermore, we have assessed the risk of several severe mental disorders...
Krauss, Oliver; Ernst, Jochen; Kuchenbecker, Doris; Hinz, Andreas; Schwarz, Reinhold
Between 2002 and 2004 485 cancer patients in oncological treatment were assessed for mental disorders using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Socio-demographic, psychosocial and medical data were taken as possible predictors into multivariate analysis. 32 % of the patients suffered from mental diseases. Significant risk factors for anxiety disorders were female sex, precedent mental trauma, children below 18 years; for affective disorders female sex, poor physical functioning; for stress disorders children below 18 years; for addictive disorders male sex, younger age, children from 18 years on, distant metastases. Additional psychosocial risk factors seem to be predominantly responsible for the development of a mental co-morbidity in inpatients with malignant diseases, which should be examined in doctor-patient-talks.
Rocha, Kátia; Pérez, Katherine; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Obiols, Jordi E; Borrell, Carme
In the past few years, there has been increasing interest in studying the association between problems in the neighbourhood environment and health indicators. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between the perception of environmental problems by individuals and the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) in Spain. A cross-sectional study using data from a large scale national representative survey of households (the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey). Participants included in the study were aged between 16 and 64 years (n = 23,760). The dependent variable was common mental disorders assessed with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). The independent variable was the individual's perception of environmental problems. Raw and adjusted Odds Ratios and their confidence intervals (95%) were calculated by fitting logistic regression models adjusting for age, marital status, work situation, social class, rural or urban area, country of origin, restrictions in carrying out activities of daily life due to a health problem and social support. The individuals who reported environmental problems had a higher prevalence of CMD. There was a clear increasing gradient in CMD prevalence with the increase in the number of environmental problems mentioned. Among the subjects who reported to have 1 or no environmental problem the prevalence of CMD was 11.8% (men) and 18.7% (women), and among those who mentioned 6 or more problems, the prevalence increased to 20.8% (men) and 35.4% (women). After adjusting for all the co-variables, there is an association between environmental problems and CMD (men OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.08-1.66; women OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.27-1.67). The environmental problems most strongly associated with the prevalence of CMD are noise, bad smell, air pollution, and lack of green areas. Our findings show that individuals who perceive environmental problems in their neighbourhood have a higher prevalence of CMD, even after adjusting for all co
Conclusion: Cardiovascular, endocrine (metabolic) and other physical diseases commonly occur in patients with mental disorders, especially mood and psychotic disorders, with a low rate of detection before full assessment. Keywords: Bipolar, co-morbidity, depression, disorders, Nigeria, schizophrenia-spectrum ...
... go unrecognized or are misdiagnosed as a mental illness or brain injury. Individuals with an FASD may also receive multiple diagnoses, such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),oppositional defiant disorder, and anxiety disorder. Therefore, it is important to determine whether ...
Henriksen, Christine Anne; Stein, Murray B; Afifi, Tracie O; Enns, Murray W; Lix, Lisa M; Sareen, Jitender
Historically, meeting criteria for a mental disorder has been used as a proxy for the need for mental health services, yet research suggests that a significant proportion of disorders remit without treatment. In this study, risk factors for poor longitudinal outcomes of individuals with untreated common mental disorders were determined, with the goal of identifying individuals with unmet need and informing the development of targeted interventions. Data came from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a longitudinal, nationally representative survey of the adult U.S. population (age ≥18; N=34,653). Respondents were assessed for past-year depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders and mental health service use via face-to-face interviews conducted at two time points, three years apart. Among respondents without a history of mental health treatment, logistic regression analyses examined factors associated with persistence of the disorder, comorbidity, or suicide attempt (that is, presence of any axis I disorder in the past year at wave 2 or any suicide attempt during the follow-up) versus spontaneous recovery of baseline disorders. Certain sociodemographic factors, comorbid mental disorders at baseline (such as three or more axis I disorders, adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.27-2.12), and childhood maltreatment (AOR=1.47, CI=1.23-1.75) were predictors of disorder persistence, comorbidity, or suicide attempt in depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders during the follow-up. In addition to considering the presence of a mental disorder, policy makers should consider other variables, such as childhood maltreatment and comorbidity, in estimating treatment need.
Johnson, Sarah E; Lawrence, David; Sawyer, Michael; Zubrick, Stephen R
To describe the extent to which parents report that 4- to 17-year-olds with symptoms meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria for mental disorders need help, the types of help needed, the extent to which this need is being met and factors associated with a need for help. During 2013-2014, a national household survey of the mental health of Australia's young people (Young Minds Matter) was conducted, involving 6310 parents (and carers) of 4- to 17-year-olds. The survey identified 12-month mental disorders using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children - Version IV ( n = 870) and asked parents about the need for four types of help - information, medication, counselling and life skills. Parents of 79% of 4- to 17-year-olds with mental disorders reported that their child needed help, and of these, only 35% had their needs fully met. The greatest need for help was for those with major depressive disorder (95%) and conduct disorder (93%). Among these, 39% of those with major depressive disorder but only 19% of those with conduct disorder had their needs fully met. Counselling was the type of help most commonly identified as being needed (68%). In multivariate models, need for counselling was higher when children had autism or an intellectual disability, in blended families, when parents were distressed, and in the most advantaged socioeconomic areas. Many children and adolescents meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria for mental disorders have a completely unmet need for help, especially those with conduct disorders. Even with mild disorders, lack of clinical assessment represents an important missed opportunity for early intervention and treatment.
... current listing 112.12, Developmental and Emotional Disorders of Newborn and Younger Infants (Birth to....07 Somatoform Disorders 12.07 Somatoform Disorders. 12.08 Personality Disorders 12.08 Personality...
Background The present study investigated associations between vegetarian diet and mental disorders. Methods Participants were drawn from the representative sample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey and its Mental Health Supplement (GHS-MHS). Completely vegetarian (N = 54) and predominantly vegetarian (N = 190) participants were compared with non-vegetarian participants (N = 3872) and with a non-vegetarian socio-demographically matched subsample (N = 242). Results Vegetarians displayed elevated prevalence rates for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and somatoform disorders. Due to the matching procedure, the findings cannot be explained by socio-demographic characteristics of vegetarians (e.g. higher rates of females, predominant residency in urban areas, high proportion of singles). The analysis of the respective ages at adoption of a vegetarian diet and onset of a mental disorder showed that the adoption of the vegetarian diet tends to follow the onset of mental disorders. Conclusions In Western cultures vegetarian diet is associated with an elevated risk of mental disorders. However, there was no evidence for a causal role of vegetarian diet in the etiology of mental disorders. PMID:22676203
Andreas, Sylke; Schulz, Holger; Volkert, Jana; Dehoust, Maria; Sehner, Susanne; Suling, Anna; Ausín, Berta; Canuto, Alessandra; Crawford, Mike; Da Ronch, Chiara; Grassi, Luigi; Hershkovitz, Yael; Muñoz, Manuel; Quirk, Alan; Rotenstein, Ora; Santos-Olmo, Ana Belén; Shalev, Arieh; Strehle, Jens; Weber, Kerstin; Wegscheider, Karl; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Härter, Martin
Except for dementia and depression, little is known about common mental disorders in elderly people. To estimate current, 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of mental disorders in different European and associated countries using a standardised diagnostic interview adapted to measure the cognitive needs of elderly people. The MentDis_ICF65+ study is based on an age-stratified, random sample of 3142 older men and women (65-84 years) living in selected catchment community areas of participating countries. One in two individuals had experienced a mental disorder in their lifetime, one in three within the past year and nearly one in four currently had a mental disorder. The most prevalent disorders were anxiety disorders, followed by affective and substance-related disorders. Compared with previous studies we found substantially higher prevalence rates for most mental disorders. These findings underscore the need for improving diagnostic assessments adapted to the cognitive capacity of elderly people. There is a need to raise awareness of psychosocial problems in elderly people and to deliver high-quality mental health services to these individuals. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.
Scott, Kate M; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Andrade, Laura H; Borges, Guilherme; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Fiestas, Fabian; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Lim, Carmen C W; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Torres, Yolanda; Williams, David R; Zakhozha, Victoria; Kessler, Ronald C
The inverse social gradient in mental disorders is a well-established research finding with important implications for causal models and policy. This research has used traditional objective social status (OSS) measures, such as educational level, income, and occupation. Recently, subjective social status (SSS) measurement has been advocated to capture the perception of relative social status, but to our knowledge, there have been no studies of associations between SSS and mental disorders. To estimate associations of SSS with DSM-IV mental disorders in multiple countries and to investigate whether the associations persist after comprehensive adjustment of OSS. Face-to-face cross-sectional household surveys of community-dwelling adults in 18 countries in Asia, South Pacific, the Americas, Europe, and the Middle East (N=56,085). Subjective social status was assessed with a self-anchoring scale reflecting respondent evaluations of their place in the social hierarchies of their countries in terms of income, educational level, and occupation. Scores on the 1 to 10 SSS scale were categorized into 4 categories: low (scores 1-3), low-mid (scores 4-5), high-mid (scores 6-7), and high (scores 8-10). Objective social status was assessed with a wide range of fine-grained objective indicators of income, educational level, and occupation. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed the 12-month prevalence of 16 DSM-IV mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. The weighted mean survey response rate was 75.2% (range, 55.1%-97.2%). Graded inverse associations were found between SSS and all 16 mental disorders. Gross odds ratios (lowest vs highest SSS categories) in the range of 1.8 to 9.0 were attenuated but remained significant for all 16 disorders (odds ratio, 1.4-4.9) after adjusting for OSS indicators. This pattern of inverse association between SSS and mental disorders was significant in 14 of 18 individual countries, and in low-, middle-, and high
Laaksonen, Mikko; Blomgren, Jenni; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari
The aim was to describe sickness allowance histories before disability retirement due to mental disorders and to examine whether receiving sickness allowance due to mental disorders and somatic conditions predicts future disability retirement. Pre-retirement sickness allowance histories were traced backwards for 7 years among Finnish residents aged 25-64 years who had retired due to mental disorders in 2011 (n=5.544). For each retiree, five sex- and age-matched controls were drawn from the non-retired population. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the risk for disability retirement by sickness allowance history and to control for the effects of educational level, social class, marital status and the urbanisation level of the municipality. The proportion of sickness allowance recipients increased steadily during the years preceding disability retirement, and was highest among those who retired due to bipolar disorders or depression. Those who had received sickness allowance due to mental disorders 6-7 years earlier had 6.5 times higher risk and those with sickness allowance 1-2 years earlier 11.7 times higher risk for disability retirement. Sickness allowance due to somatic conditions increased the risk for disability retirement 1.6-1.9 times. Sickness allowance most strongly predicted retirement due to bipolar disorders and depression. Adjustment for covariates had little effect. Those who retired due to mental disorders more often had sickness allowance due to both mental disorders and somatic conditions, but in particular sickness allowance due to mental disorders predicted disability retirement due to mental disorders. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Gratwick-Sarll, Kassandra; Bentley, Caroline
A repeated measures, uncontrolled, preliminary evaluation of a single 3-hour workshop-"Should I Say Something?"-aimed at improving eating disorders mental health literacy, was conducted in a sample of 177 university undergraduates. Following participation in the workshop, significant increases in eating disorder recognition and knowledge, and significant decreases in stigmatizing attitudes, were reported by participants. Moreover, 85% of participants reported that they provided assistance to someone whom they suspected had a mental health condition, including an eating disorder, during the 3-month follow-up period. This study provides preliminary evidence that "Should I Say Something?" may be effective in improving the mental health literacy of young people.
Cheng, Wan-Ju; Cheng, Yawen
Healthcare workers face multiple psychosocial work hazards intrinsic to their work, including heavy workloads and shift work. However, how contemporary adverse psychosocial work conditions, such as workplace justice and insecurity, may contribute to increased mental health risks has rarely been studied. This study aimed to search for modifiable psychosocial work factors associated with mental health disorders in Taiwanese healthcare workers. A total of 349 healthcare workers were identified from 19,641 employees who participated in a national survey of Taiwan. Minor mental disorder was assessed using the five-item brief symptom rating scale. We compared psychosocial work characteristics and the prevalence of minor mental disorder in healthcare workers with that in a sociodemographically matched sample, and examined the associations of psychosocial work conditions with mental health status. Healthcare workers were found to have a higher prevalence of minor mental disorder than general workers, and they were more likely to have longer working hours, heavier psychological job demands, higher job control, more workplace violence, and a higher prevalence of shift work. Among healthcare workers, experiences of workplace violence, lower workplace justice, heavier psychological job demands, and job insecurity were associated with a higher risk for minor mental disorder, even after controlling for working hours and shift work. Despite the fact that healthcare workers work longer hours and shift work, there were several modifiable psychosocial work conditions that should be targeted to improve their mental health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Jebena, Mulusew G; Lindstrom, David; Belachew, Tefera; Hadley, Craig; Lachat, Carl; Verstraeten, Roos; De Cock, Nathalie; Kolsteren, Patrick
Although the consequences of food insecurity on physical health and nutritional status of youth living have been reported, its effect on their mental health remains less investigated in developing countries. The aim of this study was to examine the pathways through which food insecurity is associated with poor mental health status among youth living in Ethiopia. We used data from Jimma Longitudinal Family Survey of Youth (JLFSY) collected in 2009/10. A total of 1,521 youth were included in the analysis. We measured food insecurity using a 5-items scale and common mental disorders using the 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Structural and generalized equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation method was used to analyze the data. The prevalence of common mental disorders was 30.8% (95% CI: 28.6, 33.2). Food insecurity was independently associated with common mental disorders (β = 0.323, Pfood insecurity on common mental disorders was direct and only 8.2% of their relationship was partially mediated by physical health. In addition, poor self-rated health (β = 0.285, Pdisorders. Food insecurity is directly associated with common mental disorders among youth in Ethiopia. Interventions that aim to improve mental health status of youth should consider strategies to improve access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food.
Ponizovsky, Alexander; Grinshpoon, Alexander; Sasson, Rachel; Baidani-Auerbach, Alona; Ben Eliezer, Deborah; Shershevsky, Yechiel
The Ministry of Health is stepping up its efforts to both reduce the inpatient psychiatric population and enable former inmates to become fully reintegrated into society. The latter aim includes the provision of formal education for those with mental disorders who did not complete a full cycle of schooling. Stigma and discrimination at school may lead to the failure of this program. To explore the knowledge and attitudes of the principals of schools for adult education towards mental illness and persons with mental disorders. Almost all countrywide school principals (93.8%, n = 76) were interviewed by telephone using a short questionnaire of 16 items tapping their knowledge and attitudes. Frequency distributions, Chi-square and t-tests were used to analyze the data. The school principals were able to mention a fewer number of mental disorders in contrast to medical conditions, used as reference criteria. They recognized psychosis but not depression as a mental disorder. Their attitudes revealed an ambivalent approach to the person with a mental disorder, including those that are students. Higher level of academic education was associated with positive attitudes, while personal familiarity with a mentally disturbed person was slightly associated with more positive school-related attitudes. The results suggest a "case for action": programs to enhance mental health knowledge and foster more positive attitudes among school principals would seem to be needed. This would better assure the integration of the former inpatient into the adult education system.
Lindstrom, David; Belachew, Tefera; Hadley, Craig; Lachat, Carl; Verstraeten, Roos; De Cock, Nathalie; Kolsteren, Patrick
Background Although the consequences of food insecurity on physical health and nutritional status of youth living have been reported, its effect on their mental health remains less investigated in developing countries. The aim of this study was to examine the pathways through which food insecurity is associated with poor mental health status among youth living in Ethiopia. Methods We used data from Jimma Longitudinal Family Survey of Youth (JLFSY) collected in 2009/10. A total of 1,521 youth were included in the analysis. We measured food insecurity using a 5-items scale and common mental disorders using the 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Structural and generalized equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation method was used to analyze the data. Results The prevalence of common mental disorders was 30.8% (95% CI: 28.6, 33.2). Food insecurity was independently associated with common mental disorders (β = 0.323, Pfood insecurity on common mental disorders was direct and only 8.2% of their relationship was partially mediated by physical health. In addition, poor self-rated health (β = 0.285, PFood insecurity is directly associated with common mental disorders among youth in Ethiopia. Interventions that aim to improve mental health status of youth should consider strategies to improve access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food. PMID:27846283
Taubner, Svenja; Volkert, Jana; Gablonski, Thorsten-Christian; Rossouw, Trudie
Mentalization-Based Treatment for Adolescents with Borderline Personality Disorder - Concept and Efficacy In recent years, the concept of mentalization has become increasingly important in practice and research. It describes the imaginative ability to understand human behavior in terms of mental states. Mentalization is a central component to understand the etiology and to treat patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Both adult and adolescent patients with BPD have limited mentalization abilities, which can be reliably assessed using the Reflective Functioning Scale. Mentalization-Based Treatment (MBT) was originally developed as an integrative approach for the treatment of adult patients with BPD. It is a manualized psychotherapy with psychodynamic roots with the aim to increase mentalizing abilities of patients. Since then, MBT has been further developed for other mental disorders as well as for the treatment of different age groups. One of these developments is MBT for Adolescents (MBT-A). MBT-A includes both individual as well as family sessions and the average duration of therapy is about twelve months. MBT-A can be applied in inpatient and outpatient settings and aims to improve mentalizing abilities in emotionally important relationships and the whole family system. First studies have found evidence for the efficacy of MBT-A. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is currently being carried out to evaluate the efficacy of MBT-A for adolescents with conduct disorder. However, further evidence for efficacy and further conceptual development is needed.
Ndetei, David Musyimi; Mutiso, Victoria; Musyimi, Christine; Mokaya, Aggrey G; Anderson, Kelly K; McKenzie, Kwame; Musau, Abednego
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of mental disorders among upper primary school children in grades five through seven in Kenya. The Youth Self Report (YSR) instrument was adapted for use in Kenyan schools and administered to 2267 school children in grades five through seven from 23 randomly selected schools. We estimated the prevalence of DSM-IV mental disorders, and used logistic regression analyses to examine the socio-demographic factors associated with each disorder. The prevalence of any mental disorder among Kenyan school children was 37.7 % (95 % CI = 35.7-39.7 %). Somatic complaints were the most prevalent (29.6 %, 95 % CI = 27.8-31.5 %), followed by affective disorders (14.1 %, 95 % CI = 12.7-15.6 %) and conduct disorder (12.5 %, 95 % CI = 11.2-13.9). The presence of one or more comorbid mental disorder was seen among 18.2 % (95 % CI = 16.6-19.8 %) of children. Male sex, living in a peri-urban vs. rural area, being held back in school, having divorced or separated parents, and having an employed mother were associated with an increased likelihood of having most of the mental disorders examined, whereas increasing age was associated with a reduced likelihood. We observed a high prevalence of mental disorders among school children in Kenya. If not detected early, these disorders may interfere with children's psychological, social, and educational development. Our findings highlight the importance of implementing screening measures in schools that can detect single and multiple disorders in order to improve the mental health and well-being of the next generation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical practice, sleep disturbance is often regarded as an epiphenomenon of the primary mental disorder. The aim of this study was to test if sleep disturbance, independently of primary mental disorders, is associated with current clinical state and benefit from treatment in a sample representative of public mental health care clinics. Method 2246 patients receiving treatment for mental disorders in eight public mental health care centers in Norway were evaluated in a cross-sectional study using patient and clinician reported measures. Patients reported quality of life, symptom severity, and benefit from treatment. Clinicians reported disorder severity, level of functioning, symptom severity and benefit from treatment. The hypothesis was tested using multiple hierarchical regression analyses. Results Sleep disturbance was, adjusted for age, gender, time in treatment, type of care, and the presence of any primary mental disorder, associated with lower quality of life, higher symptom severity, higher disorder severity, lower levels of functioning, and less benefit from treatment. Conclusion Sleep disturbance ought to be considered a stand-alone therapeutic entity rather than an epiphenomenon of existing diagnoses for patients receiving treatment in mental health care.
Steel, Zachary; Silove, Derrick; Giao, Nguyen Mong; Phan, Thuy Thi Bich; Chey, Tien; Whelan, Anna; Bauman, Adrian; Bryant, Richard A
Whether the prevalence rates of common mental disorders can be compared across countries depends on the cultural validity of the diagnostic measures used. To investigate the prevalence of Western and indigenously defined mental disorders among Vietnamese living in Vietnam and in Australia, comparing the data with an Australian-born sample. Comparative analysis of three multistage population surveys, including samples drawn from a community living in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam (n=3039), Vietnamese immigrants residing in New South Wales, Australia (n=1161), and an Australian-born population (n=7961). Western-defined mental disorders were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) 2.0 and included DSM-IV anxiety, mood and substance use disorders as well as the ICD-10 category of neurasthenia. The Vietnamese surveys also applied the indigenously based Phan Vietnamese Psychiatric Scale (PVPS). Functional impairment and service use were assessed. The prevalence of CIDI mental disorders for Mekong Delta Vietnamese was 1.8% compared with 6.1% for Australian Vietnamese and 16.7% for Australians. Inclusion of PVPS mental disorders increased the prevalence rates to 8.8% for Mekong Delta Vietnamese and 11.7% for Australian Vietnamese. Concordance was moderate to good between the CIDI and the PVPS for Australian Vietnamese (area under the curve (AUC)=0.77) but low for Mekong Vietnamese (AUC=0.59). PVPS- and CIDI-defined mental disorders were associated with similar levels of functional impairment. Cultural factors in the expression of mental distress may influence the prevalence rates of mental disorders reported across countries. The findings have implications for assessing mental health needs at an international level.
Swain, Nicola R.; Lim, Carmen C.W.; Levinson, Daphna; Fiestas, Fabian; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Posada-Villa, Jose; Haro, Josep Maria; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Xavier, Miguel; Iwata, Noboru; de Jonge, Peter; Bruffaerts, Ronny; O’Neill, Siobhan; Kessler, Ron C.; Scott, Kate M.
Objectives To examine the associations between a wide range of mental disorders and subsequent onset of stroke. Lifecourse timing of stroke was examined using retrospectively reconstructed data from cross-sectional surveys. Methods Data from the World Mental Health Surveys were accessed. This data was collected from general population surveys over 17 countries of 87,250 adults. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of DSM-IV mental disorders. A weighted subsample (n = 45,288), was used for analysis in the present study. Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent stroke onset. Results Bivariate models showed that 12/16 mental disorders were associated with subsequent stroke onset (ORs ranging from 1.6 to 3.8). However, after adjustment for mental disorder comorbidity and smoking, only significant relationships between depression and stroke (OR 1.3) and alcohol abuse and stroke (OR 1.5) remained. Among females, having a bipolar disorder was also associated with increased stroke incidence (OR 2.1). Increasing number of mental disorders was associated with stroke onset in a dose–response fashion (OR 3.3 for 5+ disorders). Conclusions Depression and alcohol abuse may have specific associations with incidence of non-fatal stroke. General severity of psychopathology may be a more important predictor of non-fatal stroke onset. Mental health treatment should be considered as part of stroke risk prevention. Limitations of retrospectively gathered cross sectional surveys design mean further research on the links between mental health and stroke incidence is warranted. PMID:26094010
DeLoach, Kendra P.; Dvorsky, Melissa; Miller, Elaine; Paget, Michael
Students with emotional and behavioral challenges are significantly impacted by mental health issues. Teachers and other school staff need mental health knowledge to work more effectively with these students. Collaboration with mental health professionals and sharing of information is essential. [For complete volume, see ED539318.
Gu, Simeng; Lei, Yu; Lu, Shanshan
“Safety first,” we say these words almost every day, but we all take this for granted for what Maslow proposed in his famous theory of Hierarchy of Needs: safety needs come second to physiological needs. Here we propose that safety needs come before physiological needs. Safety needs are personal security, financial security, and health and well-being, which are more fundamental than physiological needs. Safety worrying is the major reason for mental disorders, such as anxiety, phobia, depression, and PTSD. The neural basis for safety is amygdala, LC/NE system, and corticotrophin-releasing hormone system, which can be regarded as a “safety circuitry,” whose major behavior function is “fight or flight” and “fear and anger” emotions. This is similar to the Appraisal theory for emotions: fear is due to the primary appraisal, which is related to safety of individual, while anger is due to secondary appraisal, which is related to coping with the unsafe situations. If coping is good, the individual will be happy; if coping failed, the individual will be sad or depressed. PMID:27738527
Full Text Available Among four basic principles (respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-malfeasance, and justice which determine ethical behaviors in healthcare, informed consent is mostly related to and lsquo;respect for autonomy'. Also, it reflects patient/client's right for decision and the value given for the client and his/her autonomy. Informed consent is an information sharing process including both rational decision-making about the most appropriate method among many different options and the interaction between the clinician and the client. This concept sheds light on criteria regarding the limits of confidentiality, competency, appropriate and sufficient information sharing and voluntariness. In this theoretical review, the definitions and the content of informed consent were shared, and then a section regarding the required content of informed consent for psychotherapy process was provided. Then, the components of informed consent were discussed and the relationship between capacity to consent and mental disorders in terms of aforementioned diagnostic groups was examined. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(3.000: 227-242
Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Bouyer-Richard, Anne-Isabelle; Annweiler, Cédric; Gourevitch, Raphaël; Jollant, Fabrice; Olie, Jean-Pierre; Bourdel, Marie-Chantal; Lhuillier, Jean-Paul; Beauchet, Olivier
To examine the criminological circumstances of homicide in a group of French murderers with and without major mental disorders (MMD) stratified by the perpetrator's gender. Sociodemographic, clinical, and criminological variables were collected from the psychiatric expert reports of 210 cases of homicide heard at the High Court of Angers, France. Murderers were categorized according to MMD diagnosis and gender. Among 210 murderers, 17.6% (n = 37) had a MMD (20% of the female perpetrators). Logistic regression models showed that being a murderer with a MMD was associated with younger age (adjusted Odds Ratio OR = 1.03, P = 0.034), high school education (OR = 2.48, P = 0.036), previous use of psychiatric services (OR = 4.75, P = 0.003), alcohol intoxication (OR = 2.71, P = 0.027), and delusional state (OR = 3.96, P = 0.002) at the time of the homicide. Multiple correspondence analyses showed that female murderers with a MMD were more prone to have depression and to use drowning as a method than those without a MMD, and that male murderers with a MMD more often had a high school education and delusional beliefs at the time of the homicide than those without a MMD. Specific profiles of criminological circumstances of homicide could help to explore the risk of homicide in female and male patients with a MMD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Moreno, Eliana María; Moriana, Juan Antonio
There has been a considerable proliferation of clinical guidelines recently, but their practical application is low, and organisations do not always implement their own ones. The aim of this study is to analyse and describe key elements of strategies and resources designed by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for the implementation of guidelines for common mental health disorders in adults, which are some of the most prevalent worldwide. A systematic review was performed following PRISMA model. Resources, tools and implementation materials where included and categorised considering type, objectives, target and scope. A total of 212 elements were analysed, of which 33.5 and 24.5% are related to the implementation of generalized anxiety and depression guidelines, respectively. Applied tools designed to estimate costs and assess the feasibility of the setting up at local level are the most frequent type of resource. The study highlights the important variety of available materials, classified into 3 main strategies: tools targeting the professionals (30.6%), structural (26.4%), and organizational (24%). Developing guidelines is not enough; it is also necessary to promote their implementation in order to encourage their application. The resources and strategies described in this study may be potentially applicable to other contexts, and helpful to public health managers and professionals in the design of programmes and in the process of informed decision making to help increase access to efficient treatments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España.
Full Text Available “Safety first,” we say these words almost every day, but we all take this for granted for what Maslow proposed in his famous theory of Hierarchy of Needs: safety needs come second to physiological needs. Here we propose that safety needs come before physiological needs. Safety needs are personal security, financial security, and health and well-being, which are more fundamental than physiological needs. Safety worrying is the major reason for mental disorders, such as anxiety, phobia, depression, and PTSD. The neural basis for safety is amygdala, LC/NE system, and corticotrophin-releasing hormone system, which can be regarded as a “safety circuitry,” whose major behavior function is “fight or flight” and “fear and anger” emotions. This is similar to the Appraisal theory for emotions: fear is due to the primary appraisal, which is related to safety of individual, while anger is due to secondary appraisal, which is related to coping with the unsafe situations. If coping is good, the individual will be happy; if coping failed, the individual will be sad or depressed.
Zheng, Zheng; Gu, Simeng; Lei, Yu; Lu, Shanshan; Wang, Wei; Li, Yang; Wang, Fushun
"Safety first," we say these words almost every day, but we all take this for granted for what Maslow proposed in his famous theory of Hierarchy of Needs : safety needs come second to physiological needs. Here we propose that safety needs come before physiological needs. Safety needs are personal security, financial security, and health and well-being, which are more fundamental than physiological needs. Safety worrying is the major reason for mental disorders, such as anxiety, phobia, depression, and PTSD. The neural basis for safety is amygdala, LC/NE system, and corticotrophin-releasing hormone system, which can be regarded as a "safety circuitry," whose major behavior function is "fight or flight" and "fear and anger" emotions. This is similar to the Appraisal theory for emotions: fear is due to the primary appraisal, which is related to safety of individual, while anger is due to secondary appraisal, which is related to coping with the unsafe situations. If coping is good, the individual will be happy; if coping failed, the individual will be sad or depressed.
Corbière, M; Villotti, P; Toth, K; Waghorn, G
Job tenure for people with severe mental disorders (e.g., schizophrenia) remains a stumbling-block to their work integration. However, the length of job tenure can vary according to the workplace (e.g., provided resources) and the work context (e.g., regular market, social firms). This gap can be explained in part by diverse organisational components, particularly the implementation of work accommodations, which is related to the disclosure of the mental disorder in the workplace. Indeed, in the scientific literature, the principal reason associated with disclosure is in regards to requesting work accommodations. The main objective of this paper is to increase our understanding of the relationships between these three concepts - disclosure of a mental disorder, work accommodations and natural supports, and job tenure - by reviewing the specialized literature and presenting the work of the authors of this paper. To do so, the authors will address the following questions: How do we define 'disclosure' of a mental disorder in the workplace and what are the strategies to consider before disclosing? What is the decision-making process related to disclosure in the workplace? How are the three concepts - disclosure of the mental disorder in the workplace, work accommodations and job tenure - intertwined? Finally, how can employment specialists facilitate the work integration of people with severe mental disorders by considering the three concepts mentioned above? Results from a review of the literature show that disclosure of a mental disorder is a dialectical process that goes beyond the question: to tell or not to tell? In fact, it is not a single binary decision. Several components are associated with the disclosure concept, and can be summarized by the questions: What, how, when and to whom to disclose his/her mental condition? Reasons for disclosing his/her mental disorder in the workplace are numerous, characterized by personal, interpersonal and work environmental
Ishikawa, H; Kawakami, N; Kessler, R C
The aim of this study is to estimate the lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity and treatment of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders in Japan based on the final data set of the World Mental Health Japan Survey conducted in 2002-2006. Face-to-face household interviews of 4130 respondents who were randomly selected from Japanese-speaking residents aged 20 years or older were conducted from 2002 to 2006 in 11 community populations in Japan (overall response rate, 56%). The World Mental Health version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI), a fully structured, lay administered psychiatric diagnostic interview, was used for diagnostic assessment. Lifetime/12-month prevalence of any DSM-IV common mental disorders in Japan was estimated to be 20.3/7.6%. Rank-order of four classes of mental disorders was anxiety disorders (8.1/4.9%), substance disorders (7.4/1.0%), mood disorders (6.5/2.3%) and impulse control disorders (2.0/0.7%). The most common individual disorders were alcohol abuse/dependence (7.3/0.9%), major depressive disorder (6.1/2.2%), specific phobia (3.4/2.3%) and generalized anxiety disorder (2.6/1.3%). While the lifetime prevalence of any mental disorder was greater for males and the middle-aged, the persistence (proportion of 12-month cases among lifetime cases) of any mental disorder was greater for females and younger respondents. Among those with any 12-month disorder, 15.3% were classified as severe, 44.1% moderate and 40.6% mild. Although a strong association between severity and service use was found, only 21.9% of respondents with any 12-month disorder sought treatment within the last 12 months; only 37.0% of severe cases received medical care. The mental health specialty sector was the most common resource used in Japan. Although the prevalence of mental disorders were quite low, mental disorders were the second most prevalent cause of
de Jonge, Peter; Alonso, Jordi; Stein, Dan J; Kiejna, Andrzej; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Viana, Maria Carmen; Liu, Zhaorui; O'Neill, Siobhan; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Fukao, Akira; Bunting, Brendan; Haro, Josep Maria; Posada-Villa, Jose A; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Piazza, Marina; Hu, Chiyi; Sasu, Carmen; Lim, Carmen C W; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M
No studies have evaluated whether the frequently observed associations between depression and diabetes could reflect the presence of comorbid psychiatric conditions and their associations with diabetes. We therefore examined the associations between a wide range of pre-existing Diagnostic Statistical Manual, 4th edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders with self-reported diagnosis of diabetes. We performed a series of cross-sectional face-to-face household surveys of community-dwelling adults (n = 52,095) in 19 countries. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders. Diabetes was indicated by self-report of physician's diagnosis together with its timing. We analysed the associations between all mental disorders and diabetes, without and with comorbidity adjustment. We identified 2,580 cases of adult-onset diabetes mellitus (21 years +). Although all 16 DSM-IV disorders were associated with diabetes diagnosis in bivariate models, only depression (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.1, 1.5), intermittent explosive disorder (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1, 2.1), binge eating disorder (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7, 4.0) and bulimia nervosa (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.3, 3.4) remained after comorbidity adjustment. Depression and impulse control disorders (eating disorders in particular) were significantly associated with diabetes diagnosis after comorbidity adjustment. These findings support the focus on depression as having a role in diabetes onset, but suggest that this focus may be extended towards impulse control disorders. Acknowledging the comorbidity of mental disorders is important in determining the associations between mental disorders and subsequent diabetes.
Alonso, Jordi; Stein, Dan J.; Kiejna, Andrzej; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Viana, Maria Carmen; Liu, Zhaorui; O’Neill, Siobhan; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Fukao, Akira; Bunting, Brendan; Haro, Josep Maria; Posada-Villa, Jose A.; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Piazza, Marina; Hu, Chiyi; Sasu, Carmen; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.
Aims/hypothesis No studies have evaluated whether the frequently observed associations between depression and diabetes could reflect the presence of comorbid psychiatric conditions and their associations with diabetes. We therefore examined the associations between a wide range of pre-existing Diagnostic Statistical Manual, 4th edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders with self-reported diagnosis of diabetes. Methods We performed a series of cross-sectional face-to-face household surveys of community-dwelling adults (n=52,095) in 19 countries. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders. Diabetes was indicated by self-report of physician’s diagnosis together with its timing. We analysed the associations between all mental disorders and diabetes, without and with comorbidity adjustment. Results We identified 2,580 cases of adult-onset diabetes mellitus (21 years +). Although all 16 DSM-IV disorders were associated with diabetes diagnosis in bivariate models, only depression (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.1, 1.5), intermittent explosive disorder (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1, 2.1), binge eating disorder (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7, 4.0) and bulimia nervosa (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.3, 3.4) remained after comorbidity adjustment. Conclusions/interpretation Depression and impulse control disorders (eating disorders in particular) were significantly associated with diabetes diagnosis after comorbidity adjustment. These findings support the focus on depression as having a role in diabetes onset, but suggest that this focus may be extended towards impulse control disorders. Acknowledging the comorbidity of mental disorders is important in determining the associations between mental disorders and subsequent diabetes. PMID:24488082
Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S
Neuroplasticity, the brain's capacity to be shaped in response to environmental experience, has been claimed to resemble a double-edged sword - potentiating growth and healing when individuals are exposed to normative, benign or therapeutic environments on the one hand, mediating mental disorder development in those exposed to adversity, on the other. However, questions about the scope and limits of neuroplasticity and, especially, its clinical significance, remain unanswered. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Pereira, Priscila Krauss; Lima, Lúcia Abelha; Legay, Letícia Fortes; de Cintra Santos, Jacqueline Fernandes; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos
Prenatal and postnatal period presents the highest prevalence of mental disorders in women's lives and depression is the most frequent one, affecting approximately one in every five mothers. The aggravating factor here is that during this period psychiatric symptoms affect not only women's health and well-being but may also interfere in the infant's intra and extra-uterine development. Although the causes of the relationship between maternal mental disorders and possible risks to a child's health and development remain unknown, it is suspected that these risks may be related to the use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy, to substance abuse and the mother's lifestyle. Moreover, after delivery, maternal mental disorders may also impair the ties of affection (bonding) with the newborn and the maternal capacity of caring in the post-partum period thus increasing the risk for infant infection and malnutrition, impaired child growth that is expressed in low weight and height for age, and even behavioral problems and vulnerability to presenting mental disorders in adulthood. Generally speaking, research on this theme can be divided into the type of mental disorder analyzed: studies that research minor mental disorders during pregnancy such as depression and anxiety find an association between these maternal disorders and obstetric complications such as prematurity and low birth weight, whereas studies that evaluate severe maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have found not only an association with general obstetric complications as well as with congenital malformations and perinatal mortality. Therefore, the success of infant growth care programs also depends on the mother's mental well being. Such findings have led to the need for new public policies in the field of maternal-infant care geared toward the population of mothers. However, more research is necessary so as to confirm the association between all factors with greater
Saidel, Maria Giovana Borges; Campos, Claudinei José Gomes
to understand the perceptions of healthcare professionals of the Psychosocial Care Centers regarding the family of older adults with mental disorders. study of a Qualitative Case conducted with 12 healthcare professionals from a Psychosocial Care Center, with a convenient and exhaustive sample. Conducting semi-structured interviews to collect data, which were analyzed with the Content Analysis technique. the following categories stood out: "Family exhaustion and deterioration in the perception of the healthcare professional" and "The abandonment of older adults by family members and their distancing in the perception of the healthcare professional." culpability of older adults and penalization of the family were verified by healthcare professionals. To bring awareness about the difficulties faced in the attempt to bring the family closer to the healthcare service, it is necessary to analyze the care given to the older adult and to overcome challenges in the effective construction of the bond between family, healthcare user and mental health service. compreender as percepções dos profissionais do Centro de Atenção Psicossocial acerca da família do idoso em sofrimento psíquico. estudo de Caso Qualitativo conduzido com 12 profissionais de um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial com amostra composta por intencionalidade e fechada por exaustão. Realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas para coleta de dados, analisados por meio da técnica de Análise de Conteúdo. destacaram-se as categorias "O cansaço e o desgaste familiar na percepção do profissional" e "O abandono e o afastamento do idoso pela família na percepção do profissional". verificou-se a culpabilização do idoso e a penalização da família pelos profissionais. Visando à conscientização das dificuldades em aproximar a família, é necessária a criação de espaços reflexivos sobre o cuidado a essa população, bem como a superação dos desafios na construção efetiva do vínculo entre
Härter, Martin; Woll, Sonja; Wunsch, Alexandra; Bengel, Jürgen; Reuter, Katrin
The early detection of patients with comorbid mental illness is of high clinical importance in chronic somatic diseases. To identify cases, screening instruments are recommended. The study compared the discriminant validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to detect mental disorders in the most frequent chronic somatic diseases. Five hundred sixty-nine patients with musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and cancer diseases participated in the cross-sectional, two-stage survey. First, patients were assessed with the GHQ-12 and the HADS. Second, they were examined for DSM-IV mental disorders by clinical standardized interview (CIDI). Using CIDI diagnosis as a criterion, the validity of the instruments for the detection of any mental disorder as well as of depressive and anxiety disorders was analyzed with receiver-operating characteristics analyses. The HADS performed better in all analyses compared to the GHQ-12. Best screening results with the HADS total scale were achieved for depressive disorders with an area under the curve of 0.82, a sensitivity of 74%, a specificity of 80%, and a misclassification rate of 21% (cutoff point=18). The positive predictive value is best (44%) for the detection of any mental disorder, with a cutoff point of 17. The HADS total scale can be recommended as a valid screening instrument for the detection of comorbid mental disorders in patients with chronic somatic diseases. The use of the single HADS subscales has no advantage for screening performance.
Padwa, Howard; Guerrero, Erick G; Braslow, Joel T; Fenwick, Karissa M
The publication of the President's New Freedom Commission Report in 2003 led to hope and anticipation that system transformation would address barriers that have impeded the delivery of integrated services for clients with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders. Have problems been resolved? This study analyzed providers' perspectives on serving clients with co-occurring disorders in a large mental health system that has undergone transformation. Six focus groups were conducted with providers at specialty mental health treatment organizations that received funding to transform services. Using content analysis, the authors identified major themes of the focus group discussions. Participants reported several barriers within the mental health system and challenges associated with collaborating with specialty substance abuse treatment providers that impede the delivery of integrated care. In spite of efforts to improve co-occurring disorder service delivery in a transformed mental health system, barriers that have historically impeded integrated treatment persist.
Axinn, William G; Ghimire, Dirgha J; Williams, Nathalie E; Scott, Kate M
Research shows a strong association between traumatic life experience and mental health and important gender differences in that relationship in the western European Diaspora; but much less is known about these relationships in other settings. We investigate these relationships in a poor rural Asian setting that recently experienced a decade-long armed conflict. We use data from 400 adult interviews in rural Nepal. The measures come from World Mental Health survey instruments clinically validated for this study population to measure depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and intermittent explosive disorder. Our results demonstrate that traumatic life experience significantly increases the likelihood of mental health disorders in this setting, and that these traumatic experiences have a larger effect on the mental health of women than men. These findings offer important clues regarding the potential mechanisms producing gender differences in mental health in many settings.
Lumme, Sonja; Pirkola, Sami; Manderbacka, Kristiina; Keskimäki, Ilmo
Unselected population-based nationwide studies on the excess mortality of individuals with severe mental disorders are scarce with regard to several important causes of death. Using comprehensive register data, we set out to examine excess mortality and its trends among patients with severe mental disorders compared to the total population. Patients aged 25–74 and hospitalised with severe mental disorders in 1990–2010 in Finland were identified using the national hospital discharge register and linked individually to population register data on mortality and demographics. We studied mortality in the period 1996–2010 among patients with psychotic disorders, psychoactive substance use disorders, and mood disorders by several causes of death. In addition to all-cause mortality, we examined mortality amenable to health care interventions, ischaemic heart disease mortality, disease mortality, and alcohol-related mortality. Patients with severe mental disorders had a clearly higher mortality rate than the total population throughout the study period regardless of cause of death, with the exception of alcohol-related mortality among male patients with psychotic disorders without comorbidity with substance use disorders. The all-cause mortality rate ratio of patients with psychotic disorders compared to the total population was 3.48 (95% confidence interval 2.98–4.06) among men and 3.75 (95% CI 3.08–4.55) among women in the period 2008–10. The corresponding rate ratio of patients with psychoactive substance use disorders was 5.33 (95% CI 4.87–5.82) among men and 7.54 (95% CI 6.30–9.03) among women. Overall, the mortality of the total population and patients with severe mental disorders decreased between 1996 and 2010. However, the mortality rate ratio of patients with psychotic disorders and patients with psychoactive substance use disorders compared to the total population increased in general during the study period. Exceptions were alcohol
Yusuf, Ah.; Putra, Suhartono Taat; Probowati, Yusti
Introduction: Mental disorder remains a stigma in society, even until now. A family who have a member with mental disorder, will experience continues objective and subjective burden, experience serious stress for a lifetime, which may cause ineffective coping. Method: Design used in this study was experimental (pre post test control group design). The population was every family of patient with mental disorder in Menur Mental Hospital along the year of 2010, has been taking care there twice, ...
Constantinidis, Teresinha Cid; de Andrade, Angela Nobre
This paper is a development of a doctoral thesis presented at the Federal University of Espírito Santo. It seeks to analyze the elucidation of needs, development of supply and demand in the provision of care and the relationship between mental health professionals and family members of people with mental disorders. A qualitative research approach was used as the method of choice to achieve the proposed objectives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with mental health professionals from two psychosocial care centers (CAPS) in the city of Vitória, Espírito Santo, and with family members of frequenters of these institutions. After thematic analysis of content, senses, meanings and values assigned to the needs, supplies and demands present in this relationship were revealed. It highlighted the disparity between supply and demand and the lack of awareness of the needs of family members and their demands related to the routines of mental institutions. Using ethics in the philosophy of Spinoza as a benchmark, the ramifications of this process are discussed in the meetings between mental health professionals and family members of people with mental disorders and the micropolitics of the provision of care in the context of these actors.
Seedat, Soraya; Scott, Kate Margaret; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Berglund, Patricia; Bromet, Evelyn J; Brugha, Traolach S; Demyttenaere, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Jin, Robert; Karam, Elie G; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Medina Mora, Maria Elena; Ono, Yutaka; Ormel, Johan; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A; Williams, David; Kessler, Ronald C
Gender differences in mental disorders, including more anxiety and mood disorders among women and more externalizing disorders among men, are found consistently in epidemiological surveys. The gender roles hypothesis suggests that these differences narrow as the roles of women and men become more equal. To study time-space (cohort-country) variation in gender differences in lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders across cohorts in 15 countries in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative and to determine if this variation is significantly related to time-space variation in female gender role traditionality as measured by aggregate patterns of female education, employment, marital timing, and use of birth control. Face-to-face household surveys. Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and the Pacific. Community-dwelling adults (N = 72,933). The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 18 DSM-IV anxiety, mood, externalizing, and substance disorders. Survival analyses estimated time-space variation in female to male odds ratios of these disorders across cohorts defined by the following age ranges: 18 to 34, 35 to 49, 50 to 64, and 65 years and older. Structural equation analysis examined predictive effects of variation in gender role traditionality on these odds ratios. In all cohorts and countries, women had more anxiety and mood disorders than men, and men had more externalizing and substance disorders than women. Although gender differences were generally consistent across cohorts, significant narrowing was found in recent cohorts for major depressive disorder and substance disorders. This narrowing was significantly related to temporal (major depressive disorder) and spatial (substance disorders) variation in gender role traditionality. While gender differences in most lifetime mental disorders were fairly stable over the time-space units studied
Crea, Katherine; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Hudry, Kristelle
Family-related predictors of mental health problems were investigated among 30 toddlers at familial high-risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 28 controls followed from age 2- to 3-years. Parents completed the self-report Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the parent-report Behavior Assessment System for Children. High-risk toddlers were…
van Ditzhuijzen, J.M.
In the last decade there has been renewed interest in the question whether termination of an unwanted pregnancy is linked to subsequent mental health disorders. Most research in this field is characterized by methodological limitations, and conclusions often remain disputable. To offer insight in
Charara, Raghid; Forouzanfar, Mohammad; Naghavi, Mohsen; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Afshin, Ashkan; Vos, Theo; Daoud, Farah; Wang, Haidong; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Khalil, Ibrahim; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Khader, Yousef; Al-Hamad, Nawal; Makhlouf Obermeyer, Carla; Rafay, Anwar; Asghar, Rana; Rana, Saleem M.; Shaheen, Amira; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Husseini, Abdullatif; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Khoja, Tawfik; Al Rayess, Zulfa A.; AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Alomari, Mahmoud A.; Ali, Raghib; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Hamidi, Samer; Refaat, Amany H.; Westerman, Ronny; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Akanda, Ali S.; Ali, Syed Danish; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Faghmous, Imad A. D.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fischer, Florian; Jonas, Jost B.; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Mehari, Alem; Omer, Saad B.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Mokdad, Ali A.; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Akseer, Nadia; Arya, Dinesh; Borschmann, Rohan; Brazinova, Alexandra; Brugha, Traolach S.; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Degenhardt, Louisa; Ferrari, Alize; Haro, Josep Maria; Horino, Masako; Hornberger, John C.; Huang, Hsiang; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Yunjin; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Mitchell, Philip B.; Patton, George; Sagar, Rajesh; Satpathy, Maheswar; Savuon, Kim; Seedat, Soraya; Shiue, Ivy; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Stein, Dan J.; Tabb, Karen M.; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Mokdad, Ali H.
The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is witnessing an increase in chronic disorders, including mental illness. With ongoing unrest, this is expected to rise. This is the first study to quantify the burden of mental disorders in the EMR. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease study (GBD) 2013. DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) allow assessment of both premature mortality (years of life lost–YLLs) and nonfatal outcomes (years lived with disability–YLDs). DALYs are computed by adding YLLs and YLDs for each age-sex-country group. In 2013, mental disorders contributed to 5.6% of the total disease burden in the EMR (1894 DALYS/100,000 population): 2519 DALYS/100,000 (2590/100,000 males, 2426/100,000 females) in high-income countries, 1884 DALYS/100,000 (1618/100,000 males, 2157/100,000 females) in middle-income countries, 1607 DALYS/100,000 (1500/100,000 males, 1717/100,000 females) in low-income countries. Females had a greater proportion of burden due to mental disorders than did males of equivalent ages, except for those under 15 years of age. The highest proportion of DALYs occurred in the 25–49 age group, with a peak in the 35–39 years age group (5344 DALYs/100,000). The burden of mental disorders in EMR increased from 1726 DALYs/100,000 in 1990 to 1912 DALYs/100,000 in 2013 (10.8% increase). Within the mental disorders group in EMR, depressive disorders accounted for most DALYs, followed by anxiety disorders. Among EMR countries, Palestine had the largest burden of mental disorders. Nearly all EMR countries had a higher mental disorder burden compared to the global level. Our findings call for EMR ministries of health to increase provision of mental health services and to address the stigma of mental illness. Moreover, our results showing the accelerating burden of mental health are alarming as the region is seeing an increased level of instability. Indeed, mental health problems, if not properly addressed, will lead to an increased burden of
Pedersen, Pernille; Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Labriola, Merete
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of psychoeducation on return to work as an adjunct to standard case management in individuals on sick leave at risk of having a mental disorder. The participants could have different diagnoses but were all at risk of having a mental...... disorder. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2014, 430 participants on sick leave were randomly allocated to either an intervention or control group. The psychoeducation consisted of 2-h sessions once a week for 6 weeks. The sessions focused on stress and work life and was based on problem-solving techniques...... received a questionnaire on psychological symptoms, mental health-related quality of life, and locus of control. RESULTS: During the first 6 months after inclusion, the two groups had almost the same RR of a full return to work (RR:0.97, 95% CI: 0.78;1.21), but during the first 3 months, the individuals...
Bahceci, Bulent; Bagcioglu, Erman; Ozturk, Ahmet; Bulbul, Feridun; Sahiner, Ismail Volkan; Tuncer, Buket Eryonucu; Guzel, Halil İbrahim; Hocaoglu, Cicek
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use and the associated socio-demographic factors among patients with mental disorders in the Turkish community. One thousand and twenty-seven patients with a diagnosis of mental disorders who were attending psychiatric outpatient clinics in five Turkish cities were interviewed. A survey questionnaire, which included questions on socio-demographic characteristics and CAM use, was administered face-to-face by psychiatrists. 22.2% of patients with mental disorders were using some form of CAM in the Turkish community. CAM and medication concurrent users had a higher level of education and income compared to CAM users only or medicine users only (p mental disorders should be investigated and taken into account by psychiatrists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Ores, Liliane da Costa; Mondin, Thaíse Campos; Rizzo, Raquel Nolasco; Moraes, Inácia Gomes da Silva; Jansen, Karen; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of common mental disorders and the association with self-esteem and other factors in pregnant women. A nested cross-sectional study was performed in a cohort of pregnant women treated in the public health system in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was used to screen for common mental disorders and the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale for self-esteem. The sample consisted of 1,267 pregnant women with a mean age of 25 years (SD = 6.53). Mean self-esteem was 9.3 points (SD = 4.76), and prevalence of common mental disorders was 41.4%. Lower self-esteem was associated with higher odds of common mental disorders (p low self-esteem.
Alonso, J.; Buron, A.; Bruffaerts, R.; He, Y.; Posada-Villa, J.; Lepine, J.P.; Angermeyer, M.C.; Levinson, D.; De Girolamo, G.; Tachimori, H.; Mneimneh, Z.N.; Medina-Mora, M.E.; Ormel, J.; Scott, K.M.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J.M.; Gluzman, S.; Lee, S.; Vilagut, G.; Kessler, R.C.; Von Korff, M.
Objective: We assessed the prevalence of perceived stigma among persons with mental disorders and chronic physical conditions in an international study. Method: Perceived stigma (reporting health-related embarrassment and discrimination) was assessed among adults reporting significant disability.
Alonso, J.; Buron, A.; Bruffaerts, R.; He, Y.; Posada-Villa, J.; Lepine, J-P.; Angermeyer, M. C.; Levinson, D.; de Girolamo, G.; Tachimori, H.; Mneimneh, Z. N.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Ormel, J.; Scott, K. M.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J. M.; Gluzman, S.; Lee, S.; Vilagut, G.; Kessler, R. C.; Von Korff, M.
Objective: We assessed the prevalence of perceived stigma among persons with mental disorders and chronic physical conditions in an international study. Method: Perceived stigma (reporting health-related embarrassment and discrimination) was assessed among adults reporting significant disability.
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino M.
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms related to mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol behavior, adverse smoking behavior, adverse nutrition behavior) among retired professional footballers, and to explore their
Gravenhorst, Franz; Muaremi, Amir; Bardram, Jakob
, monitoring mental disorders relies on subjective clinical self-reporting rating scales, which were developed more than 50 years ago. In this paper, we discuss how mobile phones can support the treatment of mental disorders by (1) implementing human–computer interfaces to support therapy and (2) collecting...... relevant data from patients’ daily lives to monitor the current state and development of their mental disorders. Concerning the first point, we review various systems that utilize mobile phones for the treatment of mental disorders. We also evaluate how their core design features and dimensions can...... be applied in other, similar systems. Concerning the second point, we highlight the feasibility of using mobile phones to collect comprehensive data including voice data, motion and location information. Data mining methods are also reviewed and discussed. Based on the presented studies, we summarize...
Sylvester, P. E.
Post mortem examinations were done on two adult siblings (one female and one male) who had been clinically described as suffering from mental handicap, deaf mutism, ataxia, hypogonadism, and hormonal disorders. (DB)
Lany Leide de Castro Rocha Campelo
Full Text Available Objective To identify the difficulties of families with children and/or adolescents with mental disorder. Method This is an integrative review. In December 2013, an electronic search was performed on Latin American Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences databases (LILACS and on Electronic Medicus Index of the National Library of Medicine (MEDLINE indexed in the Health Virtual Library (BVS using a combination of descriptors and boolean operators as follows: mental disorders and child or adolescent and caregivers and/not health staff. Results 557 studies were identified, of which 15 were selected for this study. The findings indicated difficulties related to the care for or to interaction with children/adolescents with mental disorder. Conclusion The studies revealed difficulties related to everyday practices of care and feelings expressed during care practices, as well as in relationships with children or adolescents with mental disorder.
Stein, D J; Phillips, K A; Bolton, D; Fulford, K W M; Sadler, J Z; Kendler, K S
The distinction between normality and psychopathology has long been subject to debate. DSM-III and DSM-IV provided a definition of mental disorder to help clinicians address this distinction. As part of the process of developing DSM-V, researchers have reviewed the concept of mental disorder and emphasized the need for additional work in this area. Here we review the DSM-IV definition of mental disorder and propose some changes. The approach taken here arguably takes a middle course through some of the relevant conceptual debates. We agree with the view that no definition perfectly specifies precise boundaries for the concept of mental/psychiatric disorder, but in line with a view that the nomenclature can improve over time, we aim here for a more scientifically valid and more clinically useful definition.
Bildt, de A.; Mulder, E.J.; Scheers, T.; Minderaa, R.B.; Tobi, H.
OBJECTIVE. This study investigated the interrelationship between psychopharmacotherapy in general and the use of specific psychotropic drugs and pervasive developmental disorder and other behavior problems in children and adolescents with mental retardation. METHODS. A total of 862 participants 4 to
Fried, E.I.; van Borkulo, C.D.; Cramer, A.O.J.; Boschloo, L.; Schoevers, R.A.; Borsboom, D.
Purpose: The network perspective on psychopathology understands mental disorders as complex networks of interacting symptoms. Despite its recent debut, with conceptual foundations in 2008 and empirical foundations in 2010, the framework has received considerable attention and recognition in the last
Ormel, Johan; Jeronimus, Bertus F; Kotov, Roman; Riese, Harriëtte; Bos, Elisabeth H; Hankin, Benjamin; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Oldehinkel, Albertine J
Neuroticism's prospective association with common mental disorders (CMDs) has fueled the assumption that neuroticism is an independent etiologically informative risk factor. This vulnerability model postulates that neuroticism sets in motion processes that lead to CMDs. However, four other models
Fried, Eiko I.; van Borkulo, Claudia D.; Cramer, Angelique O. J.; Boschloo, Lynn; Schoevers, Robert A.; Borsboom, Denny
The network perspective on psychopathology understands mental disorders as complex networks of interacting symptoms. Despite its recent debut, with conceptual foundations in 2008 and empirical foundations in 2010, the framework has received considerable attention and recognition in the last years.
Camila Bonfim de Alcântara
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To identify the perception of nursing professionals about drug therapy for people with mental disorders. Methods: An exploratory qualitative research was carried out in four Psychosocial Care Centers of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Data, collected from January to March 2015 using an individual semi-structured interview applied to 56 nursing professionals, were submitted to qualitative data analysis and interpretation as proposed by Creswell. Results: The data were organized into three thematic categories: drug therapy improves the life of the person with a mental disorder; negative and positive consequences related to drug therapy; and drug therapy as one of the resources needed to treat mental health. Conclusion: Nursing staff perceive the importance of medications as a resource to treat people with mental disorders as psychotropic drugs minimize he acute symptoms of disorders and improve living conditions when associated with other therapeutic resources.
Fried, Eiko I; van Borkulo, Claudia D; Cramer, A.O.J.; Boschloo, Lynn; Schoevers, Robert A.; Borsboom, Denny
Purpose: The network perspective on psychopathology understands mental disorders as complex networks of interacting symptoms. Despite its recent debut, with conceptual foundations in 2008 and empirical foundations in 2010, the framework has received considerable attention and recognition in the last
Ohayon, M M
Epidemiological studies of insomnia in the general population have reported high prevalence rates. However, few have applied diagnostic criteria from existing classification systems. Consequently. It is not possible to determine whether subjects suffered from a sleep disorder or whether the insomnia constituted a symptom of a mental disorder. Insomnia and its relationship with other mental disorders was investigated in the general population using DSM-IV criteria. A representative sample of 5622 subjects from the French population were interviewed about their sleep habits over the telephone by lay interviewers. The course and content of interviews were customized by means of the Sleep-Eval knowledge-based system. A total of 18.6% of the sample reported insomnia complaints. The presence of insomnia complaints, lasting for at least one month with daytime repercussions was found for 12.7% of the sample. Subsequently, subjects were classified according to the Sleep Disorder decision-making process proposed by the DSM-IV classification, but without the recourse of polysomnographic recordings. Specific sleep disorder diagnoses were given for 5.6% of the sample, mostly as insomnia related to another mental disorder, primary insomnia was given for 1.3% of the sample. Primary mental disorder diagnoses were supplied for 8.4% of the sample, mostly as generalized anxiety disorder. The results of this investigation emphasize the need to use classifications to determine whether subjects with insomnia complaints suffer from a sleep disorder or whether insomnia constitutes a symptom of some other mental disorder. These distinctions are of utmost importance as they have a bearing on the choice of treatment. Conversely, diagnoses were obtained by lay interviews, which may have caused a lack of recognition and/or discrimination for light or borderline symptomatology.
Gustavson, Kristin; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Nesvåg, Ragnar; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Vollset, Stein Emil; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted
Mental disorders often have onset early in life, contribute substantially to the global disease burden, and may interfere with young people's ability to complete age-relevant tasks in important developmental periods. However, knowledge about prevalence and course of mental disorders in young adulthood is sparse. The aim of the current study was to estimate prevalence and stability of mental disorders from the twenties to the thirties/forties. DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview in two waves (1999-2004 and 2010-2011) in 1623 young adult Norwegian twins (63.2% women, aged 19-29 years in wave 1). In wave 1, the 12-month prevalence of any mental disorder among people in the twenties was 19.8% (men) and 32.4% (women), anxiety disorders: 9.6% (men) and 26.7% (women), anxiety disorders excluding specific phobias: 2.5% (men) and 6.9% (women), major depressive disorder (MDD): 4.4% (men) and 7.2% (women), and alcohol use disorder (AUD): 8.7% (men) and 4.4% (women). The prevalence of any mental disorder decreased from the twenties to the thirties/forties. This was due to a decrease in AUD and specific phobias. Anxiety disorders in the twenties predicted anxiety disorders and MDD ten years later, even when controlling for the association between these disorders in the twenties. MDD in the twenties predicted MDD ten years later. At both ages, two-week and 12-month prevalence estimates differed markedly for MDD - indicating an episodic course. Common mental disorders are highly prevalent among young adults in the twenties, and somewhat less prevalent in the thirties/forties. Those who suffer from one mental disorder in the twenties are at considerably increased risk for suffering from a disorder ten years later as well. This may have significant implications for young people's ability to attain education, establish a family, and participate in occupational life.
Fletcher, Jesse B; Swendeman, Dallas; Reback, Cathy J
Men who have sex with men (MSM) exhibit elevated rates of mental health and substance use disorder relative to their non-MSM male counterparts. Methamphetamine use in particular has been associated with both neuronal damage and mental health disorders among MSM, and this study reports on the prevalence and comorbidity of DSM-5 mental health and substance use disorders in a sample of methamphetamine-using MSM. From March 2014 through January 2015, 286 methamphetamine-using MSM enrolled in a study to reduce methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviors. At baseline, participants demonstrated high rates of current major depressive episode (35.8%), antisocial personality disorder (23.9%), suicide risk (23.2%), obsessive-compulsive disorder (23.2%), and social phobia (20.4%), as well as methamphetamine use disorder (89.1%), marijuana use disorder (41.0%), alcohol use disorder (39.6%), cocaine use disorder (30.9%), and inhalants use disorder (15.4%). Analyses revealed significant (p mental health disorders, as well as between alcohol use disorder and all listed mental health disorders. Mental health disorder prevalence and substance use disorder severity were both elevated, and both methamphetamine and alcohol use disorder severity were associated with increased likelihood of comorbid mental health disorder.
Lai, Harry Man Xiong; Sitharthan, Thiagarajan
Cannabis is one of the most commonly used illegal psychoactive substances and its use often coexists with mental health disorders. This study explores the relationships between cannabis use disorders and some common mental health disorders. Admissions to all New South Wales (NSW) hospitals were analyzed. The data were extracted from the NSW Department of Health Inpatient Statistics Data Collection for the period 1 July 2006 to 30 June 2007. Readmissions within 28 days were excluded. Data extraction and analyses were performed by using the SAS program. Chi-square tests and odds ratio were used to examine the association between cannabis use disorder and mental health disorders. Of the 1.8 million admissions, associations between cannabis use disorders and mental health disorders were strong (odds ratio = 7.8-10.7, p cannabis had at least one identifiable mental disorder. Higher comorbidity rates were observed for females (39.6%) and for those aged between 30 and 49 years. Cannabis use disorder comorbid with the most common mental disorders were: anxiety disorder (3.4%), bipolar affective disorder (5.7%), major depressive disorder (10.9%), personality disorder (9.2%), schizophrenia (15.0%), and severe stress disorder (8.7%). Cannabis use disorder has strong associations with these mental health disorders (odds ratio 4.8-34.8). The average length of stay (ALOS) for cannabis use disorders was 9.0 days and the ALOS for the most common mental health disorders was 11.0 days. This study provides detailed information about the association between cannabis use disorders and mental health disorders and extends our understanding of comorbidity presentations in inpatient admissions.
Ayaz, Muhammed; Ayaz, Ayşe Burcu; Başgül, Saziye Senem; Karakaya, Işik; Gülen Şişmanlar, Sahika; Yar, Ahmet; Sentürk, Ekrem; Dikmen, Sema
In this study, we aimed to determine the prevelance and severity of mental disorders in institutionalized children between the ages of 3-5 years, investigate the factors associated with the mental disorders and compare these findings with the data of a community sample composed of children who were raised by their own families. Thirty-four children raised in three institutions in Kocaeli were compared with an age- and sex-matched community sample. Children were assessed according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. The Socio-demographic information form, and Early Childhood Inventory-4 (ECI-4) parent scale were used for data collection. Children that were reared in institutions had evidence of higher rates of mental disorders. In institution-reared children, symptom severity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, reactive attachment disorder, oppositional deficient disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder were higher than the community subjects. Age, time spent with father, duration of institutionalization, number of siblings, number of hospital admissions because of physical symptoms and presence of abuse before institutional care were determined to be predictive factors for psychiatric symptoms. These findings revealed that institutionalized children are at risk for mental disorders and protective measures are as important as instutional care for these children. Our results suggest that essential steps should be taken to protect the mental health of children in institutional care.
Karam, E G; Salamoun, M M; Mneimneh, Z N; Fayyad, J A; Karam, A N; Hajjar, R; Dimassi, H; Nock, M K; Kessler, R C
Suicide rates increase following periods of war; however, the mechanism through which this occurs is not known. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the associations of war exposure, mental disorders, and subsequent suicidal behavior. A national sample of Lebanese adults was administered the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to collect data on lifetime prevalence and age of onset of suicide ideation, plan, and attempt, and mental disorders, in addition to information about exposure to stressors associated with the 1975-1989 Lebanon war. The onset of suicide ideation, plan, and attempt was associated with female gender, younger age, post-war period, major depression, impulse-control disorders, and social phobia. The effect of post-war period on each type of suicide outcome was largely explained by the post-war onset of mental disorders. Finally, the conjunction of having a prior impulse-control disorder and either being a civilian in a terror region or witnessing war-related stressors was associated with especially high risk of suicide attempt. The association of war with increased risk of suicidality appears to be partially explained by the emergence of mental disorders in the context of war. Exposure to war may exacerbate disinhibition among those who have prior impulse-control disorders, thus magnifying the association of mental disorders with suicidality.
Kendall, Caroline J; Rosenheck, Robert
This study examined whether veterans disabled by auditory disorders face barriers to receipt of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) mental health services. We compared use of VA mental health services by veterans disabled by auditory disorders with use of such services by veterans disabled by four other chronic illnesses. We hypothesized that disabled veterans with auditory disorders, including tinnitus and/or hearing loss, would be less likely to use VA mental health services than other disabled veterans because of communication difficulties. The study sample was based on national VA administrative data for veterans with a diagnosed mental health disorder who were not receiving VA compensation for that disorder but who were receiving VA compensation for another disorder, either physical or auditory, at the end of fiscal year 2005. After controlling for potentially confounding factors, we unexpectedly found that veterans disabled by auditory disorders were more likely than other disabled veterans to use VA mental health services at least once. Among users, however, those with auditory disorders accessed slightly fewer visits than those disabled by other conditions, although the reasons for the difference remain unclear.
Markkula, Niina; Lehti, Venla; Gissler, Mika; Suvisaari, Jaana
Migrants appear to have a higher risk of mental disorders, but findings vary across country settings and migrant groups. We aimed to assess incidence and prevalence of mental disorders among immigrants and Finnish-born controls in a register-based cohort study. A register-based cohort study of 184.806 immigrants and 185.184 Finnish-born controls (1.412.117 person-years) was conducted. Information on mental disorders according to ICD-10 was retrieved from the Hospital Discharge Register, which covers all public health care use. The incidence of any mental disorder was lower among male (adjusted HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.77-0.87) and female (aHR 0.76, 95% CI 0.72-0.81) immigrants, being lowest among Asian and highest among North African and Middle Eastern immigrants. The incidence of bipolar, depressive and alcohol use disorders was lower among immigrants. Incidence of psychotic disorders was lower among female and not higher among male immigrants, compared with native Finns. Incidence of PTSD was higher among male immigrants (aHR 4.88, 95% CI 3.38-7.05). The risk of mental disorders varies significantly across migrant groups and disorders and is generally lower among immigrants than native Finns.
Ten Have, M; Nuyen, J; Beekman, A; de Graaf, R
Detailed population-based survey information on the relationship between the severity of common mental disorders (CMDs) and treatment for mental health problems is heavily based on North American research. The aim of this study was to replicate and expand existing knowledge by studying CMD severity and its association with treatment contact and treatment intensity in The Netherlands. Data were obtained from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2), a nationally representative face-to-face survey of the general population aged 18–64 years (n=6646, response rate=65.1%). DSM-IV diagnoses and disorder severity were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0). Treatment contact refers to at least one contact for mental health problems made in the general medical care (GMC) or mental health care (MHC) sector. Four levels of treatment intensity were assessed, based on type and duration of therapy received. Although CMD severity was related to treatment contact, only 39.0% of severe cases received MHC. At the same time, 40.3% of MHC users did not have a 12-month disorder. Increasing levels of treatment intensity ranged from 51.6% to 13.0% in GMC and from 81.4% to 51.1% in MHC. CMD severity was related to treatment intensity in MHC but not in GMC. Sociodemographic characteristics were not significantly related to having experienced the highest level of treatment intensity in MHC. CONCLUSIONS. Mental health treatment in the GMC sector should be improved, especially when policy is aimed at increasing the role of primary care in the management of mental health problems.
Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Stewart, Angela; Lescano, Celia; Whiteley, Laura; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph
Objective: To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sexual behaviors among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Adolescents in mental health treatment have been found to have higher rates of HIV risk behavior than their peers, but data concerning the relationship between psychopathology and risk are inconsistent and…
Bryson, Stephanie A.; Corrigan, Susan K.; McDonald, Thomas P.; Holmes, Cheryl
Despite the presence of significant psychiatric comorbidity among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), little research exists on those who receive community-based mental health services. This project examined one year (2004) of data from the database maintained by 26 community mental health centers (CMHCs) in the Midwestern US state of…
Sullivan, Christopher J.; Sacks, Stanley; McKendrick, Karen; Banks, Steven; Sacks, Joann Y.; Stommel, Joseph
This paper examines outcomes 12 months post-prison release for offenders with co-occurring disorders (n = 185) randomly assigned to either a mental health control treatment (C) or a modified therapeutic community (E). Significant between-group differences were not found for mental health measures, although improvements were observed for each…
Background: Co-occurring mental health disorders are widespread among substance using adolescents. Severity of victimization may be an important factor in explaining co-occurrence of mental health problems among adolescents with substance misuse problems. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether severe victimization experiences…
Jorgensen, Mary; Budd, Jillian; Fichten, Catherine S.; Nguyen, Mai N.; Havel, Alice
This study's goal was to compare aspects related to academic persistence of two groups of college students with non-visible disabilities: 110 Canadian two and four-year college students--55 with mental health related disabilities and 55 with Specific Learning Disorder (LD). Results show that students with mental health related disabilities were…
Iancu, S.C.; Hoogendoorn, A.W.; Zweekhorst, M.B.M.; Veltman, D.J.; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.
Purpose: Farms are increasingly used in mental healthcare. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence on the effectiveness of farm-based interventions for patients with mental disorders. Methods: Controlled and uncontrolled studies of farm-based interventions were included. Within- and