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Sample records for mental disorders research

  1. Mental Disorders

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play ...

  2. The need for a behavioural science focus in research on mental health and mental disorders

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Knappe, Susanne; Andersson, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    of patients who already have developed a disease to improve medical treatment, the proposed framework model, linked to a concerted funding programme of the "Science of Behaviour Change", carries the promise of improved diagnosis, treatment and prevention of health-risk behaviour constellations as well......Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories, principles, and methodological approaches to understand mental health, abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope, current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may...... help to depict the advances needed to inform future research agendas specifically on mental health and mental disorders. From an integrative psychological perspective, most maladaptive health behaviours and mental disorders can be conceptualized as the result of developmental dysfunctions...

  3. The need for a behavioural science focus in research on mental health and mental disorders.

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Knappe, Susanne; Andersson, Gerhard; Araya, Ricardo; Banos Rivera, Rosa M; Barkham, Michael; Bech, Per; Beckers, Tom; Berger, Thomas; Berking, Matthias; Berrocal, Carmen; Botella, Christina; Carlbring, Per; Chouinard, Guy; Colom, Francesc; Csillag, Claudio; Cujipers, Pim; David, Daniel; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Essau, Cecilia A; Fava, Giovanni A; Goschke, Thomas; Hermans, Dirk; Hofmann, Stefan G; Lutz, Wolfgang; Muris, Peter; Ollendick, Thomas H; Raes, Filip; Rief, Winfried; Riper, Heleen; Tossani, Eliana; van der Oord, Saskia; Vervliet, Bram; Haro, Josep M; Schumann, Gunter

    2014-01-01

    Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories, principles, and methodological approaches to understand mental health, abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope, current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may help to depict the advances needed to inform future research agendas specifically on mental health and mental disorders. From an integrative psychological perspective, most maladaptive health behaviours and mental disorders can be conceptualized as the result of developmental dysfunctions of psychological functions and processes as well as neurobiological and genetic processes that interact with the environment. The paper presents and discusses an integrative translational model, linking basic and experimental research with clinical research as well as population-based prospective-longitudinal studies. This model provides a conceptual framework to identify how individual vulnerabilities interact with environment over time, and promote critical behaviours that might act as proximal risk factors for ill-health and mental disorders. Within the models framework, such improved knowledge is also expected to better delineate targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions that prevent further escalation in early stages before the full disorder and further complications thereof develop. In contrast to conventional "personalized medicine" that typically targets individual (genetic) variation of patients who already have developed a disease to improve medical treatment, the proposed framework model, linked to a concerted funding programme of the "Science of Behaviour Change", carries the promise of improved diagnosis, treatment and prevention of health-risk behaviour constellations as well as mental disorders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Ontological Realism for the Research Domain Criteria for Mental Disorders.

    Ceusters, Werner; Jensen, Mark; Diehl, Alexander D

    2017-01-01

    At the heart of the Research Domain Criteria for Mental Disorders is a matrix in which functional aspects of behavior are related to genotypic and (endo-)phenotypic research findings, and the various techniques through which they can been observed. The matrix is work in progress. As such it currently suffers from several shortcomings, the resolution of which, we contend, are essential to success of NIMH's goal of fostering translational science on mental disorders. Using well-established criteria for assessing the terminological and ontological quality of biomedical representations we identified the major problems to be (1) the abundant presence of terms that lack face value, (2) the absence of what the exact nature of the represented relationships are, and (3) referential imprecision with respect to the intended granularity of what the terms denote. We propose to eliminate these shortcomings by resorting to definitions and formal representations under the umbrella of Ontological Realism as they already have been developed in the areas of mental health, anatomy and biological functions.

  5. Annual Research Review: Hoarding Disorder-- Potential Benefits and Pitfalls of a New Mental Disorder

    Mataix-Cols, David; Pertusa, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background: The inclusion of a new mental disorder in the nomenclature is not a trivial matter. Many have highlighted the risks of an ever-increasing number of mental disorders and of overpathologizing human behaviour. Given the proposed inclusion of a new hoarding disorder (HD) in DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,…

  6. The need for a behavioural science focus in research on mental health and mental disorders

    Wittchen, H.U.; Knappe, S.; Andersson, G.; Araya, R.; Banos Rivera, R.M.; Barkham, M.; Bech, P.; Beckers, T.; Berger, T.; Berking, M.; Berrocal, C.; Botella, C.; Carlbring, P.; Chouinard, G.; Colom, F.; Csillag, C.; Cuijpers, P.; David, D.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G; Essau, C.A.; Fava, G.A.; Goschke, T.; Hermans, D.; Hofmann, S.G.; Lutz, W.; Muris, P.; Ollendick, T.H.; Raes, F.; Rief, W.; Riper, H.; Tossani, E.; van der Oord, S.; Vervliet, B.; Haro, J.M.; Schumann, G.

    2014-01-01

    Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories, principles, and methodological approaches to understand mental health, abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope, current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may

  7. Mental condition and specificity of mental disorders in a group of workers from southern Poland: A research report.

    Izydorczyk, Bernadetta

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide empirical evidence regarding types and increasing prevalence of mental disorders affecting Polish working population in the years 2014-2016. The research questions concerned the specific characteristics of the types of mental disorders and their prevalence as well as the differences between males and females. Types of mental disorders were investigated using a clinical method, a structured interview, as well as medical record data gathered in the years 2014-2016 in one mental health treatment center. The study was conducted in the population of 1578 working individuals aged 18-64 years old, in various forms of employment, including flexible employment (self-employment, task assignment agreement) and contract employment. The research population consisted of 998 females and 580 males, aged 18-64 years old. The study aimed at investigating types and the prevalence rate of mental disorders developed in the examined working Poles, also with reference to the sex of the study participants as well as the age at which they started seeking treatment. The prevailing disorders include neurotic disorders; diagnosed according to the 10th Revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) classification as a range of anxiety disorders, mixed anxiety-depressive disorders, stress-related and somatoform disorders; as well as personality disorders. The prevalence rate of the aforementioned disorders was found to be higher among working females than in the group of working males. The overall study conclusions based on the research data analysis point to the fact that the prevalence rate of various types of mental disorders displayed by the examined working males and females increased significantly in the years 2014-2016. Med Pr 2018;69(1):13-28. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. [Modern documentary research on disease menu of acupuncture-moxibustion for mental and behavioral disorder].

    Hu, You-Ping; Chen, Yong; Xing, Lin; Niu, Bai-Lu; Zhu, Feng-Juan; Han, Jing; Wang, Yu; Bian, Wei; Liu, Cong-Sheng; Wei, Li; Du, Yuan-Hao

    2011-10-01

    Dominant disease menu of mental and behavioral disorder of acupuncture therapy was summarized and obtained in this article. Literatures on clinical treatment of mental and behavioral disorder with acupuncture were picked up from CBMdisc and CNKI during 1978 to 2007. Types of mental and behavioral disorder and report frequency of each disease treated with acupuncture were counted. And dominant diseases which were favorable to be treated with acupuncture were acquired through analysis and inductive method. Twenty-nine diseases of mental and behavioral disorder are favorable to be treated with acupuncture which were mentioned in totally 1967 related documents. It is found that the number of reports of sleep disorder, depression, hysteria aphronesia, dementia and sexual disorder are ranked as the top five. It is concluded that the preponderant diseases of mental and behavioral disorder treated by acupuncture are dementia, withdrawal syndrome, mental retardation, obsessive-compulsive disorder, sleep disorder, gastrointestinal neurosis (gastrointestinal disorders), depression, alcoholism and globus hystericus.

  9. Researching Mental Health Disorders in the Era of Social Media: Systematic Review.

    Wongkoblap, Akkapon; Vadillo, Miguel A; Curcin, Vasa

    2017-06-29

    Mental illness is quickly becoming one of the most prevalent public health problems worldwide. Social network platforms, where users can express their emotions, feelings, and thoughts, are a valuable source of data for researching mental health, and techniques based on machine learning are increasingly used for this purpose. The objective of this review was to explore the scope and limits of cutting-edge techniques that researchers are using for predictive analytics in mental health and to review associated issues, such as ethical concerns, in this area of research. We performed a systematic literature review in March 2017, using keywords to search articles on data mining of social network data in the context of common mental health disorders, published between 2010 and March 8, 2017 in medical and computer science journals. The initial search returned a total of 5386 articles. Following a careful analysis of the titles, abstracts, and main texts, we selected 48 articles for review. We coded the articles according to key characteristics, techniques used for data collection, data preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection, model construction, and model verification. The most common analytical method was text analysis, with several studies using different flavors of image analysis and social interaction graph analysis. Despite an increasing number of studies investigating mental health issues using social network data, some common problems persist. Assembling large, high-quality datasets of social media users with mental disorder is problematic, not only due to biases associated with the collection methods, but also with regard to managing consent and selecting appropriate analytics techniques. ©Akkapon Wongkoblap, Miguel A Vadillo, Vasa Curcin. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 29.06.2017.

  10. From mental-physical comorbidity to somatic symptoms - insights gained from research on symptoms of mental disorders

    Rodic, Donja

    2015-01-01

    Abstract in English Background: Mental health and physical health are substantially associated with each other. The early recognition of co-occurring mental-physical conditions, as well as the early recognition of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying somatic symptoms, might be of special relevance for a better understanding of early phases of disorder development and hence prevention. Aim: To examine associations between symptoms of mental disorders (depressive symptoms and gambli...

  11. Mental Health and Mental Disorder Recommendation Programs.

    Ruchiwit, Manyat

    2017-12-01

    The characteristic differences among the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries in terms of trade and investment, society and cultural values, medical information and technology, and the living and working environment have become major health problems in terms of mental disorders. The purpose of this article is to identify the gaps in those aspects, to propose mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs, and to recommend policies for policy makers and research investors. A comparative analysis and literature review of existing policy, including overviews of previous research were used to generate a synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs. The review results recommend mental health and mental disorder programs for policy makers, research investors, and stakeholders in order to strengthen the directions for implementing these programs in the future. The healthcare provision in each country will not be limited only to its citizens; the healthcare markets and target groups are likely to expand to the neighboring countries in the context of changes in domestic and international factors, which have both positive and negative impacts according to the political, economic, and social situations of the influencing countries.

  12. Three Approaches to Understanding and Classifying Mental Disorder: ICD-11, DSM-5, and the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC).

    Clark, Lee Anna; Cuthbert, Bruce; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Narrow, William E; Reed, Geoffrey M

    2017-09-01

    The diagnosis of mental disorder initially appears relatively straightforward: Patients present with symptoms or visible signs of illness; health professionals make diagnoses based primarily on these symptoms and signs; and they prescribe medication, psychotherapy, or both, accordingly. However, despite a dramatic expansion of knowledge about mental disorders during the past half century, understanding of their components and processes remains rudimentary. We provide histories and descriptions of three systems with different purposes relevant to understanding and classifying mental disorder. Two major diagnostic manuals-the International Classification of Diseases and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-provide classification systems relevant to public health, clinical diagnosis, service provision, and specific research applications, the former internationally and the latter primarily for the United States. In contrast, the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria provides a framework that emphasizes integration of basic behavioral and neuroscience research to deepen the understanding of mental disorder. We identify four key issues that present challenges to understanding and classifying mental disorder: etiology, including the multiple causality of mental disorder; whether the relevant phenomena are discrete categories or dimensions; thresholds, which set the boundaries between disorder and nondisorder; and comorbidity, the fact that individuals with mental illness often meet diagnostic requirements for multiple conditions. We discuss how the three systems' approaches to these key issues correspond or diverge as a result of their different histories, purposes, and constituencies. Although the systems have varying degrees of overlap and distinguishing features, they share the goal of reducing the burden of suffering due to mental disorder.

  13. Mental disorders, brain disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders ...

    . Amongst DSM's most vocal 'insider' critics has been Thomas Insel, Director of the US National Institute of Mental Health. Insel has publicly criticised DSM's adherence to a symptom-based classification of mental disorder, and used the weight ...

  14. Public and nonprofit funding for research on mental disorders in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

    Chevreul, Karine; McDaid, David; Farmer, Carrie M; Prigent, Amélie; Park, A-La; Leboyer, Marion; Kupfer, David J; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle

    2012-07-01

    To document the investments made in research on mental disorders by both government and nonprofit nongovernmental organizations in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. An exhaustive survey was conducted of primary sources of public and nonprofit organization funding for mental health research for the year 2007 in France and the United Kingdom and for fiscal year 2007-2008 in the United States, augmented with an examination of relevant Web sites and publications. In France, all universities and research institutions were identified using the Public Finance Act. In the United Kingdom, we scrutinized Web sites and hand searched annual reports and grant lists for the public sector and nonprofit charitable medical research awarding bodies. In the United States, we included the following sources: the National Institutes of Health, other administrative entities within the Department of Health and Human Services (eg, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), the Department of Education, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, and the National Science Foundation and, for nonprofit funding, The Foundation Center. We included research on all mental disorders and substance-related disorders using the same keywords. We excluded research on mental retardation and dementia and on the promotion of mental well-being. We used the same algorithm in each country to obtain data for only mental health funding in situations in which funding had a broader scope. France spent $27.6 million (2%) of its health research budget on mental disorders, the United Kingdom spent $172.6 million (7%), and the United States spent $5.2 billion (16%). Nongovernmental funding ranged from 1% of total funding for mental health research in France and the United States to 14% in the United Kingdom. Funding for research on mental disorders accounts for low proportions of research budgets compared with funding levels for research on other major health problems, whereas

  15. Disproportionate Diagnosis of Mental Disorders among African American versus European American Clients: Implications for Counseling Theory, Research, and Practice

    Schwartz, Robert C.; Feisthamel, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Research generated by the professions of psychiatry and psychology reveals that African Americans are more often diagnosed with specific mental disorders (e.g., psychotic disorders) compared with European Americans. No research to date, however, has investigated whether professional counselors make differential diagnoses according to client race.…

  16. Mental health and disorders. Editorial.

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Mental health and mental disorders pose a tremendous challenge to the societal, health, and research policies in Europe, and sound advice is needed on a potential strategy for mental health research investment. Toward this goal, the ROAMER initiative ("Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe") was launched to map the current state of the art, to identify gaps and to delineate advances needed in various areas and domains of mental health research in Europe. To further stimulate discussions among the scientific community and stakeholders on how to improve mental health research and to promote an improved research agenda for the next decade, this IJMPR topic issue presents the overall ROAMER methodology as well as a series of selected papers highlighting critical issues of psychological approaches and interventions as outcomes of the ROAMER work package 5 "Psychological research and treatments". Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Achieving Mental Health and Substance Use Disorder Treatment Parity: A Quarter Century of Policy Making and Research.

    Peterson, Emma; Busch, Susan

    2018-04-01

    The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) of 2008 changed the landscape of mental health and substance use disorder coverage in the United States. The MHPAEA's comprehensiveness compared with past parity laws, including its extension of parity to plan management strategies, the so-called nonquantitative treatment limitations (NQTL), led to significant improvements in mental health care coverage. In this article, we review the history of this landmark legislation and its recent expansions to new populations, describe past research on the effects of this and other mental health/substance use disorder parity laws, and describe some directions for future research, including NQTL compliance issues, effects of parity on individuals with severe mental illness, and measurement of benefits other than mental health care use.

  18. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders

    Vieira Karen F

    2008-01-01

    noncompliant patients who have mental disorders are at a higher risk for committing suicide or being institutionalized. One way for psychiatrists to overcome this noncompliance is to educate themselves about alternative or complementary nutritional treatments. Although in the cases of certain nutrients, further research needs to be done to determine the best recommended doses of most nutritional supplements, psychiatrists can recommend doses of dietary supplements based on previous and current efficacious studies and then adjust the doses based on the results obtained.

  19. Sleep and mental disorders: A meta-analysis of polysomnographic research.

    Baglioni, Chiara; Nanovska, Svetoslava; Regen, Wolfram; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Feige, Bernd; Nissen, Christoph; Reynolds, Charles F; Riemann, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Investigating sleep in mental disorders has the potential to reveal both disorder-specific and transdiagnostic psychophysiological mechanisms. This meta-analysis aimed at determining the polysomnographic (PSG) characteristics of several mental disorders. Relevant studies were searched through standard strategies. Controlled PSG studies evaluating sleep in affective, anxiety, eating, pervasive developmental, borderline and antisocial personality disorders, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and schizophrenia were included. PSG variables of sleep continuity, depth, and architecture, as well as rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep were considered. Calculations were performed with the "Comprehensive Meta-Analysis" and "R" software. Using random effects modeling, for each disorder and each variable, a separate meta-analysis was conducted if at least 3 studies were available for calculation of effect sizes as standardized means (Hedges' g). Sources of variability, that is, sex, age, and mental disorders comorbidity, were evaluated in subgroup analyses. Sleep alterations were evidenced in all disorders, with the exception of ADHD and seasonal affective disorders. Sleep continuity problems were observed in most mental disorders. Sleep depth and REM pressure alterations were associated with affective, anxiety, autism and schizophrenia disorders. Comorbidity was associated with enhanced REM sleep pressure and more inhibition of sleep depth. No sleep parameter was exclusively altered in 1 condition; however, no 2 conditions shared the same PSG profile. Sleep continuity disturbances imply a transdiagnostic imbalance in the arousal system likely representing a basic dimension of mental health. Sleep depth and REM variables might play a key role in psychiatric comorbidity processes. Constellations of sleep alterations may define distinct disorders better than alterations in 1 single variable. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Psychoneuroimmunology of mental disorders.

    Soria, Virginia; Uribe, Javiera; Salvat-Pujol, Neus; Palao, Diego; Menchón, José Manuel; Labad, Javier

    The immune system is a key element in the organism's defence system and participates in the maintenance of homeostasis. There is growing interest in the aetiopathogenic and prognostic implications of the immune system in mental disorders, as previous studies suggest the existence of a dysregulation of the immune response and a pro-inflammatory state in patients with mental disorders, as well as an increased prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases or receiving immune treatments. This study aims to conduct a narrative review of the scientific literature on the role of Psychoneuroimmunology in mental disorders, with special focus on diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic issues. The development of this body of knowledge may bring in the future important advances in the vulnerability, aetiopathogenic mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of some mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Coagulation and Mental Disorders

    Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking coagulation and some psychiatric disorders.

  2. SLEEP AND MENTAL DISORDERS: A META-ANALYSIS OF POLYSOMNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH

    Baglioni, Chiara; Nanovska, Svetoslava; Regen, Wolfram; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Feige, Bernd; Nissen, Christoph; Reynolds, Charles F.; Riemann, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Investigating sleep in mental disorders has the potential to reveal both disorder-specific and transdiagnostic psychophysiological mechanisms. This meta-analysis aimed at determining the polysomnographic (PSG) characteristics of several mental disorders. Relevant studies were searched through standard strategies. Controlled PSG studies evaluating sleep in affective, anxiety, eating, pervasive developmental, borderline and antisocial personality disorders, ADHD, and schizophrenia were included. PSG variables of sleep continuity, depth, and architecture, as well as rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep were considered. Calculations were performed with the “Comprehensive Meta-Analysis” and “R” softwares. Using random effects modeling, for each disorder and each variable, a separate meta-analysis was conducted if at least 3 studies were available for calculation of effect sizes as standardized means (Hedges’g). Sources of variability, i.e., sex, age, and mental disorders comorbidity, were evaluated in subgroup analyses. Sleep alterations were evidenced in all disorders, with the exception of ADHD and seasonal affective disorders. Sleep continuity problems were observed in most mental disorders. Sleep depth and REM pressure alterations were associated with affective, anxiety, autism and schizophrenia disorders. Comorbidity was associated with enhanced REM sleep pressure and more inhibition of sleep depth. No sleep parameter was exclusively altered in one condition; however, no two conditions shared the same PSG profile. Sleep continuity disturbances imply a transdiagnostic imbalance in the arousal system likely representing a basic dimension of mental health. Sleep depth and REM variables might play a key role in psychiatric comorbidity processes. Constellations of sleep alterations may define distinct disorders better than alterations in one single variable. PMID:27416139

  3. Intermittent explosive disorder: development of integrated research criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition.

    Coccaro, Emil F

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a revised diagnostic criteria set for intermittent explosive disorder (IED) for consideration for inclusion in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V). This revised criteria set was developed by integrating previous research criteria with elements from the current DSM-IV set of diagnostic criteria. Evidence supporting the reliability and validity of IED-IR ("IED Integrated Criteria") in a new and well-characterized group of subjects with personality disorder is presented. Clinical, phenomenologic, and diagnostic data from 201 individuals with personality disorder were reviewed. All IED diagnoses were assigned using a best-estimate process (eg, kappa for IED-IR >0.85). In addition, subjects meeting IED-IR criteria had higher scores on dimensional measures of aggression and had lower global functioning scores than non-IED-IR subjects, even when related variables were controlled. The IED-IR criteria were more sensitive than the DSM-IV criteria only in identifying subjects with significant impulsive-aggressive behavior by a factor of 16. We conclude that the IED-IR criteria can be reliably applied and have sufficient validity to warrant consideration as DSM-V criteria for IED. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Prevention of mental disorders].

    Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Gühne, Uta

    2013-12-01

    Investment in prevention is a major public health requirement. Mental disorders are common and are associated with severe consequences. They are a major target for prevention. Based on vulnerabilitiy-stress-models the theoretical background for prevention in mental disorders is outlined. Effective strategies for children, adolescents, adults and individuals in old age do exist. Results regarding the prevention of depres-sion and psychoses are outlined and risk groups which require current actions are determined. Current activities towards a national prevention strategy in Germany are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Emerging clinical trends and perspectives on comorbid patterns of mental disorders in research

    Fava, Giovanni A; Tossani, Eliana; Bech, Per

    2014-01-01

    Comorbidity is a well-established and documented phenomenon in mental disorders and medicine with heuristic value. The concept of comorbidity remains however poorly defined and lacks a comprehensive and coherent theoretical framework. There is a need to develop coherent methodological strategies...

  6. Cross-Validation of the PAI Negative Distortion Scale for Feigned Mental Disorders: A Research Report

    Rogers, Richard; Gillard, Nathan D.; Wooley, Chelsea N.; Kelsey, Katherine R.

    2013-01-01

    A major strength of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) is its systematic assessment of response styles, including feigned mental disorders. Recently, Mogge, Lepage, Bell, and Ragatz developed and provided the initial validation for the Negative Distortion Scale (NDS). Using rare symptoms as its detection strategy for feigning, the…

  7. [Mental disorders in primary care].

    Herzig, Lilli; Mühlemann, Nicole; Bischoff, Thomas

    2010-05-19

    Mental disorders (depression, anxiety and somatization) are frequent in Primary care and are often associated to physical complaints and to psychosocial stressors. Mental disorders have in this way a specific presentation and in addition patients may present different associations of them. Sometimes it is difficult to recognize them, but it is important to do so and to take rapidly care of these patients. Specific screening questions exist and have been used in a research of the Institute of General Medicine and the Department of Ambulatory Care and Community Medicine (PMU), University of Lausanne, Switzerland.

  8. Researching Mental Health Disorders in the Era of Social Media: Systematic Review

    Wongkoblap, Akkapon; Vadillo, Miguel A; Curcin, Vasa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mental illness is quickly becoming one of the most prevalent public health problems worldwide. Social network platforms, where users can express their emotions, feelings, and thoughts, are a valuable source of data for researching mental health, and techniques based on machine learning are increasingly used for this purpose. Objective: The objective of this review was to explore the scope and limits of cutting-edge techniques that researchers are using for predictive analytics in ...

  9. The development of a research agenda for substance use disorders diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-V).

    Saunders, John B; Schuckit, Marc A

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes the background to the establishment of the Substance Use Disorders Workgroup, which was charged with developing the research agenda for the development of the next edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). It summarizes 18 articles that were commissioned to inform that process. A preliminary list of research topics, developed at the DSM-V Launch Conference in 2004, led to the identification of subjects that were subject to formal presentations and detailed discussion at the Substance Use Disorders Conference in February 2005. The 18 articles presented in this supplement examine: (1) categorical versus dimensional diagnoses; (2) the neurobiological basis of substance use disorders; (3) social and cultural perspectives; (4) the crosswalk between DSM-IV and the International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision (ICD-10); (5) comorbidity of substance use disorders and mental health disorders; (6) subtypes of disorders; (7) issues in adolescence; (8) substance-specific criteria; (9) the place of non-substance addictive disorders; and (10) the available research resources. In the final paper a broadly based research agenda for the development of diagnostic concepts and criteria for substance use disorders is presented.

  10. Misophonia: A new mental disorder?

    Taylor, Steven

    2017-06-01

    Misophonia, a phenomenon first described in the audiology literature, is characterized by intense emotional reactions (e.g., anger, rage, anxiety, disgust) in response to highly specific sounds, particularly sounds of human origin such as oral or nasal noises made by other people (e.g., chewing, sniffing, slurping, lip smacking). Misophonia is not listed in any of the contemporary psychiatric classification systems. Some investigators have argued that misophonia should be regarded as a new mental disorder, falling within the spectrum of obsessive-compulsive related disorders. Other researchers have disputed this claim. The purpose of this article is to critically examine the proposition that misophonia should be classified as a new mental disorder. The clinical and research literature on misophonia was examined and considered in the context of the broader literature on what constitutes a mental disorder. There have been growing concerns that diagnostic systems such as DSM-5 tend to over-pathologize ordinary quirks and eccentricities. Accordingly, solid evidence is required for proposing a new psychiatric disorder. The available evidence suggests that (a) misophonia meets many of the general criteria for a mental disorder and has some evidence of clinical utility as a diagnostic construct, but (b) the nature and boundaries of the syndrome are unclear; for example, in some cases misophonia might be simply one feature of a broader pattern of sensory intolerance, and (c) considerably more research is required, particularly work concerning diagnostic validity, before misophonia, defined as either as a disorder or as a key feature of some broader syndrome of sensory intolerance, should be considered as a diagnostic construct in the psychiatric nomenclature. A research roadmap is proposed for the systematic evaluation as to whether misophonia should be considered for future editions of DSM or ICD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An open resource for transdiagnostic research in pediatric mental health and learning disorders

    Alexander, Lindsay M.; Escalera, Jasmine; Ai, Lei; Andreotti, Charissa; Febre, Karina; Mangone, Alexander; Vega-Potler, Natan; Langer, Nicolas; Alexander, Alexis; Kovacs, Meagan; Litke, Shannon; O'Hagan, Bridget; Andersen, Jennifer; Bronstein, Batya; Bui, Anastasia; Bushey, Marijayne; Butler, Henry; Castagna, Victoria; Camacho, Nicolas; Chan, Elisha; Citera, Danielle; Clucas, Jon; Cohen, Samantha; Dufek, Sarah; Eaves, Megan; Fradera, Brian; Gardner, Judith; Grant-Villegas, Natalie; Green, Gabriella; Gregory, Camille; Hart, Emily; Harris, Shana; Horton, Megan; Kahn, Danielle; Kabotyanski, Katherine; Karmel, Bernard; Kelly, Simon P.; Kleinman, Kayla; Koo, Bonhwang; Kramer, Eliza; Lennon, Elizabeth; Lord, Catherine; Mantello, Ginny; Margolis, Amy; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Milham, Judith; Minniti, Giuseppe; Neuhaus, Rebecca; Levine, Alexandra; Osman, Yael; Parra, Lucas C.; Pugh, Ken R.; Racanello, Amy; Restrepo, Anita; Saltzman, Tian; Septimus, Batya; Tobe, Russell; Waltz, Rachel; Williams, Anna; Yeo, Anna; Castellanos, Francisco X.; Klein, Arno; Paus, Tomas; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Craddock, R. Cameron; Koplewicz, Harold S.; Milham, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Technological and methodological innovations are equipping researchers with unprecedented capabilities for detecting and characterizing pathologic processes in the developing human brain. As a result, ambitions to achieve clinically useful tools to assist in the diagnosis and management of mental health and learning disorders are gaining momentum. To this end, it is critical to accrue large-scale multimodal datasets that capture a broad range of commonly encountered clinical psychopathology. The Child Mind Institute has launched the Healthy Brain Network (HBN), an ongoing initiative focused on creating and sharing a biobank of data from 10,000 New York area participants (ages 5–21). The HBN Biobank houses data about psychiatric, behavioral, cognitive, and lifestyle phenotypes, as well as multimodal brain imaging (resting and naturalistic viewing fMRI, diffusion MRI, morphometric MRI), electroencephalography, eye-tracking, voice and video recordings, genetics and actigraphy. Here, we present the rationale, design and implementation of HBN protocols. We describe the first data release (n=664) and the potential of the biobank to advance related areas (e.g., biophysical modeling, voice analysis). PMID:29257126

  12. Annual Research Review: Transdiagnostic neuroscience of child and adolescent mental disorders--differentiating decision making in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, depression, and anxiety.

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Cortese, Samuele; Fairchild, Graeme; Stringaris, Argyris

    2016-03-01

    alternatives). In CD, it is reckless and insensitive to negative consequences. In depression, it is disengaged, perseverative, and pessimistic, while in anxiety, it is hesitant, risk-averse, and self-deprecating. A survey of current empirical indications related to these disorder-specific hypotheses highlights the limited and fragmentary nature of the evidence base and illustrates the need for a major research initiative in decision making in childhood disorders. The final section highlights a number of important additional general themes that need to be considered in future research. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  13. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY IN INDIVIDULAS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS

    Miodrag VUJOVIKJ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A successful treatment of any disorder, condition or disease requires timely detection and accurate diagnostics. This is precisely what is missing in individuals with a dual diagnosis of an intellectual disability and a mental disorder, both in Macedonia and worldwide. In order to overcome the deficiencies in the treatment, and to improve the quality of life for these individuals as well, they should be detected on time and then approached with diagnosing and preparation of a plan for treating them. Goal: The main goal of this research is obtaining a result of the presence of intellectual disability among institutionalized individuals with mental disorders on the basis of the type of mental disorder, the age and the gender of the person. Also, one of the main goals is presenting the mental deterioration in individuals with mental disorders, as well as its connection with the age of the individuals with mental disorder. Despite having the basic goals, this research, as well as research on this subject from all over the world, serves as an example for raising the awareness about the diversity and atypical presentations of the patients with a dual diagnosis of intellectual disability and mental disorder. Methodology: For achieving the goal and tasks of this research, 50 individuals with different diagnosis of mental disorder, different age and different gender were tested. The sample that took part in this research was a suitable sample, i.e. individuals that during the research were hospitalized in the below mentioned public health institution. The research took place in PHI Psychiatric Hospital „Skopje“ from Skopje. For collecting the data in this research, as well as for achieving the goals of the research, two methods, three research techniques and two instruments were used. The methods that were used during this research included the method of comparative analysis and the method of correlation analysis, while the techniques

  14. Work-related reproductive, musculoskeletal and mental disorders among working women--history, current issues and future research directions.

    Kishi, Reiko; Kitahara, Teruyo; Masuchi, Ayumi; Kasai, Setsuko

    2002-04-01

    According to the recent changes of working environments and socio-economical conditions, the proportion of working women are increasing in Japan. Characteristics of occupational workload and stress of Japanese working women are consistent with those in many industrialized countries except man-dominant culture. In this review we describe the history, current issues, and future research directions on occupational health of working women, especially focused on reproductive health, work-related musculo-skeletal disorders (WMSDs), and mental disorders. In the reproductive health survey, traditionally main concern was about pregnancy outcomes, then fecundity studies, such as time to pregnancy, became topics recently. Future research will be shifted to outcomes not only during pregnancy but also disorders of hormonal balance and climacterium or health conditions after menopause. WMSDs are reviewed on mainly gender difference and its causative factors. Historically, mental health of working women in Japan has focused on the job stress of nurses. We compare results with a lot of recent researches in Europe and U.S.A., where interaction between occupational stress and family roles were studied. It is not easy to predict the prospective status of female workers in Japan, but social, workplace and familial supports will enhance their health promotion.

  15. Mental Disorders and Suicidal Intention.

    Litman, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    Explores use of psychological autopsies to clarify intention in suicide. Compares clinical experience with courtroom experience. Discusses the "decriminalization" of suicide and insurance concerns, mental disorders, and intention to commit suicide. Notes that capacity to have the intent to commit suicide is lost due to mental disorders only under…

  16. El papel de la epidemiología en la investigación de los trastornos mentales The role of epidemiology in mental disorder research

    Guilherme Borges

    2004-10-01

    characteristic of mental disorder epidemiology is that its target diseases manifest in two levels: behaviorally (for example, compulsive hand-washing and as an element of the individual's mental life (e.g., obsession with bacteria being a constant, omnipresent health threat. It follows that much of the knowledge currently available on the phenomena of mental disorders in general is based on the self-reported insight of individuals. Trained clinicians have collected such reports by interview or with standardized questionnaires. This field of epidemiology is characterized by having two-sides: a mental disorder is a problem in and of itself, causing suffering and prompting the search for specialized care, as it has peculiar clinical manifestations. On the other hand, mental disorder epidemiology also focuses on determining factors (drug use, abuse, or addiction and on the way these independent variables result in certain processes and outcomes (such as accidents, homicide, suicide, liver cirrhosis, etc.. Finally, the epidemiology of mental disorders has also been set apart by its focus in series of processes that are not suitably classified as syndromes, but which are germane to public health, for example, violence. The epidemiology of mental disorders faces great challenges in the new millennium, including a complex, changing epidemiologic scenario. Several important issues will influence the future development of mental disorder epidemiology: measurement of mental disorders and risk factors, more efficient sampling design and methods, the relationships among biological research, genetics, social studies, and epidemiology, and the interface between epidemiology and the evaluation of therapies and health services.

  17. Annual research review: Child and adolescent mental health interventions: a review of progress in economic studies across different disorders.

    Beecham, Jennifer

    2014-06-01

    Resources for supporting children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders continue to be scarce. Economics research can identify current patterns of expenditure, and help inform allocation of treatment and support resources between competing needs or uses. The aim was to identify the costs of supporting children and adolescents, the economic impacts of childhood psychiatric disorders in adulthood and any new evidence on the cost-effectiveness of interventions. An electronic search of databases (including PubMed, Medline and Psychinfo) identified peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2005 and 2012. Sixty-seven papers provided data on support and treatment costs now or in the future, or cost-effectiveness analyses of services. Half the articles came from the United States. Most articles focussed on autism spectrum disorder (ASD; 23 articles), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 15), conduct disorder (CD; n = 7), and anxiety or depression (n = 8). Only 14 studies used a cost perspective wider than health care; most included education costs (n = 11), but only five included costs to the justice system. The number of studies estimating costs to the family has increased, particularly for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In the United Kingdom, support costs for children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) appear to be lower than for those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although for the United States, the opposite may be true. Support costs for children and adolescents with ASD may be higher than both CD and ADHD. However, there were many differences between the samples and the methods employed making comparisons between studies difficult. Outcomes in adulthood include negative impacts on (mental) health, quality of life, public sector services, employment status and income. The evidence base is improving for child and adolescent psychiatric disorders, although only one full cost

  18. Gendered mental disorders: masculine and feminine stereotypes about mental disorders and their relation to stigma.

    Boysen, Guy; Ebersole, Ashley; Casner, Robert; Coston, Nykhala

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that stereotypes can intersect. For example, the intersection of stereotypes about gender and mental disorders could result in perceptions of gendered mental disorders. In the current research, Studies 1 and 2 showed that people view specific disorders as being masculine or feminine. The masculine stereotype included antisocial personality disorder, addictions, and paraphilias. The feminine stereotype included eating disorders, histrionic personality disorder, body dysmorphia, and orgasmic disorder. In both studies, the perception of disorders as masculine was positively correlated with stigma. Study 3 showed that the positive correlation between masculinity and stigma also occurred when examining specific symptoms rather than full mental disorders. The findings provide further evidence for the intersection of stereotypes and indicate a novel factor in the understanding of stigma.

  19. Meta-synthesis of qualitative research on return to work among employees with common mental disorders.

    Andersen, Malene Friis; Nielsen, Karina M; Brinkmann, Svend

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate which opportunities and obstacles employees with common mental disorders (CMD) experience in relation to return to work (RTW) and how they perceive the process of returning to work. In addition, the study explores what characterizes an optimal RTW intervention and points to possible ways to improve future interventions for employees with CMD. A systematic literature search was conducted, and eight qualitative studies of medium or high quality published between 1995-2011 were included in this systematic review. The eight studies were synthesized using the meta-ethnographic method. This meta-synthesis found that employees with CMD identify a number of obstacles to and facilitators of returning to work related to their own personality, social support at the workplace, and the social and rehabilitation systems. The employees found it difficult to decide when they were ready to resume work and experienced difficulties implementing RTW solutions at the workplace. This study reveals that the RTW process should be seen as a continuous and coherent one where experiences of the past and present and anticipation of the future are dynamically interrelated and affect the success or failure of RTW. The meta-synthesis also illuminates insufficient coordination between the social and rehabilitation systems and suggests how an optimal RTW intervention could be designed.

  20. Multidisciplinary Treatment for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Co-Occurring Mental Health Disorders: Adapting Clinical Research Tools to Everyday Clinical Practice

    Battaglia, Maurizio; Detrick, Susan; Fernandez, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In California, individuals with autism and co-occurring mental disorders, and their families, face two serious barriers when attempting to access the mental health services they need. The first is that the State Mental Health Specialty Service guidelines specifically exclude autism as a qualifying primary diagnosis for eligibility for mental…

  1. Dysfunctions of decision-making and cognitive control as transdiagnostic mechanisms of mental disorders: advances, gaps, and needs in current research.

    Goschke, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Disadvantageous decision-making and impaired volitional control over actions, thoughts, and emotions are characteristics of a wide range of mental disorders such as addiction, eating disorders, depression, and anxiety disorders and may reflect transdiagnostic core mechanisms and possibly vulnerability factors. Elucidating the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms is a precondition for moving from symptom-based to mechanism-based disorder classifications and ultimately mechanism-targeted interventions. However, despite substantial advances in basic research on decision-making and cognitive control, there are still profound gaps in our current understanding of dysfunctions of these processes in mental disorders. Central unresolved questions are: (i) to which degree such dysfunctions reflect transdiagnostic mechanisms or disorder-specific patterns of impairment; (ii) how phenotypical features of mental disorders relate to dysfunctional control parameter settings and aberrant interactions between large-scale brain systems involved in habit and reward-based learning, performance monitoring, emotion regulation, and cognitive control; (iii) whether cognitive control impairments are consequences or antecedent vulnerability factors of mental disorders; (iv) whether they reflect generalized competence impairments or context-specific performance failures; (v) whether not only impaired but also chronic over-control contributes to mental disorders. In the light of these gaps, needs for future research are: (i) an increased focus on basic cognitive-affective mechanisms underlying decision and control dysfunctions across disorders; (ii) longitudinal-prospective studies systematically incorporating theory-driven behavioural tasks and neuroimaging protocols to assess decision-making and control dysfunctions and aberrant interactions between underlying large-scale brain systems; (iii) use of latent-variable models of cognitive control rather than single tasks; (iv) increased focus on

  2. The empirical basis of substance use disorders diagnosis: research recommendations for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-V).

    Schuckit, Marc A; Saunders, John B

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents the recommendations, developed from a 3-year consultation process, for a program of research to underpin the development of diagnostic concepts and criteria in the Substance Use Disorders section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and potentially the relevant section of the next revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). A preliminary list of research topics was developed at the DSM-V Launch Conference in 2004. This led to the presentation of articles on these topics at a specific Substance Use Disorders Conference in February 2005, at the end of which a preliminary list of research questions was developed. This was further refined through an iterative process involving conference participants over the following year. Research questions have been placed into four categories: (1) questions that could be addressed immediately through secondary analyses of existing data sets; (2) items likely to require position papers to propose criteria or more focused questions with a view to subsequent analyses of existing data sets; (3) issues that could be proposed for literature reviews, but with a lower probability that these might progress to a data analytic phase; and (4) suggestions or comments that might not require immediate action, but that could be considered by the DSM-V and ICD 11 revision committees as part of their deliberations. A broadly based research agenda for the development of diagnostic concepts and criteria for substance use disorders is presented.

  3. Mental disorders induced by carbamazepine.

    Mizukami, K; Naito, Y; Yoshida, M; Nakanishi, T; Koizumi, J

    1990-03-01

    We present here a case with various physical and neuropsychiatric symptoms caused by the administration of carbamazepine. The patient suffering from right ophthalmic neuralgia showed fever, eczema, erythema, lymphoadenopathy, eosinophilia, vomiting, headache, dizziness, nystagmus, and various mental disorders which consisted of emotional instability, personality change, delusions of reference and persecution, depressive state, and hyperventilation syndrome during the administration of carbamazepine. The physical symptoms in the present case were conformable to the side effect of carbamazepine. The mental disorders appeared in a few days from the start of carbamazepine administration and disappeared after the discontinuation of the administration of this drug without antipsychotic therapy and have never relapsed until now. The mental disorders and the physical symptoms were in parallel with their clinical course. This kind of mental disorders induced by carbamazepine has not yet been reported.

  4. Narcissistic Personality Disorder and the Structure of Common Mental Disorders.

    Eaton, Nicholas R; Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Krueger, Robert F; Campbell, W Keith; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-08-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) shows high rates of comorbidity with mood, anxiety, substance use, and other personality disorders. Previous bivariate comorbidity investigations have left NPD multivariate comorbidity patterns poorly understood. Structural psychopathology research suggests that two transdiagnostic factors, internalizing (with distress and fear subfactors) and externalizing, account for comorbidity among common mental disorders. NPD has rarely been evaluated within this framework, with studies producing equivocal results. We investigated how NPD related to other mental disorders in the internalizing-externalizing model using diagnoses from a nationally representative sample (N = 34,653). NPD was best conceptualized as a distress disorder. NPD variance accounted for by transdiagnostic factors was modest, suggesting its variance is largely unique in the context of other common mental disorders. Results clarify NPD multivariate comorbidity, suggest avenues for classification and clinical endeavors, and highlight the need to understand vulnerable and grandiose narcissism subtypes' comorbidity patterns and structural relations.

  5. Annual Research Review: Child and adolescent mental health interventions: a review of progress in economic studies across different disorders

    Beecham, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background Resources for supporting children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders continue to be scarce. Economics research can identify current patterns of expenditure, and help inform allocation of treatment and support resources between competing needs or uses. Scope and methods The aim was to identify the costs of supporting children and adolescents, the economic impacts of childhood psychiatric disorders in adulthood and any new evidence on the cost-effectiveness of interventions. An electronic search of databases (including PubMed, Medline and Psychinfo) identified peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2005 and 2012. Findings Sixty-seven papers provided data on support and treatment costs now or in the future, or cost-effectiveness analyses of services. Half the articles came from the United States. Most articles focussed on autism spectrum disorder (ASD; 23 articles), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 15), conduct disorder (CD; n = 7), and anxiety or depression (n = 8). Conclusion Only 14 studies used a cost perspective wider than health care; most included education costs (n = 11), but only five included costs to the justice system. The number of studies estimating costs to the family has increased, particularly for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In the United Kingdom, support costs for children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) appear to be lower than for those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although for the United States, the opposite may be true. Support costs for children and adolescents with ASD may be higher than both CD and ADHD. However, there were many differences between the samples and the methods employed making comparisons between studies difficult. Outcomes in adulthood include negative impacts on (mental) health, quality of life, public sector services, employment status and income. The evidence base is improving for child and adolescent psychiatric

  6. Overview: Forging Research Priorities for Women's Mental Health.

    Russo, Nancy Felipe

    1990-01-01

    Discusses gender differences in mental disorder. Presents a research agenda for women's mental health research in the following areas: (1) diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders; (2) mental health issues for older women; (3) multiple roles; and (4) poverty. Discusses gender bias in research. (JS)

  7. Free will and mental disorder: exploring the relationship.

    Meynen, Gerben

    2010-12-01

    A link between mental disorder and freedom is clearly present in the introduction of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). It mentions "an important loss of freedom" as one of the possible defining features of mental disorder. Meanwhile, it remains unclear how "an important loss of freedom" should be understood. In order to get a clearer view on the relationship between mental disorder and (a loss of) freedom, in this article, I will explore the link between mental disorder and free will. I examine two domains in which a connection between mental disorder and free will is present: the philosophy of free will and forensic psychiatry. As it turns out, philosophers of free will frequently refer to mental disorders as conditions that compromise free will and reduce moral responsibility. In addition, in forensic psychiatry, the rationale for the assessment of criminal responsibility is often explained by referring to the fact that mental disorders can compromise free will. Yet, in both domains, it remains unclear in what way free will is compromised by mental disorders. Based on the philosophical debate, I discuss three senses of free will and explore their relevance to mental disorders. I conclude that in order to further clarify the relationship between free will and mental disorder, the accounts of people who have actually experienced the impact of a mental disorder should be included in future research.

  8. Mapping research activity on mental health disorders in Europe: study protocol for the Mapping_NCD project.

    Berg Brigham, Karen; Darlington, Meryl; Wright, John S F; Lewison, Grant; Kanavos, Panos; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle

    2016-05-26

    Mental health disorders (MHDs) constitute a large and growing disease burden in Europe, although they typically receive less attention and research funding than other non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study protocol describes a methodology for the mapping of MHD research in Europe as part of Mapping_NCD, a 2-year project funded by the European Commission which seeks to map European research funding and impact for five NCDs in order to identify potential gaps, overlaps, synergies and opportunities, and to develop evidence-based policies for future research. The project aims to develop a multi-focal view of the MHD research landscape across the 28 European Union Member States, plus Iceland, Norway and Switzerland, through a survey of European funding entities, analysis of research initiatives undertaken in the public, voluntary/not-for-profit and commercial sectors, and expert interviews to contextualize the gathered data. The impact of MHD research will be explored using bibliometric analyses of scientific publications, clinical guidelines and newspaper stories reporting on research initiatives. Finally, these research inputs and outputs will be considered in light of various metrics that have been proposed to inform priorities for the allocation of research funds, including burden of disease, treatment gaps and cost of illness. Given the growing burden of MHDs, a clear and broad view of the current state of MHD research is needed to ensure that limited resources are directed to evidence-based priority areas. MHDs pose a particular challenge in mapping the research landscape due to their complex nature, high co-morbidity and varying diagnostic criteria. Undertaking such an effort across 31 countries is further challenged by differences in data collection, healthcare systems, reimbursement rates and clinical practices, as well as cultural and socioeconomic diversity. Using multiple methods to explore the spectrum of MHD research funding activity across Europe

  9. IQ and mental disorder in young men

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Jensen, Hans Henrik

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most research investigating the relationship between IQ and risk of mental disorder has focused on schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the relationship between IQ test scores in early adulthood and various mental disorders. METHOD: For 3289 men from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort......, military IQ test scores and information on psychiatric hospitalisation were available. We identified 350 men in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and compared the mean IQ test scores of nine diagnostic categories with the mean scores of 2939 unregistered cohort controls. RESULTS: Schizophrenia...... diagnostic categories, test scores were positively associated with the length of the interval between testing and first admission. ICD mood disorders as well as neuroses and related disorders were not significantly associated with low IQ scores. CONCLUSIONS: Low IQ may be a consequence of mental disease...

  10. Adolescents and substance-related disorders: research agenda to guide decisions on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-V).

    Crowley, Thomas J

    2006-09-01

    Since the publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV), many studies have addressed substance use disorders (SUD) in adolescents. Based on that adolescent literature, this paper suggests further research to help guide decisions about revising for DSM-V the SUD criteria in DSM-IV. The author has reviewed the 'Substance Related Disorders' section of DSM-IV-TR, recalled his experience in helping to draft that section, accessed relevant articles in PubMed and reviewed his own extensive file of literature citations. This paper suggests six questions for adolescent research to help guide the framers of DSM-V's 'Substance Related Disorders' section: (a) DSM-IV did not provide a diagnosis of cannabis withdrawal; should DSM-V continue that position? (b) Should SUD be included or referenced among 'Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence'? (c) Can inter-rater reliability of the substance abuse (SA) criteria be improved with altered example situations, text descriptions or phrasing of the current criteria? (d) Between ages 14 and 18 years is earlier onset of SUD a severity marker that could be incorporated into DSM-V as a predictor of worse course? (e) In DSM-V could a phenotypic descriptor of pathological multi-substance involvement document severity and predict course of SUD? (f) Could clinicians and patients benefit from DSM-V-related postpublication procedures for classifying emerging new drugs into DSM-V's categories? Without substantive changes in SA or substance dependence diagnostic criteria, research may improve the usefulness of those criteria for adolescents.

  11. Mental disorder in Canada: an epidemiological perspective

    Streiner, David L; Cairney, John

    2010-01-01

    ..., and analyses the prevalence of several significant mental disorders in the population. The collection also includes essays on stigma, mental disorder and the criminal justice system, and mental health among women, children, workers, and other demographic groups. Focusing on Canadian scholarship, yet wide-reaching in scope, Mental Disorder in C...

  12. Mental disorder ethics: theory and empirical investigation

    Eastman, N; Starling, B

    2006-01-01

    Mental disorders and their care present unusual problems within biomedical ethics. The disorders themselves invite an ethical critique, as does society's attitude to them; researching the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders also presents special ethical issues. The current high profile of mental disorder ethics, emphasised by recent political and legal developments, makes this a field of research that is not only important but also highly topical. For these reasons, the Wellcome Trust's biomedical ethics programme convened a meeting, “Investigating Ethics and Mental Disorders”, in order to review some current research, and to stimulate topics and methods of future research in the field. The meeting was attended by policy makers, regulators, research funders, and researchers, including social scientists, psychiatrists, psychologists, lawyers, philosophers, criminologists, and others. As well as aiming to inspire a stronger research endeavour, the meeting also sought to stimulate an improved understanding of the methods and interactions that can contribute to “empirical ethics” generally. This paper reports on the meeting by describing contributions from individual speakers and discussion sections of the meeting. At the end we describe and discuss the conclusions of the meeting. As a result, the text is referenced less than would normally be expected in a review. Also, in summarising contributions from named presenters at the meeting it is possible that we have created inaccuracies; however, the definitive version of each paper, as provided directly by the presenter, is available at http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/doc.WTX025116.html. PMID:16446414

  13. Cultural concepts of distress and psychiatric disorders: literature review and research recommendations for global mental health epidemiology

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Rasmussen, Andrew; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Haroz, Emily E; Maharjan, Sujen M; Mutamba, Byamah B; de Jong, Joop TVM; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-01-01

    Background Burgeoning global mental health endeavors have renewed debates about cultural applicability of psychiatric categories. This study’s goal is to review strengths and limitations of literature comparing psychiatric categories with cultural concepts of distress (CCD) such as cultural syndromes, culture-bound syndromes, and idioms of distress. Methods The Systematic Assessment of Quality in Observational Research (SAQOR) was adapted based on cultural psychiatry principles to develop a Cultural Psychiatry Epidemiology version (SAQOR-CPE), which was used to rate quality of quantitative studies comparing CCD and psychiatric categories. A meta-analysis was performed for each psychiatric category. Results Forty-five studies met inclusion criteria, with 18 782 unique participants. Primary objectives of the studies included comparing CCD and psychiatric disorders (51%), assessing risk factors for CCD (18%) and instrument validation (16%). Only 27% of studies met SAQOR-CPE criteria for medium quality, with the remainder low or very low quality. Only 29% of studies employed representative samples, 53% used validated outcome measures, 44% included function assessments and 44% controlled for confounding. Meta-analyses for anxiety, depression, PTSD and somatization revealed high heterogeneity (I2 > 75%). Only general psychological distress had low heterogeneity (I2 = 8%) with a summary effect odds ratio of 5.39 (95% CI 4.71-6.17). Associations between CCD and psychiatric disorders were influenced by methodological issues, such as validation designs (β = 16.27, 95%CI 12.75-19.79) and use of CCD multi-item checklists (β = 6.10, 95%CI 1.89-10.31). Higher quality studies demonstrated weaker associations of CCD and psychiatric disorders. Conclusions Cultural concepts of distress are not inherently unamenable to epidemiological study. However, poor study quality impedes conceptual advancement and service application. With improved study design and reporting using

  14. The application of radioisotope to the mental disorders research and psychopharmacology

    Suhara, Tetsuya [Division of Advanced Technology for Medical Imaging National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Using Positron emission tomography, radioligand binding can be examined in the human brain in vivo. PET techniques also allow examination of an unlabelled drug by examination of its interaction with a radioligand. So one potential of PET in psychiatry is to investigate the mechanism of psychoactive drugs. Antidepressants modulate serotonin transmission by inhibiting serotonin reuptake from the synaptic cleft. ({sup 11}C)McN5652-X has been introduced as a tracer for serotonin transporter imaging. Employing ({sup 11}C)McN5652-X in a PET study of 7 healthy human subjects, a high accumulation was observed in the thalamus. The thalamus to cerebellum ratio was about 2 at 90 min after the injection of the tracer. Pretreatment with 50 mg of clomipramine resulted in 40-50% occupancy of the serotonin transporter in the thalamus. Another important potential regarding the use of PET in the psychiatric field is the investigation of the pathophysiology of brain disease and normal brain functions from in vivo neurochemistry. Brain dopamine system plays an important role in several neuropsychiatric disorders especially schizophrenia. Dopamine receptors are classified in five different classes; currently D{sub 1} and D{sub 2} receptors can be visualized with PET. To examine both the cortical and subcortical dopamine D{sub 1} receptors in schizophrenic patients, ({sup 11}C)SCH23390 was employed in a PET study. Eighteen healthy male subjects (27.7 {+-}5.6 years) and 17 male schizophrenic patients (27.4 {+-}5.9 years) were included. Ten patients were neuroleptic naive and seven patients were drug free. In the striatum, there were no significant differences between the patients and normal controls. But the binding potentials in the prefrontal cortex were significantly lower in the schizophrenic patients. The binding potential in the prefrontal cortex were negatively correlated with the BPRS negative symptom subscore. PET has many advantages over other non-invasive techniques, and PET

  15. The application of radioisotope to the mental disorders research and psychopharmacology

    Suhara, Tetsuya

    1998-01-01

    Using Positron emission tomography, radioligand binding can be examined in the human brain in vivo. PET techniques also allow examination of an unlabelled drug by examination of its interaction with a radioligand. So one potential of PET in psychiatry is to investigate the mechanism of psychoactive drugs. Antidepressants modulate serotonin transmission by inhibiting serotonin reuptake from the synaptic cleft. ( 11 C)McN5652-X has been introduced as a tracer for serotonin transporter imaging. Employing ( 11 C)McN5652-X in a PET study of 7 healthy human subjects, a high accumulation was observed in the thalamus. The thalamus to cerebellum ratio was about 2 at 90 min after the injection of the tracer. Pretreatment with 50 mg of clomipramine resulted in 40-50% occupancy of the serotonin transporter in the thalamus. Another important potential regarding the use of PET in the psychiatric field is the investigation of the pathophysiology of brain disease and normal brain functions from in vivo neurochemistry. Brain dopamine system plays an important role in several neuropsychiatric disorders especially schizophrenia. Dopamine receptors are classified in five different classes; currently D 1 and D 2 receptors can be visualized with PET. To examine both the cortical and subcortical dopamine D 1 receptors in schizophrenic patients, ( 11 C)SCH23390 was employed in a PET study. Eighteen healthy male subjects (27.7 ±5.6 years) and 17 male schizophrenic patients (27.4 ±5.9 years) were included. Ten patients were neuroleptic naive and seven patients were drug free. In the striatum, there were no significant differences between the patients and normal controls. But the binding potentials in the prefrontal cortex were significantly lower in the schizophrenic patients. The binding potential in the prefrontal cortex were negatively correlated with the BPRS negative symptom subscore. PET has many advantages over other non-invasive techniques, and PET can show us different phenomena

  16. Annual Research Review: A Meta-Analysis of the Worldwide Prevalence of Mental Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Salum, Giovanni A.; Sugaya, Luisa S.; Caye, Arthur; Rohde, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The literature on the prevalence of mental disorders affecting children and adolescents has expanded significantly over the last three decades around the world. Despite the field having matured significantly, there has been no meta-analysis to calculate a worldwide-pooled prevalence and to empirically assess the sources of…

  17. Prevention of Mental Health Disorders using Internet and mobile-based Interventions: a narrative review and recommendations for future research.

    Ebert, David Daniel; Cuijpers, Pim; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Baumeister, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Although psychological interventions might have a tremendous potential for the prevention of mental health disorders (MHD), their current impact on the reduction of disease burden is questionable. Possible reasons include that it is not practical to deliver those interventions to the community en

  18. Prevention of mental health disorders using internet- and mobile-based interventions : A narrative review and recommendations for future research

    Ebert, David Daniel; Cuijpers, Pim; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Baumeister, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Although psychological interventions might have a tremendous potential for the prevention of mental health disorders (MHD), their current impact on the reduction of disease burden is questionable. Possible reasons include that it is not practical to deliver those interventions to the community en

  19. Developmentally Sensitive Diagnostic Criteria for Mental Health Disorders in Early Childhood: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, the Research Diagnostic Criteria-Preschool Age, and the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood-Revised

    Egger, Helen L.; Emde, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    As the infant mental health field has turned its focus to the presentation, course, and treatment of clinically significant mental health disorders, the need for reliable and valid criteria for identifying and assessing mental health symptoms and disorders in early childhood has become urgent. In this article we offer a critical perspective on…

  20. [Pandora's digital box: mental disorders in cyberspace].

    Kryspin-Exner, Ilse; Felnhofer, Anna; Kothgassner, Oswald D

    2011-01-01

    The emersion of the Internet did not only change human communication and information seeking, it also contributed to manifold alterations in the manifestation, perception and treatment of mental disorders. Thus, one focus of current psychological research lies on the relationship between the new medium and psychosocial functioning. This review embraces recent results on this topic following a discussion from two different perspectives: first, it poses the question, whether the Internet - due to its very specific character - is capable of creating new mental disorders and second, it asks whether rare disorders may possibly be uncovered by the Internet or if already known disorders may be sustained and intensified by the online medium. Accordingly, the first part of this review deals with the conceptual basis of problematic Internet use, Internet addiction and problematic online-gaming as an example of specific internet use. Predisposing psychosocial factors, such as social isolation, depression and compulsive behavior are reviewed as potential triggers for these new internet- related disorders. The second part however draws upon two already existing groups of psychological disorders: eating disorders in relation to Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia on the one hand and Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) on the other hand. Recent research is discussed to explore the sustaining and intensifying effect of the Internet on these disorders.

  1. [Comorbidity of substance use with mental disorders].

    Leonidaki, V; Maliori, M

    2009-01-01

    This contribution reviews the international literature about dual diagnosis, meaning patients who have simultaneously mental health problems and substance use disorders and discusses epidemiology, clinical characteristics, but primarily etiopathogenesis and different treatment models and interventions. The epidemiological data coming from large-scale studies in the general population in USA, Australia and UK demonstrate the close relationship between mental health problems and substance use disorders. Also, the results from Greek research projects support this close relationship, but their research designs have significant limitations. Multiple and high risks are common in this population, like violent or suicidal behavior, self-harm, physical problems, while they appear less responsive to treatment. Subsequently, different models for etiopathogenesis of dual diagnosis have been suggested: (a) Causal relationship: secondary substance use disorder is subsequent of primary mental illness (self-medication hypothesis, supersenstivity model) or vice versa (alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine use trigger or contribute to development of mental illness). (b) Third factor as the cause of both mental and substance use disorders (genetic factor, neuropathology, traumatic experience, personality characteristics, multiple factors). (c) Comorbidty is due to chance. (d) Each disorder mutually exacerbates the other, regardless the cause. Here, the relationship between alcohol and depression is discussed further as example. The ideas and the research-evidence which support each of these models are presented. Also there is an overview of different treatment models: (a) Consecutive treatment: mental health treatment and substance misuse treatment are provided consecutively. (b) Parallel treatments: the patient attends programs of both mental health and substance use services simultaneously. (c) Integrated treatment: the same clinical team addresses both mental health issues and substance

  2. Mental disorder and victimisation in prison: Examining the role of mental health treatment.

    Daquin, Jane C; Daigle, Leah E

    2018-04-01

    There is evidence that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of victimisation in prison. It is unclear whether this risk of victimisation varies across types of disorders or symptoms and what role mental health treatment has on victimisation risk in this context. To examine the relationship between specific mental disorders, psychiatric symptoms, and victimisation in prison and the effect of treatment for the disorders on victimisation risk. Using a nationally-representative sample of prisoners, path analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between mental disorder and victimisation. The analyses also examined whether receiving mental health treatment in prison affected any such relationship. Victimisation risk varied with the type of mental disorder or symptoms. Depression, personality disorder, hopelessness, paranoia, and hallucinations were associated with increased victimisation risk. Psychotic illnesses were otherwise negatively associated with victimisation. Receiving mental health treatment in prison was associated with greater risk of victimisation there. Receiving treatment appeared to mediate the relationship between mental disorders, symptoms, and victimisation. The findings suggest that not all inmates with mental disorders are at an increased risk of victimisation. Further, mental health treatment in prison also appears to be a risk factor of victimisation. More research is needed to further elucidate the relationship between mental disorders, treatment, and victimisation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Neuromarkers for Mental Disorders: Harnessing Population Neuroscience

    Lee Jollans

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite abundant research into the neurobiology of mental disorders, to date neurobiological insights have had very little impact on psychiatric diagnosis or treatment. In this review, we contend that the search for neuroimaging biomarkers—neuromarkers—of mental disorders is a highly promising avenue toward improved psychiatric healthcare. However, many of the traditional tools used for psychiatric neuroimaging are inadequate for the identification of neuromarkers. Specifically, we highlight the need for larger samples and for multivariate analysis. Approaches such as machine learning are likely to be beneficial for interrogating high-dimensional neuroimaging data. We suggest that broad, population-based study designs will be important for developing neuromarkers of mental disorders, and will facilitate a move away from a phenomenological definition of mental disorder categories and toward psychiatric nosology based on biological evidence. We provide an outline of how the development of neuromarkers should occur, emphasizing the need for tests of external and construct validity, and for collaborative research efforts. Finally, we highlight some concerns regarding the development, and use of, neuromarkers in psychiatric healthcare.

  4. Children with Usher syndrome: mental and behavioral disorders.

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2012-03-27

    Mental and behavioral disorders among adults with Usher syndrome have been discussed and reported in some case studies but no research has been reported on children with Usher syndrome. This article investigates the prevalence and characteristics of mental and behavioral disorders among 26 children, 3-17 years of age, with Usher syndrome. Six of the 26 children were diagnosed with a mental or behavioral disorder (1 with schizophrenia and mild mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and severe mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and mild mental retardation, 1 with mild mental retardation, and 2 with conduct disorder). Another 3 children had had a mental or behavioral disorder previously in their childhood. Even though vision impairment first manifests in late childhood, some children with Usher syndrome seem to develop mental and behavioral disorders during childhood. The aetiology and treatment of mental and behavioral disorders among children with Usher syndrome are discussed. Children with Usher syndrome and their parents may need clinical support during early childhood to prevent development of mental and behavioral disorders.

  5. Children with Usher syndrome: mental and behavioral disorders

    Dammeyer Jesper

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental and behavioral disorders among adults with Usher syndrome have been discussed and reported in some case studies but no research has been reported on children with Usher syndrome. Methods This article investigates the prevalence and characteristics of mental and behavioral disorders among 26 children, 3-17 years of age, with Usher syndrome. Results Six of the 26 children were diagnosed with a mental or behavioral disorder (1 with schizophrenia and mild mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and severe mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and mild mental retardation, 1 with mild mental retardation, and 2 with conduct disorder. Another 3 children had had a mental or behavioral disorder previously in their childhood. Conclusion Even though vision impairment first manifests in late childhood, some children with Usher syndrome seem to develop mental and behavioral disorders during childhood. The aetiology and treatment of mental and behavioral disorders among children with Usher syndrome are discussed. Children with Usher syndrome and their parents may need clinical support during early childhood to prevent development of mental and behavioral disorders.

  6. The quality of severe mental disorder diagnoses in a national health registry as compared to research diagnoses based on structured interview.

    Nesvåg, Ragnar; Jönsson, Erik G; Bakken, Inger Johanne; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Bjella, Thomas D; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Melle, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A

    2017-03-14

    Utilization of diagnostic information from national patient registries rests on the quality of the registered diagnoses. We aimed to investigate the agreement and consistency of diagnoses of psychotic and bipolar disorders in the Norwegian Patient Registry (NPR) compared to structured interview-based diagnoses given as part of a clinical research project. Diagnostic data from NPR were obtained for the period 01.01.2008-31.12.2013 for all patients who had been included in the Thematically Organized Psychosis (TOP) study between 18.10.2002 and 01.09.2014 with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 537), delusional disorder (n = 48), schizoaffective disorder (n = 118) or bipolar disorder (n = 408). Diagnostic agreement between the primary DSM-IV diagnosis in TOP and the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) diagnoses in NPR was evaluated using Cohen's unweighted nominal kappa (κ). Diagnostic consistency was calculated as the proportion of all registered severe mental disorder diagnoses in NPR that were equivalent to the primary diagnosis given in the TOP study. The proportion of patients registered with the equivalent ICD-10 diagnosis as the primary DSM-IV diagnosis given in TOP was 84.2% for the schizophrenia group, 68.8% for the delusional disorder group, 76.3% for the schizoaffective disorder group, and 78.4% for the bipolar disorder group. Diagnostic agreement was good for schizophrenia (κ = 0.74) and bipolar disorder (κ = 0.72), fair for schizoaffective disorder (κ = 0.63), and poor for delusional disorder (κ = 0.39). Among patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia, 4.7% were diagnosed with ICD-10 bipolar disorder, and among patients with DSM-IV bipolar disorder, 2.5% were diagnosed with ICD-10 schizophrenia. Diagnostic consistency was 84.9% for schizophrenia, 59.1% for delusional disorder, 65.9% for schizoaffective disorder, and 91

  7. Prevention of Mental Health Disorders Using Internet- and Mobile-Based Interventions: A Narrative Review and Recommendations for Future Research

    David Daniel Ebert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although psychological interventions might have a tremendous potential for the prevention of mental health disorders (MHD, their current impact on the reduction of disease burden is questionable. Possible reasons include that it is not practical to deliver those interventions to the community en masse due to limited health care resources and the limited availability of evidence-based interventions and clinicians in routine practice, especially in rural areas. Therefore, new approaches are needed to maximize the impact of psychological preventive interventions. Limitations of traditional prevention programs could potentially be overcome by providing Internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMIs. This relatively new medium for promoting mental health and preventing MHD introduces a fresh array of possibilities, including the provision of evidence-based psychological interventions that are free from the restraints of travel and time and allow reaching participants for whom traditional opportunities are not an option. This article provides an introduction to the subject and narratively reviews the available evidence for the effectiveness of IMIs with regard to the prevention of MHD onsets. The number of randomized controlled trials that have been conducted to date is very limited and so far it is not possible to draw definite conclusions about the potential of IMIs for the prevention of MHD for specific disorders. Only for the indicated prevention of depression there is consistent evidence across four different randomized trial trials. The only trial on the prevention of general anxiety did not result in positive findings in terms of eating disorders (EDs, effects were only found in post hoc subgroup analyses, indicating that it might be possible to prevent ED onset for subpopulations of people at risk of developing EDs. Future studies need to identify those subpopulations likely to profit from preventive. Disorders not examined so far include

  8. Prevention of Mental Health Disorders Using Internet- and Mobile-Based Interventions: A Narrative Review and Recommendations for Future Research.

    Ebert, David Daniel; Cuijpers, Pim; Muñoz, Ricardo F; Baumeister, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Although psychological interventions might have a tremendous potential for the prevention of mental health disorders (MHD), their current impact on the reduction of disease burden is questionable. Possible reasons include that it is not practical to deliver those interventions to the community en masse due to limited health care resources and the limited availability of evidence-based interventions and clinicians in routine practice, especially in rural areas. Therefore, new approaches are needed to maximize the impact of psychological preventive interventions. Limitations of traditional prevention programs could potentially be overcome by providing Internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMIs). This relatively new medium for promoting mental health and preventing MHD introduces a fresh array of possibilities, including the provision of evidence-based psychological interventions that are free from the restraints of travel and time and allow reaching participants for whom traditional opportunities are not an option. This article provides an introduction to the subject and narratively reviews the available evidence for the effectiveness of IMIs with regard to the prevention of MHD onsets. The number of randomized controlled trials that have been conducted to date is very limited and so far it is not possible to draw definite conclusions about the potential of IMIs for the prevention of MHD for specific disorders. Only for the indicated prevention of depression there is consistent evidence across four different randomized trial trials. The only trial on the prevention of general anxiety did not result in positive findings in terms of eating disorders (EDs), effects were only found in post hoc subgroup analyses, indicating that it might be possible to prevent ED onset for subpopulations of people at risk of developing EDs. Future studies need to identify those subpopulations likely to profit from preventive. Disorders not examined so far include substance use

  9. [Greek students' attitudes towards mental disorders].

    Antoniadis, D; Gouti, A; Kaloudi, E; Τourlende, N; Douzenis, A; Christodoulou, C; Lykouras, L; Livaditis, M; Samakouri, M

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes and beliefs of the population regarding the mentally ill have been universally subject of many researches. Research of different groups' opinion for mental disorders has given remarkable findings that assist in the right design of psychiatric services. Objective of this thesis is to study the attitude of students towards mental illness. In particular, it intends to study the differences derived from the age, gender, place of birth, kind of studies, year of study, duration of stay at the place of studies and the existence of mental disorders in the student's family. Data were collected from 536 students randomly selected from Universities and Technological Institutions both in Athens and Thessaloniki. In general, the participants are being divided based on the subject of their studies in undergraduates of human sciences, exact sciences, social and health sciences. The short version of the scale "Community Attitudes Toward the Mentality III" (CAMI) was used, which consists of 26 questions sorted to four subscales (domination scale, humanism scale, social exclusion scale and the scale measuring the community beliefs regarding the care of mentally ill), along with a special questionnaire in order to collect social and demographic data. Students' attitudes towards mental illness are influenced by demographic factors, the department they are studying at and the year of study. Female gender (p=0.000), personal contact with mentally ill (p=0.012), studying in Universities (p=0.031) and especially social sciences (p=0.009) are associated with positive attitudes. On the contrary, less years of studying are associated with negative attitudes whereas older students appear to score less in the Domination Scale (p=0.000). It is significant that the place of birth (p=0,335) and the duration of stay at the place of studies (r=0.735) did not show any association with the variables studied in this research. However these results cannot be compared with older researches

  10. [Family adherence in serious mental disorder].

    Martín Padilla, Ernesto; Obando Posada, Diana; Sarmiento Medina, Pedro

    2017-10-09

    Identify attitudes and behaviors that evidence and characterize family adherence to treatment in patients with severe mental disorder. Qualitative descriptive, from an interpretative social approach. Chia, Colombia, with professionals in the psychiatric and geriatric settings. Twelve professionals in psychiatry, nursing and psychology, with experience in care of patients with serious mental disorder and their families. Intentional sampling. Twelve semi-structured interviews were carried out. The analysis strategy was made from the procedures of constant comparison and open coding of the grounded theory. As validation strategies, triangulation was done between researchers and methods, as interviews and results survey. Two categories of family adherence were defined: family and treatment (treatment cooperation, knowledge about the disease and attention to the disease evolution), and family attitudes towards the patient (patient's care, patient's promotion of autonomy, and affective attachment with the patient). A third category showed aspects that diminished family adherence, such as lack or distortion of information regarding mental disorder, or family and patient endurance attitudes. Participants agree about the relevance of the construct named «family adherence», which describes the behaviors and attitudes of the family regarding the treatment of patients with severe mental disorder. Family adherence can be seen as active participation behavior, but also as a process of strengthening relationships, which can reduce the burden and suffering on family members, caregivers and patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. How to design education on mental disorders for general ...

    Objective: This study looks at how the WHO programme Mental Disorders in Primary Care should be adapted for GPs in the South African context in order to positively impact the recognition and management of mental disorders. Design: Participatory action research was used to adapt the WHO programme. There were 3 ...

  12. Molecular imaging of mental disorders

    Takahashi, Hidehiko; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques have made it possible to measure changes in neurochemical components in living human brain. PET can be used to investigate various brain functions such as receptors, transporters, enzymes and various biochemical pathways; therefore, it could be a powerful tool for molecular imaging of mental disorders. Since the pathophysiology of schizophrenia has been discussed with a functional alteration of dopaminergic transmission in the brain, we have focused the dopaminergic components for the research target of schizophrenia using PET. Using high affinity ligand [ 11 C]FLB 457, we found reduced D 2 receptor binding in the anterior cingulate cortex of patients with schizophrenia, and a significant negative correlation was observed between D 2 receptor binding and the positive symptom score. Subregions of interest were defined on the thalamus using individual magnetic resonance images. D 2 receptor binding was also lower in the central medial and posterior subregions of the thalamus in patients with schizophrenia. Alterations in D 2 receptor function in the extrastriatal region may underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. On the other hand D 1 receptor binding was found to be lower in the prefrontal cortex and a significant negative correlation was observed between D 1 receptor binding and the negative symptom score. Abnormality of D 1 receptor function would be at the bottom of the negative symptoms and cognitive impairment of schizophrenia. Regarding the effect of antipsychotics on dopamine D 2 receptor, occupancy and it's time-course have been measured in a living body using PET. This approach can provide in vivo pharmacological evidences of antipsychotics and establish the rational therapeutic strategy. PET is a powerful tool not only in the field of brain research but also drug discovery. (author)

  13. Is game addiction a mental disorder?

    Nielsen, Rune Kristian Lundedal

    This Ph.D. dissertation critically examines the concept of "video game addiction" and the science behind the proposal that the disorder should be officially recognized as a mental disorder called "Internet gaming disorder." Chapter One gives a short introduction to the history of the word...... "addiction" and describes how gambling disorder (the only officially recognized behavioral addiction) came to be defined as an addiction. Chapter 2 will take a look at the negative consequences of video game play that are most commonly cited in the literature on game addiction. This review will show how...... researchers' claims of negative effects caused by video game playing are wildly exaggerated. Chapter 3 adds a short review of what is sometimes cited as historical precursors to Internet gaming disorder and argue that these are, in fact, not examples of addictions. Chapter 4 will analyze the diagnostic...

  14. Sports psychiatry: mental health and mental disorders in athletes and exercise treatment of mental disorders.

    Ströhle, Andreas

    2018-03-21

    Sports psychiatry has developed for the past 3 decades as an emerging field within psychiatry and sports medicine. An International society has been established in 1994 and also national interest groups were implemented, mostly within the national organizations for psychiatry, some also containing the topic of exercise treatment of mental disorders. Where are we now 30 years later? We systematically but also selectively review the medical literature on exercise, sport, psychiatry, mental health and mental disorders and related topics. The number of publications in the field has increased exponentially. Most topics keep remaining on the agenda, e.g., head trauma and concussion, drug abuse and doping, performance enhancement, overtraining, ADHD or eating disorders. Supported by the growing literature, evidence-based recommendations have become available now in many clinical areas. A relatively new phenomenon is muscle dysmorphia, observed in weightlifters, bodybuilders but also in college students and gym users. Further, sports therapy of mental disorders has been studied by more and more high-quality randomized controlled clinical trials. Mostly as a complementary treatment, however, for some disorders already with a 1a evidence level, e.g., depression, dementia or MCI but also post-traumatic stress disorder. Being grown up and accepted nowadays, sports psychiatry still represents a fast-developing field. The reverse side of the coin, sport therapy of mental disorders has received a scientific basis now. Who else than sports psychiatry could advance sport therapy of mental disorders? We need this enthusiasm for sports and psychiatry for our patients with mental disorders and it is time now for a broadening of the scope. Optimized psychiatric prevention and treatment of athletes and ideal sport-related support for individuals with mental disorders should be our main purpose and goal.

  15. Reconceptualizing mental disorders: From symptoms to organs.

    Bunge, Mario

    2017-06-01

    Most mental pathologies are diagnosed on the sole basis of the symptoms reported by patients, such as "I'm feeling low." The thrust of this paper is the proposal to reconceptualize mental disorders as dysfunctions of brain subsystems. This shift from symptom to organ would bring psychiatry in line with the rest of medicine, and is analogous to the change in status of venereal infections from skin pathologies, such as chancres, to bacterial infections. The proposal in question is part of the reconceptualization of mental processes as brain processes, in line with the materialist conception of the mind as neural. A practical advantage of this conceptual change is that it suggests approaching mental disorders as brain dysfunctions treatable by biological and chemical means, in addition to social measures, such as accommodating mental patients in ordinary hospitals rather than in isolated "madhouses" at the mercy of amateurs or even charlatans. An additional advantage of the "embodiment" of mental diseases is that it suggests reframing some new research projects, such as explaining why the common cold causes mental fogginess, why hypertension can cause irritability, and why nicotine dependence can be even stronger than cocaine addiction. In other words, the present proposal is to complete the so-called "mapping of the mind onto the brain" by including the abnormal mental processes, which used to be treated by shamans at a time when the mind was conceived of as an immaterial entity detachable from the body. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Disease network of mental disorders in Korea.

    Choi, Myoungje; Lee, Dong-Woo; Cho, Maeng Je; Park, Jee Eun; Gim, Minsook

    2015-12-01

    Network medicine considers networks among genes, diseases, and individuals. Networks of mental disorders remain poorly understood, despite their high comorbidity. In this study, a network of mental disorders in Korea was constructed to offer a complementary approach to treatment. Data on the prevalence and morbidity of mental disorders were obtained from the 2006 and 2011 Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study, including 22 psychiatric disorders. Nodes in the network were disease phenotypes identified by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, and the links connected phenotypes showing significant comorbidity. Odds ratios were used to quantify the distance between disease pairs. Network centrality was analyzed with and without weighting of the links between disorders. Degree centrality was correlated with suicidal behaviors and use of mental health services. In 2011 and 2006, degree centrality was highest for major depressive disorder, followed by nicotine dependence and generalized anxiety disorder (2011) or alcohol dependence (2006). Weighted degree centrality was highest in conversion disorder in both years. Therefore, major depressive disorder and nicotine dependence are highly connected to other mental disorders in Korea, indicating their comorbidity and possibility of shared biological mechanisms. The use of networks could enhance the understanding of mental disorders to provide effective mental health services.

  17. A multinational study of mental disorders, marriage, and divorce.

    Breslau, J; Miller, E; Jin, R; Sampson, N A; Alonso, J; Andrade, L H; Bromet, E J; de Girolamo, G; Demyttenaere, K; Fayyad, J; Fukao, A; Gălăon, M; Gureje, O; He, Y; Hinkov, H R; Hu, C; Kovess-Masfety, V; Matschinger, H; Medina-Mora, M E; Ormel, J; Posada-Villa, J; Sagar, R; Scott, K M; Kessler, R C

    2011-12-01

    Estimate predictive associations of mental disorders with marriage and divorce in a cross-national sample. Population surveys of mental disorders included assessment of age at first marriage in 19 countries (n = 46,128) and age at first divorce in a subset of 12 countries (n = 30,729). Associations between mental disorders and subsequent marriage and divorce were estimated in discrete time survival models. Fourteen of 18 premarital mental disorders are associated with lower likelihood of ever marrying (odds ratios ranging from 0.6 to 0.9), but these associations vary across ages of marriage. Associations between premarital mental disorders and marriage are generally null for early marriage (age 17 or younger), but negative associations come to predominate at later ages. All 18 mental disorders are positively associated with divorce (odds ratios ranging from 1.2 to 1.8). Three disorders, specific phobia, major depression, and alcohol abuse, are associated with the largest population attributable risk proportions for both marriage and divorce. This evidence adds to research demonstrating adverse effects of mental disorders on life course altering events across a diverse range of socioeconomic and cultural settings. These effects should be included in considerations of public health investments in preventing and treating mental disorders. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. A multinational study of mental disorders, marriage, and divorce

    Breslau, J.; Miller, E.; Jin, R.; Sampson, N. A.; Alonso, J.; Andrade, L. H.; Bromet, E. J.; de Girolamo, G.; Demyttenaere, K.; Fayyad, J.; Fukao, A.; Gălăon, M.; Gureje, O.; He, Y.; Hinkov, H. R.; Hu, C.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Matschinger, H.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sagar, R.; Scott, K. M.; Kessler, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Estimate predictive associations of mental disorders with marriage and divorce in a cross-national sample. Method Population surveys of mental disorders included assessment of age at first marriage in 19 countries (n = 46 128) and age at first divorce in a subset of 12 countries (n = 30 729). Associations between mental disorders and subsequent marriage and divorce were estimated in discrete time survival models. Results Fourteen of 18 premarital mental disorders are associated with lower likelihood of ever marrying (odds ratios ranging from 0.6 to 0.9), but these associations vary across ages of marriage. Associations between premarital mental disorders and marriage are generally null for early marriage (age 17 or younger), but negative associations come to predominate at later ages. All 18 mental disorders are positively associated with divorce (odds ratios ranging from 1.2 to 1.8). Three disorders, specific phobia, major depression, and alcohol abuse, are associated with the largest population attributable risk proportions for both marriage and divorce. Conclusion This evidence adds to research demonstrating adverse effects of mental disorders on life course altering events across a diverse range of socioeconomic and cultural settings. These effects should be included in considerations of public health investments in preventing and treating mental disorders. PMID:21534936

  19. The cross-national structure of mental disorders: results from the World Mental Health Surveys.

    de Jonge, Peter; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Lim, Carmen C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bunting, Brendan; Chatterji, Somnath; Ciutan, Marius; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Torres, Yolanda; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate

    2017-12-19

    The patterns of comorbidity among mental disorders have led researchers to model the underlying structure of psychopathology. While studies have suggested a structure including internalizing and externalizing disorders, less is known with regard to the cross-national stability of this model. Moreover, little data are available on the placement of eating disorders, bipolar disorder and psychotic experiences (PEs) in this structure. We evaluated the structure of mental disorders with data from the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, including 15 lifetime mental disorders and six PEs. Respondents (n = 5478-15 499) were included from 10 high-, middle- and lower middle-income countries across the world aged 18 years or older. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to evaluate and compare the fit of different factor structures to the lifetime disorder data. Measurement invariance was evaluated with multigroup CFA (MG-CFA). A second-order model with internalizing and externalizing factors and fear and distress subfactors best described the structure of common mental disorders. MG-CFA showed that this model was stable across countries. Of the uncommon disorders, bipolar disorder and eating disorder were best grouped with the internalizing factor, and PEs with a separate factor. These results indicate that cross-national patterns of lifetime common mental-disorder comorbidity can be explained with a second-order underlying structure that is stable across countries and can be extended to also cover less common mental disorders.

  20. [The advantage of a modern operational approach to the diagnosis of mental disorders. The case of the Bavarian King Ludwig II--an example from biographical research].

    von Zerssen, D

    2013-05-01

    Worldwide discrepancies in the classification, terminology and diagnosis of mental disorders have induced efforts for unification after World War II. This led to the introduction of an operational diagnostic approach according to strict criteria, at the same time taking into account the comorbidity of disorders. However, this approach is still not routinely used. The consequences of this deficiency are demonstrated here by an example from biographical research referring to the Bavarian King Ludwig II. The study is based on an extensive search of the relevant literature. Although the pathography of this Bavarian king is well documented, the diagnoses published between 1910 and 2010 by altogether 21 specialists, are distributed rather chaotically over 24 diagnostic categories of the ICD-10. Merely in the (probably wrong) diagnosis of a schizophrenic psychosis is there agreement among half of the authors. This is concordant with the expert diagnosis of paranoia by von Gudden and his colleagues (1886) when considering the then contemporary concept of the disorder. According to modern diagnostic principles almost half of the 24 diagnoses can be confirmed. The others have to be regarded as false diagnoses. The conclusion is that modern principles of the diagnosis of mental disorders should be applied according to internationally accepted diagnostic manuals. This approach should be used in, but is not exclusive to, biographical research. Precondition is, of course, the exact knowledge and careful application of these principles.

  1. Developmentally sensitive diagnostic criteria for mental health disorders in early childhood: the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV, the research diagnostic criteria-preschool age, and the diagnostic classification of mental health and developmental disorders of infancy and early childhood-revised.

    Egger, Helen L; Emde, Robert N

    2011-01-01

    As the infant mental health field has turned its focus to the presentation, course, and treatment of clinically significant mental health disorders, the need for reliable and valid criteria for identifying and assessing mental health symptoms and disorders in early childhood has become urgent. In this article we offer a critical perspective on diagnostic classification of mental health disorders in young children. We place the issue of early childhood diagnosis within the context of classification of psychopathology at other ages and describe, in some detail, diagnostic classifications that have been developed specifically for young children, including the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC:0-3R; ZERO TO THREE, 2005), a diagnostic classification for mental health symptoms and disorders in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. We briefly outline the role of diagnostic classification in clinical assessment and treatment planning. Last, we review the limitations of current approaches to the diagnostic classification of mental health disorders in young children. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Mental disorders frequency alternative and complementary ...

    Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT) are chronic disorders with which mental disorders may coexist and for which patients may resort to alternative medicine use. Alternative and complementary medicine is a treatment option that patients tend to use. This study is to determine the prevalence of mental ...

  3. Mental disorders frequency alternative and complementary ...

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... This study is to determine the prevalence of mental disorders among patients diagnosed ... Key words: Alternative medicine, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, mental disorder ..... Engum A, Mykletun A, Midthjell K, Holen A, Dahl AA. ... or undiagnosed diabetes: A systematic review and meta‑analysis of the.

  4. Strange bedfellows: economics, happiness and mental disorder.

    Cooper, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The high economic and social costs associated with the 'common mental disorders', and the need to scale up appropriate care services, are now widely recognized, but responses vary from country to country. In Britain, a current government initiative to promote psychological therapy is driven both by economic pressures and by research on the factors of happiness, or life-satisfaction. This article provides a short critical review of the project. A health policy analysis, with regard to problem definition; objectives; sources of information; criteria for evaluation; impact on existing services, and comparison with alternative strategies. The new programme, Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT), aims to expand treatment services by training 3,600 'psychological therapists' in cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), which they will then apply in the wider community. This service, with an initial budget of 173 million pounds sterling, will provide treatment for depression and chronic anxiety from local centres across the country. The programme is intended to pay for itself by reducing incapacity costs. Closer examination, however, raises questions concerning the project's theoretical basis, logistics and research methodology, and casts doubt on its advantages over alternative approaches. The IAPT project is ill-designed to achieve its objectives and unsuitable as a model for treatment and care of the common mental disorders in other countries. An alternative strategy, based on closer integration of community mental health and primary health care, should be tested and on previous experience seems likely to prove more cost-effective.

  5. Mental Health Service and Drug Treatment Utilization: Adolescents with Substance Use/Mental Disorders and Dual Diagnosis

    Cheng, Tyrone C.; Lo, Celia C.

    2010-01-01

    This research is a secondary data analysis of the impact of adolescents' mental/substance-use disorders and dual diagnosis on their utilization of drug treatment and mental health services. By analyzing the same teenagers who participated in the NIMH Methods for the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders (MECA) study, logistic…

  6. Screening for mental disorders in cardiology outpatients

    Birket-Smith, M.; Rasmussen, A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the frequency of mental disorders in cardiology outpatients to the number of patients with psychological problems identified by cardiologists. In a cardiology outpatient service, 103 consecutive patients were asked to participate in the study. Of these 86...... were included and screened for mental disorder with the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) psychosis screening, the Clock Drawing Test, and the WHO-5 Well-being Index. The cardiologists were asked to rate the severity of somatic...... and mental problems in each patient on visual analogue scales (VAS-som and VAS-men). The current treatments, including psychiatric and psychological treatments, were noted, and the survival was followed for 3 years. Of the 86 patients included, 34 (40%) had a diagnosis of mental disorder. Eleven (12.8%) had...

  7. Mental Health Disorder Therapeutic Modalities Modified for the GMS.

    Sumneangsanor, Tipsuda; Vuthiarpa, Sararud; Somprasert, Chomchueun

    2017-12-01

    Mental health disorders can affect physical and psychological behaviors. The people of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) have a high risk of mental health disorders, such as depression, stress, and substance abuse be-cause the people in this region are trafficked for forced sex work and various forms of forced labor. In these situations, vic-tims often endure violence and abuse from trafficking recruiters, employers, and other individuals. The purposes of this study were to identify the elements characterizing mental health disorders, especially in terms of depression, stress, and sub-stance abuse, and to identify the treatment modalities for mental health disorders in the GMS. The researcher undertook a comparative analysis of the literature, reviews of epidemiological studies and mental disorder therapies, and overviews of previous research studies, were used to generate a synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental disorder therapeutic modalities. Regarding the search methods, the data from the electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Dynamed and ScienceDirect were supplemented with a manual reference search covering relevant studies from 2005 to 2016. Thirty-one papers were included in the review of elements characterizing mental health disorders, especially in terms of depression, stress, and substance abuse, and to identify the treatment modalities for mental health disorders in the GMS. Nine papers defined characterizing mental health disorders, in terms of depression, stress, and substance abuse. Twenty-two papers showed the treatment modalities for mental health disorders that the treatment was effective, these in-cluded pharmacological treatments and psychological treatments, such as mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, biofeedback, and music therapy. Useful guidance can be provided for the prevention and treatment of mental health disorders, and for the care of people in the Greater Mekong Subregion. The finding of this review confirms the

  8. The Lay Concept of Childhood Mental Disorder

    Giummarra, Melita J.; Haslam, Nick

    2005-01-01

    The structure of lay people's concepts of childhood mental disorder was investigated in a questionnaire study and examined for convergence with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). Eighty-four undergraduates who had no formal education in abnormal psychology rated 54 conditions--36 DSM-IV childhood disorders and 18 non-disorders--on…

  9. Psychiatric genetic research at the National Institute of Mental Health

    Berg, K.; Mullican, C.; Maestri, N. [NIMH/NIH, Rockville, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-15

    For some time it has been known through the results of family, twin, and adoption studies that hereditary appears to play a significant casual role in many mental disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other mood disorders, Alzheimer`s Disease, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, autism, dyslexia, and Tourette`s syndrome. The precise patterns of inheritance of these complex disorders have not been determined, nor have the relevant genes been localized or cloned. Because the genetics are complex and because there is also clearly an environmental contribution to behavior, we expect the analysis of the genetics of mental illness to be arduous and not quickly resolved. There are several compelling reasons to continue to focus our attention on uncovering the genetic factors for severe mental illness. Prominent among these are the implications for better treatment of mental disorders. The National Institute of Mental Health supports a wide range of studies on psychiatric genetic research. 16 refs.

  10. Mental Disorder-The Need for an Accurate Definition.

    Telles-Correia, Diogo; Saraiva, Sérgio; Gonçalves, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    There are several reasons why a definition for mental disorder is essential. Among these are not only reasons linked to psychiatry itself as a science (nosology, research) but also to ethical, legal, and financial issues. The first formal definition of mental disorder resulted from a deep conceptual analysis led by Robert Spitzer. It emerged to address several challenges that psychiatry faced at the time, namely to serve as the starting point for an atheoretical and evidence-based classification of mental disorders, to justify the removal of homosexuality from classifications, and to counter the arguments of antipsychiatry. This definition has been updated, with some conceptual changes that make it depart from the main assumptions of Spitzer's original definition. In this article, we intend to review the factors that substantiated the emergence of the first formal definition of mental disorder that based all its later versions.

  11. [Mental disorders among immigrants in Chile].

    Rojas, Graciela; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Castro, Ariel; Guajardo, Viviana; Torres, Pamela; Díaz, Berta

    2011-10-01

    Chile is receiving immigrant populations coming from other Latin-American countries. To determine the prevalence of Common Mental Disorders (CMD) among immigrants who live in Independencia, a quarter in Santiago, Chile. A cross sectional study was carried out in the primary health care clinic and in the state-funded school of Independencia. A representative sample of 282 adults and 341 children were interviewed. Mental disorders were diagnosed using CIS-R and MINI structured interviews. The interviewed immigrants came mostly from Peru. The prevalence of mental disorders in the adult population was 17.8% and among children, it was 29.3%. The adult immigrants have a lower prevalence of mental disorders than the Chilean population but it increases among children. Barriers of access to health services, that should be solved, were detected.

  12. PENGENALAN SEJAK DINI PENDERITA MENTAL DISORDER

    Mubasyaroh Mubasyaroh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mental disorder merupakan bentuk gangguan dan kekacauan fungsi mental yang disebabkan oleh kegagalan mereaksinya mekanisme adaptasi dari fungsi-fungsi kejiwaan/ terhadap stimuli eksternal dan ketegangan-ketegangan sehingga muncul gangguan pada struktur kejiwaan. Gangguan  mental Merupakan totalitas kesatuan dari ekspresi mental yang patologis terhadap stimuli sosial,   yang  dikombinasikan dengan  factor-faktor sekunder lainnya. Seperti halnya rasa pusing, sesak nafas, demam panas dan  nyeri-nyeri pada  lambung  sebagai pertanda  permulaan dari penyakit jasmani, maka mental disorder itu mempunyai pertanda awal antara lain: cemas, ketakutan, pahit hati, dengki, apatis, cemburu,  iri, marah secara eksplosif, asosial, ketegangan kronis, dan lain sebagainya. Maka kesehatan mental yang baik itu, berarti mempunyai perasaan positif tentang diri sendiri, mampu menyelesaikan masalah dan tekanan hidup sehari-hari, dan bisa membentuk dan menjaga hubungan baik dengan orang lain. Selama ini kita sudah memahami pentingnya menjaga kesehatan fisik. Tapi menjaga kesehatan mental juga sama pentingnya dengan kesehatan fisik. Kenyataannya, kesehatan mental yang buruk akan mengakibatkan kesehatan fisik yang buruk pula. kata  kunci:  Mental  Disorder,  Gangguan Jiwa,   Kekalutan Mental. THE    INTRODUCTION    OF     THE    EARLY PATIENTS WITH MENTAL  DISORDER.  Mental   disorder  is  a  form of disruption and chaos mental  function that is caused  by the failure of mereaksinya adaptation  mechanism  of psychological  functions/ against external stimuli and tensions so that appears on the structure of the disorders psychological disorders. Mental disturbances is the totality of the unity of mental expression pathological culture toward social stimuli, combined with the factor of other secondary factor. Like a sense of dizziness, breathing difficulties, hot Fever and pain in the pain in the stomach as a sign of the beginning of

  13. Mental disorders among college students in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Alonso, Jordi; Axinn, William G.; Cuijpers, Pim; Ebert, David D.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Hwang, Irving; Kessler, Ronald C.; Liu, Howard; Mortier, Philippe; Nock, Matthew K.; Pinder-Amaker, Stephanie; Sampson, Nancy A.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura H.; Benjet, Corina; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Karam, Elie G.; Kiejna, Andrzej; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; McGrath, John J.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Scott, Kate; ten Have, Margreet; Torres, Yolanda; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Zarkov, Zahari; Bruffaerts, Ronny

    2016-01-01

    Background Although mental disorders are significant predictors of educational attainment throughout the entire educational career, most research on mental disorders among students has focused on the primary and secondary school years. Methods The World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys were used to examine the associations of mental disorders with college entry and attrition by comparing college students (n = 1,572) and nonstudents in the same age range (18–22; n = 4,178), including nonstudents who recently left college without graduating (n = 702) based on surveys in 21 countries (4 low/lower-middle income, 5 upper middle-income, 1 lower-middle or upper-middle at the times of two different surveys, and 11 high income). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence and age-of-onset of DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavioural and substance disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results One-fifth (20.3%) of college students had 12-month DSM-IV/CIDI disorders. 83.1% of these cases had pre-matriculation onsets. Disorders with pre-matriculation onsets were more important than those with post-matriculation onsets in predicting subsequent college attrition, with substance disorders and, among women, major depression the most important such disorders. Only 16.4% of students with 12-month disorders received any 12-month healthcare treatment for their mental disorders. Conclusions Mental disorders are common among college students, have onsets that mostly occur prior to college entry, in the case of pre-matriculation disorders are associated with college attrition, and are typically untreated. Detection and effective treatment of these disorders early in the college career might reduce attrition and improve educational and psychosocial functioning. PMID:27484622

  14. Mental disorders among college students in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.

    Auerbach, R P; Alonso, J; Axinn, W G; Cuijpers, P; Ebert, D D; Green, J G; Hwang, I; Kessler, R C; Liu, H; Mortier, P; Nock, M K; Pinder-Amaker, S; Sampson, N A; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Al-Hamzawi, A; Andrade, L H; Benjet, C; Caldas-de-Almeida, J M; Demyttenaere, K; Florescu, S; de Girolamo, G; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Karam, E G; Kiejna, A; Kovess-Masfety, V; Lee, S; McGrath, J J; O'Neill, S; Pennell, B-E; Scott, K; Ten Have, M; Torres, Y; Zaslavsky, A M; Zarkov, Z; Bruffaerts, R

    2016-10-01

    Although mental disorders are significant predictors of educational attainment throughout the entire educational career, most research on mental disorders among students has focused on the primary and secondary school years. The World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys were used to examine the associations of mental disorders with college entry and attrition by comparing college students (n = 1572) and non-students in the same age range (18-22 years; n = 4178), including non-students who recently left college without graduating (n = 702) based on surveys in 21 countries (four low/lower-middle income, five upper-middle-income, one lower-middle or upper-middle at the times of two different surveys, and 11 high income). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence and age-of-onset of DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavioral and substance disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). One-fifth (20.3%) of college students had 12-month DSM-IV/CIDI disorders; 83.1% of these cases had pre-matriculation onsets. Disorders with pre-matriculation onsets were more important than those with post-matriculation onsets in predicting subsequent college attrition, with substance disorders and, among women, major depression the most important such disorders. Only 16.4% of students with 12-month disorders received any 12-month healthcare treatment for their mental disorders. Mental disorders are common among college students, have onsets that mostly occur prior to college entry, in the case of pre-matriculation disorders are associated with college attrition, and are typically untreated. Detection and effective treatment of these disorders early in the college career might reduce attrition and improve educational and psychosocial functioning.

  15. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and onset of self-reported peptic ulcer in the World Mental Health Surveys

    Scott, Kate M.; Alonso, Jordi; de Jonge, Peter; Carmen Viana, Maria; Liu, Zhaorui; O'Neill, Siobhan; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Stein, Dan J.; Angermeyer, Matthias; Benjet, Corina; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Firuleasa, Ingrid-Laura; Hu, Chiyi; Kiejna, Andrzej; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose A.; Khalaf, Mohammad Salih; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    Objective: Recent research demonstrating concurrent associations between mental disorders and peptic ulcers has renewed interest in links between psychological factors and ulcers. However, little is known about associations between temporally prior mental disorders and subsequent ulcer onset. Nor

  16. 38 CFR 4.125 - Diagnosis of mental disorders.

    2010-07-01

    ... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.125 Diagnosis of mental disorders. (a) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder does not conform to DSM-IV or is not supported by the... substantiate the diagnosis. (b) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder is changed, the rating agency shall...

  17. Mental Disorder or "Normal Life Variation"? Why It Matters

    Jacobs, David H.

    2014-01-01

    "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition" ("DSM-5") promises a refined definition of mental disorder, which is tantamount to acknowledging that prior "DSM" definitions have failed to clarify what mental disorder is and why a person should be considered mentally disordered. Since the…

  18. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    2010-07-01

    ... AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.127 Mental retardation and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... from them may not be service-connected. However, disability resulting from a mental disorder that is...

  19. The relationship between mental disorders and different types of crime

    Vinkers, David J.; De Beurs, Edwin; Barendregt, Marko; Rinne, Thomas; Hoek, Hans W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies of relationships between mental disorder and crime have tended to group the mental disorders, the crimes or both, leaving uncertainty about a more specific mental disorder: crime relationships. Objective To examine the relationship between types of mental disorder and

  20. [The intensity of shame in mental disorders].

    Kämmerer, Annette

    2010-07-01

    Shame is a self-conscious emotion and mostly experienced in the context of moral and/or normative transgression. Feelings of shame about one's own body and its intimacy must be seen as different from those, which are experienced as a result of negative social evaluations. Feelings of shame have been discussed as being important in the emotional experience of mentally ill persons, although systematic research is missing. A scenario-based self-report questionnaire has been constructed, the "Heidelberger Fragebogen zu Schamgefühlen". It consists of two scales, one measuring shame in situations of bodily experiences and the other one in situations of social competence and achievement. Data have been collected with n=320 patients with various mental disorders and been compared to a control group (cross-sectional study). Additionally correlations between feelings of shame and personality styles have been measured. Feelings of shame in situations connected with bodily experiences are more important than those raising as a result of negative social achievement. Patients with affective and anxiety disorders show the most intensive feelings of shame - with the exception of social phobia. Intensive feelings of shame can be seen as a result of low self-esteem, fear of failure and of punishment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  1. SLEEP DISORDERS IN MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN

    I. A. Kelmanson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study of the association between sleep disturbances and mental retardation in children. Attention is paid to the instant connection between sleep neurophysiology and intellectual progress, as well as between sleep disorders and the pathogenesis of mental retardation in children. The data on characteristic forms of sleep disturbances, including bed-time resistance, frequent night awakenings, parasomnias, abnormal sleep structure, and notably reduced REM-sleep proportion are provided. The potential role of abnormal melatonin production in the origins of sleep disturbances in children with mental retardation is discussed. Certain approaches to pharmacological and non-pharmacological corrections of sleep disorders are outlined.

  2. Chronic diseases and mental disorder.

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Heijmans, M.J.W.M.; Peters, L.; Rijken, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between chronic medical illness and mental distress. Therefore, the association between chronic medical illness and mental distress was analysed, taking into account the modifying effects of generic disease

  3. Forensic psychiatry approach to mental disorders resulting from substance abuse

    Ćirić Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, mental disorders resulting from substance abuse have become a frequent phenomenon, which features diverse forms and degrees of severity. In addition to being a medical and extremely harmful social phenomenon, substance abuse (commonly known as drug or narcotics abuse is frequently a subject matter of research in many sciences or scientific disciplines, such as medicine, psychology, sociology, legal science, etc. Drug abusers may develop diverse mental disorders, which largely depends on the type of psychoactive substance which is being abused and the method of taking narcotics (including frequency, daily dose, mode of administration, etc.. In this paper, the author provides an overview of different types of mental disorders according to the applicable International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders. The disturbance of mental functions due to drug abuse (which may or may not result in the development of a mental disorder changes the perception and behaviour of drug users. The disturbance of mental functions becomes particularly prominent in the circumstances where substance abuse has turned into a drug addiction; the basic characteristic of the dependence syndrome is an irresistible urge (craving or even compulsion to take the substance in order to enjoy its effects again or to avoid/relieve the drug addiction crisis or the abstinence syndrome, which may be extremely painful and agonizing. As a consequence of these mental disturbances and other disorders arising from drug addiction, human behaviour may be disrupted to such an extent that a person may demonstrate some criminal conduct, which ultimately makes these mental disorders highly relevant in the field of criminal law. Given the fact that the criminal offender is a drug abuser who may have different forms of mental disorders, there is a need to consider the offender's mental capacity (sanity, which ultimately makes these mental disorders highly

  4. Sport specificity of mental disorders: the issue of sport psychiatry.

    Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Markser, Valentin Z

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric conditions among elite athletes is still under debate. More and more evidence has accumulated that high-performance athletes are not protected from mental disorders as previously thought. The authors discuss the issue of the sport specificity of selected mental diseases in elite athletes. Specific aspects of eating disorders, exercise addiction, chronic traumatic encephalopathy and mood disorders in the context of overtraining syndrome are examined. In particular, the interrelationship between life and work characteristics unique to elite athletes and the development of mental disorders are reviewed. Differences of clinical presentation and some therapeutic consequences are discussed. The authors suggest that the physical and mental strains endured by elite athletes might influence the onset and severity of their psychiatric disorder. Beside the existing research strategies dealing with the amount of exercise, its intensity and lack of recreation experienced by athletes, further research on psycho-social factors is needed to better understand the sport-specific aetiology of mental disorders in high-performance athletes.

  5. Is the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE useful for eligibility screening of research participants with substance use disorder?

    Aldebarán Toledo-Fernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the MMSE is used for eligibility screening of potential research participants diagnosed with substance use disorder (SUD, as abilities needed to provide a valid informed consent or accurate information could be impaired in these clinical populations. Knowledge about the capacity of the MMSE to detect impairment in these abilities or at least to assess impact of SUD on its total score, however, is rather diffuse. This has important ethical and methodological implications. Objective: to analyze effects of SUD only, main substances of abuse, age of onset of substance use, recent substance use, and psychiatric comorbidity upon MMSE outcome. The overall purpose of the study was to assess the utility of the MMSE for eligibility screening of potential research participants with SUD. Method: individuals were recruited from residential facilities for substance use treatment. A demographic questionnaire, MMSE and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview were used. Results: A total of 601 participants were gathered for main analysis. Controlling for education, no differences in MMSE score were detected within main substances of abuse (F=1.25[4,529], p=.28, nor between SUD only versus SUD with psychiatric comorbidity (F=.58[1,597], p=.44. Effects of age of onset and recent use of specific substances upon MMSE score were also absent. Discussion and conclusions: If there is some cognitive impairment in this clinical population, it may not be pertinently assessed by the MMSE, thus casting doubt on its pertinence for eligibility screening.

  6. Study on discriminant analysis by military mental disorder prediction scale for mental disorder of new recruits

    Li-yi ZHANG

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To examine the predictive role of the Military Mental Disorder Prediction Scale on the mental disorder of new recruits.Methods The present study examined 115 new recruits diagnosed with mental disorder and 115 healthy new recruits.The recruits were tested using the Military Mental Disorder Prediction Scale.The discriminant function was built by discriminant analysis method.The current study analyzed the predictive value of 11 factors(family medical record and past medical record(X1,growth experience(X2,introversion(X3,stressor(X4,poor mental defense(X5,social support(X6,psychosis(X7,depression(X8,mania(X9,neurosis(X10,and personality disorder(X11 aside from lie factor on the mental disorder of new recruits.Results The mental disorder group has higher total score and factor score in family medical record and past medical record,introversion,stressor,poor mental defense,social support,psychosis,depression,mania,neurosis,personality disorder,and lie than those of the contrast group(P < 0.01.For the score of growth experience factor,that of the mental disorder group is higher than the score of the contrast group(P < 0.05.All 11 factors except the lie factor in the Mental Disorder Prediction Scale are taken as independent variables by enforced introduction to obtain the Fisher linear discriminant function as follows: The mental disorder group=-7.014-0.278X1+1.556X2+1.563X3+0.878X4+0.183X5-0.845X6-0.562X7-0.353X8+1.246X9-0.505X10+1.029X11.The contrast group=-2.971+0.056X1+2.194X2+0.707X3+0.592X4-0.086X5-0.888X6-0.133X7-0.360X8+0.654X9-0.467X10+0.308X11.The discriminant function has an accuracy rate of 76.5% on the new recruits with mental disorders and 100% on the healthy new recruits.The total accurate discrimination rate is 88.3% and the total inaccurate discrimination rate is 11.7%.Conclusion The Military Mental Disorder Prediction Scale has a high accuracy rate on the prediction of mental disorder of new recruits and is worthy of

  7. Ethical issues in perinatal mental health research.

    Brandon, Anna R; Shivakumar, Geetha; Lee, Simon Craddock; Inrig, Stephen J; Sadler, John Z

    2009-11-01

    To review the background of current ethical standards for the conduct of perinatal mental health research and describe the ethical challenges in this research domain. Current literature reflects a growing sentiment in the scientific community that having no information regarding the impact of psychiatric treatment on the mother and developing fetus/infant poses dangers that may exceed the risks involved in research. However, without sufficient consensus across the scientific community, both regulatory bodies and perinatal researchers find themselves without a framework for decision making that satisfactorily limits the risks and facilitates the benefits of participation of pregnant and lactating women in clinical research. Psychiatric research in perinatal mental health is critically important as it enables clinicians and patients to participate in informed decision-making concerning treatment for psychiatric disorders. Specific areas of concern include fetal safety, maternal risk, the therapeutic misconception, commercial interests, forensic/legal issues, the informed consent process, and study design. Developing guidelines that address ethical challenges and include the views and concerns of multiple stakeholders could improve the access of perinatal women to the benefits of participation in mental health research in addition to providing evidence-based mental healthcare for this subpopulation.

  8. Proportion of patients without mental disorders being treated in mental health services worldwide

    Bruffaerts, Ronny; Posada-Villa, Jose; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Gureje, Oye; Huang, Yueqin; Hu, Chiyi; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Hinkov, Hristo Ruskov; Karam, Elie G.; Borges, Guilherme; Florescu, Silvia E.; Williams, David R.; Demyttenaere, Koen; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Matschinger, Herbert; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Ono, Yutaka; de Graaf, Ron; Browne, Mark Oakley; Bunting, Brendan; Xavier, Miguel; Haro, Josep Maria; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests that many people receiving mental health treatment do not meet criteria for a mental disorder but are rather ‘the worried well’. Aims To examine the association of past-year mental health treatment with DSM-IV disorders. Method The World Health Organization’s World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys interviewed community samples of adults in 23 countries (n = 62 305) about DSM-IV disorders and treatment in the past 12 months for problems with emotions, alcohol or drugs. Results Roughly half (52%) of people who received treatment met criteria for a past-year DSM-IV disorder, an additional 18% for a lifetime disorder and an additional 13% for other indicators of need (multiple subthreshold disorders, recent stressors or suicidal behaviours). Dose-response associations were found between number of indicators of need and treatment. Conclusions The vast majority of treatment in the WMH countries goes to patients with mental disorders or other problems expected to benefit from treatment. PMID:25395690

  9. Reducing the use of seclusion for mental disorder in a prison: implementing a high support unit in a prison using participant action research.

    Giblin, Yvette

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerable prisoners and mentally disordered offenders who present with risk of harm to self or others were accommodated in Special Observation Cells (SOCs) isolated from others for considerable periods of time. This practice has been criticised by the Council of Europe Committee for the Prevention of Torture. The objective of this initiative was to reduce the use of seclusion within the prison and to improve the care of vulnerable and mentally ill prisoners within the prison.

  10. Hierarchical screening for multiple mental disorders.

    Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Christensen, Helen; Mackinnon, Andrew J

    2013-10-01

    There is a need for brief, accurate screening when assessing multiple mental disorders. Two-stage hierarchical screening, consisting of brief pre-screening followed by a battery of disorder-specific scales for those who meet diagnostic criteria, may increase the efficiency of screening without sacrificing precision. This study tested whether more efficient screening could be gained using two-stage hierarchical screening than by administering multiple separate tests. Two Australian adult samples (N=1990) with high rates of psychopathology were recruited using Facebook advertising to examine four methods of hierarchical screening for four mental disorders: major depressive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder and social phobia. Using K6 scores to determine whether full screening was required did not increase screening efficiency. However, pre-screening based on two decision tree approaches or item gating led to considerable reductions in the mean number of items presented per disorder screened, with estimated item reductions of up to 54%. The sensitivity of these hierarchical methods approached 100% relative to the full screening battery. Further testing of the hierarchical screening approach based on clinical criteria and in other samples is warranted. The results demonstrate that a two-phase hierarchical approach to screening multiple mental disorders leads to considerable increases efficiency gains without reducing accuracy. Screening programs should take advantage of prescreeners based on gating items or decision trees to reduce the burden on respondents. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Homicide and major mental disorder: what are the social, clinical, and forensic differences between murderers with a major mental disorder and murderers without any mental disorder?].

    Richard-Devantoy, S; Chocard, A-S; Bourdel, M-C; Gohier, B; Duflot, J-P; Lhuillier, J-P; Garré, J-B

    2009-09-01

    To establish the social, clinical, and forensic differences between murderers suffering from a major mental disorder and murderers without any psychiatric disorder and, in particular, to compare their respective records of psychiatric symptoms and their respective relationship with their victims. We studied 210 forensic examinations of murderers, the offences related to the murders, and the social and clinical information collected from psychiatric court reports on persons convicted of homicide. Firstly, we identified the socio-demographic, clinical and criminological profiles of 210 murderers from which were distinguished murderers with major mental disorder. Then, we compared the profiles of murderers suffering from a major mental disorder with those of murderers without any mental disease. In other words, we compared 37 persons affected with major mental disorder (schizophrenia, paranoiac delusional disorder, and affective disorder) with 73 persons without any mental disorder. We deliberately excluded subjects with personality disorder or abuse of/dependency on drugs, mental retardation or dementia. With the exception of certain variables, murderers with major mental disorder have the same characteristics as others murderers: young man, living alone, with psychiatric and offence records and substance abuse. Murderers with major mental disorder are older (37.8 versus 31.7 years old) than perpretators without any mental disorder, and the former have a psychiatric record more often than the latter (81 versus 32.9%). In addition, contrary to the latter, the former show clinical symptoms of a psychopathological process. Depression, delusional and suicidal ideas are frequent among murderers with a major mental disorder, whereas the persons without mental disorder quarrel or have a row with their victim just before their crime. The victim was known to the perpetrator significantly more often in the major mental disorder group than in the no mental disorder group (94

  12. Early life programming as a target for prevention of child and adolescent mental disorders

    Lewis, Andrew James; Galbally, Megan; Gannon, Tara; Symeonides, Christos

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns future policy development and programs of research for the prevention of mental disorders based on research emerging from fetal and early life programming. The current review offers an overview of findings on pregnancy exposures such as maternal mental health, lifestyle factors, and potential teratogenic and neurotoxic exposures on child outcomes. Outcomes of interest are common child and adolescent mental disorders including hyperactive, behavioral and emotional disorders...

  13. Procrastination and Aggression for Mental Disorders in Young People

    Zvereva M. V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents analyze the phenomenon of procrastination and indirect manifestations of aggression in young people in normal health and mental disorders. Procrastination - a frequent phenomenon among young people, for this category the term “academic procrastination”; the high level of the various manifestations of aggression can also accompany adolescents in health and disease. The purpose of research is analysis of the relationship of procrastination and manifestations of aggression in health and mental disorders in adolescence. A complex of methods of psychological diagnosis, which included: questionnaire “Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students” (PASS, Solomon & Rothblum, 1984 Rosenzweig Frustration Test, Wagners Hand Test. We studied two samples of subjects 18-25 years: a control group of healthy young people (boys and girls - 61 people, the experimental group - young people of both sexes who had mental disorders (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, affective disorders bipolar disorder, personality disorder – 57. The results indicate the presence of the specific nature of components procrastination and indirect aggression manifestations of different levels at a young age for mental pathology

  14. Problems attract problems: a network perspective on mental disorders

    Cramer, A.O.J.; Borsboom, D.; Scott, R.A.; Kosslyn, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    What is the nature of mental disorders such as major depression and panic disorder? Are mental disorders analogous to tumors, in that they exist as separate entities somewhere in people's minds? Do mental disorders cause symptoms such as insomnia and fatigue? Until very recently, it was exactly this

  15. Common mental disorders and the built environment in Santiago, Chile.

    Araya, Ricardo; Montgomery, Alan; Rojas, Graciela; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Solis, Jaime; Signorelli, Andres; Lewis, Glyn

    2007-05-01

    There is growing research interest in the influence of the built environment on mental disorders. To estimate the variation in the prevalence of common mental disorders attributable to individuals and the built environment of geographical sectors where they live. A sample of 3870 adults (response rate 90%) clustered in 248 geographical sectors participated in a household cross-sectional survey in Santiago, Chile. Independently rated contextual measures of the built environment were obtained. The Clinical Interview Schedule was used to estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders. There was a significant association between the quality of the built environment of small geographical sectors and the presence of common mental disorders among its residents. The better the quality of the built environment, the lower the scores for psychiatric symptoms; however, only a small proportion of the variation in common mental disorder existed at sector level, after adjusting for individual factors. Findings from our study, using a contextual assessment of the quality of the built environment and multilevel modelling in the analysis, suggest these associations may be more marked in non-Western settings with more homogeneous geographical sectors.

  16. Abortion and mental health disorders: evidence from a 30-year longitudinal study.

    Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Boden, Joseph M

    2008-12-01

    Research on the links between abortion and mental health has been limited by design problems and relatively weak evidence. To examine the links between pregnancy outcomes and mental health outcomes. Data were gathered on the pregnancy and mental health history of a birth cohort of over 500 women studied to the age of 30. After adjustment for confounding, abortion was associated with a small increase in the risk of mental disorders; women who had had abortions had rates of mental disorder that were about 30% higher. There were no consistent associations between other pregnancy outcomes and mental health. Estimates of attributable risk indicated that exposure to abortion accounted for 1.5% to 5.5% of the overall rate of mental disorders. The evidence is consistent with the view that abortion may be associated with a small increase in risk of mental disorders. Other pregnancy outcomes were not related to increased risk of mental health problems.

  17. Annual Research Review: Categories versus Dimensions in the Classification and Conceptualisation of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders--Implications of Recent Empirical Study

    Coghill, David; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2012-01-01

    The question of whether child and adolescent mental disorders are best classified using dimensional or categorical approaches is a contentious one that has equally profound implications for clinical practice and scientific enquiry. Here, we explore this issue in the context of the forth coming publication of the DSM-5 and ICD-11 approaches to…

  18. Sibship size, birth order, family structure and childhood mental disorders.

    Carballo, Juan J; García-Nieto, Rebeca; Alvarez-García, Raquel; Caro-Cañizares, Irene; López-Castromán, Jorge; Muñoz-Lorenzo, Laura; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-García, Enrique

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role that birth order, sibship size and family structure have as risk factors in the development of common childhood mental disorders. A case-control study design was conducted (N = 16,823). The group under study consisted of all those subjects who had consulted with a psychiatrist/psychologist and had received a clinical diagnosis at public mental health centres within the Region of Madrid (Spain), between 1980 and 2008. A multiple logistic regression was used to explore the independent association with each diagnosis: emotional disorders (ED) with onset specific to childhood, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), mental retardation (MR), and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). Birth order and family structure significantly predicted the risk of being diagnosed with ED or ADHD. In addition, sibship size and sex predicted the risk of being diagnosed with a childhood mental disorder. We concluded that being the middle child and living with both biological parents appear to be protective factors against the development of ED or ADHD. Living in large families appears to increase the risk of receiving a CD, MR, or PDD diagnosis. Further research is warranted.

  19. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent COPD diagnosis

    Rapsey, Charlene M.; Lim, Carmen C.W.; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, J.M.; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Hu, Chiyi; Kessler, Ronald C.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Elena Medina-Mora, María; Murphy, Sam; Ono, Yutaka; Piazza, Maria; Posada-Villa, Jose; ten Have, Margreet; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Scott, Kate M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives COPD and mental disorder comorbidity is commonly reported, although findings are limited by substantive weaknesses. Moreover, few studies investigate mental disorder as a risk for COPD onset. This research aims to investigate associations between current (12-month) DSM-IV mental disorders and COPD, associations between temporally prior mental disorders and subsequent COPD diagnosis, and cumulative effect of multiple mental disorders. Methods Data were collected using population surveys of 19 countries (n = 52,095). COPD diagnosis was assessed by self-report of physician's diagnosis. The World Mental Health-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) was used to retrospectively assess lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV disorders. Adjusting for age, gender, smoking, education, and country, survival analysis estimated associations between first onset of mental disorder and subsequent COPD diagnosis. Results COPD and several mental disorders were concurrently associated across the 12-month period (ORs 1.5–3.8). When examining associations between temporally prior disorders and COPD, all but two mental disorders were associated with COPD diagnosis (ORs 1.7–3.5). After comorbidity adjustment, depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and alcohol abuse were significantly associated with COPD (ORs 1.6–1.8). There was a substantive cumulative risk of COPD diagnosis following multiple mental disorders experienced over the lifetime. Conclusions: Mental disorder prevalence is higher in those with COPD than those without COPD. Over time, mental disorders are associated with subsequent diagnosis of COPD; further, the risk is cumulative for multiple diagnoses. Attention should be given to the role of mental disorders in the pathogenesis of COPD using prospective study designs. PMID:26526305

  20. Mental Disorders and Charges of Violent Offences

    Gosden, Niels Patrick; Kramp, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2006-01-01

    This study describes associations between mental disorders and charges of violence among remanded adolescents. 100 15–17 year old boys from East Denmark, consecutively remanded during one year, were interviewed with SCAN, K-SADS and SCID-II to obtain past year ICD-10 diagnoses. There was no stati......This study describes associations between mental disorders and charges of violence among remanded adolescents. 100 15–17 year old boys from East Denmark, consecutively remanded during one year, were interviewed with SCAN, K-SADS and SCID-II to obtain past year ICD-10 diagnoses....... There was no statistically significant association between the occurrence of a violent charge and mental disorders in general (OR = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)[0.24; 4.38]). An association was found between violent charge and non-danish ethnicity (OR = 7.58, [1.60; 35.92]). Previously reported association between...... violence and mental disorder among adults were not replicated in this male adolescent remand population. A developmental hypothesis is proposed....

  1. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (MELAS) with mental disorder

    Suzuki, T.; Koizumi, J.; Shiraishi, H.; Ofuku, K.; Sasaki, M.; Hori, T.; Ishikawa, N.; Anno, I.; Ohkoshi, N.

    1990-01-01

    A case of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (MELAS) with mental disorder is reported. The SPECT study using 123 I-iodoamphetamine (IMP) and MRI study revealed abnormality in the left parieto-occipital areas without abnormality in the brain CT or brain scintigram. These findings suggest a localized dysfunction of the brain capillary endothelium in association with the cerebral involvement of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. (orig.)

  2. Social determinants of mental health: a Finnish nationwide follow-up study on mental disorders.

    Paananen, Reija; Ristikari, Tiina; Merikukka, Marko; Gissler, Mika

    2013-12-01

    Most mental disorders start in childhood and adolescence. Risk factors are prenatal and perinatal, genetic as well as environmental and family related. Research evidence is, however, insufficient to explain the life-course development of mental disorders. This study aims to provide evidence on factors affecting mental health in childhood and adolescence. The 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort covers all children born in Finland in 1987 (N=59 476) who were followed up until the age of 21 years. The study covers detailed health, social welfare and sociodemographic data of the cohort members and their parents from Finnish registers. Altogether, 7578 (12.7%) cohort members had had a diagnosed mental disorder. Several prenatal, perinatal and family-related risk factors for mental disorders were found, with sex differences. The main risk factors for mental disorders were having a young mother (OR 1.30 (1.16 to 1.47)), parents' divorce (OR 1.33 (1.26 to 1.41)), death of a parent (OR 1.27 (1.16 to 1.38)), parents' short education (OR 1.23(1.09 to 1.38)), childhood family receiving social assistance (OR 1.61 (1.52 to 1.71)) or having a parent treated at specialised psychiatric care (OR 1.47 (1.39 to 1.55)). Perinatal problem (OR 1.11 (1.01 to 1.22)) and prenatal smoking (OR 1.09 (1.02 to 1.16)) were risk factors for mental disorders, even after controlling for background factors. Elevated risk was seen if the cohort member had only basic education (OR 3.37 (3.14 to 3.62)) or had received social assistance (OR 2.45 (2.30 to 2.60)). Mental disorders had many social risk factors which are interlinked. Although family difficulties increased the risk for mental disorders, they were clearly determined by the cohort member's low education and financial hardship. This study provides evidence for comprehensive preventative and supporting efforts. Families with social adversities and with parental mental health problems should be supported to secure children's development.

  3. Fertility treatment and risk of childhood and adolescent mental disorders

    Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Hvidtjørn, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    To assess the mental health of children born after fertility treatment by comparing their risk of mental disorders with that of spontaneously conceived children.......To assess the mental health of children born after fertility treatment by comparing their risk of mental disorders with that of spontaneously conceived children....

  4. Symptoms of common mental disorders and their correlates Among ...

    Introduction: To comply with its new mental health bill, Ghana needs to integrate mental health within other health and social services. Mental disorders represent 9% of disease burden in Ghana. Women are more affected by common mental disorders, and are underrepresented in treatment settings. This study examines ...

  5. [Mentalization based treatment and borderline personality disorder].

    De Oliveira, C; Rahioui, H; Smadja, M; Gorsane, M A; Louppe, F

    2017-08-01

    The borderline personality disorder is a complex psychiatric disorder that represents a high number of patients in a psychiatric adult service. Even if some therapies have shown to be effective in the therapeutic care of the borderline personality disorder they only target certain symptoms (e.g. anxiety, sadness, self-mutilation). The aim of this paper is to introduce a therapeutic model little known in France: the mentalization based therapy (MBT) developed in 2004 by Bateman and Fonagy. This therapeutic model apprehends the borderline personality disorder in all its complexity and is based on two main concepts: Bowlby's attachment theory and the concept of mentalization. The MBT is based on the hypothesis that a deficit of mentalization leads to the development of borderline disorder. The capacity of mentalization, also known as reflexive function, is acquired in infancy through interpersonal relationships, in particular those of attachment, and is the ability to understand the mental state (emotions, needs, thoughts, etc.) of oneself and others which underlies explicit behaviour. This reflexive capacity is of a better quality when the person has a secure attachment style. Indeed, borderline patients have, mainly, a deficit of mentalization capacity associated with an insecure attachment style. Thus, the main objective of the Bateman and Fonagy approach is to develop and reinforce the mentalization capacity through a therapeutic relationship as a secure base, a group therapy and the concept of insight. Classically, MBT is structured over a period of 18 months divided into 3 distinct phases distributed in two therapeutic axes: group and individual therapy. The initial phase aims to engage the patient in the therapy by evaluating attachment style, mentalization's ability, interpersonal functioning; providing psychoeducation about borderline disorder and establishing a therapeutic contract. To evaluate attachment style, the authors strongly recommend the use of the

  6. GUILT OF PERSONS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS ARE NOT EXCLUDING RESPONSIBILITIES

    Ekaterina Valerievna Yurchak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the theory of law as a key cross-sectoral and multi-disciplinary institutions is the Institute of guilt. At the present stage of development of the law, in a convergence of many of its branches, it is important to investigate exhaustively the institution with the general legal position, both in general and in particular - the situation of the guilt of persons with mental disorder, not excluding sanity.The purpose of this study - to investigate the situation of the fault of persons with a mental disorder, not excluding sanity in different areas of law, and address the question of whether this interdisciplinary institute.Scientific, theoretical and practical significance of the work lies in the fact that the study of this topic will summarize the knowledge about the fault of persons with a mental disorder, not excluding sanity, to analyze the content of this institution in various areas of law, and to conclude that the cross-sectoral character.The author uses formal-legal, comparative, hermeneutical, mathematical methods, as well as general methods of scientific research.The author analyzes the provisions of the Russian legislation on the fault of persons with a mental disorder, not excluding sanity, concluding that the criminal law of guilt people with a mental disorder, not excluding sanity, the most developed and taken into account as a circumstance affecting the punishment. In other areas of the law said institution worked shallow.The results of this study are scientific and practical value, because they can be useful for teaching students - in the industrial discipline "Criminal Law" and the general theoretical discipline "Theory of State and Law"; in science - by picking up information about the features of the Institute of guilt, and in practice - said the work can be useful to practitioners of judicial and investigative bodies, in order to understand the meaning and importance of the category of guilt, including - the guilt of persons

  7. 75 FR 71632 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Mental Disorders

    2010-11-24

    ... Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Mental Disorders AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION... comments on any other aspects of the proposed listings for mental disorders that we receive during this... our mental disorders listings: Definitions we provide for the terms ``marked'' and ``extreme'' that...

  8. Top 10 research questions to promote physical activity in bipolar disorders: A consensus statement from the International Organization of Physical Therapists in Mental Health.

    Vancampfort, Davy; Rosenbaum, Simon; Probst, Michel; Connaughton, Joanne; du Plessis, Christy; Yamamoto, Taisei; Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-05-01

    Research has only recently started to consider the importance and applicability of physical activity (PA) for people with bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of the current study is to highlight 10 pertinent PA research questions in people with BD. The International Organization of Physical Therapy in Mental Health executed a consultation with all National organizations (n=13) to identify the most salient questions to guide future research on PA in BD. We identified the following 10 questions: (1) What are the benefits of PA for people with BD? (2) What are the most prominent safety issues for PA prescription in BD? (3) What is the optimal PA prescription for people with BD? (4) What are the key barriers to PA among people with BD? (5) What are the most effective motivational strategies for ensuring PA adoption and maintenance in BD? (6) How do we translate PA research into community practice? (7) If one treatment goal is increased physical activity, what type of professionals are needed as part of a multidisciplinary team? (8) How do we incorporate PA as a vital sign in clinical practice? (9) How can we prevent sedentary behavior in BD? (10) What is the most appropriate PA assessment method? We did not consult people with BD. Addressing these questions is critical for developing evidence-based approaches for promoting and sustaining an active lifestyle in BD. Ultimately, achieving this will reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease and improve the quality of life of this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mental disorders among health workers in Brazil

    Berenice Scaletzky Knuth

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe scope of this article is to deter mine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD and Depression among Community Health Agents (CHA and employees of Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS. It is a cross-sectional descriptive study involving the target population of Community Health Workers and Psychosocial Care Center workers, linked to the Municipal Health Department of Pelotas in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul. The presence of common mental disorders was considered when the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ was > 7 and the occurrence of depression when BDI > 12. In total, 257 professionals participated in the study. Among mental health professionals (n = 119, the prevalence of CMDs was 25.2% and depression was 23.5%, while the prevalence of CMDs was 48.6% and depression was 29% among CHA (n = 138. The ratio of CMDs between the two groups of professionals was statistically different (p < 0.001. In this study, it was observed that the CAPS professionals are more adapted to work issues, with less perceived health problems arising from work and with a lower prevalence of mental disorders compared to CHA.

  10. DSM-5 and Mental Disorders in Older Individuals: An Overview.

    Sachdev, Perminder S; Mohan, Adith; Taylor, Lauren; Jeste, Dilip V

    2015-01-01

    After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Assess the changes in DSM-5 relative to earlier versions.• Evaluate the implications of the DSM-5 for practicing geriatric psychiatrists. About every 20 years, the American Psychiatric Association revises its official classification of mental disorders. The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was published in 2013, prompting considerable commentary, debate, and criticism. This article briefly describes the process leading up to DSM-5 and the main changes from the previous version (DSM-IV) that would be of interest to a geriatric psychiatrist. The changes in the areas of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depressive disorders, and anxiety disorders have been many, but the majority of them are minor and unlikely to have major treatment implications. The classification of neurocognitive disorders, however, has seen a major revision and elaboration in comparison to DSM-IV; of special note is the introduction of "mild and major neurocognitive disorders," the latter equated with dementia. A common language has also been introduced for the criteria for the various etiological subtypes of neurocognitive disorders. All physicians treating patients with neurocognitive disorders should familiarize themselves with these criteria. Their use in research has the potential to harmonize the field.

  11. DSM-5 and mental disorders in older individuals: an overview

    Sachdev, Perminder S.; Mohan, Adith; Taylor, Lauren; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2015-01-01

    About every 20 years, the American Psychiatric Association revises its official classification of mental disorders. The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was published in 2013, exciting considerable commentary, debate and criticism. This article briefly describes the process that led to the DSM-5 and the main changes from the previous version (DSM-IV) that would be of interest to a geriatric psychiatrist. While there have been a number of changes in the areas of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depressive disorders and anxiety disorders, the majority of these changes are minor and unlikely to have major treatment implications. The classification of neurocognitive disorders has however seen a major revision and elaboration in comparison with DSM-IV, with the introduction of Mild and Major Neurocognitive Disorders, the latter equated with dementia. A common language is introduced for the criteria of the various etiological subtypes of neurocognitive disorders. All physicians treating patients with neurocognitive disorders should familiarize themselves with these criteria. Their use in research has the potential to harmonize the field. PMID:26332215

  12. Co-occurring mental illness, substance use disorders, and antisocial personality disorder among clients of forensic mental health services.

    Ogloff, James R P; Talevski, Diana; Lemphers, Anthea; Wood, Melisa; Simmons, Melanie

    2015-03-01

    Despite the number of studies investigating co-occurring disorders, and more recently, co-occurring disorders and criminal offending, few studies have considered samples from forensic mental health services. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between mental illness, substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder, and offending. The prevalence of co-occurring disorders was investigated in 130 male offenders who had contact with the statewide forensic mental health service in Victoria, Australia. Offense histories and severity of offending were compared among participants diagnosed with a single mental illness (or no mental illness), co-occurring mental illness and substance use, and co-occurring disorders plus antisocial personality disorder. The majority of participants had co-occurring mental and substance use disorders; a significant minority met the criteria for antisocial personality disorder. Participants with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders, and those who had an additional diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, were responsible for more serious and frequent offending than those with mental illness alone. Forensic mental health services must take into account the effect that co-occurring disorders have on clients' functioning and offending. Those who work with people with psychiatric disabilities and co-occurring substance use disorders must ensure that the substance disorders are addressed to help ensure recovery from the mental illness and to reduce the likelihood of offending. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Domains of psychosocial disability and mental disorders.

    Ro, Eunyoe; Watson, David; Clark, Lee Anna

    2018-06-07

    This study examined relations between comprehensive domains of psychosocial disability and mental disorders to determine (1) whether differential patterns of associations exist between psychosocial disability dimensions and commonly diagnosed mental disorders and (2) whether these relations differ between self-reported and interviewer-rated psychosocial disability domains. Self-reported and interviewer-rated psychosocial functioning measures and an interviewer-rated diagnostic assessment tool were administered to 181 psychiatric outpatients. Internalizing disorders showed the strongest and most pervasive associations with psychosocial impairment across both self-reported and interviewer-rated measures, followed by thought disorder; externalizing showed the weakest associations. More specifically, logistic regression analyses indicated that lower well-being factor score significantly increased the odds of distress-disorder diagnoses, and poor basic functioning increased the odds of PTSD. Results clearly showed differences in the magnitude of associations between three dimensions of psychosocial-disability and commonly diagnosed disorders, and that these differences were similar regardless of rater type. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Outcomes of Nordic mental health systems: life expectancy of patients with mental disorders

    Wahlbeck, Kristian; Westman, Jeanette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2011-01-01

    People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision.......People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision....

  15. Reducing the use of seclusion for mental disorder in a prison: implementing a high support unit in a prison using participant action research

    Giblin Yvette

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vulnerable prisoners and mentally disordered offenders who present with risk of harm to self or others were accommodated in Special Observation Cells (SOCs isolated from others for considerable periods of time. This practice has been criticised by the Council of Europe Committee for the Prevention of Torture. The objective of this initiative was to reduce the use of seclusion within the prison and to improve the care of vulnerable and mentally ill prisoners within the prison. Results The prison studied is a committal centre for sentenced prisoners with an official bed capacity of 630. The forensic mental health in-reach team, in co-operation with the prison health service followed the 'spiral' of planning, action and fact finding about the results of the action. In December 2010 a 10 bed High Support Unit (HSU was established within the prison. During the first year, 96 prisoners were admitted. A third (35% reported psychotic symptoms, 28% were referred due to the immediate risk of self-harm, 17% were accommodated for medical treatments and increased observation, 13% received specialised treatment by the Addiction Psychiatry team, 6% presented with emotional distress. One prisoner was accommodated on the HSU due to the acute risk he posed to others. A major mental illness was diagnosed in 29%, 20% required short-term increased support for crisis intervention and were found not to have a mental illness. A further 10% were deemed to be feigning symptoms of mental illness to seek refuge in the HSU. 7% had personality disorder as their primary diagnosis and 4% had a learning disability. Stratifying risk within the prison population through the provision of the HSU decreased the total episodes of seclusion in the prison by 59% (p Conclusions The next step is to further stratify risk by establishing a low support unit to serve as a step-down from the high support unit.

  16. Expectancies as core features of mental disorders.

    Rief, Winfried; Glombiewski, Julia A; Gollwitzer, Mario; Schubö, Anna; Schwarting, Rainer; Thorwart, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Expectancies are core features of mental disorders, and change in expectations is therefore one of the core mechanisms of treatment in psychiatry. We aim to improve our understanding of expectancies by summarizing factors that contribute to their development, persistence, and modification. We pay particular attention to the issue of persistence of expectancies despite experiences that contradict them. Based on recent research findings, we propose a new model for expectation persistence and expectation change. When expectations are established, effects are evident in neural and other biological systems, for example, via anticipatory reactions, different biological reactions to expected versus unexpected stimuli, etc. Psychological 'immunization' and 'assimilation', implicit self-confirming processes, and stability of biological processes help us to better understand why expectancies persist even in the presence of expectation violations. Learning theory, attentional processes, social influences, and biological determinants contribute to the development, persistence, and modification of expectancies. Psychological interventions should focus on optimizing expectation violation to achieve optimal treatment outcome and to avoid treatment failures.

  17. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders

    Kamenov, Kaloyan; Cabello, Maria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla; Raggi, Alberto; Anczewska, Marta; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness) and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality. PMID:26900847

  18. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders.

    Kaloyan Kamenov

    Full Text Available Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality.

  19. Influence of mental disorders on school dropout in Mexico.

    Borges, Guilherme; Medina Mora-Icaza, María Elena; Benjet, Corina; Lee, Sing; Lane, Michael; Breslau, Joshua

    2011-11-01

    To study the impact of mental disorders on failure in educational attainment in Mexico. Diagnoses and age of onset for each of 16 DSM-IV disorders were assessed through retrospective self-reports with the Composite International Diagnostic Instrument (CIDI) during fieldwork in 2001-2002. Survival analysis was used to examine associations between early onset DSM-IV/CIDI disorders and subsequent school dropout or failure to reach educational milestones. More than one of two Mexicans did not complete secondary education. More than one-third of those who finished secondary education did not enter college, and one of four students who entered college did not graduate. Impulse control disorders and substance use disorders were associated with higher risk for school dropout, secondary school dropout and to a lesser degree failure to enter college. Anxiety disorders were associated with lower risk for school dropout, especially secondary school dropout and, to a lesser degree, primary school dropout. The heterogeneity of results found in Mexico may be due to the effect of mental disorders being diminished or masked by the much greater effect of economic hardship and low cultural expectations for educational achievement. Future research should inquire deeper into possible reasons for the better performance of students with anxiety disorders in developing countries.

  20. Mental disorder prevalence and associated risk factors in three prisons of Spain.

    Zabala-Baños, M C; Segura, A; Maestre-Miquel, C; Martínez-Lorca, M; Rodríguez-Martín, B; Romero, D; Rodríguez, M

    2016-01-01

    To determine the lifetime and monthly prevalence of people with mental disorders and its association with sociodemographic factors and criminal risk in three Spanish prisons (Ocaña, Madrid I, II and VI). Cross-sectional epidemiological study of a sample of 184 inmates. Socio-demographic and criminal data were collected by an ad hoc interview. Mental disorders were assessed with the clinical version of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Life prevalence of mental disorders was 90.2%. The most common mental disorders and substance abuse or dependence was 72.3%, followed by mood disorder (38.5%) and psychotic disorders (34.2%). Moreover, the prevalence of any mental disorder in the last month was 52.2%. The main psychotic disorder (20.7%) was followed by substance abuse or dependence (18.5%), and mood disorder state (13%). A socio-demographic profile as a risk for each disorder was found. The prevalence of people with mental disorders is very high in Spanish prisons, and is associated with a distinct demographic profile. It is essential to continue researching this reality, translating the results into therapeutic and preventive action adapted to the status of inmates to reduce social inequalities in this high priority public health situation.

  1. Mental disorder prevalence and associated risk factors in three prisons of Spain

    M.C. Zabala-Baños

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine the lifetime and monthly prevalence of people with mental disorders and its association with sociodemographic factors and criminal risk in three Spanish prisons (Ocaña, Madrid I, II and VI. Method: Cross-sectional epidemiological study of a sample of 184 inmates. Socio-demographic and criminal data were collected by an ad hoc interview. Mental disorders were assessed with the clinical version of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Axis I Disorders (SCID-I. Results: Life prevalence of mental disorders was 90.2%. The most common mental disorders and substance abuse or dependence was 72.3%, followed by mood disorder (38.5% and psychotic disorders (34.2%. Moreover, the prevalence of any mental disorder in the last month was 52.2%. The main psychotic disorder (20.7% was followed by substance abuse or dependence (18.5%, and mood disorder state (13%. A socio-demographic profile as a risk for each disorder was found. Discussion: The prevalence of people with mental disorders is very high in Spanish prisons, and is associated with a distinct demographic profile. It is essential to continue researching this reality, translating the results into therapeutic and preventive action adapted to the status of inmates to reduce social inequalities in this high priority public health situation.

  2. Rehabilitation to people with mental disorders

    Eplov, Lene; Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Jespersen, Ejgil

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Government Committee on Psychiatry states that recovery-oriented rehabilitation is an important framework and direction in psychiatry. Recovery-oriented rehabilitation means that the intervention is based on best practice. It is also based on four values: self-determination, person inv...... involvement, self-determination/choice and growth potential. A comprehensive national plan of action on how to develop a recovery-oriented rehabilitation to Danish citizens with mental disorders is recommended....

  3. Main features of narrow sociological theories explaining mental disorders

    Opalić Petar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the introduction, the author states that sociological theories explaining mental disorders in the narrow sense have originated as an opposition to medical, i.e. biological model of interpreting mental disorders. With regard to this, the following sociological theories explaining mental disorders are presented in more detail: theory of anomie by Durkheim and Merton (with Merton’s typology of deviant behavior, social roles theory by Parsons, labeling theory by Scheff and other authors, theoretical career model of the mentally ill, the concept of psychic disorder of etnomethodology and finally, the anti-psychiatric interpretation of mental disorders. It is concluded that, although historically older, sociological theories of the onset of mental disorders are filling the epistemological void that occurred in understanding the role of society on the whole and a series of social factors particularly on the different aspects of understanding mental disorders.

  4. Research utilization among children's mental health providers

    Ferguson H Bruce

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with emotional and behavioural disorders should be able to count on receiving care that meets their needs and is based on the best scientific evidence available, however, many do not receive these services. Implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP relies, in part, on the research utilization practices of mental health care providers. This study reports on a survey of research utilization practices among 80 children's mental health (CMH service provider organizations in Ontario, Canada. Methods A web-based survey was distributed to 80 CMH service provider organizations, to which 51 executive directors and 483 children's mental health practitioners responded. Research utilization was assessed using questions with Likert-type responses based on the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation's Four-A's approach: access, assess, adapt, apply. Results There was general agreement among executive directors and practitioners regarding the capacity of their organizations to use – access, assess, adapt, and apply – research evidence. Overall, both groups rated their organizations as using research information 'somewhat well.' The low response rate to the practitioner survey should be noted. Conclusion These findings provide a useful benchmark from which changes in reported research utilization in the Ontario CMH sector can be tracked over time, as a function of EBP training and implementation initiatives, for instance. The need to improve access to research evidence should be addressed because it relates to the eventual implementation and uptake of evidence-based practices. Communities of practice are recommended as a strategy that would enable practitioners to build capacity in their adaptation and application of research evidence.

  5. Research utilization among children's mental health providers.

    Barwick, Melanie A; Boydell, Katherine M; Stasiulis, Elaine; Ferguson, H Bruce; Blase, Karen; Fixsen, Dean

    2008-04-09

    Children with emotional and behavioural disorders should be able to count on receiving care that meets their needs and is based on the best scientific evidence available, however, many do not receive these services. Implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) relies, in part, on the research utilization practices of mental health care providers. This study reports on a survey of research utilization practices among 80 children's mental health (CMH) service provider organizations in Ontario, Canada. A web-based survey was distributed to 80 CMH service provider organizations, to which 51 executive directors and 483 children's mental health practitioners responded. Research utilization was assessed using questions with Likert-type responses based on the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation's Four-A's approach: access, assess, adapt, apply. There was general agreement among executive directors and practitioners regarding the capacity of their organizations to use - access, assess, adapt, and apply - research evidence. Overall, both groups rated their organizations as using research information 'somewhat well.' The low response rate to the practitioner survey should be noted. These findings provide a useful benchmark from which changes in reported research utilization in the Ontario CMH sector can be tracked over time, as a function of EBP training and implementation initiatives, for instance. The need to improve access to research evidence should be addressed because it relates to the eventual implementation and uptake of evidence-based practices. Communities of practice are recommended as a strategy that would enable practitioners to build capacity in their adaptation and application of research evidence.

  6. Mentally disordered criminal offenders in the Swedish criminal system.

    Svennerlind, Christer; Nilsson, Thomas; Kerekes, Nóra; Andiné, Peter; Lagerkvist, Margareta; Forsman, Anders; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Malmgren, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Historically, the Swedish criminal justice system conformed to other Western penal law systems, exempting severely mentally disordered offenders considered to be unaccountable. However, in 1965 Sweden enforced a radical penal law abolishing exceptions based on unaccountability. Mentally disordered offenders have since then been subjected to various forms of sanctions motivated by the offender's need for care and aimed at general prevention. Until 2008, a prison sentence was not allowed for offenders found to have committed a crime under the influence of a severe mental disorder, leaving forensic psychiatric care the most common sanction in this group. Such offenders are nevertheless held criminally responsible, liable for damages, and encumbered with a criminal record. In most cases, such offenders must not be discharged without the approval of an administrative court. Two essentially modern principles may be discerned behind the "Swedish model": first, an attempted abolishment of moral responsibility, omitting concepts such as guilt, accountability, atonement, and retribution, and, second, the integration of psychiatric care into the societal reaction and control systems. The model has been much criticized, and several governmental committees have suggested a re-introduction of a system involving the concept of accountability. This review describes the Swedish special criminal justice provisions on mentally disordered offenders including the legislative changes in 1965 along with current proposals to return to a pre-1965 system, presents current Swedish forensic psychiatric practice and research, and discusses some of the ethical, political, and metaphysical presumptions that underlie the current system. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethics and mental illness research.

    Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2002-09-01

    There are many tasks ahead in the area of ethics and mental illness research. We face unknown challenges in psychiatric genetics projects, studies of psychopharmacological interventions in children, controversial scientific designs (e.g., symptom challenge, medication-free interval), and cross-disciplinary research incorporating goals and methods of health services, epidemiology, and social and behavioral science endeavors. Boundaries between innovative clinical practices and research-related experimentation will become increasingly difficult to distinguish, as will the roles between clinicians, clinical researchers, and basic scientists. Moreover, the institutions and systems in which research occurs are being rapidly and radically revised, raising new questions about oversight responsibilities and standards. Our ability to identify and respond to the ethical questions arising in this uncharted territory will depend on our willingness to self-reflect, to integrate the observations and insights of the past century, to think with great clarity, and to anticipate novel ethical problems that keep company with scientific advancements. It will also depend on data. Empirical study of ethical dimensions of human research is essential to anchor and attune the intuitions and theoretical constructs that we develop. Science and ethics have changed over the past 100 years, as they will over the next century. It is ironic that the ethical acceptability of psychiatric research is so much in question at this time, when it holds so much promise for advancing our understanding of mental illness and its treatment. The tension between the duty to protect vulnerable individuals and the duty to perform human science will continue to grow, as long as ethics and science are seen as separable, opposing forces with different aims championed by different heroes. The profession of psychiatry is poised to move toward a new, more coherent research ethics paradigm in which scientific and

  8. Selecting Effective Treatments: A Comprehensive, Systematic Guide to Treating Mental Disorders. Revised Edition.

    Seligman, Linda

    This book presents an overview of the major types of mental disorders, accompanied by treatment models that are structured, comprehensive, grounded in research, and likely to be effective. Chapter topics are: (1) "Introduction to Effective Treatment Planning"; (2) "Mental Disorders in Infants, Children, and Adolescents"; (3) "Situationally…

  9. Internet-Based Screening for Suicidal Ideation in Common Mental Disorders

    Hemelrijk, E.; van Ballegooijen, W.; Donker, T.; van Straten, A.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Common mental disorders have been found to be related to suicidal ideation and behavior. Research in the field of web-based interventions for common mental disorders, however, usually excludes participants with a suicidal risk, although a large proportion of participants might suffer

  10. Psychotic experiences and suicide attempt risk in common mental disorders and borderline personality disorder.

    Kelleher, I; Ramsay, H; DeVylder, J

    2017-03-01

    Recent research has demonstrated a strong relationship between psychotic experiences and suicidal behaviour. No research to date, however, has investigated the role of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in this relationship, despite the fact that BPD is highly comorbid with common mental disorders and is associated with both recurrent suicidal behaviour and psychotic experiences. This paper examined the relationship between psychotic experiences and suicide attempts, including interrelationships with BPD and common mental disorders. We used the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Study, a stratified, multistage probability sample of households in England, which recruited a nationally representative sample aged 16 years and older. Participants were assessed for common mental disorders, BPD (clinical and subclinical), suicidal behaviour, and psychotic experiences. Approximately 4% of the total sample (n = 323) reported psychotic experiences. Psychotic experiences were associated with increased odds of suicide attempts in individuals with BPD (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.03-4.85), individuals with a common mental disorder (OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.37-4.43), individuals without a common mental disorder (OR = 3.99, 95% CI = 2.47-6.43), and individuals with neither a common mental disorder nor BPD (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 1.71-5.98). Psychotic experiences are associated with high odds of suicidal behaviour in individuals with and without psychopathology. This relationship is not explained by clinical or subclinical BPD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Early-life mental disorders and adult household income in the World Mental Health Surveys

    Kawakami, Norito; Abdulghani, Emad Abdulrazaq; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Fayyad, John; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Lakoma, Matthew D.; LeBlanc, William; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Malhotra, Savita; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Better information on the human capital costs of early-onset mental disorders could increase sensitivity of policy-makers to the value of expanding initiatives for early detection-treatment. Data are presented on one important aspect of these costs: the associations of early-onset mental disorders with adult household income. Methods Data come from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in eleven high income, five upper-middle income, and six low/lower-middle income countries. Information about 15 lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders as of age of completing education, retrospectively assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used to predict current household income among respondents ages 18-64 (n = 37,741) controlling for level of education. Gross associations were decomposed to evaluate mediating effects through major components of household income. Results Early-onset mental disorders are associated with significantly reduced household income in high and upper-middle income countries but not low/lower-middle income countries, with associations consistently stronger among women than men. Total associations are largely due to low personal earnings (increased unemployment, decreased earnings among the employed) and spouse earnings (decreased probabilities of marriage and, if married, spouse employment and low earnings of employed spouses). Individual-level effect sizes are equivalent to 16-33% of median within-country household income, while population-level effect sizes are in the range 1.0-1.4% of Gross Household Income. Conclusions Early mental disorders are associated with substantial decrements in income net of education at both individual and societal levels. Policy-makers should take these associations into consideration in making healthcare research and treatment resource allocation decisions. PMID:22521149

  12. Kant on mental disorder. Part 1: an overview.

    Frierson, Patrick

    2009-09-01

    This paper sets out Kant's anthropological account of mental disorder. I begin with a discussion of the nature of Kant's 'pragmatic anthropology' and the implications of the fact that his discussion of mental disorder takes place in that context. I then set out Kant's taxonomy of the mind and discuss the various disorders affecting the cognitive faculty and the faculties of feeling and desire. I end with a brief discussion of Kant's views on the causes, preventions, and treatments of mental disorder.

  13. European military mental health research: benefits of collaboration.

    Himmerich, Hubertus; Willmund, G D; Wesemann, U; Jones, N; Fear, N T

    2017-06-01

    Despite joint participation in international military operations, few collaborative military mental health research projects have been undertaken by European countries. From a common perspective of military mental health researchers from Germany and the UK, the lack of shared research might be related not only to the use of different languages but also the different ways in which the two militaries provide mental health and medical support to operations and differences in military institutions. One area that is suitable for military health research collaboration within UK and German forces is mental health and well-being among military personnel. This could include the study of resilience factors, the prevention of mental disorder, mental health awareness, stigma reduction and the treatment of mental disorder. Military mental health research topics, interests and the studies that have been conducted to date in the UK and Germany have considerable overlap and commonality of purpose. To undertake the investigation of the long-term consequences of operational deployment, the specific burdens placed on military families and to further the understanding of the role of factors such as biomarkers for use in military mental health research, it seems advisable to forge international research alliances across European nations, which would allow for researchers to draw transcultural and generalisable conclusions from their work. Such an enterprise is probably worthwhile given the shared research interests of Germany and the UK and the common perspectives on military mental health in particular. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Management of mental health disorders in HIV-positive patients

    Mental Health Guidelines Committee, Southern African HIV Clinicians Society, ... triple diagnosis (HIV/mental disorder/substance use disorder), or mental .... fatigue or loss of energy .... between 20% and 60% of HIV-positive adults suffer from some form ... patients on complex regimens should be reviewed regularly with a.

  15. The size and burden of mental disorders and other disorders of the brain in Europe 2010.

    Wittchen, H U; Jacobi, F; Rehm, J; Gustavsson, A; Svensson, M; Jönsson, B; Olesen, J; Allgulander, C; Alonso, J; Faravelli, C; Fratiglioni, L; Jennum, P; Lieb, R; Maercker, A; van Os, J; Preisig, M; Salvador-Carulla, L; Simon, R; Steinhausen, H-C

    2011-09-01

    To provide 12-month prevalence and disability burden estimates of a broad range of mental and neurological disorders in the European Union (EU) and to compare these findings to previous estimates. Referring to our previous 2005 review, improved up-to-date data for the enlarged EU on a broader range of disorders than previously covered are needed for basic, clinical and public health research and policy decisions and to inform about the estimated number of persons affected in the EU. Stepwise multi-method approach, consisting of systematic literature reviews, reanalyses of existing data sets, national surveys and expert consultations. Studies and data from all member states of the European Union (EU-27) plus Switzerland, Iceland and Norway were included. Supplementary information about neurological disorders is provided, although methodological constraints prohibited the derivation of overall prevalence estimates for mental and neurological disorders. Disease burden was measured by disability adjusted life years (DALY). Prevalence: It is estimated that each year 38.2% of the EU population suffers from a mental disorder. Adjusted for age and comorbidity, this corresponds to 164.8million persons affected. Compared to 2005 (27.4%) this higher estimate is entirely due to the inclusion of 14 new disorders also covering childhood/adolescence as well as the elderly. The estimated higher number of persons affected (2011: 165m vs. 2005: 82m) is due to coverage of childhood and old age populations, new disorders and of new EU membership states. The most frequent disorders are anxiety disorders (14.0%), insomnia (7.0%), major depression (6.9%), somatoform (6.3%), alcohol and drug dependence (>4%), ADHD (5%) in the young, and dementia (1-30%, depending on age). Except for substance use disorders and mental retardation, there were no substantial cultural or country variations. Although many sources, including national health insurance programs, reveal increases in sick leave

  16. Caffeine, mental health, and psychiatric disorders.

    Lara, Diogo R

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine intake is so common that its pharmacological effects on the mind are undervalued. Since it is so readily available, individuals can adjust their own dose, time of administration and dose intervals of caffeine, according to the perceived benefits and side effects of each dose. This review focuses on human studies of caffeine in subjects with and without psychiatric disorders. Besides the possibility of mild drug dependence, caffeine may bring benefits that contribute to its widespread use. These benefits seem to be related to adaptation of mental energy to the context by increasing alertness, attention, and cognitive function (more evident in longer or more difficult tasks or situations of low arousal) and by elevating mood. Accordingly, moderate caffeine intake (caffeine can induce psychotic and manic symptoms, and more commonly, anxiety. Patients with panic disorder and performance social anxiety disorder seem to be particularly sensitive to the anxiogenic effects of caffeine, whereas preliminary data suggests that it may be effective for some patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The threshold for the anxiogenic effect of caffeine is influenced by a polymorphism of the A2A receptor. In summary, caffeine can be regarded as a pharmacological tool to increase energy and effortful behavior in daily activities. More populational (cross-sectional and prospective) and experimental studies are necessary to establish the role of caffeine intake in psychiatric disorders, especially its putative efficacy on depressive mood and cognitive/attentional disorders.

  17. Abortion and mental health : A longitudinal study of common mental disorders among women who terminated an unwanted pregnancy

    van Ditzhuijzen, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade there has been renewed interest in the question whether termination of an unwanted pregnancy is linked to subsequent mental health disorders. Most research in this field is characterized by methodological limitations, and conclusions often remain disputable. To offer insight in the mental health of women who have abortions, both before and after the pregnancy termination, a prospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted, the “Dutch Abortion and Mental Health Study” (DA...

  18. Pharmaceutical Innovation in the Treatment of Schizophrenia and Mental Disorders Compared with Other Diseases.

    MacEwan, Joanna P; Seabury, Seth; Aigbogun, Myrlene Sanon; Kamat, Siddhesh; van Eijndhoven, Emma; Francois, Clement; Henderson, Crystal; Citrome, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the level of private and public investment in research and development of treatments for schizophrenia and other mental disorders compared to other diseases in order to present data on the economic burden and pharmaceutical innovation by disease area, and to compare the level of investment relative to burden across different diseases. The levels of investment and pharmaceutical innovation relative to burden across different diseases were assessed. Disease burden and prevalence for mental disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder); cancer; rheumatoid arthritis; chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder; diabetes; cardiovascular disease; and neurological disorders (dementia and epilepsy) were estimated from literature sources. Pharmaceutical treatment innovation was measured by the total number of drug launches and the number of drugs launched categorized by innovativeness. Research and development expenditures were estimated using published information on annual public and domestic private research and development expenditures by disease area. Lastly, investment relative to disease burden was measured among the set of disease classes for which all three measures were available: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neurology (dementia and epilepsy combined). The level of investment and pharmaceutical innovation in mental disorders was comparatively low, especially relative to the burden of disease. For mental disorders, investment was $3.1 per $1,000 burden invested in research and development for schizophrenia, $1.8 for major depressive disorder, and $0.4 for bipolar disorder relative to cancer ($75.5), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ($9.4), diabetes ($7.6), cardiovascular disease ($6.3), or rheumatoid arthritis ($5.3). Pharmaceutical innovation was also low

  19. The size and burden of mental disorders and other disorders of the brain in Europe 2010

    Wittchen, H U; Jacobi, F; Rehm, J

    2011-01-01

    To provide 12-month prevalence and disability burden estimates of a broad range of mental and neurological disorders in the European Union (EU) and to compare these findings to previous estimates. Referring to our previous 2005 review, improved up-to-date data for the enlarged EU on a broader ran...... of disorders than previously covered are needed for basic, clinical and public health research and policy decisions and to inform about the estimated number of persons affected in the EU....

  20. Relationship between sexual offences and mental and developmental disorders: a review

    Alexandre Martins Valença

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is a serious public health problem that concerns and faces our society. The prevalence, magnitude and consequences of this problem have merited growing attention by health researchers and human rights scholars. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a review of the literature regarding the relationship between mental disorders, sexual offences and those of development. METHODS: A bibliographic research was performed in PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO and Lilacs, employing the terms "sexual crime", "sexual offence", "mental disorder", "mental retardation", "developmental disability" and its combinations. RESULTS: The mental disorders and developmental disorders more frequently related to the perpetration of sexual offences were schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and mental retardation. DISCUSSION: The detection and treatment of psychiatric morbidity among sexual offenders in health and criminal justice systems, which may contribute to a lower risk of recidivism of this sexual behaviour, is important.

  1. Reducing the use of seclusion for mental disorder in a prison: implementing a high support unit in a prison using participant action research

    2012-01-01

    Background Vulnerable prisoners and mentally disordered offenders who present with risk of harm to self or others were accommodated in Special Observation Cells (SOCs) isolated from others for considerable periods of time. This practice has been criticised by the Council of Europe Committee for the Prevention of Torture. The objective of this initiative was to reduce the use of seclusion within the prison and to improve the care of vulnerable and mentally ill prisoners within the prison. Results The prison studied is a committal centre for sentenced prisoners with an official bed capacity of 630. The forensic mental health in-reach team, in co-operation with the prison health service followed the 'spiral' of planning, action and fact finding about the results of the action. In December 2010 a 10 bed High Support Unit (HSU) was established within the prison. During the first year, 96 prisoners were admitted. A third (35%) reported psychotic symptoms, 28% were referred due to the immediate risk of self-harm, 17% were accommodated for medical treatments and increased observation, 13% received specialised treatment by the Addiction Psychiatry team, 6% presented with emotional distress. One prisoner was accommodated on the HSU due to the acute risk he posed to others. A major mental illness was diagnosed in 29%, 20% required short-term increased support for crisis intervention and were found not to have a mental illness. A further 10% were deemed to be feigning symptoms of mental illness to seek refuge in the HSU. 7% had personality disorder as their primary diagnosis and 4% had a learning disability. Stratifying risk within the prison population through the provision of the HSU decreased the total episodes of seclusion in the prison by 59% (p prison. Pathways between the prison and the forensic psychiatric hospital saw no change in activity but improved continuity of care. Conclusions The next step is to further stratify risk by establishing a low support unit to serve

  2. Prospective mental imagery in patients with major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders

    Morina, N.; Deeprose, C.; Pusowski, C.; Schmid, M.; Holmes, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Prospective negative cognitions are suggested to play an important role in maintaining anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about positive prospective mental imagery. This study investigated differences in prospective mental imagery among 27 patients with

  3. Mental Health Disorders. Adolescent Health Highlight. Publication #2013-1

    Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…

  4. Mischievous responding in Internet Gaming Disorder research.

    Przybylski, Andrew K

    2016-01-01

    The most recent update to the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) included Internet Gaming Disorder as a new potential psychiatric condition that merited further scientific study. The present research was conducted in response to the APA Substance-Related Disorders Working Group's research call to estimate the extent to which mischievous responding-a known problematic pattern of participant self-report responding in questionnaires-is relevant to Internet Gaming Disorder research. In line with a registered sampling and analysis plan, findings from two studies (n tot = 11,908) provide clear evidence that mischievous responding is positively associated with the number of Internet Gaming Disorder indicators participants report. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing problem gaming research and the discussion provides recommendations for improving the quality of scientific practice in this area.

  5. Mischievous responding in Internet Gaming Disorder research

    Andrew K. Przybylski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The most recent update to the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 included Internet Gaming Disorder as a new potential psychiatric condition that merited further scientific study. The present research was conducted in response to the APA Substance-Related Disorders Working Group’s research call to estimate the extent to which mischievous responding—a known problematic pattern of participant self-report responding in questionnaires—is relevant to Internet Gaming Disorder research. In line with a registered sampling and analysis plan, findings from two studies (ntot = 11,908 provide clear evidence that mischievous responding is positively associated with the number of Internet Gaming Disorder indicators participants report. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing problem gaming research and the discussion provides recommendations for improving the quality of scientific practice in this area.

  6. Cross-national associations between gender and mental disorders in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    Seedat, Soraya; Scott, Kate Margaret; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Berglund, Patricia; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Demyttenaere, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Jin, Robert; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Ono, Yutaka; Ormel, Johan; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Williams, David; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Context Gender differences in mental disorders, including more anxiety-mood disorders among women and more externalizing disorders among men, are found consistently in epidemiological surveys. The “gender roles” hypothesis suggests that these differences should narrow as the roles of women and men become more equal. Objective To study time-space (i.e., cohort-country) variation in gender differences in lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders across cohorts in 15 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative and determine if this variation is significantly related to time-space variation in female gender role traditionality (GRT) as measured by aggregate patterns of female education, employment, marital timing, and use of birth control. Design/Setting and Participants Face-to face household surveys of 72,933 community-dwelling adults in Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and the Pacific. Main Outcomes The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) assessed lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset of 18 DSM-IV anxiety, mood, externalizing, and substance disorders. Survival analyses estimated time-space variation in Female:Male (F:M) odds-ratios (ORs) of these disorders across cohorts defined by age ranges 18–34, 35–49, 50–64, and 65+. Structural equation analysis examined predictive effects of variation in GRT on these ORs. Results Women had more anxiety-mood disorders than men and men more externalizing-substance disorders than women in all cohorts and countries. Although gender differences were generally consistent across cohorts, significant narrowing was found in recent cohorts for major depressive disorder (MDD) and substance disorders. This narrowing was significantly related to temporal (MDD) and spatial (substance disorders) variation in GRT. Conclusion While gender differences in most lifetime mental disorders were fairly stable over the time-space units studied, substantial inter-cohort narrowing of

  7. Large animals as potential models of human mental and behavioral disorders.

    Danek, Michał; Danek, Janusz; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2017-12-30

    Many animal models in different species have been developed for mental and behavioral disorders. This review presents large animals (dog, ovine, swine, horse) as potential models of this disorders. The article was based on the researches that were published in the peer-reviewed journals. Aliterature research was carried out using the PubMed database. The above issues were discussed in the several problem groups in accordance with the WHO International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10thRevision (ICD-10), in particular regarding: organic, including symptomatic, disorders; mental disorders (Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease, pernicious anemia and hepatic encephalopathy, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease); behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (alcoholic intoxication, abuse of morphine); schizophrenia and other schizotypal disorders (puerperal psychosis); mood (affective) disorders (depressive episode); neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder); behavioral syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors (anxiety disorders, anorexia nervosa, narcolepsy); mental retardation (Cohen syndrome, Down syndrome, Hunter syndrome); behavioral and emotional disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). This data indicates many large animal disorders which can be models to examine the above human mental and behavioral disorders.

  8. [Primary Prevention of Mental Disorders in Children of Mentally Ill Parents. The Kanu Programme "Canoe--Moving Jointly Forward"].

    Linthorst, K; Bauer, U; Osipov, I; Pinheiro, P; Rehder, M

    2015-09-01

    Children of parents who suffer from mental health disorders are more likely to develop mental disorders than children of parents not suffering from mental disorders. For children at risk, preventive strategies are hardly available and, if available, rarely supported by a scientific evaluation. "Kanu - Gemeinsam weiterkommen (canoe - moving jointly forward)" is a preventive strategy that was developed within a research project focusing on primary prevention in children who live in families with parents affected by mental disorders. The intervention is characterised by a multi-modular concept and was tested in the adult psychiatric setting. Preliminary results indicate a preventive impact of the intervention programme. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Prevalence Rates of Mental Disorders in Chilean Prisons

    Mundt, Adrian P.; Alvarado, Rubén; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Poblete, Catalina; Villagra, Carolina; Kastner, Sinja; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Objective High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. Method A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. Results Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1) for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0) for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8) for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1) for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2) for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3) for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, pprison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; pprison population than in the general population. Conclusions Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders. PMID:23894415

  10. [Severe mental disorders: cure? What an idea!

    Vignat, Jean-Pierre

    The evolution of mental disorders, notably the most severe forms such as schizophrenia, is a constant concern in terms of the necessary assessment of treatments and their efficiency, and to the human and economic cost of the 'chronicity' of the disorders. Many patients experience a positive evolution, evaluated in terms of subjective quality of life. However, the concept of recovery does not seem appropriate. The field of representations which the patient and the caregiver form with regard to the disease and its curability is an important element. The co-construction of the patient's future, in an approach centred on the patient, on their freedom and their autonomy, opens up the way towards recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatial clustering of mental disorders and associated characteristics of the neighbourhood context in Malmö, Sweden, in 2001

    Chaix, Basile; Leyland, Alastair H.; Sabel, Clive E.

    2006-01-01

    Study objective: Previous research provides preliminary evidence of spatial variations of mental disorders and associations between neighbourhood social context and mental health. This study expands past literature by (1) using spatial techniques, rather than multilevel models, to compare the spa...

  12. Do Undiagnosed Suicide Decedents Have Symptoms of a Mental Disorder?

    Joiner, Thomas E; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M; Chu, Carol

    2017-12-01

    Psychological autopsy studies consistently report that the rate of detected mental disorders among suicide decedents is below 100%. This implies three possibilities: (a) a subset of suicide decedents did not have a mental disorder at the time of death; (b) all suicide decedents suffered from a mental disorder, but some were undetected due to methodological limitations; and/or (c) suicide decedents with an undetected mental disorder displayed significant and perhaps subclinical features of a mental disorder. In this article, we examined these possibilities by evaluating the differences in symptoms and stressors between suicide decedents who were undiagnosed and those diagnosed with a mental disorder at the time of death. We reviewed 130 case studies of community-based suicide decedents originally described in Robins' (1981) psychological autopsy study. Without exception, suicide decedents in Robins' sample suffered either from a clearly diagnosable mental disorder or displayed features indicative of a significant, even if subclinical, presentation of a mental disorder. Undiagnosed and diagnosed suicide decedents did not significantly differ with regards to demographics, violence of suicide method, suicide attempt history, the number and intensity of stressful life events preceding death, and whether their death was a murder-suicide. Although clearly not all who suffer from mental disorders will die by suicide, these findings imply that all who die by suicide appear to exhibit, at minimum, subclinical psychiatric symptoms with the great majority showing prominent clinical symptoms. We conclude with clinical implications and recommendations for future study. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Attachment and eating disorders: a research update.

    Tasca, Giorgio A

    2018-03-16

    Prominent models of eating disorders tend to focus on cognitive and behavioral features, but tend not to consider important developmental issues related to affect regulation, interpersonal style, self concept, and mentalization-all of which are well conceptualized within attachment theory. Higher levels of attachment insecurity across diagnoses are related to greater eating disorder symptoms. Low parental care and early trauma may lead to attachment insecurity that then might lead to greater eating disorder symptoms. The association between insecure attachment and eating disorder severity is likely mediated by affect dysregulation and perfectionism. Recent research using the Adult Attachment Interview highlights the importance of reflective functioning in predicting treatment response and therapeutic processes, and on the utility of therapies that increase mentalization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. STRESS AND MENTAL DISORDERS IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    SH AKOOCHEKIAN

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic renal failure and dialysis are complicated situations that affect on somatic and mental status of patients. In this study, relation between stress, renal diseas, dialysis and mental disorders was determined. Methods. In a case control study in Noor hospital"s dialysis ward (affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services the mental status of 30 end stage renal disease (ESRD patients were compaired with well matched control group by MMPI. Results. Hypochondriasis (Hs, depression (D, hysteria (Hy psychastenia (Pt and schizophrenia (Sc were observed in ESRD patients more than controls (P < 0.05. Means of sociopathy (Pd, paranoia (Pa and hypomania (Ma had no difference between groups (P > 0.05. Realy sadness and dysphoria, rumintion with illness, obsession, anxiety, compulsion, impaired process of thinking, isolation tendency and odd sensation in patients were more than control group (P < 0.05. Discussion. Chronic diseases have psychological complication and as a stress must cope and adjust with it. So, these patients and their families must be educated about coping mechanism. When the patients and their families have good coping mechanism, they would be able tolerate these streses.

  15. Geneva calling: WHO resolution on mental disorders

    Barbui Corrado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new resolution on mental, neurological and substance use disorders was adopted in January 2012 by the World Health Organization (WHO Executive Board. The resolution urges WHO and Member States to collaborate in the development of a comprehensive mental health action plan, to be submitted for discussion and approval to the WHO World Health Assembly. This commentary aims at rising awareness on the risk that this resolution may not fulfil its potential. Discussion Lack of political awareness and visibility of the resolution is a first major issue. Theoretically, Member States should be aware of the resolution and support its implementation at their respective national level, but in practice political commitment may not be high enough, and technical and financial resources made available may be limited. A second challenge is that the resolution suggests to work with Member States and technical agencies to promote academic exchange through which to contribute to policy-making in mental health. It is not straightforward, however, how such a statement may be effectively translated into action. A third key methodological aspect is how scientific evidence and factors other than scientific evidence will be handled. This seems particularly relevant in the field of mental health, where value-based decisions together with resource and feasibility considerations may be unavoidable. Summary We argue that WHO and Member States should work together to increase the visibility of the resolution, ensuring that Ministries of Health and other relevant components of the health systems are aware of the resolution and its implications. As the resolution urges for academic exchange, WHO should develop a plan for an explicit, inclusive and open call for support and collaboration, so that partners willing to contribute are not kept out from the process. The production of an action plan for mental disorders should be based on scientifically sound

  16. Comorbid mental disorders among adults in the mental health surveillance survey.

    Forman-Hoffman, Valerie L; Batts, Kathryn R; Hedden, Sarra L; Spagnola, Kathy; Bose, Jonaki

    2018-03-09

    To examine the prevalence and correlates of mental disorder comorbidity in the adult U.S. household population. Data are from a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized, civilian adults aged 18 years or older (n = 5653) who participated in the 2008-2012 Mental Health Surveillance Study. Mental disorders, including substance use disorders, were assessed by clinical interviewers using a semistructured diagnostic instrument. Analyses examined co-occurrence of mental disorders and associations with sociodemographic, functional impairment, and treatment correlates. Approximately one-third of adults (31.1%, or more than 15 million) with a past-year mental disorder had a co-occurring mental disorder. Correlates of comorbidity in adjusted models included being of young age, being of non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, having low family income, and living in a large metropolitan area. Adults with comorbid mental disorders had lower mean levels of functioning and were more likely to report past-year treatment than adults with a single disorder; they also had higher estimates of past-year perceived unmet need for care (21.7% vs. 11.6%, P mental disorder have a co-occurring mental disorder. Elucidating factors associated with co-occurrence may lend clues to shared etiologies, help improve prevention efforts, facilitate early identification, and improve treatment regimens. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparing profiles of mental disorder across birth cohorts: results from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Buchan, Heather; Batterham, Philip J; Slade, Tim

    2014-05-01

    To describe and compare individuals with any DSM-IV mental disorder from three different birth cohorts - young (16-34 years), middle age (35-59 years) and older age (60-85 years) - on a range of clinically relevant factors. Data were derived from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Individuals from three birth cohorts with a range of mental health and substance use disorders were identified using DSM-IV criteria and compared using regression analysis. The specific factors that were compared include: (1) type of disorder/disorders present; (2) suicidality; (3) number of co-occurring disorders; (4) levels of distress and impairment; (5) self-assessed physical and mental health; (6) presence of physical conditions; (7) size and quality of social support/network; and (8) treatment-seeking behaviour. The birth cohorts differed dramatically in terms of the specific disorders that were present. The older cohort were significantly more likely to experience internalising disorders and significantly less likely to experience externalising disorders in comparison to the young cohort. The older cohort were significantly more likely to experience co-morbid physical conditions as well as lower life satisfaction, poorer self-rated physical health, increased functional impairment, and more days out of role. The younger cohort had a significantly larger peer group that they could confide in and rely on in comparison to the older cohort. Clinicians and researchers need to be cognisant that mental disorders manifest as highly heterogeneous constructs. The presentation of a disorder in a younger individual could be vastly different from the presentation of the same disorder in an older individual. The additional burden associated with these factors and how they apply to different birth cohorts must be taken into consideration when planning mental health services and effective treatment for the general population.

  18. Global mental health and the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria.

    Weine, Stevan Merill; Langenecker, Scott; Arenliu, Aliriza

    2018-05-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project presents innovative ways of investigating mental illness based on behavioral and neurobiological measures of dimensional processes. Although cultural psychiatrists have critiqued RDoC's implications and limitations for its under-developed focus on context and experience, RDoC presents opportunities for synergies with global mental health. It can capture aspects of clinical or sub-clinical behavior which are less dependent upon Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) and perhaps better elucidate the role of culture in disease expression and resilience. Aim/Results: This article uses the example of migration to describe several starting points for new research: (1) providing components for building an investigable conceptual framework to understand individual's mental health, resilience and adjustment to migration challenges or social adversities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and (2) identifying measurable factors which determine resilience or vulnerability, to guide development and evaluation of targeted prevention, treatment and recovery strategies for mental health in LMICs. In such ways, RDoC frameworks could help put the new cutting edge neurobiological dimensional scientific advances in a position to contribute to addressing mental health problems amid social adversities in LMICs. However, this would require a much-expanded commitment by both RDoC and global mental health researchers to address contextual and experiential dimensions.

  19. Promotion of mental health in children of parents with a mental disorder

    Maria Cristina Verrocchio

    Full Text Available Mental disorders are associated with many difficulties in the activities of daily living, work, relationships and family, and they determine high social and economic costs that represent an important public health problem. The literature has shown that children of parents with mental disorders grow up in environments that are potentially harmful to their mental health and are at risk of neglect and maltreatment. Interventions to prevent mental disorders and psychological symptoms of children of parents with mental disorders are effective but supporting these families is a complex task which requires both cooperation between departments and an interdisciplinary knowledge. A greater knowledge of the responses provided to assist families with dependent children and a mentally ill parent, could stimulate reflections on critical issues and government actions aimed at promoting and protecting the mental health of children.

  20. Promotion of mental health in children of parents with a mental disorder.

    Verrocchio, Maria Cristina; Ambrosini, Alessandra; Fulcheri, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Mental disorders are associated with many difficulties in the activities of daily living, work, relationships and family, and they determine high social and economic costs that represent an important public health problem. The literature has shown that children of parents with mental disorders grow up in environments that are potentially harmful to their mental health and are at risk of neglect and maltreatment. Interventions to prevent mental disorders and psychological symptoms of children of parents with mental disorders are effective but supporting these families is a complex task which requires both cooperation between departments and an interdisciplinary knowledge. A greater knowledge of the responses provided to assist families with dependent children and a mentally ill parent, could stimulate reflections on critical issues and government actions aimed at promoting and protecting the mental health of children.

  1. Personality disorder is an excess risk factor for physical multimorbidity among women with mental state disorders.

    Quirk, Shae E; Stuart, Amanda L; Berk, Michael; Pasco, Julie A; Brennan Olsen, Sharon L; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Honkanen, Risto; Lukkala, Pyry S; Chanen, Andrew M; Kotowicz, Mark; Williams, Lana J

    2017-11-01

    We examined whether mental state disorders (lifetime mood, anxiety, eating, substance misuse) with comorbid personality disorder are associated with physical multimorbidity in a population-based sample of women. Mental state and personality disorders were assessed using semi-structured diagnostic interviews. Clinical measures were performed and medical conditions, medication use and lifestyle factors were documented by questionnaire. Mental state disorders were associated with higher odds of physical multimorbidity; risk was especially high for those with comorbid personality disorder. These findings suggest that mental state and physical comorbidity might be worsened by the additional comorbidity of personality disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mixed methods research in mental health nursing.

    Kettles, A M; Creswell, J W; Zhang, W

    2011-08-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming more widely used in order to answer research questions and to investigate research problems in mental health and psychiatric nursing. However, two separate literature searches, one in Scotland and one in the USA, revealed that few mental health nursing studies identified mixed methods research in their titles. Many studies used the term 'embedded' but few studies identified in the literature were mixed methods embedded studies. The history, philosophical underpinnings, definition, types of mixed methods research and associated pragmatism are discussed, as well as the need for mixed methods research. Examples of mental health nursing mixed methods research are used to illustrate the different types of mixed methods: convergent parallel, embedded, explanatory and exploratory in their sequential and concurrent combinations. Implementing mixed methods research is also discussed briefly and the problem of identifying mixed methods research in mental and psychiatric nursing are discussed with some possible solutions to the problem proposed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  3. Comorbidity in "DSM" Childhood Mental Disorders: A Functional Perspective

    Cipani, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I address the issue of comorbidity and its prevalence in the prior "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM") classification systems. The focus on the topography or form of presenting problems as the venue for determining mental disorders is scrutinized as the possible cause. Addressing the…

  4. Mental and Behavioral Disorders among People with Congenital Deafblindness

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The population of people with congenital deafblindness faces challenges concerning communication and mobility. Due to the significance of the sensory loss it is difficult to diagnose mental and behavioral disorders. This article investigates the prevalence of mental and behavioral disorders among 95 congenitally deafblind adults. Seventy-four…

  5. Mental and behavioural disorders among people with congenital deafblindness

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2011-01-01

    The population of people with congenital deafblindness faces challenges concerning communication and mobility. Due to the significance of the sensory loss it is difficult to diagnose mental and behavioral disorders. This article investigates the prevalence of mental and behavioral disorders among...... 95 congenitally deafblind adults. Seventy-four percent were found to have a mental and/or behavioral diagnose. Mental retardation was found among 34%, psychosis among 13%. Mental and behavioral disorders, especially with symptoms of psychosis and mental retardation, are common among people...... with congenital deafblindness. Clinical experience is needed, as well as cross-disciplinary cooperation and specialized diagnostic methods together with a observation and intervention period in order to be able to assess and differentiate mental and behavioral symptoms from sensory deprivation in people...

  6. Associations between mental disorders and subsequent onset of hypertension

    Stein, Dan J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Liu, Zharoui; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O’Neill, Siobhan; Viana, Maria Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Angermeyer, Mattias C.; Benjet, Corina; de Graaf, Ron; Ferry, Finola; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Hu, Chiyi; Kawakami, Norito; Haro, Josep Maria; Piazza, Marina; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J; Xavier, Miguel; Lim, Carmen C.W.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous work has suggested significant associations between various psychological symptoms (e.g. depression, anxiety, anger, alcohol abuse) and hypertension. However, the presence and extent of associations between common mental disorders and subsequent adult onset of hypertension remains unclear. Further, there is little data available on how such associations vary by gender or over life course. Methods Data from the World Mental Health Surveys (comprising 19 countries, and 52,095 adults) were used. Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of common mental disorders and subsequent onset of hypertension, with and without psychiatric comorbidity adjustment. Variations in the strength of associations by gender and by life course stage of onset of both the mental disorder and hypertension were investigated. Results After psychiatric comorbidity adjustment, depression, panic disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, alcohol abuse, and drug abuse were significantly associated with subsequent diagnosis of hypertension (with ORs ranging from 1.1 to 1.6). Number of lifetime mental disorders was associated with subsequent hypertension in a dose-response fashion. For social phobia and alcohol abuse, associations with hypertension were stronger for males than females. For panic disorder, the association with hypertension was particularly apparent in earlier onset hypertension. Conclusions Depression, anxiety, impulsive eating disorders, and substance use disorders disorders were significantly associated with the subsequent diagnosis of hypertension. These data underscore the importance of early detection of mental disorders, and of physical health monitoring in people with these conditions.. PMID:24342112

  7. Women's mental health research: the emergence of a biomedical field.

    Blehar, Mary C

    2006-01-01

    This review surveys the field of women's mental health, with particular emphasis on its evolution into a distinct area of biomedical research. The field employs a biomedical disease model but it also emphasizes social and cultural influences on health outcomes. In recent years, its scope has expanded beyond studies of disorders occurring in women at times of reproductive transitions and it now encompasses a broader study of sex and gender differences. Historical and conceptual influences on the field are discussed. The review also surveys gender differences in the prevalence and clinical manifestations of mental disorders. Epidemiological findings have provided a rich resource for theory development, but without research tools to test theories adequately, findings of gender differences have begged the question of their biological, social, and cultural origins. Clinical depression is used to exemplify the usefulness of a sex/gender perspective in understanding mental illness; and major theories proposed to account for gender differences are critically evaluated. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary federal funding source for biomedical women's mental health research. The review surveys areas of emphasis in women's mental health research at the NIH as well as some collaborative activities that represent efforts to translate research findings into the public health and services arenas. As new analytic methods become available, it is anticipated that a more fundamental understanding of the biological and behavioral mechanisms underlying sex and gender differences in mental illness will emerge. Nonetheless, it is also likely that integration of findings predicated on different conceptual models of the nature and causes of mental illness will remain a challenge. These issues are discussed with reference to their impact on the field of women's mental health research.

  8. Erratum to: Risk of mental disorders in family reunification migrants and native Danes:

    Nørredam, Marie Louise; Garcia-Lopez, A; Keiding, N

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although family reunification migrants form a large proportion of migrants, their prevalence of mental disorders is unknown because research has focused on mixed groups of first generation immigrants and refugees. Our aim was to investigate the risk of mental disorders among family......-time psychiatric hospital contacts for migrants (n = 972) and native Danes (n = 5,390) between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2003. RESULTS: Overall family reunification migrants had a significantly lower risk of having a first-time psychiatric contact for mental disorders than did native Danes (RR = 0.78; 95% CI...... of mental disorders compared with native Danes. The results may reflect true morbidity patterns or an underestimation of mental illness due to problems of access to care....

  9. Mental imagery in emotion and emotional disorders.

    Holmes, Emily A; Mathews, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    Mental imagery has been considered relevant to psychopathology due to its supposed special relationship with emotion, although evidence for this assumption has been conspicuously lacking. The present review is divided into four main sections: (1) First, we review evidence that imagery can evoke emotion in at least three ways: a direct influence on emotional systems in the brain that are responsive to sensory signals; overlap between processes involved in mental imagery and perception which can lead to responding "as if" to real emotion-arousing events; and the capacity of images to make contact with memories for emotional episodes in the past. (2) Second, we describe new evidence confirming that imagery does indeed evoke greater emotional responses than verbal representation, although the extent of emotional response depends on the image perspective adopted. (3) Third, a heuristic model is presented that contrasts the generation of language-based representations with imagery and offers an account of their differing effects on emotion, beliefs and behavior. (4) Finally, based on the foregoing review, we discuss the role of imagery in maintaining emotional disorders, and its uses in psychological treatment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mental disorders in battered women: an empirical study.

    Gleason, W J

    1993-01-01

    Prevalence of mental disorders in 62 battered women receiving services from a Florida battered woman agency was identified by means of a structured interview, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Of the total sample of battered women, 30 were in a shelter operated by the agency and 32 were living in their own homes and receiving assistance from the agency. Resultant diagnoses met diagnostic criteria developed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (3rd. ed.) of the American Psychiatric Association. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule is a 263 item structured interview used in the National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiological Catchment Area program carried out in the early 1980s. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule permits the use of 10,953 females in the epidemiological study as a comparison group of normal women. Scoring of the interviews was done by a computer diagnostic program with absolute decision rules. Extremely high prevalence was found for psychosexual dysfunction, major depression, post traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder. These diagnoses appear to reflect the major components of the battered woman syndrome developed by Lenore Walker and the study approximates Walker's request for improved methodology in the research into the psychology of the battered woman.

  11. Challenges and Opportunities in Global Mental Health: a Research-to-Practice Perspective.

    Wainberg, Milton L; Scorza, Pamela; Shultz, James M; Helpman, Liat; Mootz, Jennifer J; Johnson, Karen A; Neria, Yuval; Bradford, Jean-Marie E; Oquendo, Maria A; Arbuckle, Melissa R

    2017-05-01

    Globally, the majority of those who need mental health care worldwide lack access to high-quality mental health services. Stigma, human resource shortages, fragmented service delivery models, and lack of research capacity for implementation and policy change contribute to the current mental health treatment gap. In this review, we describe how health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are addressing the mental health gap and further identify challenges and priority areas for future research. Common mental disorders are responsible for the largest proportion of the global burden of disease; yet, there is sound evidence that these disorders, as well as severe mental disorders, can be successfully treated using evidence-based interventions delivered by trained lay health workers in low-resource community or primary care settings. Stigma is a barrier to service uptake. Prevention, though necessary to address the mental health gap, has not solidified as a research or programmatic focus. Research-to-practice implementation studies are required to inform policies and scale-up services. Four priority areas are identified for focused attention to diminish the mental health treatment gap and to improve access to high-quality mental health services globally: diminishing pervasive stigma, building mental health system treatment and research capacity, implementing prevention programs to decrease the incidence of mental disorders, and establishing sustainable scale up of public health systems to improve access to mental health treatment using evidence-based interventions.

  12. Stigmatizing attitudes differ across mental health disorders: a comparison of stigma across eating disorders, obesity, and major depressive disorder.

    Ebneter, Daria S; Latner, Janet D

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the current article was to compare stigmatizing attitudes toward eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED), with stigma toward another weight-related condition (obesity) and a non-weight-related mental disorder (major depressive disorder [MDD]). Participants (N = 447) read five vignettes describing a woman with AN, BN, BED, obesity, or MDD and responded to questionnaires examining stigmatizing attitudes. The targets with EDs were blamed more for their condition than the targets with MDD, whereas persons with obesity were held more responsible for their condition than any other target. On the other hand, the target with MDD was perceived as more impaired than any other target. Lack of self-discipline was attributed more to the development of BED and obesity than to any other condition. Stigmatizing attitudes vary across mental health disorders, and future research should aim to specifically target stigmatizing beliefs to reduce and prevent discrimination toward mental health disorders and obesity.

  13. The economic impact of subthreshold and clinical childhood mental disorders.

    Fatori, Daniel; Salum, Giovanni; Itria, Alexander; Pan, Pedro; Alvarenga, Pedro; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Bressan, Rodrigo; Gadelha, Ary; de Jesus Mari, Jair; Conceição do Rosário, Maria; Manfro, Gisele; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Graeff-Martins, Ana Soledade

    2018-04-28

    Mental disorders are common health problems associated with serious impairment and economic impact. To estimate the costs of clinical and subthreshold mental disorders in a sample of Brazilian children. The High Risk Cohort Study is a community study conducted in two major Brazilian cities. Subjects were 6-14 years old children being registered at school. From an initial pool of 9937 children, two subgroups were further investigated using a random-selection (n = 958) and high-risk group selection procedure (n = 1554), resulting in a sample of 2512 subjects. Mental disorder assessment was made using the Development and Well-Being Assessment. Costs for each child were estimated from the following components: mental health and social services use, school problems and parental loss of productivity. Child subthreshold and clinical mental disorders showed lifetime mean total cost of $1750.9 and $3141.2, respectively. National lifetime cost estimate was $9.9 billion for subthreshold mental disorders and $11.6 billion for clinical mental disorders (values in US$ purchasing power parity). This study provides evidence that child mental disorders have a great economic impact on society. There is an urgent need to plan an effective system of care with cost-effective programs of treatment and prevention to reduce economic burden.

  14. The structure of common and uncommon mental disorders.

    Forbush, K T; Watson, D

    2013-01-01

    Co-morbidity patterns in epidemiological studies of mental illness consistently demonstrate that a latent internalizing factor accounts for co-morbidity patterns among unipolar mood and anxiety disorders, whereas a latent externalizing factor underlies the covariation of substance-use disorders and antisocial behaviors. However, this structure needs to be extended to include a broader range of disorders. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the structure of co-morbidity using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiological Surveys (n = 16 233). In the best-fitting model, eating and bipolar disorders formed subfactors within internalizing, impulse control disorders were indicators of externalizing, and factor-analytically derived personality disorder scales split between internalizing and externalizing. This was the first large-scale nationally representative study that has included uncommon mental disorders with sufficient power to examine their fit within a structural model of psychopathology. The results of this study have important implications for conceptualizing myriad mental disorders.

  15. Early life programming as a target for prevention of child and adolescent mental disorders

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns future policy development and programs of research for the prevention of mental disorders based on research emerging from fetal and early life programming. The current review offers an overview of findings on pregnancy exposures such as maternal mental health, lifestyle factors, and potential teratogenic and neurotoxic exposures on child outcomes. Outcomes of interest are common child and adolescent mental disorders including hyperactive, behavioral and emotional disorders. This literature suggests that the preconception and perinatal periods offer important opportunities for the prevention of deleterious fetal exposures. As such, the perinatal period is a critical period where future mental health prevention efforts should be focused and prevention models developed. Interventions grounded in evidence-based recommendations for the perinatal period could take the form of public health, universal and more targeted interventions. If successful, such interventions are likely to have lifelong effects on (mental) health. PMID:24559477

  16. The global burden of mental disorders : An update from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Chatterji, Somnath; Lee, Sing; Ormel, Johan; Uestuen, T. Bedirhan; Wang, Philip S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims - The paper reviews recent findings from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys oil the global burden of mental disorders. Methods - The WMH surveys are representative community surveys in 28 countries throughout the world aimed at providing information to mental health policy makers about

  17. Characteristics of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Received Services through Community Mental Health Centers

    Bryson, Stephanie A.; Corrigan, Susan K.; McDonald, Thomas P.; Holmes, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Despite the presence of significant psychiatric comorbidity among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), little research exists on those who receive community-based mental health services. This project examined one year (2004) of data from the database maintained by 26 community mental health centers (CMHCs) in the Midwestern US state of…

  18. Communication Strategies to Counter Stigma and Improve Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorder Policy.

    McGinty, Emma; Pescosolido, Bernice; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Barry, Colleen L

    2018-02-01

    Despite the high burden and poor rates of treatment associated with mental illness and substance use disorders, public support for allocating resources to improving treatment for these disorders is low. A growing body of research suggests that effective policy communication strategies can increase public support for policies benefiting people with these conditions. In October 2015, the Center for Mental Health and Addiction Policy Research at Johns Hopkins University convened an expert forum to identify what is currently known about the effectiveness of such policy communication strategies and produce recommendations for future research. One of the key conclusions of the forum was that communication strategies using personal narratives to engage audiences have the potential to increase public support for policies benefiting persons with mental illness or substance use disorders. Specifically, narratives combining personal stories with depictions of structural barriers to mental illness and substance use disorder treatment can increase the public's willingness to invest in the treatment system. Depictions of mental illness and violence significantly increase public stigma toward people with mental illness and are no more effective in increasing willingness to invest in mental health services than nonstigmatizing messages about structural barriers to treatment. Future research should prioritize development and evaluation of communication strategies to increase public support for evidence-based substance use disorder policies, including harm reduction policies-such as needle exchange programs-and policies expanding treatment.

  19. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent self-reported diagnosis of cancer

    O'Neill, Siobhan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Piazza, Marina; Tachimori, Hisateru; Hu, Chiyi; Lim, Carmen; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Alonso, Jordi; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Florescu, Silvia; Kiejna, Andrzej; Levinson, Daphna; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The associations between mental disorders and cancer remain unclear. It is also unknown whether any associations vary according to life stage or gender. This paper examines these research questions using data from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Methods The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed the lifetime prevalence of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders in face-to-face household population surveys in nineteen countries (n = 52,095). Cancer was indicated by self-report of diagnosis. Smoking was assessed in questions about current and past tobacco use. Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequently reported cancer. Results After adjustment for comorbidity, panic disorder, specific phobia and alcohol abuse were associated with a subsequently self-reported diagnosis of cancer. There was an association between number of mental disorders and the likelihood of reporting a cancer diagnosis following the onset of the mental disorder. This suggests that the associations between mental disorders and cancer risk may be generalised, rather than specific to a particular disorder. Depression is more strongly associated with self-reported cancers diagnosed early in life and in women. PTSD is also associated with cancers diagnosed early in life. Conclusion This study reports the magnitude of the associations between mental disorders and a self-reported diagnosis of cancer and provides information about the relevance of comorbidity, gender and the impact at different stages of life. The findings point to a link between the two conditions and lend support to arguments for early identification and treatment of mental disorders. PMID:24529039

  20. Disorders without borders: current and future directions in the meta-structure of mental disorders.

    Carragher, Natacha; Krueger, Robert F; Eaton, Nicholas R; Slade, Tim

    2015-03-01

    Classification is the cornerstone of clinical diagnostic practice and research. However, the extant psychiatric classification systems are not well supported by research evidence. In particular, extensive comorbidity among putatively distinct disorders flags an urgent need for fundamental changes in how we conceptualize psychopathology. Over the past decade, research has coalesced on an empirically based model that suggests many common mental disorders are structured according to two correlated latent dimensions: internalizing and externalizing. We review and discuss the development of a dimensional-spectrum model which organizes mental disorders in an empirically based manner. We also touch upon changes in the DSM-5 and put forward recommendations for future research endeavors. Our review highlights substantial empirical support for the empirically based internalizing-externalizing model of psychopathology, which provides a parsimonious means of addressing comorbidity. As future research goals, we suggest that the field would benefit from: expanding the meta-structure of psychopathology to include additional disorders, development of empirically based thresholds, inclusion of a developmental perspective, and intertwining genomic and neuroscience dimensions with the empirical structure of psychopathology.

  1. Maternal mental disorders in pregnancy and the puerperium and risks to infant health.

    Pereira, Priscila Krauss; Lima, Lúcia Abelha; Legay, Letícia Fortes; de Cintra Santos, Jacqueline Fernandes; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos

    2012-12-08

    Prenatal and postnatal period presents the highest prevalence of mental disorders in women's lives and depression is the most frequent one, affecting approximately one in every five mothers. The aggravating factor here is that during this period psychiatric symptoms affect not only women's health and well-being but may also interfere in the infant's intra and extra-uterine development. Although the causes of the relationship between maternal mental disorders and possible risks to a child's health and development remain unknown, it is suspected that these risks may be related to the use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy, to substance abuse and the mother's lifestyle. Moreover, after delivery, maternal mental disorders may also impair the ties of affection (bonding) with the newborn and the maternal capacity of caring in the post-partum period thus increasing the risk for infant infection and malnutrition, impaired child growth that is expressed in low weight and height for age, and even behavioral problems and vulnerability to presenting mental disorders in adulthood. Generally speaking, research on this theme can be divided into the type of mental disorder analyzed: studies that research minor mental disorders during pregnancy such as depression and anxiety find an association between these maternal disorders and obstetric complications such as prematurity and low birth weight, whereas studies that evaluate severe maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have found not only an association with general obstetric complications as well as with congenital malformations and perinatal mortality. Therefore, the success of infant growth care programs also depends on the mother's mental well being. Such findings have led to the need for new public policies in the field of maternal-infant care geared toward the population of mothers. However, more research is necessary so as to confirm the association between all factors with greater

  2. A Cross-sectional Survey of Disability Attributed to Mental Disorders and Service Use in China

    Li-Li Shang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: There are statistical differences of disability prevalence attributed to mental disorders by people and region in China. Service use in disabled people with mental disorders is insufficient.

  3. The stress-reward-mentalizing model of depression: An integrative developmental cascade approach to child and adolescent depressive disorder based on the research domain criteria (RDoC) approach.

    Luyten, Patrick; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-10-09

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) propose a much-needed change in approach to the study of vulnerability factors implicated in mental disorders, shifting away from a categorical, disease-oriented model to a dimensional approach that focuses on underlying systems implicated in psychopathology. In this paper we illustrate this approach with a focus on the emergence of depression in childhood and adolescence. Based on evolutionary biological and developmental psychopathology considerations, we present an integrative developmental cascade model of depression that essentially suggests that depression emerges out of a three-pronged series of interacting impairments in the domains of stress regulation, reward, and mentalizing. We discuss the relation of these impairments to the five domains proposed by RDoC. We also focus on how this model may explain in large part the marked comorbidity of depression with other psychiatric disorders, as well as with functional somatic and somatic disorders. Limitations of this theoretical approach are discussed, as well as implications for the development, evaluation, and dissemination of interventions aimed at preventing or treating depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of Antisocial Personality Disorder in Detained Youths: The Predictive Value of Mental Disorders

    Washburn, Jason J.; Romero, Erin Gregory; Welty, Leah J.; Abram, Karen M.; Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Paskar, Leah D.

    2007-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a serious public and mental health concern. Understanding how well conduct disorder (CD) and other mental disorders predict the development of APD among youths involved in the juvenile justice system is critical for prevention. The authors used a stratified random sample of 1,112 detained youths to examine…

  5. Poverty and common mental disorders in developing countries.

    Patel, Vikram; Kleinman, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    A review of English-language journals published since 1990 and three global mental health reports identified 11 community studies on the association between poverty and common mental disorders in six low- and middle-income countries. Most studies showed an association between indicators of poverty and the risk of mental disorders, the most consistent association being with low levels of education. A review of articles exploring the mechanism of the relationship suggested weak evidence to support a specific association with income levels. Factors such as the experience of insecurity and hopelessness, rapid social change and the risks of violence and physical ill-health may explain the greater vulnerability of the poor to common mental disorders. The direct and indirect costs of mental ill-health worsen the economic condition, setting up a vicious cycle of poverty and mental disorder. Common mental disorders need to be placed alongside other diseases associated with poverty by policy-makers and donors. Programmes such as investment in education and provision of microcredit may have unanticipated benefits in reducing the risk of mental disorders. Secondary prevention must focus on strengthening the ability of primary care services to provide effective treatment.

  6. Violence against women and mental disorder: a qualitative study in Bangladesh.

    Islam, Md Manirul; Jahan, Nasim; Hossain, Md Delwar

    2018-01-01

    Violence affects 15-75% of women across the globe and has a significant impact on their health, well-being, and rights. While quantitative research links it to poor mental health, there is a lack of qualitative enquiry in how women experience it, and how it is related to the mental disorders in Bangladesh. This information is important in understanding the situation and structuring a locally appropriate and culturally sensitive program. We adopted a phenomenological approach and conducted 16 in-depth interviews, three informal interviews, one focus group discussion, and one key informant interview. We also reviewed published reports and documents. We followed criterion sampling in selecting women with mental disorders who experienced violence. We explored their experiences and understanding of the issues and described the phenomenon. We found that Bangladesh society was largely controlled by men, and marriage was often forced on women. Women often were blamed for any mishap in the family and married women were under social and emotional pressure to keep the marital relationship going even when painful. We found all forms of violence (physical, emotional, sexual etc.) and most of the time found more than one type in women with mental disorders. Sexual violence is a reality for some women but rarely discussed. We found the society very tolerant with mental disorder patients and those who resorted to violence against them.We identified four theoretical understandings about the role of violence in mental disorders. Sometimes the violence predisposed the mental illness, sometimes it precipitated it, while other times it maintained and was a consequence of it. Sometimes the violence may be unrelated to the mental illness. The relationships were complex and depended on both the type of mental disorder and the nature and intensity of the violence. We found most of the time that more than one type of violence was involved and played more than one role, which varied across

  7. Defining mental disorder. Exploring the 'natural function' approach

    Varga Somogy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to several socio-political factors, to many psychiatrists only a strictly objective definition of mental disorder, free of value components, seems really acceptable. In this paper, I will explore a variant of such an objectivist approach to defining metal disorder, natural function objectivism. Proponents of this approach make recourse to the notion of natural function in order to reach a value-free definition of mental disorder. The exploration of Christopher Boorse's 'biostatistical' account of natural function (1 will be followed an investigation of the 'hybrid naturalism' approach to natural functions by Jerome Wakefield (2. In the third part, I will explore two proposals that call into question the whole attempt to define mental disorder (3. I will conclude that while 'natural function objectivism' accounts fail to provide the backdrop for a reliable definition of mental disorder, there is no compelling reason to conclude that a definition cannot be achieved.

  8. Defining mental disorder. Exploring the 'natural function' approach.

    Varga, Somogy

    2011-01-21

    Due to several socio-political factors, to many psychiatrists only a strictly objective definition of mental disorder, free of value components, seems really acceptable. In this paper, I will explore a variant of such an objectivist approach to defining metal disorder, natural function objectivism. Proponents of this approach make recourse to the notion of natural function in order to reach a value-free definition of mental disorder. The exploration of Christopher Boorse's 'biostatistical' account of natural function (1) will be followed an investigation of the 'hybrid naturalism' approach to natural functions by Jerome Wakefield (2). In the third part, I will explore two proposals that call into question the whole attempt to define mental disorder (3). I will conclude that while 'natural function objectivism' accounts fail to provide the backdrop for a reliable definition of mental disorder, there is no compelling reason to conclude that a definition cannot be achieved.

  9. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and onset of self-reported peptic ulcer in the World Mental Health Surveys

    Scott, Kate M.; Alonso, Jordi; de Jonge, Peter; Viana, Maria Carmen; Liu, Zhaorui; O’Neill, Siobhan; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Stein, Dan J.; Angermeyer, Matthias; Benjet, Corina; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Firuleasa, Ingrid-Laura; Hu, Chiyi; Kiejna, Andrzej; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José A.; Khalaf, Mohammad Salih; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Recent research demonstrating concurrent associations between mental disorders and peptic ulcers has renewed interest in links between psychological factors and ulcers. However, little is known about associations between temporally prior mental disorders and subsequent ulcer onset. Nor has the potentially confounding role of childhood adversities been explored. The objective of this study was to examine associations between a wide range of temporally prior DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent onset of ulcer, without and with adjustment for mental disorder comorbidity and childhood adversities. Methods Face-to-face household surveys conducted in 19 countries (n=52,095; person years=2,096,486).The Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders. Peptic ulcer onset was assessed in the same interview by self-report of physician’s diagnosis and year of diagnosis. Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent ulcer onset. Results After comorbidity and sociodemographic adjustment, depression, social phobia, specific phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, intermittent explosive disorder, alcohol and drug abuse disorders were significantly associated with ulcer onset (ORs 1.3-1.6). Increasing number of lifetime mental disorders was associated with ulcer onset in a dose-response fashion. These associations were only slightly attenuated by adjustment for childhood adversities. Conclusions A wide range of mental disorders were linked with the self-report of subsequent peptic ulcer onset. These associations require confirmation in prospective designs, but are suggestive of a role for mental disorders in contributing to ulcer vulnerability, possibly through abnormalities in the physiological stress response associated with mental disorders. PMID:23915767

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Life stress and mental disorders in the South ...

    adversities to mood, anxiety, substance use and impulse control disorders in South Africa. Methods. Data were analysed from the South African. Stress and Health study, a population-based study of mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of. 4 351 adults. Psychiatric disorders were assessed with the.

  11. Teaching Students with Emotional Disorders and/or Mental Illnesses.

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    This resource manual is designed to assist Alberta teachers in the identification and education of students with emotional disorders and/or mental illnesses. It takes a comprehensive look at six emotional disorders. The first section focuses on eating disorders. It describes the characteristics and symptoms of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…

  12. What Do Patients Think about the Cause of Their Mental Disorder? A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Causal Beliefs of Mental Disorder in Inpatients in Psychosomatic Rehabilitation.

    Magaard, Julia Luise; Schulz, Holger; Brütt, Anna Levke

    2017-01-01

    Patients' causal beliefs about their mental disorders are important for treatment because they affect illness-related behaviours. However, there are few studies exploring patients' causal beliefs about their mental disorder. (a) To qualitatively explore patients' causal beliefs of their mental disorder, (b) to explore frequencies of patients stating causal beliefs, and (c) to investigate differences of causal beliefs according to patients' primary diagnoses. Inpatients in psychosomatic rehabilitation were asked an open-ended question about their three most important causal beliefs about their mental illness. Answers were obtained from 678 patients, with primary diagnoses of depression (N = 341), adjustment disorder (N = 75), reaction to severe stress (N = 57) and anxiety disorders (N = 40). Two researchers developed a category system inductively and categorised the reported causal beliefs. Qualitative analysis has been supplemented by logistic regression analyses. The causal beliefs were organized into twelve content-related categories. Causal beliefs referring to "problems at work" (47%) and "problems in social environment" (46%) were most frequently mentioned by patients with mental disorders. 35% of patients indicate causal beliefs related to "self/internal states". Patients with depression and patients with anxiety disorders stated similar causal beliefs, whereas patients with reactions to severe stress and adjustment disorders stated different causal beliefs in comparison to patients with depression. There was no opportunity for further exploration, because we analysed written documents. These results add a detailed insight to mentally ill patients' causal beliefs to illness perception literature. Additionally, evidence about differences in frequencies of causal beliefs between different illness groups complement previous findings. For future research it is important to clarify the relation between patients' causal beliefs and the chosen treatment.

  13. What Do Patients Think about the Cause of Their Mental Disorder? A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Causal Beliefs of Mental Disorder in Inpatients in Psychosomatic Rehabilitation.

    Julia Luise Magaard

    Full Text Available Patients' causal beliefs about their mental disorders are important for treatment because they affect illness-related behaviours. However, there are few studies exploring patients' causal beliefs about their mental disorder.(a To qualitatively explore patients' causal beliefs of their mental disorder, (b to explore frequencies of patients stating causal beliefs, and (c to investigate differences of causal beliefs according to patients' primary diagnoses.Inpatients in psychosomatic rehabilitation were asked an open-ended question about their three most important causal beliefs about their mental illness. Answers were obtained from 678 patients, with primary diagnoses of depression (N = 341, adjustment disorder (N = 75, reaction to severe stress (N = 57 and anxiety disorders (N = 40. Two researchers developed a category system inductively and categorised the reported causal beliefs. Qualitative analysis has been supplemented by logistic regression analyses.The causal beliefs were organized into twelve content-related categories. Causal beliefs referring to "problems at work" (47% and "problems in social environment" (46% were most frequently mentioned by patients with mental disorders. 35% of patients indicate causal beliefs related to "self/internal states". Patients with depression and patients with anxiety disorders stated similar causal beliefs, whereas patients with reactions to severe stress and adjustment disorders stated different causal beliefs in comparison to patients with depression.There was no opportunity for further exploration, because we analysed written documents.These results add a detailed insight to mentally ill patients' causal beliefs to illness perception literature. Additionally, evidence about differences in frequencies of causal beliefs between different illness groups complement previous findings. For future research it is important to clarify the relation between patients' causal beliefs and the chosen treatment.

  14. Prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisons.

    Adrian P Mundt

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. METHOD: A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. RESULTS: Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1 for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0 for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8 for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1 for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2 for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3 for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, p<0.05 and illicit drug use (3.3% vs. 0.6% males with drug abuse, Z=2.04, p<0.05; 2.6% vs. 0.1% females with drug abuse, Z=5.36, p<0.001; 3.4% vs. 1.1% males with drug dependence, Z=3.70; p<0.001. Dysthymia (6.5% vs. 15.6%, Z=-2.39, p<0.05, simple (3.3% vs. 11.5%, Z=-3.13, p<0.001 and social phobias (3.9% vs. 9.7%, Z=2.38, p<0.05 were significantly less frequent in the female prison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; p<0.05 and dependence (2.7% vs. 8.2%; Z=-5.24; p<0.001 were less prevalent in the male prison population than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders.

  15. Temporal comorbidity of mental disorder and ulcerative colitis.

    Cawthorpe, David; Davidson, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease that rarely exists in isolation in affected patients. We examined the association of ulcerative colitis and International Classification of Diseases mental disorder, as well as the temporal comorbidity of three broad International Classification of Diseases groupings of mental disorders in patients with ulcerative colitis to determine if mental disorder is more likely to occur before or after ulcerative colitis. We used physician diagnoses from the regional health zone of Calgary, Alberta, for patient visits from fiscal years 1994 to 2009 for treatment of any presenting concern in that Calgary health zone (763,449 patients) to identify 5113 patients age younger than 1 year to age 92 years (2120 males, average age = 47 years; 2993 females, average age = 48 years) with a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis. The 16-year cumulative prevalence of ulcerative colitis was 0.0058%, or 58 cases per 10,000 persons (95% confidence interval = 56-60 per 10,000). Although the cumulative prevalence of mental disorder in the overall sample was 5390 per 10,000 (53.9%), we found that 4192 patients with ulcerative colitis (82%) also had a diagnosis of a mental disorder. By annual rate of ulcerative colitis, patients with mental disorder had a significantly higher annual prevalence. The mental disorder grouping neuroses/depressive disorders was most likely to arise before ulcerative colitis (odds ratio = 1.87 for males; 2.24 for females). A temporal association was observed between specific groups of International Classification of Diseases mental disorder and ulcerative colitis, indicating a possible etiologic relationship between the disorders or their treatments, or both.

  16. [Mentalization-Based Treatment for Adolescents with Borderline Personality Disorder - Concept and Efficacy].

    Taubner, Svenja; Volkert, Jana; Gablonski, Thorsten-Christian; Rossouw, Trudie

    2017-07-01

    Mentalization-Based Treatment for Adolescents with Borderline Personality Disorder - Concept and Efficacy In recent years, the concept of mentalization has become increasingly important in practice and research. It describes the imaginative ability to understand human behavior in terms of mental states. Mentalization is a central component to understand the etiology and to treat patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Both adult and adolescent patients with BPD have limited mentalization abilities, which can be reliably assessed using the Reflective Functioning Scale. Mentalization-Based Treatment (MBT) was originally developed as an integrative approach for the treatment of adult patients with BPD. It is a manualized psychotherapy with psychodynamic roots with the aim to increase mentalizing abilities of patients. Since then, MBT has been further developed for other mental disorders as well as for the treatment of different age groups. One of these developments is MBT for Adolescents (MBT-A). MBT-A includes both individual as well as family sessions and the average duration of therapy is about twelve months. MBT-A can be applied in inpatient and outpatient settings and aims to improve mentalizing abilities in emotionally important relationships and the whole family system. First studies have found evidence for the efficacy of MBT-A. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is currently being carried out to evaluate the efficacy of MBT-A for adolescents with conduct disorder. However, further evidence for efficacy and further conceptual development is needed.

  17. Mental disorders: employment and work productivity in Singapore.

    Chong, Siow Ann; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Abdin, Edimansyah; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association between mental disorders and work disability in the adult resident population in Singapore. Data are from the Singapore Mental Health Study, which was a household survey of a nationally representative sample. The main instrument used was the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Employment-related information was collected using the modified employment module of the CIDI. A total of 6,429 respondents were included in the analysis, 71 % (n = 4,594) were employed, 24.5 % (n = 1,522) were economically inactive and 4.5 % (n = 313) were unemployed. Among the employed, 2.3 % had a 12-month prevalence of at least one mental disorder, while 5.3 % of the unemployed had at least one mental disorder. The average number of work loss days (absenteeism) per capita among those with a mental disorder was 0.5 per month that is equivalent to an annualized national projection of approximately 0.3 million productivity days. The average work-cutback days (presenteeism) were 0.4 days among this group. Of the mentally ill in the workforce, a high proportion (86.5 %) did not ever seek help for problems related to mental health. Our findings provide information on the significant consequences of mental disorders on the workforce in terms of lost work productivity, which could pave the way for a more rational allocation of scarce resources.

  18. Psychosocial determinants of disease acceptance in selected mental disorders.

    Bogusz, Renata; Humeniuk, Ewa

    2017-12-23

    Every mental disorder may cause a number of negative consequences in the personal lives of the patients and their families as well as in their social relations. Acceptance of the disease is a crucial factor in the process of coping with the problems resulting from it. Acceptance of the disease may significantly influence the reduction of negative emotional reactions it causes. Consequently, it may contribute to better adaptation of the patients and hence may facilitate the process of recovery. The study attempts to define the socio-psychological conditioning of the degree of disease acceptance among patients treated for psychical disorders. Opinion surveys were carried out in 2013 among a group of 240 patients treated in Mental Health Clinic in Chełm, eastern Poland. The study applied Acceptance Illness Scale - AIS B. Felton, T. A. Revenson, G.A. Hinrichsen, adapted in Poland by Z. Juczyński, as well as a socio-demographic questionnaire. The analysis of the obtained results revealed a similar level of acceptance of such diseases as anxiety disorders (24.41±8.52), depression (22.80±7.51) and personality disorders (23.89±7.89). The medical records of all patients fitted among the low average. The greatest problem in the researched group related to the social consequences of the psychical disorders. Those questioned were afraid of the negative reactions of others and of being a burden to their families. The level of acceptance was not correlated with independent variables (age, gender, education, place of residence, general well-being).

  19. Drug therapy for people with mental disorders in the view of nursing professionals

    Camila Bonfim de Alcântara

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To identify the perception of nursing professionals about drug therapy for people with mental disorders. Methods: An exploratory qualitative research was carried out in four Psychosocial Care Centers of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Data, collected from January to March 2015 using an individual semi-structured interview applied to 56 nursing professionals, were submitted to qualitative data analysis and interpretation as proposed by Creswell. Results: The data were organized into three thematic categories: drug therapy improves the life of the person with a mental disorder; negative and positive consequences related to drug therapy; and drug therapy as one of the resources needed to treat mental health. Conclusion: Nursing staff perceive the importance of medications as a resource to treat people with mental disorders as psychotropic drugs minimize he acute symptoms of disorders and improve living conditions when associated with other therapeutic resources.

  20. What is a mental/psychiatric disorder? From DSM-IV to DSM-V.

    Stein, D J; Phillips, K A; Bolton, D; Fulford, K W M; Sadler, J Z; Kendler, K S

    2010-11-01

    The distinction between normality and psychopathology has long been subject to debate. DSM-III and DSM-IV provided a definition of mental disorder to help clinicians address this distinction. As part of the process of developing DSM-V, researchers have reviewed the concept of mental disorder and emphasized the need for additional work in this area. Here we review the DSM-IV definition of mental disorder and propose some changes. The approach taken here arguably takes a middle course through some of the relevant conceptual debates. We agree with the view that no definition perfectly specifies precise boundaries for the concept of mental/psychiatric disorder, but in line with a view that the nomenclature can improve over time, we aim here for a more scientifically valid and more clinically useful definition.

  1. Subjective Experience, Heterophenomenology, or Neuroimaging? A Perspective on the Meaning and Application of Mental Disorder Terms, in Particular Major Depressive Disorder

    Schleim, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Increasing research efforts try to identify biological markers in order to support or eventually replace current practices of diagnosing mental disorders. Inasmuch as these disorders refer to subjective mental states, such efforts amount to their objectification. This gives rise to conceptual as

  2. Sleep disorders in mental diseases and their correction

    Nina Arkadyevna Tyuvina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the data available in the literature on sleep disorders and their correction in the population and in patients with mental disorders and give their experience in using zolpidem (sanval to treat insomnia in different mental diseases. The clinical features of sleep disorders are characterized in neurotic and affective disorders, schizophrenia, and organic brain injuries. Indications for the use of sanval both alone and in combination with other psychotropic drugs (antidepressants and antipsychotics with a sedative effect for the therapy of sleep disorders within the framework of mental disorders are discussed. Sanval is shown to be highly effective and well tolerated in 100psychiatric in- and outpatients. No dependence on this drug and withdrawal syndrome permit sanval to be used as long-term courses in patients with chronic permanent insomnia and at an old age.

  3. Association of Mental Disorders With Subsequent Chronic Physical Conditions

    Scott, Kate M.; Lim, Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Hu, Chiyi; de Jonge, Peter; Kawakami, Norito; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; O’Neill, Siobhan; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Torres, Yolanda; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE It is clear that mental disorders in treatment settings are associated with a higher incidence of chronic physical conditions, but whether this is true of mental disorders in the community, and how generalized (across a range of physical health outcomes) these associations are, is less clear. This information has important implications for mental health care and the primary prevention of chronic physical disease. OBJECTIVE To investigate associations of 16 temporally prior DSM-IV mental disorders with the subsequent onset or diagnosis of 10 chronic physical conditions. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Eighteen face-to-face, cross-sectional household surveys of community-dwelling adults were conducted in 17 countries (47 609 individuals; 2 032 942 person-years) from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2011. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to retrospectively assess the lifetime prevalence and age at onset of DSM-IV–identified mental disorders. Data analysis was performed from January 3, 2012, to September 30, 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Lifetime history of physical conditions was ascertained via self-report of physician’s diagnosis and year of onset or diagnosis. Survival analyses estimated the associations of temporally prior first onset of mental disorders with subsequent onset or diagnosis of physical conditions. RESULTS Most associations between 16 mental disorders and subsequent onset or diagnosis of 10 physical conditions were statistically significant, with odds ratios (ORs) (95% CIs) ranging from 1.2 (1.0–1.5) to 3.6 (2.0–6.6). The associations were attenuated after adjustment for mental disorder comorbidity, but mood, anxiety, substance use, and impulse control disorders remained significantly associated with onset of between 7 and all 10 of the physical conditions (ORs [95% CIs] from 1.2 [1.1–1.3] to 2.0 [1.4–2.8]). An increasing number of mental disorders experienced over the life course was significantly

  4. Lundby revisited: first incidence of mental disorders 1947-1997

    Bogren, Mats; Mattisson, Cecilia; Horstmann, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how first incidence of various mental disorders changed between the periods of 1947-1972 to 1972-1997 in the Lundby cohort. METHOD: First-incidence rates of mental disorders were calculated for two 25 year periods and ten 5 year periods. RESULTS: From 1947-1972 to 1972......-1997 a decrease in almost all age- and sex-specific incidences of neurotic and organic brain disorders was observed, whereas incidence rates of psychotic disorders increased consistently in male subjects but decreased in most age intervals in female subjects. For both sexes the age-standardized 5 year period...... incidences of neurotic disorders decreased after 1972, fluctuated for psychotic disorders 1947-1997 and decreased steadily for organic disorders 1947-1997. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in neurotic and organic brain disorder incidences may be linked to structural changes in society and medical advances...

  5. Cross-national analysis of the associations among mental disorders and suicidal behavior: findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

    Matthew K Nock

    2009-08-01

    age-of-onset of mental disorders and suicidal behaviors, as well as the narrow focus on mental disorders as predictors of nonfatal suicidal behaviors, each of which must be addressed in future studies.This study found that a wide range of mental disorders increased the odds of experiencing suicide ideation. However, after controlling for psychiatric comorbidity, only disorders characterized by anxiety and poor impulse-control predict which people with suicide ideation act on such thoughts. These findings provide a more fine-grained understanding of the associations between mental disorders and subsequent suicidal behavior than previously available and indicate that mental disorders predict suicidal behaviors similarly in both developed and developing countries. Future research is needed to delineate the mechanisms through which people come to think about suicide and subsequently progress from ideation to attempts.

  6. Abortion and mental health : A longitudinal study of common mental disorders among women who terminated an unwanted pregnancy

    van Ditzhuijzen, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade there has been renewed interest in the question whether termination of an unwanted pregnancy is linked to subsequent mental health disorders. Most research in this field is characterized by methodological limitations, and conclusions often remain disputable. To offer insight in

  7. Mental health literacy: a cross-cultural approach to knowledge and beliefs about depression, schizophrenia and generalized anxiety disorder

    Laura eAltweck; Tara C Marshall; Nelli eFerenczi; Katharina eLefringhausen

    2015-01-01

    Many families worldwide have at least one member with a behavioral or mental disorder, and yet the majority of the public fails to correctly recognize symptoms of mental illness. Previous research has found that Mental Health Literacy (MHL)—the knowledge and positive beliefs about mental disorders—tends to be higher in European and North American cultures, compared to Asian and African cultures. Nonetheless quantitative research examining the variables that explain this cultural difference re...

  8. Mental disorder comorbidity in Te Rau Hinengaro: the New Zealand Mental Health Survey.

    Scott, Kate M; McGee, Magnus A; Oakley Browne, Mark A; Wells, J Elisabeth

    2006-10-01

    To show the extent and patterning of 12 month mental disorder comorbidity in the New Zealand population, and its association with case severity, suicidality and health service utilization. A nationwide face-to-face household survey was carried out in October 2003 to December 2004 with 12,992 participants aged 16 years and over, achieving a response rate of 73.3%. The measurement of mental disorder was with the World Mental Health Survey Initiative version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0). Comorbidity was analysed with hierarchy, consistent with a clinical approach to disorder count. Comorbidity occurred among 37% of 12 month cases. Anxiety and mood disorders were most frequently comorbid. Strong bivariate associations occurred between alcohol and drug use disorders and, to a lesser extent, between substance use disorders and some anxiety and mood disorders. Comorbidity was associated with case severity, with suicidal behaviour (especially suicide attempts) and with health sector use (especially mental health service use). The widespread nature of mental disorder comorbidity has implications for the configuration of mental health services and for clinical practice.

  9. Associations between mental disorders and subsequent onset of hypertension

    Stein, Dan J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Liu, Zharoui; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Viana, Maria Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Angermeyer, Mattias C.; Benjet, Corina; de Graaf, Ron; Ferry, Finola; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Hu, Chiyi; Kawakami, Norito; Haro, Josep Maria; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J.; Xavier, Miguel; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous work has suggested significant associations between various psychological symptoms (e. g., depression, anxiety, anger, alcohol abuse) and hypertension. However, the presence and extent of associations between common mental disorders and subsequent adult onset of hypertension

  10. Predictors of outcome in patients with common mental disorders ...

    for Common Mental Disorders (CMD) in general health care settings ... treatment had been adapted for use in the Indian setting, ... GHQ in the Konkani language has been published.6 Those ..... Santiago, Chile: A randomised controlled trial.

  11. Mental disorder prevention and physical activity in Iranian elderly

    Seyede Salehe Mortazavi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Physical activity significantly prevents mental disorder in older adults. Although it has effects on anxiety, social dysfunction, and depression, the greatest influence is on improving the somatization symptoms.

  12. Lessons from obesity prevention for the prevention of mental disorders: the primordial prevention approach.

    Hayward, Joshua; Jacka, Felice N; Waters, Elizabeth; Allender, Steven

    2014-09-10

    Emerging evidence supports a relationship between risk factors for obesity and the genesis of the common mental disorders, depression and anxiety. This suggests common mental disorders should be considered as a form of non-communicable disease, preventable through the modification of lifestyle behaviours, particularly diet and physical activity. Obesity prevention research since the 1970's represents a considerable body of knowledge regarding strategies to modify diet and physical activity and so there may be clear lessons from obesity prevention that apply to the prevention of mental disorders. For obesity, as for common mental disorders, adolescence represents a key period of vulnerability. In this paper we briefly discuss relationships between modifiable lifestyle risk factors and mental health, lifestyle risk factor interventions in obesity prevention research, the current state of mental health prevention, and the implications of current applications of systems thinking in obesity prevention research for lifestyle interventions. We propose a potential focus for future mental health promotion interventions and emphasise the importance of lessons available from other lifestyle modification intervention programmes.

  13. A metastructural model of mental disorders and pathological personality traits.

    Wright, A G C; Simms, L J

    2015-08-01

    Psychiatric co-morbidity is extensive in both psychiatric settings and the general population. Such co-morbidity challenges whether DSM-based mental disorders serve to effectively carve nature at its joints. In response, a substantial literature has emerged showing that a small number of broad dimensions - internalizing, externalizing and psychoticism - can account for much of the observed covariation among common mental disorders. However, the location of personality disorders within this emerging metastructure has only recently been studied, and no studies have yet examined where pathological personality traits fit within such a broad metastructural framework. We conducted joint structural analyses of common mental disorders, personality disorders and pathological personality traits in a sample of 628 current or recent psychiatric out-patients. Bridging across the psychopathology and personality trait literatures, the results provide evidence for a robust five-factor metastructure of psychopathology, including broad domains of symptoms and features related to internalizing, disinhibition, psychoticism, antagonism and detachment. These results reveal evidence for a psychopathology metastructure that (a) parsimoniously accounts for much of the observed covariation among common mental disorders, personality disorders and related personality traits, and (b) provides an empirical basis for the organization and classification of mental disorder.

  14. An epidemiological study of mental disorders at Pune, Maharashtra

    Balbir S Deswal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The WHO Global Burden of Disease study estimates that mental and addictive disorders are among the most burdensome in the world, and their burden will increase over the next decades. The mental and behavioral disorders account for about 12% of the global burden of disease. However, these estimates and projections are based largely on literature review rather than cross-national epidemiological surveys. In India, little is known about the extent, severity and unmet need of treatment mental disorders. Thus, there was a need to carry out rigorously implemented general population surveys that estimate the prevalence of mental disorders among urban population at Pune, Maharashtra. The study attempted to address unmet need and to form a basis for formulating the mental health need of the community. Objective: The study was undertaken to estimate the lifetime prevalence and 12 month prevalence of specific mental disorders in urban population, socio-demographic correlates of mental disorders and to assess the service utilization in individuals with mental disorders. Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken among adults aged 18 years and above living in house hold and in geographical area of Pune , Maharashtra. A minimum sample of 3000 completed interviews was planned using representative probabilities to population size (PPS sampling method which ensured equal probability for every eligible member. Data listing was obtained from Census Office from recent census of 2001 data. The face to face interviews were undertaken in homes using fully structured interview schedule of World Mental Health Survey Initiative duly revised Version of WHO- Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0 by trained investigators. Clinical reappraisal was carried out using Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN among ten percent of diagnosed cases selected randomly. Data were entered into DDE (Blaize Software and analyzed using

  15. Validation of the Kirundi versions of brief self-rating scales for common mental disorders among children in Burundi

    Ventevogel, P.; Komproe, I.H.; Jordans, M.J.; Feo, P.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Sub Saharan Africa, there has been limited research on instruments to identify specific mental disorders in children in conflict-affected settings. This study evaluates the psychometric properties of three self-report scales for child mental disorder in order to inform an emerging

  16. Correlates of common mental disorders among Dutch women who have had an abortion: a longitudinal cohort study.

    van Ditzhuijzen, J.M.; ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; van Nijnatten, C.H.C.J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    CONTEXT Credible research has not found any evidence that abortion causes mental disorders. It is not known, however, whether abortion-specific risk indicators and other variables are associated with the incidence or recurrence of mental disorders after abortion. METHODS As part of a prospective

  17. Are Level of Education and Employment Related to Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Current and Retired Professional Footballers?

    Gouttebarge; Aoki; Verhagen; Kerkhoffs

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental disorders have become a topic of increasing interest in research due to their serious consequences for quality of life and functioning. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of level of education, employment status and working hours with symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutritional beh...

  18. Perceived work stress, imbalance between work and family/personal lives, and mental disorders.

    Wang, Jian Li

    2006-07-01

    Occupational mental health research has been focusing on the relationship between work stress and depression. However, the impacts of work stress on anxiety disorders and of imbalance between work and family life on workers' mental health have not been well studied. This analysis investigated the association between levels of perceived work stress and of imbalance between work and family/personal lives and current mood/anxiety disorders. This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health and Well-being (CCHS-1.2) (n=36,984). Mood and anxiety disorders were measured using the World Mental Health-Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The 1-month prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among those with a work stress score at the 75th percentile value and above was 3.6% and 4.0%. Among those who reported that their work and family/personal lives "never" balanced in the past month, the 1-month prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders was 21.2% and 17.9%. In multivariate analyses, work stress and imbalance between work and family/personal lives were independently associated with mood and anxiety disorders. There was no evidence that perceived work stress interacted with imbalance between work and family/personal lives to increase the likelihood of having mental disorders. Gender was associated with anxiety disorders, but not with major depressive disorder and mood disorders. Work stress and imbalance between work and family/personal lives may be part of the etiology of mood and anxiety disorders in the working population. Community based longitudinal studies are needed to delineate the causal relationships among work stress, imbalance between work and family/personal lives and mental disorders.

  19. The Camden & Islington Research Database: Using electronic mental health records for research.

    Werbeloff, Nomi; Osborn, David P J; Patel, Rashmi; Taylor, Matthew; Stewart, Robert; Broadbent, Matthew; Hayes, Joseph F

    2018-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) are widely used in mental health services. Case registers using EHRs from secondary mental healthcare have the potential to deliver large-scale projects evaluating mental health outcomes in real-world clinical populations. We describe the Camden and Islington NHS Foundation Trust (C&I) Research Database which uses the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) tool to extract and de-identify routinely collected clinical information from a large UK provider of secondary mental healthcare, and demonstrate its capabilities to answer a clinical research question regarding time to diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder. The C&I Research Database contains records from 108,168 mental health patients, of which 23,538 were receiving active care. The characteristics of the patient population are compared to those of the catchment area, of London, and of England as a whole. The median time to diagnosis of bipolar disorder was 76 days (interquartile range: 17-391) and median time to treatment was 37 days (interquartile range: 5-194). Compulsory admission under the UK Mental Health Act was associated with shorter intervals to diagnosis and treatment. Prior diagnoses of other psychiatric disorders were associated with longer intervals to diagnosis, though prior diagnoses of schizophrenia and related disorders were associated with decreased time to treatment. The CRIS tool, developed by the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM) Biomedical Research Centre (BRC), functioned very well at C&I. It is reassuring that data from different organizations deliver similar results, and that applications developed in one Trust can then be successfully deployed in another. The information can be retrieved in a quicker and more efficient fashion than more traditional methods of health research. The findings support the secondary use of EHRs for large-scale mental health research in naturalistic samples and settings investigated across large

  20. Common Mental Disorders: A Challenge Among People Living with ...

    burden of mental disorders among low- and middle-income nations, contributing ... from mild to severe mental stress with the female gender developing stress 2.3 times more often. ... that the participant could withdraw from the study at any time. .... lack of family and social support with broken relationships could be key in ...

  1. The Stigma of Childhood Mental Disorders: A Conceptual Framework

    Mukolo, Abraham; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Wallston, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the state of the literature on stigma associated with children's mental disorders and highlight gaps in empirical work. Method: We reviewed child mental illness stigma articles in (English only) peer-reviewed journals available through Medline and PsychInfo. We augmented these with adult-oriented stigma articles that focus…

  2. Common Mental Disorders in Public Transportation Drivers in Lima, Peru

    Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Ramos, Mariana; Samalvides, Frine; Vega-Dienstmaier, Johann; Kruger, Hever

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traffic related injuries are leading contributors to burden of disease worldwide. In developing countries a high proportion of them can be attributed to public transportation vehicles. Several mental disorders including alcohol and drug abuse, psychotic disorders, mental stress, productivity pressure, and low monetary income were found predictors of high rates of traffic related injuries in public transportation drivers. The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of com...

  3. Mobile mental health: a challenging research agenda.

    Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    The field of mobile health ("m-Health") is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally ("g-Health"). However, few of the mobile applications (apps) have been rigorously evaluated. There is little information on how valid screening and assessment tools are, which of the mobile intervention apps are effective, or how well mobile apps compare to face-to-face treatments. But how feasible is rigorous scientific evaluation with the rising demands from policy makers, business partners, and users for their quick release? In this paper, developments in m-Health tools-targeting screening, assessment, prevention, and treatment-are reviewed with examples from the field of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The academic challenges in developing and evaluating m-Health tools are being addressed. Evidence-based guidance is needed on appropriate research designs that may overcome some of the public and ethical challenges (e.g., equity, availability) and the market-driven wish to have mobile apps in the "App Store" yesterday rather than tomorrow.

  4. Mobile mental health: a challenging research agenda

    Miranda Olff

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of mobile health (“m-Health” is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally (“g-Health”. However, few of the mobile applications (apps have been rigorously evaluated. There is little information on how valid screening and assessment tools are, which of the mobile intervention apps are effective, or how well mobile apps compare to face-to-face treatments. But how feasible is rigorous scientific evaluation with the rising demands from policy makers, business partners, and users for their quick release? In this paper, developments in m-Health tools—targeting screening, assessment, prevention, and treatment—are reviewed with examples from the field of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The academic challenges in developing and evaluating m-Health tools are being addressed. Evidence-based guidance is needed on appropriate research designs that may overcome some of the public and ethical challenges (e.g., equity, availability and the market-driven wish to have mobile apps in the “App Store” yesterday rather than tomorrow.

  5. Associations between subjective social status and DSM-IV mental disorders: results from the World Mental Health surveys.

    Scott, Kate M; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Andrade, Laura H; Borges, Guilherme; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Fiestas, Fabian; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Lim, Carmen C W; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Torres, Yolanda; Williams, David R; Zakhozha, Victoria; Kessler, Ronald C

    2014-12-01

    The inverse social gradient in mental disorders is a well-established research finding with important implications for causal models and policy. This research has used traditional objective social status (OSS) measures, such as educational level, income, and occupation. Recently, subjective social status (SSS) measurement has been advocated to capture the perception of relative social status, but to our knowledge, there have been no studies of associations between SSS and mental disorders. To estimate associations of SSS with DSM-IV mental disorders in multiple countries and to investigate whether the associations persist after comprehensive adjustment of OSS. Face-to-face cross-sectional household surveys of community-dwelling adults in 18 countries in Asia, South Pacific, the Americas, Europe, and the Middle East (N=56,085). Subjective social status was assessed with a self-anchoring scale reflecting respondent evaluations of their place in the social hierarchies of their countries in terms of income, educational level, and occupation. Scores on the 1 to 10 SSS scale were categorized into 4 categories: low (scores 1-3), low-mid (scores 4-5), high-mid (scores 6-7), and high (scores 8-10). Objective social status was assessed with a wide range of fine-grained objective indicators of income, educational level, and occupation. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed the 12-month prevalence of 16 DSM-IV mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. The weighted mean survey response rate was 75.2% (range, 55.1%-97.2%). Graded inverse associations were found between SSS and all 16 mental disorders. Gross odds ratios (lowest vs highest SSS categories) in the range of 1.8 to 9.0 were attenuated but remained significant for all 16 disorders (odds ratio, 1.4-4.9) after adjusting for OSS indicators. This pattern of inverse association between SSS and mental disorders was significant in 14 of 18 individual countries, and in low-, middle-, and high

  6. The relationship between work stress and mental disorders in men and women: findings from a population-based study.

    Wang, J L; Lesage, A; Schmitz, N; Drapeau, A

    2008-01-01

    [corrected] This analysis estimated the gender-specific associations between work stress, major depression, anxiety disorders and any mental disorder, adjusting for the effects of demographic, socioeconomic, psychological and clinical variables. Data from the Canadian national mental health survey were used to examine the gender-specific relationships between work stress dimensions and mental disorders in the working population (n = 24,277). Mental disorders were assessed using a modified version of the World Mental Health - Composite International Diagnostic Interview. In multivariate analysis, male workers who reported high demand and low control in the workplace were more likely to have had major depression (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.69) and any depressive or anxiety disorders (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.04) in the past 12 months. In women, high demand and low control was only associated with having any depressive or anxiety disorder (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.84). Job insecurity was positively associated with major depression in men but not in women. Imbalance between work and family life was the strongest factor associated with having mental disorders, regardless of gender. Policies improving the work environment may have positive effects on workers' mental health status. Imbalance between work and family life may be a stronger risk factor than work stress for mental disorders. Longitudinal studies incorporating important workplace health research models are needed to delineate causal relationships between work characteristics and mental disorders.

  7. Common mental disorders and intimate partner violence in pregnancy

    Ana Bernarda Ludermir

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To investigate the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence during pregnancy. METHODS : A cross sectional study was carried out with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18-49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Program in the city of Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Common mental disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Intimate partner violence was defined as psychologically, physically and sexually abusive acts committed against women by their partners. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were estimated for the association studied utilizing logistic regression analysis. RESULTS : The most common form of partner violence was psychological. The prevalence of common mental disorders was 71.0% among women who reported all form of violence in pregnancy and 33.8% among those who did not report intimate partner violence. Common mental disorders were associated with psychological violence (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.8;3.5, even without physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence was combined with physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher (OR 3.45; 95%CI 2.3;5.2. CONCLUSIONS : Being assaulted by someone with whom you are emotionally involved can trigger feelings of helplessness, low self-esteem and depression. The pregnancy probably increased women`s vulnerability to common mental disorders

  8. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mental disorders due to... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.129 Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event is...

  9. 38 CFR 4.126 - Evaluation of disability from mental disorders.

    2010-07-01

    ... from mental disorders. 4.126 Section 4.126 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.126 Evaluation of disability from mental disorders. (a) When evaluating a mental disorder, the rating agency shall consider the...

  10. The impact of a community mental health initiative on outcomes for offenders with a serious mental disorder.

    Stewart, Lynn A; Farrell-MacDonald, Shanna; Feeley, Stacey

    2017-10-01

    The Community Mental Health Initiative (CMHI) is mandated to assist offenders with serious mental disorders in their transition from institutions to the community, but this incorporates different styles of service. An important unanswered question is whether these are equivalent. Our aim was to compare outcomes for different intervention styles within the CMHI, a programme for serious offenders in prison who also have at least one major mental disorder. Our specific research questions were as follows: do outcomes differ according to whether offenders with mental health difficulties receive (1) clinical discharge planning only; (2) community mental health services only; (3) the combined services or (4) none, although meeting criteria for any CMHI service? Survival analyses, controlling for variables with a significant effect on recidivism or return to prison, were used to test for differences in recidivism or return to prison rates between the intervention and no-intervention groups during a fixed follow-up period. Men receiving only community mental health services had a significantly lower risk of returning to custody and of recidivism than men receiving discharge planning alone or no community mental health service at all, even after controlling for potential confounders including age, number of previous imprisonments and number of previous community failures. The advantages were apparent within 3-6 months and sustained for up to 4 years. Provision of specialised community mental health services for higher-risk male offenders with a mental disorder may reduce recidivism in the short and longer term - within 3 months and up to 4 years respectively. Statistical modelling also pointed to the need to include treatment for substance abuse and assistance in identifying stable accommodation and brokerage of community services among the interventions and services. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. How culture shapes social cognition deficits in mental disorders: A review.

    Koelkebeck, Katja; Uwatoko, Teruhisa; Tanaka, Jiro; Kret, Mariska Esther

    2017-04-01

    Social cognitive skills are indispensable for successful communication with others. Substantial research has determined deficits in these abilities in patients with mental disorders. In neurobiological development and continuing into adulthood, cross-cultural differences in social cognition have been demonstrated. Moreover, symptomatic patterns in mental disorders may vary according to the cultural background of an individual. Cross-cultural studies can thus help in understanding underlying (biological) mechanisms and factors that influence behavior in health and disease. In addition, studies that apply novel paradigms assessing the impact of culture on cognition may benefit and advance neuroscience research. In this review, the authors give an overview of cross-cultural research in the field of social cognition in health and in mental disorders and provide an outlook on future research directions, taking a neuroscience perspective.

  12. Mental health first aid for eating disorders: pilot evaluation of a training program for the public.

    Hart, Laura M; Jorm, Anthony F; Paxton, Susan J

    2012-08-02

    Eating disorders cause significant burden that may be reduced by early and appropriate help-seeking. However, despite the availability of effective treatments, very few individuals with eating disorders seek treatment. Training in mental health first aid is known to be effective in increasing mental health literacy and supportive behaviours, in the social networks of individuals with mental health problems. Increases in these domains are thought to improve the likelihood that effective help is sought. However, the efficacy of mental health first aid for eating disorders has not been evaluated. The aim of this research was to examine whether specific training in mental health first aid for eating disorders was effective in changing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards people with eating disorders. A repeated measures, uncontrolled trial was conducted to establish proof of concept and provide guidance on the future design of a randomised controlled trial. Self-report questionnaires, administered at baseline, post-training and 6-month follow-up, assessed the effectiveness of the 4-hour, single session, mental health first aid training. 73 participants completed the training and all questionnaires. The training intervention was associated with statistically significant increases in problem recognition and knowledge of appropriate mental health first aid strategies, which were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Sustained significant changes in attitudes and behaviours were less clear. 20 participants reported providing assistance to someone with a suspected eating disorder, seven of whom sought professional help as a result of the first aid interaction. Results provided no evidence of a negative impact on participants or the individuals they provided assistance to. This research provides preliminary evidence for the use of training in mental health first aid as a suitable intervention for increasing community knowledge of and support for people with eating

  13. Mental health research and philanthropy: possible partnerships?

    Scott, Dorothy

    2005-01-01

    Mental health research has received relatively little philanthropic support in Australia compared with other areas of health research. Philanthropic trusts do not generally provide recurrent funding or make grants for that perceived to be the responsibility of the state or the market. The emergence of 'strategic philanthropy' however, provides potential for mental health researchers to form partnerships with philanthropic foundations, particularly on initiatives that are focused on prevention and innovative and sustainable models with the capacity to 'go to scale' across the service system.

  14. Mental disorder among the Incas in ancient Peru.

    Elferink, J G

    1999-09-01

    The work of the chroniclers served as a source of information about the occurrence of mental diseases among the Incas. From this source it appears that melancholy was by far the most important disease among mental disorders. The disease did not only affect the common Incas: melancholy was rather frequent among the family of the Inca emperor. Like other diseases, mental diseases were treated by the Incas with a mixture of magic and empirical medicinal products. The latter were mainly of botanical nature, but also some minerals were applied to treat depressive disorders. Some typical syndromes of contemporary folk medicine, such as susto and related ailments, were not mentioned by the chroniclers.

  15. Participatory Research in a Mental Health Clubhouse.

    Townsend, Elizabeth; Birch, Diane E.; Langley, Jack; Langille, Lynn

    2000-01-01

    A 2-year ethnographic study of a clubhouse for people with long-term mental illness involved club members in particpatory research. The study explored questions of what is research and who drives it. A critical perspective on the social organization of knowledge and power inequities between participants was highlighted. (SK)

  16. Program for suicidal prevention, mental disorder treatment, and mental health development for resident doctors

    José Luis Jiménez López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High demand of care and the academic burden of courses of specialization in medicine affect the mental health of medical residents with events ranging from simple emotional discomfort to development of affective disorders in susceptible individuals. The suicide of physicians has produced programs for their attention in some countries. We present the first mental health clinic for residents of a high specialty hospital in Mexico, focused on the prevention of suicide and depression, treatment of mental disorders and mental health promotion. Unlike the reports of other countries, we get participation of more than 95%, we provide appropriate treatment and follow-up to residents with mental disorder, and there has not been a consummate suicide. We assume that the use of different strategies (scrutiny, adapting models of prevention of suicide as a peer and gatekeeper training, informative sessions of mental health promotion and stigma, interventions targeted at individuals and groups with conflicts has been useful against barriers that do not allow doctors to identify the risk of suicide warning signs, seek help for mental disorder, and seek to improve their mental health.

  17. Creativity, mental disorders and their treatment: recovery-oriented psychopharmacotherapy.

    Jakovljević, Miro

    2013-09-01

    This paper discusses interrelations between creativity, mental disorders and their treatment. The psychology of creativity is very important for successful psychopharmacotherapy, but our knowledge about creativity is still insufficient. Even that which is known is not within the armamentarium of most practicing psychiatrists. In the first part of this article creativity and possible associations between creativity, mental health, and well-being are described. The second part deals with the intriguing relationship between creativity and mental disorders. The third part emphasizes the role of creativity in the treatment of mental disorders. This paper ends by underlining the importance of a creativity-enhancing oriented, and personal recovery-focused psychopharmacotherapy in helping psychiatric patients achieve fulfilled and purposeful lives.

  18. Parental mental illness and eating disorders in offspring.

    Bould, Helen; Koupil, Ilona; Dalman, Christina; DeStavola, Bianca; Lewis, Glyn; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2015-05-01

    To investigate which parental mental illnesses are associated with eating disorders in their offspring. We used data from a record-linkage cohort study of 158,679 children aged 12-24 years at the end of follow-up, resident in Stockholm County from 2001 to 2007, to investigate whether different parental mental illnesses are risk factors for eating disorders in their offspring. The outcome measure was diagnosis of any eating disorder, either from an ICD or DSM-IV code, or inferred from an appointment at a specialist eating disorder clinic. Mental illness in parents is a risk factor for eating disorders in female offspring (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) 1.57 (95% CI 1.42, 1.92), p eating disorders is increased if there is a parental diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (AHR 2.28 (95% CI 1.39, 3.72), p = 0.004), personality disorder (AHR 1.57 (95% CI 1.01, 2.44), p = 0.043) or anxiety/depression (AHR 1.57 (95% CI 1.32, 1.86), p disorder (AHR 1.25 (95% CI 0.74, 2.13), p = 0.40). There is no support for a relationship between parental substance misuse and eating disorders in children (AHR 1.08 (95% CI 0.82, 1.43), p = 0.57). Parental mental illness, specifically parental anxiety, depression, bipolar affective disorder, and personality disorders, are risk factors for eating disorders in their offspring. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The relationship between religion and mental disorders in a Korean population.

    Park, Jong-Ik; Hong, Jin Pyo; Park, Subin; Cho, Maeng-Je

    2012-03-01

    The question of whether religion has beneficial or detrimental effects on the mental well-being of the adult individual is debatable. Because most Korean citizens are free to select their own religion, there is a higher proportion of non-believers than believers among the Korean population. The aim of this research was to investigate the association between spiritual values and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition mental disorders in Korea across all types of belief systems, including Koreans not affiliated with a particular religion. The Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 was used to interview 6,275 people across South Korea in 2001. While controlling for age and sex, we used logistic regression to analyze the relationship between mental disorders (both current and past) and the types of religion and spiritual values. Strong spiritual values were positively associated with increased rates of current depressive disorder and decreased rates of current alcohol use disorder. Using "atheist" as the reference category, Catholics had higher lifetime odds of single episodes of depression whilst Protestants had higher lifetime odds of anxiety disorder and lower lifetime odds of alcohol use disorders. The results of this study suggest that depressive episodes often lead to a search for spirituality and that religion may be helpful in overcoming depression or becoming less vulnerable to relapsing. The associations between religion, spiritual values, and mental health have not been fully elucidated and warrant further exploration.

  20. Mental disorders in cancer patients: observations at a tertiary care centre in Pakistan

    Iqbal, M.; Syed, G.M.S.; Siddiqui, K.S.

    2002-01-01

    To study the frequencies of metal disorders among adult cancer patients in relation to their age, gender, marital status and type of malignancy. Socio-demographic characteristics and cancer diagnoses were recorded on a data capture form. diagnoses of metal disorders were made on the basis of diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM-IV) fourth edition. Shuakat Khanum Memorial Hospital and Research Centre. Two hundred and twenty newly diagnosed cancer patients were interviewed by a clinical psychologist before commencing any cancer treatment. Diagnosis of any metal disorder was transcribed using DSM-IV criteria and data thus collected were analyzed using SPSS for Windows. Observed frequencies of various metal disorders were compared with respect to patient's age, gender, martial status and type of cancer. Sixty five percent patients presented with various mental disorder. Adjusting disorders and mood disorders accounted for 34% each, while anxiety disorder was seen in 30% and remaining had delirium and somatoform disorders. Mental disorders were more common in males, and in younger age group. The oncologist and physicians treating cancer patients should carefully evaluate their patients for symptom of associated mental disorder and provide the required clinical support. (author)

  1. Contradictions In Mental Health: Stigma, Mental Health Literacy And Disclosure (Or Not Of A Mental Disorder Diagnosis.

    manuel torres cubeiro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mental illnesses affect 25% of any given population. The literacy of human population about mental health doesn’t not much the scientific knowledge available about Mental disorders (MDs. Developed countries invest in mental health less than their 9% of their GDPs. There is a contradiction, or discrepancy, between the incidence of MD in human population and how human societies react about them. This discrepancy has long been evident in the literature of medical sociology. In this article we analyze three medical sociology related concepts that have been coined to understand this contradiction: first, mental health literacy; second, stigma of mental ailments; and finally, the disclosure (or not of the diagnosis of a mental illness. With this article we try to solve short use of these concepts in medical sociology in Spanish.

  2. [Professional stressors and common mental health disorders: Causal links?

    Nicolas, C; Chawky, N; Jourdan-Ionescu, C; Drouin, M-S; Page, C; Houlfort, N; Beauchamp, G; Séguin, M

    2017-03-22

    According to the World Health Organization, depression has become the leading cause of disability in the world, contributing significantly to the burden of health issues especially in the industrialized countries. This is a major public health problem, with potential impact on work climates, productivity at work and the continued existence of the organizations. Some recent studies have examined potential links between professional factors and common mental health disorders, but none have demonstrated a direct causal link. In the present study, we explored possible links between work-related stressors and common mental health disorders, with the objective of determining priority mental health prevention axes. The study used a life trajectory method. We compared professional stressors and difficulties present in other spheres of life in the last five years between two groups: a group of 29 participants with common mental health disorders during the last five years (depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, substance use disorders, pathological gambling), and a group of 29 participants who have not experienced a mental health disorder in the last five years. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with the participants using a life course analysis method. Each participant was interviewed during two or three meetings of two to three hour duration. Questions regarding difficulties in different spheres of life and mental health were asked. More precisely, data were collected with regards to the presence or absence of mental health disorders in the last five years and the nature of mental health disorders and difficulties. Moreover, we collected data pertaining to the most important positive and negative events in different spheres of life that were present in the last five years, including family life, romantic relationships, social life, academic difficulties, losses and separations, episodes of personal difficulties, financial difficulties as well as

  3. Parental mental health, childhood psychiatric disorders, and asthma attacks in island Puerto Rican youth.

    Ortega, Alexander N; Goodwin, Renee D; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Canino, Glorisa

    2004-01-01

    Previous research documents an association of poor parental mental health with asthma in children. This study aims to determine whether the associations between parental mental health problems and childhood asthma attacks persist after controlling for childhood anxiety and depression and other confounding factors. A community household sample of youth ages 4 to 17 years and their primary caregivers from the US Commonwealth of Puerto Rico was studied to determine the associations between parental mental health and childhood asthma attacks. Regression models that predicted asthma attacks in youth controlled for parental mental health problems, childhood anxiety and depression, zone of residence, and parents' age, education, and perception of poverty. After adjusting for children's depressive and anxiety disorders as well as other important confounders, associations between parental depression, suicide attempts, ataque de nervios, and history of mental health treatment and asthma attacks in offspring, by parental report, persisted. Additionally, the frequency of parental mental health problems was associated with children's asthma attacks. Parents with mental health problems were more likely to report histories of asthma attacks in their children compared with parents without mental health problems in Puerto Rico. These associations were not attributable to internalizing disorders in youth but persisted independent of childhood psychopathology and other confounding factors. Clinicians and researchers should recognize the relations between poor parental mental health and childhood asthma and explore the potential role of family psychosocial and behavioral factors related to the manifestation of the disease.

  4. Ten years integrated care for mental disorders in the Netherlands

    Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and problem statement: Integrated care for mental disorders aims to encompass forms of collaboration between different health care settings for the treatment of mental disorders. To this end, it requires integration at several levels, i.e. integration of psychiatry in medicine, of the psychiatric discourse in the medical discourse; of localization of mental health care and general health care facilities; and of reimbursement systems.   Description of policy practice: Steps have been taken in the last decade to meet these requirements, enabling psychiatry to move on towards integrated treatment of mental disorder as such, by development of a collaborative care model that includes structural psychiatric consultation that was found to be applicable and effective in several Dutch health care settings. This collaborative care model is a feasible and effective model for integrated care in several health care settings. The Bio Psycho Social System has been developed as a feasible instrument for assessment in integrated care as well. Discussion: The discipline of Psychiatry has moved from anti-psychiatry in the last century, towards an emancipated medical discipline. This enabled big advances towards integrated care for mental disorder, in collaboration with other medical disciplines, in the last decade. Conclusion: Now is the time to further expand this concept of care towards other mental disorders, and towards integrated care for medical and mental co-morbidity. Integrated care for mental disorder should be readily available to the patient, according to his/her preference, taking somatic co-morbidity into account, and with a focus on rehabilitation of the patient in his or her social roles.

  5. Ten years integrated care for mental disorders in the Netherlands

    Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and problem statement: Integrated care for mental disorders aims to encompass forms of collaboration between different health care settings for the treatment of mental disorders. To this end, it requires integration at several levels, i.e. integration of psychiatry in medicine, of the psychiatric discourse in the medical discourse; of localization of mental health care and general health care facilities; and of reimbursement systems.  Description of policy practice: Steps have been taken in the last decade to meet these requirements, enabling psychiatry to move on towards integrated treatment of mental disorder as such, by development of a collaborative care model that includes structural psychiatric consultation that was found to be applicable and effective in several Dutch health care settings. This collaborative care model is a feasible and effective model for integrated care in several health care settings. The Bio Psycho Social System has been developed as a feasible instrument for assessment in integrated care as well.Discussion: The discipline of Psychiatry has moved from anti-psychiatry in the last century, towards an emancipated medical discipline. This enabled big advances towards integrated care for mental disorder, in collaboration with other medical disciplines, in the last decade.Conclusion: Now is the time to further expand this concept of care towards other mental disorders, and towards integrated care for medical and mental co-morbidity. Integrated care for mental disorder should be readily available to the patient, according to his/her preference, taking somatic co-morbidity into account, and with a focus on rehabilitation of the patient in his or her social roles.

  6. [Comorbid antisocial and borderline personality disorders: mentalization-based treatment].

    Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Mentalization is the process by which we implicitly and explicitly interpret the actions of ourselves and others as meaningful based on intentional mental states (e.g., desires, needs, feelings, beliefs, and reasons). This process is disrupted in individuals with comorbid antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD), who tend to misinterpret others' motives. Antisocial characteristics stabilize mentalizing by rigidifying relationships within prementalistic ways of functioning. However, loss of flexibility makes the person vulnerable to sudden collapse when the schematic representation is challenged. This exposes feelings of humiliation, which can only be avoided by violence and control of the other person. The common path to violence is via a momentary inhibition of the capacity for mentalization. In this article, the authors outline their current understanding of mentalizing and its relation to antisocial characteristics and violence. This is illustrated by a clinical account of mentalization-based treatment adapted for antisocial personality disorder. Treatment combines group and individual therapy. The focus is on helping patients maintain mentalizing about their own mental states when their personal integrity is challenged. A patient with ASPD does not have mental pain associated with another's state of mind; thus, to generate conflict in ASPD by thinking about the victim will typically be ineffective in inducing behavior change.

  7. Comorbid antisocial and borderline personality disorders: mentalization-based treatment.

    Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter

    2008-02-01

    Mentalization is the process by which we implicitly and explicitly interpret the actions of ourselves and others as meaningful based on intentional mental states (e.g., desires, needs, feelings, beliefs, and reasons). This process is disrupted in individuals with comorbid antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD), who tend to misinterpret others' motives. Antisocial characteristics stabilize mentalizing by rigidifying relationships within prementalistic ways of functioning. However, loss of flexibility makes the person vulnerable to sudden collapse when the schematic representation is challenged. This exposes feelings of humiliation, which can only be avoided by violence and control of the other person. The common path to violence is via a momentary inhibition of the capacity for mentalization. In this article, the authors outline their current understanding of mentalizing and its relation to antisocial characteristics and violence. This is illustrated by a clinical account of mentalization-based treatment adapted for antisocial personality disorder. Treatment combines group and individual therapy. The focus is on helping patients maintain mentalizing about their own mental states when their personal integrity is challenged. A patient with ASPD does not have mental pain associated with another's state of mind; thus, to generate conflict in ASPD by thinking about the victim will typically be ineffective in inducing behavior change. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  8. Exploring the link between inflammation and mental disorders

    Effendy, E.

    2018-03-01

    Mental disorders constitute 13% of the global disease burden. Schizophrenia, major depressive disorders (MDD) and bipolar disorders are among the most disabling disorders. Some of the inflammatory markers such as homocysteine, tumor necrosis alpha (TNF), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin (IL)-6 have a contribution to influence mental disorder. The serum concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) wasusedas a nonspecific index of systemic inflammation. Elevated levels of CRP as evidence for an inflammatory etiology of schizophrenia, and as indicators of more severe clinical symptoms and psychopathology of schizophrenia. The inflammatory marker also increases in the depressed patient. Proinflammatory cytokines might inhibit hippocampal neurogenesis which could lead to a reduced hippocampal volume, which is in depression. Anxiety symptoms were correlated to increase cytokine levels. Elevated inflammation in particular found in both men and women with the onset of anxiety disorder later in life.

  9. Oral and dental health issues in people with mental disorders.

    Torales, Julio; Barrios, Iván; González, Israel

    2017-09-21

    Patients with mental disorders are subject to a greater number of risk factors for oral and dental disease than the general population. This is mostly caused by the side effects of the medications that they receive, lack of self-care, difficulty to access health services, a negative attitude towards healthcare providers, and patients’ lack of cooperation in dental treatments. The most common psychiatric disorders in our population are depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and dementia. In disorders such as anxiety and depression, the main issue is the loss of interest in self-care, which results in a poor hygiene. The most frequent oral and dental diseases in these patients are dental cavities and periodontal disease. The purpose of this brief review is to provide up-to-date information about the management of oral and dental diseases of patients with mental disorders.

  10. Mental disorder as the cause of a crime.

    Buchanan, Alec; Zonana, Howard

    2009-01-01

    An offender's punishment can be reduced when a court decides that his mental disorder reduces his responsibility for what he did. Courts have sought to establish whether a mentally disordered offender's responsibility is reduced by asking whether his disorder caused the crime. Acceptance of this "causation by mental disorder" criterion has fluctuated, however. This may be because causal explanations are not the types of explanations we are accustomed to offering for the kinds of acts that bring defendants, and psychiatric witnesses, to court. More often, we offer what philosophers have called "possibility" explanations for these acts. The application of psychiatry to possibility explanations has not been widely explored. It offers the potential for the improved use of psychiatric evidence in criminal proceedings.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of mental disorders in Israeli adolescents: results from a national mental health survey.

    Farbstein, Ilana; Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Levinson, Daphna; Goodman, Robert; Levav, Itzhak; Vograft, Itzik; Kanaaneh, Rasim; Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Brent, David A; Apter, Alan

    2010-05-01

    The development of epidemiological instruments has enabled the assessment of mental disorders in youth in countries that plan policy according to evidence-based principles. The Israel Survey of Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA) was conducted in 2004-2005 in a representative sample of 957 adolescents aged 14-17 and their mothers. The aims of this study were to estimate prevalence rates of internalizing and externalizing mental disorders and their socio-demographic and health correlates. Disorders were ascertained with the Development and Well-Being Assessment inventory and verified by child psychiatrists. The prevalence rates were 11.7%, 8.1% and 4.8% for any disorder, internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders, respectively. Distinct risk factors were associated with the different types of disorders: internalizing disorders were associated with female gender, chronic medical conditions and being cared for by a welfare agency. Risk factors for externalizing disorders were male gender, having divorced or single parents, being an only child or having only one sibling. Learning disability was associated with both types of disorders. The risk and protective factors related to internalizing and externalizing disorders are interpreted within the framework of family composition in this multicultural society.

  12. Prevalence of mental disorders among refugees

    Iryna Frankova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The European migrant crisis is one of the 21st century’s biggest challenges so far. Forced migration touches millions of peoples’ life. Some societies have sent many immigrants abroad, some have received or hosted, and still others have been in transit along paths of migration. Refugee mental health is a psychiatric challenge of the century. The demand for mental healthcare among people fleeing war and persecution can only grow further. 

  13. [Knowledge and practices of the community health agent in the universe of mental disorder].

    de Barros, Márcia Maria Mont'alverne; Chagas, Maristela Inês Osawa; Dias, Maria Socorro de Araújo

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative investigation aimed at collecting information about the knowledge and practices of the community health agents related to the universe of mental disorders. Fourteen agents working in the Family Health Program in Sobral, Ceará were interviewed. We deduced that the concepts of mental disorder are constructed in a process influenced by subjective and socio-cultural aspects and in connection with concrete experiences. The community health agents judge mentally disturbed persons on the basis of different criteria such as normal or abnormal behavior standards and the capacity to make judgments. Social isolation emerged as an important factor, considered by the different research subjects as the cause, the consequence and even as the mental disorder itself. Fear, as a consequence of the strange behavior of people with mental disorders, was identified as an important obstacle for the performance of the community health agents. The strategies adopted by these professionals, fundamentally based on dialogue, reveal concern with social inclusion and the need to involve the families in the care of people with mental disorders.

  14. Stereotypes of mental disorders differ in competence and warmth.

    Sadler, Melody S; Meagor, Elizabeth L; Kaye, Kimberly E

    2012-03-01

    Theoretical models of public stigma toward mental illness have focused on factors that perpetuate stigma toward the general label of "mental illness" or toward a handful of specific illnesses, used more or less interchangeably. The current work used the Stereotype Content Model (Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002) to examine how one facet of public stigma--stereotype content--differs as a function of specific mental illnesses. Participants were recruited online from across the U.S. Study 1 demonstrated that the overarching category of people with mental illness was perceived as relatively incompetent, but not very hostile (i.e., relatively warm). Study 2 found that when the general label of mental illness was separated into thirteen individual disorders, distinct stereotype content toward four clusters of illnesses emerged. One cluster, typified by illnesses with psychotic features (e.g., schizophrenia), was perceived to be hostile and incompetent. A second cluster, comprised of mood and anxiety disorders, was perceived as average on both competence and warmth. A third cluster of illnesses with neuro-cognitive deficits was thought to be warm but incompetent. The fourth cluster included groups with sociopathic tendencies and was viewed as hostile but relatively competent. The results clearly demonstrate that the stereotype content that underlies public stigma toward individual mental illnesses is not the same for all disorders. Harnessing knowledge of differing stereotype content toward clusters of mental illnesses may improve the efficacy of interventions to counteract public stigma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intimate partner violence and incidence of common mental disorder

    Marcela Franklin Salvador de Mendonça

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of intimate partner violence against women reported in the last 12 months and seven years with the incidence of common mental disorders. METHODS A prospective cohort study with 390 women from 18 to 49 years, registered in the Family Health Program of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco; from July 2013 to December 2014. The Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20 assessed mental health. Intimate partner violence consists of concrete acts of psychological, physical or sexual violence that the partner inflicts on the woman. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RR of the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence. RESULTS The incidence of common mental disorders was 44.6% among women who reported intimate partner violence in the last 12 months and 43.4% among those who reported in the past seven years. Mental disorders remained associated with psychological violence (RR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.9–4.7 and RR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.0–3.7 in the last 12 months, and seven years, respectively, even in the absence of physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence were related to physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher, both in the last 12 months (RR = 3.1; 95%CI 2.1–4.7 and in the last seven years (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.7–3.8. CONCLUSIONS Intimate partner violence is associated with the incidence of common mental disorders in women. The treatment of the consequences of IPV and support for women in seeking protection for themselves for public services is essential.

  16. [Impression Formation in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Mental Disorders].

    Linden, Michael; Dymke, Tina; Hüttner, Susanne; Schnaubelt, Sabine

    2016-06-01

    The first item of any psychopathological assessment is "general impression". There is some research under the heading of "impression formation" which shows that the outer appearance of a person decides about how a person is perceived by others and how others react. Impression formation is an important factor in social interaction. This is of special importance in mental disorders, which may express themselves in a distorted impression formation. As impression formation is by and large an emotional process, measurement can be done by adjective lists. An example is the bipolar MED rating scale. Such lists can be used in therapy to help patients and therapists to understand the problem and initiate modifications. A special group intervention in occupational therapy is described. Results suggest that impression formation is quite objective, that self- and observer judgments coincide and that therapy can help to adopt a less irritating outer appearance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Adolescents with mental disorders while serving time and being subjected to socio-educative measures

    Natália Pereira Gonçalves Vilarins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how adolescent offenders with mental disorders are treated by socio-educative internment treatment. These adolescents come under the aegis of medicine and justice in a contradictory relationship between full protection, vulnerability of a developing person with a mental disorder and a juvenile delinquency offense. In this respect, the legal punishment prevails to the detriment of health care. After approval of the research project by an Ethics Research Committee, field research was conducted in the Youth Detention Unit of the Pilot Plan of the Brazilian Federal District. Data were collected through research of documents involving 35 medical records of adolescent users of psychotropic drugs in 2010, as well as participant observation and semi-structured interviews with professionals from the Youth Detention Unit and adolescent judiciary. In the review of the care provided to adolescent offenders with mental disorders under the childhood and youth policy and the mental health policy, it was revealed that the mental health care provided in the Youth Detention Unit or in the external mental health care services involved the prescription of medication.

  18. [Supply and demand in the meetings between mental health professionals and family members of people with mental disorders].

    Constantinidis, Teresinha Cid; de Andrade, Angela Nobre

    2015-02-01

    This paper is a development of a doctoral thesis presented at the Federal University of Espírito Santo. It seeks to analyze the elucidation of needs, development of supply and demand in the provision of care and the relationship between mental health professionals and family members of people with mental disorders. A qualitative research approach was used as the method of choice to achieve the proposed objectives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with mental health professionals from two psychosocial care centers (CAPS) in the city of Vitória, Espírito Santo, and with family members of frequenters of these institutions. After thematic analysis of content, senses, meanings and values assigned to the needs, supplies and demands present in this relationship were revealed. It highlighted the disparity between supply and demand and the lack of awareness of the needs of family members and their demands related to the routines of mental institutions. Using ethics in the philosophy of Spinoza as a benchmark, the ramifications of this process are discussed in the meetings between mental health professionals and family members of people with mental disorders and the micropolitics of the provision of care in the context of these actors.

  19. [Mentalization Based Treatment of an Adolescent Girl with Conduct Disorder].

    Reiter, Melanie; Bock, Astrid; Althoff, Marie-Luise; Taubner, Svenja; Sevecke, Kathrin

    2017-05-01

    Mentalization Based Treatment of an Adolescent Girl with Conduct Disorder This paper will give a short overview on the theoretical concept of mentalization and its specific characteristics in adolescence. A previous study on Mentalization based treatment for adolescents (MBT-A) demonstrated the effectiveness of MBT-A for the treatment of adolescents with symptoms of deliberate self-harm (Rossouw u. Fonagy, 2012). Based on the results of this study Taubner, Gablonski, Sevecke, and Volkert (in preparation) developed a manual for mentalization based treatment for adolescents with conduct disorders (MBT-CD). This manual represents the foundation for a future study on the efficacy of the MBT-A for this specific disorder in young people. The present case report demonstrates the application of specific MBT interventions, as well as the therapeutic course over one year in a 16-year old girl who fulfilled all criteria of a conduct disorder. During the course of treatment, the de-escalating relationship-oriented therapeutic approach can be considered as a great strength of MBT-A, especially for patients with conduct disorders. The clinical picture, as well as the psychological assessment, showed a positive progress over the course of treatment. Despite frequent escalations, forced placements due to acute endangerment of self and others, and a precarious situation with the patient's place of residence towards the end of therapy, MBT-A treatment enabled the patient to continually use the evolved mentalizing capabilities as a resource.

  20. Mental disorder sick leave in Sweden: A population study.

    Lidwall, Ulrik; Bill, Sofia; Palmer, Edward; Olsson Bohlin, Christina

    2018-01-01

    The inability to perform productive work due to mental disorders is a growing concern in advanced societies. To investigate medically certified mental disorder and all-cause sick leave in a working population using demographic, socioeconomic and occupational predictors. The study population was the entire Swedish work force aged 16-64 years in December 31st 2011. The outcome was sick leave exceeding 14 days in 2012 with adjustment for 13 confounders. The risk of sick leave with a mental disorder is higher among women compared to men, among persons aged 30-39 and among parents in families with underage children. Employees in welfare service occupations within health care, education and social services have an elevated risk of mental disorder sick leave and constitute a large proportion of the workforce. The results support the need for improving early detection and prevention of mental disorders in the workforce. Improvements in psychosocial work environments are essential, where the higher risk in female dominated welfare occupations particularly, have repercussions on the quality of the welfare services provided for vulnerable groups in society. Better work-life balance in families with younger children could also mitigate the effects of a high total workload in that particular phase of life.

  1. [Mental disorders and their underdiagnosis in primary care].

    Cabrera Mateos, J L; Touriño González, R; Núñez González, E

    2017-05-12

    Despite its high prevalence, mental disorders are often underdiagnosed. To determine the magnitude of the underdiagnosis mental disorders and its associated characteristics. A descriptive cross-sectional study performed in Lanzarote (2011) on 310 patients selected by cluster random sampling. A self-completed questionnaire was used that contained the General Health Questionnaire-28, as well as structured interview using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview to confirm the diagnosis of mental disorder. The current diagnosis registered in the DRAGO-AP electronic medical record was also recorded. Of the 75 patients detected with the interview, 14 (18.67%) had a diagnosis recorded in the medical record (sensitivity=0.19; IC 95% CI; 0.09-28). The positive predictive value of being in the medical record was 0.56. With respect to sensitivity, only the "number of visits made to the health centre in the last 3 months" was significantly higher in the group of patients also with a diagnosis of any mental disorder in the medical record (5 vs. 2.77; p=.002). There is an important underdiagnosis of the mental disorders in our environment. More visits to the health centre are associated with this diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. [Poverty and Mental Disorders in the Colombian Population: National Mental Health Survey 2015].

    Quitian, Hoover; Ruiz-Gaviria, Rafael E; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rondón, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Poverty has been associated in some studies with poorer outcomes in mental problems and disorders. A circular relationship has been considered in which poverty fosters the appearance of mental illness and this facilitates greater poverty. There are no studies in Colombia on this subject. To describe the association between mental problems and disorders and poverty according to the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) in Colombia. Using the 2015 National Mental Health Survey, adjusted with the expansion factors for the population. The prevalences of mental problems and disorders obtained through semi-structured interviews employing the instruments SRQ-20, AUDIT C and A, modified PCL, familiar APGAR and CIDI CAPI. The poverty status was determined by the MPI. A total of 13,200 households were interviewed, of which 13.5% were classified as in a poverty condition, 6.3% of the adolescents of poor households reported a life-time prevalence of any mental disorder, and 4.6% in the last 12 months. On the other hand, the prevalences for the same age group not in a poverty condition were 7.2% and 3.3%, respectively. For adults in poverty, the prevalence of life-time mental disorders were 9.2%, with 4.3% in the last year, while those not considered poor showed prevalences of 9.1% and 3.9% for the same time periods. For the population of Colombia, there is a relationship between not being able to access the basic basket of goods and the presence of mental diseases, although there does not seems to be an association between an increase in poverty and the deterioration of mental health. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. E-mental health preferences of Veterans with and without probable posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Whealin, Julia M; Seibert-Hatalsky, L Alana; Howell, Jennifer Willett; Tsai, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Mental health care practices supported by electronic communication, referred to as e-mental health, offer ways to increase access to mental health resources. In recent years, e-mental health interventions using clinical video teleconferencing, Internet-based interventions, social networking sites, and telephones have emerged as viable, cost-effective methods to augment traditional service delivery. Whereas some research evaluates attitudes about e-mental health, few studies have assessed interest in using these approaches in a contemporary sample of U.S. Veterans. This study sought to understand willingness to use e-mental health in a diverse group of Veterans residing in Hawaii. Mailed surveys were completed by 600 Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom Veterans and National Guard members. Results suggest that overall willingness to use e-mental health ranged from 32.2% to 56.7% depending on modality type. Importantly, Veterans who screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were significantly less likely to report willingness to use each e-mental health modality than their peers without PTSD, despite their greater desire for mental health services. These results suggest that despite solutions to logistical barriers afforded via e-mental health services, certain barriers to mental health care may persist, especially among Veterans who screen positive for PTSD.

  4. Mental health research, ethics and multiculturalism.

    Bailes, Marion J; Minas, I Harry; Klimidis, Steven

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we examine ethical issues relevant to conducting mental health research with refugees and immigrant communities that have cultural orientations and social organisation that are substantially different to those of the broader Australian community, and we relate these issues to NH&MRC Guidelines. We describe the development and conduct of a mental health research project carried out recently in Melbourne with the Somali community, focusing on ethical principles involved, and relating these to the NH&MRC National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans, and the NH&MRC document Values and Ethics: Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Research. The experience of conducting mental health research with the Somali community highlights the fact that the principles of inclusion and benefit enunciated in the NH&MRC document Values and Ethics are particularly pertinent when conducting research with refugees and immigrant communities that are culturally distant to those of the broader Australian community. These principles inform issues of research design and consent, as well as guiding respectful engagement with the participating community and communication of the research findings.

  5. Common Mental Disorders in Longterm-Sickness Absence

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen

    provided, in a randomized controlled design, a psychiatric examination giving feedback to the individuals, primary care, and rehabilitation officers with regard to treatment and rehabilitation. Half of individuals who just had passed eight weeks of continuous sickness absence had a mental disorder of which......Common Mental Disorders (CMD) such as depression, anxiety, and somatoform disorders impose heavy burdens on individuals and on society in the form of sickness absence. CMD are frequently undetected in primary care which postpone the initiation of proper treatment. This seriously worsens return...... to work (RTW). Comorbidity with somatic disorders also worsens RTW. CMD are, controlled for lifestyle, independent causes for the development of chronic and disabling somatic disorders. Collaborative care seems to be most effective intervention with regard to RTW. In this dissertation, the intervention...

  6. A cross-cultural examination of knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders

    Altweck, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London How and why do the public’s knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders differ across cultures? Research has widely established that knowledge and beliefs about the symptoms, causes, treatments and stigma towards mental illness vary across cultures. However, few studies have examined the factors that may be associated with this variation. The overall purpose of the present dissertat...

  7. The effect of part-time sick leave for employees with mental disorders.

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders; Eplov, Lene Falgaard

    2012-12-01

    Part-time sick leave (PTSL) allows employees on full-time sick leave (FTSL) to resume work at reduced hours. When the partly absent employee's health improves, working hours are increased until the employee is able to work regular hours. Studies have found that PTSL is an effective instrument for reducing sick leave durations for employees with musculoskeletal disorders and for employees on sick leave in general. This is the first published article to document how PTSL affects sick leave durations for employees with mental disorders. The aim is to estimate the effect of PTSL on the duration until returning to regular working hours for employees with mental disorders. We compare this effect to that of PTSL for employees with non-mental disorders ('other disorders'). We use combined survey and register data about 226 employees on long-term sick leave with mental disorders and 638 employees with other disorders. These data contain information about type of disorder, PTSL and FTSL (full-time sick leave) durations, and various background characteristics. We use a mixed proportional hazard regression model that allows us to control for unobserved differences between employees on PTSL and those on FTSL. Our analyses show that PTSL has no effect on the duration until returning to regular working hours for employees with mental disorders. Furthermore, looking at specific disorders such as depression and stress-related conditions, we find no significant effects of PTSL. In contrast, in line with previous research, we find that PTSL significantly reduces the duration until returning to regular working hours for employees with other disorders. The analyses also illustrate the importance of controlling for unobserved differences between employees on PTSL and those on FTSL. Without this control, PTSL significantly reduces the duration until returning to regular working hours. When we control for unobserved characteristics, this effect decreases, and for employees with mental

  8. Specifics of mental disorders of patients with metabolic syndrome

    K. I. Kleban

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the general-somatic network there is a steady increase in the number of patients with psychosomatic disorders. Problems of providing adequate psychiatric and psychotherapeutic assistance to this category of patients are related to the motivation of patients to participate in psychological measures and the readiness of the medical system to provide comprehensive care on the basis of the biopsychosocial approach. Mental factors are involved both in the occurrence and course of a metabolic syndrome in the form of a patient's lifestyle and behavior patterns of healthy functioning, and is a consequence of somatic pathology. Mental factors are involved both in the occurrence and course of a metabolic syndrome in the form of a patient's lifestyle and behavior patterns of healthy functioning, and is a consequence of somatic pathology. So mental disorders of metabolic syndrome are manifested in the form of psychosocial maladaptation, neurotic, affective, personality, and organic disorders. Desynchronosis which is a factor of the development of a metabolic syndrome and characterizes the complex chronobiological component of the regulation of psychophysiological functions in norm and under the influence of stress, deserves special attention. Addressing the diagnosis of mental disorders associated with metabolic syndrome is precisely aimed at determining chronobiological disorders of psychosomatic integrated areas and is supposed to improve diagnostic and treatment process and to shorten the treatment of these disorders.

  9. Mental disorder, sexual risk behaviour, sexual violence and HIV in Uganda

    Lundberg, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Aim The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the association between mental disorder and risk of sexual HIV transmission in a low-income country with a generalized HIV epidemic. Specific objectives were to investigate in Uganda, (1) the association between common mental disorder and sexual risk behaviour, (2) how severe mental disorder could influence sexual risk behaviour, (3) the prevalence of HIV in persons with severe mental disorder, and (4) the association of severe mental d...

  10. Mental disorders and delivery motorcycle drivers (motoboys): a dangerous association.

    Kieling, R R; Szobot, C M; Matte, B; Coelho, R S; Kieling, C; Pechansky, F; Rohde, L A

    2011-01-01

    Low and middle-income countries experience an expressive growth in the number of circulating motorcycles, paralleled by an increasing number of traffic accidents. Delivery motorcycles drivers ("motoboys") are generally perceived as accountable for this scenario. Although traffic accidents have a multivariate etiology, mental disorders, such as substance use disorders (SUD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), are often involved. This paper aims at investigating the prevalence of ADHD, SUD and other mental disorders in a sample of Brazilian motoboys, and additionally, to evaluate the association between psychiatric diagnoses, motorcycle accidents and traffic violation tickets. A convenient sample of subjects was invited to participate in a cross-sectional assessment including an inventory of traffic accidents and violations. Psychiatric diagnoses were based on semi-structured and clinical interviews. A sample of 101 motoboys was assessed. Overall, 75% of subjects had a positive lifetime history of at least one psychiatric disorder. SUD was the most frequent diagnosis (43.6% for alcohol, 39.6% for cannabis). ADHD was associated with a higher number of traffic accidents (p=0.002), and antisocial personality disorder (APD) was associated with a greater number of traffic violations (p=0.007). The prevalence of mental disorders was much higher in our sample than in the general population. ADHD and APD, but not SUD, were associated with negative traffic outcomes. These findings have implications for public mental health planning since mental disorders can be both prevented and treated, improving driving behavior and increasing road safety. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Unemployment and Mental Disorders - An Empirical Analysis

    Agerbo, Esben; Eriksson, Tor Viking; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is also to analyze the importance of unemployment and other social factors as risk factors for impaired mental health. It departs from previous studies in that we make use of information about first admissions to a psychiatric hospital or ward as our measure of mental...... from the Psychiatric case register. Secondly, we estimate conditional logistic regression models for case-control data on first admissions to a psychiatric hospital. The explanatory variables in the empirical analysis include age, gender, education, marital status, income, wealth, and unemployment (and...

  12. Undetected common mental disorders in long-term sickness absence

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Background. Undetected Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) amongst people on sick leave complicate rehabilitation and return to work because appropriate treatments are not initiated. Aims. The aim of this study is to estimate (1) the frequencies of CMD, (2) the predictors of undetected CMD, and (3...... individuals registered on LSA who were sick-listed without a psychiatric sick leave diagnosis. In this respect, Phase 1 included 831 individuals, who were screened for mental disorders. In Phase 2, following the screening of Phase 1, 227 individuals were thoroughly examined by a psychiatrist applying Present...... State Examination. The analyses of the study were carried out based on the 227 individuals from Phase 2 and, subsequently, weighted to be representative of the 831 individuals in Phase 1. Results. The frequencies of undetected mental disorders among all sick-listed individuals were for any psychiatric...

  13. Work Participation of Employees with Common Mental Disorders

    Thisted, Cecilie Nørby; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Bjerrum, Merete

    2017-01-01

    on the synthesized findings, we recommended that the employer is involved in the rehabilitation process, and that rehabilitation professionals seek to strengthen the employee’s ability to manage work-related stress. In addition, rehabilitation professionals should provide individualized and active support and ensure......Purpose The aim was to aggregate knowledge about the opportunities, challenges and need for support employees with common mental disorders experience in relation to work participation in order to develop recommendations for practice. Methods A meta-synthesis was conducted using a meta...... findings. One synthesized finding indicates that a strong work identity and negative perceptions regarding mental disorders can impede work participation, creating an essential need for a supportive work environment. The other reveals that the diffuse nature of the symptoms of mental disorders causes...

  14. Systematic review of mental health disorders and intimate partner violence victimisation among military populations.

    Sparrow, Katherine; Kwan, Jamie; Howard, Louise; Fear, Nicola; MacManus, Deirdre

    2017-09-01

    There is growing awareness of the problem of intimate partner violence (IPV) among military populations. IPV victimisation has been shown to be associated with mental disorder. A better understanding of the link between IPV and mental disorder is needed to inform service development to meet the needs of military families. We aimed to systematically review the literature on the association between IPV victimisation and mental health disorders among military personnel. Searches of four electronic databases (Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, and Web of Science) were supplemented by reference list screening. Heterogeneity among studies precluded a meta-analysis. Thirteen studies were included. There was stronger evidence for an association between IPV and depression/alcohol problems than between IPV and PTSD. An association between IPV and mental health problems was more frequently found among veterans compared to active duty personnel. However, the link between IPV and alcohol misuse was more consistently found among active duty samples. Finally, among active duty personnel psychological IPV was more consistently associated with depression/alcohol problems than physical/sexual IPV. The review highlighted the lack of research on male IPV victimisation in the military. There is evidence that the burden of mental health need may be significant among military personnel who are victims of IPV. The influence of attitudes towards gender in the military on research in this area is discussed. Further research is needed to inform development of services and policy to reduce IPV victimisation and the mental health consequences among military personnel.

  15. Why mental disorders are just mental dysfunctions (and nothing more): some Darwinian arguments.

    De Block, Andreas

    2008-09-01

    Mental disorders are often thought to be harmful dysfunctions. Jerome Wakefield has argued that such dysfunctions should be understood as failures of naturally selected functions. This suggests, implicitly, that evolutionary biology and other Darwinian disciplines hold important information for anyone working on answering the philosophical question, 'what is a mental disorder?'. In this article, the author argues that Darwinian theory is not only relevant to the understanding of the disrupted functions, but it also sheds light on the disruption itself, as well as on the harm that attends the disruption. The arguments advanced here are partially based on the view that a core feature of Darwinism is that it stresses the environmental relativity of functions and dysfunctions. These arguments show a very close empirical connection between social judgments (values) and dysfunctions (psychopathology), which is of interest for psychiatric theory. Philosophically, they lead to the conclusion that the concept of mental disorder is identical to the concept of mental dysfunction. Consequently, it is both misleading and redundant to conceptualize mental disorders as 'harmful dysfunctions', and not simply as 'mental dysfunctions'.

  16. [Sexual violence: narratives of women with mental disorders in Brazil].

    Barbosa, Jaqueline Almeida Guimarães; de Souza, Marina Celly Martins Ribeiro; Freitas, Maria Imaculada de Fátima

    2015-05-01

    To understand the impact of sexual violence suffered by women with mental disorders based on self-reports of these experiences. The reports emerged from open interviews with women receiving care at public mental health services in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. These interviews were part of a larger research project that had the overall objective of investigating how this population group lives and thinks sexuality, in order to contribute to actions to promote sexual health. Data collection took place in 2008. Seventeen women with age between 18 and 68 years were interviewed. Fourteen reported having had stable relationships, but only three were still in these relationships. Most of the stable relationships had not been formalized into marriage. Two participants were widows and 13 had children. All the participants reported difficulties in living with their partners and children and having few friends and little family support. The instability of relationships was attributed to situations of aggression, infidelity, and use of drugs and alcohol. Seven women reported having been victims of physical violence within the family, mostly from partners. Two participants reported never having had sexual relations. Health care professionals must be trained to encourage the report of sexual violence by women and adequately handle the situation. Intersectoral actions to deal with this issue are also essential.

  17. Mental disorders in megacities: findings from the Sao Paulo megacity mental health survey, Brazil.

    Laura Helena Andrade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: World population growth is projected to be concentrated in megacities, with increases in social inequality and urbanization-associated stress. São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA provides a forewarning of the burden of mental disorders in urban settings in developing world. The aim of this study is to estimate prevalence, severity, and treatment of recently active DSM-IV mental disorders. We examined socio-demographic correlates, aspects of urban living such as internal migration, exposure to violence, and neighborhood-level social deprivation with 12-month mental disorders. METHODS AND RESULTS: A representative cross-sectional household sample of 5,037 adults was interviewed face-to-face using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, to generate diagnoses of DSM-IV mental disorders within 12 months of interview, disorder severity, and treatment. Administrative data on neighborhood social deprivation were gathered. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate individual and contextual correlates of disorders, severity, and treatment. Around thirty percent of respondents reported a 12-month disorder, with an even distribution across severity levels. Anxiety disorders were the most common disorders (affecting 19.9%, followed by mood (11%, impulse-control (4.3%, and substance use (3.6% disorders. Exposure to crime was associated with all four types of disorder. Migrants had low prevalence of all four types compared to stable residents. High urbanicity was associated with impulse-control disorders and high social deprivation with substance use disorders. Vulnerable subgroups were observed: women and migrant men living in most deprived areas. Only one-third of serious cases had received treatment in the previous year. DISCUSSION: Adults living in São Paulo megacity had prevalence of mental disorders at greater levels than similar surveys conducted in other areas of the world. Integration of mental health promotion

  18. Mental Disorders in Megacities: Findings from the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, Brazil

    Andrade, Laura Helena; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Andreoni, Solange; Silveira, Camila Magalhães; Alexandrino-Silva, Clovis; Siu, Erica Rosanna; Nishimura, Raphael; Anthony, James C.; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Kessler, Ronald C.; Viana, Maria Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Background World population growth is projected to be concentrated in megacities, with increases in social inequality and urbanization-associated stress. São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) provides a forewarning of the burden of mental disorders in urban settings in developing world. The aim of this study is to estimate prevalence, severity, and treatment of recently active DSM-IV mental disorders. We examined socio-demographic correlates, aspects of urban living such as internal migration, exposure to violence, and neighborhood-level social deprivation with 12-month mental disorders. Methods and Results A representative cross-sectional household sample of 5,037 adults was interviewed face-to-face using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), to generate diagnoses of DSM-IV mental disorders within 12 months of interview, disorder severity, and treatment. Administrative data on neighborhood social deprivation were gathered. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate individual and contextual correlates of disorders, severity, and treatment. Around thirty percent of respondents reported a 12-month disorder, with an even distribution across severity levels. Anxiety disorders were the most common disorders (affecting 19.9%), followed by mood (11%), impulse-control (4.3%), and substance use (3.6%) disorders. Exposure to crime was associated with all four types of disorder. Migrants had low prevalence of all four types compared to stable residents. High urbanicity was associated with impulse-control disorders and high social deprivation with substance use disorders. Vulnerable subgroups were observed: women and migrant men living in most deprived areas. Only one-third of serious cases had received treatment in the previous year. Discussion Adults living in São Paulo megacity had prevalence of mental disorders at greater levels than similar surveys conducted in other areas of the world. Integration of mental health promotion and care into the

  19. Pro-health role of optimism among people with mental disorders

    Karolina Potempa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Many scientific reports indicate that optimism positively affects our psychophysical well-being. The main purpose of the conducted research was to verify whether optimism is a predictor of health-oriented resources also in patients with paranoid schizophrenia, depressive disorders and depressive schizoaffective disorders. The following health-oriented factors were evaluated in the study: health behaviour, life satisfaction, social functioning and coping with stress. Furthermore, we have verified whether there were any differences related to the level of optimism and health-oriented factors between individuals with mental disorders and a control group. Methods: The following tools were used in the study: Optimism Questionnaire, Health-Related Behaviour Inventory, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, Beck Depression Inventory. Results: Effects of optimism on some of the health-oriented factors were observed in patients with mental disorders as well as in healthy individuals. Significant differences in the level of health-oriented resources between the study population and controls were reported. Conclusions: The study suggests that generalisation of the conclusions regarding healthy population to individuals with mental disorders should be done with caution. Further research is needed to investigate the health behaviour determinants in patients with mental disorders.

  20. The Global Burden of Mental, Neurological and Substance Use Disorders: An Analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

    Whiteford, Harvey A.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Degenhardt, Louisa; Feigin, Valery; Vos, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010), estimated that a substantial proportion of the world’s disease burden came from mental, neurological and substance use disorders. In this paper, we used GBD 2010 data to investigate time, year, region and age specific trends in burden due to mental, neurological and substance use disorders. Method For each disorder, prevalence data were assembled from systematic literature reviews. DisMod-MR, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, was used to model prevalence by country, region, age, sex and year. Prevalence data were combined with disability weights derived from survey data to estimate years lived with disability (YLDs). Years lost to premature mortality (YLLs) were estimated by multiplying deaths occurring as a result of a given disorder by the reference standard life expectancy at the age death occurred. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were computed as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. Results In 2010, mental, neurological and substance use disorders accounted for 10.4% of global DALYs, 2.3% of global YLLs and, 28.5% of global YLDs, making them the leading cause of YLDs. Mental disorders accounted for the largest proportion of DALYs (56.7%), followed by neurological disorders (28.6%) and substance use disorders (14.7%). DALYs peaked in early adulthood for mental and substance use disorders but were more consistent across age for neurological disorders. Females accounted for more DALYs in all mental and neurological disorders, except for mental disorders occurring in childhood, schizophrenia, substance use disorders, Parkinson’s disease and epilepsy where males accounted for more DALYs. Overall DALYs were highest in Eastern Europe/Central Asia and lowest in East Asia/the Pacific. Conclusion Mental, neurological and substance use disorders contribute to a significant proportion of disease burden. Health systems can respond by implementing established, cost effective interventions, or by supporting the

  1. The global burden of mental, neurological and substance use disorders: an analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

    Whiteford, Harvey A; Ferrari, Alize J; Degenhardt, Louisa; Feigin, Valery; Vos, Theo

    2015-01-01

    The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010), estimated that a substantial proportion of the world's disease burden came from mental, neurological and substance use disorders. In this paper, we used GBD 2010 data to investigate time, year, region and age specific trends in burden due to mental, neurological and substance use disorders. For each disorder, prevalence data were assembled from systematic literature reviews. DisMod-MR, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, was used to model prevalence by country, region, age, sex and year. Prevalence data were combined with disability weights derived from survey data to estimate years lived with disability (YLDs). Years lost to premature mortality (YLLs) were estimated by multiplying deaths occurring as a result of a given disorder by the reference standard life expectancy at the age death occurred. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were computed as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. In 2010, mental, neurological and substance use disorders accounted for 10.4% of global DALYs, 2.3% of global YLLs and, 28.5% of global YLDs, making them the leading cause of YLDs. Mental disorders accounted for the largest proportion of DALYs (56.7%), followed by neurological disorders (28.6%) and substance use disorders (14.7%). DALYs peaked in early adulthood for mental and substance use disorders but were more consistent across age for neurological disorders. Females accounted for more DALYs in all mental and neurological disorders, except for mental disorders occurring in childhood, schizophrenia, substance use disorders, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy where males accounted for more DALYs. Overall DALYs were highest in Eastern Europe/Central Asia and lowest in East Asia/the Pacific. Mental, neurological and substance use disorders contribute to a significant proportion of disease burden. Health systems can respond by implementing established, cost effective interventions, or by supporting the research necessary to develop better

  2. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Holistic Treatment of Mental Disorders

    Ventegodt, Søren; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Neikrug, Shimshon; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2005-01-01

    We believe that holistic medicine can be used for patient's with mental health disorders. With holistic psychiatry, it is possible to help the mentally ill patient to heal existentially. As in holistic medicine, the methods are love or intense care, winning the trust of the patient, getting permission to give support and holding, and daring to be fully at the patient's service. Our clinical experiences have led us to believe that mental health patient's can heal if only you can make him or he...

  3. Preparation of Mental Health Clinicians to Work with Children with Co-Occurring Autism Spectrum Disorders and Mental Health Needs

    Williams, Marian E.; Haranin, Emily C.

    2016-01-01

    Up to 70% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a co-occurring mental health disorder; however, many clinicians feel unprepared to serve children with complex co-occurring conditions. This study surveyed 64 mental health clinicians working in 21 publically-funded mental health agencies in a large urban setting to explore their…

  4. Impulsivity, Mental Disorder, and Suicide in Rural China.

    Lin, Lin; Zhang, Jie

    2017-01-02

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among impulsivity, mental disorder, and suicide with a sample of rural young Chinese. Subjects were 392 consecutively recruited male and female suicides aged 15-34 years and 416 community male and female controls of the same age range sampled in rural China. The case-control data were obtained using psychological autopsy with structured and semi-structured instruments. Dysfunctional impulsivity was a significant risk factor regardless of mental disorder in rural China. Dysfunctional impulsivity is a potential area for further study of suicidal behavior. The suicide prevention efforts in rural China may address impulsivity.

  5. Church-based health programs for mental disorders among African Americans: a review.

    Hankerson, Sidney H; Weissman, Myrna M

    2012-03-01

    African Americans underutilize traditional mental health services, compared with white Americans. The authors conducted a systematic review of studies involving church-based health promotion programs for mental disorders among African Americans to assess the feasibility of utilizing such programs to address racial disparities in mental health care. A literature review of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and ATLA Religion databases was conducted to identify articles published between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 2009. Inclusion criteria were as follows: studies were conducted in a church; the primary objective involved assessment, perceptions and attitudes, education, prevention, group support, or treatment for DSM-IV mental disorders or their correlates; number of participants was reported; qualitative or quantitative data were reported; and African Americans were the target population. Of 1,451 studies identified, only eight met inclusion criteria. Five studies focused on substance-related disorders, six were designed to assess the effects of a specific intervention, and six targeted adults. One study focused on depression and was limited by a small sample size of seven participants. Although church-based health promotion programs have been successful in addressing racial disparities for several chronic medical conditions, the literature on such programs for mental disorders is extremely limited. More intensive research is needed to establish the feasibility and acceptability of utilizing church-based health promotion programs as a possible resource for screening and treatment to improve disparities in mental health care for African Americans.

  6. The Importance of Diet and Gut Health to the Treatment and Prevention of Mental Disorders.

    Dawson, S L; Dash, S R; Jacka, F N

    2016-01-01

    The departure from traditional lifestyles and the rising disease burden of mental disorders are increasing global health concerns. Changes in diet around the world mean that populations are now increasingly reliant on highly processed, poor quality foods, which have been linked to increased risk for mental disorder. Conversely, a nutrient-rich diet is understood to be protective of mental health, and researchers are now aiming to understand the biological underpinnings of this relationship. The gut microbiota has been proposed as a key mediator of this link, given its association with both diet and mental health. Importantly, several critical "windows of opportunity" for prevention and intervention have been identified, particularly early life and adolescence; these are periods of rapid development and transition that provide a foundation for future health. Strategies that promote overall diet quality, high in fiber and nutrients, have been linked to increased microbial diversity and gut health. Improving diet quality and subsequent gut health may have benefits for individuals' mental health, as well as the mental health of future generations. Here we discuss specific, targeted dietary and gut focused strategies for the prevention and treatment of mental disorder. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk factors for mental disorders in women survivors of human trafficking: a historical cohort study

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found high levels of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder among women survivors of human trafficking. No previous research has described risk factors for diagnosed mental disorders in this population. Methods A historical cohort study of women survivors of trafficked women aged 18 and over who returned to Moldova and registered for assistance with the International Organisation for Migration (IOM). Women were approached by IOM social workers and, if they gave informed consented to participate in the study, interviewed by the research team. At 2–12 months post-return to Moldova, a psychiatrist assessed DSM-IV mental disorders blind to information about women’s pre-trafficking and post-trafficking experiences using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). A backwards stepwise selection procedure was used to create a multivariable regression model of risk factors for DSM-IV mental disorder measured at an average of 6 months post-return. Results 120/176 (68%) eligible women participated. At an average of 6 months post-return, 54% met criteria for any DSM-IV mental disorder: 35.8% of women had PTSD (alone or co-morbid), 12.5% had depression without PTSD and 5.8% had another anxiety disorder. Multivariable regression analysis found that childhood sexual abuse (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 4.68, 95% CI 1.04-20.92), increased number of post-trafficking unmet needs (AOR 1.80; 95% CI 1.28-2.52) and post-trafficking social support (AOR 0.64; 95% CI 0.52-0.79) were independent risk factors for mental disorder, and that duration of trafficking showed a borderline association with mental disorder (AOR 1.12, 95% CI 0.98-1.29). Conclusions Assessment for mental disorders should be part of re-integration follow-up care for women survivors of human trafficking. Mental disorders at that time, most commonly PTSD and depression, are likely to be influenced by a range of predisposing, precipitating and

  8. Risk factors for mental disorders in women survivors of human trafficking: a historical cohort study.

    Abas, Melanie; Ostrovschi, Nicolae V; Prince, Martin; Gorceag, Viorel I; Trigub, Carolina; Oram, Siân

    2013-08-03

    Previous studies have found high levels of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder among women survivors of human trafficking. No previous research has described risk factors for diagnosed mental disorders in this population. A historical cohort study of women survivors of trafficked women aged 18 and over who returned to Moldova and registered for assistance with the International Organisation for Migration (IOM). Women were approached by IOM social workers and, if they gave informed consented to participate in the study, interviewed by the research team. At 2-12 months post-return to Moldova, a psychiatrist assessed DSM-IV mental disorders blind to information about women's pre-trafficking and post-trafficking experiences using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). A backwards stepwise selection procedure was used to create a multivariable regression model of risk factors for DSM-IV mental disorder measured at an average of 6 months post-return. 120/176 (68%) eligible women participated. At an average of 6 months post-return, 54% met criteria for any DSM-IV mental disorder: 35.8% of women had PTSD (alone or co-morbid), 12.5% had depression without PTSD and 5.8% had another anxiety disorder. Multivariable regression analysis found that childhood sexual abuse (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 4.68, 95% CI 1.04-20.92), increased number of post-trafficking unmet needs (AOR 1.80; 95% CI 1.28-2.52) and post-trafficking social support (AOR 0.64; 95% CI 0.52-0.79) were independent risk factors for mental disorder, and that duration of trafficking showed a borderline association with mental disorder (AOR 1.12, 95% CI 0.98-1.29). Assessment for mental disorders should be part of re-integration follow-up care for women survivors of human trafficking. Mental disorders at that time, most commonly PTSD and depression, are likely to be influenced by a range of predisposing, precipitating and maintaining factors. Care plans for survivors of

  9. [Treatment of offenders with mental disorders: focusing on prison psychiatry].

    Nakatani, Yoji

    2011-01-01

    Forensic mental health services exist in a nebulous space at the intersection of two different systems-criminal justice and mental health-and the entanglement of these systems poses intricate problems for psychiatrists. This article discusses the present circumstances of forensic mental health services in Japan, focusing on trends in prison psychiatry. In the traditional Japanese system, offenders with mental disorders were treated within general psychiatry as involuntarily admitted patients, or within the prison system as mentally ill inmates. As a consequence of recent legal reform, however, this situation has radically changed. The Medical Treatment and Supervision Act of 2005 aimed to provide intensive psychiatric treatment to offenders with mental disorders, attaching great importance to their reintegration into society. Under the new system, a person who commits a serious criminal offense in a state of insanity or diminished capacity shall be referred by the public prosecutor to the district court; following a treatment order of the court, the person shall be treated in psychiatric facilities established by the law. While the new system is expected to play a role in the context of specialist forensic psychiatry, its distinction from general psychiatry remains unclear. For example, persons who commit serious crimes, such as assault, in an acute psychotic state are occasionally admitted to general psychiatric hospitals, even if they meet the criteria for a treatment order under the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act. The relationship between prison psychiatry and specialist forensic psychiatry is still more problematic. Compared to the intensive, rehabilitation-oriented care provided under the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act, mental health services in penal institutions have a number of disadvantages, and it is unlikely that mentally ill prisoners have benefited from the recent progress in forensic psychiatry. Statistics show that the number of

  10. Urban social stress – Risk factor for mental disorders. The case of schizophrenia

    Lederbogen, Florian; Haddad, Leila; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Living in an urban environment is associated with an increased prevalence of specific mental health disorders, particularly schizophrenia. While many factors have been discussed as possible mediators of this association, most researchers favour the hypothesis that urban living stands as a proxy for an increased exposure to social stress. This factor has been recognized as one of the most powerful causes for the development of mental disorders, and appears to correlate with the markedly increased incidence of schizophrenia in urban minority groups. However, the hypothesis that the general urban population is exposed to increased levels of social stress has to be validated. Pursuing the goal of understanding how social stress acts as a risk factor for mental disorder in urban populations must include factors like social conditions, environmental pollutants, infrastructure and economic issues. -- Highlights: • City living is associated with an increased prevalence of mental health disorders, particularly schizophrenia. • Possible mediators of this association include exposure to social stress. • This mechanism seems plausible in urban minority groups. • However, it is unclear whether social stress exposure is increased in the general urban population. -- New data support the hypothesis that increased exposure to social stressors is a key factor mediating the increased prevalence of specific mental disorders in urban populations

  11. Mental disorders, functional impairment, and nerve growth factor

    Salles FHM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fanny Helena Martins Salles,1 Pedro San Martin Soares,1 Carolina David Wiener,1 Thaise Campos Mondin,1 Paula Moraes da Silva,1 Karen Jansen,1–3 Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza,1 Ricardo Azevedo da Silva,1 Jean Pierre Oses1–3 1Translational Science on Brain Disorders, Department of Health and Behavior, Catholic University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; 2Translational Psychiatry Program, 3Center of Excellence on Mood Disorders, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth Medical School, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Nerve growth factor (NGF is an important member of the neurotrophin family and its alteration has been associated with psychiatric disorders. Functionality consists of the activities that an individual can perform, as well as their social participation, which is an important factor in analyzing the carrier living conditions of subjects with psychiatric suffering. Several studies have evaluated functionality in bipolar disorder; however, no studies have evaluated the functionality in other mental disorders. There are also few studies investigating the association between functionality and the biological bases of mental disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the serum NGF levels in psychiatric patients and to verify a possible association between the serum neurotrophic levels and functionality. This was a cross-sectional study with a convenient sample obtained from the Public Mental Health Service from the south of Brazil. The final sample was composed of 286 patients enrolled from July 2013 to October 2014. Data was collected using a sociodemographic questionnaire, and the diagnosis was confirmed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I and a Functioning Assessment Short Test. The serum NGF levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistic

  12. Australian Rotary Health: a major contributor to mental illness research and mental health awareness in Australia.

    Jorm, Anthony; Sawyer, Michael; Gillett, Joy

    2012-08-01

    Australian Rotary Health (ARH) was established in 1981 with the goal of supporting family health research in Australia. Since 2000, ARH has supported research relevant to mental health and mental illness. This article describes the early history of the fund, the reasons for the move to mental illness research, some examples of research projects that have had a beneficial impact and the branching out into mental health community awareness raising and stigma reduction. ARH has emerged as a major non-government supporter of mental illness research. It has also effectively engaged Rotary clubs at a local level to increase community awareness of mental illness and to reduce stigma.

  13. Diagnosis and Treatment of Mental Disorders in the Context of “Nature – Nurture” Dichotomy

    Tetiana Danylova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The complex multifaceted essence of human as a biological, psychological, social being has attracted the attention of researchers and has caused hot debates during centuries. The deep understanding of the phenomenon of human being, his/her nature and essence is critical for the field of clinical medicine such as psychiatry. Nowadays, diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders are the acute problems. Appropriate methods of diagnosis and treatment in the context of “nature vs nurture” dichotomy cause scientific disputes between experts in the relevant fields. The paper attempts to analyze different approaches to mental disorders, as well as specific and non-specific treatment.

  14. THE AUSTRALASIAN APPROACH TO THE DEFINITION OF MENTAL DISORDER IN A MENTAL HEALTH ACT.

    Dawson, John B

    2017-12-27

    How should the mental element be defined in the legal standards governing a person's 'sectioning' or placement under the Mental Health Act (MHA)? This article considers how this mental element is defined in many MHAs in Australasia: via a statutory list of disorders of mental function said to 'characterise' the necessary state of mind. This article assesses the assumptions behind the adoption of this approach. It discusses the views of several English law reform committees that have explored how the mental element should be defined. It examines the philosophy of psychiatry, expounded clearly by Aubrey Lewis, that lies behind the Australasian approach, one that emphasises the need to identify mental disturbance by reference to disorders of 'part-function of the mind', not by reference to behaviour alone. It considers how the Australasian statutes address the question of personality disorder's covered by the Act. In conclusion, it endorses cautiously the Australasian approach, principally on the ground that it may contribute positively to the conduct of review proceedings for compulsory patients under the Act. It may concentrate the attention of tribunals on particular features of the patient's mental state, on how those features are linked to associated dangers or risks, and on how the presence of those features may justify placing decisions about the patient's treatment in others' hands. Throughout, comparisons are made with the manner in which the mental element has been defined in mental health legislation for England and Wales. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Subjective Experience, Heterophenomenology, or Neuroimaging? A Perspective on the Meaning and Application of Mental Disorder Terms, in Particular Major Depressive Disorder.

    Schleim, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Increasing research efforts try to identify biological markers in order to support or eventually replace current practices of diagnosing mental disorders. Inasmuch as these disorders refer to subjective mental states, such efforts amount to their objectification. This gives rise to conceptual as well as empirical challenges: What kind of things are mental disorders? And how to deal with situations where subjective reports, clinical decisions, and brain scans contradict each other? The present paper starts out with a discussion of recent efforts to objectify beauty. Such attempts to quantify and localize psychological constructs in the brain are compared to earlier examples from the history of psychology. The paper then discusses personal and social implications of the objectification of subjective mental states, including mental disorders. The construct of Major Depressive Disorder, one of the most prevalent mental disorders, is then analyzed in more detail. It turns out that this is a very complex construct probably associated with highly heterogeneous actual instances of the disorder. It is then shown that it is unlikely to replace these symptoms' descriptions with patterns of brain activations, at least in the near future, given these patterns' empirical lack of specificity. The paper then discusses which of the disorder's core symptoms are more or less amenable to behavioral or neuroscientific investigation and analyses whether the heterophenomenological method can solve the problem. The conclusion is that the disorder construct is neither entirely subjective, nor completely objectifiable, and that clinical experts do well by continuing to take a pragmatical stance.

  16. ERICA: prevalence of common mental disorders in Brazilian adolescents

    Claudia S Lopes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of common mental disorders in Brazilian adolescent students, according to geographical macro-regions, school type, sex, and age. METHODS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents who participated in the Cardiovascular Risk Study in Adolescents (ERICA, a cross-sectional, national, school-based study conducted in 2013-2014 in cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. A self-administered questionnaire and an electronic data collector were employed. The presence of common mental disorders was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. We estimated prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of common mental disorders by sex, age, and school type, in Brazil and in the macro-regions, considering the sample design. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders was of 30.0% (95%CI 29.2-30.8, being higher among girls (38.4%; 95%CI 37.1-39.7 when compared to boys (21.6%; 95%CI 20.5-22.8, and among adolescents who were from 15 to 17 years old (33.6%; 95%CI 32.2-35.0 compared to those aged between 12 and 14 years (26.7%; 95%CI 25.8-27.6. The prevalence of common mental disorders increased with age for both sexes, always higher in girls (ranging from 28.1% at 12 years to 44.1% at 17 years than in boys (ranging from 18.5% at 12 years to 27.7% at 17 years. We did not observe any significant difference by macro-region or school type. Stratified analyses showed higher prevalence of common mental disorders among girls aged from 15 to 17 years of private schools in the North region (53.1; 95%CI 46.8-59.4. CONCLUSIONS The high prevalence of common mental disorders among adolescents and the fact that the symptoms are often vague mean these disorders are not so easily identified by school administrators or even by health services. The results of this study can help the proposition of more specific prevention and control measures, focused on highest risk subgroups.

  17. Tryptophan Research in Panic Disorder

    Eduard Maron

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A considerable body of evidence suggests the involvement of serotonin neurotransmission in the pathogenesis of panic disorder. Research on pathways and functions of tryptophan, an essential amino acid converted into serotonin, may advance our understanding of serotonergic actions in panic disorder and related phenomena. The investigative approaches in this field include manipulations of tryptophan availability as well as genetic association and functional brain imaging studies. In this review we examine the principle findings of these studies and propose further research directions.

  18. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to

  19. Mental disorders and their association with perceived work stress: an investigation of the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey.

    Szeto, Andrew C H; Dobson, Keith S

    2013-04-01

    The economic repercussions of mental disorders in the workplace are vast. Research has found that individuals in high-stress jobs tend to have higher prevalence of mental disorders. The current cross-sectional study examined the relationships between work-related stress and mental disorders in a recent representative population-based sample-the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey by Statistics Canada (CCHS; 2010a; Retrieved from http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/instrument/3226_Q1_V7-eng.pdf). Respondents in the highest level of perceived work stress had higher odds of ever being treated for an emotional or mental-health problem and for being treated in the past 12 months. These high-stress respondents also had higher odds of being diagnosed for mood and anxiety disorders than their nonstressed counterparts. These associations highlight the continued need to examine and promote mental health and well-being in the workplace.

  20. Costs of Nine Common Mental Disorders:Implications for Curative and Preventive Psychiatry

    Smit, H.F.E.; Cuijpers, P.; Oostenbrink, J.; Batelaan, N.M.; de Graaf, R.; Beekman, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are highly prevalent and are associated with substantial disease burden, but their economic costs have been relatively less well researched. Moreover, few cost-of-illness studies used population-based psychiatric surveys for estimating direct medical, direct non-medical

  1. Clinical Problems in Community Mental Health Care for Patients with Severe Borderline Personality Disorder

    Koekkoek, B.; van Meijel, B.; Schene, A.; Hutschemaekers, G.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the problems that professionals perceive in the community mental health care for patients with severe borderline personality disorder that do not fit into specialized therapy. A group of national experts (n = 8) participated in a four-phase

  2. Use of Specialty Mental Health Services by Asian Americans with Psychiatric Disorders

    Le Meyer, Oanh; Zane, Nolan; Cho, Young Il; Takeuchi, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that Asian Americans underutilize mental health services but an understanding of the multiple factors involved in utilization has not been examined in a nationally representative sample. The current study analyzed data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and examined 368 individuals with disorders to…

  3. Validation of online psychometric instruments for common mental health disorders: a systematic review.

    van Ballegooijen, Wouter; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim; van Oppen, Patricia; Smit, Johannes H

    2016-02-25

    Online questionnaires for measuring common mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety disorders are increasingly used. The psychometrics of several pen-and-paper questionnaires have been re-examined for online use and new online instruments have been developed and tested for validity as well. This study aims to review and synthesise the literature on this subject and provide a framework for future research. We searched Medline and PsycINFO for psychometric studies on online instruments for common mental health disorders and extracted the psychometric data. Studies were coded and assessed for quality by independent raters. We included 56 studies on 62 online instruments. For common instruments such as the CES-D, MADRS-S and HADS there is mounting evidence for adequate psychometric properties. Further results are scattered over different instruments and different psychometric characteristics. Few studies included patient populations. We found at least one online measure for each of the included mental health disorders and symptoms. A small number of online questionnaires have been studied thoroughly. This study provides an overview of online instruments to refer to when choosing an instrument for assessing common mental health disorders online, and can structure future psychometric research.

  4. Mental health service use types among Asian Americans with a psychiatric disorder: considerations of culture and need.

    Nguyen, Duy; Bornheimer, Lindsay A

    2014-10-01

    Despite levels of need that are comparable with other groups, relatively few Asian Americans receive mental health care. While studies have described the tendency for Asian Americans to delay care until mental health symptoms are severe, relatively little research has examined how the severity of symptoms impact mental health service use. This study uses publicly available data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and focuses solely on Asian American respondents with a psychiatric disorder (n = 230). Unexpectedly, few Asian Americans with a psychiatric disorder received care in a medical setting. The perception of mental health needs increased the likelihood of using mental health specialist care. Social and systemic barriers together hinder mental health service use. Implications for addressing Asian American mental health service use within a changing health care environment are discussed.

  5. Learning assessment for students with mental and behavioral disorders

    Dræby, Anders

    The session aims at presenting a learning-based model for how to conduct a comprehensive psychological evaluation of the learning resources and challenges amongst students with mental and behavioral disorders. In the learning assessment model the learning resources and challenges of the students...

  6. Excess mortality in persons with severe mental disorders

    Liu, Nancy H; Daumit, Gail L; Dua, Tarun

    2017-01-01

    Excess mortality in persons with severe mental disorders (SMD) is a major public health challenge that warrants action. The number and scope of truly tested interventions in this area remain limited, and strategies for implementation and scaling up of programmes with a strong evidence base...

  7. The prevalence of mental disorders among children, adolescents ...

    Objective: To provide estimates of the prevalence of selected mental disorders in the Western Cape, based on the consensus achieved by a working group established for this purpose. Method: An expert working group was established to provide technical expertise for the project. Potential risk factors likely to influence local ...

  8. PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION.

    CENTERWALL, WILLARD R.; CENTERWALL, SIEGRIED A.

    ADDRESSED TO PUBLIC HEALTH WORKERS AND PHYSICIANS IN GENERAL PRACTICE, THE PAMPHLET INTRODUCES METHODS OF DETECTING AND MANAGING PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION. INFORMATION, UPDATED FROM THE 1961 EDITION, IS INCLUDED ON THE INCIDENCE AND GENETICS, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND CLINICAL COURSE OF THE…

  9. Psychological Aspects of Sleep Disorders in Children with Mental Retardation.

    Smith, David T.

    This paper reviews literature and clinical experiences on the neurobiological and psychological aspects of sleep in children with mental retardation. The lack of a universal, operational definition of sleep disorders is noted, and a study is cited in which 61% of a group of 20 children (ages 2-13) with developmental disabilities were found to have…

  10. Common mental disorders among medical students in Jimma ...

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... Department of Psychiatry, College of Health Science, Jimma University, Ethiopia. 2. Laska Meles ... Cite as: Kerebih H, Ajaeb M, Hailesilassie H. Common mental disorders among medical students in Jimma University, SouthWest Ethiopia. Afri ..... Edméa FC, Margleice MR, Ana Teresa RS, Enaldo VM,.

  11. Prevalence of mental disorders in a prison population in Durban ...

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of serious mental disorders in a prison population in Durban, South Africa, one of the largest prisons in the Southern hemisphere. Method: 193 prisoners were interviewed using the Mini Neuro-psychiatric Interview, a screening questionnaire and a ...

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLES DSM-IV-defined common mental disorders ...

    mental disorders may increase HIV risk (e.g. by impairing risk perception and impulse control), ... analysis of the South African Stress and Health (SASH) study, a nationally ... taking more care over things touched; (iv) avoiding certain ... individually to assess potential differences between appropriate .... Gender (%). Male.

  13. Drawing borders of mental disorders : An interview with David Kupfer

    Verhoeff, Berend

    2010-01-01

    The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) is on its way and will most likely be published in 2013. The chair of the task force of this significant project, Dr David Kupfer, was in the Netherlands at a national psychiatry conference to give an update on its progress.

  14. Attitudes towards mental health, mental health research and digital interventions by young adults with type 1 diabetes: A qualitative analysis.

    Clarke, Janine; Proudfoot, Judy; Vatiliotis, Veronica; Verge, Charles; Holmes-Walker, Deborah J; Campbell, Lesley; Wilhelm, Kay; Moravac, Catherine; Indu, Pillaveetil S; Bridgett, Madeleine

    2018-06-01

    Young people with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk of mental disorders. Whereas treatment need is high, difficulty recruiting young people with type 1 diabetes into psychosocial studies complicates development, testing and dissemination of these interventions. Interviews with young adults with type 1 diabetes were conducted to examine attitudes towards mental health and mental health research, including barriers and motivators to participation in mental health studies and preferred sources of mental health support. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and evaluated via thematic analysis. Young adults with type 1 diabetes were recruited via social media channels of 3 advocacy organizations. A total of 31 young adults (26 females and 5 males) with an average age of 22 years were interviewed between October 2015 and January 2016. Participants were largely unaware of their increased vulnerability to common mental health problems and knew little about mental health research. Major barriers to participation included perceived stigma and lifestyle issues and low levels of trust in researchers. Opportunities to connect with peers and help others were described as key motivators. Psychological distress was considered normal within the context of diabetes. A need for some level of human contact in receiving psychosocial support was expressed. Findings provide valuable insights into the complex dynamics of engaging young adults with type 1 diabetes in mental health studies. Interviewees provided practical suggestions to assist investigation and delivery of psychosocial interventions for this vulnerable group. © 2018 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Computed tomography in patients with senile mental disorders

    Sugai, Yuuichi; Nakayama, Hirosi; Tatemichi, Nobuhiro

    1987-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was employed to follow up 28 patients with senile mental disorders (52 to 84 years of age) over a period of one to six and a half years after the first presentation. The first CT scans showed ventricular enlargement in many instances, which made it difficult to distinguish functional from degenerative diseases. The yearly rate of ventricular enlargement was, therefore, obtained on sequential CT scannings. The yearly rate of ventricular enlargement was high, which was associated with progression of the disease in the group with Alzheimer's disease. In the group with functional diseases, however, ventricular enlargement and progression were independent of each other. Both the yearly rate of ventricular enlargement and mental function significantly correlated with decreased adaptation of daily life. Periodical CT scanning and clinical observation over a certain period may offer useful information on the differential diagnosis and prognosis of senile mental disorders. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Gender and sexuality of people with mental disorders in Brazil

    Jaqueline Almeida Guimarães Barbosa

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to understand the ways of living and thinking about sexuality of people with mental disorders. Open interviews were conducted with men and women in public mental health services in Brazil. Transcrips were examined based on the proposal of sexual scripts. Major imbalances coming from conceptions of masculinity and femininity in society were identified in the sexual scripts experienced by these men and women. Interviewees have little pleasure in their sexual lives, with recurrent complaints of sexual abuse, even by steady partners; prejudice; and lack of affection in their relationships. Additionally, they were found to have few self-care skills concerning sexual health, in a context marked by social exclusion. The results showed the need to promote sexual health as a human right, and fight gender stereotypes, which cause so much damage to the sexual health of people with mental disorders.

  17. Likelihood and predictors of detention in patients with personality disorder compared with other mental disorders: A retrospective, quantitative study of Mental Health Act assessments.

    Olajide, Kike; Tyrer, Peter; Singh, Swaran P; Burns, Tom; Rugkåsa, Jorun; Thana, Lavanya; Paul, Moli; Islam, Zoebia; Crawford, Mike J

    2016-08-01

    The UK guidelines on the treatment of personality disorder recommend avoiding compulsory treatment except in extreme situations. Little is known about how often patients with personality disorder are detained or how this compares with the treatment of other mental disorders. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that people with personality disorder are infrequently detained under the Mental Health Act (MHA) and that risk factors associated with detention are the same as those for people with other mental disorders. We used a retrospective, quantitative study of MHA assessments. Of the 2 087 assessments undertaken, 204 (9.8%) patients had a diagnosis of personality disorder; 40.7% of assessments in the personality disorder group resulted in detention, as did 69.7% of patients with other mental disorders. A higher proportion of people with personality disorder received no intervention following assessment compared with those with other mental disorders (20.6% vs. 4.7%, p mental disorders. Detention rates in patients with personality disorder are lower than those for other disorders but are still substantial. Risk factors for detention in patients with personality disorder differ from those with other mental disorders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Psychometric analysis of common mental disorders

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    and conviction), SCL-ANX4 (anxiety), SCL-DEP6 (depression), SCL-8 (emotional disorder), and CAGE (alcohol dependency). RESULTS: Of 2,414 incident persons on long-term sickness absence within one year, 1,121 participated in the study by filling in CMD-SQ and a subsample of 337 was diagnosed by a psychiatric...

  19. Consent to research by mentally ill children and adolescents: The ...

    , the Act's statutory requirements relating to the informed consent to participation in clinical research by mentally ill children and adolescents in South Africa are examined. The necessity of doing clinical research in mentally ill children and ...

  20. Absolute risk of suicide after first hospital contact in mental disorder

    Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of lifetime risk of suicide in mental disorders were based on selected samples with incomplete follow-up.......Estimates of lifetime risk of suicide in mental disorders were based on selected samples with incomplete follow-up....

  1. Axis I anxiety and mental health disorders among stuttering adolescents.

    Gunn, Anthony; Menzies, Ross G; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Lowe, Robyn; Iverach, Lisa; Heard, Robert; Block, Susan

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate anxiety and psychological functioning among adolescents seeking speech therapy for stuttering using a structured, diagnostic interview and psychological questionnaires. This study also sought to determine whether any differences in psychological status were evident between younger and older adolescents. Participants were 37 stuttering adolescents seeking stuttering treatment. We administered the Computerized Voice Version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, and five psychometric tests. Participants were classified into younger (12-14 years; n=20) and older adolescents (15-17 years; n=17). Thirty-eight percent of participants attained at least one diagnosis of a mental disorder, according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; APA, 2000), with the majority of these diagnoses involving anxiety. This figure is double current estimates for general adolescent populations, and is consistent with our finding of moderate and moderate-severe quality of life impairment. Although many of the scores on psychological measures fell within the normal range, older adolescents (15-17 years) reported significantly higher anxiety, depression, reactions to stuttering, and emotional/behavioral problems, than younger adolescents (12-14 years). There was scant evidence that self-reported stuttering severity is correlated with mental health issues. There are good reasons to believe these results are conservative because many participants gave socially desirable responses about their mental health status. These results reveal a need for large-scale, statistically powerful assessments of anxiety and other mental disorders among stuttering adolescents with reference to control populations. The reader will be able to: (a) explain the clinical importance of assessing for mental health with stuttering adolescents, (b) state the superior method for adolescent mental

  2. Call for a change in research funding priorities: the example of mental health in Costa Rica

    Javier Contreras

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 urges its Member States to strengthen leadership in mental health, ensure mental and social health interventions in community-based settings, promote mental health and strengthen information systems, and increase evidence and research for mental health. Although Costa Rica has strongly invested in public health and successfully reduced the burden of nutritional and infectious diseases, its transitional epidemiological pattern, population growth, and immigration from unstable neighboring countries has shifted the burden to chronic disorders. Although policies for chronic disorders have been in place for several decades, mental disorders have not been included. Recently, as the Ministry of Health of Costa Rica developed a Mental Health Policy for 2013-2020, it became evident that the country needs epidemiological data to prioritize evidence-based intervention areas. This article stresses the importance of conducting local epidemiological studies on mental health, and calls for changes in research funding priorities by public and private national and international funding agencies in order to follow the WHO Mental Health Action Plan.

  3. Call for a change in research funding priorities: the example of mental health in Costa Rica.

    Contreras, Javier; Raventós, Henriette; Rodríguez, Gloriana; Leandro, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 urges its Member States to strengthen leadership in mental health, ensure mental and social health interventions in community-based settings, promote mental health and strengthen information systems, and increase evidence and research for mental health. Although Costa Rica has strongly invested in public health and successfully reduced the burden of nutritional and infectious diseases, its transitional epidemiological pattern, population growth, and immigration from unstable neighboring countries has shifted the burden to chronic disorders. Although policies for chronic disorders have been in place for several decades, mental disorders have not been included. Recently, as the Ministry of Health of Costa Rica developed a Mental Health Policy for 2013-2020, it became evident that the country needs epidemiological data to prioritize evidence-based intervention areas. This article stresses the importance of conducting local epidemiological studies on mental health, and calls for changes in research funding priorities by public and private national and international funding agencies in order to follow the WHO Mental Health Action Plan.

  4. Are Level of Education and Employment Related to Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Current and Retired Professional Footballers?

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Verhagen, Evert; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2016-01-01

    Mental disorders have become a topic of increasing interest in research due to their serious consequences for quality of life and functioning. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of level of education, employment status and working hours with symptoms of common mental

  5. Women-specific mental disorders in DSM-V: are we failing again?

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-02-01

    Despite a wealth of studies on differences regarding the biobehavioral and social-psychological bases of mental disorders in men and women and repeated calls for increased attention, women-specific issues have so far not been comprehensively addressed in past diagnostic classification systems of mental disorders. There is also increasing evidence that this situation will not change significantly in the upcoming revisions of ICD-11 and DSM-V. This paper explores reasons for this continued failure, highlighting three major barriers: the fragmentation of the field of women's mental health research, lack of emphasis on diagnostic classificatory issues beyond a few selected clinical conditions, and finally, the "current rules of game" used by the current DSM-V Task Forces in the revision process of DSM-V. The paper calls for concerted efforts of researchers, clinicians, and other stakeholders within a more coherent and comprehensive framework aiming at broader coverage of women-specific diagnostic classificatory issues in future diagnostic systems.

  6. Return to work among employees with common mental disorders : Study design and baseline findings from a mixed-method follow-up study

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Bultmann, Ute; Amby, Malene; Christensen, Ulla; Diderichsen, Finn; Rugulies, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Most research on return-to-work (RTW) has focused on musculoskeletal disorders. To study RTW in employees sick-listed with common mental disorders (CMD), e.g., stress, depression, and anxiety, the National Research Centre for the Working Environment initiated a study on ''Common Mental

  7. Mental health outcomes of developmental coordination disorder in late adolescence.

    Harrowell, Ian; Hollén, Linda; Lingam, Raghu; Emond, Alan

    2017-09-01

    To assess the relationship between developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and mental health outcomes in late adolescence. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Moderate-to-severe DCD was defined at 7 to 8 years according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria. Mental health was assessed at 16 to 18 years using self-reported questionnaires: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire, and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale. Logistic and linear regressions assessed the associations between DCD and mental health, using multiple imputation to account for missing data. Adjustments were made for socio-economic status, IQ, and social communication difficulties. Adolescents with DCD (n=168) had an increased risk of mental health difficulties (total Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire score) than their peers (n=3750) (odds ratio 1.78, 95% confidence interval 1.12-2.83, adjusted for socio-economic status and IQ). This was, in part, mediated through poor social communication skills. Adolescent females with DCD (n=59) were more prone to mental health difficulties than males. Greater mental well-being was associated with better self-esteem (β 0.82, pcommunication skills and self-esteem. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Mac Keith Press.

  8. Psychosocial work environment and hospital admissions due to mental disorders: a 15-year prospective study of industrial employees.

    Joensuu, Matti; Väänänen, Ari; Koskinen, Aki; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi

    2010-07-01

    Low levels of job control and social support may increase the risk of mental disorders, particularly depression, but the evidence is mostly based on self-reports. We examined whether components of job control and work-related social support predict medically-certified mental disorders. 13868 forest company employees with no previous hospital admissions for mental disorders responded to questionnaires on decision authority, skill discretion, co-worker and supervisor support. They were followed-up for hospital admissions due to mental disorders (ICD-9 codes 290 to 319), using national hospital discharge records (577 hospitalized, mean follow-up 15.1 years). In analyses adjusted for confounders, high skill discretion was associated with a reduced risk of hospital admission for mental disorders (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.95). High decision authority was associated with an elevated risk (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.17-1.87). Diagnosis-specific analyses showed high skill discretion to associate with a reduced risk of both depressive and non-depressive non-alcohol-related mental disorders. High decision authority was a risk factor for alcohol-related and depressive disorders. Good co-worker support was associated with a reduced risk of non-depressive non-alcohol-related mental disorders. Supervisor support was not associated with any mental disorders. We used a single time point estimate in an industrial sample comprising largely of men. Contrary to previous research on job control, high decision authority increased the risk of depressive and alcohol-related disorders, which suggest a need to reconsider the strategies for prevention and clinical practise in regard to psychosocial work environment and mental health.

  9. The longitudinal relationship between flourishing mental health and incident mood, anxiety and substance use disorders

    Schotanus-Dijkstra, Marijke; ten Have, Margreet; Lamers, S.M.A.; de Graaf, Ron; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background: High levels of mental well-being might protect against the onset of mental disorders but longitudinal evidence is scarce. This study examines whether flourishing mental health predicts first-incidence and recurrent mental disorders 3 years later. Methods: Data were used from 4482

  10. Supported housing for people with severe mental disorders.

    Chilvers, R; Macdonald, G M; Hayes, A A

    2006-10-18

    There has been a significant reduction in the number of people with severe mental illness who spend extended periods in long-stay hospitals. District health authorities, local authorities, housing associations and voluntary organisations are jointly expected to provide support for people with severe mental disorder/s. This 'support' may well involve some kind of special housing. To determine the effects of supported housing schemes compared with outreach support schemes or 'standard care' for people with severe mental disorder/s living in the community. For the 2006 update we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (April 2006) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2006 Issue 2). We included all relevant randomised, or quasi-randomised, trials dealing with people with 'severe mental disorder/s' allocated to supported housing, compared with outreach support schemes or standard care. We focused on outcomes of service utilisation, mental state, satisfaction with care, social functioning, quality of life and economic data. We reliably selected studies, quality rated them and undertook data extraction. For dichotomous data, we would have estimated relative risks (RR), with the 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where possible, we would have calculated the number needed to treat statistic (NNT). We would have carried out analysis by intention-to-treat and would have summated normal continuous data using the weighted mean difference (WMD). We would have presented scale data for only those tools that had attained pre-specified levels of quality and undertaken tests for heterogeneity and publication bias. Although 139 citations were acquired from the searches, no study met the inclusion criteria. Dedicated schemes whereby people with severe mental illness are located within one site or building with assistance from professional workers have potential for great benefit as they provide a 'safe haven' for people in need of stability and

  11. The Role of Pleasure Neurobiology and Dopamine in Mental Health Disorders.

    Worley, Julie

    2017-09-01

    Recent evidence and research has demonstrated that the pleasure response and associated neurotransmitters and brain circuits play a significant role in substance use disorders (SUDs). It was thought that negative behaviors associated with SUDs resulted from negative choices, but it is now known that chemical changes in the brain drive those behaviors. Several mental health disorders (e.g., eating disorders, non-suicidal self-injury, compulsive sex behaviors, internet gaming, gambling) are also thought to involve those same pleasure responses, neurotransmitters, and brain regions. Studies have shown that the use of naltrexone, a dopamine antagonist, can reduce symptoms of these disorders. It is important for nurses to understand the underlying physiology of mental health disorders that are thought to have an addictive or craving component. This understanding can help reduce stigma. Educating patients about likely neurobiological causes for their disorders can also help reduce guilt and shame. Nurses should educate patients about these disorders and evidence-based treatments, including off-label use of naltrexone. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(9), 17-21.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. 45 CFR 146.136 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder... Benefits § 146.136 Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. (a) Meaning of terms. For... benefits and mental health or substance use disorder benefits must comply with paragraph (b)(2), (b)(3), or...

  13. 78 FR 73696 - Extension of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System Listings; Correction

    2013-12-09

    ... of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System Listings; Correction AGENCY: Social Security... published a final rule document extending the expiration date of the Mental Disorders body system in the...) extending the expiration date of the Mental Disorders body system in the Listing of Impairments (listings...

  14. 78 FR 72571 - Extension of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System Listings

    2013-12-03

    ... of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System Listings AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are extending the expiration date of the Mental Disorders body system in... need to evaluate mental disorders at step three of the sequential evaluation processes for initial...

  15. 29 CFR 2590.712 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits... Requirements § 2590.712 Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. (a) Meaning of terms. For... benefits and mental health or substance use disorder benefits must comply with paragraph (b)(2), (b)(3), or...

  16. Mental health care use in adolescents with and without mental disorders.

    Jörg, Frederike; Visser, Ellen; Ormel, Johan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Hartman, Catharina A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the proportion of adolescents with and without a psychiatric diagnosis receiving specialist mental health care and investigate their problem levels as well as utilization of other types of mental health care to detect possible over- and undertreatment. Care utilization data were linked to psychiatric diagnostic data of 2230 adolescents participating in the TRAILS cohort study, who were assessed biannually starting at age 11. Psychiatric diagnoses were established at the fourth wave by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Self-, parent- and teacher-reported emotional and behavioral problems and self-reported mental health care use were assessed at all four waves. Of all diagnosed adolescents, 35.3 % received specialist mental health care. This rate increased to 54.5 % when three or more disorders were diagnosed. Almost a third (28.5 %) of specialist care users had no psychiatric diagnosis; teachers gave them relatively high ratings on attention and impulsivity subscales. Diagnosed adolescents without specialist mental health care also reported low rates of other care use. We found no indication of overtreatment. Half of the adolescents with three or more disorders do not receive specialist mental health care nor any other type of care, which might indicate unmet needs.

  17. Comorbid mental disorders in substance users from a single catchment area - a clinical study

    Malt Ulrik F

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal treatment of patients with substance use disorders (SUDs requires an awareness of their comorbid mental disorders and vice versa. The prevalence of comorbidity in first-time-admitted SUD patients has been insufficiently studied. Diagnosing comorbidity in substance users is complicated by symptom overlap, symptom fluctuations, and the limitations of the assessment methods. The aim of this study was to diagnose all mental disorders in substance users living in a single catchment area, without any history of treatment for addiction or psychiatric disorders, admitted consecutively to the specialist health services. The prevalence of substance-induced versus substance-independent disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV, in SUD patients will be described. Methods First-time consecutively admitted patients from a single catchment area, aged 16 years or older, admitted to addiction clinics or departments of psychiatry as outpatients or inpatients will be screened for substance-related problems using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and the Drug Use Disorder Identification Test. All patients with scores above the cutoff value will be asked to participate in the study. The patients included will be diagnosed for SUD and other axis I disorders by a psychiatrist using the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders. This interview was designed for the diagnosis of primary and substance-induced disorders in substance users. Personality disorders will be assessed according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV axis II disorders. The Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms, the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale, and the Angst Hypomania Check List will be used for additional diagnostic assessments. The sociodemographic data will be recorded with the Stanley

  18. The impact of common mental disorders on work ability in mentally and physically demanding construction work

    Boschman, J. S.; van der Molen, H. F.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into (1) the prevalence and incidence of common mental disorders (CMD) and low work ability among bricklayers and construction supervisors; (2) the impact of CMD on current work ability and work ability 1 year later and (3) the added value of job-specific questions about work ability

  19. [Dangerous states and mental health disorders: perceptions and reality].

    Tassone-Monchicourt, C; Daumerie, N; Caria, A; Benradia, I; Roelandt, J-L

    2010-01-01

    Image of Madness was always strongly linked with the notion of "dangerousness", provoking fear and social exclusion, despite the evolution of psychiatric practices and organisation, and the emphasis on user's rights respect. Mediatization and politicization of this issue through news item combining crime and mental illness, reinforce and spread out this perception. This paper presents a review of the litterature on social perceptions associating "dangerousness", "Insanity" and "mental illness", available data about the link between "dangerous states" and "psychiatric disorders", as well as the notion of "dangerousness" and the assessment of "dangerous state" of people suffering or not from psychiatric disorders. MAPPING OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS: The French Survey "Mental Health in General Population: Images and Realities (MHGP)" was carried out between 1999 and 2003, on a representative sample of 36.000 individuals over 18 years old. It aims at describing the social representations of the population about "insanity/insane" and "mental illness/mentally ill". The results show that about 75% of the people interviewed link "insanity" or "mental illness" with "criminal or violent acts". Young people and those with a high level of education more frequently categorize violent and dangerous behaviours in the field of Mental illness rather than in that of madness. CORRELATION BETWEEN DANGEROUS STATE AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS: in the scientific literature, all experts reject the hypothesis of a direct link between violence and mental disorder. Besides, 2 tendencies appear in their conclusions: on one hand, some studies establish a significative link between violence and severe mental illness, compared with the general population. On the other hand, results show that 87 to 97% of des aggressors are not mentally ills. Therefore, the absence of scientific consensus feeds the confusion and reinforce the link of causality between psychiatric disorders and violence. OFFICIAL

  20. Hoarding Disorder Trough Three Case, A New Mental Disorder in DSM-5

    Süheyla DODAN BULUT

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Compulsive hoarding is a problem characterized with excessive collection and accumulation, failure to discard the excess amount of collected items. Although it is considered to be a symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder in DSMIV- TR (Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fourth edition text revision, it is thought that compulsive hoarding and OCD may have different biological, cognitive and behavioral mechanisms and compulsive hoarding may be associated with many other psychological illnesses. For these reasons, in DSM-5 (Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fifth edition hoarding disorder diagnosis is located under the classification of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. In this case report, three cases classified in different diagnostic categories according to DSM-IV-TR will be mentioned and hoarding disorder will be discussed.

  1. [Mental Health, Emotional Suffering, Mental Problems and Disorders in Indigenous Colombians. Data From the National Mental Health Survey 2015].

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rincón, Carlos Javier; Urrego-Mendoza, Zulma

    2016-12-01

    Indigenous people represent 5% of the world population and one-third of the poor ones. Alcoholism rates, substance abuse problems, and mental disorders are shown to be higher than the general population. An analysis was made of the data from the National Mental Health Survey 2015. In this survey, it was asked if self-recognition as a native was according to the culture, the people, or physical features. A total of 902 indigenous people were surveyed, corresponding to 8.3% of the surveyed adult population. The majority (39.5%) lived in the Pacific region, with 23.7% Atlantic region, and 20% in the Eastern region. More than one-quarter (26.6%) reported a status of poverty, 31.7% spoke the language of their people, and 17.8% reported displacement due to violence. Mental health was defined as, "having good physical health, to eat, sleep and rest, by 42.9%. As regards problems and mental disorders, 8% reported excessive consumption and 7.9% a risk consumption of alcohol. As regards general psychopathology, measured by the (Self-reporting questionnaire) SRQ, 8.1% of the population had symptoms. The life prevalences of anxiety and depressive mental disorders were reported by 6.7% women and 8.4% men, and the associated risk factors that show higher risk were: aged between 18 to 44 years, not speaking the language of their people, living in Bogota, living in urban areas, and consuming psychoactive substances and tobacco. People who recognised themselves as indigenous have higher rates of displacement by violence, report problems and common mental disorders that are associated with factors consistent with loss of cultural characteristics. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  2. How do workers with a notified mental disorder experience the Danish Workers’ Compensation System?

    Ladegaard, Yun Katrine

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing number of employees is notified with a mental disorder in the Danish Workers’ Compensation System (WCS). However, only few are recognized and even less are granted a compensation. Research shows that notification in WCS increases the risk of work disability (WD......), but research exploring workers' experiences of the WCS and what factors can lead to and protect against WD are lacking. This study aims at bridging this gap. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 workers notified with a mental disorder. The interview guide was developed based...... to fill out, and questions addressing the psychosocial work environment were missing. Communication from the Board of industrial Injuries (BOII) was lacking, and procedure and timelines unclear. Workers' goal was not to achieve eeconomical compensation, but that their disorder was recognised as caused...

  3. Eating disorders: a hidden phenomenon in outpatient mental health?

    Fursland, Anthea; Watson, Hunna J

    2014-05-01

    Eating disorders are common but underdiagnosed illnesses. Help-seeking for co-occurring issues, such as anxiety and depression, are common. To identify the prevalence of eating problems, using the SCOFF, and eating disorders when screening positive on the SCOFF (i.e., ≥2), among patients seeking help for anxiety and depression at a community-based mental health service. Patients (N = 260) consecutively referred and assessed for anxiety and depression treatment were administered the SCOFF screening questionnaire and a semi-structured standardized diagnostic interview during routine intake. 18.5% (48/260) scored ≥2 on the SCOFF, indicating eating problems. Of these, 41% (19/48) met criteria for an eating disorder. Thus, overall, 7.3% (19/260) of the sample met criteria for a DSM-IV eating disorder. Those scoring ≥2 on the SCOFF were more likely to: be female (p = 0.001), younger (p = 0.003), and have a history of self-harm (p eating disorders are a hidden phenomenon in general outpatient mental health. By using a standardized diagnostic interview to establish diagnosis rather than self- or staff-report, the study builds on limited previous findings. The naturalistic study setting shows that screening for eating disorders can be easily built into routine intake practice, and successfully identifies treatment need. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Pathopsychological predictors of contraindications to driving for persons with mental disorders

    Kalinkin D. S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article contains the research data of pathopsychological predictors of contraindications to driving for persons with mental disorders. The data of 60 outpatient charts of patients-drivers and driver candidates who underwent a psychiatric examination in order to reveal the presence or absence of contraindications to driving was analyzed and resulted in a psychiatric diagnosis setting for the first time. The analysis was conducted with considering the following parameters: the commission decision on the presence or absence of contraindications to driving; age; mental illness diagnosis; results of pathopsychological research and data on driving experience. It was revealed that the 'criticality violation' parameter was the universal pathopsychological predictor of contraindications amongst the drivers and driver candidates surveyed. At the same time, nosospecific abnormalities of mental processes have been identified that in overall affect on the making of a medical decision on the presence of contraindications to driving. Attention disorders (its instability were significantly more frequent, whilst the patients with organic mental disorder also had criticality violations, and the patients with personality disorder were characterized by instability of emotional reactions. Additional record of pathopsychological features can significantly improve the accuracy of the ability to safe driving assessment for drivers and driver candidates, and more effectively predict the risk of an accident.

  5. Qualitative Methods in Mental Health Services Research

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This paper reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the papers included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a “thick description” or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods, but often differ with respect to study design, data collection and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semi-structured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research. PMID:25350675

  6. The Prevalence of Common Mental Disorders Among South Africans Seeking HIV Testing.

    Kagee, Ashraf; Saal, Wylene; De Villiers, Laing; Sefatsa, Mpho; Bantjes, Jason

    2017-06-01

    We administered the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM to 485 persons seeking HIV testing at five community testing centres in South Africa to determine the prevalence of common mental disorders among this population. The prevalence estimates for the various disorders were as follows: major depressive disorder: 14.2 % (95 % CI [11.1, 17.3]); generalised anxiety disorder 5.0 % (95 % CI [3.07, 6.93]); posttraumatic stress disorder 4.9 % (95 % CI [2.98, 6.82]); and alcohol use disorder 19.8 % (95 % CI [16.26, 23.34]). Our findings imply the need to research the integration of screening and referral trajectories in the context of voluntary HIV counselling and testing.

  7. National Center on Sleep Disorders Research

    ... Resources Register for Updates The National Center on Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR) Located within the National Heart, Lung, ... 60 percent have a chronic disorder. Each year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and sleepiness add an estimated $15. ...

  8. Impact on infants' cognitive development of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency disorder and common mental disorders.

    Thach Duc Tran

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency anemia (IDA and common mental disorders (CMD on cognitive development of 6 months old infants in a developing country. METHODS: A prospective population-based study in a rural province in Vietnam, which enrolled pregnant women at 12-20 weeks gestation and followed them up with their infants until six months postpartum. Criteria for IDA were Hb 30 years and primiparity had an indirect adverse effect on infants' Bayley cognitive scores. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that antenatal IDA and CMD both have adverse effects on child cognitive development, which if unrecognized and unaddressed are likely to be lasting. It is crucial that both these risks are considered by policy makers, clinicians, and researchers seeking to improve child cognitive function in developing countries.

  9. Offenders With Antisocial Personality Disorder Display More Impairments in Mentalizing.

    Newbury-Helps, John; Feigenbaum, Janet; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that individuals with antisocial, particularly violent, histories of offending behavior have specific problems in social cognition, notably in relation to accurately envisioning mental states. Eighty-three male offenders on community license, 65% of whom met the threshold for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), completed a battery of computerized mentalizing tests requiring perspective taking (Perspectives Taking Test), mental state recognition from facial expression (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test), and identification of mental states in the context of social interaction (Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition). The results were compared with a partially matched sample of 42 nonoffending controls. The offender group showed impaired mentalizing on all of the tasks when compared with the control group for this study when controlling for demographic and clinical variables, and the offending group performed poorly in comparisons with participants in published studies, suggesting that limited capacity to mentalize may be part of the picture presented by individuals with histories of offending behavior. Offenders with ASPD demonstrated greater difficulty with mentalizing than non-ASPD offenders. Mentalization subscales were able to predict offender status and those with ASPD, indicating that specific impairments in perspective taking, social cognition, and social sensitivity, as well as tendencies toward hypomentalizing and nonmentalizing, are more marked in individuals who meet criteria for a diagnosis of ASPD. Awareness of these deficits may be helpful to professionals working with offenders, and specifically addressing these deficits may be a productive aspect of therapy for this "hard to reach" clinical group.

  10. Employee decision-making about disclosure of a mental disorder at work.

    Toth, Kate E; Dewa, Carolyn S

    2014-12-01

    Fear of stigma may lead employees to choose not to disclose a mental disorder in the workplace, thereby limiting help-seeking through workplace accommodation. Research suggests that various factors are considered in making decisions related to disclosure of concealable stigmatizing attributes, yet limited literature explores such decision-making in the context of mental disorder and work. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to develop a model of disclosure specific to mental health issues in a work context. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 employees of a post-secondary educational institution in Canada. Data were analyzed according to grounded theory methods through processes of open, selective, and theoretical coding. Findings indicated that employees begin from a default position of nondisclosure that is attributable to fear of being stigmatized in the workplace as a result of the mental disorder. In order to move from the default position, employees need a reason to disclose. The decision-making process itself is a risk-benefit analysis, during which employees weigh risks and benefits within the existing context as they assess it. The model identifies that fear of stigmatization is one of the problems with disclosure at work and describes the disclosure decision-making process. Understanding of how employees make decisions about disclosure in the workplace may inform organizational policies, practices, and programs to improve the experiences of individuals diagnosed with a mental disorder at work. The findings suggest possible intervention strategies in education, policy, and culture for reducing stigma of mental disorders in the workplace.

  11. [The Stigma-discrimination Complex Associated With Mental Disorder as a Risk Factor for Suicide].

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Herazo, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    The concept stigma-discrimination complex associated with mental disorder (SDCAMD) is proposed to encompass the terms used in the attribution theory: stigma, stereotype, prejudice and discrimination. SDCAMD is one of the most frequent disorders worldwide. Internalized and perceived SDCAMD may explain a number of suicide cases. To update the factors that may explain the association between SDCAMD and suicide, and postulate possible underlying mechanisms. Articles were identified in MEDLINE using the descriptors for "stigma", "mental disorders" and "suicide" or "suicide rate". Articles published between January 2000 and June 2014 were included. Reviews and case studies were not considered. The two included studies showed that stigma increased the risk of suicidal behaviors. It was evident that people who meet criteria for mental disorder and reported high self-stigma made a greater number of suicide attempts, and countries with high stigma in the general population have a higher suicide rate. It was considered that the relationship between SDCAMD and suicide is established by a set of interrelated mechanisms. A "direct" mechanism involving perceived stigma and is configured as a barrier to access mental health services, and an "indirect" mechanism involving the self-stigma, which increases the vulnerability to depressive episodes and repeated self-injurious behaviors that ultimately end in suicide. The SDCAMD impacts negatively on the quality of life of people who meet criteria for mental disorders, and accounts for a significant number of suicides. One way is related to the perceived stigma that is configured as a barrier to access mental health services and, the second one includes repeated self-injurious behaviors that reduce self-esteem and increases perceived stress. Further research is required to increase the knowledge of this association. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Individual quality of life of people with severe mental disorders.

    Pitkänen, A; Hätönen, H; Kuosmanen, L; Välimäki, M

    2009-02-01

    People with mental disorders have been found to suffer from impaired quality of life (QoL). Therefore, the assessment of QoL has become important in psychiatric research. This explorative study was carried out in acute psychiatric wards. Thirty-five patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and related psychosis were interviewed. QoL was rated by the Schedule for Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life which is a respondent-generated QoL measure using semi-structured interview technique. Patients named five areas of life important to them and then rated their current status and placed relative weight on each QoL area. The data were analysed with qualitative content analysis and descriptive statistics. The most frequently named areas for QoL were health, family, leisure activities, work/study and social relationships, which represented 72% of all QoL areas named. Patients' average satisfaction with these QoL areas ranged 49.0-69.1 (scale 0-100). The mean global QoL score was 61.5 (standard deviation 17.4; range 24.6-89.6; scale 0-100). Awareness of patients' perceptions of their QoL areas can enhance our understanding of an individual patient's QoL and reveal unsatisfactory areas where QoL could be improved with individually tailored needs-based interventions.

  13. [Internet-based resilience training and prevention of mental disorders].

    Lehr, D; Kunzler, A; Helmreich, I; Behrendt, D; Chmitorz, A; Lieb, K

    2018-05-30

    Resilience is associated with a positive and resource-oriented perspective. Therefore, it seems especially attractive for health promotion and prevention. In recent years, interventions to foster resilience have been increasingly developed, which train resilience factors and are mainly conducted in a face to face group format. The question is raised what potential internet-based interventions (i-interventions) that train resilience factors have for health promotion and prevention. Based on a narrative overview, the possibilities for i‑interventions that train resilience factors for health promotion and prevention are investigated and the state of research is described. The effects of the i‑interventions presented here, which aim at fostering resilience, on measures of mental health and well-being are heterogeneous and vary between low to high effects. Stronger evidence for the efficacy of these measures exists for more general i‑interventions that also train resilience factors but are conceptualized for the prevention of specific disorders, such as depression or for stress reduction. Given the heterogeneous nature of intervention contents, theoretical foundations and therapeutic methods used, the heterogeneity of the evidence is discussed. In addition, perspectives for the further development of resource-oriented resilience interventions are outlined.

  14. Prevalence of Mental Disorders and Recidivism in Young Offenders

    Álvaro Machado Dias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies report that incarcerated young offenders show a high rate of psychiatric disorders whereas associations between specific psychiatric disorders and recidivism remain unknown. The Brazilian legal system has created a unique opportunity for the study of this issue when consider young offenders not that guilty in spite of the severity of the crime, settling in three years the maximum period of incarceration. This study aims to determine the rate of psychiatric disorders in a cohort of incarcerated young offenders and evaluate the possible psychiatric connections of primary offenders and recidivism. A group of 898 incarcerated young offenders at Fundação Casa answered psychiatric interviews and was diagnosed according to the criteria of ICD-10. Statistic connections were analyzed using the tests of Pearson and Cramer. The cohort was comprised of 619 primaries and 267 recidivists. 'Psychoactive Substance Use' and 'Disorders of Adult Personality and Behavior' categories were related to recidivism, whereas 'Organic Mental Disorders', 'Mood Disorders', and 'Stress-related Disorders' were related to primary offenders. Discriminating disorders were the most likely to represent reactions to primary incarceration. In relation to associations that might represent predictors of crime, it became highly suggestive that substance abuse is the main cause of incarceration for the entire cohort.

  15. The Associations between Self-Reported Exposure to the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster Zone and Mental Health Disorders in Ukraine.

    Bolt, Matthew A; Helming, Luralyn M; Tintle, Nathan L

    2018-01-01

    In 1986, Reactor 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant near Pripyat, Ukraine exploded, releasing highly-radioactive materials into the surrounding environment. Although the physical effects of the disaster have been well-documented, a limited amount of research has been conducted on association of the disaster with long-term, clinically-diagnosable mental health disorders. According to the diathesis-stress model, the stress of potential and unknown exposure to radioactive materials and the ensuing changes to ones life or environment due to the disaster might lead those with previous vulnerabilities to fall into a poor state of mental health. Previous studies of this disaster have found elevated symptoms of stress, substance abuse, anxiety, and depression in exposed populations, though often at a subclinical level. With data from The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview, a cross-sectional large mental health survey conducted in Ukraine by the World Health Organization, the mental health of Ukrainians was modeled with multivariable logistic regression techniques to determine if any long-term mental health disorders were association with reporting having lived in the zone affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. Common classes of psychiatric disorders were examined as well as self-report ratings of physical and mental health. Reporting that one lived in the Chernobyl-affected disaster zone was associated with a higher rate of alcohol disorders among men and higher rates of intermittent explosive disorders among women in a prevalence model. Subjects who lived in the disaster zone also had lower ratings of personal physical and mental health when compared to controls. Stress resulting from disaster exposure, whether or not such exposure actually occurred or was merely feared, and ensuing changes in life circumstances is associated with increased rates of mental health disorders. Professionals assisting populations that are coping with the

  16. Predicting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition): The Mystery of How to Constrain Unchecked Growth.

    Blashfield, Roger K; Fuller, A Kenneth

    2016-06-01

    Twenty years ago, slightly after the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition was published, we predicted the characteristics of the future Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fifth edition) (). Included in our predictions were how many diagnoses it would contain, the physical size of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fifth edition), who its leader would be, how many professionals would be involved in creating it, the revenue generated, and the color of its cover. This article reports on the accuracy of our predictions. Our largest prediction error concerned financial revenue. The earnings growth of the DSM's has been remarkable. Drug company investments, insurance benefits, the financial need of the American Psychiatric Association, and the research grant process are factors that have stimulated the growth of the DSM's. Restoring order and simplicity to the classification of mental disorders will not be a trivial task.

  17. [Mental disorders in digestive system diseases - internist's and psychiatrist's insight].

    Kukla, Urszula; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Chronowska, Justyna; Krzystanek, Marek; Okopień, BogusŁaw

    2015-05-01

    Mental disorders accompanying digestive system diseases constitute interdisciplinary yet scarcely acknowledged both diagnostic and therapeutic problem. One of the mostly recognized examples is coeliac disease where patients endure the large spectrum of psychopathological symptoms, starting with attention deficit all the way down to the intellectual disability in extreme cases. It has not been fully explained how the pathomechanism of digestive system diseases affects patient's mental health, however one of the hypothesis suggests that it is due to serotonergic or opioid neurotransmission imbalance caused by gluten and gluten metabolites effect on central nervous system. Behavioral changes can also be invoked by liver or pancreatic diseases, which causes life-threatening abnormalities within a brain. It occurs that these abnormalities reflexively exacerbate the symptoms of primary somatic disease and aggravate its course, which worsens prognosis. The dominant mental disease mentioned in this article is depression which because of its effect on a hypothalamuspituitary- adrenal axis and on an autonomic nervous system, not only aggravates the symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases but may accelerate their onset in genetically predisposed patients. Depression is known to negatively affects patients' ability to function in a society and a quality of their lives. Moreover, as far as children are concerned, the occurrence of digestive system diseases accompanied by mental disorders, may adversely affect their further physical and psychological development, which merely results in worse school performance. All those aspects of mental disorders indicate the desirability of the psychological care for patients with recognized digestive system disease. The psychological assistance should be provided immediately after diagnosis of a primary disease and be continued throughout the whole course of treatment. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  18. Mental Illness Statistics

    ... News & Events About Us Home > Health Information Share Statistics Research shows that mental illnesses are common in ... of mental illnesses, such as suicide and disability. Statistics Top ı cs Mental Illness Any Anxiety Disorder ...

  19. Neuromodulator and Emotion Biomarker for Stress Induced Mental Disorders.

    Gu, Simeng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Fushun; Huang, Jason H

    2016-01-01

    Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC)/norepinephrine (NE) system is regarded as a critical part of the central "stress circuitry," whose major function is to induce "fight or flight" behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty). The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear), but also for fight (anger). Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. "Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush" and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders.

  20. Neuromodulator and Emotion Biomarker for Stress Induced Mental Disorders

    Simeng Gu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC/norepinephrine (NE system is regarded as a critical part of the central “stress circuitry,” whose major function is to induce “fight or flight” behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty. The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear, but also for fight (anger. Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. “Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush” and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders.

  1. Common mental disorders in public transportation drivers in Lima, Peru.

    Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Ramos, Mariana; Samalvides, Frine; Vega-Dienstmaier, Johann; Kruger, Hever

    2014-01-01

    Traffic related injuries are leading contributors to burden of disease worldwide. In developing countries a high proportion of them can be attributed to public transportation vehicles. Several mental disorders including alcohol and drug abuse, psychotic disorders, mental stress, productivity pressure, and low monetary income were found predictors of high rates of traffic related injuries in public transportation drivers. The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders in the population of public transportation drivers of buses and rickshaws in Lima, Peru. Cross sectional study. A sample of bus and rickshaw drivers was systematically selected from formal public transportation companies using a snowball approach. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires for assessing major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms, alcohol abuse, and burnout syndrome. Socio demographic information was also collected. The analyses consisted of descriptive measurement of outcomes taking into account both between and within cluster standard deviation (BCSD and WCSD). A total of 278 bus and 227 rickshaw drivers out of 25 companies agreed to participate in the study. BCSD for major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms and burnout syndrome was not found significant (p>0.05). The estimated prevalence of each variable was 13.7% (IC95%: 10.7-16.6%), 24.1% (IC95%: 19.4-28.8%) and 14.1% (IC95%: 10.8-17.4%) respectively. The estimated prevalence of alcohol abuse was 75.4% (IC95%: 69-81.7%, BCSD = 12.2%, WCSD = 41.9%, intra class correlation (ICC): 7.8%). Common mental disorders such as alcohol abuse, major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms and burnout syndrome presented higher rates in public transportation drivers than general population.

  2. Invited commentaries on... Abortion and mental health disorders.

    Casey, Patricia; Oates, Margaret; Jones, Ian; Cantwell, Roch

    2008-12-01

    The finding that induced abortion is a risk factor for subsequent psychiatric disorder in some women raises important clinical and training issues for psychiatrists. It also highlights the necessity for developing evidence-based interventions for these women. P.C. / Evidence suggesting a modest increase in mental health problems after abortion does not support the prominence of psychiatric issues in the abortion debate, which is primarily moral and ethical not psychiatric or scientific. M.O. et al.

  3. Violent men in couple relationships: mental disorders and typological profiles

    Echeburúa, Enrique; J. Amor, Pedro; de Corral, Paz

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this theoretical paper are to analyze the mental disorders and the most relevant psychological deficits of intimate partner violent men, as well as to identify different types of batterers according to the classifications of Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart (1994) and of Fernandez- Montalvo and Echeburúa (1997). A review of multiple theoretical and empirical papers has been carried out with this purpose. The main results show that the aggressors usually show psychological deficits –la...

  4. Common mental disorders in public transportation drivers in Lima, Peru.

    Paulo Ruiz-Grosso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traffic related injuries are leading contributors to burden of disease worldwide. In developing countries a high proportion of them can be attributed to public transportation vehicles. Several mental disorders including alcohol and drug abuse, psychotic disorders, mental stress, productivity pressure, and low monetary income were found predictors of high rates of traffic related injuries in public transportation drivers. The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders in the population of public transportation drivers of buses and rickshaws in Lima, Peru. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross sectional study. A sample of bus and rickshaw drivers was systematically selected from formal public transportation companies using a snowball approach. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires for assessing major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms, alcohol abuse, and burnout syndrome. Socio demographic information was also collected. The analyses consisted of descriptive measurement of outcomes taking into account both between and within cluster standard deviation (BCSD and WCSD. A total of 278 bus and 227 rickshaw drivers out of 25 companies agreed to participate in the study. BCSD for major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms and burnout syndrome was not found significant (p>0.05. The estimated prevalence of each variable was 13.7% (IC95%: 10.7-16.6%, 24.1% (IC95%: 19.4-28.8% and 14.1% (IC95%: 10.8-17.4% respectively. The estimated prevalence of alcohol abuse was 75.4% (IC95%: 69-81.7%, BCSD = 12.2%, WCSD = 41.9%, intra class correlation (ICC: 7.8%. CONCLUSION: Common mental disorders such as alcohol abuse, major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms and burnout syndrome presented higher rates in public transportation drivers than general population.

  5. Working hours and common mental disorders in English police officers

    Houdmont, Jonathan; Randall, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of evidence on working hours and their psychological correlates in police officers of the federated ranks in England.\\ud Aims: An exploratory study to establish the extent to which a sample of English police officers worked long hours and the association between long working hours and common mental disorder (CMD).\\ud Methods: Officers of the federated ranks (constable, sergeant, inspector) from two English county forces completed a questionnaire to report their ...

  6. National funding for mental health research in Finland, France, Spain and the United Kingdom.

    Hazo, Jean-Baptiste; Gandré, Coralie; Leboyer, Marion; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Belli, Stefano; McDaid, David; Park, A-La; Maliandi, Maria Victoria; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Wykes, Til; van Os, Jim; Haro, Josep Maria; Chevreul, Karine

    2017-09-01

    As part of the Roamer project, we aimed at revealing the share of health research budgets dedicated to mental health, as well as on the amounts allocated to such research for four European countries. Finland, France, Spain and the United Kingdom national public and non-profit funding allocated to mental health research in 2011 were investigated using, when possible, bottom-up approaches. Specifics of the data collection varied from country to country. The total amount of public and private not for profit mental health research funding for Finland, France, Spain and the UK was €10·2, €84·8, €16·8, and €127·6 million, respectively. Charities accounted for a quarter of the funding in the UK and less than six per cent elsewhere. The share of health research dedicated to mental health ranged from 4·0% in the UK to 9·7% in Finland. When compared to the DALY attributable to mental disorders, Spain, France, Finland, and the UK invested respectively €12·5, €31·2, €39·5, and €48·7 per DALY. Among these European countries, there is an important gap between the level of mental health research funding and the economic and epidemiologic burden of mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent mental disorders. Current disorder most important but psychiatric history matters as well

    Ormel, Johan; Oerlemans, Anoek; Raven, Dennis; Laceulle, O.M.; Hartman, Catharina; Veenstra, Rene; Verhulst, F; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Rosmalen, J.G.M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Oldehinkel, Tineke

    2017-01-01

    Background. Various sources indicate that mental disorders are the leading contributor to the burden of disease among youth. An important determinant of functioning is current mental health status. This study investigated whether psychiatric history has additional predictive power when predicting

  8. Complementary and alternative medicine contacts by persons with mental disorders in 25 countries: results from the World Mental Health Surveys.

    de Jonge, P; Wardenaar, K J; Hoenders, H R; Evans-Lacko, S; Kovess-Masfety, V; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Al-Hamzawi, A; Alonso, J; Andrade, L H; Benjet, C; Bromet, E J; Bruffaerts, R; Bunting, B; Caldas-de-Almeida, J M; Dinolova, R V; Florescu, S; de Girolamo, G; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Hu, C; Huang, Y; Karam, E G; Karam, G; Lee, S; Lépine, J-P; Levinson, D; Makanjuola, V; Navarro-Mateu, F; Pennell, B-E; Posada-Villa, J; Scott, K; Tachimori, H; Williams, D; Wojtyniak, B; Kessler, R C; Thornicroft, G

    2017-12-28

    A substantial proportion of persons with mental disorders seek treatment from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professionals. However, data on how CAM contacts vary across countries, mental disorders and their severity, and health care settings is largely lacking. The aim was therefore to investigate the prevalence of contacts with CAM providers in a large cross-national sample of persons with 12-month mental disorders. In the World Mental Health Surveys, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to determine the presence of past 12 month mental disorders in 138 801 participants aged 18-100 derived from representative general population samples. Participants were recruited between 2001 and 2012. Rates of self-reported CAM contacts for each of the 28 surveys across 25 countries and 12 mental disorder groups were calculated for all persons with past 12-month mental disorders. Mental disorders were grouped into mood disorders, anxiety disorders or behavioural disorders, and further divided by severity levels. Satisfaction with conventional care was also compared with CAM contact satisfaction. An estimated 3.6% (standard error 0.2%) of persons with a past 12-month mental disorder reported a CAM contact, which was two times higher in high-income countries (4.6%; standard error 0.3%) than in low- and middle-income countries (2.3%; standard error 0.2%). CAM contacts were largely comparable for different disorder types, but particularly high in persons receiving conventional care (8.6-17.8%). CAM contacts increased with increasing mental disorder severity. Among persons receiving specialist mental health care, CAM contacts were reported by 14.0% for severe mood disorders, 16.2% for severe anxiety disorders and 22.5% for severe behavioural disorders. Satisfaction with care was comparable with respect to CAM contacts (78.3%) and conventional care (75.6%) in persons that received both. CAM contacts are common in persons with severe mental

  9. Mutual influence of intensity of pain syndrome and borderline mental disorders in patients with coxarthrosis

    I. D. Spirina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the mutual influence of pain syndrome and borderline psychiatric disorders depending on its intensity and tolerability in patients with coxarthrosis who need endoprosthetics. 76 patients with coxarthrosis aged from 25 to 68 who were hospitalized in the Department of Endoprosthetics at Mechnikov Regional Clinical Hospital in Dnipro City in the period from November 2015 to September 2016 were observed. For diagnosis of psychopathological disorders, and for evaluation of the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions, the following methods were used in our research: clinical and psychopathological (technique SCL-90-R, Tаylor anxiety scale, study of the type of attitude to the disease (LOBI, Dembo-Rubinstein self-esteem scale, Leonhard-Schmieschek questionnaire for assessment of accentuation of personality traits, the Luscher 8-colour test and the Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS. Severity of pain syndrome was assessed using a visual analogue scale of pain (VAS. Forms of borderline mental disorders were diagnosed in 51 patients with coxarthrosis, such as depressive disorder (F 32 – 19 (24.8%, neurasthenia (F 48 – 12 (16.2, anxiety and phobic disorders (F 40–41 – 14 (18.1%, and personality disorders (F 60.5, F 60.6, F 60.7 – 6 (7.6%. In 25 (33.3% patients clinically-defined forms of mental disorders were identified. Leading syndromes in these disorders were depression – 19 (24.8% patients, anxiety and phobic – 15 (20.0%, asthenic – 10 (12.4%, hypochondriacal – 7 (9.5% patients. According to the results of the correlation analysis, a close correlation between the severity of pain syndrome and borderline mental disorders (r = 0.779 was established for patients in the preoperative stage. The average level of pain syndrome on the VAS scale in patients with borderline mental disorders was twice as high as in patients without these disorders (63.4 vs. 32.4 points, but it does not depend on the

  10. The clinical profile of high-risk mentally disordered offenders.

    Yiend, Jenny; Freestone, Mark; Vazquez-Montes, Maria; Holland, Josephine; Burns, Tom

    2013-07-01

    High-risk mentally disordered offenders present a diverse array of clinical characteristics. To contain and effectively treat this heterogeneous population requires a full understanding of the group's clinical profile. This study aimed to identify and validate clusters of clinically coherent profiles within one high-risk mentally disordered population in the UK. Latent class analysis (a statistical technique to identify clustering of variance from a set of categorical variables) was applied to 174 cases using clinical diagnostic information to identify the most parsimonious model of best fit. Validity analyses were performed. Three identified classes were a 'delinquent' group (n = 119) characterised by poor educational history, strong criminal careers and high recidivism risk; a 'primary psychopathy' group (n = 38) characterised by good educational profiles and homicide offences and an 'expressive psychopathy' group (n = 17) presenting the lowest risk and characterised by more special educational needs and sexual offences. Individuals classed as high-risk mentally disordered offenders can be loosely segregated into three discrete subtypes: 'delinquent', 'psychopathic' or 'expressive psychopathic', respectively. These groups represent different levels of risk to society and reflect differing treatment needs.

  11. Burden of common mental disorders in patients with Functional Dyspepsia

    Sattar, A.; Salih, M.; Jafri, W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the frequency of common mental disorders among diagnosed functional dyspepsia patients. Methods: A case-control study with 150 cases of functional dyspepsia (FD) and 150 healthy controls were recruited from Gastroenterology Clinic at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi from 1, March 2009 through 31, August 2009. Urdu version of WHO-developed Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) was administered to diagnose patients of FD and healthy controls. A cut off score of 8 on SRQ was used to confirm cases of Common mental disorders (CMD). Data was entered and analyzed by SPSS version 16.0. Result: There was significant difference in CMD i.e. 107 (71.33%) versus 23 (15.33%) in cases and controls respectively (p- <0.001). Among cases CMD was more common in females i.e. in 57 (80.3%) as compared 50 (63.3%) in males (p- 0.022). Conclusion: There is high prevalence of Common mental disorders among patients with functional dyspepsia and this needs to be addressed while treating patients. (author)

  12. Police officers' perceptions and experiences with mentally disordered suspects.

    Oxburgh, Laura; Gabbert, Fiona; Milne, Rebecca; Cherryman, Julie

    Despite mentally disordered suspects being over-represented within the criminal justice system, there is a dearth of published literature that examines police officers' perceptions when interviewing this vulnerable group. This is concerning given that police officers are increasingly the first point of contact with these individuals. Using a Grounded Theory approach, this study examined 35 police officers' perceptions and experiences when interviewing mentally disordered suspects. Current safeguards, such as Appropriate Adults, and their experiences of any training they received were also explored. A specially designed questionnaire was developed and distributed across six police forces in England and Wales. Nine conceptual categories emerged from the data that highlighted how police officers' level of experience impacted upon their perceptions when dealing with this cohort. As a consequence, a new model grounded within Schema Theory has emerged termed Police Experience Transitional Model. Implications include the treatment and outcome of mentally disordered suspects being heavily dependent on whom they encounter within the criminal justice system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Keep calm and carry on: Mental disorder is not more "organic" than any other medical condition.

    Micoulaud-Franchi, J A; Quiles, C; Masson, M

    2017-10-01

    Psychiatry as a discipline should no longer be grounded in the dualistic opposition between organic and mental disorders. This non-dualistic position refusing the partition along functional versus organic lines is in line with Jean Delay, and with Robert Spitzer who wanted to include in the definition of mental disorder discussed by the DSM-III task force the statement that "mental disorders are a subset of medical disorders". However, it is interesting to note that Spitzer and colleagues ingeniously introduced the definition of "mental disorder" in the DSM-III in the following statement: "there is no satisfactory definition that specifies precise boundaries for the concept "mental disorder" (also true for such concepts as physical disorder and mental and physical health)". Indeed, as for "mental disorders", it is as difficult to define what they are as it is to define what constitutes a "physical disorder". The problem is not the words "mental" or "organic" but the word "disorder". In this line, Wakefield has proposed a useful "harmful dysfunction" analysis of mental disorder. They raise the issue of the dualistic opposition between organic and mental disorders, and situate the debate rather between the biological/physiological and the social. The paper provides a brief analysis of this shift on the question of what is a mental disorder, and demonstrates that a mental disorder is not more "organic" than any other medical condition. While establishing a dichotomy between organic and psychiatry is no longer intellectually tenable, the solution is not to reduce psychiatric and non-psychiatric disorders to the level of "organic disorders" but rather to continue to adopt both a critical and clinically pertinent approach to what constitutes a "disorder" in medicine. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The bi-directional associations between psychotic experiences and DSM-IV mental disorders

    McGrath, John J.; Saha, Sukanta; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Browne, Mark Oakley; Caldas de Almeida, Jose M.; Chiu, Wai Tat; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Have, Margreet ten; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Sampson, Nancy; Posada-Villa, José; Kendler, Kenneth; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective While it is now recognized that psychotic experiences (PEs) are associated with an increased risk of later mental disorders, we lack a detailed understanding of the reciprocal time-lagged relationships between first onsets of PEs and mental disorders. Methods The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys assessed lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset of PEs and 21 common DSM-IV mental disorders among 31,261 adult respondents from 18 countries. Results Temporally primary PEs were significantly associated with subsequent first onset of 8 of the 21 mental disorders (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, adult separation anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, alcohol abuse), with ORs (95%CI) ranging from 1.3 (1.2–1.5; major depressive disorder) to 2.0 (1.5–2.6; bipolar disorder). In contrast, 18 of 21 primary mental disorders were significantly associated with subsequent first onset of PEs, with ORs (95% CI) ranging from 1.5 (1.0–2.1; childhood separation anxiety disorder) to 2.8 (1.0–7.8; anorexia nervosa). Conclusions While temporally primary PEs are associated with an elevated risk of several subsequent mental disorders, we found that most mental disorder are associated with an elevated risk of subsequent PEs. Further investigation of the underlying factors accounting for these time-order relationships might shed light on the etiology of PEs. PMID:26988628

  15. The Gut Microbiome and Mental Health: Implications for Anxiety- and Trauma-Related Disorders.

    Malan-Muller, Stefanie; Valles-Colomer, Mireia; Raes, Jeroen; Lowry, Christopher A; Seedat, Soraya; Hemmings, Sian M J

    2018-02-01

    Biological psychiatry research has long focused on the brain in elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms of anxiety- and trauma-related disorders. This review challenges this assumption and suggests that the gut microbiome and its interactome also deserve attention to understand brain disorders and develop innovative treatments and diagnostics in the 21st century. The recent, in-depth characterization of the human microbiome spurred a paradigm shift in human health and disease. Animal models strongly suggest a role for the gut microbiome in anxiety- and trauma-related disorders. The microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis sits at the epicenter of this new approach to mental health. The microbiome plays an important role in the programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis early in life, and stress reactivity over the life span. In this review, we highlight emerging findings of microbiome research in psychiatric disorders, focusing on anxiety- and trauma-related disorders specifically, and discuss the gut microbiome as a potential therapeutic target. 16S rRNA sequencing has enabled researchers to investigate and compare microbial composition between individuals. The functional microbiome can be studied using methods involving metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics, and metabolomics, as discussed in the present review. Other factors that shape the gut microbiome should be considered to obtain a holistic view of the factors at play in the complex interactome linked to the MGB. In all, we underscore the importance of microbiome science, and gut microbiota in particular, as emerging critical players in mental illness and maintenance of mental health. This new frontier of biological psychiatry and postgenomic medicine should be embraced by the mental health community as it plays an ever-increasing transformative role in integrative and holistic health research in the next decade.

  16. Achieving Smoke-Free Mental Health Services: Lessons from the Past Decade of Implementation Research

    Jonathan Campion

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The culture of smoking by patients and staff within mental health systems of care has a long and entrenched history. Cigarettes have been used as currency between patients and as a patient management tool by staff. These settings have traditionally been exempt from smoke-free policy because of complex held views about the capacity of people with mental disorder to tolerate such policy whilst they are acutely unwell, with stakeholders’ continuing fierce debate about rights, choice and duty of care. This culture has played a significant role in perpetuating physical, social and economic smoking associated impacts experienced by people with mental disorder who receive care within mental health care settings. The past decade has seen a clear policy shift towards smoke-free mental health settings in several countries. While many services have been successful in implementing this change, many issues remain to be resolved for genuine smoke-free policy in mental health settings to be realized. This literature review draws on evidence from the international published research, including national audits of smoke-free policy implementation in mental health units in Australia and England, in order to synthesise what we know works, why it works, and the remaining barriers to smoke-free policy and how appropriate interventions are provided to people with mental disorder.

  17. Mental disorders in childhood and young adulthood among children born to women with fertility problems.

    Svahn, M F; Hargreave, M; Nielsen, T S S; Plessen, K J; Jensen, S M; Kjaer, S K; Jensen, A

    2015-09-01

    Is the risk of hospital admission or outpatient contact for mental disorders increased in children born to women with fertility problems compared with children born to women without fertility problems? We found an increased risk of hospital admission or outpatient contact for mental disorders in children born to women with fertility problems. Few studies have investigated the risk of mental disorders in children born after fertility treatment and although some studies have pointed to an increased risk, others found no association. The inconsistent results may be due to methodological constraints in many previous studies, including small sample size and short follow-up, resulting in imprecise risk estimates and lack of information on risk patterns of mental disorders in adulthood. This nationwide retrospective register-based cohort study included all 2 412 721 children born in Denmark between 1969 and 2006. All children were followed from date of birth until date of hospital contact for a mental disorder, date of emigration, date of death or 31 December 2009, whichever occurred first. Information concerning maternal fertility status for all children in the cohort was obtained by linkage to the Danish Infertility Cohort, which contains data on nearly all women with fertility problems in Denmark since 1963. A total of 124 269 (5%) children were born to women with fertility problems and 2 288 452 (95%) to women without fertility problems. To identify children hospitalized for a mental disorder, the cohort was linked to the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between maternal fertility status and the risk of hospital admission or outpatient contact for various groups of mental disorders, including any mental disorder and all 11 main discharge diagnostic groups, classified according to the International Classification of Diseases

  18. Forensic nurses' perceptions of labels of mental illness and personality disorder: clinical versus management issues.

    Mason, T; Hall, R; Caulfied, M; Melling, K

    2010-03-01

    Anecdotally, forensic psychiatric nurses generally have a more negative perception of people diagnosed with a personality disorder and this negativity is focused more towards managing the behaviours rather than on treatment efficacy and clinical outcomes. This study reports on research carried out across the High, Medium and Low secure psychiatric services in the UK. One thousand two hundred questionnaires were distributed with a response rate of 34.6%. The results indicated a statistically significant difference across High (z = 9.69; P < or = 0.01), Medium (z = 11.06; P < or = 0.01) and Low (z= 9.57; P= 0.01) security with a focus on the management of people with a personality disorder using the Wilcoxon paired samples test. There was also a statistically significant difference in relation to a more clinical/treatment focus for those with a diagnosis of mental illness in Medium (z = 9.69; P < or = 0.01) and Low (z = 9.57; P < or = 0.01) security but not in the High security services. Finally, the results showed significant differences between High, Medium and Low security on each of the four scales of Personality Disorder Clinical-Personality Disorder Management and Mental Illness Clinical-Mental Illness Management. This raises issues of stigma, prejudice and discrimination and suggests a refocus on skills development, acquisition and application for those with a label of personality disorder.

  19. Induced first-trimester abortion and risk of mental disorder.

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Pedersen, Carsten B; Lidegaard, Øjvind; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2011-01-27

    Concern has been expressed about potential harm to women's mental health in association with having an induced abortion, but it remains unclear whether induced abortion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent psychiatric problems. We conducted a population-based cohort study that involved linking information from the Danish Civil Registration system to the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Register of Patients. The information consisted of data for girls and women with no record of mental disorders during the 1995-2007 period who had a first-trimester induced abortion or a first childbirth during that period. We estimated the rates of first-time psychiatric contact (an inpatient admission or outpatient visit) for any type of mental disorder within the 12 months after the abortion or childbirth as compared with the 9-month period preceding the event. The incidence rates of first psychiatric contact per 1000 person-years among girls and women who had a first abortion were 14.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.7 to 15.6) before abortion and 15.2 (95% CI, 14.4 to 16.1) after abortion. The corresponding rates among girls and women who had a first childbirth were 3.9 (95% CI, 3.7 to 4.2) before delivery and 6.7 (95% CI, 6.4 to 7.0) post partum. The relative risk of a psychiatric contact did not differ significantly after abortion as compared with before abortion (P = 0.19) but did increase after childbirth as compared with before childbirth (P abortion does not support the hypothesis that there is an increased risk of mental disorders after a first-trimester induced abortion.

  20. Previous Mental Disorders and Subsequent Onset of Chronic Back or Neck Pain: Findings From 19 Countries.

    Viana, Maria Carmen; Lim, Carmen C W; Garcia Pereira, Flavia; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Cardoso, Graça; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M

    2018-01-01

    Associations between depression/anxiety and pain are well established, but its directionality is not clear. We examined the associations between temporally previous mental disorders and subsequent self-reported chronic back/neck pain onset, and investigated the variation in the strength of associations according to timing of events during the life course, and according to gender. Data were from population-based household surveys conducted in 19 countries (N = 52,095). Lifetime prevalence and age of onset of 16 mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and the occurrence and age of onset of back/neck pain were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Survival analyses estimated the associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent back/neck pain onset. All mental disorders were positively associated with back/neck pain in bivariate analyses; most (12 of 16) remained so after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Early-onset disorders were stronger predictors of pain; when adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, this remained the case for depression/dysthymia. No gender differences were observed. In conclusion, individuals with mental disorder, beyond depression and anxiety, are at higher risk of developing subsequent back/neck pain, stressing the importance of early detection of mental disorders, and highlight the need of assessing back/neck pain in mental health clinical settings. Previous mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition are positively associated with subsequent back/neck pain onset, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Earlier-onset mental disorders are stronger predictors of subsequent pain onset, compared with later-onset disorders

  1. 32 CFR 147.11 - Guideline I-Emotional, mental, and personality disorders.

    2010-07-01

    ... professional that an individual's previous emotional, mental, or personality disorder is cured, under control... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guideline I-Emotional, mental, and personality... CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Adjudication § 147.11 Guideline I—Emotional, mental, and personality disorders. (a...

  2. Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy.

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; McGinty, E Elizabeth; Fazel, Seena; Mays, Vickie M

    2015-05-01

    This article describes epidemiologic evidence concerning risk of gun violence and suicide linked to psychiatric disorders, in contrast to media-fueled public perceptions of the dangerousness of mentally ill individuals, and evaluates effectiveness of policies and laws designed to prevent firearms injury and mortality associated with serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders. Research concerning public attitudes toward persons with mental illness is reviewed and juxtaposed with evidence from benchmark epidemiologic and clinical studies of violence and mental illness and of the accuracy of psychiatrists' risk assessments. Selected policies and laws designed to reduce gun violence in relation to mental illness are critically evaluated; evidence-based policy recommendations are presented. Media accounts of mass shootings by disturbed individuals galvanize public attention and reinforce popular belief that mental illness often results in violence. Epidemiologic studies show that the large majority of people with serious mental illnesses are never violent. However, mental illness is strongly associated with increased risk of suicide, which accounts for over half of US firearms-related fatalities. Policymaking at the interface of gun violence prevention and mental illness should be based on epidemiologic data concerning risk to improve the effectiveness, feasibility, and fairness of policy initiatives. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy

    Swanson, Jeffrey W.; McGinty, E. Elizabeth; Fazel, Seena; Mays, Vickie M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This article describes epidemiologic evidence concerning risk of gun violence and suicide linked to psychiatric disorders, in contrast to media-fueled public perceptions of the dangerousness of mentally ill individuals, and evaluates effectiveness of policies and laws designed to prevent firearms injury and mortality associated with serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders. Methods Research concerning public attitudes toward persons with mental illness is reviewed and juxtaposed with evidence from benchmark epidemiologic and clinical studies of violence and mental illness and of the accuracy of psychiatrists' risk assessments. Selected policies and laws designed to reduce gun violence in relation to mental illness are critically evaluated; evidence-based policy recommendations are presented. Results Media accounts of mass shootings by disturbed individuals galvanize public attention and reinforce popular belief that mental illness often results in violence. Epidemiologic studies show that the large majority of people with serious mental illnesses are never violent. However, mental illness is strongly associated with increased risk of suicide, which accounts for over half of US firearms–related fatalities. Conclusions Policymaking at the interface of gun violence prevention and mental illness should be based on epidemiologic data concerning risk to improve the effectiveness, feasibility, and fairness of policy initiatives. PMID:24861430

  4. Association between mental disorders, cognitive disturbances and vitamin D serum level: Current state.

    Lerner, Paul P; Sharony, Laura; Miodownik, Chanoch

    2018-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been identified as a global problem. Approximately 14% of the world population has inadequate vitamin D levels. This vitamin has been usually associated with bone disorders such as rickets, osteomalacia, and osteoporosis. However, these disorders present only a small part of all the disturbances which can be induced by its deficiency. Low serum vitamin D is associated with development of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and even cancer. This vitamin may be an important factor in the development of psychiatric illnesses, therefore clinicians should not leave this serious issue unresolved. The aim of this review is to describe the current data concerning the association between vitamin D serum levels, cognition and mental disorders. We conducted a systematic bibliographical research, of PubMed, MedLine literature and Cochrane database without language restriction to identify all publications concerning this issue from 1995 to the first quarter of 2017. We found 48,937 articles concerning vitamin D, published during the last 22 years and 3 months (1995-2017). We selected only those publications focused on the association between vitamin D serum deficiency and mental disturbances (depression, schizophrenia, cognitive disturbances, attention deficit disorder, and autism). One hundred and sixty-seven papers were found suitable to our selection criteria. Careful evaluation of the relevant literature demonstrates that addition of vitamin D to conventional antidepressive agents can improve antidepressive effect in contrast to placebo. Regarding other mental conditions there are no clear-cut conclusions. An association between low vitamin D serum levels and different mental disorders was found. Yet, nonetheless there is no clear consensus that addition of vitamin D improves or is related to a beneficial effect on mental health. More randomized clinical control trials should be

  5. Mental health research in the criminal justice system: The need for common approaches and international perspectives.

    Roesch, R; Ogloff, J R; Eaves, D

    1995-01-01

    There is a need for researchers and policy makers in the area of mental health and law to collaborate and develop common methods of approach to research. Although we have learned a great deal about the prevalence and needs of mentally ill offenders in jails and prisons, there are a number of research questions that remain. If the "second generation" of research is to be fruitful--and useful to policy makers--we need to be sure that the methods we employ are valid and that the findings we obtain are reliable. By collaborating with colleagues in other jurisdictions, we can begin to learn whether some of the existing findings are of a general nature, or dependent upon the system in which they were found. Similarly, while the first-generation research has alerted us to the needs of mentally ill offenders in jails and prisons, second-generation research is needed to help identify factors that may help prevent the "revolving door phenomenon," which results in mentally ill people being volleyed among mental health, criminal justice, and community settings. One area that has received embarrassingly little attention has been the need for considering the relationship between substance abuse and mental disorders. In our own work, we have found an alarmingly high degree of substance abuse among offenders, including mentally ill offenders. We have come to realize the importance of considering the role that substance abuse coupled with other mental disorders may play in the criminal justice system. As a result of this concern, the Surrey Mental Health Project recently hired a full-time drug and alcohol counselor whose job it is to work with inmates with substance abuse disorders while in the jail, and to help arrange continuing treatment resources upon their release. As Wilson et al. (1995) discuss, intensive case management projects may be particularly useful at targeting the unique needs of mentally ill offenders with multiple problems. Much of the research conducted with

  6. Contribution of the Nordic School of Public Health to the public mental health research field: a selection of research initiatives, 2007-2014.

    Forsman, Anna K; Fredén, Lars; Lindqvist, Rafael; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2015-08-01

    The field of public mental health has been defined by an expert group convened by the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) as encompassing the experience, occurrence, distribution and trajectories of positive mental health and mental health problems and their determinants; mental health promotion and prevention of mental disorders; as well as mental health system policies, governance and organization. The mental health priorities of the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2010 signalled a mutual Nordic exchange of knowledge in the following thematic areas: child and adolescent mental health; working life and mental health; mental health in older people; strengthening the role of primary care in mental health service provision; stronger involvement of users and carers; and reduction of use of coercion in psychiatric care. Efforts to realize these priorities included commissioning the Nordic Research Academy for Mental Health, an NHV-based network of research institutions with a common interest in mental health research across the Nordic countries, to develop, organize and follow-up projects on public mental health. The research initiatives included mental health policy analysis, register-based research and research focused on the users' perspective in a Nordic context, as well as EU-level research policy analysis. The public mental health research conducted at the NHV highlighted the complexity of mental health and emphasized that the broad determinants of mental health need to be increasingly addressed in both public health research and practice. For example, health promotion actions, improved access to health care, a healthy alcohol policy and prevention of suicides and violence are all needed to reduce the life expectancy gap - a red flag indicator of public health inequalities. By exchanging knowledge and best practice, the collaboration between the Nordic countries contributes to the welfare of the region. The expertise and traditions developed at the NHV are of

  7. Voice disorders and mental health in teachers: a cross-sectional nationwide study.

    Nerrière, Eléna; Vercambre, Marie-Noël; Gilbert, Fabien; Kovess-Masféty, Viviane

    2009-10-02

    Teachers, as professional voice users, are at particular risk of voice disorders. Among contributing factors, stress and psychological tension could play a role but epidemiological data on this problem are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate prevalence and cofactors of voice disorders among teachers in the French National Education system, with particular attention paid to the association between voice complaint and psychological status. The source data come from an epidemiological postal survey on physical and mental health conducted in a sample of 20,099 adults (in activity or retired) selected at random from the health plan records of the national education system. Overall response rate was 53%. Of the 10,288 respondents, 3,940 were teachers in activity currently giving classes to students. In the sample of those with complete data (n = 3,646), variables associated with voice disorders were investigated using logistic regression models. Studied variables referred to demographic characteristics, socio-professional environment, psychological distress, mental health disorders (DSM-IV), and sick leave. One in two female teachers reported voice disorders (50.0%) compared to one in four males (26.0%). Those who reported voice disorders presented higher level of psychological distress. Sex- and age-adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence interval] were respectively 1.8 [1.5-2.2] for major depressive episode, 1.7 [1.3-2.2] for general anxiety disorder, and 1.6 [1.2-2.2] for phobia. A significant association between voice disorders and sick leave was also demonstrated (1.5 [1.3-1.7]). Voice disorders were frequent among French teachers. Associations with psychiatric disorders suggest that a situation may exist which is more complex than simple mechanical failure. Further longitudinal research is needed to clarify the comorbidity between voice and psychological disorders.

  8. Voice disorders and mental health in teachers: a cross-sectional nationwide study

    Gilbert Fabien

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teachers, as professional voice users, are at particular risk of voice disorders. Among contributing factors, stress and psychological tension could play a role but epidemiological data on this problem are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate prevalence and cofactors of voice disorders among teachers in the French National Education system, with particular attention paid to the association between voice complaint and psychological status. Methods The source data come from an epidemiological postal survey on physical and mental health conducted in a sample of 20,099 adults (in activity or retired selected at random from the health plan records of the national education system. Overall response rate was 53%. Of the 10,288 respondents, 3,940 were teachers in activity currently giving classes to students. In the sample of those with complete data (n = 3,646, variables associated with voice disorders were investigated using logistic regression models. Studied variables referred to demographic characteristics, socio-professional environment, psychological distress, mental health disorders (DSM-IV, and sick leave. Results One in two female teachers reported voice disorders (50.0% compared to one in four males (26.0%. Those who reported voice disorders presented higher level of psychological distress. Sex- and age-adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence interval] were respectively 1.8 [1.5-2.2] for major depressive episode, 1.7 [1.3-2.2] for general anxiety disorder, and 1.6 [1.2-2.2] for phobia. A significant association between voice disorders and sick leave was also demonstrated (1.5 [1.3-1.7]. Conclusion Voice disorders were frequent among French teachers. Associations with psychiatric disorders suggest that a situation may exist which is more complex than simple mechanical failure. Further longitudinal research is needed to clarify the comorbidity between voice and psychological disorders.

  9. "Tension" in South Asian women: developing a measure of common mental disorder using participatory methods.

    Karasz, Alison; Patel, Viraj; Kabita, Mahbhooba; Shimu, Parvin

    2013-01-01

    Although common mental disorder (CMD) is highly prevalent among South Asian immigrant women, they rarely seek mental treatment. This may be owing in part to the lack of conceptual synchrony between medical models of mental disorder and the social models of distress common in South Asian communities. Furthermore, common mental health screening and diagnostic measures may not adequately capture distress in this group. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is ideally suited to help address measurement issues in CMD as well as to develop culturally appropriate treatment models. To use participatory methods to identify an appropriate, culturally specific mental health syndrome and develop an instrument to measure this syndrome. We formed a partnership between researchers, clinicians, and community members. The partnership selected a culturally specific model of emotional distress/illness, "tension," as a focus for further study. Partners developed a scale to measure Tension and tested the new scale on 162 Bangladeshi immigrant women living in the Bronx. The 24-item "Tension Scale" had high internal consistency (α = 0.83). On bivariate analysis, the scale significantly correlated in the expected direction with depressed as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), age, education, self-rated health, having seen a physician in the past year, and other variables. Using participatory techniques, we created a new measure designed to assess CMD in an isolated immigrant group. The new measure shows excellent psychometric properties and will be helpful in the implementation of a community-based, culturally synchronous intervention for depression. We describe a useful strategy for the rapid development and field testing of culturally appropriate measures of mental distress and disorder.

  10. Mental health trajectories from adolescence to adulthood: Language disorder and other childhood and adolescent risk factors.

    Bao, Lin; Brownlie, E B; Beitchman, Joseph H

    2016-05-01

    Longitudinal research on mental health development beyond adolescence among nonclinical populations is lacking. This study reports on psychiatric disorder trajectories from late adolescence to young adulthood in relation to childhood and adolescent risk factors. Participants were recruited for a prospective longitudinal study tracing a community sample of 5-year-old children with communication disorders and a matched control cohort to age 31. Psychiatric disorders were measured at ages 19, 25, and 31. Known predictors of psychopathology and two school-related factors specifically associated with language disorder (LD) were measured by self-reports and semistructured interviews. The LD cohort was uniquely characterized by a significantly decreasing disorder trajectory in early adulthood. Special education was associated with differential disorder trajectories between LD and control cohorts, whereas maltreatment history, specific learning disorder, family structure, and maternal psychological distress were associated with consistent trajectories between cohorts. From late adolescence to young adulthood, childhood LD was characterized by a developmentally limited course of psychiatric disorder; maltreatment was consistently characterized by an elevated risk of psychiatric disorder regardless of LD history, whereas special education was associated with significantly decreasing risk of psychiatric disorder only in the presence of LD.

  11. Links between early child maltreatment, mental disorders, and cortisol secretion anomalies.

    Bronsard, Guillaume; Auquier, Pascal; Boyer, Laurent

    2016-11-01

    Early child maltreatment has been widely associated with the development of mental disorders in both childhood and adulthood. However, such association cannot be systematically established, as only few factors are observed regularly, such as high prevalence of comorbidities and externalized disorders. Similarly, the association between early abuse and cortisol secretion anomalies has been well-documented. Whereas early hypercortisolism followed by hypocortisolism was often described, the results proved inconsistent and at times contradictory. The physiopathological mechanisms are quite complex and varied, including mixed neurotoxicity and stress response anomalies, linked to circadian rhythm disturbances. One of the difficulties inherent to research on this topic is to better define maltreatment in childhood. Studying children's groups at risk of maltreatment, such as children followed by juvenile justice or in child welfare systems, could be a very good tool, provided that social, judiciary, and mental health professionals are able to work together and implement common research objectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychological Variables for Identifying Susceptibility to Mental Disorders in Medical

    Rosa Sender

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study analyses some psychological variables related to susceptibility to mental disorders in medical students. Methods: A sample of 209 first- and second-year medical students was evaluated using the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and three questionnaires: Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and UNCAHS scale of STRAIN. Results: Thirty percent of the students suffered from emotional distress as measured by de GHQ-28, and showed significantly higher scores on trait anxiety, sensitivity to punishment and reward scales, and had higher levels of strain both in the academic environment and their personal life. Women scored significantly higher than men on trait anxiety and sensitivity to reward. Logistical regression found that trait anxiety and strain in non-academic life were the best predictors of the development of a mental disorder. Conclusions: The study confirms the usefulness of the STAI for detecting psychological distress and the validity of the SPSRQ for identifying subjects likely to present emotional distress when facing high environmental demands. Subjects most likely to present with mental illness are those who evaluate their personal (non-academic lives as more stressful.

  13. Professionally responsible intrapartum management of patients with major mental disorders.

    Babbitt, Kriste E; Bailey, Kala J; Coverdale, John H; Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women with major mental disorders present obstetricians with a range of clinical challenges, which are magnified when a psychotic or agitated patient presents in labor and there is limited time for decision making. This article provides the obstetrician with an algorithm to guide professionally responsible decision making with these patients. We searched for articles related to the intrapartum management of pregnant patients with major mental disorders, using 3 main search components: pregnancy, chronic mental illness, and ethics. No articles were found that addressed the clinical ethical challenges of decision making during the intrapartum period with these patients. We therefore developed an ethical framework with 4 components: the concept of the fetus as a patient; the presumption of decision-making capacity; the concept of assent; and beneficence-based clinical judgment. On the basis of this framework we propose an algorithm to guide professionally responsible decision making that asks 5 questions: (1) Does the patient have the capacity to consent to treatment?; (2) Is there time to attempt restoration of capacity?; (3) Is there an opportunity for substituted judgment?; (4) Is the patient accepting treatment?; (5) Is there an opportunity for active assent?; and (6) coerced clinical management as the least worst alternative. The algorithm is designed to support a deliberative, clinically comprehensive, preventive-ethics approach to guide obstetricians in decision making with this challenging population of patients. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mental disorder prevalence among U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs outpatients with spinal cord injuries.

    McDonald, Scott D; Mickens, Melody N; Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Mutchler, Brian J; Ellwood, Michael S; Castillo, Teodoro A

    2017-03-13

    Depression and other mental disorders are more prevalent among individuals living with spinal cord injury (SCI) than in the community at large, and have a strong association with quality of life. Yet little is known about the prevalence and predictors of mental disorders among U.S. military Veterans living with SCI. The primary aim of this study was to present an estimate of mental disorder point prevalence in this population. The secondary aim was to examine the relationship of mental disorders to demographics, injury characteristics, and other clinically relevant features such as impairment from mental health problems and life satisfaction. Cross-sectional. A SCI & Disorders Center at a U.S. Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Administrative and medical records of 280 Veterans who attended annual comprehensive SCI evaluations were evaluated. Demographics, injury characteristics, self-reported mental and emotional functioning (i.e. SF-8 Health Survey), and clinician-determined mental disorder diagnoses were attained. Overall, 40% of patients received at least one mental disorder diagnosis, most commonly depressive disorders (19%), posttraumatic stress disorder (12%), and substance or alcohol use disorders (11%). Several patient characteristics predicted mental disorders, including age, racial minority identity, non-traumatic SCI etiology, and incomplete (i.e. AIS D) vs. complete injury. Mental disorders were associated with greater impairment from health and mental health-related problems and less satisfaction with life. Mental disorders are common among outpatients receiving VA specialty care for SCI. These findings highlight the importance of having adequate and effective available mental health services available for Veterans with SCI.

  15. The global prevalence of common mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis 1980–2013

    Steel, Zachary; Marnane, Claire; Iranpour, Changiz; Chey, Tien; Jackson, John W; Patel, Vikram; Silove, Derrick

    2014-01-01

    estimates. Conclusions: Despite a substantial degree of inter-survey heterogeneity in the meta-analysis, the findings confirm that common mental disorders are highly prevalent globally, affecting people across all regions of the world. This research provides an important resource for modelling population needs based on global regional estimates of mental disorder. The reasons for regional variation in mental disorder require further investigation. PMID:24648481

  16. Attachment insecurity, mentalization and their relation to symptoms in eating disorder patients.

    Kuipers, Greet S; van Loenhout, Zara; van der Ark, L Andries; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationships of attachment security and mentalization with core and co-morbid symptoms in eating disorder patients. We compared 51 eating disorder patients at the start of intensive treatment and 20 healthy controls on attachment, mentalization, eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, personality disorders, psycho-neuroticism, autonomy problems and self-injurious behavior, using the Adult Attachment Interview, the SCID-I and II and several questionnaires. Compared with the controls, the eating disorder patients showed a higher prevalence of insecure attachment; eating disorder patients more often than controls received the AAI classification Unresolved for loss or abuse. They also had a lower level of mentalization and more autonomy problems. In the patient group eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, psycho-neuroticism and autonomy problems were neither related to attachment security nor to mentalization; self-injurious behavior was associated with lesser attachment security and lower mentalization; borderline personality disorder was related to lower mentalization. In the control group no relations were found between attachment, mentalization and psychopathologic variables. Eating disorder patients' low level of mentalization suggests the usefulness of Mentalization Based Treatment techniques for eating disorder treatment, especially in case of self-injurious behavior and/or co-morbid borderline personality disorder.

  17. The size and burden of mental disorders and other disorders of the brain in Europe 2010

    Wittchen, H U; Jacobi, F; Rehm, J

    2011-01-01

    To provide 12-month prevalence and disability burden estimates of a broad range of mental and neurological disorders in the European Union (EU) and to compare these findings to previous estimates. Referring to our previous 2005 review, improved up-to-date data for the enlarged EU on a broader ran...

  18. Working hours and common mental disorders in English police officers.

    Houdmont, J; Randall, R

    2016-12-01

    There is a paucity of evidence on working hours and their psychological correlates in police officers of the federated ranks in England. An exploratory study to establish the extent to which a sample of English police officers worked long hours and the association between long working hours and common mental disorder (CMD). Officers of the federated ranks (constable, sergeant, inspector) from two English county forces completed a questionnaire to report their typical weekly working hours and symptoms of CMD. We also collected socio- and occupational-demographic data. We defined long working hours as ≥49 h in a typical week in accordance with 48-h weekly limit specified in the 1993 European Directive on the Organisation of Working Time. We established associations between long working hours and self-reported CMDs using binary logistic regression to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for potential confounding variables. Twenty-seven per cent (n = 327/1226) of respondents reported long working hours. The ORs for psychological distress (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.57-2.68), emotional exhaustion (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.52-2.59), and depersonalization (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00-1.71) were significantly increased for long working hours after adjustment for socio- and occupational-demographic characteristics. More than one quarter of sampled police officers reported working long hours and were significantly more likely to report CMD. National and longitudinal research is required to confirm these findings, which suggest management of working hours may effectively promote psychological well-being. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Measuring mental disorders: The failed commensuration project of DSM-5.

    Whooley, Owen

    2016-10-01

    Commensuration - the comparison of entities according to a common quantitative metric - is a key process in efforts to rationalize medicine. The push toward evidence-based medicine and quantitative assessment has led to the proliferation of metrics in healthcare. While social scientific attention has revealed the effects of these metrics once institutionalized - on clinical practice, on medical expertise, on outcome assessment, on valuations of medical services, and on experiences of illness - less attention has been paid to the process of developing metrics. This article examines the attempt to create severity scales during the revision to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a case of failed commensuration. Using data from interviews with participants in the DSM-5 revision (n = 30), I reconstruct the problems that emerged in the DSM-5 Task Force's effort to develop viable psychometric instruments to measure severity. Framed as a part of a "paradigm shift" in psychiatry, the revision produced ad hoc, heterogeneous severity scales with divergent logics. I focus on two significant issues of metric construction in this case - diagnostic validity and clinical utility. Typically perceived as technical and conceptual challenges of design, I show how these issues were infused with, and undermined by, professional political dynamics, specifically tensions between medical researchers and clinicians. This case reveals that, despite its association with objectivity and transparency, commensuration encompasses more than identifying, operationalizing, and measuring an entity; it demands the negotiation of extra-scientific, non-empirical concerns that get written into medical metrics themselves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mentalization in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Comparison with controls and patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Perroud, Nader; Badoud, Deborah; Weibel, Sébastien; Nicastro, Rosetta; Hasler, Roland; Küng, Anne-Lise; Luyten, Patrick; Fonagy, Peter; Dayer, Alexandre; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Prada, Paco; Debbané, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Emotion dysregulation and interpersonal hardships constitute core features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Research has established the link between these core dysregulations and fluctuations in the capacity to appreciate the mental states that underlie behavior (mentalizing, operationalized as reflective functioning (RF)). As emotion dysregulation and interpersonal hardships also characterize adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this study sought to examine the potential RF impairments affecting this population. 101 adults with ADHD, 108 with BPD and 236 controls were assessed using the RF questionnaire (RFQ), evaluating how individuals employ information about mental states to better understand their own and others' behaviors. The RFQ comprises two dimensions, certainty (RF_c) and uncertainty (RF_u) about mental states. RF scores helped distinguish ADHD from controls, but also from BPD (F = 48.1 (2/441) ; p attentional and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms) was correlated with RF impairments. In conclusion, RF may constitute an important process underlying attentional, hyperactive/impulsive as well as emotional symptoms in ADHD; it should therefore be considered in the assessment of these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sport psychiatry and psychotherapy. Mental strains and disorders in professional sports. Challenge and answer to societal changes.

    Markser, Valentin Z

    2011-11-01

    Professional athletes are subject to massive somatic, social, and mental stress. Despite great public interest for athletic achievements, the emotional strains thereof are very poorly investigated and discussed. The main reason for this is the widespread assumption that only emotionally very strong athletes are able to compete at the highly professional level and therefore mental disorders do not exist in professional sports. But available research data about the prevalence of mental disorders in this area suggest that this hypothesis must be revised. With respect to depression and the overtraining syndrome, attempts have been made to demonstrate the difficulties with etiology, diagnostics, and treatment for sports psychiatry and psychotherapy. Scientifically, sport psychiatry and psychotherapy can be defined as a discipline, whose focus is the investigation, treatment, and prevention of the extreme and sports-specific emotional strains and disorders. In addition to sport psychology, which focuses mainly on performance enhancement, mental stress, and disorders can hereby be recognized, disorders be treated and the athletic performance sustained. With the foundation of the Task Force for Sports Psychiatry and Psychotherapy at the German Association for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, scientific research, further education, prevention, and treatment for mental disorders in professional sports will be improved.

  2. Effects of Physical Limitations on Daily Activities Among Adults With Mental Health Disorders: Opportunities for Nursing and Occupational Therapy Interventions.

    Gardner, Jennifer; Swarbrick, Margaret; Ackerman, Ariane; Church, Theodora; Rios, Vanessa; Valente, Laura; Rutledge, John

    2017-10-01

    Individuals living with mental health disorders served by the public mental health system often face comorbid medical conditions that affect their quality of life and lifespan. The effect of physical limitations on the engagement in daily activities among individuals living with mental health disorders has not been extensively researched. Adults attending community wellness centers (N = 53) in a northeastern United State were included in a descriptive study exploring the impact of physical limitations on daily activities. The activities most frequently affected were: walking or moving around, sleeping, and finding a job. The physical limitations affecting these three activities were lack of energy and pain. Health care professionals, including mental health nurses and occupational therapy practitioners, are in an ideal position to collaborate by evaluating and offering treatment interventions that address physical limitations to positively affect occupational functioning and recovery. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(10), 45-51.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Cross-National Associations Between Gender and Mental Disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys

    Seedat, Soraya; Scott, Kate Margaret; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Berglund, Patricia; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Demyttenaere, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Maria Haro, Josep; Jin, Robert; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Medina Mora, Maria Elena; Ono, Yutaka; Ormel, Johan; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Williams, David; Kessler, Ronald C.

    Context: Gender differences in mental disorders, including more anxiety and mood disorders among women and more externalizing disorders among men, are found consistently in epidemiological surveys. The gender roles hypothesis suggests that these differences narrow as the roles of women and men

  4. Psychosocial and environmental risk factors associated with mental disorders

    Restrepo, Paula Andrea

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, there are few studies on the association of psychosocial and environmental factors with the most prevalent mental disorders; such studies are important due to the context of violence, social insecurity, and job and economic instability in the country. The objective of this study was to identify the psychosocial and environmental risk factors for mental disorders, in users of psychological services in Colombia. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a Questionnaire to evaluate the Axis-IV of the DSM-IV-TR were applied to 490 participants. The analysis comprised descriptive statistics and risk factors. As risk factors for depression, there were identified housing problems, access to health care services, problems related to the primary group, economics, problems of the social environment, and labor. For generalized anxiety, there were identified economic and education issues. For panic disorders, the risk factors were related to social environment, and for social phobia, the risk factors were problems in education, work and social environment

  5. The economic burden of mental disorders in China, 2005-2013: implications for health policy.

    Xu, Junfang; Wang, Jian; Wimo, Anders; Qiu, Chengxuan

    2016-05-11

    Mental disorders represent a major contributor to disease burden worldwide. We sought to quantify the national economic burden of mental disorders in China. We used a prevalence-based, bottom-up approach to estimate the economic costs of mental disorders in 2005-2013 in China. Prevalence data were derived from a national survey. Cost data were derived from the electronic health records of two psychiatric hospitals that consisted of 25,289 outpatients (10%) and inpatients (90%) who were diagnosed with a mental disorder. Cost items included direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and indirect costs. The total annual costs of mental disorders in China increased from $1,094.8 in 2005 to $3,665.4 in 2013 for individual patients, and from $21.0 billion to $88.8 billion for the whole society. The total costs of mental disorders in 2013 accounted for more than 15% of the total health expenditure in China, and 1.1% of China's gross domestic product. If the needs of the professional care for all patients with mental illnesses were fully met, the potential economic costs would have been almost five times higher than the actual estimated costs. Mental disorders imposed a huge economic burden on individuals and the society in China. A nation-wide strategic action plan for preventing mental disorders and promoting mental health and well-being is in urgent need to reduce the individual and societal costs of mental illnesses.

  6. Assaults by Mentally Disordered Offenders in Prison: Equity and Equivalence.

    Hales, Heidi; Dixon, Amy; Newton, Zoe; Bartlett, Annie

    2016-06-01

    Managing the violent behaviour of mentally disordered offenders (MDO) is challenging in all jurisdictions. We describe the ethical framework and practical management of MDOs in England and Wales in the context of the move to equivalence of healthcare between hospital and prison. We consider the similarities and differences between prison and hospital management of the violent and challenging behaviours of MDOs. We argue that both types of institution can learn from each other and that equivalence of care should extend to equivalence of criminal proceedings in court and prisons for MDOs. We argue that any adjudication process in prison for MDOs is enhanced by the relevant involvement of mental health professionals and the articulation of the ethical principles underpinning health and criminal justice practices.

  7. Supporting students with mental, psychological and behavioral disorders

    Dræby, Anders

    , depression, brain damage or other mental, neurological or psychosocial problems by imitating the practice of craft’s apprenticeship. Older and more advanced students are being assigned to show these students how they should study medicine, law or arts and thereby give them a better chance of being included......The presentation will introduce a successful method of helping students with mental, neurological and psychosocial problems that is being developed at the University of Aarhus in Denmark. It includes learning disabilities at university because of schizophrenia, personality disorders, autism...... is in many ways similar to being put to a trade, and important for the academic success of the students is their ability to learn certain explicit and tacit abilities. To study medicine, law or arts the students have to learn how to study medicine, law or arts and that includes learning certain study...

  8. Induced first-trimester abortion and risk of mental disorder

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2011-01-01

    Background Concern has been expressed about potential harm to women's mental health in association with having an induced abortion, but it remains unclear whether induced abortion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent psychiatric problems. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort......-trimester induced abortion or a first childbirth during that period. We estimated the rates of first-time psychiatric contact (an inpatient admission or outpatient visit) for any type of mental disorder within the 12 months after the abortion or childbirth as compared with the 9-month period preceding the event....... Results The incidence rates of first psychiatric contact per 1000 person-years among girls and women who had a first abortion were 14.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.7 to 15.6) before abortion and 15.2 (95% CI, 14.4 to 16.1) after abortion. The corresponding rates among girls and women who had a first...

  9. Mental Disorders and Socioeconomic Status: Impact on Population Risk of Attempted Suicide in Australia

    Page, Andrew; Taylor, Richard; Hall, Wayne; Carter, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    The population attributable risk (PAR) of mental disorders compared to indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) for attempted suicide was estimated for Australia. For mental disorders, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide was for anxiety disorders (males 28%; females 36%). For SES, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide in males was for…

  10. Mental Disorders, Comorbidity, and Postrunaway Arrests among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents

    Chen, Xiaojin; Thrane, Lisa; Whitbeck, Les B.; Johnson, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the associations between lifetime mental disorder, comorbidity, and self-reported postrunaway arrests among 428 (187 males, 241 females) homeless and runaway youth. The analysis examined the pattern of arrests across five lifetime mental disorders (alcohol abuse, drug abuse, conduct disorder, major depressive episode, and…

  11. Attachment insecurity, mentalization and their relation to symptoms in eating disorder patients

    Kuipers, G.S.; van Loenhout, Z.; van der Ark, L.A.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships of attachment security and mentalization with core and co-morbid symptoms in eating disorder patients. Method: We compared 51 eating disorder patients at the start of intensive treatment and 20 healthy controls on attachment, mentalization, eating disorder

  12. Mental health and psychiatry research in Brazil: scientific production from 1999 to 2003.

    Razzouk, Denise; Zorzetto, Ricardo; Dubugras, Maria Thereza; Gerolin, Jerônimo; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2006-08-01

    To assess the extent of mental health scientific production in Brazil from 1999 to 2003, and to identify the nature of the publications generated, their sources of finance and the ways of publicly disseminating the research findings. Searches for publications were conducted in the Medline and PsychInfo databases for the period 1999-2003. A semi-structured questionnaire developed by an international team was applied to 626 mental health researchers, covering each interviewee's educational background, research experience, access to funding sources, public impact and research priorities. The sample was composed by 626 mental health researchers identified from 792 publications indexed on Medline and PsychInfo databases for the period above, and from a list of reviewers of Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria. In Brazil, 792 publications were produced by 525 authors between 1999 and 2003 (441 indexed in Medline and 398 in the ISI database). The main topics were: depression (29.1%), substance misuse (14.6%), psychoses (10%), childhood disorders (7%) and dementia (6.7%). Among the 626 Brazilian mental health researchers, 329 answered the questionnaire. There were steadily increasing numbers of Brazilian articles on mental health published in foreign journals from 1999 to 2003: the number of articles in Medline tripled and it doubled in the ISI database. The content of these articles corresponded to the priorities within mental health, but there is a need for better interlinking between researchers and mental health policymakers.

  13. Mental disorders and general well-being in cardiology outpatients--6-year survival

    Birket-Smith, Morten; Hansen, Baiba H; Hanash, Jamal A

    2009-01-01

    disorder with the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders; Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Non-Patient Edition, psychosis screening; the Clock Drawing Test; and the WHO-5 Well-Being Index. The cardiologists were asked in each patient to rate the severity of somatic disease and mental......OBJECTIVE: Long-term survival in a sample of cardiology outpatients with and without mental disorders and other psychosocial risk factors. METHODS: In a cardiology outpatient setting, 103 consecutive patients were asked to participate in the study. Of these, 86 were included and screened for mental...... problems on visual analogue scales (VAS-somatic and VAS-mental). Cardiac diagnosis, noncardiac comorbidity, history of mental disorder, and the number of daily social contacts were noted. Survival was followed for 6 years. RESULTS: At baseline, 33 (38.4%) patients had mental disorder, 6 dementia, 11 major...

  14. Hospital-treated mental and behavioral disorders and risk of Alzheimer's disease: A nationwide nested case-control study.

    Tapiainen, V; Hartikainen, S; Taipale, H; Tiihonen, J; Tolppanen, A-M

    2017-06-01

    Studies investigating psychiatric disorders as Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk factors have yielded heterogeneous findings. Differences in time windows between the exposure and outcome could be one explanation. We examined whether (1) mental and behavioral disorders in general or (2) specific mental and behavioral disorder categories increase the risk of AD and (3) how the width of the time window between the exposure and outcome affects the results. A nationwide nested case-control study of all Finnish clinically verified AD cases, alive in 2005 and their age, sex and region of residence matched controls (n of case-control pairs 27,948). History of hospital-treated mental and behavioral disorders was available since 1972. Altogether 6.9% (n=1932) of the AD cases and 6.4% (n=1784) of controls had a history of any mental and behavioral disorder. Having any mental and behavioral disorder (adjusted OR=1.07, 95% CI=1.00-1.16) or depression/other mood disorder (adjusted OR=1.17, 95% CI=1.05-1.30) were associated with higher risk of AD with 5-year time window but not with 10-year time window (adjusted OR, 95% CI 0.99, 0.91-1.08 for any disorder and 1.08, 0.96-1.23 for depression). The associations between mental and behavioral disorders and AD were modest and dependent on the time window. Therefore, some of the disorders may represent misdiagnosed prodromal symptoms of AD, which underlines the importance of proper differential diagnostics among older persons. These findings also highlight the importance of appropriate time window in psychiatric and neuroepidemiology research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Comprehensible method to mental disorder through narrative : Howl's Moving Castle model

    Takenouchi, Satomi; Aida, Yoko; Okamura, Taro

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research is to compare similarities between a patient's story and a text, to promote common comprehension among generations in this modern society, to present a common model to overcome disorders and to introduce elements and methods to correspond. When we touch the life of people with mental disorder, it is effective to use narrative and to make it comprehensible so as to understand them from the same point of view. To do so, the method of using novels and movies reflec...

  16. Psychological Factors Including Demographic Features, Mental Illnesses, and Personality Disorders as Predictors in Internet Addiction Disorders

    Malihe Farahani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Problematic internet use is an important social problem among adolescents and has become a global health issue. This study identified predictors and patterns of problematic internet use among adult students.Method: In this study, 400 students were recruited using stratified sampling technique. Participants were selected among students from 4 universities in Tehran and Karaj, Iran, during 2016 and 2017. Internet Addiction Test (IAT, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory - Third Edition (MCMI-III, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID-I, and semi-structured interview were used to diagnose internet addiction. Then, the association between main psychiatric disorders and internet addiction was surveyed. Data were analyzed using SPSS18 software by performing descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis methods. P- Values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: After controlling the demographic variables, it was found that narcissistic personality disorder, obsessive- compulsive personality disorder, anxiety, bipolar disorders, depression, and phobia could increase the odds ratio (OR of internet addiction by 2.1, 1.1, 2.6, 1.1, 2.2 and 2.5-folds, respectively (p-value<0.05, however, other psychiatric or personality disorders did not have a significant effect on the equation.Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that some mental disorders affect internet addiction. Considering the sensitivity and importance of the cyberspace, it is necessary to evaluate mental disorders that correlate with internet addiction.

  17. Mobile phones as medical devices in mental disorder treatment: an overview

    Gravenhorst, Franz; Muaremi, Amir; Bardram, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Mental disorders can have a significant, negative impact on sufferers’ lives, as well as on their friends and family, healthcare systems and other parts of society. Approximately 25 % of all people in Europe and the USA experience a mental disorder at least once in their lifetime. Currently......, monitoring mental disorders relies on subjective clinical self-reporting rating scales, which were developed more than 50 years ago. In this paper, we discuss how mobile phones can support the treatment of mental disorders by (1) implementing human–computer interfaces to support therapy and (2) collecting...... relevant data from patients’ daily lives to monitor the current state and development of their mental disorders. Concerning the first point, we review various systems that utilize mobile phones for the treatment of mental disorders. We also evaluate how their core design features and dimensions can...

  18. GUILT OF PERSONS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS ARE NOT EXCLUDING RESPONSIBILITIES

    Ekaterina Valerievna Yurchak

    2014-01-01

    In the theory of law as a key cross-sectoral and multi-disciplinary institutions is the Institute of guilt. At the present stage of development of the law, in a convergence of many of its branches, it is important to investigate exhaustively the institution with the general legal position, both in general and in particular - the situation of the guilt of persons with mental disorder, not excluding sanity.The purpose of this study - to investigate the situation of the fault of persons with a m...

  19. Contemporary paradigms for research related to women's mental health.

    Doucet, Shelley Anne; Letourneau, Nicole Lyn; Stoppard, Janet M

    2010-04-01

    Mental health problems are serious health concerns that affect women across diverse settings internationally. Knowledge of this population historically has been informed by research using a positivist approach. This article is a critical examination of contemporary paradigms for research related to women's mental health. We begin the article with an introduction to women's mental health, followed by an overview of the postpositivist, critical theory, and constructivist paradigms. We then present a critical examination of the benefits and limitations of these paradigms in relation to the study of women's mental health. We conclude with implications for research and practice.

  20. Mental disorders as a major challenge in prevention of work disability: experiences in Finland, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden

    Jarvisalo, J.; Andersson, B.; Boedeker, W.; Houtman, I.

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence that mental health as a cause of sickness absenteeism and work disability may be increasing in Europe. Researchers from four European countries, all active in social insurance related research, therefore, initiated country reports that analyses available statistics on disorders

  1. Mentalizing and interpersonal problems in borderline personality disorder: The mediating role of identity diffusion.

    De Meulemeester, Celine; Lowyck, Benedicte; Vermote, Rudi; Verhaest, Yannic; Luyten, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are characterized by problems in interpersonal functioning and their long-term social integration often remains problematic. Extant theories have linked identity diffusion to many of the interpersonal problems characteristic of BPD patients. Recent theoretical accounts have suggested that identity diffusion results from problems with mentalizing or reflective functioning, that is, the capacity to understand oneself and others in terms of intentional mental states. In this study we tested these assumptions, i.e., whether identity diffusion plays a mediating role in the relationship between mentalizing difficulties and interpersonal problems, in a sample of 167 BPD patients. Highly significant correlations were found between mentalizing impairments, identity diffusion and interpersonal problems. Mediation analyses showed that identity diffusion fully mediated the relationship between mentalizing difficulties and interpersonal problems. This study provides preliminary evidence that impairments in mentalizing are related to identity diffusion, which in turn is related to interpersonal problems in BPD. Further longitudinal research is needed to further substantiate these conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders history of premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Zachar, Peter; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2014-04-01

    The proposals to include a menstruation-related mood disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition (DSM-III-R), and DSM-IV led to intense public and behind-the-scenes controversy. Although the controversies surrounding the DSM-5 revision were greater in number than the controversies of the earlier revisions, the DSM-5 proposal to include a menstruation-related mood disorder was not among them. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder was made an official disorder in the DSM-5 with no significant protest. To understand the factors that led to this change, we interviewed those psychiatrists and psychologists who were most involved in the DSM-IV revision. On the basis of these interviews, we offer a list of empirical and nonempirical considerations that led to the DSM-IV compromise and explore how key alterations in these considerations led to a different outcome for the DSM-5.

  3. The effects of maternal alcohol use disorders on childhood relationships and mental health.

    Wolfe, Joseph D

    2016-10-01

    Despite millions of children living in the turmoil of their parents' active alcoholism or the aftermath of past abuse, research to date has not (1) provided a comprehensive examination of the effects of maternal alcohol use disorders (AUDs) on children's social ties outside of their relationships with parents, or (2) considered whether the number and quality of childhood social ties alter the effects of maternal AUDs on children's mental health. Using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1979 Children and Young Adults, analysis examined the influence of maternal AUDs on the number and quality of children's ties with siblings, extended family and family friends, peers, and neighborhood members. The analysis also considered how children's social ties influenced the association between maternal AUDs and children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Children of alcoholic mothers had similarly sized networks but more distant relationships with siblings and friends, negative interactions with classmates, and isolating neighborhoods. Controlling for these aspects of children's social ties substantially reduced mental health disparities between children of alcoholic mothers and other children. Findings support the view that maternal alcohol use disorders have the potential to damage children's mental health while also setting into motion long-term relationship problems. Future research should examine the networks of children who experience parental AUDs to further clarify the social processes that link parental AUDs to children's mental health.

  4. Structural analysis of a speech disorder of children with a mild mental retardation

    Franc Smole

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to define the structure of speech disorder of children with a mild mental retardation. 100 subjects were chosen among pupils from the 1st to the 4th grade of elementary school who were under logopaedic treatment. To determine speech comprehension Reynell's developmental scales were used and for evaluation of speech articulation the Three-position test for articulation evaluation. With the Bender test we determined a child's mental age as well as defined the signs of psychological disfunction of organic nature. For the field of phonological consciousness a Test of reading and writing disturbances was applied. Speech fluency was evaluated by the Riley test. Evaluation scales were adapted for determining speech-language levels and motor skills of speech organs and hands. Data on results in psychological test and on the family was summed up from the diagnostic treatment guidance documents. Social behaviour in school was evaluated by their teachers. Six factors which hierarchicallydefine the structure of speech disorder were determined by the factor analysis. We found out that signs of a child's brain lesion are the factor which has the most influence on a child's mental age. The results of this research might be helpful to logopaedists in determining a logopaedic treatment for children with a mild mental retardation.

  5. The use of phenomenology in mental health nursing research.

    Picton, Caroline Jane; Moxham, Lorna; Patterson, Christopher

    2017-12-18

    Historically, mental health research has been strongly influenced by the underlying positivism of the quantitative paradigm. Quantitative research dominates scientific enquiry and contributes significantly to understanding our natural world. It has also greatly benefitted the medical model of healthcare. However, the more literary, silent, qualitative approach is gaining prominence in human sciences research, particularly mental healthcare research. To examine the qualitative methodological assumptions of phenomenology to illustrate the benefits to mental health research of studying the experiences of people with mental illness. Phenomenology is well positioned to ask how people with mental illness reflect on their experiences. Phenomenological research is congruent with the principles of contemporary mental healthcare, as person-centred care is favoured at all levels of mental healthcare, treatment, service and research. Phenomenology is a highly appropriate and suitable methodology for mental health research, given it includes people's experiences and enables silent voices to be heard. This overview of the development of phenomenology informs researchers new to phenomenological enquiry. ©2017 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  6. Prevalence of mental disorders among Māori in Te Rau Hinengaro: the New Zealand Mental Health Survey.

    Baxter, Joanne; Kingi, Te Kani; Tapsell, Rees; Durie, Mason; McGee, Magnus A

    2006-10-01

    To describe the prevalence of mental disorders (period prevalence across aggregated disorders, 12 month and lifetime prevalence) among Māori in Te Rau Hinengaro: The New Zealand Mental Health Survey. Te Rau Hinengaro: The New Zealand Mental Health Survey, undertaken between 2003 and 2004, was a nationally representative face-to-face household survey of 12,992 New Zealand adults aged 16 years and over, including 2,595 Māori. Ethnicity was measured using the 2001 New Zealand census ethnicity question. A fully structured diagnostic interview, the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0), was used to measure disorder. The overall response rate was 73.3%. This paper presents selected findings for the level and pattern of mental disorder prevalence among Māori. Māori lifetime prevalence of any disorder was 50.7%, 12 month prevalence 29.5% and 1 month prevalence 18.3%. The most common 12 month disorders were anxiety (19.4%), mood (11.4%) and substance (8.6%) disorders and the most common lifetime disorders were anxiety (31.3%), substance (26.5%) and mood (24.3%) disorders. Levels of lifetime comorbidity were high with 12 month prevalence showing 16.4% of Māori with one disorder, 7.6% with two disorders and 5.5% with three or more disorders. Twelve-month disorders were more common in Māori females than in males (33.6%vs 24.8%) and in younger age groups: 16-24 years, 33.2%; 25-44 years, 32.9%; 45-64 years, 23.7%; and 65 years and over, 7.9%. Disorder prevalence was greatest among Māori with the lowest equivalized household income and least education. However, differences by urbanicity and region were not significant. Of Māori with any 12 month disorder, 29.6% had serious, 42.6% had moderate and 27.8% had mild disorders. Mental disorders overall and specific disorder groups (anxiety, mood and substance) are common among Māori and measures of severity indicate that disorders

  7. Prevalence of Childhood Mental Disorders Among School Children of Kashmir Valley.

    Paul, Mohd Altaf; Khan, Waheeda

    2018-03-05

    Prevalence of mental disorders among children is affected by armed conflict and same is true in protracted conflict of Kashmir, where the ongoing conflict has affected mental health of children badly. In order to understand mental health condition of school going children, the present study was designed to study the nature and prevalence of mental disorders among school children in Kashmir valley. The present study employed multi-stage sampling and multi-informant reporting of mental health problems in children. A sample of 1000 school children was taken from 12 schools of Shopian district through systematic random sampling method. Data was collected at different levels of screening by using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) (Teacher form) and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory (MINI-Kid). Socio-demographic data sheet was included to gather relevant information. The prevalence rates of mental disorders among school children were presented at different levels of screening. It was found to be 27.1% based on SDQ and 22.2% when assessed by MINI-Kid at second level of screening. The most commonly found mental disorders were of anxiety (8.5%), followed by mood disorders (6.3%) and then behavioural disorders (4.3%). Percentage of schoolgoing children with mental disorders in Kashmir is much more than in other states of India. The political conflict in the state and lack of mental health facilities give rise to high prevalence rates of mental disorders and warrant our urgent attention.

  8. Influence of gender, sexual orientation, and need on treatment utilization for substance use and mental disorders: Findings from the California Quality of Life Survey

    Mays Vickie M; Greenwell Lisa; Grella Christine E; Cochran Susan D

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Prior research has shown a higher prevalence of substance use and mental disorders among sexual minorities, however, the influence of sexual orientation on treatment seeking has not been widely studied. We use a model of help-seeking for vulnerable populations to investigate factors related to treatment for alcohol or drug use disorders and mental health disorders, focusing on the contributions of gender, sexual orientation, and need. Methods Survey data were obtained from...

  9. The effects of mental health parity on spending and utilization for bipolar, major depression, and adjustment disorders.

    Busch, Alisa B; Yoon, Frank; Barry, Colleen L; Azzone, Vanessa; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Goldman, Howard H; Huskamp, Haiden A

    2013-02-01

    The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act requires insurance parity for mental health/substance use disorder and general medical services. Previous research found that parity did not increase mental health/substance use disorder spending and lowered out-of-pocket spending. Whether parity's effects differ by diagnosis is unknown. The authors examined this question in the context of parity implementation in the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program. The authors compared mental health/substance use disorder treatment use and spending before and after parity (2000 and 2002, respectively) for two groups: FEHB enrollees diagnosed in 1999 with bipolar disorder, major depression, or adjustment disorder (N=19,094) and privately insured enrollees unaffected by the policy in a comparison national sample (N=10,521). Separate models were fitted for each diagnostic group. A difference-in-difference design was used to control for secular time trends and to better reflect the specific impact of parity on spending and utilization. Total spending was unchanged among enrollees with bipolar disorder and major depression but decreased for those with adjustment disorder (-$62, 99.2% CI=-$133, -$11). Out-of-pocket spending decreased for all three groups (bipolar disorder: -$148, 99.2% CI=-$217, -$85; major depression: -$100, 99.2% CI=-$123, -$77; adjustment disorder: -$68, 99.2% CI=-$84, -$54). Total annual utilization (e.g., medication management visits, psychotropic prescriptions, and mental health/substance use disorder hospitalization bed days) remained unchanged across all diagnoses. Annual psychotherapy visits decreased significantly only for individuals with adjustment disorders (-12%, 99.2% CI=-19%, -4%). Parity implemented under managed care improved financial protection and differentially affected spending and psychotherapy utilization across groups. There was some evidence that resources were preferentially preserved for diagnoses that are typically more

  10. The Effect of Part-time Sick Leave for Employees with Mental Disorders

    Holm, Anders; Høgelund, Jan; Eplov, Lene Falgaard

    2012-01-01

    . Without this control, PTSL significantly reduces the duration until returning to regular working hours. When we control for unobserved characteristics, this effect decreases, and for employees with mental disorders the effect vanishes entirely. DISCUSSION AND LIMITATIONS: The lack of an effect of PTSL...... instrument for reducing sick leave durations for employees with musculoskeletal disorders and for employees on sick leave in general. This is the first published article to document how PTSL affects sick leave durations for employees with mental disorders. AIM: The aim is to estimate the effect of PTSL...... on the duration until returning to regular working hours for employees with mental disorders. We compare this effect to that of PTSL for employees with non-mental disorders ('other disorders'). METHODS: We use combined survey and register data about 226 employees on long-term sick leave with mental disorders...

  11. [From a categorical diagnostic approach to a dimensional approach for mental disorders: interest of sex differences].

    Tordjman, S

    2006-01-01

    A strong prevalence of females or males is often found in mental disorders. Based on examples of anorexia (90% females) and autistic disorder (80 to 90% males), arguments that allow a better understanding of these different sex ratios are presented. The role of certain sociocultural factors in the onset of anorexia is developed. The predominance of males in autistic disorder has led to genetic and hormone-based biological hypotheses. However, it is also possible that the cultural representation of sex roles and its effects (expectation, different attitudes and behaviors depending on the child's gender) influence the development of social interaction and communication domains which are impaired in autistic disorder. Indeed, according to most studies, parents solicit and stimulate more social interaction and communication (eye contact specially during the first months of life, vocalizations then verbal language, emotional expression) in girls than in boys during the first three years of life, which corresponds to the period when autistic disorder appears. It is possible that because girls are more solicited than boys in social interaction and communication domains, during a sensitive (or critical) period of development, we may observe that girls show less autistic impairment in reciprocal social interaction and verbal or non-verbal communication, which are two of the three main domains of autistic disorder. It is also possible that impairments in social interaction and communication may be identified earlier for girls than for boys, which could lead to earlier therapeutic care for girls. Indeed, if parents have greater expectations for girls in social interaction and/or communication domains, they may worry more for their girl than for their boy with regard to developmental delay in these domains, and then may ask for professional advice earlier. This is what we have observed in our clinical practice and research, in which we conducted a follow-up in young girls

  12. Predictors of incidence, remission and relapse of Axis I mental disorders in young women: A transdiagnostic approach

    Lukat, J.; Becker, E.S.; Lavallee, K.L.; Veld, W.M. van der; Margraf, J.

    2017-01-01

    An understanding of etiological and maintaining factors of mental disorders is essential for the treatment of mental disorders, as well as mental health promotion and protection. The present study examines predictors of the incidence, remission and relapse of a wide range of Axis I mental disorders,

  13. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition: contributions from Asia.

    Mehta, N; Mehta, S

    2014-12-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder has been included as a separate diagnostic entity in the chapter of 'Depressive Disorders' of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5). The antecedent, concurrent, and predictive diagnostic validators of premenstrual dysphoric disorder have been reviewed by a sub-workgroup of the DSM-5 Mood Disorders Work Group, which includes a panel of experts on women's mental health. Contributions from the Asian continent have been mainly in the form of prevalence studies. Genetic and neurobiological domains of premenstrual dysphoric disorder largely remain untouched in Asia and offer a potential area for investigation.

  14. Troubled adolescents: substance abuse and mental disorder in young offenders.

    Ribas-Siñol, Maria; Del Prado-Sanchez, Noemi; Claramunt-Mendoza, Jaume; Civit-Ramirez, Monica; Canalias-Perez, Oriol; Ochoa, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Many studies indicate the high prevalence of juvenile substance abuse. There is increasingly more dual diagnosis and mental illnesses in adolescents and many juvenile offenses are related to drug abuse. This is a descriptive study about the relationship between drug abuse and clinical, demographic and criminal characteristics in a sample of 144 youths seen in the Therapeutic Juvenile Justice Unit (UTJJ) of the Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu. A total of 65.3% of the sample had a disorder on Axis I, 22.2% of which were related with the psychotic spectrum and 18.1% ADHD. Personality disorder occurred in 42.4%, the most frequent ones being antisocial disorder (16%), and borderline personality disorder (6.9%). Of the sample, 78.5% were drug consumers and 51.4% of the total only consumed 1 substance. There is a tendency among psychotic teenagers to consume cannabis and ADHD patients to consume cannabis and cocaine. A significant relationship is found between nationality and inhalants drugs, social and economic level and sedative drugs and alcohol, and parental death and alcohol (p<0.05-0.005). The level of drug use/abuse in juvenile justice is very high. Although there is no evidence about the relationship between the substance they consume and the profile of the young offender, some tendencies are observed.

  15. Virtual reality in the assessment, understanding, and treatment of mental health disorders.

    Freeman, D; Reeve, S; Robinson, A; Ehlers, A; Clark, D; Spanlang, B; Slater, M

    2017-10-01

    Mental health problems are inseparable from the environment. With virtual reality (VR), computer-generated interactive environments, individuals can repeatedly experience their problematic situations and be taught, via evidence-based psychological treatments, how to overcome difficulties. VR is moving out of specialist laboratories. Our central aim was to describe the potential of VR in mental health, including a consideration of the first 20 years of applications. A systematic review of empirical studies was conducted. In all, 285 studies were identified, with 86 concerning assessment, 45 theory development, and 154 treatment. The main disorders researched were anxiety (n = 192), schizophrenia (n = 44), substance-related disorders (n = 22) and eating disorders (n = 18). There are pioneering early studies, but the methodological quality of studies was generally low. The gaps in meaningful applications to mental health are extensive. The most established finding is that VR exposure-based treatments can reduce anxiety disorders, but there are numerous research and treatment avenues of promise. VR was found to be a much-misused term, often applied to non-interactive and non-immersive technologies. We conclude that VR has the potential to transform the assessment, understanding and treatment of mental health problems. The treatment possibilities will only be realized if - with the user experience at the heart of design - the best immersive VR technology is combined with targeted translational interventions. The capability of VR to simulate reality could greatly increase access to psychological therapies, while treatment outcomes could be enhanced by the technology's ability to create new realities. VR may merit the level of attention given to neuroimaging.

  16. Therapeutic Workshops and social changes in people with mental disorders

    Aline Raquel de Sousa Ibiapina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the impact of the therapeutic workshops and the social changes in people with mental disorders from the point of view of the experience of the workers of a Center of Psychosocial Attention. Method: A descriptive, qualitative study developed with seven professionals from a Psychosocial Care Center in a city in the Northeast of Brazil. The data production was performed through a semi-structured interview and analyzed by the Descending Hierarchical Classification, after processing in the IRaMuTeQ software. Results: Were presented in two segments: the first one portrays the reality of the work of the professionals in the Center for Psychosocial Care, while segment two emphasizes the professionals' perception about the therapeutic workshops as a tool for social reintegration. Conclusion: The use of therapeutic workshops contributes to the effectuation of social change on mental illness and social inclusion of people with psychic disorders in the daily family, in the community, encouraged by the multidisciplinary approach.

  17. Focus Group in Community Mental Health Research: Need for Adaption.

    Zupančič, Vesna; Pahor, Majda; Kogovšek, Tina

    2018-04-27

    The article presents an analysis of the use of focus groups in researching community mental health users, starting with the reasons for using them, their implementation in mental health service users' research, and the adaptations of focus group use when researching the experiences of users. Based on personal research experience and a review of scientific publications in the Google Scholar, Web of Science, ProQuest, EBSCOhost, and Scopus databases, 20 articles published between 2010 and 2016 were selected for targeted content analysis. A checklist for reporting on the use of focus groups with community mental health service users, aiming to improve the comparability, verifiability and validity was developed. Adaptations of the implementation of focus groups in relation to participants' characteristics were suggested. Focus groups are not only useful as a scientific research technique, but also for ensuring service users' participation in decision-making in community mental health and evaluating the quality of the mental health system and services .

  18. The observation of mental disorder and dangerousness in arsonists : a contemporary appraisal of changes in Dutch forensic mental health cases

    Dalhuisen, Lydia; Koenraadt, Frans

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands pre-trial forensic mental health assessments are conducted to examine whether a mental disorder was present at the time of the offence that affected the free will of a person, in which case criminal accountability is considered diminished or absent. This study aims to investigate

  19. The problems of offenders with mental disorders: A plurality of perspectives within a single mental health care organisation

    Davies, Jacqueline; Heyman, Bob; Godin, Paul; Shaw, M.; Reynolds, L.

    2006-01-01

    Managers, doctors, nurses, occupational therapists, social workers, psychologists, unqualified staff and service users were interviewed for a qualitative study of risk management and rehabilitation in an inner city medium secure forensic mental health care unit. Different professional orientations to service user problems were identified. Doctors focused primarily on the diagnosis of mental disorder, which they managed mainly through pharmaceutical interventions. Psychologists were principall...

  20. Social functioning as a predictor of the use of mental health resources in patients with severe mental disorder.

    Bellido-Zanin, Gloria; Pérez-San-Gregorio, María Ángeles; Martín-Rodríguez, Agustín; Vázquez-Morejón, Antonio J

    2015-12-15

    Previous studies have tried to determine the factors causing greater use of health resources by patients with mental disorders. These studies have essentially focused on socio-economic variables. Nevertheless, many other variables, such as social functioning, have not yet been explored. This study aims to assess the effect of social functioning on mental health service use in a sample of patients with severe mental disorder (schizophrenia, other psychotic disorders or bipolar affective disorder) in an area of Spain. The Social Functioning Scale (SFS) was administered to 172 family members of patients with a severe mental disorder who were receiving care at a community mental health unit. Analysis of bivariate logistic regression identified specific areas as predictors of the use of mental health resources over a 12-month follow-up period. The overall social functioning score predicted need for hospital admissions. In addition, interpersonal behaviour had a major role in the number of outpatient visits, while social isolation significantly predicted the need for hospitalization. These results point out the necessity for including psychosocial variables, such as social functioning in current mental health resource use models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Mental health service utilization among borderline personality disorder patients inpatient].

    Cailhol, L; Thalamas, C; Garrido, C; Birmes, P; Lapeyre-Mestre, M

    2015-04-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability and impulsivity. Several North American prospective studies support the high level of mental health care utilization in this population. There is little data in other systems of health organization, such as France. Furthermore, little is known on the variables associated with the mental health service utilization among BPD patients. The main objective was to compare the utilization of mental health care among BPD patients, to the general population and patients with another personality disorder (PD) and to describe the demographic and clinical factors associated with the group of patients who use the most health care. A multi-center (5 public and private centers), epidemiological study. Data were collected prospectively (database of an insurance fund covering 80% of the population) and viewed, retrospectively. We used the data collected during the five years previously to the inclusion. Inclusion criteria were age (18-60 years) and membership in the health insurance fund targeted. Patients on legal protection, forced hospitalization, with a chronic psychotic disorder, manic, mental retardation, or not reading French were excluded. First, four groups were composed: BPD, other PD, control groups for PD and other PD. The first two groups were recruited from a screening of inpatients including a self-administered questionnaire (Personality Disorder Questionnaire 4+). Assessment by a psychologist including the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SIDP-IV) was given straight to those who had a score above 28. This questionnaire allowed us to distinguish one group of subjects with BPD and a group with other PD (without BPD). Clinical evaluation included Axis I (MINI), Axis II (SIDP-IV), psychopathological features (YSQ-I, DSQ-40), demographic variables and therapeutic alliance (Haq-II). Matched controls (age, sex) composed the 3rd and 4th group (BPD control and

  2. Posttraumatic stress disorder in the World Mental Health Surveys.

    Koenen, K C; Ratanatharathorn, A; Ng, L; McLaughlin, K A; Bromet, E J; Stein, D J; Karam, E G; Meron Ruscio, A; Benjet, C; Scott, K; Atwoli, L; Petukhova, M; Lim, C C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Al-Hamzawi, A; Alonso, J; Bunting, B; Ciutan, M; de Girolamo, G; Degenhardt, L; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Huang, Y; Kawakami, N; Lee, S; Navarro-Mateu, F; Pennell, B-E; Piazza, M; Sampson, N; Ten Have, M; Torres, Y; Viana, M C; Williams, D; Xavier, M; Kessler, R C

    2017-10-01

    Traumatic events are common globally; however, comprehensive population-based cross-national data on the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the paradigmatic trauma-related mental disorder, are lacking. Data were analyzed from 26 population surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. A total of 71 083 respondents ages 18+ participated. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed exposure to traumatic events as well as 30-day, 12-month, and lifetime PTSD. Respondents were also assessed for treatment in the 12 months preceding the survey. Age of onset distributions were examined by country income level. Associations of PTSD were examined with country income, world region, and respondent demographics. The cross-national lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 3.9% in the total sample and 5.6% among the trauma exposed. Half of respondents with PTSD reported persistent symptoms. Treatment seeking in high-income countries (53.5%) was roughly double that in low-lower middle income (22.8%) and upper-middle income (28.7%) countries. Social disadvantage, including younger age, female sex, being unmarried, being less educated, having lower household income, and being unemployed, was associated with increased risk of lifetime PTSD among the trauma exposed. PTSD is prevalent cross-nationally, with half of all global cases being persistent. Only half of those with severe PTSD report receiving any treatment and only a minority receive specialty mental health care. Striking disparities in PTSD treatment exist by country income level. Increasing access to effective treatment, especially in low- and middle-income countries, remains critical for reducing the population burden of PTSD.

  3. A possible new approach to understanding mental disorder.

    Sharples, P J

    2012-09-01

    The aetiology of mental disorders is not fully understood. This paper presents an analysis of the conceptual control process exploring the tools of conceptual application and the phases and the mechanism of the control process and seeks to show how the illness states of mental disorder naturally come to occur. Living occurs in a world of change. For living to occur some control is required and to exert control, to provide direction for the conceptual process, some interpretation of significance, some definition of need is also required. Such interpretation, monitoring significance in relation to the many aspects of change, forms the base on which living occurs. Change in human terms is intrinsically insecure and interpretation of significance is an interpretation of security, an interpretation of control in living. Conceptual control is a process applied to maintain security, to maintain a secure base for the interpretation of significance, it is a process applied to produce and hold a sense of control. Powering a process, producing and holding a sense of control, is an active process and so requires some form of energy. Human beings have a sense of that energy, something exhibited in terms such as full of energy, tired, exhausted. As energy is required to power the control process, accompanying the sense of energy is a sense of the ability to provide power, is a sense of the ability to hold and maintain control, is a sense of security. As available energy reduces there is difficulty holding the same sense of control, a person in the same setting comes to feel more insecure. This can result in a person experiencing mental disorder from mild to severe degree. Mild where conceptual process is applied to manage just one or a very few particular needs, severe and more general where the insecurity affects the base of interpretation. In this later case seeking to protect security can lead to mania, mood-incongruent delusions, schizophrenia. Failing ability to protect can

  4. Life stress and mental disorders in the South African Stress and ...

    Life stress and mental disorders in the South African Stress and Health study. ... Although stressful life events (SLEs) are associated with psychopathology, the ... life stress and sociodemographic predictors of 12-month and lifetime disorder.

  5. Mental rotation evoked potentials P500 in patients with major depressive disorder

    陈玖

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the difference on mental rotation ability between major depressive disorders and healthy subjects.Methods Twenty-three patients with major depressive disorders and 24 healthy subjects

  6. Shift Work Disorder and Mental and Physical Effects of Shift Work

    Pinar Guzel Ozdemir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the growing prevalence of shift work all over the the world, the relationship between the daily lives of irregular lifestyles and rhythms is being investigated for those working as shift workers and their families. The effect of shift work on physical and mental health is a very important field of research in recent years. The onset and persistence of medical complications in shift workers includes impaired synchronization between work schedule rhythms and circadian clock. In this context, studies have been carried out showing the increased risk of sleep-wake disorders, gastrointestinal problems, and cardiovascular diseases. There is little information about the actual frequency, effect on health and treatment of shift work disorder, known as circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Shift work disorder includes insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness related with the work schedule. The aim of this rewiev, mentioning about the physical and mental effects of shift work, and to provide information about the diagnosis, clinic and treatment methods of shift-work disorder.

  7. Harnessing Reddit to Understand the Written-Communication Challenges Experienced by Individuals With Mental Health Disorders: Analysis of Texts From Mental Health Communities.

    Park, Albert; Conway, Mike

    2018-04-10

    online health communities. Our results also suggest that participating in these platforms has the potential to improve members' written communication. For example, members of all three mental health communities showed statistically significant improvement in both lexical diversity and readability compared with members of the OHC focusing on positive emotion. We provide new insights into the written communication challenges faced by individuals suffering from depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. A comparison with three other online health communities suggests that written communication in mental health communities is significantly more difficult to read, while also consisting of a significantly less diverse lexicon. We contribute practical suggestions for utilizing our findings in Web-based communication settings to enhance members' communicative experience. We consider these findings to be an important step toward understanding and addressing everyday written communication challenges among individuals suffering from mental disorders. ©Albert Park, Mike Conway. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 10.04.2018.

  8. Symmetrical treatment of "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition", for major depressive disorders.

    Sawamura, Jitsuki; Morishita, Shigeru; Ishigooka, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We previously presented a group theoretical model that describes psychiatric patient states or clinical data in a graded vector-like format based on modulo groups. Meanwhile, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5, the current version), is frequently used for diagnosis in daily psychiatric treatments and biological research. The diagnostic criteria of DSM-5 contain simple binominal items relating to the presence or absence of specific symptoms. In spite of its simple form, the practical structure of the DSM-5 system is not sufficiently systemized for data to be treated in a more rationally sophisticated way. To view the disease states in terms of symmetry in the manner of abstract algebra is considered important for the future systematization of clinical medicine. We provide a simple idea for the practical treatment of the psychiatric diagnosis/score of DSM-5 using depressive symptoms in line with our previously proposed method. An expression is given employing modulo-2 and -7 arithmetic (in particular, additive group theory) for Criterion A of a 'major depressive episode' that must be met for the diagnosis of 'major depressive disorder' in DSM-5. For this purpose, the novel concept of an imaginary value 0 that can be recognized as an explicit 0 or implicit 0 was introduced to compose the model. The zeros allow the incorporation or deletion of an item between any other symptoms if they are ordered appropriately. Optionally, a vector-like expression can be used to rate/select only specific items when modifying the criterion/scale. Simple examples are illustrated concretely. Further development of the proposed method for the criteria/scale of a disease is expected to raise the level of formalism of clinical medicine to that of other fields of natural science.

  9. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and the risk of subsequent mental disorders: A community study of adolescents and young adults.

    Hofer, Patrizia D; Wahl, Karina; Meyer, Andrea H; Miché, Marcel; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Wong, Shiu F; Grisham, Jessica R; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind

    2018-04-01

    Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with other mental disorders has been demonstrated repeatedly. Few longitudinal studies, however, have evaluated the temporal association of prior OCD and subsequent mental disorders across the age period of highest risk for first onset of mental disorders. We examined associations between prior OCD and a broad range of subsequent mental disorders and simulated proportions of new onsets of mental disorders that could potentially be attributed to prior OCD, assuming a causal relationship. Data from 3,021 14- to 24-year-old community subjects were prospectively collected for up to 10 years. DSM-IV OCD and other DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We used adjusted time-dependent proportional hazard models to estimate the temporal associations of prior OCD with subsequent mental disorders. Prior OCD was associated with an increased risk of bipolar disorders (BIP; [hazard ratio, HR = 6.9, 95% confidence interval, CI, (2.8,17.3)], bulimia nervosa [HR = 6.8 (1.3,36.6)], dysthymia [HR = 4.4 (2.1,9.0)], generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; [HR = 3.4 (1.1,10.9)], and social phobia [HR = 2.9 (1.1,7.7)]). Of these outcome disorders, between 65 and 85% could be attributed to OCD in the exposed group, whereas between 1.5 and 7.7% could be attributed to OCD in the total sample. This study provides strong evidence that prior OCD is associated with an increased risk of subsequent onset of BIP, bulimia nervosa, dysthymia, GAD, and social phobia among adolescents and young adults. Future studies should evaluate if early treatment of OCD can prevent the onset of these subsequent mental disorders. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms may explain poor mental health in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Toussaint, Loren L; Whipple, Mary O; Vincent, Ann

    2017-05-01

    Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder are common in fibromyalgia patients. This study compared post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls and determined whether patient-control differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms mediated differences in mental health. In all, 30 patients and 30 healthy controls completed questionnaires assessing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health. Fibromyalgia patients had greater symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health than controls. Patient-control differences in mental health symptoms were fully or partially mediated by differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Healthcare providers should understand the role of trauma as management of trauma symptoms may be one strategy for improving mental health.

  11. Women's Auto/Biography and Dissociative Identity Disorder: Implications for Mental Health Practice.

    Tomlinson, Kendal; Baker, Charley

    2017-09-06

    Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is an uncommon disorder that has long been associated with exposure to traumatic stressors exceeding manageable levels commonly encompassing physical, psychological and sexual abuse in childhood that is prolonged and severe in nature. In DID, dissociation continues after the traumatic experience and produces a disruption in identity where distinct personality states develop. These personalities are accompanied by variations in behaviour, emotions, memory, perception and cognition. The use of literature in psychiatry can enrich comprehension over the subjective experience of a disorder, and the utilisation of 'illness narratives' in nursing research have been considered a way of improving knowledge about nursing care and theory development. This research explores experiences of DID through close textual reading and thematic analysis of five biographical and autobiographical texts, discussing the lived experience of the disorder. This narrative approach aims to inform empathetic understanding and support the facilitation of therapeutic alliances in mental healthcare for those experiencing the potentially debilitating and distressing symptoms of DID. Although controversies surrounding the biomedical diagnosis of DID are important to consider, the lived experiences of those who mental health nurses encounter should be priority.

  12. The associations of earlier trauma exposures and history of mental disorders with PTSD after subsequent traumas.

    Kessler, R C; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Alonso, J; Bromet, E J; Gureje, O; Karam, E G; Koenen, K C; Lee, S; Liu, H; Pennell, B-E; Petukhova, M V; Sampson, N A; Shahly, V; Stein, D J; Atwoli, L; Borges, G; Bunting, B; de Girolamo, G; Gluzman, S F; Haro, J M; Hinkov, H; Kawakami, N; Kovess-Masfety, V; Navarro-Mateu, F; Posada-Villa, J; Scott, K M; Shalev, A Y; Ten Have, M; Torres, Y; Viana, M C; Zaslavsky, A M

    2017-09-19

    Although earlier trauma exposure is known to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after subsequent traumas, it is unclear whether this association is limited to cases where the earlier trauma led to PTSD. Resolution of this uncertainty has important implications for research on pretrauma vulnerability to PTSD. We examined this issue in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys with 34 676 respondents who reported lifetime trauma exposure. One lifetime trauma was selected randomly for each respondent. DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition) PTSD due to that trauma was assessed. We reported in a previous paper that four earlier traumas involving interpersonal violence significantly predicted PTSD after subsequent random traumas (odds ratio (OR)=1.3-2.5). We also assessed 14 lifetime DSM-IV mood, anxiety, disruptive behavior and substance disorders before random traumas. We show in the current report that only prior anxiety disorders significantly predicted PTSD in a multivariate model (OR=1.5-4.3) and that these disorders interacted significantly with three of the earlier traumas (witnessing atrocities, physical violence victimization and rape). History of witnessing atrocities significantly predicted PTSD after subsequent random traumas only among respondents with prior PTSD (OR=5.6). Histories of physical violence victimization (OR=1.5) and rape after age 17 years (OR=17.6) significantly predicted only among respondents with no history of prior anxiety disorders. Although only preliminary due to reliance on retrospective reports, these results suggest that history of anxiety disorders and history of a limited number of earlier traumas might usefully be targeted in future prospective studies as distinct foci of research on individual differences in vulnerability to PTSD after subsequent traumas.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 19 September 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.194.

  13. [Representations of Mental Disorders and Employment Fit Perceived by Employers of the Regular Labour Market in France].

    Laberon, Sonia; Scordato, Nadia; Corbière, Marc

    Introduction People with mental disorders face stigma and discriminatory hiring practices in the competitive labour market. This study on employers' representations of mental disorders provides knowledge regarding the specifics of their negative perceptions for this population, which appears to be an important barrier to their inclusion in the workplace. Heilman's lack of fit model (1983) enabled to show that recruiters seek to match the characteristics they perceive in candidates with those they deem necessary to succeed in the organization. A lack of fit between the two components-candidates and the selection criteria-would explain the non-selection of the applicant. This psychological process can be applied to the recruitment of people with psychiatric disabilities.Objectives The goal of this study was to identify employers' representations towards mental disorder in general and in the workplace particularly, as well as to determine the prerequisites for hiring this population. As such, this would allow to better understand the psychological processes involved in the exclusion of people with psychiatric disabilities.Method In a qualitative study, 29 semi-structured interviews were conducted with employers and HR Department representatives of organizations in France that were under the French legal obligation to hire people with a disability (organizations having more than 20 employees). We used the free association technique to identify representational contents concerning mental disorder. Qualitative data on the essential prerequisites for recruitment were collected through open-ended questions. The data were processed by a categorical content analysis conducted independently by three researchers. The structure of the representation was identified by distinguishing the components of the central nucleus from those of the peripheral nucleus according to the two criteria of the method of Moliner (1994): the index of popularity of each element and the co

  14. Civilians in World War II and DSM-IV mental disorders: Results from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    Frounfelker, Rochelle; Gilman, Stephen E.; Betancourt, Theresa S.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G.; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ono, Yutaka; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Popovici, Daniela G.; Have, Margreet ten; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/region of terror in World War II with a range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Methods Adults (n= 3,370)who lived in countries directly involved in World War II in Europe and Japan were administered structured diagnostic interviews of lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders. The associations of war-related traumas with subsequent disorder onset-persistence were assessed with discrete-time survival analysis (lifetime prevalence) and conditional logistic regression (12-month prevalence). Results Respondents who were civilians in a war zone/region of terror had higher lifetime risks than other respondents of major depressive disorder (MDD; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and anxiety disorder (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0). The association of war exposure with MDD was strongest in the early years after the war, whereas the association with anxiety disorders increased over time. Among lifetime cases, war exposure was associated with lower past year risk of anxiety disorders. (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.7). Conclusions Exposure to war in World War II was associated with higher lifetime risk of some mental disorders. Whether comparable patterns will be found among civilians living through more recent wars remains to be seen, but should be recognized as a possibility by those projecting future needs for treatment of mental disorders. PMID:29119266

  15. Civilians in World War II and DSM-IV mental disorders: results from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative.

    Frounfelker, Rochelle; Gilman, Stephen E; Betancourt, Theresa S; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ono, Yutaka; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Popovici, Daniela G; Ten Have, Margreet; Kessler, Ronald C

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/region of terror in World War II with a range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Adults (n = 3370) who lived in countries directly involved in World War II in Europe and Japan were administered structured diagnostic interviews of lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders. The associations of war-related traumas with subsequent disorder onset-persistence were assessed with discrete-time survival analysis (lifetime prevalence) and conditional logistic regression (12-month prevalence). Respondents who were civilians in a war zone/region of terror had higher lifetime risks than other respondents of major depressive disorder (MDD; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and anxiety disorder (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0). The association of war exposure with MDD was strongest in the early years after the war, whereas the association with anxiety disorders increased over time. Among lifetime cases, war exposure was associated with lower past year risk of anxiety disorders (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.7). Exposure to war in World War II was associated with higher lifetime risk of some mental disorders. Whether comparable patterns will be found among civilians living through more recent wars remains to be seen, but should be recognized as a possibility by those projecting future needs for treatment of mental disorders.

  16. Who decides? The decision-making process of juvenile judges concerning minors with mental disorders.

    Cappon, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on juvenile judges' decision-making process has neglected the role of the different actors involved in judicial procedures. The decision can be considered as a result of information exchange between the different actors involved. The process of making a decision is equally important as the decision itself, especially when the decision considers minors with mental disorders. The presence and the type of interaction determine the information available to the juvenile judges to make their final decision. The overall aim of this study is to gain insight into the role of all actors, including the juvenile judge, in the juvenile judge's decisi