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Sample records for mental asylum population

  1. Length of stay in asylum centres and mental health in asylum seekers: a retrospective study from Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Hallas, Peter; Hansen, Anne R; St?hr, Mia A; Munk-Andersen, Ebbe; Jorgensen, Henrik L

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The length of stay in asylum centres is generally mentioned as a possible health risk to asylum seekers. Medical staff working with asylum seekers has claimed that long lengths of stay in asylum centres might cause or aggravate mental disorders. We used records from a large, multiethnic group of asylum seekers to study if the incidence of mental disorders increased with length of stay. Methods The study population was asylum seekers in Danish asylum centres run by the Dani...

  2. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Nathan W. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States)]. E-mail: nbower@coloradocollege.edu; McCants, Sarah A. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States); Custodio, Joseph M. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States); Ketterer, Michael E. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5698 (United States); Getty, Stephen R. [Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs, CO 80918 (United States); Hoffman, J. Michael [Department of Anthropology, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 8090-3294 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories.

  3. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, Nathan W.; McCants, Sarah A.; Custodio, Joseph M.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Getty, Stephen R.; Hoffman, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories

  4. Length of stay in asylum centres and mental health in asylum seekers: a retrospective study from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Peter; Hansen, Anne R; Staehr, Mia A; Munk-Andersen, Ebbe; Jorgensen, Henrik L

    2007-10-11

    The length of stay in asylum centres is generally mentioned as a possible health risk to asylum seekers. Medical staff working with asylum seekers has claimed that long lengths of stay in asylum centres might cause or aggravate mental disorders. We used records from a large, multiethnic group of asylum seekers to study if the incidence of mental disorders increased with length of stay. The study population was asylum seekers in Danish asylum centres run by the Danish Red Cross. General medical care was provided by Red Cross staff who could refer selected cases to medical specialists. If an asylum seeker needed more than three specialist consultations for mental illness or five consultations for physical illness the referrals had to be approved by The Danish Immigration Service. Between July 2001 - December 2002 the Red Cross prospectively registered health related data on all new applications (n = 4516) to the Immigration Service regarding referrals to medical specialists. We used these records to analyse the association between length of stay in the asylum centres and overall rate of referral for mental disorders. Data was analysed using weighted linear regression. We found that referrals for mental disorders increased with length of stay in asylum centres in a large, multiethnic population of asylum seekers. The association was found in all the categories of psychiatric illness studied and for a majority of the nationality groups studied. Length of stay in asylum centres was associated with an increase in referrals for mental disorders in a large, multiethnic group of asylum seekers. The present study supports the view that prolonged length of stay in an asylum centre is a risk factor for mental health. The risk of psychiatric illness among asylum seekers should be addressed by political and humanitarian means, giving prevention of illness the highest priority.

  5. Length of stay in asylum centres and mental health in asylum seekers: a retrospective study from Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stæhr Mia A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The length of stay in asylum centres is generally mentioned as a possible health risk to asylum seekers. Medical staff working with asylum seekers has claimed that long lengths of stay in asylum centres might cause or aggravate mental disorders. We used records from a large, multiethnic group of asylum seekers to study if the incidence of mental disorders increased with length of stay. Methods The study population was asylum seekers in Danish asylum centres run by the Danish Red Cross. General medical care was provided by Red Cross staff who could refer selected cases to medical specialists. If an asylum seeker needed more than three specialist consultations for mental illness or five consultations for physical illness the referrals had to be approved by The Danish Immigration Service. Between July 2001 – December 2002 the Red Cross prospectively registered health related data on all new applications (n = 4516 to the Immigration Service regarding referrals to medical specialists. We used these records to analyse the association between length of stay in the asylum centres and overall rate of referral for mental disorders. Data was analysed using weighted linear regression. Results We found that referrals for mental disorders increased with length of stay in asylum centres in a large, multiethnic population of asylum seekers. The association was found in all the categories of psychiatric illness studied and for a majority of the nationality groups studied. Conclusion Length of stay in asylum centres was associated with an increase in referrals for mental disorders in a large, multiethnic group of asylum seekers. The present study supports the view that prolonged length of stay in an asylum centre is a risk factor for mental health. The risk of psychiatric illness among asylum seekers should be addressed by political and humanitarian means, giving prevention of illness the highest priority.

  6. Length of stay in asylum centres and mental health in asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Peter; Hansen, Anne R; Staehr, Mia A

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The length of stay in asylum centres is generally mentioned as a possible health risk to asylum seekers. Medical staff working with asylum seekers has claimed that long lengths of stay in asylum centres might cause or aggravate mental disorders. We used records from a large, multiethnic...... specialists. If an asylum seeker needed more than three specialist consultations for mental illness or five consultations for physical illness the referrals had to be approved by The Danish Immigration Service. Between July 2001 - December 2002 the Red Cross prospectively registered health related data on all......: Length of stay in asylum centres was associated with an increase in referrals for mental disorders in a large, multiethnic group of asylum seekers. The present study supports the view that prolonged length of stay in an asylum centre is a risk factor for mental health. The risk of psychiatric illness...

  7. Exploring the relationship between postmigratory stressors and mental health for asylum seekers and refused asylum seekers in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth; Melluish, Steve; Welham, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have linked the high rates of traumatic events experienced by refugees to the elevated rate of mental health problems in these populations. A growing body of evidence has also highlighted the importance of considering postmigratory stressors when making sense of displaced person distress. This study explored the relationship between mental health and postmigratory stress for asylum seekers and refused asylum seekers in Britain. The study further examined if those refused asylum experienced elevated distress and postmigratory stress compared to those awaiting the outcome of asylum applications. Results indicated that participants ( N = 97) had endured a range of pre- and postmigratory stressors and had high scores on measures of anxiety, depression, and PTSD. A postmigratory factor comprising items associated with isolation, restrictive policies, and stressors associated with having an insecure immigration status, was significantly associated with PTSD scores. This relationship remained when controlling for the variance accounted for by premigratory trauma predictors. Being refused asylum was the strongest predictor of depression and anxiety. Those refused asylum scored higher on a factor associated with barriers to accessing services. Social materialist theories of distress are drawn upon to contextualise the heightened vulnerability of those refused asylum. The paper concludes by emphasising the problems associated with taking an exclusively trauma-focussed approach when working with asylum seekers and argues for community orientated interventions to support displaced people to cope with the various stressors endured in exile.

  8. Persecution Experiences and Mental Health of LGBT Asylum Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, Rebecca A; Keatley, Eva; Glaeser, Elizabeth; Erickson-Schroth, Laura; Fattal, Omar; Nicholson Sullivan, Melba

    2017-01-01

    Asylum seekers are a unique population, particularly those who have endured persecution for their sexual orientation or gender identity. Little data exist about the specific experiences and needs of asylum seekers persecuted due to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) identity. Quantitative data were gathered regarding demographics, persecution histories, and mental health of 61 clients from a torture survivors program in New York City who reported persecution due to LGBT identity. Thirty-five clients persecuted due to their LGBT identity were matched by country of origin and sex with clients persecuted for other reasons to explore how persecution and symptoms may differ for LGBT clients. LGBT asylum seekers have a higher incidence of sexual violence, persecution occurring during childhood, persecution by family members, and suicidal ideation. Understanding the type of persecution experiences and how these influence mental health outcomes is an essential step toward designing and delivering effective treatments.

  9. The role of mental health professionals in political asylum processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffert, Susan M; Musalo, Karen; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2010-01-01

    Applying for asylum in the United States can be a strenuous process for both applicants and immigration attorneys. Mental health professionals with expertise in asylum law and refugee trauma can make important contributions to such cases. Not only can mental health professionals provide diagnostic information that may support applicants' claims, but they can evaluate how culture and mental health symptoms relate to perceived deficits in credibility or delays in asylum application. They can define mental health treatment needs and estimate the possible effects of repatriation on mental health. Mental health professionals can also provide supportive functions for clients as they prepare for testimony. Finally, in a consultative role, mental health experts can help immigration attorneys to improve their ability to elicit trauma narratives from asylum applicants safely and efficiently and to enhance their resilience in response to vicarious trauma and burnout symptoms arising from work with asylum seekers.

  10. The mental health needs of asylum seekers and refugees - challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Piyal

    2016-05-01

    Global events like wars and natural disasters have led to the refugee population reaching numbers not seen since the Second World War. Attitudes to asylum have hardened, with the potential to compromise the mental health needs of asylum seekers and refugees. The challenges in providing mental healthcare for asylum seekers and refugees include working with the uncertainties of immigration status and cultural differences. Ways to meet the challenges include cultural competency training, availability of interpreters and cultural brokers as well as appropriately adapting modes of therapy. Service delivery should support adjustment to life in a foreign country. Never has the need been greater for psychiatrists to play a leadership role in the area.

  11. Impact of asylum interviews on the mental health of traumatized asylum seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Schock

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asylum interviews within the asylum procedure are associated with psychological stress for traumatized asylum seekers. This study investigates the impact of asylum interviews on the mental health in a sample of 40 traumatized asylum seekers. The comparison group consisted of refugees (N=10 that had not been invited to an asylum interview. Additionally, the moderating effects of trial-related variables such as perceived justice of the trial, stress of giving testimony, and stress of waiting for the asylum interview were examined. Method: Participants were assessed on average 10 days before (t1 and 16 days after (t2 the asylum interview. Chi-square tests for dichotomous and categorical variables were used to compare the descriptive statistics of the two groups. To investigate symptom changes from t1 to t2, paired t-tests were calculated. The magnitude of effects was measured by Cohen's effect size d within groups. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted for demographic and trial variables predicting posttraumatic intrusions, avoidance, and hyperarousal. Results: Data showed a significant increase in posttraumatic intrusions and a significant decrease in posttraumatic avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms from t1 to t2. No significant symptom changes in the posttraumatic stress disorder subscales were found in the comparison group. The results of hierarchical regression analyses revealed perceived justice of the interview to predict the increase of intrusions and the number of experienced traumata and testimony stress to predict posttraumatic avoidance. Conclusions: The present findings underline the stressful impact of asylum interviews on traumatized refugees. They indicate that the asylum interview might decrease posttraumatic avoidance and trigger posttraumatic intrusions, thus highlight the importance of ensuring that the already vulnerable group of traumatized refugees needs to be treated with empathy during their asylum

  12. Refugee, Asylum Seeker and Immigrant Women Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Devrim Basterzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Social situation, social networks, power relationships, socioeconomic conditions, education and physical environment of people affect to encounter with trauma and disasters. These social factors also have an effect on traumatized people’s mental health. Gender roles are affected these entire social context and mental disorders. War and migration frequently lead to increasing inequality between men and women. This article reviews the studies about refugee, asylum seeker and immigrant’s women mental health and gender roles. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(4.000: 379-387

  13. Mental health of asylum seekers: a cross-sectional study of psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeren Martina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asylum procedures are known to be protracted, stretching to over ten years in many host countries. International research shows high levels of distress for asylum seekers. Little is known about actual psychiatric morbidity in this population, especially during the first few years postmigration. Methods The mental health status of two groups of asylum seekers was assessed: Group 1 (n = 43 had arrived in Switzerland 2.9 (SD 1.1 months prior to assessment, while Group 2 (n = 43 had arrived 15.5 (SD 3.2 months prior to assessment. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. Symptom severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, anxiety (Hopkins Symptom Checklist, depression (Hopkins Symptom Checklist, and pain (Verbal Rating Scale were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Postmigratory factors such as German language proficiency and social contacts were also assessed. Interviews were conducted with the assistance of trained interpreters. Results Four out of ten participants met diagnostic criteria for at least one DSM-IV disorder. Groups did not differ with respect to psychiatric morbidity or symptom levels. Major depression (31.4% and PTSD (23.3% were diagnosed most frequently. The number of experienced traumatic event types was highly correlated with psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions Psychiatric morbidity in asylum seekers in the first two years after arrival is high, with no indication of a decrease in mental distress over time. Traumatic experiences seem to play a major role in morbidity during this time. Considering the magnitude of clinically relevant distress, a short psychological screening upon arrival with a focus on traumatic experiences may be warranted.

  14. Emergency mental health nursing for self-harming refugees and asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Nicholas G

    2005-09-01

    This article describes the structure and function of emergency mental health nursing practice for self-harming refugees and asylum seekers on Temporary Protection Visas. Emergency nurses working in accident and emergency departments or as part of crisis intervention teams will see self-harming refugees and asylum seekers at the very point of their distress. This clinical paper is intended to support nurses in their practice should they encounter an adult asylum seeker needing emergency mental health care. Practical strategies are highlighted to help mental health nurses assess, care, and comfort refugees and asylum seekers in this predicament. Mental health nurses should, where possible, work closely with asylum seekers, their support workers, and accredited interpreters and translators to ensure the appropriate use of language when dealing with mental and emotional health issues without further isolating the asylum seeker from appropriate services. To help strengthen continuity and integration of mental health supports for refugees and asylum seekers, well-resourced care must be experienced as coherent and connected. A coherent, interdisciplinary and team-orientated approach will synthesize different viewpoints to shape clinical practice and create workable solutions in local situations.

  15. Coercive Population Control and Asylum in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Oxford

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1980, China implemented one of the most controversial population policies in modern times. China’s one-child policy shaped population politics for thirty-five years until its dissolution in 2015. During this time, many women were subjected to routine gynecological examinations, pregnancy testing, abortions, and sterilizations, which were often forced upon them by family planning officials. Some women fled China and sought refuge in the United States after having experienced a forced abortion or forced sterilization or feared that they would be subjected to a forced abortion or forced sterilization. This article focuses on how the U.S. government responded to China’s one-child policy through the passage of immigration laws and policies that made asylum a viable option for Chinese nationals who had been persecuted or feared persecution because of coercive population control policies. Based on observations of asylum hearings and interviews with immigration judges and immigration attorneys, this article uses feminist ethnographic methods to show how China’s one-child policy and U.S. asylum laws shape the gender politics of reproduction and migration.

  16. Unaccompanied adolescents seeking asylum: Poorer mental health under a restrictive reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Boer, J.B.de; Bean, T.; Korfker, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the effects of a stringent reception policy on the mental health of unaccompanied adolescent asylum seekers by comparing the mental health of adolescents in a restricted campus reception setting and in a setting offering more autonomy (numbers [response rates]: 69 [93%] and 53 [69%],

  17. Unaccompanied adolescents seeking asylum - Poorer mental health under a restrictive reception : poorer mental health under a restrictive reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; de Boer, J.B.; Bean, T.; Korfker, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the effects of a stringent reception policy on the mental health of unaccompanied adolescent asylum seekers by comparing the mental health of adolescents in a restricted campus reception setting and in a setting offering more autonomy (numbers [response rates]: 69 [93%] and 53 [69%],

  18. Seeking asylum in Australia: immigration detention, human rights and mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Louise; Proctor, Nicholas; Dudley, Michael

    2013-08-01

    The article aims to discuss the impact of mandatory detention and human rights violations on the mental health of asylum seekers and the implications for psychiatrists and health professionals. Advocacy for human rights and engagement in social debate are core ethical and professional responsibilities. Clinicians need to maintain a focus on ethical obligations.

  19. Mental health interventions for traumatized asylum seekers and refugees: What do we know about their efficacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodin, Ortal; de Jong, Joop T V M

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of trauma-related problems among refugees and asylum seekers is extremely high due to adverse experiences associated with forced migration. Although the literature presents a considerable number of guidelines and theoretical frameworks for working with traumatized refugees and asylum seekers, the efficacy, feasibility and applicability of these interventions have little empirical evidence. The purpose of this article is to critically review the literature to provide a rationale for developing culturally sensitive, evidence-based interventions for refugees and asylum seekers. A literature review integrating research findings on interventions designed especially for traumatized asylum seekers and refugees was conducted. Retained studies had to use some quantitative measurements of post-traumatic stress and to have pre- and post-measurements to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention. Studies included in this review cover a wide variety of interventions, including trauma-focused interventions, group therapy, multidisciplinary interventions and pharmacological treatments. The majority of studies with traumatized refugees and asylum seekers reported positive outcomes of the intervention in reducing trauma-related symptoms. There is evidence to support the suitability of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and narrative exposure therapy (NET) in certain populations of refugees. Other intervention studies are limited by methodological considerations, such as lack of randomization, absence of control group and small samples. This review has again highlighted the shortage of guiding frameworks available to investigators and clinicians who are interested in tailoring interventions to work with refugees and asylum seekers. Theoretical, ethical and methodological considerations for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. The role of social support in the acculturation and mental health of unaccompanied minor asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppedal, Brit; Idsoe, Thormod

    2015-04-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about psychosocial resources that may sustain post-resettlement psychological adjustment among unaccompanied minor asylum-seekers. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of social support from family abroad and friends on acculturation, discrimination, and mental health among these vulnerable children and youth. Questionnaire data were collected from a population-based multi-ethnic sample involving 895 unaccompanied minors resettled in municipalities in all regions of the country. They met in groups in their local communities. The informants were on average 18.6 years, and had an average length of stay in Norway of 3.5 years. The findings showed that the participants suffered from high levels of ongoing war related intrusive symptoms and depression. Still, at the same time they engaged in adaptation processes that are normative to youth with immigrant backgrounds, in terms of constructing supportive networks and developing culture competence. In accordance with the main effect hypothesis, social support had direct effects on depression and indirect effects by increasing culture competence that may aid the young refugees in dealing with discrimination. However, there were no effects of social support on symptoms of PTSD. The findings give direction to areas of interventions, beyond dealing with the sequel of the traumas the unaccompanied minors have been exposed to, not only for clinicians, but also social workers and school personnel. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A cross-sectional survey of the mental health needs of refugees and asylum seekers attending a refugee health clinic: a study protocol for using research to inform local service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawyer, Frances; Enticott, Joanne C; Doherty, Anne R; Block, Andrew A; Cheng, I-Hao; Wahidi, Sayed; Meadows, Graham N

    2014-12-24

    Refugees and asylum seekers have high rates of risk factors for mental disorders. In recent years, Australia has experienced a rapid increase in asylum seeker arrivals, creating new challenges for services in areas with high settlement numbers. This paper describes the design, including analytic framework, of a project set in a refugee health service in the state of Victoria, Australia, as part of their response to meeting the mental health needs of their burgeoning local population of refugees and asylum seekers. In order to assist service planning, the primary aim of this study is to determine: 1) an overall estimate of the prevalence of psychiatric disorders; 2) the specific prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder 3) the perceived need and unmet need for mental health treatment. The secondary aim of the study is to establish matched risk ratios based on an Australian-born matched comparison group from the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being. A cross-sectional survey is used to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in refugees and asylum seekers attending a local refugee health service. Measures include the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale-10, the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder-8, the General-practice User's Perceived-need Inventory together with service utilisation questions from the National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being. Data collected from refugees and asylum seekers (n = 130) is matched to existing data from Australian-born residents drawn from the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being (n = 520) to produce estimates of the risk ratio. The paper describes a prototype for what is possible within regular services seeking to plan for and deliver high quality mental health care to refugees and asylum seekers. A novel project output will be the development and dissemination of an epidemiological methodology to reliably compare mental health status in a relatively small target sample with a matched

  2. Seeking asylum in Denmark: Refugee children's mental health and exposure to violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Edith; Foldspang, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to compare profiles of present mental health and previous exposure to violence among refugee children from the Middle East, whose asylum seeking families either did or did not obtain permission to stay in Denmark. Methods: Shortly after arrival in Denmark, the pare......Aims: The aim of this study was to compare profiles of present mental health and previous exposure to violence among refugee children from the Middle East, whose asylum seeking families either did or did not obtain permission to stay in Denmark. Methods: Shortly after arrival in Denmark...... in a refugee camp, and seven out of 10 had witnessed violence. Half of the children had a tortured parent. Considerably more children of families who did not get a residence permit had lost a parent (30.6% versus 13.7%; P , 0.001). In both groups about two-thirds suffered from anxiety and about 30% from sleep...... exposure to violence and their present mental health. There seems to be good reason to systematically integrate evidence on the children of refugee families in the treatment of applications for permission to stay....

  3. Seeking asylum in Denmark: Refugee children's mental health and exposure to violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Edith; Foldspang, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to compare profiles of present mental health and previous exposure to violence among refugee children from the Middle East, whose asylum seeking families either did or did not obtain permission to stay in Denmark. Methods: Shortly after arrival in Denmark......, the parents of 311 Middle-Eastern children answered a structured interview on their children’s exposure to organized violence and their mental health. The families were followed-up as concerns receipt of a residence permit. Results: At arrival in Denmark, the children’s patterns of previous exposure...... to violence and present mental health was generally similar irrespective of the family getting a residence permit, as was the case for 90 families (60.4%) with 190 children (61.1%). In both groups an overwhelming majority, eight to nine out of 10 children, had been exposed to conditions of war and had stayed...

  4. [Germany's unique panoptical asylum--an appreciation of the first Bavarian mental home in Erlangen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, B; Kornhuber, J

    2013-03-01

    There are only two edifices left that represent one of the most impressive cultural monuments of mental homes in Middle Europe. Government and institutions are removing these historical buildings to establish a modern "Translational Research Centre". Our objective is to illustrate the significance of the asylum in the history of psychiatric architecture. In the context of the history of psychiatry we analysed and interpreted relevant primary sources, secondary literature and selected illustrations. Several panoptical asylums were built in Great Britain. In France, Italy and Germany, a unique example was realised. The entire ward could be checked from a central room. This ensured the optimal surveillance of the patients and enabled the minimisation of staff. In contrast to the vicinal emergent industrial cities Erlangen disposed of enough building ground. There, Johann Michael Leupoldt (1794-1874) gave lectures dealing only with psychiatry. Thanks to his advice, the first Bavarian mental home was completed within only 12 years. The cruciform floor plan was supplemented by cross buildings. This constituted a relevant modification of the panoptical system. Although the "H-design" has been evaluated as more adequate, the obsolete architectural "concept of rays" was chosen for the asylum in Erlangen. Did financial distress play a decisive role? Neither the files nor Leupoldt's autobiography take a firm stand on this point. As the TRC-project may serve as a document for future medical progress, it is important to remember the "Kreis-Irrenanstalt Erlangen" as a milestone in the evolution of psychiatric architecture. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. [Asylum Law and Mental Health: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of the Coaction of Medical and Legal Aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewald, Bernd; Gieseking, Janina; Vogelbusch, Oliver; Markus, Inessa; Gallhofer, Bernd; Knipper, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Interdisciplinary analysis of the consequences of laws and legal practice for mental health conditions of asylum seekers and psychiatric care. Based on the case study of a Kurdish woman with complex trauma-related psychiatric disorder, who had been in psychiatric hospital care for 25 months, the legal and medical facts are exposed, followed by a discussion referring to theoretical approaches from medical anthropology. Immigration laws and legal practice can have harmful consequences, which can be interpreted as "structural violence". In case of traumatized refugees, the coaction of legal and medical aspects has to be acknowledged seriously by the medical, legal and political parts involved. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Non-clinicians' judgments about asylum seekers' mental health: how do legal representatives of asylum seekers decide when to request medico-legal reports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Shaw, Lucy; Pistrang, Nancy; Herlihy, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Procedures for determining refugee status across Europe are being speeded up, despite the high prevalence of mental health difficulties among asylum seekers. An assurance given is that ''vulnerable applicants'' will be identified and excluded from accelerated procedures. Although experts have recommended assessments to be undertaken by experienced clinicians, this is unlikely to happen for political and financial reasons. Understanding how non-clinically qualified personnel perform assessments of mental health issues is timely and crucial. Misrecognition of refugees due to the inappropriate use of accelerated procedures involves the risk of returning the very people who have the right to protection from further persecution. To examine the decision making of immigration lawyers, who are an example of a group of nonclinicians who decide when and whether to refer asylum-seekers for psychiatric assessment. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 legal representatives working with people seeking refugee or human rights protection in the United Kingdom. The resultant material was analysed using Framework Analysis. Themes clustered around the legal case, the client, the representative and the systems, all with sub-themes. A mapping exercise integrated these themes to show how representatives brought together questions of (1) evidential reasons for a report, influenced by their legal, psychological and case law knowledge, and (2) perceived evidence of mental distress, influenced by professional and personal experiences and expectations. The legal representatives interviewed were well-informed and trained in psychological issues as well as clearly dedicated to their clients. This helped them to attempt quasi-diagnoses of common mental health problems. They nonetheless demonstrated stereotypical understanding of post-traumatic stress disorder and other possible diagnoses and the role of subjectivity. The study has implications for other groups - particularly those

  7. Non-clinicians’ judgments about asylum seekers’ mental health: how do legal representatives of asylum seekers decide when to request medico-legal reports?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Wilson-Shaw

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background : Procedures for determining refugee status across Europe are being speeded up, despite the high prevalence of mental health difficulties among asylum seekers. An assurance given is that ‘‘vulnerable applicants’’ will be identified and excluded from accelerated procedures. Although experts have recommended assessments to be undertaken by experienced clinicians, this is unlikely to happen for political and financial reasons. Understanding how non-clinically qualified personnel perform assessments of mental health issues is timely and crucial. Misrecognition of refugees due to the inappropriate use of accelerated procedures involves the risk of returning the very people who have the right to protection from further persecution. Objective : To examine the decision making of immigration lawyers, who are an example of a group of nonclinicians who decide when and whether to refer asylum-seekers for psychiatric assessment. Method : Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 legal representatives working with people seeking refugee or human rights protection in the United Kingdom. The resultant material was analysed using Framework Analysis. Results : Themes clustered around the legal case, the client, the representative and the systems, all with sub-themes. A mapping exercise integrated these themes to show how representatives brought together questions of (1 evidential reasons for a report, influenced by their legal, psychological and case law knowledge, and (2 perceived evidence of mental distress, influenced by professional and personal experiences and expectations. Conclusions : The legal representatives interviewed were well-informed and trained in psychological issues as well as clearly dedicated to their clients. This helped them to attempt quasi-diagnoses of common mental health problems. They nonetheless demonstrated stereotypical understanding of post-traumatic stress disorder and other possible diagnoses and the

  8. Asylum seekers in Denmark--a study of health status and grade of traumatization of newly arrived asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmas, Tania Nicole; Møller, Eva; Buhmannr, Caecilie; Bunch, Vibeke; Jensen, Jean Hald; Hansen, Trine Nørregård; Jørgensen, Louise Møller; Kjaer, Claes; Mannstaedt, Maiken; Oxholm, Annemette; Skau, Jutta; Theilade, Lotte; Worm, Lise; Ekstrøm, Morten

    2008-01-01

    An unknown number of asylum seekers arriving in Denmark have been exposed to torture or have experienced other traumatising events in their country of origin. The health of traumatised asylum seekers, both physically and mentally, is affected upon arrival to Denmark, and time in asylum centres leads to further deterioration in health. One hundred forty-two (N=142) newly arrived asylum seekers were examined at Center Sandholm by Amnesty International Danish Medical Group from the 1st of September until the 31st of December 2007. The asylum seekers came from 33 different countries, primarily representing Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Syria, and Chechnya. Of the asylum seekers, 45 percent had been exposed to torture--approximately one-third within the year of arrival to Denmark. Unsystematic blows, personal threats or threats to family, degrading treatment, isolation, and witnessing torture of others were the main torture methods reported. The majority of the asylum seekers had witnessed armed conflict, persecution, and imprisonment. The study showed that physical symptoms were approximately twice as frequent and psychological symptoms were approximately two to three times as frequent among torture survivors as among non-tortured asylum seekers. However, even the health of non-tortured asylum seekers was affected. Among the torture survivors, 63 percent fulfilled the criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder, and 30-40 percent of the torture survivors were depressed, in anguish, anxious, and tearful in comparison to 5-10 percent of the non-tortured asylum seekers. Further, 42 percent of torture survivors had torture-related scars. Torture survivors amid newly arrived asylum seekers are an extremely vulnerable group, hence examination and inquiry about the torture history is extremely important in order to identify this population to initiate the necessary medical treatment and social assistance. Amnesty International Danish Medical group is currently planning a follow

  9. The meaning and mental health consequences of long-term immigration detention for people seeking asylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Guy J; Kaplan, Ida; Sampson, Robyn C; Tucci, Maria Montagna

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present research was to examine the experience of extended periods of immigration detention from the perspective of previously detained asylum seekers and to identify the consequences of these experiences for life after release. The study sample comprised seventeen adult refugees (sixteen male and one female; average age 42 years), who had been held in immigration detention funded by the Australian government for on average three years and two months. They were interviewed on average three years and eight months following their release and had been granted permanent visa status or such status was imminent. The study employed a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to explore detention and post-detention experiences, and mental health some years after release. The qualitative component consisted of semi-structured interviews exploring psychological well-being, daily life, significant events, relationships, and ways of coping throughout these periods. This was supplemented with standardised quantitative measures of current mental health and quality of life. All participants were struggling to rebuild their lives in the years following release from immigration detention, and for the majority the difficulties experienced were pervasive. Participants suffered an ongoing sense of insecurity and injustice, difficulties with relationships, profound changes to view of self and poor mental health. Depression and demoralisation, concentration and memory disturbances, and persistent anxiety were very commonly reported. Standardised measures found high rates of depression, anxiety, PTSD and low quality of life scores. The results strongly suggest that the psychological and interpersonal difficulties participants were suffering at the time of interview were the legacy of their adverse experiences while detained. The current study assists in identifying the characteristics of prolonged immigration detention producing long-term psychological harm

  10. Mental health and trauma in asylum seekers landing in Sicily in 2015: a descriptive study of neglected invisible wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepet, Anna; Rita, Francesco; Reid, Anthony; Van den Boogaard, Wilma; Deiana, Pina; Quaranta, Gaia; Barbieri, Aurelia; Bongiorno, Francesco; Di Carlo, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, Italy was the second most common point of entry for asylum seekers into Europe after Greece. The vast majority embarked from war-torn Libya; 80,000 people claimed asylum that year. Their medical conditions were assessed on arrival but their mental health needs were not addressed in any way, despite the likelihood of serious trauma before and during migration. Médecins sans Frontières (MSF), in agreement with the Italian Ministry of Health, provided mental health (MH) assessment and care for recently-landed asylum seekers in Sicily. This study documents mental health conditions, potentially traumatic events and post-migratory living difficulties experienced by asylum seekers in the MSF programme in 2014-15. All asylum seekers transiting the 15 MSF-supported centres were invited to a psycho-educational session. A team of psychologists and cultural mediators then provided assessment and care for those identified with MH conditions. Potentially traumatic events experienced before and during the journey, as well as post-migratory living difficulties, were recorded. All those diagnosed with MH conditions from October 2014 to December 2015 were included in the study. Among 385 individuals who presented themselves for a MH screening during the study period, 193 (50%) were identified and diagnosed with MH conditions. Most were young, West African males who had left their home-countries more than a year prior to arrival. The most common MH conditions were post traumatic stress disorder (31%) and depression (20%). Potentially traumatic events were experienced frequently in the home country (60%) and during migration (89%). Being in a combat situation or at risk of death, having witnessed violence or death and having been in detention were the main traumas. Lack of activities, worries about home, loneliness and fear of being sent home were the main difficulties at the AS centres. MH conditions, potentially traumatic events and post-migratory living difficulties are

  11. A cross-sectional survey on gender-based violence and mental health among female urban refugees and asylum seekers in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morof, Diane F; Sami, Samira; Mangeni, Maria; Blanton, Curtis; Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Tomczyk, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    To assess gender-based violence and mental health outcomes among a population of female urban refugees and asylum seekers. In a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study conducted in 2010 in Kampala, Uganda, a study team interviewed a stratified random sample of female refugees and asylum seekers aged 15-59 years from the Democratic Republic of Congo and Somalia. Questionnaires were used to collect information about recent and lifetime exposure to sexual and physical violence, and symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Among the 500 women selected, 117 (23.4%) completed interviews. The weighted lifetime prevalences of experiencing any (physical and/or sexual) violence, physical violence, and sexual violence were 77.5% (95% CI 66.6-88.4), 76.2% (95% CI 65.2-87.2), and 63.3% (95% CI 51.2-75.4), respectively. Lifetime history of physical violence was associated with PTSD symptoms (Pviolence (P=0.014). Overall, 112 women had symptoms of depression (weighted prevalence 92.0; 95% CI 83.9-100) and 83 had PTSD symptoms (weighted prevalence 71.1; 95% CI 59.9-82.4). Prevalences of violence, depression, and PTSD symptoms among female urban refugees in Kampala are high. Additional services and increased availability of psychosocial programs for refugees are needed. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Policies of access to healthcare services for accompanied asylum-seeking children in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandahl, Hinuga; Norredam, Marie; Hjern, Anders; Asher, Henry; Nielsen, Signe Smith

    2013-08-01

    Asylum-seeking children constitute a vulnerable group with high prevalence and risk for mental health problems. The aim of this study was to compare policies of access to healthcare services, including physical examination and screening for mental health problems on arrival, for accompanied asylum-seeking children in the Nordic countries. This study was based on the national reports "Reception of refugee children in the Nordic countries" written by independent national experts for the Nordic Network for Research on Refugee Children, supplemented by information from relevant authorities. In Sweden, Norway and Iceland, asylum-seeking children had access to healthcare services equal to children in the general population. On a policy level, Denmark imposed restrictions on non-acute hospitalisations and prolonged specialist treatments. Regarding health examinations, Sweden deviated from the Nordic pattern by not performing these systematically. In Denmark, Iceland, and some counties in Sweden, but not in Norway, screening for mental health problems was offered to asylum-seeking children. Access to healthcare services for asylum-seeking children differs in the Nordic countries; the consequences of these systematic differences for the individual asylum-seeking child are unknown. For asylum-seeking children, access to healthcare has to be considered in a wider context that includes the core conditions of being an asylum-seeker. A comparative study at policy level needs to be supplemented with empirical follow-up studies of the well-being of the study population to document potential consequences of policies in practice.

  13. Mental health interventions for traumatized asylum seekers and refugees: What do we know about their efficacy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slobodin, O.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of trauma-related problems among refugees and asylum seekers is extremely high due to adverse experiences associated with forced migration. Although the literature presents a considerable number of guidelines and theoretical frameworks for working with traumatized refugees

  14. Australian asylum policies: have they violated the right to health of asylum seekers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Vanessa

    2009-02-01

    Notwithstanding recent migration policy amendments, there is concern that Australian asylum policies have disproportionately burdened the health and wellbeing of onshore asylum seekers. There may be a case to be made that Australian governments have been in violation of the right to health of this population. The objective of this paper is to critically examine these issues and assess the implications for public health practice. The author undertook a review of the recent empirical literature on the health effects of post-migration stressors arising from Australian policies of immigration detention, temporary protection and the restriction of Medicare to some asylum seekers. This evidence was examined within the context of Australia's international law obligations. Findings reveal that Australian asylum policies of detention, temporary protection and the exclusion of some asylum seekers from Medicare rights have been associated with adverse mental health outcomes for this population. This is attributable to the impact of these policies on accessing health care and the underlying determinants of health for asylum seekers. It is arguable that Australian Governments have been discriminating against asylum seekers by withholding access on the grounds of their migration status, to health care and to the core determinants of health in this context. In so doing, Australia may have been in violation of its obligation to respect the right to health of this population. While the 'right to health' framework has much to offer public health, it is an undervalued and poorly understood discipline. The author argues for more education, research and advocacy around the intersection between heath and human rights.

  15. Lessons from history: asylum patients' Christmas experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Diane

    This article outlines the asylum building programme of the mid-to-late nineteenth century and focuses on case studies of the two Hampshire asylums built during this period, the subject of the author's doctoral thesis. It demonstrates the plight of 'pauper lunatic' before asylum reform and contrasts this with the improved quality of life provided by the Hampshire County Lunatic Asylum and the Borough of Portsmouth Lunatic Asylum respectively. Asylum care during this period followed the moral treatment regime which became the Victorian blueprint for mental health, components of which are illustrated. Criticism of this regime is addressed briefly and arguments are made against anachronistic analysis. Comparison with contemporary in-patient care and treatment is made concluding with a call to reconsider some of the better aspects of earlier care delivery. The particular experience of patients in Hampshire asylums at Christmas is used to exemplify the points raised.

  16. In their own words: a synthesis of the qualitative research on the experiences of adults seeking asylum. A systematic review of qualitative findings in forced migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Thomas; Vidgen, Andrew; Roberts, Neil

    2017-12-01

    Quantitative research indicates that some forced migrants have mental health needs. Asylum seekers are a group of forced migrants applying for asylum status in a host country, and are often subject to rights restrictions and threat of deportation, though little is known about subjective experiences of the asylum journey and process of claiming asylum. The current paper therefore describes a systematic review of the qualitative literature, examining asylum seekers experiences of asylum journey, from country of origin, to arrival and adaptation to host countries. A search of four databases yielded 122 studies. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied and 15 studies were retained and critically appraised. The country where research was conducted, study aims, sample characteristics and methodological approaches were all critically reviewed for included studies. Study aims fell into four themes; 'an aspect of the asylum seeker journey'; 'psychological distress and wellbeing'; 'cultural identity and adaptation to new environment' and 'social welfare, employment and housing'. Studies were generally high quality and indicate issues around choice of asylum destination, distress created by uncertainty around asylum decision and hostile reactions of host communities. However, few studies have examined the experiences of asylum seekers specifically, which is important given the unique circumstances of this population.

  17. 'They first killed his heart (then) he took his own life'. Part 1: a review of the context and literature on mental health issues for refugees and asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Nicholas G

    2005-12-01

    This is the first in a two-part series of papers examining mental health issues for refugees and asylum seekers. Beginning with the suicide of an asylum seeker in Scotland, the paper emphasizes mental health issues for adult and child asylum seekers, stress and memory, suicide, self-harm, risk and protective factors, compulsory health treatments and the prevention of mental illness. It sets the scene for the second paper by drawing implications for nursing practice in the community. Although most literature on refugee and asylum seeker mental health exists outside of nursing scholarship, a majority of the issues reviewed in this paper are mutual challenges for all in the health and helping professions. Nurses interested in refugee and migration issues face two intertwined challenges: that of how to assist migrants with their diverse mental health needs and how, at the same time, to contribute to a society that can promote mental health for all by taking on both the difficulties and opportunities posed by cultural diversity.

  18. [Communication and mental health: a discursive analysis of posters of the National Anti-Asylum Campaign Movement in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espirito Santo, Wanda; Araujo, Inesita Soares de; Amarante, Paulo

    2016-01-26

    The article analyzes two posters that with the same slogan - "Asylums nevermore" - promote National Anti-Asylum Day. The analysis was based on principles of the symptomatology of social discourse, articulating analytical concepts and practices arising from the French School and the pragmatic dimension of discourse analysis. The results revealed affirmation strategies of the movement for the qualification and exacerbation of the issues of the enunciation and other enunciators, namely political actors of the anti-asylum movement and their allies. It also reveals the attempt to disqualify competitive discourse, especially that which discloses the serious problems of its institutional models, but also by juxtaposing the positive presence of the issuers and enunciators of the posters.

  19. Daily Occupations among asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le

    2014-01-01

    which might even influence their identity. Such deprivation can eventually lead to dissatisfaction with everyday life and to occupational dysfunction, i.e. a decline in ADL ability. Asylum seekers are a group who are more likely to suffer from health problems than the background population. Especially...... torture survivors suffer from ill health. Pain and psychological symptoms are among the most frequent health issues for both asylum seekers and torture survivors and may cause occupation-related problems. The overarching aim of this thesis was to investigate how staying in an asylum centre influenced...... was to assess whether torture had an influence on the occupational satisfaction and performance, and whether this had changed after ten-months. Forty-three asylum seekers from Afghanistan, Iran and Syria participated at baseline and ten months later 17 were available for inclusion in follow-up studies. Study I...

  20. Suicide death and hospital-treated suicidal behaviour in asylum seekers in the Netherlands: a national registry-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oostrum Irene EA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several suicide and suicidal behaviour risk factors are highly prevalent in asylum seekers, but there is little insight into the suicide death rate and the suicidal behaviour incidence in this population. The main objective of this study is to assess the burden of suicide and hospital-treated non-fatal suicidal behaviour in asylum seekers in the Netherlands and to identify factors that could guide prevention. Methods We obtained data on cases of suicide and suicidal behaviour from all asylum seeker reception centres in the Netherlands (period 2002-2007, age 15+. The suicide death rates in this population and in subgroups by sex, age and region of origin were compared with the rate in the Dutch population; the rates of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour were compared with that in the population of The Hague using indirect age group standardization. Results The study included 35 suicide deaths and 290 cases of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour. The suicide death rate and the incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour differed between subgroups by sex and region of origin. For male asylum seekers, the suicide death rate was higher than that of the Dutch population (N = 32; RR = 2.0, 95%CI 1.37-2.83. No difference was found between suicide mortality in female asylum seekers and in the female general population of the Netherlands (N = 3; RR = 0.73; 95%CI 0.15-2.07. The incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour was high in comparison with the population of The Hague for males and females from Europe and the Middle East/South West Asia, and low for males and females from Africa. Health professionals knew about mental health problems prior to the suicidal behaviour for 80% of the hospital-treated suicidal behaviour cases in asylum seekers. Conclusions In this study the suicide death rate was higher in male asylum seekers than in males in the reference population. The incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour

  1. Obesity in asylum seekers' children in The Netherlands - the use of national reference charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga-Boelen, Annette A. M.; Wiegersma, P. Auke; Bijleveld, Charles M. A.; Verkade, Henkjan J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Growth assessment can be used to monitor health at individual and population level. For asylum seekers children with different geographic backgrounds, growth reference values are frequently not available. We assessed nutritional condition and growth of asylum seekers children upon

  2. Usage of psychiatric emergency services by asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reko, Amra; Bech, Per; Wohlert, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    predominantly male and married. The group consisted primarily (61%) of failed asylum seekers. Most patients (81%) presented with relevant mental health problems. The main reasons for presenting to the acute psychiatric emergency service were suicidal ideation and/or behaviour (60%). The most frequent diagnosis...... by asylum seekers in Denmark shows some of the acute mental health needs asylum seekers present with. The findings of high levels of suicidal ideation and possible diagnostic difficulties are discussed, as well as possible improvements of the referral and psychiatric evaluation processes....

  3. Mental Health Consultation Among Ontario's Immigrant Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Farah; Khanlou, Nazilla; Macpherson, Alison; Tamim, Hala

    2017-11-16

    To determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of past-year mental health consultation for Ontario's adult (18 + years old) immigrant populations. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2012 was used to calculate the prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation by service provider type. Characteristics associated with mental health consultation were determined by carrying out multivariable logistic regression analysis on merged CCHS 2008-2012 data. Adult immigrant populations in Ontario (n = 3995) had lower estimated prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation across all service provider types compared to Canadian-born populations (n = 14,644). Amongst those who reported past-year mental health consultation, 57.89% of Ontario immigrants contacted their primary care physician, which was significantly higher than the proportion who consulted their family doctor from Canadian-born populations (45.31%). The factors of gender, age, racial/ethnic background, education level, working status, food insecurity status, self-perceived health status, smoking status, alcohol drinking status, years since immigration, and age at time of immigration were significantly associated with past-year mental health consultation for immigrant populations. Ontario's adult immigrant populations most commonly consult their family doctor for mental health care. Potential exists for expanding the mental health care role of primary care physicians as well as efforts to increase accessibility of specialized mental health services. Integrated, coordinated care where primary care physicians, specialized mental health professionals, social workers, and community educators, etc. working together in a sort of "one-stop-shop" may be the most effective way to mitigate gaps in the mental health care system. In order to effectively tailor mental health policy, programming, and promotion to suit the needs of immigrant populations initiatives that focus on

  4. The Impact of Detention on the Health of Asylum Seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Montgomery, Edith; Kastrup, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This review assesses the evidence about the effects of detention on the mental and physical health and social functioning of asylum seekers. Method and Analysis: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to conduct a systematic review. Meta-analytic methods were used...... to quantitatively synthesize the study results.  Results: Primary study effect sizes for post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety, while the asylum seekers were still detained lies in the range 0.35–0.99, all favoring the nondetained asylum group. Author’s Conclusions: There is some evidence...... to suggest an independent adverse effect of detention on the mental health of asylum seekers. The conclusions should however be interpreted with caution as they are based on few studies. More research is needed in order to fully investigate the effect of detention on mental health....

  5. [Psychiatric expert opinions on asylum seekers in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieberer, Marcel; Ziegenbein, Marc; Eckhardt, Gudrun; Machleidt, Wielant; Calliess, Iris T

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the frequency of traumatisation, suicidality and given diagnoses in expert opinions on asylum seekers and to describe the sociodemographic characteristics of this population. The psychiatric expert opinions on asylum seekers, furnished in an 8-year-period at Hannover Medical School, were analysed retrospectively for qualitative and quantitative characteristics. 62 psychiatric expert opinions on asylum seekers were included in this study. The asylum seekers originated from 18 different countries, mainly from Turkey and former Yugoslavia. Most expert opinions were given in secondary asylum procedures, i. e. after the initial asylum request had been rejected. The asylum seekers reported on traumatisation in 82.3 %. The most frequently reported forms of traumatisation were rape in female, and torture in male persons. According to ICD-10 or DSM-IV-R criteria posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was the most frequent diagnosis (74.1 %) in this study. The second most common diagnoses were depressive disorders (ICD-10: F32.x in 33.9 % and ICD-10: F33.x in 25.9 %). Suicidal tendency was found in 56.5 % of the asylum seekers. Cultural differences, language barriers, a heavy burden by psychological symptoms, and clinical severity are difficulties in the process of psychiatric assessment of refugees in legal asylum procedures. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Asylum nursing in the UK at the end of the Victorian era: Hill End Asylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, N

    2005-02-01

    This paper explores aspects of asylum care at the beginning of the 20th century. Archival materials from Hill End, the Hertford County Asylum, provide a single historical case study. The study focuses on the methods and standards by which asylum nursing was monitored and also examines aspects of the origins and work life of the nursing staff. Standards of care were monitored by a number of official bodies visiting the asylum, whilst the medical superintendent's role focused on the supervision and disciplinary control of nursing staff. Evaluation reports at the time were largely favourable in relation to the care given in Hill End Asylum. However, the reports were based on the relatively limited expectations of the time: primarily relating to the cleanliness, quietness and lack of overt complaints regarding care from patients. Further measures reported related to: death rates, wet beds, numbers of staff dismissed, together with the use of mechanical restraints and seclusion. Nursing staff in the asylum were not normally recruited locally and frequently stayed for only short periods of time. Training provided was very limited at Hill End although a national nurse training scheme was well established by this time. The nursing issues important within the asylum were common to all asylums at the time, and some are still significant today. This paper provides an insight into the historical development of the mental health nursing profession in the UK and its relationship with the medical profession. It also provides evidence that current attempts to monitor the quality of care through clinical governance processes are far from new.

  7. The Rise of Mental Health Nursing : A History of Psychiatric Care in Dutch Asylums, 1890-1920

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, Geertje

    2003-01-01

    The Rise of Mental Health Nursing onderzoekt de tegenstrijdigheden in de op het ziekenhuis georiënteerde inrichtingszorg, die rond 1900 opkwam. Bovendien illustreert het boek de sociale complexiteit van de psychiatrische zorg. Op basis van archiefmateriaal uit vier Nederlandse psychiatrische

  8. Population mental health: evidence, policy, and public health practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    ... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well-­ being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...

  9. Safe in our hands?: a study of suicide and self-harm in asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliet

    2008-05-01

    This study examined the incidence of suicide and self-harm in asylum seekers in the UK, both those in detention and in the community. The investigation revealed that data recording is seriously flawed or sometimes non-existent. However, the scanty data those were available from Immigration Removal Centres, coroners' records and Prison Ombudsman's reports showed high levels of self-harm and suicide for detained asylum seekers as compared with the United Kingdom prison population. It is suggested that this could be attributed to routine failure to observe and mitigate risk factors. The author makes the following recommendations: coroners should record asylum seeker status and ethnicity of deceased, self-harm monitoring in the community should record asylum seeker status and ethnicity, health care in immigration removal centres should meet the same standards as UK prisons as a minimum, allegation of torture by immigration detainees should trigger a case management review and risk assessment for continued detention, and this process should be open to audit, and interpreters should be used for mental state examinations unless their English has been shown to the fluent.

  10. Mental health in war-affected populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, W.F.

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses mental health problems in populations in nonwestern war-affected regions, and methods to mitigate these problems through interventions focusing on social reintegration. It describes a number of studies among war-affected populations in widely different areas: refugees from the

  11. The physical health status, service utilisation and barriers to accessing care for asylum seekers residing in the community: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadgkiss, Emily J; Renzaho, Andre M N

    2014-05-01

    To document physical health problems that asylum seekers experience on settlement in the community and to assess their utilisation of healthcare services and barriers to care, in an international context. A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies was undertaken according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase and CINAHL databases were searched from 2002 to October 2012, focusing on adult asylum seekers residing in the community in high-income countries. The search yielded 1499 articles, of which 32 studies met the inclusion criteria - 23 quantitative and nine qualitative. Asylum seekers had complex health profiles spanning a range of infectious diseases, chronic non-communicable conditions, and reproductive-health issues. They appeared to utilise health services at a higher rate than the host population, yet faced significant barriers to care. The findings of this study highlight the health inequities faced by asylum seekers residing in the communities of host countries, internationally. National data on asylum seekers' health profiles, service utilisation and barriers to care, as well as cross-country policy comparisons, are urgently required for the development of effective Australian health programs and evidence-based policy. What is known about the topic? The clinical and political focus of asylum seekers' health has largely been on the higher incidence of mental disorders and the impact of immigration detention. Since policy changes made in late 2011, an increasing number of asylum seekers have been permitted to live in the community while their claims are processed. There is a paucity of research exploring the physical health needs of asylum seekers residing in the community. What does this paper add? The international literature highlights the complexity of asylum seekers' health profiles. Although they appear to utilise health services at a higher rate than the host population

  12. Do resettlement variables predict psychiatric treatment outcomes in a sample of asylum-seeking survivors of torture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitsett, David; Sherman, Martin F

    2017-12-01

    Mental health clinicians who work with asylum seekers provide services to patients who face stressful everyday living conditions. However, little is known about how these problems potentially impact psychiatric treatment within these populations. The purpose of this study was thus to examine whether resettlement factors predict outcomes of a mental health intervention for a sample of asylum-seeking survivors of torture. The study included data from a US outpatient clinic that specialized in treating asylum-seeking survivors of torture. Patients (primarily from Iraq, Afghanistan and African Countries) were evaluated on demographic factors at intake and psychiatric symptoms throughout the course of treatment. Patients experienced significant reductions in depression, anxiety and trauma symptoms, although symptoms still remained near or above clinical thresholds. Stable, uncrowded housing conditions significantly predicted lower depression, anxiety and trauma symptoms at follow-up. These findings support the hypotheses that individuals seeking asylum within the United States who have survived torture can benefit from psychiatric treatment and emphasize the importance of stable living conditions in improving treatment effectiveness. This suggests the need for further research on social predictors of treatment outcomes, as well as the need for clinicians and policymakers to target improved housing as a potentially important tool to reduce psychiatric problems related to torture and forced migration.

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder among asylum seekers and refugees in Istanbul may be predicted by torture and loss due to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufan, Ali Evren; Alkin, Melis; Bosgelmez, Sukriye

    2013-06-01

    Turkey is both a source and target for asylum seekers seeking refugee status in countries of European Union. There is a scarcity of research on the mental health issues of asylum seekers and refugees residing in Turkey. This study aimed: 1) to provide clinical and demographic information on asylum seekers and refugees receiving mental health services from a non-governmental refugee support program in Istanbul between 2005 and 2007, and 2) to evaluate the differences between patients diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with those who did not meet criteria. The study was conducted at the Mental Health Division of the Refugee Advocacy Support Group. Between July 2005 and February 2007, 1209 asylum seekers applied to the support group; 75 of these individuals (6.2%) were referred for psychiatric evaluation while 57 were diagnosed as having a psychopathology. The number of analyzed subjects was 57. PTSD and major depressive disorder were the most common diagnoses (55.2% for both). The most common criteria of PTSD reported were problems in concentration and social isolation (97.3% for both). Suffering torture and losing a significant other due to violence were found to be associated with a diagnosis of PTSD. This study is the first of its kind to be conducted on a mixed refugee population residing in Turkey and focusing on their mental health problems. Our results should be tested within larger samples of refugees residing in different cities of Turkey.

  14. Perspectives on Erving Goffman's "Asylums" fifty years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlam, John; Gill, Irwin; Glackin, Shane N; Kelly, Brendan D; Scanlon, Christopher; Mac Suibhne, Seamus

    2013-08-01

    Erving Goffman's "Asylums" is a key text in the development of contemporary, community-orientated mental health practice. It has survived as a trenchant critique of the asylum as total institution, and its publication in 1961 in book form marked a further stage in the discrediting of the asylum model of mental health care. In this paper, some responses from a range of disciplines to this text, 50 years on, are presented. A consultant psychiatrist with a special interest in cultural psychiatry and mental health legislation, two collaborating psychotherapists in adult and forensic mental health, a philosopher, and a recent medical graduate, present their varying responses to the text. The editors present these with the hope of encouraging further dialogue and debate from service users, carers, clinicians, and academics and researchers across a range of disciplines.

  15. Mental Health and the Transgender Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Tamar C; Erickson-Schroth, Laura

    2016-12-01

    Although research into the physical and mental health disparities faced by transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) populations is becoming more popular, historically it has been limited. It is now recognized that TGNC people experience disproportionate rates of negative mental health outcomes relative to both their gender-normative, heterosexual peers, as well as their gender-normative lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) peers. The theoretical basis of current transgender mental health research is rooted in the Minority Stress Model, which postulates that we live in a hetero-centric, gender-normative society that stigmatizes and discriminates against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, subjecting them to chronic stress (Hendricks & Testa, 2012; Meyer, 1995). This chronic, potentially compounding stress, is responsible for the increased risk of negative mental health outcomes in LGBT populations. TGNC people, in particular, may experience more adverse outcomes than their LGB peers due to rejection and discrimination within society at large as well as within the LGB community. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(12), 44-48.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Psychedelics and mental health: a population study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri S Krebs

    Full Text Available The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline.To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population.Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale, mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive, symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis, and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events.21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote, or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems.We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems.

  17. [Penrose's law: reality or fiction? Mental health system and the size of prison population - international overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapos, Miklós Péter

    2009-07-12

    According to the Penrose's law, outlined on the basis of a comparative study of European statistics, there is an inverse relationship between the number of psychiatric beds and prison population. Based on international data, interrelationship among prison, asylum, psychiatric disease and criminal action are investigated in the present study, paying particular attention to the event of deinstitutionalization. Prevalence of mental and addictive diseases as well as psychological disturbances in prison is characterized by epidemiological data. As proposed by Penrose, an inverse relationship between the number of psychiatric beds and prison population can be observed in Hungary, too. To get a deeper insight into the mainstream of the events, economic, sociological, philosophical, as well as therapeutic aspects initializing deinstitutionalization are highlighted in the course of analysis. On the basis of data, it can be assumed that members the same population are confined to both systems. The author arrives at the conclusion that deinstitutionalization has in fact led to trans-institutionalization, because of, on one hand, the limited capacity of community treatment facilities; on the other hand, the community treatment itself cannot provide adequate treatment options to those suffering from severe, chronic mental diseases or comorbid states. In addition, the rate of financial support and the methods for prevention and treatment are insufficient to protect patients from the effects of revolving door.

  18. Differences in the prevalence of hospitalizations and utilization of emergency outpatient services for ambulatory care sensitive conditions between asylum-seeking children and children of the general population: a cross-sectional medical records study (2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célina Lichtl

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive (ACS conditions are established indicators for the availability and quality of ambulatory care. We aimed to assess the differences between asylum-seeking children and children of the general population in a German city with respect to (i the prevalence of ACS hospitalizations, and (ii the utilization of emergency outpatient services for ACS conditions. Methods Using anonymous account data, all children admitted to the University Hospital Heidelberg in 2015 were included in our study. A unique cost unit distinguished asylum seekers residing in a nearby reception center (exposed from the children of the general population. We adapted international lists of ACS conditions and calculated the prevalence of ACS hospitalizations and the utilization of emergency outpatient services for ACS conditions, attributable fractions among the exposed (Afe and the population attributable fraction among total admissions (PAF for each outcome. Differences in the prevalence of each outcome between exposed and controls were analyzed in logistic regression models adjusted for sex, age group and quarterly admission. Results Of the 32,015 admissions in 2015, 19.9% (6287 were from inpatient and 80.1% (25,638 from outpatient care. In inpatient care, 9.8% (622 of all admissions were hospitalizations for ACS conditions. The Afe of ACS hospitalizations was 46.57%, the PAF was 1.12%. Emergency service use for ACS conditions could be identified in 8.3% (3088 of all admissions (Afe: 79.57%, PAF: 5.08%. The odds ratio (OR of asylum-seeking children being hospitalized for ACS conditions in comparison to the control group was 1.81 [95% confidence interval, CI: 1.02; 3.2]. The OR of the asylumseeking population compared to the general population for the utilization of emergency service use for ACS conditions was 4.93 [95% CI: 4.11; 5.91]. Conclusions Asylum-seeking children had significantly higher odds of ACS

  19. Facilitating ‘reasonable hope’ with refugees and asylum seekers

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    Greg Turner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The loss of hope over time has led to despair and a mental health crisis for refugees and asylum seekers on Manus Island and Nauru. The use of the principle of ‘reasonable hope’, however, can support their mental health and well-being.  

  20. 'Amusements are provided': asylum entertainment and recreation in Australia and New Zealand c.1860-c.1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Dolly

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the official 'entertainment', in all its forms, provided to inmates in Australian and New Zealand asylums--later mental hospitals--between c.1860 and c.1945. Visitors came into asylum grounds and patients were permitted periods of leave, all for the purposes of entertainment and recreation. Surviving recreation buildings, their grounds and institutional archives, bear silent witness to the noisy and lively recreational activities of past patients, staff and visitors. This chapter reconstructs these practices in twenty public and three private asylums from this period by examining a diverse range of sources, including archives, histories of asylums and newspaper articles.

  1. Neuromarkers for Mental Disorders: Harnessing Population Neuroscience

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    Lee Jollans

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite abundant research into the neurobiology of mental disorders, to date neurobiological insights have had very little impact on psychiatric diagnosis or treatment. In this review, we contend that the search for neuroimaging biomarkers—neuromarkers—of mental disorders is a highly promising avenue toward improved psychiatric healthcare. However, many of the traditional tools used for psychiatric neuroimaging are inadequate for the identification of neuromarkers. Specifically, we highlight the need for larger samples and for multivariate analysis. Approaches such as machine learning are likely to be beneficial for interrogating high-dimensional neuroimaging data. We suggest that broad, population-based study designs will be important for developing neuromarkers of mental disorders, and will facilitate a move away from a phenomenological definition of mental disorder categories and toward psychiatric nosology based on biological evidence. We provide an outline of how the development of neuromarkers should occur, emphasizing the need for tests of external and construct validity, and for collaborative research efforts. Finally, we highlight some concerns regarding the development, and use of, neuromarkers in psychiatric healthcare.

  2. Overgeneral memory in asylum seekers and refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Belinda; Herlihy, Jane; Brewin, Chris R

    2014-09-01

    Studies in western samples have shown that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are associated with overgeneral autobiographical memory retrieval. This study assesses whether this association extends to asylum seekers and refugees from diverse cultural backgrounds. We discuss implications for those providing testimony of their experiences when seeking asylum. 38 asylum seekers and refugees were recruited through clinics and community groups. Clinical interviews assessed PTSD and depression and participants completed a test of autobiographical memory specificity. When accounting for omissions, participants with PTSD and depression recalled a lower proportion of specific memories. Those with PTSD also failed more frequently to report any memory. The sample did not permit separate evaluation of the effects of PTSD and depression on specificity. Lower memory specificity observed in people experiencing PTSD and depression in western populations extends to asylum seekers and refugees from diverse cultural backgrounds. This study adds to the literature suggesting that being recognised as a refugee fleeing persecution is more difficult for those with post-traumatic symptoms and depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunity against measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, diphtheria, tetanus, polio, hepatitis A and hepatitis B among adult asylum seekers in the Netherlands, 2016.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freidl, Gudrun S; Tostmann, Alma; Curvers, Moud; Ruijs, Wilhelmina L M; Smits, Gaby; Schepp, Rutger; Duizer, Erwin; Boland, Greet; de Melker, Hester; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Hautvast, Jeannine L A; Veldhuijzen, Irene K

    2018-01-01

    Asylum seekers are a vulnerable population for contracting infectious diseases. Outbreaks occur among children and adults. In the Netherlands, asylum seeker children are offered vaccination according to the National Immunization Program. Little is known about protection against vaccine-preventable

  4. [Suicide and suicidal behavior among asylum seekers in Denmark during the period 2001-2003. A retrospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staehr, Mia Antoni; Munk-Andersen, Ebbe

    2006-04-24

    Our aim was to examine suicidal behaviours among asylum seekers in Denmark. A retrospective quantitative analysis of data from reports to the Danish Red Cross Asylum Department on suicidal behaviours among persons over 15 years of age in the period 2001-2003 and from 54 medical records of suicidal asylum seekers in Denmark in 2001 was carried out. The number of suicide attempts by asylum seekers in 2001 was 3.4 times higher than by Danish residents. Furthermore, the rate of suicide attempts by asylum seekers grew in the following two years. Suicidal behaviours are most frequent among asylum seekers between 30 and 39 years of age. There are national differences. The preferred method of suicide attempt is intake of medicine. Stress-related diagnoses constitute three fourths of all diagnoses. One analysis suggests that the long waiting time (average 20.8 months) faced by asylum seekers combined with rejection of asylum cases may trigger a rapid suicidal reaction. Other factors may also be active, as 44% of suicide attempts occur within six months after arrival in the country. The results are discussed in relation to other research on the vulnerability of refugees, immigrants and asylum seekers and also in relation to length of waiting time, growing mental morbidity and the increasing number of rejections of asylum applications during recent years, a period characterized by a reduction of staff at the asylum centers. It is recommended that prevention of suicidal behaviour shall be given higher legal and administrative priority.

  5. Nutritional vulnerability seen within asylum seekers in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Sharleen; O'Shea, Tess; Bhusumane, Sibusiso

    2012-04-01

    To examine the extent of nutritional vulnerability seen in a cohort of asylum seekers in Australia. Twenty-one asylum seekers (15 males, 6 females) that used a food bank were interviewed over a 6 week period at the Melbourne based Asylum Seeker Resource Centre about foods consumed in the previous 24-h and any non food bank foods obtained. A basket audit was conducted after participants accessed the food bank on the day of interview, Participants obtained significantly less than the minimum requirements for the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating in the vegetables and legumes (P bank, their primary or sole food source. A high level of nutritional vulnerability was seen in this cohort due to their inability to meet minimum nutritional requirements from their primary food access point. Health professionals working with asylum seeker populations need to be aware of this issue and the resulting potential for longer term ill health as a consequence.

  6. Transition from an asylum seeker-specific health service to mainstream primary care for community-based asylum seekers: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Genevieve L; Harris, Mark F; Smith, Mitchell M

    2018-03-15

    Transition of asylum seekers from special-purpose health services to mainstream primary care is both necessary and difficult. This study explores the issues encountered by asylum seekers undergoing this transition in Sydney, Australia. Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted with nine asylum seeker patients and nine staff working in the sector. Asylum seekers faced significant challenges in the transition to mainstream primary care. Contributing factors included the complexity of health and immigration systems, the way in which asylum seeker-specific services provide care, lack of understanding and accommodation by mainstream general practioner (GP) services, asylum seekers' own lack of understanding of the health system, mental illness, and social and financial pressures. There is a need for better preparation of asylum seekers for the transition to mainstream primary care. Mainstream GPs and other providers need more education and support so that they can better accommodate the needs of asylum seeker patients. This is an important role for Australia's refugee health services and Primary Health Networks.

  7. Transition from an asylum seeker–specific health service to mainstream primary care for community-based asylum seekers: a qualitative interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve L Fair

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Transition of asylum seekers from special-purpose health services to mainstream primary care is both necessary and difficult. This study explores the issues encountered by asylum seekers undergoing this transition in Sydney, Australia. Methods: Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted with nine asylum seeker patients and nine staff working in the sector. Results: Asylum seekers faced significant challenges in the transition to mainstream primary care. Contributing factors included the complexity of health and immigration systems, the way in which asylum seeker–specific services provide care, lack of understanding and accommodation by mainstream general practioner (GP services, asylum seekers’ own lack of understanding of the health system, mental illness, and social and financial pressures. Conclusions: There is a need for better preparation of asylum seekers for the transition to mainstream primary care. Mainstream GPs and other providers need more education and support so that they can better accommodate the needs of asylum seeker patients. This is an important role for Australia’s refugee health services and Primary Health Networks.

  8. Health and health care utilisation among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands: design of a study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devillé Walter

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article discusses the design of a study on the prevalence of health problems (both physical and mental and the utilisation of health care services among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands, including factors that may be related to their health and their utilisation of these services. Methods/Design The study will include random samples of adult asylum seekers and refugees from Afghanistan, Iran and Somali (total planned sample of 600, as these are among the largest groups within the reception centres and municipalities in the Netherlands. The questionnaire that will be used will include questions on physical health (chronic and acute diseases and somatization, mental health (Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 and Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, utilisation of health care services, pre- and post-migratory traumatic experiences, life-style, acculturation, social support and socio-demographic background. The questionnaire has gone through a translation process (translation and back-translation, several checks and a pilot-study and cross-cultural adaptation. Respondents will be interviewed by bilingual and bicultural interviewers who will be specifically trained for this purpose. This article discusses the selection of the study population, the chosen outcome measures, the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the measurement instrument, the training of the interviewers and the practical execution of the study. The information provided may be useful for other researchers in this relatively new field of epidemiological research among various groups of asylum seekers and refugees.

  9. [The end of the asylum, a change in representations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelly, Frédéric

    Through the major changes which the psychiatric hospital has undergone throughout history, the question is raised of the identity of caregivers, what the psychiatric asylum provides as a response to mental illness, and the function of the asylum as a place for receiving and then caring for patients, within society. These radical changes, which undermine the narcissism of caregivers, have consequences both within the psychiatric hospital and society as a whole. Consequences which question the very notion of care in a post-modern society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. [A framework to support action in population mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantoura, Pascale; Roberge, Marie-Claude; Fournier, Louise

    In Quebec, like elsewhere in the world, we are witnessing a growing concern for the population's mental health and for the importance of concentrating efforts on prevention and promotion. In this context, public health actors are invited to adopt a leadership role in advancing mental health promotion and mental disorder prevention goals, and establish the required partnerships with actors from the health and social services and from other sectors who are indispensable to the population mental health agenda. In Canada, public heath actors are not yet sufficiently supported in this role. They express the need to access structuring frameworks which can clarify their action in mental health. This article first presents the momentum for change at the policy level within the field of mental health. A framework to support population mental health action is then presented. The framework identifies the various dimensions underlying the promotion of population mental health as well as the reduction of mental health inequalities. The article finally illustrates how the application of a populational (the application of a populational responsibility perspective) responsibility perspective, as it is defined in the context of Quebec, facilitates the implementation of the various elements of this framework. In the end, public health actors are better equipped to situate their practice in favour of the population's mental health.

  11. [Asylum: the Huge Psychiatric Hospital in the 19th century U.S].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazano, Haruki

    2012-01-01

    The large-scale state psychiatric hospitals, referred to as "asylums," were built in the USA in the 19th century and generally have a bad reputation in Japan as institutions with an unpleasant environment for the patients. Asylums were not built for institutionalizing mental patients. The original meaning of the word asylum is a "retreat" or "sanctuary," and these institutions were originally built to act as sanctuaries for the protection of mental patients. The field of psychiatric medicine in western countries in the 19th century began to embrace the concept of "moral treatment" for mental patients, including no restraint of the patients and treating them in a more open environment. With this background, asylums were built according to the efforts of social activist Dorothea Dix with financial assistance from the Quakers. The psychiatrist Dr. Thomas Kirkbride had a large influence on asylum architecture, and believed that the hospital building and environment as well as location have healing effects on the patients, which he called the "therapeutic landscape". Kirkbridelater proposed an architectural plan that became the basis for subsequent mental hospital architecture, and many asylums were built according to this plan. As the architecture was considered part of the treatment, many leading architects and landscape architects at the time became involved in building asylums. In the later half of the 19th century, over 150 asylums were built across the USA. However, moral treatment fell out of favor toward the end of the 19th century, and the concept of therapeutic landscape was also neglected. The hospitals had many uncured patients, and caregivers became pessimistic about the efficacy of the treatments. Abuse and neglect of the patients were also common. The environment at the asylums deteriorated, which created the image of asylums that, we hold today. Many asylums have been demolished or abandoned. These early attempts at asylum failed due to insufficient

  12. Psychological evaluation of asylum seekers as a therapeutic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangsei, David; Deutsch, Anna C

    2007-01-01

    Torture survivors are often reluctant to tell their stories. They typically make every effort to forget this painful, traumatic experience. Often they do not share with family, friends or healthcare professionals the fact that they have been beaten, raped or subjected to electrical shocks and other terrors. Talking means retrieving memories, triggering the feelings and emotions that accompanied the torture itself. Furthermore, refugee torture survivors feel that people won't understand or believe their experiences. However, survivors who escape their country may need to reveal their torture experience as they apply for asylum in the host country. When they prepare for the asylum process, it may well be the first time that they talk about the torture. Mental health professionals are often called upon to evaluate survivors and prepare affidavits for the asylum process, documenting the effects of torture. This creates a unique and priviliged opportunity to help survivors to address the devastating consequences of torture. Winning asylum is essential to recovery for a torture survivor in a country of refuge. Psychological evaluations of the consequences of torture can present information and evidence to asylum adjudicators which significantly increases understanding of the survivors' background and experiences as well as their manner of self-presentation in the courtroom or interview. They can empower the torture survivor to present his/her experiences more fully and confidently. Even apart from winning asylum, the process of the evaluation has many potential benefits for the survivor's emotional well-being. This includes helping the survivor understand the necessity of telling the story, illuminating the often poorly perceived link between current emotional suffering and past torture, facilitating the development of cognitive and emotional control, and healing the wounds of mistrust, humiliation, marginalization and fear.

  13. South Asian populations in Canada: migration and mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background South Asian populations are the largest visible minority group in Canada; however, there is very little information on the mental health of these populations. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of mental health outcomes for South Asian first-generation immigrant and second-generation Canadian-born populations. Methods The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2011 was used to calculate the estimated prevalence rates of the following mental health outcomes: mood disorders, anxiety disorders, fair-poor self-perceived mental health status, and extremely stressful life stress. The characteristics associated with these four mental health outcomes were determined through multivariate logistic regression analysis of merged CCHS 2007–2011 data. Results South Asian Canadian-born (3.5%, 95% CI 3.4-3.6%) and South Asian immigrant populations (3.5%, 95% CI 3.5-3.5%) did not vary significantly in estimated prevalence rates of mood disorders. However, South Asian immigrants experienced higher estimated prevalence rates of diagnosed anxiety disorders (3.4%, 95% CI 3.4-3.5 vs. 1.1%, 95% CI 1.1-1.1%) and self-reported extremely stressful life stress (2.6%, 95% CI 2.6-2.7% vs. 2.4%, 95% CI 2.3-2.4%) compared to their Canadian-born counterparts. Lastly, South Asian Canadian-born populations had a higher estimated prevalence rate of poor-fair self-perceived mental health status (4.4%, 95% CI 4.3-4.5%) compared to their immigrant counterparts (3.4%, 95% CI 3.3-3.4%). Different profiles of mental health determinants emerged for South Asian Canadian-born and immigrant populations. Female gender, having no children under the age of 12 in the household, food insecurity, poor-fair self-rated health status, being a current smoker, immigrating to Canada before adulthood, and taking the CCHS survey in either English or French was associated with greater risk of negative mental health outcomes for South Asian immigrant

  14. Mental health of Russian population: new tendencies and old problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мihail М. Reshetnikov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary situation with mental health is reviewed, and developments in psychiatry, psychotherapy and clinical psychology are monitored. Russian experience is discussed in the context of the world tendencies. In the situation of the unprecedented increase in psychopathology, insufficient attention has been paid to the crisis phenomena in psychiatry and psychology as well as the development of mental health institutions, which are still in need of specialists, and facilitation of health care programs for population. The author writes about the increase in the number of patients who need psychiatric or psychological care, lack of experts in the mental health system, low psychological culture of the population, lack of early diagnosis of predisposition to psychopathology. Multiple hypotheses on the causes of mental disorders are outlined in the paper. Among them, the theory of nervous exhaustion, the hypothesis that mental disorders are associated with impaired brain electrical activity, the theory of the special role of the frontal lobes in the emergence of psychopathology, the hypothesis of an imbalance of hormones, as an etiological factor of mental illness and others, are given account. The paper raises issues of mental disorders classification. The author also discusses the issue of chemical treatment and its isolated and uncontrolled use within mental disorders. However, the review is incomplete and tends to be an invitation for mental health specialists to further discuss the issues mentioned in the paper.

  15. Internet information-seeking in mental health: population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, John; Clarke, Aileen

    2006-09-01

    A major use of the of the internet is for health information-seeking. There has been little research into its use in relation to mental health. To investigate the prevalence of internet use for mental health information-seeking and its relative importance as a mental health information source. General population survey. Questions covered internet use, past psychiatric history and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Eighteen per cent of all internet users had used the internet for information related to mental health. The prevalence was higher among those with a past history of mental health problems and those with current psychological distress. Only 12% of respondents selected the internet as one of the three most accurate sources of information, compared with 24% who responded that it was one of the three sources they would use. The internet has a significant role in mental health information-seeking. The internet is used more than it is trusted.

  16. The Relationship Between Post-Migration Stress and Psychological Disorders in Refugees and Asylum Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Susan S Y; Liddell, Belinda J; Nickerson, Angela

    2016-09-01

    Refugees demonstrate high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychological disorders. The recent increase in forcible displacement internationally necessitates the understanding of factors associated with refugee mental health. While pre-migration trauma is recognized as a key predictor of mental health outcomes in refugees and asylum seekers, research has increasingly focused on the psychological effects of post-migration stressors in the settlement environment. This article reviews the research evidence linking post-migration factors and mental health outcomes in refugees and asylum seekers. Findings indicate that socioeconomic, social, and interpersonal factors, as well as factors relating to the asylum process and immigration policy affect the psychological functioning of refugees. Limitations of the existing literature and future directions for research are discussed, along with implications for treatment and policy.

  17. 'Lost': listening to the voices and mental health needs of forced migrants in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David; Ward, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Research into the mental health needs of asylum seekers and refugees has revealed that they are likely to experience poorer mental health as well as higher levels of exclusion and vulnerability than native populations. This paper reports on data drawn from semi-structured interviews of 21 refugees and asylum seekers that describe the complexity experienced by those living in exile, and the necessity for a more integrated and holistic approach in the planning and delivery of services to support mental health. Incorporating a perspective from service users will encourage providers to take account of the multitude of practical, social, cultural, economic and legal difficulties that can influence the long-term mental health of this population. The implications highlight a need to shift from a simple biomedical model of the causes and effects of ill-health to a social model, which will require reorganisation not only in healthcare but in welfare, housing, employment and immigration policy.

  18. Severe Mental Illness in LGBT Populations: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sean A; Howison, Meg; Pilling, Merrick; Ross, Lori E; McKenzie, Kwame

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing attention to diversity in psychiatric services and widespread recognition of the mental health implications of stigma for individuals from sexual or gender minority groups. However, these areas remain markedly underdeveloped in the area of severe mental illness. The aim of this review was to map out the existing base of knowledge in these areas to help inform future research, practice, and policy directions. A review of the literature was conducted to answer the following question: What factors and strategies need to be considered when developing services for individuals from sexual or gender minority groups who are experiencing severe mental illness? A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar was completed by using Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework for scoping reviews. A total of 27 publications were identified for review. Mental health services research indicated generally lower levels of service satisfaction among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and transsexual (LGBT) individuals and minimal evidence regarding specific interventions. Descriptive research suggested an increased risk of severe mental illness in LGBT populations, an association between this increased risk and discrimination, and the potential benefit of cultivating spaces where individuals can be "out" in all aspects of themselves. There is a pressing need for research into interventions for LGBT populations with severe mental illness as well as descriptive studies to inform efforts to reduce illness morbidity linked to discrimination.

  19. Wealth Inequality and Mental Disability Among the Chinese Population: A Population Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Du, Wei; Pang, Lihua; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    In the study described herein, we investigated and explored the association between wealth inequality and the risk of mental disability in the Chinese population. We used nationally represented, population-based data from the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, conducted in 2006. A total of 1,724,398 study subjects between the ages of 15 and 64, including 10,095 subjects with mental disability only, were used for the analysis. Wealth status was estimated by a wealth index that was derived from a principal component analysis of 10 household assets and four other variables related to wealth. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for mental disability for each category, with the lowest quintile category as the referent. Confounding variables under consideration were age, gender, residence area, marital status, ethnicity, education, current employment status, household size, house type, homeownership and living arrangement. The distribution of various types and severities of mental disability differed significantly by wealth index category in the present population. Wealth index category had a positive association with mild mental disability (p for trend wealth index category had a significant, inverse association with mental disability when all severities of mental disability were taken into consideration. This study’s results suggest that wealth is a significant factor in the distribution of mental disability and it might have different influences on various types and severities of mental disability. PMID:26492258

  20. Population disparities in mental health: insights from cultural neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y; Blizinsky, Katherine D

    2013-10-01

    By 2050, nearly 1 in 5 Americans (19%) will be an immigrant, including Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians, compared to the 1 in 8 (12%) in 2005. They will vary in the extent to which they are at risk for mental health disorders. Given this increase in cultural diversity within the United States and costly population health disparities across cultural groups, it is essential to develop a more comprehensive understanding of how culture affects basic psychological and biological mechanisms. We examine these basic mechanisms that underlie population disparities in mental health through cultural neuroscience. We discuss the challenges to and opportunities for cultural neuroscience research to determine sociocultural and biological factors that confer risk for and resilience to mental health disorders across the globe.

  1. [Poverty and Mental Disorders in the Colombian Population: National Mental Health Survey 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitian, Hoover; Ruiz-Gaviria, Rafael E; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rondón, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Poverty has been associated in some studies with poorer outcomes in mental problems and disorders. A circular relationship has been considered in which poverty fosters the appearance of mental illness and this facilitates greater poverty. There are no studies in Colombia on this subject. To describe the association between mental problems and disorders and poverty according to the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) in Colombia. Using the 2015 National Mental Health Survey, adjusted with the expansion factors for the population. The prevalences of mental problems and disorders obtained through semi-structured interviews employing the instruments SRQ-20, AUDIT C and A, modified PCL, familiar APGAR and CIDI CAPI. The poverty status was determined by the MPI. A total of 13,200 households were interviewed, of which 13.5% were classified as in a poverty condition, 6.3% of the adolescents of poor households reported a life-time prevalence of any mental disorder, and 4.6% in the last 12 months. On the other hand, the prevalences for the same age group not in a poverty condition were 7.2% and 3.3%, respectively. For adults in poverty, the prevalence of life-time mental disorders were 9.2%, with 4.3% in the last year, while those not considered poor showed prevalences of 9.1% and 3.9% for the same time periods. For the population of Colombia, there is a relationship between not being able to access the basic basket of goods and the presence of mental diseases, although there does not seems to be an association between an increase in poverty and the deterioration of mental health. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Science and the common good: indefinite, non-reviewable mandatory detention of asylum seekers and the research imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Zachary; Silove, Derrick

    2004-10-01

    Despite a strong historical record of resettling and providing care for refugee populations, the Australian Federal Government has increasingly implemented harsh and restrictive policies regarding the treatment and management of asylum seekers. Most controversial of these has been the mandatory detention of asylum seekers, a policy applied indiscriminately and without discretion where individual cases have not been subject to judicial review or time constraints. From the outset health professionals have raised concerns about the possible adverse mental health impacts of prolonged detention. In contrast, government representatives have characterized conditions in detention as benign and comfortable, and have consistently contested criticism of detention, often citing a lack of scientific evidence as tacit support for the continuation of the policy. Nevertheless, requests for access to the detention centres to undertake rigorous scientific investigations have gone unheeded. In this context we argue that the Australian Government has failed to uphold its commitment to good governance by allowing transparency, openness and a willingness to have the impact of its policies scrutinized by scientists. The manifest conflict of interest in the government position leads to a breach in the normal social contract between mental health researchers and those responsible for the policy of detention. There is, we argue, a legitimate moral imperative in such situations for clinical researchers to breach the walls of enforced silence and give a voice to those who are afflicted. This imperative, however, must be carefully balanced against the risks that may face detainees agreeing to participate in such research.

  3. Prevalence of mental disorders in a prison population in Durban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of serious mental disorders in a prison population in Durban, South Africa, one of the largest prisons in the Southern hemisphere. Method: 193 prisoners were interviewed using the Mini Neuro-psychiatric Interview, a screening questionnaire and a ...

  4. Adaptation of Harvard Trauma questionnaire for working with refugees and asylum seekers in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukčević Maša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of refugees and asylum seekers in Serbia is significantly increasing. Many have experienced traumatic events and suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. In order to provide them with adequate assistance, caregivers need adjusted assessment tools. The main goal of this research was the adaptation of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire for working with refugees and asylum seekers in Serbia. A total of 16 focus groups were interviewed in two phases in order to create an adequate list of traumatic events for this population. The adapted list was subsequently administered to 226 persons seeking asylum in Serbia, along with the remaining parts of HTQ, HSCL-25 and BDI-II. Results show that the adapted list of traumatic events, as well as a shorter version, has good validity and other metric properties. The adaptation of the first assessment tool for working with refugees and asylum seekers in Serbia has significant practical implications.

  5. Multimorbidity in adult asylum seekers: a first overview.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen A Pfortmueller

    Full Text Available PRINCIPALS: Over the last two decades, the total annual number of applications for asylum in the countries of the European Union has increased from 15,000 to more than 300,000 people. The aim of this study was to give a first overview on multimorbidity of adult asylum seekers. METHODS: Our retrospective Swiss single center data analysis examined multimorbidity of adult asylums seekers admitted to our ED between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2012. RESULTS: A total of 3170 patients were eligible for the study; they were predominantly male (2392 male, 75.5% versus 778 female, 24.5. The median age of the patients was 28 years (range 28-82. The most common region of origin was Africa (1544, 48.7%, followed by the Middle East (736, 23.6%. 2144 (67.6% of all patients were not multimorbid. A total of 1183 (37.7% of our patients were multimorbid. The mean Charlson comorbidity index was 0.25 (SD 1.1, range 0-12. 634 (20% of all patients sufferem from psychiatric diseases, followed by chronic medical conditions (12.6%, 399 and infectious diseases (4.7%, 150. Overall, 11% (349 of our patients presented as a direct consequence of prior violence. Patients from Sri Lanka/India most often suffered from addictions problems (50/240, 20.8%, p<0.0001. Infectious diseases were most frequent in patients from Africa (6.6%, followed by the Balkans and Eastern Europe/Russia (each 3.8%. CONCLUSION: The health care problems of asylum seekers are manifold. More than 60% of the study population assessed in our study did not suffer from more than one disease. Nevertheless a significant percentage of asylum seekers is multimorbid and exhibits underlying psychiatric, infectious or chronic medical conditions despite their young age.

  6. Wealth Inequality and Mental Disability Among the Chinese Population: A Population Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Du, Wei; Pang, Lihua; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-10-19

    In the study described herein, we investigated and explored the association between wealth inequality and the risk of mental disability in the Chinese population. We used nationally represented, population-based data from the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, conducted in 2006. A total of 1,724,398 study subjects between the ages of 15 and 64, including 10,095 subjects with mental disability only, were used for the analysis. Wealth status was estimated by a wealth index that was derived from a principal component analysis of 10 household assets and four other variables related to wealth. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for mental disability for each category, with the lowest quintile category as the referent. Confounding variables under consideration were age, gender, residence area, marital status, ethnicity, education, current employment status, household size, house type, homeownership and living arrangement. The distribution of various types and severities of mental disability differed significantly by wealth index category in the present population. Wealth index category had a positive association with mild mental disability (p for trend disability (p for trend disability when all severities of mental disability were taken into consideration. This study's results suggest that wealth is a significant factor in the distribution of mental disability and it might have different influences on various types and severities of mental disability.

  7. The Wright Institute Sanctuary Project: Development and Proposed Evaluation of a Graduate Training Program Providing Clinical Services to Asylum Seekers in the Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Brenda Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This study highlights the development of a graduate training program at The Wright Institute in Berkeley, CA, which provides assessment services for undocumented immigrants seeking asylum. This program focuses on the needs of a general asylum seeking population, with a specific relevance to some of the populations that may be served in the…

  8. Mental disorder sick leave in Sweden: A population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidwall, Ulrik; Bill, Sofia; Palmer, Edward; Olsson Bohlin, Christina

    2018-01-01

    The inability to perform productive work due to mental disorders is a growing concern in advanced societies. To investigate medically certified mental disorder and all-cause sick leave in a working population using demographic, socioeconomic and occupational predictors. The study population was the entire Swedish work force aged 16-64 years in December 31st 2011. The outcome was sick leave exceeding 14 days in 2012 with adjustment for 13 confounders. The risk of sick leave with a mental disorder is higher among women compared to men, among persons aged 30-39 and among parents in families with underage children. Employees in welfare service occupations within health care, education and social services have an elevated risk of mental disorder sick leave and constitute a large proportion of the workforce. The results support the need for improving early detection and prevention of mental disorders in the workforce. Improvements in psychosocial work environments are essential, where the higher risk in female dominated welfare occupations particularly, have repercussions on the quality of the welfare services provided for vulnerable groups in society. Better work-life balance in families with younger children could also mitigate the effects of a high total workload in that particular phase of life.

  9. Intellectual disability, mental illness and offending behaviour: forensic cases from early twentieth-century Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B D

    2010-09-01

    The history of institutional care for individuals with intellectual disability is under-researched, complex and troubling. To explore the experiences of women who may have had intellectual disability and/or mental illness and were admitted to forensic psychiatric care in early twentieth-century Ireland. All female case records at the Central Mental Hospital, Dublin from 1910 to 1948 (n = 42) were studied for evidence of possible intellectual disability and a series of five cases is presented in detail. These committals occurred in the context of adverse social conditions, over-crowding in asylums and a belief that rates of mental illness were rising. Particular challenges included diagnostic issues (especially in relation to intellectual disability), adjustment to asylum environments, mental illness and physical ill-health. The institutional experiences of individuals with intellectual disability represents an important area for further historical research, using larger and more varied forensic populations.

  10. [Asylum in Switzerland. Some aspects of refugee migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzman, C; Musillo, I

    1987-06-01

    "Switzerland is the European country which, after Sweden, has received the highest number of refugees (30,000) in proportion to its population. Asylum seekers have increased considerably since 1979. They are coming mostly from Third World, politically unsettled countries. The essay presents the results of a survey conducted in Geneva on a sample of 549 asylum seekers assisted by public welfare agencies from 1974 to 1983. These refugees belong to the younger age bracket of the active population. About half of them have completed their secondary or tertiary education. But their professional, social and cultural adjustment poses some problems. The vast majority of them, in fact, are employed in unqualified occupations in the tertiary sectors." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  11. Asylum grant rates following medical evaluations of maltreatment among political asylum applicants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Stuart L; Kureshi, Sarah; Delucchi, Kevin L; Iacopino, Vincent; Morse, Samantha C

    2008-02-01

    Although many individuals applying for political asylum allege maltreatment and sometimes torture in their countries of origin, the utility of medical evaluations in asylum adjudication has not been documented. This study compares the asylum grant rate among US asylum seekers who received medical evaluations from Physicians for Human Rights (PHR), with rates among asylum seekers who did not receive PHR evaluations. Retrospective analysis was carried out on all asylum cases referred to PHR between 2000 and 2004 for medical evaluations for which adjudication outcome was available. Basic demographic information was obtained: age, sex, country of origin, English language ability, US region where adjudication occurred, whether legal representation was pro bono, type of evaluation, provision of oral court testimony, and whether asylum seekers were in detention. Cases were analyzed descriptively and with chi square tests. Between 2000 and 2004, 1663 asylum seekers received medical evaluations from PHR; the adjudication status (either granted or denied) was determined in 746 cases at the time of the study. Of these cases, 89% were granted asylum, compared to the national average of 37.5% among US asylum seekers who did not receive PHR evaluations. Medical evaluations may be critical in the adjudications of asylum cases when maltreatment is alleged.

  12. The impact of a long asylum procedure on quality of life, disability and physical health in Iraqi asylum seekers in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Cornelis J; Komproe, Ivan H; Gernaat, Hajo B P E; de Jong, Joop T V M

    2008-07-01

    Refugees in western countries often face long juridical procedures before their requests for a resident permit is granted. The, still scanty, literature shows high prevalence rates of psychopathology among asylum seekers, but there has been little interest for other impaired dimensions of health. The present study is part of a community-based mental health survey among Iraqi asylum seekers in the Netherlands, conducted between November 2000 and September 2001, on the risks of a long asylum procedure. The objectives of this study were to explore quality of life (QoL), disability and physical health and their relationships with psychopathology and pre- and post-migration variables. Two groups of pre-stratified (length of asylum procedure), randomly selected Iraqi asylum seekers (N = 143 and N = 151), were interviewed with fully structured, culturally validated questionnaires. Quality of life was examined with QoLWHO-Bref, functional disability with the Brief Disability Questionnaire and physical health with a newly developed questionnaire. Psychiatric (DSM IV) disorders were measured with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the relationships between the outcome measures and socio-demographics, adverse life events in Iraq, post-migration living problems (PMLP) and psychopathology. Respondents with a long asylum procedure reported significantly lower QoL, higher functional disability and more physical complaints. Multivariate regression shows that length of stay is the strongest predictor for a low overall QoL. In addition, lower QoL was predicted by psychopathology, higher age, adverse life events in the Netherlands and the PMLP-clusters: family issues, socio-economic living conditions and socio-religious aspects. Disability was predicted by psychopathology, higher age and the PMLP clusters: family issues and socio-religious aspects. Physical complaints were predicted by length of

  13. Diplomatic asylum and the Assange case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, M.

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the place and development of diplomatic asylum in international law in close connection with the more specific questions raised by the case of Julian Assange, who was granted asylum in the Ecuador embassy in London on 16 August 2012. After discussing the historical rise and

  14. The Social Determinants of Refugee Mental Health in the Post-Migration Context: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynie, Michaela

    2018-05-01

    With the global increase in the number of refugees and asylum seekers, mental health professionals have become more aware of the need to understand and respond to the mental health needs of forced migrants. This critical review summarizes the findings of recent systematic reviews and primary research on the impact of post-migration conditions on mental disorders and PTSD among refugees and asylum seekers. Historically, the focus of mental health research and interventions with these populations has been on the impact of pre-migration trauma. Pre-migration trauma does predict mental disorders and PTSD, but the post-migration context can be an equally powerful determinant of mental health. Moreover, post-migration factors may moderate the ability of refugees to recover from pre-migration trauma. The importance of post-migration stressors to refugee mental health suggests the need for therapeutic interventions with psychosocial elements that address the broader conditions of refugee and asylum seekers' lives. However, there are few studies of multimodal interventions with refugees, and even fewer with control conditions that allow for conclusions about their effectiveness. These findings are interpreted using a social determinants of health framework that connects the risk and protective factors in the material and social conditions of refugees' post-migration lives to broader social, economic and political factors.

  15. "Idiots, infants, and the insane": mental illness and legal incompetence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, T

    2005-02-01

    Prior to the second world war, most persons confined in insane asylums were regarded as legally incompetent and had guardians appointed for them. Today, most persons confined in mental hospitals (or treated involuntarily, committed to outpatient treatment) are, in law, competent; nevertheless, in fact, they are treated as if they were incompetent. Should the goal of mental health policy be providing better psychiatric services to more and more people, or the reduction and ultimate elimination of the number of persons in the population treated as mentally ill?

  16. Cure and guard. Chronicity in Insane Asylum La Castañeda, Mexico City, 1910-1968

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sacristán

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article questions the binomial that associates the chronicity and incurability of mental illness with the custodialism of the asylum through a case study, Asylum La Castañeda in Mexico, from 1910 to 1968. We contrast the discourses about the cure and chronicity constructed by Mexican psychiatrists and the statistical trends of patients admitted: new admissions, readmissions, discharges, length of stay, and diagnoses in the light of new treatments. We concluded that according to the doctors, the asylum therapeutic function was severely affected by chronicity and overpopulation, but according to statistics, 80% of the patients had only one admission with a 15-month hospitalization and the long-term confinement rates of readmissions did not impact statistically; two-thirds of the patients left the asylum, and since the 1950s in the context of new therapeutics.

  17. [Mental health in the immigrant population in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazos Sánchez, Francisco; Ghali Bada, Khalid; Ramos Gascón, Mar; Qureshi Burckhardt, Adil

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between migration of people and the impact on their mental health is a complex issue, and its study implies multiple variables at stake. The objective is to describe the state of the mental health of the immigrant population in Spain. scoping Review of the literature published in the period 1998-2012. Articles in Spanish or English developed in Spain and that fulfil the definition of immigrant from the International Organization for Migration were selected. The literature search was performed in Medline and MEDES. The main characteristics of the articles are described. The period of maximum production is between 2004 and 2011. The country of origin is the most common way of classifying immigrants. Most of the studies reviewed have a social and epidemiological approach, making many references to the socio-economic conditions of the inmigrant collective. Work and psychosocial factors are crucial to the mental health of immigrants. The migration process is a risk factor itself, and if personal, social or familial vulnerability is added, all of which may promote the development of mental disorders. The main results of the studies conducted in this field are inconsistent, if not contradictory. Lack of consistency in the results reveals how this field is still in a very early stage.

  18. Living Outside the Gender Box in Mexico: Testimony of Transgender Mexican Asylum Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K; Gowin, Mary J; Taylor, E Laurette; Frey, Melissa; Dunnington, Jamie; Alshuwaiyer, Ghadah; Huber, J Kathleen; Garcia, Mary Camero; Wray, Grady C

    2017-10-01

    To explore preimmigration experiences of violence and postimmigration health status in male-to-female transgender individuals (n = 45) from Mexico applying for asylum in the United States. We used a document review process to examine asylum declarations and psychological evaluations of transgender Mexican asylum seekers in the United States from 2012. We coded documents in 2013 and 2014 using NVivo, a multidisciplinary team reviewed them, and then we analyzed them for themes. Mexican transgender asylum applicants experienced pervasive verbal, physical, and sexual abuse from multiple sources, including family, school, community, and police. Applicants also experienced discrimination in school and in the workplace. Applicants immigrated to the United States to escape persistent assaults and threats to their life. Applicants suffered health and psychological effects from their experiences in Mexico that affected opportunities in the United States for employment, education, and social inclusion. Additional social protections for transgender individuals and antidiscrimination measures in Mexican schools and workplaces are warranted as are increased mental health assessment and treatment, job training, and education services for asylum seekers in the United States.

  19. [Jonathan Swift's asylum in Dublin--Ireland's introduction to institutional psychiatry 250 years ago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuber, M

    1995-09-01

    250 years ago, the satirical writer and clergyman Jonathan Swift from Dublin (1667-1745) founded the first Irish lunatic asylum. Rejecting the theories put forward by the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes and the doctor Thomas Willis, he was influenced by the ideas of the Scottish doctor and the "enlightened" thinker John Locke. Swift's St. Patrick's Hospital did not, however, realise a new philosophical concept: architecture and therapeutic approach of the new institution were clearly modelled on the much older Hospital of St. Mary of Bethlehem ( = Bedlam). Despite its conservative conceptual basis, the first institution dedicated to the mentally ill and intellectually subnormal in Ireland became a starting point for the apparantly unstoppable expansion of the, at one time, most comprehensive asylum system in the world. After Swift's Hospital had been enlarged twice at the tax-payers' expense (1778, 1793), the administration decided to relieve the institution by erecting the Richmond Asylum (1810), the first public asylum in Ireland. When this establishment also became overcrowded, in 1817, legislation was passed which led to the establishment of the oldest system of public asylums in Europe.

  20. Central American victims of gang violence as asylum seekers: the role of the forensic expert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesús-Rentas, Gilberto; Boehnlein, James; Sparr, Landy

    2010-01-01

    Individuals fleeing persecution have the right to asylum. This most fundamental right was guaranteed by the 1951 United Nations (UN) Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and was implemented in the 1967 UN protocol regarding refugee status. The United States codified refugee protection and the procedures for asylum in the Refugee Act of 1980, which was made part of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). In claiming refugee status, the burden of proof rests with the asylum seeker and is often a daunting task, given language and cultural barriers, lack of knowledge about U.S. legal procedures, and the reality that oppressive states do not document their intentions to persecute dissidents. Forensic psychiatrists may be asked to provide mental health assessment in immigration cases. In this article, an example of a Central American man with a nontraditional but increasingly common request for asylum is presented, the asylum process is described, and the role of the forensic psychiatric expert before the immigration court is explored.

  1. Psychopathology and resident status - comparing asylum seekers, refugees, illegal migrants, labor migrants, and residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, Martina; Wittmann, Lutz; Ehlert, Ulrike; Schnyder, Ulrich; Maier, Thomas; Müller, Julia

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to describe, compare, and predict mental health outcomes of different migrant groups and native residents in Switzerland. Asylum seekers (n=65); refugees holding permanent protection visas (n=34); illegal migrants (n=21); labor migrants (n=26); and residents (n=56) completed an assessment by questionnaire. Main outcome variables were symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depression. It was tested whether resident status predicted psychopathology over and above the influence of control variables including social desirability, traumatic event types and post-migration resources. Asylum seekers (54.0%) and refugees (41.4%) fulfilled criteria of PTSD most frequently. Clinically relevant symptoms of anxiety and depression were most frequently reported by asylum seekers (84.6% and 63.1%, resp.) and illegal migrants (both 47.6%). Resident status contributed to psychopathology over and above the influence of control variables. Overall, asylum seekers, refugees, and illegal migrants showed high psychiatric morbidity. Differences in resident status appear to be specifically associated with mental health outcomes. This association persists even when controlling for social desirability, post-migration resources and traumatic events. This emphasizes the importance of current socio-political living conditions for mental health, even with respect to the psychopathological sequelae of past traumatic experiences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The relationship between trauma, post-migration problems and the psychological well-being of refugees and asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, Kenneth; Blackburn, Pennie; Barker, Chris

    2011-03-01

    There is growing evidence of the impact of post-migration factors on the mental health of refugees. To date, few UK studies have been conducted. The study investigated the relationship between trauma, post-migration problems, social support and the mental health of refugees and asylum seekers. Refugees and asylum seekers (n = 47) were recruited mainly from clinical settings. Self-report measures of post-migration problems, mental health problems and social support were completed in an interview. Bivariate associations were identified between increased symptoms and number of traumas, adaptation difficulties, loss of culture and support and confidant support. In multivariate analyses post-migration problems were significantly associated with post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and emotional distress. There was no significant association of symptoms and number of traumas or social support. The results suggest that clinical services should provide holistic interventions within a phased approach when working with refugees and asylum seekers. At a policy level, the results suggest the need for asylum policies that reduce post-migration problems and provide support for refugees and asylum seekers.

  3. Review of infectious diseases in refugees and asylum seekers—current status and going forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiset, Andreas Halgreen; Wejse, Christian

    2017-01-01

    (up to 11%), and hepatitis B (up to 12%). The same population had low prevalence of malaria (7%) and hepatitis C (up to 5%). There have been recent case reports from European countries of cutaneous diphtheria, louse-born relapsing fever, and shigella in the asylum-seeking and refugee population...

  4. Head injury in asylum seekers and refugees referred with psychological trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, S M; Craig, R; Gardani, M; McMillan, T M

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who seek asylum are frequently fleeing violent persecution and may experience head injury (HI). However, little is known about the prevalence of HI in asylum seekers and refugees (ASR) despite the potential for HI to significantly affect cognitive and emotional functioning and to compromise asylum outcomes. This preliminary study investigates the prevalence of HI in ASR referred to a complex psychological trauma service. Participants were 115 adult ASR referred to a community psychological trauma service with moderate to severe mental health problems associated with psychological trauma. They were screened for a history of HI using a questionnaire developed for the study. Interpreters were used when required. The overall prevalence of HI was 51%. At least 38% of those with HI had a moderate-severe HI that could cause persisting disability. In 53% of those with HI, the cause was torture, human trafficking or domestic violence. Repeat HI can have cumulative effects on function; it was common, and was reported in 68% of those with HI. An injury to the head was not known to mental health clinicians prior to screening in 64% of cases. The emotional and cognitive consequences of HI in ASR may increase the vulnerability of this disadvantaged group, and can be associated with neurobehavioural problems affecting daily life and may compromise asylum outcomes. Routine screening for HI in ASR is needed, as are links to neuropsychology and brain injury services for advice, assessment and intervention.

  5. Resilience among asylum seekers living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orton Lois

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A small body of evidence demonstrates the challenges faced by migrant communities living with HIV but has yet to consider in-depth the experience of asylum seekers whose residency status is undetermined. The overall aim of our study was to explore the experiences of those who are both living with HIV and seeking asylum. This paper focuses on the stressors precipitated by the HIV diagnosis and by going through the asylum system; as well as participants’ resilience in responding to these stressors and the consequences for their health and wellbeing. Methods We conducted an ethnographic study. Fieldwork took place in the UK between 2008–2009 and included: 350 hours of observation at voluntary services providing support to black and minority ethnic groups living with HIV; 29 interviews and four focus group discussions with those who were seeking asylum and living with HIV; and 15 interviews with their health and social care providers. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method. Results There were three main stressors that threatened participants’ resilience. First, migration caused them to leave behind many resources (including social support. Second, stigmatising attitudes led their HIV diagnosis to be a taboo subject furthering their isolation. Third, they found themselves trapped in the asylum system, unable to influence the outcome of their case and reliant on HIV treatment to stay alive. Participants were, however, very resourceful in dealing with these experiences. Resilience processes included: staying busy, drawing on personal faith, and the support received through HIV care providers and voluntary organisations. Even so, their isolated existence meant participants had limited access to social resources, and their treatment in the asylum system had a profound impact on perceived health and wellbeing. Conclusions Asylum seekers living with HIV in the UK show immense resilience. However, their isolation

  6. Mental health problems in a regional population of Australian adolescents: association with socio-demographic characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Freund, Megan; Campbell, Elizabeth; Hodder, Rebecca K.; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Population level data regarding the general mental health status, and the socio-demographic factors associated with the mental health status of adolescents in Australia aged 12?16?years is limited. This study assessed prevalence of mental health problems in a regional population of Australian students in Grades 7?10, and investigated associations between mental health problems and socio-demographic factors. Methods A web-based survey was conducted in 21 secondary schools located in...

  7. Community Mental Health as a Population-based Mental Health Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuxuan Cai, Stefanie; Shuen Sheng Fung, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Mental health services for youths in Singapore were challenged by accessibility and resource constraints. A community-based mental health program working with schools and other partners was developed to address the population needs. To describe the formation of a community-based mental health program and evaluate the program in terms of its outcome and the satisfaction of the users of this program. Based on needs analyses, a community multidisciplinary team was set up in 15 schools to pilot a new model of care for youths. Implemented progressively over five years, networks of teams were divided into four geographic zones. Each zone had clusters of 10 to 15 schools. These teams worked closely with school counselors. Teams were supported by a psychiatrist and a resident. Interventions were focused on empowering school-based personnel to work with students and families, with the support of the teams. 4,184 students were served of whom 10% were seen by the school counselors and supported by the community team. Only 0.15% required referral to tertiary services. Outcome measured by counselor and teacher ratings showed improvements in the Clinical Global Impression scale and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. These included reductions in conduct problems, emotional problems, hyperactive behaviors and peer problems. Furthermore, prosocial behavior also significantly improved. Preliminary cost effectiveness analyses suggest that community treatments are superior to clinic interventions.

  8. Mental health consultations in a prison population: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustad Aase-Bente

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The psychiatric morbidity among prison inmates is substantially higher than in the general population. We do, however, have insufficient knowledge about the extent of psychiatric treatment provided in our prisons. The aim of the present study was to give a comprehensive description of all non-pharmacological interventions provided by the psychiatric health services to a stratified sample of prison inmates. Methods Six medium/large prisons (n = 928 representing 1/3 of the Norwegian prison population and with female and preventive detention inmates over-sampled, were investigated cross-sectionally. All non-pharmacological psychiatric interventions, excluding pure correctional programs, were recorded. Those receiving interventions were investigated further and compared to the remaining prison population. Results A total of 230 of the 928 inmates (25 % had some form of psychiatric intervention: 184 (20 % were in individual psychotherapy, in addition 40 (4 % received ad hoc interventions during the registration week. Group therapy was infrequent (1 %. The psychotherapies were most often of a supportive (62 % or behavioural-cognitive (26 % nature. Dynamic, insight-oriented psychotherapies were infrequent (8 %. Concurrent psychopharmacological treatment was prevalent (52 %. Gender and age did not correlate with psychiatric interventions, whereas prisoner category (remanded, sentenced, or preventive detention did (p Conclusion Our results pertain only to prisons with adequate primary and mental health services and effective diversion from prison of individuals with serious mental disorders. Given these important limitations, we do propose that the service estimates found may serve as a rough guideline to the minimum number of sessions a prison's psychiatric health services should be able to fulfil in order to serve the inmates psychiatric needs. The results rely on the specialist services' own estimates only. Future studies should

  9. Planning focus group interviews with asylum seekers: Factors related to the researcher, interpreter and asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklöf, Niina; Hupli, Maija; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this article was to discuss factors related to the researcher, interpreter and asylum seekers when planning focus group interviews with asylum seekers. Focus group interview is one of the basic data collection methods in descriptive nursing and health research. It has been used in multicultural research, allowing an opportunity to participate without literacy and to have linguistic and cultural support from other participants. Asylum seekers form a specific, vulnerable group, and the growing number of asylum seekers increases the need for research related to them. A culturally, methodologically and ethically high-quality focus group interview is based on the researcher's special knowledge and skills, acknowledgement of asylum seekers as both individuals and part of cultural and communal groups, and careful planning of the interpreter's role during the interviews. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toar, Magzoub

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. METHODS: Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60) and refugees (n = 28) from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36), presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety\\/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. RESULTS: Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2-17.9) and depression\\/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2-15.4), while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3-12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2-10.1), high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1-11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0-10.4) or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9-60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2-12.3) were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression\\/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression\\/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (chi2 = 19.74, df = 1, P < 0.001).In terms of health care utilisation, asylum seekers use GP services more often than refugees, while no significant difference was found between these groups

  11. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahey Tom

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. Methods Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60 and refugees (n = 28 from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36, presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. Results Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2–17.9 and depression/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2–15.4, while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3–12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2–10.1, high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1–11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0–10.4 or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9–60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2–12.3 were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (χ2 = 19.74, df = 1, P In terms of health care utilisation, asylum seekers use GP services more often than refugees, while no significant difference was found

  12. Social networks and mental health among a farming population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stain, Helen J; Kelly, Brian; Lewin, Terry J; Higginbotham, Nick; Beard, John R; Hourihan, Fleur

    2008-10-01

    The study investigated the associations between mental health and measures of community support, social support networks, sense of place, adversity, and perceived problems in a rural Australian population. There was a specific focus on farming communities due to previous qualitative research by the authors indicating distress by farmers in response to drought (Sartore et al. Aust Fam Phys 36(12), 990-993, 2007). A survey was mailed to adults randomly selected from the Australian Electoral Roll and residing within four local government areas (LGAs) of varying remoteness in rural New South Wales (NSW). Survey measures included: support networks and community attachment; recent stressors (including drought-related stress); and measures of health and related functioning. The Kessler-10 provided an index of current psychological distress. The sample (n = 449; response rate 24%) was predominantly female (58.4%) and 18.9% were farmers or farm workers. Moderate to very high psychological distress was reported for 20.7% of the sample. Half (56.1%) of all respondents, and specifically 71.8% of farmers or farm workers, reported high levels of perceived stress due to drought. Psychological distress was associated with recent adverse life events, increased alcohol use and functional impairment. Hierarchical regression analysis demonstrated an independent effect of the number of stressful life events including drought related stress, perceived social support (community and individual), alcohol use and physical functioning ability on levels of psychological distress. This model accounted for 43% of the variance in current levels of distress. Lower community support had a more marked impact on distress levels for non-farming than farming participants. This study has highlighted the association between unique rural community characteristics and rural stressors (such as drought) and measures of mental health, suggesting the important mediating role of social factors and community

  13. Ukrainian asylum seekers and a Polish immigration paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Szczepanik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recognition rate for Ukrainian asylum seekers in Poland remains at an extremely low level, with the concept of ‘internal flight alternative’ serving as the legal basis for rejection of many asylum applications.

  14. Ukrainian asylum seekers and a Polish immigration paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Szczepanik; Ewelina Tylec

    2016-01-01

    The recognition rate for Ukrainian asylum seekers in Poland remains at an extremely low level, with the concept of ‘internal flight alternative’ serving as the legal basis for rejection of many asylum applications.

  15. Asylum for persecuted homosexuals in the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Wolman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two recent successful claims for asylum suggest that the Republic of Korea may be prepared to serve in the future as an important country of asylum for those suffering persecution due to their sexual orientation.

  16. Mental status testing in the elderly nursing home population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, J D; Relkin, N R; Cohen, M S; Hodder, R A; Reingold, J; Plum, F

    1995-07-01

    The clinical utility of selected brief cognitive screening instruments in detecting dementia in an elderly nursing home population was examined. One hundred twenty nursing home residents (mean age 87.9) were administered the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) and the Modified Mini-Mental State Exam (3MS). The majority of the subjects (75%) were also administered the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS). Both clinically diagnosed demented (n = 57) and non-demented (n = 63) subjects participated in the study. Dementia was diagnosed in accordance with DSM-III-R criteria by physicians specializing in geriatric medicine. Using standard cutoffs for impairment, the 3MS, MMSE, and DRS achieved high sensitivity (82% to 100%) but low specificity (33% to 52%) in the detection of dementia among nursing home residents. Positive predictive values ranged from 52% to 61%, and negative predictive values from 77% to 100%. Higher age, lower education, and history of depression were significantly associated with misclassification of non-demented elderly subjects. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analyses revealed optimal classification of dementia with cutoff values of 74 for the 3MS, 22 for the MMSE, and 110 for the DRS. The results suggest that the 3MS, MMSE, and DRS do not differ significantly with respect to classification accuracy of dementia in a nursing home population. Elderly individuals of advanced age (i.e., the oldest-old) with lower education and a history of depression appear at particular risk for dementia misclassification with these instruments. Revised cutoff values for impairment should be employed when these instruments are applied to elderly residents of nursing homes and the oldest-old.

  17. Asylum vs sovereignty in the 21st century: How nation-state's breach international law to block access to asylum.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John

    2015-01-01

    Asylum was created by the international community in the 20th century to provide legal protection to individuals fleeing persecution by nation states; but the ability to secure asylum has been fundamentally reshaped by sovereign national interests in the 21st century. This paper has two objectives. First it explores the various ways in which nation-states have adopted policies and pursued agendas which prevent asylum seekers from gaining access to countries of asylum, which criminalize many w...

  18. Health and health care utilisation among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands: design of a study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, A.A.M.; Bramsen, I.; Devillé, W.; Willigen, L.H.M. van; Hovens, J.E.; Ploeg, H.M. van der

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article discusses the design of a study on the prevalence of health problems (both physical and mental) and the utilisation of health care services among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands, including factors that may be related to their health and their utilisation of

  19. An Overview of the Romanian Asylum Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Vasile

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Migration flows affecting Europe over recent years have generated a wave of solidarity but also fear and threats. European countries are divided into host countries or countries of transit due to their economic attractiveness but from the beginning, it was clear that asylum policies were far from similar and insufficiently flexible. Although Romania is considered as one of the transit countries for immigrants heading to Western Europe and it has not been confronted with an influx of refugees, it has developed specific policies in line with the acquis communautaire in order to be prepared for any situation of influx. The purpose of this research is to assess how asylum policies have been implemented in Romania and what improvements are necessary in order for them to become more sustainable. In Romania’s case, we used a SWOT analysis in our research methodology. This study aims to address relevant topics regarding the recent increasing trends of asylum applications and to analyse how the asylum policies in Romania can generate an adequate response. Furthermore, specialized institutions may consider our recommendations on how to improve the management of the asylum system in Romania.

  20. Food refusal and insanity: sitophobia and anorexia nervosa in Victorian asylums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deth, R; Vandereycken, W

    2000-05-01

    Although anorexia nervosa emerged as a new syndrome in the second half of the 19th century, this clinical picture seemed to be unknown in the psychiatric hospitals or asylums. In asylum medicine, the commonly used concept of sitophobia to designate food refusal in the insane covered a wide variety of mental disturbances and cannot be plainly equated with anorexia nervosa. A major difference is the occurrence of hallucinations and delusions specifically centered around religion and digestion. Most probably, anorectic patients were not treated in asylums, but at home, in the doctor's office, or in general hospitals. This pattern may be partly attributed to the fact that both patients and doctors were focusing on symptoms of self-starvation like emaciation, constipation, and amenorrhea, which were primarily interpreted as referring to somatic diseases. Additionally, wealthy families probably preferred private care in water-cure establishments, sanatoria, and rest homes to the stigmatizing referral of their anorectic daughter to an asylum. Hence, the fact that late 19th-century institutionalized psychiatry was only incidentally confronted with anorexia nervosa may explain its lack of interest in the emerging syndrome. Copyright 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. The regulation of British colonial lunatic asylums and the origins of colonial psychiatry, 1860-1864.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Sally

    2010-05-01

    In this paper I outline a brief period in the history of the British Empire, during which colonial lunatic asylum policy began to be formulated. I begin with a scandal that erupted in Jamaica and suggest that this set in motion processes that led to critical changes in asylum administration. The first of these processes was an audit of hospitals and asylums in the colonies. The results of the audit and the policy that emerged from it marked the beginning of systematic regulation of lunatic asylum practice across the British Empire. It revealed a formulation of policy that was intended to cut across the self-governing regimes that had up to this point been allowed to evolve. Drawing on the work of Michel Foucault and Nikolas Rose, I argue that the policy and the practices associated with it contribute to an understanding of the emergence of the psy-sciences in colonial settings. They illustrate the establishment of a panoptic gaze on previously neglected insane spaces. Systematic surveillance constituted government at a distance and made colonial lunacy administration a governable discursive space. The regulation of the medical officers, lunatic attendants, and hospital boards began the process of creating a professional psychiatric workforce. I conclude with a discussion of the implications and the mixed impact of this policy change for the mentally ill across the empire, over the ensuing decades.

  2. Smoking and mental illness: results from population surveys in Australia and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrou Francis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking has been associated with a range of mental disorders including schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and depression. People with mental illness have high rates of morbidity and mortality from smoking related illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases and cancer. As many people who meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders do not seek treatment for these conditions, we sought to investigate the relationship between mental illness and smoking in recent population-wide surveys. Methods Survey data from the US National Comorbidity Survey-Replication conducted in 2001–2003, the 2007 Australian Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, and the 2007 US National Health Interview Survey were used to investigate the relationship between current smoking, ICD-10 mental disorders and non-specific psychological distress. Population weighted estimates of smoking rates by disorder, and mental disorder rates by smoking status were calculated. Results In both the US and Australia, adults who met ICD-10 criteria for mental disorders in the 12 months prior to the survey smoked at almost twice the rate of adults without mental disorders. While approximately 20% of the adult population had 12-month mental disorders, among adult smokers approximately one-third had a 12-month mental disorder – 31.7% in the US (95% CI: 29.5%–33.8% and 32.4% in Australia (95% CI: 29.5%–35.3%. Female smokers had higher rates of mental disorders than male smokers, and younger smokers had considerably higher rates than older smokers. The majority of mentally ill smokers were not in contact with mental health services, but their rate of smoking was not different from that of mentally ill smokers who had accessed services for their mental health problem. Smokers with high levels of psychological distress smoked a higher average number of cigarettes per day. Conclusion Mental illness is associated with both higher rates of smoking and higher

  3. Mental Illness in Offender Populations: Prevalence, Duty and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderstrom, Irina R.

    2007-01-01

    Prisons are increasingly being filled with inmates who suffer from mental illness. This paper examines the prevalence of mental illness in American jails and prisons, the duty government and society has to provide appropriate mental health treatment, and the implications for inmate safety, costs, recidivism, and community reintegration if…

  4. Monitoring mental fatigue in the ageing working population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Marlon; Jolij, Jacob; Lorist, Monicque

    2017-01-01

    Mental fatigue, during or after a period of prolonged mental workload, is a common phenomenon in our everyday lives. Mentally fatigued people generally respond more slowly and less accurately to stimuli in their environment, which potentially leads to dangerous situations. The aim of my research is

  5. The politics of death in Mexico: dislocating human rights and asylum law through hybrid agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Estévez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 Mexico’s then-president Felipe Calderón declared war on drug trafficking. The human toll was devastating with the loss of over 95,000 lives and the forced disappearance of more than 27,000 people. In addition, two percent of the Mexican population was displaced with families forced to flee their homes in the face of criminal violence. This article offers an explanation of how death, forced disappearances, persecution and exile are in essence the specific effects of governmentalization of the Mexican state. This govern­mentalization includes the shared use, by criminals and authorities, of techniques for dominating the population and controlling the conduct of citizens through the practices of death, that is, by employing the politics of death (necropolitics. The article goes on to discuss how the objectives, rationality and governmentalization of the State serve to dislocate human rights discourse in such a way that its truth politics excludes people suffering serious human rights violations, such as Mexican asylum seekers. This is accompanied by a new mode of subjectivity produced by Mexico's politics of death – the Endriago subject – which operates as a hybrid perpetrator of human rights violations.

  6. Reproductive health care for asylum-seeking women - a challenge for health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemp Elisabeth

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dealing with pregnancy, childbirth and the care of newborn babies is a challenge for female asylum seekers and their health care providers. The aim of our study was to identify reproductive health issues in a population of women seeking asylum in Switzerland, and to examine the care they received. The women were insured through a special Health Maintenance Organisation (HMO and were attending the Women's Clinic of the University Hospital in Basel. We also investigated how the health professionals involved perceived the experience of providing health care for these patients. Methods A mixed methods approach combined the analysis of quantitative descriptive data and qualitative data obtained from semi-structured interviews with health care providers and from patients' files. We analysed the records of 80 asylum-seeking patients attending the Women's Clinic insured through an HMO. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 care providers from different professional groups. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively. Qualitative data analysis was guided by Grounded Theory. Results The principal health problems among the asylum seekers were a high rate of induced abortions (2.5 times higher than in the local population, due to inadequate contraception, and psychosocial stress due to the experience of forced migration and their current difficult life situation. The language barriers were identified as a major difficulty for health professionals in providing care. Health care providers also faced major emotional challenges when taking care of asylum seekers. Additional problems for physicians were that they were often required to act in an official capacity on behalf of the authorities in charge of the asylum process, and they also had to make decisions about controlling expenditure to fulfil the requirements of the HMO. They felt that these decisions sometimes conflicted with their duty towards the patient. Conclusion

  7. [Mental Health Promotion Among the Chronic Disabled Population in the Community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Chuan; Wang, Li-Hua; Chang, Hsiu-Ju

    2015-08-01

    Societal ageing and the rising prevalence of chronic disease are important causes that underlie the growth in the number of disabled individuals. The disease-induced psychological distress experienced by this population not only decreases quality of life but also increases demand for healthcare. The healthcare policy for the disabled population currently focuses on community healthcare. Therefore, developing appropriate programs to promote mental health among the disabled population in community settings is a critical issue. The present paper reviews current mental health promotion initiatives that target the disabled population in the community and addresses mental healthcare issues that are prevalent among the chronically disabled; strategies of mental health promotion that use music therapy, reminiscence therapy, and horticultural therapy; and the roles and responsibilities of community professionals in mental healthcare. We offer these perspectives as a reference to promote mental health and to establish holistic community healthcare for chronically disabled individuals.

  8. Occupational deprivation in an asylum centre:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a study of three asylum-seeking men from Iran and Afghanistan. It aimed to explore how and if they experienced occupations as occupations in a Danish asylum centre and how their life experience shaped their choice and value of current occupations. In-depth narrative interviews...... explored the participants’ occupational history and its influence on their occupations in the asylum centre. A thematic analysis showed that the participants had been subjected to occupational disruption and deprivation by politically oppressive systems even before their flight. Their occupations...... in Denmark were to a certain extent influenced by their earlier occupations and the current occupational deprivation they all experienced was due to limited possibilities in the centre. Although they tried their best to fill their days and create structure, there was a loss of valued occupations...

  9. Discrimination, Mental Health, and Substance Use Disorders Among Sexual Minority Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Bryant, Kendall J.; Zaller, Nickolas D.; Operario, Don

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual) populations have a higher prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Such disparities have been attributed, in part, to minority stressors, including distal stressors such as discrimination. However, few studies have examined associations between discrimination, mental health, and substance use disorders by gender among sexual minority populations.

  10. The Refugee Health Nurse Liaison: a nurse led initiative to improve healthcare for asylum seekers and refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Jacquie; Russo, Alana; Block, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Asylum seekers and refugees experience a range of barriers to health service access and competent use. The Refugee Health Nurse Liaison initiative was piloted at a hospital in a high-settlement region of Victoria, Australia. This initiative aimed to build capacity within the health sector to more effectively respond to the needs of asylum seekers and refugees. A mixed-methods evaluation was undertaken to: describe issues encountered by asylum seekers and refugees within the hospital setting; capture the nature of the Refugee Health Nurse Liaison position; and document key outputs. Throughout the pilot period, 946 patients were referred to the role, of which 99% received an assessment of physical, mental, and social health. Refugee Health Nurse Liaisons effectively provided clinical support, advocacy, education, referrals, and both formal and informal capacity building. Learnings from this model are transferable to services in high-settlement regions, and could have application in improving patient care more broadly.

  11. Context, evidence and attitude: the case for photography in medical examinations of asylum seekers in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Rebekah; Oomen, Janus

    2010-07-01

    Can photographs of scars serve as evidence of torture? Amnesty International's Medical Examination Group in the Netherlands (AI-MEG) has, for more than a decade, been photographing torture scars to supplement the testimonies of asylum seekers who have been denied refuge. AI-MEG only intervenes at this point, when asylum seekers face extradition. Proving allegations of torture is of vital importance, as asylum seekers face rising anti-immigrant sentiment in European countries. All victims examined by AI-MEG present a combination of mental, physical and emotional scars. We summarize five cases where AI-MEG used photography in their medical examinations, and consider the ethical role physicians play in helping asylum seekers obtain refuge. Though photographs cannot capture all forms of trauma, as visual documents, they are a compelling form of concrete evidence of torture. In this way, photographs complement verbal testimonies and help doctors and immigration authorities to see and understand physical scars left by various forms of torture. AI-MEG explains in medical terms the connections between the visible late sequelae of torture and victims' testimonies. They then assess whether or not the physical scars are consistent with the forms of torture recounted by victims, using the terminology of the Istanbul Protocol (1999), the United Nations-adopted manual of guidelines that explains how to document torture. This paper outlines the medical examination process and argues for the use of photography as medical evidence on behalf of asylum seekers. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toar, Magzoub; O'Brien, Kirsty K; Fahey, Tom

    2009-06-30

    Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60) and refugees (n = 28) from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36), presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2-17.9) and depression/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2-15.4), while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3-12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2-10.1), high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1-11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0-10.4) or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9-60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2-12.3) were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (chi2 = 19.74, df = 1, P refugees, while no significant difference was found between these groups for use of dentists, medication, hospitalisation or mental health services. Asylum seekers have a higher level of self reported

  13. Death penalty support for special offender populations of legally convicted murderers: juveniles, the mentally retarded, and the mentally incompetent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Denise Paquette; Heide, Kathleen M; Cochran, John K

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court recently re-examined the constitutionality of the death penalty in the context of two of three special offender populations of murderers (juveniles, mentally retarded, and mentally incompetent). The Court reaffirmed the imposition of the death penalty for juveniles 16 and 17, while reversing itself on the mentally retarded. In reaching its decision, the Court relied on society's "evolving standards of decency." Using Likert-type items, this study is the first to have prospective jurors assess support for the death penalty for these specific offender groups. The public's support for the execution of each of the groups is then compared with existing case law. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses indicate that, as expected, the levels of support for the applicability of capital punishment to the various special offender populations are much lower than that for the general adult offender. Moreover, these findings are congruent with the holdings of the Court with one notable exception: a slight majority of respondents supported executing the mentally incompetent. Reasons for the public's apparent departure from the Supreme Court holding prohibiting the execution of mentally incompetent convicted murderers are discussed. The Court's continued role in protecting marginalized populations from "cruel and unusual punishment" is explored in the context of strong public sentiment demanding justice and finality despite changes in offenders' mental capacity. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Screening for infectious diseases of asylum seekers upon arrival: the necessity of the moral principle of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeres, Dorien T; Cornish, Darren; Vonk, Machiel; Ravensbergen, Sofanne J; Maeckelberghe, Els L M; Boele Van Hensbroek, Pieter; Stienstra, Ymkje

    2018-03-02

    With a large number of forcibly displaced people seeking safety, the EU is facing a challenge in maintaining solidarity. Europe has seen millions of asylum seekers crossing European borders, the largest number of asylum seekers since the second world war. Endemic diseases and often failing health systems in their countries of origin, and arduous conditions during transit, raise questions around how to meet the health needs of this vulnerable population on arrival in terms of screening, vaccination, and access to timely and appropriate statutory health services. This paper explores the potential role of the principle of reciprocity, defined as the disposition 'to return good in proportion to the good we receive, and to make reparations for the harm we have done', as a mid-level principle in infectious disease screening policies. More than half of the European countries implemented screening programmes for newly arrived asylum seekers. Screening may serve to avoid potential infectious disease risks in the receiving countries as well as help identify health needs of asylum seekers. But screening may infringe upon basic rights of those screened, thus creating an ethical dilemma. The use of the principle of reciprocity can contribute to the identification of potential improvements for current screening programmes and emphasizes the importance of certain rights into guidelines for screening. It may create a two way moral obligation, upon asylum seekers to actively participate in the programme, and upon authorities to reciprocate the asylum seekers' participation and the benefits for the control of public health. The authors argue that the reciprocity principle leads to a stronger ethical justification of screening programmes and help achieve a balance between justifiable rights claims of the host population and the asylum seekers. The principle deserves a further and more thorough exploration of its potential use in the field of screening, migration and infectious

  15. Perceptions of mental illness and related stigma among Vietnamese populations: findings from a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Mai; Pham, Nhu Ngoc K; Wallick, Stacy; Nastasi, Bonnie Kaul

    2014-12-01

    Mental-illness-related (MIR) stigma is recognized as a major barrier to health care. Yet very little is known about mental illness and stigma among Vietnamese populations, or how emigration and acculturation processes might affect traditional views. Focus group discussions were conducted with Vietnamese Americans in New Orleans (Louisiana) and Vietnamese nationals in Bui Chu (Vietnam), who shared historical and cultural backgrounds, in 2010 to assess differences in their perceptions of mental illness and stigma. Results show several significant differences in mental illness perceptions between Vietnamese Americans and Vietnamese nationals, while MIR stigma seemed prevalent and understanding of mental illness was low among both groups.

  16. Staff/population ratios in South African public sector mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To document existing staff/population ratios per 100 000 population in South African public sector mental health services. Design. Cross-sectional survey. ... The staff/population ratios per 100 000 population for selected personnel categories (with the interprovincial ranges in brackets) were as follows: total nursing staff 15.6 ...

  17. A preliminary study of the mini-mental state examination in a Spanish child population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubial-Alvarez, Sandra; Machado, María-Clara; Sintas, Elena; de Sola, Susana; Böhm, Peter; Peña-Casanova, Jordi

    2007-11-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination is one of the most widely used screening tests for the adult population in daily neurologic practice. The aim of this study was to describe and to analyze the results of the Mini-Mental State Examination administered to Spanish children and to assess the relationship between Mini-Mental State Examination scores and the child's mental age/intelligence quotient. The study population included 181 children whose ages ranged between 4 and 12 years. The neuropsychologic battery consisted of the Mini-Mental State Examination and Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Percentiles were obtained for the Mini-Mental State Examination total score according to age ranges. Performance gradually increased from 4 to 10 years of age when a plateau in the total Mini-Mental State Examination score was reached. At the age of 6 years, results exceeded 24 on average. Pairwise mean comparisons showed statistically significant differences between the age groups (P Mini-Mental State Examination score correlated significantly with the child's chronologic (r = 0.80, P mental (r = 0.76, P Mini-Mental State Examination in a Spanish child population as well as a first step for the assessment of the usefulness of this instrument as a cognitive screening tool for children's development.

  18. Mental health differences between German gay and bisexual men and population-based controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Frank A; Franke, Gabriele H; Christiansen, Hanna

    2017-07-21

    International studies have revealed that gay and bisexual men present more mental health problems than the general male population. Furthermore, there is evidence that minority stress predicts mental health problems in gay and bisexual men. The aim of the present study is to provide initial data on mental health differences in Germany and to analyze the effect of minority stress. Mental health data on n = 1903 German gay and bisexual men and n = 958 men from a population-based sample were assessed using a shortened version of the SCL-90-S. The mental health of the two samples was compared. Furthermore, a linear regression was conducted for the gay and bisexual sample: mental health was used as the criterion and minority stressors as predictors. As compared to our population sample, gay and bisexual men demonstrated more mental health problems with a moderate effect size. In the regression, minority stress predicted mental health problems in the gay and bisexual sample. We observed pronounced mental health differences between gay and bisexual men versus the population sample. These differences could be at least partly due to the minority stress gay and bisexual men face. Research should focus on how to reduce and cope with minority stress.

  19. Canadian military personnel's population attributable fractions of mental disorders and mental health service use associated with combat and peacekeeping operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Jitender; Belik, Shay-Lee; Afifi, Tracie O; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Cox, Brian J; Stein, Murray B

    2008-12-01

    We investigated mental disorders, suicidal ideation, self-perceived need for treatment, and mental health service utilization attributable to exposure to peacekeeping and combat operations among Canadian military personnel. With data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.2 Canadian Forces Supplement, a cross-sectional population-based survey of active Canadian military personnel (N = 8441), we estimated population attributable fractions (PAFs) of adverse mental health outcomes. Exposure to either combat or peacekeeping operations was associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (men: PAF = 46.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 27.3, 62.7; women: PAF = 23.6%; 95% CI = 9.2, 40.1), 1 or more mental disorder assessed in the survey (men: PAF = 9.3%; 95% CI = 0.4, 18.1; women: PAF = 6.1%; 95% CI = 0.0, 13.4), and a perceived need for information (men: PAF = 12.3%; 95% CI = 4.1, 20.6; women: PAF = 7.9%; 95% CI = 1.3, 15.5). A substantial proportion, but not the majority, of mental health-related outcomes were attributable to combat or peacekeeping deployment. Future studies should assess traumatic events and their association with physical injury during deployment, premilitary factors, and postdeployment psychosocial factors that may influence soldiers' mental health.

  20. [Improving Mental Health Literacy and Mental Illness Stigma in the Population of Hamburg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Martin; Härter, Martin; Arnold, Detlef; Dirmaier, Jörg; Tlach, Lisa; Liebherz, Sarah; Sänger, Sylvia; Karow, Anne; Brandes, Andreas; Sielaff, Gyöngyver; Bock, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Evidence shows that poor mental health literacy and stigmatization have negative consequences on mental health. However, studies on interventions to improve both are often heterogenic in methodology and results. The psychenet-campaign in Hamburg was developed and implemented in collaboration with patients and relatives and comprised multidimensional interventions focusing on education and contact to patients. The main goals were the improvement of mental health literacy and destigmatization and the long-term implementation within Hamburg's mental health care system. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. People Seeking Asylum in Australia and their Access to Employment: Just What Do We Know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Fleay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Public and political claims about the employment of people from a refugee background in Australia do not always reflect the research findings in this area. For example, recent claims by a senior Coalition Government Minister about people seeking asylum who arrived to Australia by boat during the previous Labor Government’s terms in office (2007-13 posit that many have limited employment prospects. However, given there is little research or government reporting on the experiences of asylum seekers who arrived during this time, and none that focuses specifically on their employment, there is no evidence to support this. A review of research on the employment experiences of people from a refugee background, and Australian policies, suggests a more nuanced picture. This includes research that found while initially people from a refugee background are more likely to be unemployed, have temporary jobs and lower incomes than other newly arrived immigrants, second-generation refugees have higher levels of labour market participation than the general population. Research also highlights that refugees may experience a range of barriers to accessing employment, including discrimination, and a review of Australian policies indicates these are likely to have exacerbated some of these barriers for asylum seekers who arrived to Australia by boat. In addition, given previous findings that public attitudes can be influenced by representations made in public and political discourses, the public statements of senior Ministers may be further deepening barriers to accessing employment faced by asylum seekers who arrived by boat.

  2. Barriers to contraceptive careseeking: the experience of Eritrean asylum-seeking women in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreyesus, Tsega; Gottlieb, Nora; Sultan, Zebib; Ghebrezghiabher, Habtom Mehari; Tol, Wietse; Winch, Peter J; Davidovitch, Nadav; Surkan, Pamela J

    2017-12-28

    In recent years, there has been a mass migration of Eritreans (many seeking political asylum) into Israel after precarious irregular movement across international borders. This study qualitatively explores the structural barriers to family planning (i.e. contraceptive services) for Eritrean women in Israel that are rooted in their temporary legal status and the patchwork of family planning services. From December 2012 to September 2013, we interviewed 25 key informants (NGO workers, researchers, Eritrean community activists, International NGO representatives and Ministry of Health officials) and 12 Eritrean asylum seekers. We also conducted 8 focus groups with Eritrean asylum seekers. Data were analyzed using both inductive and deductive coding. We identified 7 main barriers to accessing family planning services: (1) distance to health facilities; (2) limited healthcare resources; (3) fragmentation of the healthcare system; (4) cost of contraceptive services; (5) low standard of care in private clinics; (6) discrimination; and (7) language barriers. The political, economic and social marginalization of Eritrean asylum-seeking women in Israel creates structural barriers to family planning services. Their marginalization complicates providers' efforts (NGO and governmental) to provide them with comprehensive healthcare, and hinders their ability to control their sexual and reproductive health. Failure to act on this evidence may perpetuate the pattern of unwanted pregnancies and social and economic disparities in this population.

  3. The need for a rights-based public health approach to Australian asylum seeker health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Jo; Brolan, Claire E; Lui, Chi-Wai; Whittaker, Maxine

    2016-01-01

    Public health professionals have a responsibility to protect and promote the right to health amongst populations, especially vulnerable and disenfranchised groups, such as people seeking asylum and whose health care is frequently compromised. As at 31 March 2016, there was a total of 3707 people (including 384 children) in immigration detention facilities or community detention in Australia, with 431 of them detained for more than 2 years. The Public Health Association of Australia and the Australian Medical Association assert that people seeking asylum in Australia have a right to health in the same way as Australian citizens, and they denounce detention of such people in government facilities for prolonged and indeterminate periods of time. The position of these two professional organisations is consistent with the compelling body of evidence demonstrating the negative impact detention has on health. Yet in recent years, both the Labour and Liberal parties-when at the helm of Australia's Federal Government-have implemented a suite of regressive policies toward individuals seeking asylum. This has involved enforced legal restrictions on dissenting voices of those working with these populations, including health professionals. This paper outlines Australia's contemporary offshore immigration detention policy and practices. It summarises evidence on asylum seeker health in detention centres and describes the government's practice of purposeful silencing of health professionals. The authors examine how Australia's treatment of asylum seekers violates their health rights. Based on these analyses, the authors call for concrete action to translate the overwhelming body of evidence on the deleterious impacts of immigration detention into ethical policy and pragmatic interventions. To this end, they provide four recommendations for action.

  4. 'At variance with the most elementary principles': the state of British colonial lunatic asylums in 1863.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Warwick

    2015-06-01

    In 1863 the Colonial Office reviewed colonial hospitals and lunatic asylums in those parts of the British Empire it administered - probably the first and widest international comparative study up to that date. This article outlines the background, process and scope of the review of asylums, and considers its significance. The resulting 'digest' is an important source to explain how, why, when and by whom metropolitan ideas acquired official endorsement and spread throughout the British world. Using the review's general findings and suggestions, a tool is provided for comparing inter-colonial achievements. With New Zealand as a case study, the article concludes that, relative to other influences, the digest played a limited and largely indirect part in shaping New Zealand's mental health policy before 1876. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. STUDY ABOUT THE INCIDENCE OF HEARING-SPEAKING DISORDERS IN A POPULATION WITH MENTAL DEFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Mihaela Tomulescu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the incidence of hearing-speaking disorders in a population with mental deficiency. We studied 596 children interned in Neurology and Psychiatry Clinical Hospital of Oradea during the 1999 - 2001 period. In 596 children, 393 presented different types of mental deficiency. The most frequent disorders observed are hearing loss or deafness, deaf-mutism, mutism and speaking retardation. Also, we related an increased frequency in rural area and in group of children with severe mental deficiency.

  6. The Politics of Gender Asylum in the U. S.: Protection of Women Asylum Seekers in the Context of Global Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Matešić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the changes towards more gender-sensitive interpretations of refugee status in international and national asylum laws and policies within the context of contemporary and historical global power relations. It also analyzes the changes in the language that can be found in the international UNHCR guidelines for the protection of women asylum seekers, U.S. national guidelines for assessing gender-related asylum claims, and recent U.S. court decisions assessing the gendered claims of women. Among the analyzed court cases, the focus is on the 2005 Mohammed case due to its problematic court decision and legal interpretations. Finding the Western countries’ instrumentalization of the international refugee protection system crucial for understanding the contemporary asylum system and women asylum seekers, the argument connects the historical conditions with the way in which the protection of women refugees from “cultural” gendered violence has been articulated in asylum politics in the U.S. The author’s overall findings are that international law, governmental organizations, and liberal women’s human rights NGOs have shaped the international and national legal protection of (women asylum seekers in such a way that it reproduces global inequalities in its representation of “Third World” women and their culture, uses women asylum seekers fleeing from violence for the purpose of exercising Western cultural superiority, and covers up the restrictive and racist Western asylum politics towards immigrants and asylum seekers.

  7. Service utilization for mental problems in a metropolitan migrant population in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhaoguo; Hu, Chiyi; Wei, Xiaolin; Yang, Hong; Shu, Mingyue; Liu, Tiebang

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predictors of service utilization for mental health problems of the first-generation migrant population in Shenzhen, China, a city that attracts millions of unskilled rural laborers each year. Using the structured World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview, the investigators conducted face-to-face surveys between September 1, 2005, and January 30, 2006. A total of 7,134 respondents age 18 years and above finished the surveys. The main outcomes were prevalence of mental disorders according to DSM-IV criteria, as well as prevalence of mental health services used in different sectors. Nine percent of the sample had ever used some type of service for mental health issues, and 6.3% used services outside of the health service sector, such as human services and complementary and alternative medicine. In addition, DSM criteria for a mental disorder over the lifetime were met by 18.1% of respondents; of the respondents with a mental disorder, 18.3% had used mental health services at least once. Migrants who were unmarried, had high family income, were raised in metropolitan areas, had histories of homelessness or attempted suicide, had a psychotic disorder, or had an anxiety disorder were more likely to use services for mental health care. In Shenzhen, few migrants used mental health services and most used complementary and alternative medicine services. Future studies of service utilization patterns in migrant populations should give special attention to personal characteristics, such as family support.

  8. Intimate partner violence and mental ill health among global populations of Indigenous women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielowska, Marta; Fuhr, Daniela C

    2017-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognised as a major obstacle to the achievement of gender equality and human development. Its adverse physical and mental health consequences have been reported to affect women of all ages and backgrounds. Although Indigenous women seem to experience higher rates of partner abuse than non-Indigenous women, mental health consequences of IPV among this population are not yet clearly established in the literature. This study systematically reviewed the global literature on mental health outcomes and risk factors for mental ill health among Indigenous women who experienced IPV. Primary quantitative and mixed methods studies that reported about mental health and IPV among Indigenous women (aged 14+) were included. 21 bibliographic databases were searched until January 2017. Quality of included studies was assessed through the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Findings are reported according to PRISMA-P 2015. 13 studies were identified. The majority of studies reported very high rates of IPV and high prevalence of mental disorders. The most frequently identified types of IPV were physical and/or sexual violence, verbal aggression, and emotional abuse. The strongest predictor of poor mental health was physical violence. The most commonly reported mental health outcomes were depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite the small number of studies identified, the available evidence suggests that experiences of IPV and mental disorders among Indigenous women are linked and exacerbated by poverty, discrimination, and substance abuse. More research is needed to better understand distributions and presentations of IPV-related mental illness in this population.

  9. Reconstructing Harry: a genealogical study of a colonial family 'inside' and 'outside' the Grahamstown Asylum, 1888-1918.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbraham, Lindy

    2014-04-01

    Recent scholarship has explored the dynamics between families and colonial lunatic asylums in the late nineteenth century, where families actively participated in the processes of custodial care, committal, treatment and release of their relatives. This paper works in this historical field, but with some methodological and theoretical differences. The Foucauldian study is anchored to a single case and family as an illness narrative that moves cross-referentially between bureaucratic state archival material, psychiatric case records, and intergenerational family-storytelling and family photographs. Following headaches and seizures, Harry Walter Wilbraham was medically boarded from his position as Postmaster in the Cape of Good Hope Colony of South Africa with a 'permanent disease of the brain', and was committed to the Grahamstown Asylum in 1910, where he died the following year, aged 40 years. In contrast to writings about colonial asylums that usually describe several patient cases and thematic patterns in archival material over time and place, this study's genealogical lens examines one white settler male patient's experiences within mental health care in South Africa between 1908 and 1911. The construction of Harry's 'case' interweaves archival sources and reminiscences inside and outside the asylum, and places it within psychiatric discourse of the time, and family dynamics in the years that followed. Thus, this case study maps the constitution of 'patient' and 'family' in colonial life, c.1888-1918, and considers the calamity, uncertainty, stigma and silences of mental illness.

  10. Mental Disorders and Socioeconomic Status: Impact on Population Risk of Attempted Suicide in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Andrew; Taylor, Richard; Hall, Wayne; Carter, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    The population attributable risk (PAR) of mental disorders compared to indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) for attempted suicide was estimated for Australia. For mental disorders, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide was for anxiety disorders (males 28%; females 36%). For SES, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide in males was for…

  11. Sickness benefit claims due to mental disorders in Brazil : associations in a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh; Bultmann, Ute; Steenstra, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence and duration of sickness benefit claims due to mental disorders and their association with economic activity, sex, age, work-relatedness and income replacement using a population-based study of sickness benefit claims (> 15 days) due to mental disorders in

  12. Poor Pre-Pregnancy and Antepartum Mental Health Predicts Postpartum Mental Health Problems among US Women: A Nationally Representative Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Whitney P.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Cheng, Erika R.; Hampton, John M.; Creswell, Paul; Hagen, Erika W.; Spear, Hilary A.; Maddox, Torsheika; DeLeire, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Mental health problems disproportionately affect women, particularly during childbearing years. However, there is a paucity of research on the determinants of postpartum mental health problems using representative US populations. Taking a life course perspective, we determined the potential risk factors for postpartum mental health problems, with a particular focus on the role of mental health before and during pregnancy. Methods We examined data on 1,863 mothers from eleven panels of the 1996-2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Poor postpartum mental health was defined using self-reports of mental health conditions, symptoms of mental health conditions, or global mental health ratings of “fair” or “poor.” Results 9.5% of women reported experiencing postpartum mental health problems, with over half of these women reporting a history of poor mental health. Poor pre-pregnancy mental health and poor antepartum mental health both independently increased the odds of having postpartum mental health problems. Staged multivariate analyses revealed that poor antepartum mental health attenuated the relationship between pre-pregnancy and postpartum mental health problems. Additionally, significant disparities exist in women's report of postpartum mental health status. Conclusions While poor antepartum mental health is the strongest predictor of postpartum mental health problems, pre-pregnancy mental health is also important. Accordingly, health care providers should identify, treat, and follow women with a history of poor mental health, as they are particularly susceptible to postpartum mental health problems. This will ensure that women and their children are in the best possible health and mental health during the postpartum period and beyond. PMID:21349740

  13. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santric-Milicevic, Milena; Jankovic, Janko; Trajkovic, Goran; Terzic-Supic, Zorica; Babic, Uros; Petrovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. To explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Cross-sectional study. This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households - 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5), and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index). The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at pinequalities contributed by differences in age, education, employment, marriage and the wealth status of the adult population.

  14. The impact of the refugee decision on the trajectory of PTSD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms among asylum seekers: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silove, Derrick; Steel, Zachary; Susljik, Ina; Frommer, Naomi; Loneragan, Celia; Chey, Tien; Brooks, Robert; le Touze, Dominique; Ceollo, Mariano; Smith, Mitchell; Harris, Elizabeth; Bryant, Richard

    2007-01-01

    To examine prospectively the trajectory of trauma-related psychiatric symptoms and disability amongst asylum seekers over the course of the refugee determination process. To identify the direct impact of the refugee decision on psychiatric symptoms by adjusting for other variables, namely sociodemographic characteristics, past trauma, and ongoing postmigration stresses. A prospective cohort study of asylum seekers recruited from a random sample of immigration agents in Sydney, Australia. Consecutive asylum seekers were referred for interview by immigration agents. Interviews were undertaken after the initial application and on average, 3.8 months after the refugee decision. Measures assessed premigration trauma and postmigration stressors. Mental health status was assessed using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Functional impairment was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form 12. Sixty-two of 73 asylum seekers were retained at follow-up. The accepted (16) and rejected (46) groups did not differ on premigration trauma or baseline psychiatric symptoms. Postdecision, the accepted group showed substantial improvements in posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, and in mental health functioning, whereas the rejected group maintained high levels of symptoms on all psychiatric indices. Establishing secure residency status for asylum seekers may be important to their recovery from trauma-related psychiatric symptoms. The practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  15. Age assessment of young asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjern, Anders; Brendler-Lindqvist, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2012-01-01

    to be of real use in this decision. Unclear guidelines and arbitrary practices may lead to alarming shortcomings in the protection of this high-risk group of children and adolescents in Europe. Medical participation, as well as non-participation, in these dubious decisions raises a number of ethical questions....... CONCLUSION: To improve care for young asylum seekers with undetermined age, we suggest better legal procedures for the determination of age and a more flexible approach to chronological age....

  16. Mental distress in the general population in Zambia: Impact of HIV and social factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chipimo Peter J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population level data on mental health from Africa are limited, but available data indicate mental problems to represent a substantial public health problem. The negative impact of HIV on mental health suggests that this could particularly be the case in high prevalence populations. We examined the prevalence of mental distress, distribution patterns and the ways HIV might influence mental health among men and women in a general population. Methods The relationship between HIV infection and mental distress was explored using a sample of 4466 participants in a population-based HIV survey conducted in selected rural and urban communities in Zambia in 2003. The Self-reporting questionnaire-10 (SRQ-10 was used to assess global mental distress. Weights were assigned to the SRQ-10 responses based on DSM IV criteria for depression and a cut off point set at 7/20 for probable cases of mental distress. A structural equation modeling (SEM was established to assess the structural relationship between HIV infection and mental distress in the model, with maximum likelihood ratio as the method of estimation. Results The HIV prevalence was 13.6% vs. 18% in the rural and urban populations, respectively. The prevalence of mental distress was substantially higher among women than men and among groups with low educational attainment vs. high. The results of the SEM showed a close fit with the data. The final model revealed that self-rated health and self perceived HIV risk and worry of being HIV infected were important mediators between underlying factors, HIV infection and mental distress. The effect of HIV infection on mental distress was both direct and indirect, but was particularly strong through the indirect effects of health ratings and self perceived risk and worry of HIV infection. Conclusion These findings suggest a strong effect of HIV infection on mental distress. In this population where few knew their HIV status, this effect was

  17. Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Refugee Children’s Forced Repatriation: Social Workers’ and Police Officers’ Health and Job Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Johanna; Hansson, Jonas; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Ögren, Kenneth; Padyab, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    During the past ten years the number of unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children has dramatically increased in Sweden. Some of them are permitted to stay in the receiving country, but some are forced back to their country of origin. Social workers and police officers are involved in these forced repatriations, and such complex situations may cause stressful working conditions. This study aimed to bridge the gap in knowledge of the relationship between general mental health and working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children who are due for forced repatriation. In addition, the role of psychosocial job characteristics in such relationships was investigated. A questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire, and the 12-item General Mental Health Questionnaire were distributed nationally. Univariate and multivariable regression models were used. Poorer mental health was associated with working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children among social workers but not among police officers. Psychological job demand was a significant predictor for general mental health among social workers, while psychological job demand, decision latitude, and marital status were predictors among police officers. Findings are discussed with special regard to the context of social work and police professions in Sweden. PMID:26153185

  18. Predictors of stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental disorders in a general population in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromaa, Esa; Tolvanen, Asko; Tuulari, Jyrki; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2011-04-01

    For planning effective and well-targeted initiatives to reduce stigma, we need to identify which factors are associated with stigmatizing of people with mental disorders. This study examined how well a combination of variables predicts stigmatizing attitudes and discrimination in a general population. A survey questionnaire was sent to 10,000 persons aged 15-80 years residing in western Finland. Attitudes were measured using a scale consisting of negative stereotypes about people with depression and stereotypical beliefs connected with mental problems, while discrimination was measured by a social distance scale. Predictors included demographic variables, mental health resources, personal experience of depression or psychological distress, knowing someone who suffers from mental health problems, and negative stereotypical beliefs. Although 86% of the population thought that depression is a real medical condition, the majority of respondents believed that people with depression are responsible for their illness. Social discrimination was significantly associated with respondents' age, gender, native language, sense of mastery, depression, stereotypical beliefs and familiarity with mental problems. The results suggest that the need to address stigma is higher among men, older people and those without familiarity with mental problems. When planning interventions to shape stereotypes, the need for change is highest among those with a low sense of life control and poor social networks. Direct interactions with persons who have mental problems may change the stereotypical beliefs and discriminative behaviour of those who do not have familiarity with mental problems.

  19. [Determining Factors in the Access to Mental Health Services by the Adult Colombian Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Lina María; Peñaloza, Rolando Enrique; Matallana, María Alexandra; Gil, Fabián; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Landaeta, Angela Patricia Vega

    2016-12-01

    Access to mental health services by people with mental disorders has traditionally been limited, and is associated with attitudinal, social, and structural variables. To analyse the factors that determine access to mental health services by the adult population (18-44 years old) in Colombia, from the results obtained in the 2015 National Mental Health Survey. Analysis of variables of access to attention in mental health care for adults. The reasons for not consulting were classified as barriers of behavioural supply and demand. To analyse the factors associated with access to mental health services in the Colombian adult population, the use of health services in the last 12 months for emotional, nervous or mental health problems was taken into account, as well as associated variables such as demographic characteristics, occupational activity, affiliation to social security, and health status variables. The relationships between these variables were estimated using bivariate multinomial logistic regression models. Rural residence, being married, and having a chronic disease were associated with the decision to consult or not to consult the doctor. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the situation as regards mental health care access, as well as to determine the potential factors associated with these limitations. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Desigualdades en la salud mental de la población ocupada Inequalities in mental health in the working population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immaculada Cortès

    2004-10-01

    ón diferencial según la cualificación laboral y el género.Objectives: To analyze inequalities in mental health in the working population by gender and professional qualifications and to identify psychosocial risk factors and employment conditions related to the mental health of this population. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from the Barcelona Health Survey 2000. The working population aged 16-64 years (2322 men and 1836 women was included. Mental health was measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated by means of multivariate logistic regression models separated by job qualifications and gender. Results: The prevalence of poor mental health ranged from 8% among men working in non-manual occupations to 19% in women working in manual jobs. Women were more likely to report poor mental health status than men, although sex differences were greater among manual workers (aOR = 2.26; 95%CI, 1.68-3.05 for women compared to men in the same group. Differences according to qualifications were found among women only (aOR = 1.58 [95%CI, 1.22-2.05] for women working in manual jobs compared to those working in non-manual jobs, while no differences were found among men according to qualifications. Psychosocial risk factors were associated with mental health: demand was associated in all groups, autonomy only in non-manual occupations, and social support only in the most highly qualified working women. Employment conditions such as working a split shift (working day with a long lunch break or having a temporary contract were associated with mental health in manual occupations only. Conclusions: Mental health among the working population is related to professional qualifications and gender. Women are at greater risk than men, especially those working in manual occupations. Psychosocial occupational factors are related to mental health status, showing different patterns

  1. Cultural competence among nurse practitioners working with asylum seekers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurmond, Jeanine; Seeleman, Conny; Rupp, Ines; Goosen, Simone; Stronks, Karien

    2010-01-01

    Asylum seekers often have complex medical needs. Little is known about the cultural competences health care providers should have in their contact with asylum seekers in order to meet their needs. Cultural competence is generally defined as a combination of knowledge about certain cultural groups,

  2. LGBTI asylum claims: the Central and Eastern European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Śmiszek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that CEE countries still lag far behind therest of Europe in their asylum practices in relation to LGBTI asylumclaims. Low levels of awareness, lack of guidance and cultural hostility are jeopardising asylum seekers’ prospects for fair treatment.

  3. Persistence of mental health problems and needs in a college student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivin, Kara; Eisenberg, Daniel; Gollust, Sarah E; Golberstein, Ezra

    2009-10-01

    Cross-sectional studies indicate a high prevalence of mental health problems among college students, but there are fewer longitudinal data on these problems and related help-seeking behavior. We conducted a baseline web-based survey of students attending a large public university in fall 2005 and a two-year follow-up survey in fall 2007. We used brief screening instruments to measure symptoms of mental disorders (anxiety, depression, eating disorders), as well as self-injury and suicidal ideation. We estimated the persistence of these mental health problems between the two time points, and determined to what extent students with mental health problems perceived a need for or used mental health services (medication or therapy). We conducted logistic regression analyses examining how baseline predictors were associated with mental health and help-seeking two years later. Over half of students suffered from at least one mental health problem at baseline or follow-up. Among students with at least one mental health problem at baseline, 60% had at least one mental health problem two years later. Among students with a mental health problem at both time points, fewer than half received treatment between those time points. Mental health problems are based on self-report to brief screens, and the sample is from a single university. These findings indicate that mental disorders are prevalent and persistent in a student population. While the majority of students with probable disorders are aware of the need for treatment, most of these students do not receive treatment, even over a two-year period.

  4. Exploring the Relationship between Housing and Health for Refugees and Asylum Seekers in South Australia: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ziersch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Housing is an important social determinant of health; however, little is known about the impact of housing experiences on health and wellbeing for people from refugee and asylum-seeking backgrounds. In this paper, we outline a qualitative component of a study in South Australia examining these links. Specifically, interviews were conducted with 50 refugees and asylum seekers who were purposively sampled according to gender, continent and visa status, from a broader survey. Interviews were analysed thematically. The results indicated that housing was of central importance to health and wellbeing and impacted on health through a range of pathways including affordability, the suitability of housing in relation to physical aspects such as condition and layout, and social aspects such as safety and belonging and issues around security of tenure. Asylum seekers in particular reported that living in housing in poor condition negatively affected their health. Our research reinforces the importance of housing for both the physical and mental health for asylum seekers and refugees living in resettlement countries. Improving housing quality, affordability and tenure security all have the potential to lead to more positive health outcomes.

  5. Exploring the Relationship between Housing and Health for Refugees and Asylum Seekers in South Australia: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziersch, Anna; Walsh, Moira; Due, Clemence; Duivesteyn, Emily

    2017-09-08

    Housing is an important social determinant of health; however, little is known about the impact of housing experiences on health and wellbeing for people from refugee and asylum-seeking backgrounds. In this paper, we outline a qualitative component of a study in South Australia examining these links. Specifically, interviews were conducted with 50 refugees and asylum seekers who were purposively sampled according to gender, continent and visa status, from a broader survey. Interviews were analysed thematically. The results indicated that housing was of central importance to health and wellbeing and impacted on health through a range of pathways including affordability, the suitability of housing in relation to physical aspects such as condition and layout, and social aspects such as safety and belonging and issues around security of tenure. Asylum seekers in particular reported that living in housing in poor condition negatively affected their health. Our research reinforces the importance of housing for both the physical and mental health for asylum seekers and refugees living in resettlement countries. Improving housing quality, affordability and tenure security all have the potential to lead to more positive health outcomes.

  6. Risk factors for common mental disorders in women. Population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikram; Kirkwood, Betty R; Pednekar, Sulochana; Weiss, Helen; Mabey, David

    2006-12-01

    The determinants of common mental disorders in women have not been described in longitudinal studies from a low-income country. Population-based cohort study of 2494 women aged 18 to 50 years, in India. The Revised Clinical Interview Schedule was used for the detection of common mental disorders. There were 39 incident cases of common mental disorder in 2166 participants eligible for analysis (12-month rate 1.8%, 95% CI 1.3-2.4%). The following baseline factors were independently associated with the risk for common mental disorder: poverty (low income and having difficulty making ends meet); being married as compared with being single; use of tobacco; experiencing abnormal vaginal discharge; reporting a chronic physical illness; and having higher psychological symptom scores at baseline. Programmes to reduce the burden of common mental disorder in women should target poorer women, women with chronic physical illness and who have gynaecological symptoms, and women who use tobacco.

  7. [From the asylums to the community: the reform process of National Colony "Dr. Manuel A. Montes de Oca"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004, a profound transformation of the asylum care model, characterized by overcrowding, lack of discharge and absence of rehabilitation programs, and social reinsertion, has been developed at National Colony "Dr. Manuel A. Montes de Oca". During this period, a plan that contemplates several programs and projects aimed at restoring the rights of institutionalized people with mental disabilities and promoting opportunities for social inclusion has been implemented.

  8. Trends of Mental Health Status in Iranian Population Aged 15 and above between 1999 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Bagheri Yazdi, Seyed Abbas; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Kamali, Koorosh; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Hajebi, Ahmad; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Esalatmanesh, Sophia; Bagheri Yazdi, HanihalSadat; Abbasinejad, Maryam; Asadi, Ali

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the results of mental health surveys on adult populations of all provinces in Iran, between 1999 and 2015. This study was an overview of two cross-sectional, descriptive studies that were performed in 1999 and 2015. The study population of these two studies consisted of urban and rural residents of all provinces in Iran. Samples were recruited by systematic random cluster sampling. In both studies, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) was used to assess mental health status of respondents. Trained psychologists completed questionnaires, and data were analyzed using SPSS software-18. The results showed that in the survey of 1999, 21% of participants suffered from mental disorders (25.9% of females and 14.9% of males). In the survey of 2015, 23.4% of samples were suspected of having mental disorders (27.6% of females and 19.3% of males). The prevalence of mental disorders increased from 1999 to 2014 by about 1.12 fold (1.06 fold in females and 1.3 fold in males). In the survey of 1999, rural residents were more at risk of mental disorders, while in the survey of 2015, urban residents were more prone to mental disorders. In both studies, the risk of suspicion for mental disorders increased with increasing age, and was higher in people aged 65 and above, as well as widowed, divorced and illiterate individuals. The results of this study showed an increase in suspected cases of mental disorders in Iran from 1999 to 2015. Therefore, it is vital for policymakers and health officials to take action in order to improve and maintain mental health status of the people who are at risk in the country.

  9. Radiographic evaluation of the mental foramen in a selected Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haghanifar Sina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information on the position of the mental foramen is important for dental surgeons. Variations in its position can be a cause of complications during local anesthesia or surgical procedures. The usual position of the mental foramen in an Iranian population has not been previously reported. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the most common location of the mental foramen in an Iranian population. We also analyzed gender differences and the symmetry of location within individuals. Materials and Methods : 400 panoramic radiographs were evaluated with regard to the location and symmetry of the mental foramina in male and female subjects. Results : We found that the mental foramen was located between the first and second premolars in 47.2% of patients and in line with the second premolar in 46%. In 49.2% of males, the mental foramen was in line with the second premolar. In 50.9% of females it was between the first and second premolars. It was symmetrical in 85.7%. Conclusions : Based on this study it appears that the most common position of mental foramen is either between the two premolars or in line with the second premolar. This is in concordance with previous studies.

  10. Population-based initiatives in college mental health: students helping students to overcome obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Daniel J; Pinder-Amaker, Stephanie L; Morse, Charles; Ellison, Marsha L; Doerfler, Leonard A; Riba, Michelle B

    2014-12-01

    College students' need for mental health care has increased dramatically, leaving campus counseling and mental health centers struggling to meet the demand. This has led to the investigation and development of extra-center, population-based interventions. Student-to-student support programs are but one example. Students themselves are a plentiful, often-untapped resource that extends the reach of mental health services on campus. Student-to-student programs capitalize on students' natural inclination to assist their peers. A brief review of the prevalence and effects of mental disorders in the college population is provided, followed by a broad overview of the range of peer-to-peer programs that can be available on college campuses. Two innovative programs are highlighted: (1) a hospital- and community-based program, the College Mental Health Program (CMHP) at McLean Hospital, and 2) the Student Support Network (SSN) at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. The subsequent section reviews the literature on peer-to-peer programs for students with serious and persistent mental illness for which there is a small but generally positive body of research. This lack of an empirical basis in college mental health leads the authors to argue for development of broad practice-research networks.

  11. Asylum seekers, violence and health: a systematic review of research in high-income host countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalt, Anne; Hossain, Mazeda; Kiss, Ligia; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2013-03-01

    We performed a systematic review of literature on violence and related health concerns among asylum seekers in high-income host countries. We extracted data from 23 peer-reviewed studies. Prevalence of torture, variably defined, was above 30% across all studies. Torture history in clinic populations correlated with hunger and posttraumatic stress disorder, although in small, nonrepresentative samples. One study observed that previous exposure to interpersonal violence interacted with longer immigration detention periods, resulting in higher depression scores. Limited evidence suggests that asylum seekers frequently experience violence and health problems, but large-scale studies are needed to inform policies and services for this vulnerable group often at the center of political debate.

  12. Mental Illness-Related Stigma in Canadian Military and Civilian Populations: A Comparison Using Population Health Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Murray; Zamorski, Mark A; Rusu, Corneliu; Colman, Ian

    2017-07-01

    This study sought to compare the prevalence and impacts of mental illness-related stigma among Canadian Armed Forces personnel and Canadian civilians. Data were from two highly comparable, population-based, cross-sectional surveys of Canadian military personnel and Canadian civilians: the 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (N=6,696) and the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (N=25,113), respectively. Perceived stigma was assessed among those who reported care seeking for a mental health problem in the past 12 months. Follow-up questions assessed the impact of stigma in various domains. Modified Poisson regression and linear regression were used to examine population differences (military versus civilian) in terms of care seeking, stigma, and stigma impact, with adjustments for sociodemographic characteristics and the need for care. Military personnel were significantly more likely than civilians to have perceived stigma (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR]=1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.11-2.60). Stigma had a greater impact on military personnel, particularly in terms of work or school life (b=1.01, CI=.57-1.47). However, military personnel were also significantly more likely than civilians to have sought care (PR=1.86, CI=1.53-2.25). Military personnel reported a disproportionate amount of mental illness-related stigma, compared with Canadian civilians, and a greater impact of stigma. Nevertheless, military personnel were more likely to seek care, pointing to a complex relationship between stigma and care seeking in the military.

  13. A longitudinal study of change in asylum seekers Activities of Daily Living ability while in asylum centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Amris, Kirstine; Eklund, Mona

    Abstract WFOT Title: Occupational performance amongst asylum seekers in Denmark Introduction: Increased health problems are reported among asylum seekers, often related to torture, but there is no knowledge regarding occupational performance and whether there are any changes in asylum seekers...... changes in occupational performance and general health over time. Methods: At baseline 43 newly arrived asylum seekers, age 20-43, were consecutively enrolled in the study. All participants were assessed using AMPS and the questionnaires WHO-5, Major Depression Inventory, Pain Detect Questionnaire...... and the general health problems had increased. Further, the preliminary findings indicated an association between number of torture incidents and a decline in occupational performance and general health at follow-up. Conclusion: The findings showed that the asylum seekers had an occupational performance...

  14. The Characteristics of Patients with Intellectual Disabilities Held in Forensic Asylums in Norway: 1915–1987

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    Erik Søndenaa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of patients with intellectual disability (ID were admitted to forensic mental health asylums during the period 1915–1987. Many of these patients stayed for more than a decade, because of previous offending behaviour. We investigated the daily lives of 262 patients with an ID using casebooks. Two of the patients were studied more in detail. The available documents describe most of these patients as sociable, well-behaved and socially engaged although they missed having contacts outside the hospital. Long-stay patients were studied more in detail.

  15. Quality of Life Outcomes in Community-based Mental Health Consumers: Comparisons with Population Norms and Changes over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Stanton, Robert; Hodgetts, Danya; Scott, David

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life is shown to be lower in people diagnosed with mental illness in comparison to the general population. The aim of this study is to examine the Quality of life in a subset of people accessing mental health services in a regional Queensland Centre. Thirty-seven people accessing mental health services completed the SF36 Health Survey on three occasions. Differences and relationships between Physical Composite Scores and Mental Composite Scores, comparisons with Australian population norms, and temporal change in Quality of Life were examined. Physical Composite Scores were significantly different to, but significantly correlated with, Mental Composite Scores on each occasion. Physical Composite Scores and Mental Composite Scores were significantly different to population norms, and did not vary significantly across time. The poor Quality of life of people with mental illness remains a significant challenge for the mental health workforce.

  16. Social factors ameliorate psychiatric disorders in community-based asylum seekers independent of visa status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Debbie C; Kennedy, Gerard A; Sundram, Suresh

    2015-12-15

    The impact of industrialised host nations' deterrent immigration policies on the mental health of forced migrants has not been well characterised. The present study investigated the impact of Australia's refugee determination process (RDP) on psychiatric morbidity in community-based asylum-seekers (AS) and refugees. Psychiatric morbidity was predicted to be greater in AS than refugees, and to persist or increase as a function of time in the RDP. The effect on mental health of demographic and socio-political factors such as health cover and work rights were also investigated. Psychiatric morbidity was measured prospectively on five mental health indices at baseline (T1, n=131) and an average of 15.7 months later (T2, n=56). Psychiatric morbidity in AS significantly decreased between time points such that it was no longer greater than that of refugees at T2. Caseness of PTSD and demoralisation reduced in AS who gained protection; however, those who maintained asylum-seeker status at T2 also had a significant reduction in PTS and depression symptom severity. Reduced PTS and demoralisation symptoms were associated with securing work rights and health cover. Living in the community with work rights and access to health cover significantly improves psychiatric symptoms in forced migrants irrespective of their protection status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The mental health of Canadian transgender youth compared with the Canadian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Jaimie F.; Watson, Ryan J.; Peter, Tracey; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study documents the prevalence of mental health concerns among Canadian transgender youth and makes comparisons with cisgender or mostly-cisgender population-based studies. This study also compares gender identity subgroups (transgender girls/women, boys/men, and non-binary) and age subgroups (14–18 year olds and 19–25 year olds) on mental health outcomes. Methods A nonprobability sample of 923 transgender youth from across Canada completed a bilingual online survey. Participants were recruited through community organizations, healthcare settings, social media, and the researchers’ networks. Mental health measures were drawn from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey and the Canadian Community Health Survey. Results Transgender youth had a higher risk of reporting psychological distress, self-harm, major depressive episode, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. Risk ratios ranged from 3.8 to 16.1. Transgender boys/men and non-binary youth were most likely to report self-harm and non-binary youth also reported lower overall mental health. Rates of self-harm and suicide were lower in the 19–25 age group than the 14–18 age group, but reported overall mental health was the same across these age groups. Conclusions Although a notable minority of transgender youth reported good mental health, this study shows the mental health disparities faced by transgender youth in Canada are considerable. Policy Implications These findings underscore the need for policies and laws protecting transgender people from discrimination, training for transgender competency for mental healthcare providers, providers, and further development of transgender-specific interventions to promote positive mental health and reduce mental health problems among transgender youth. PMID:28007056

  18. Problems Faced by Mexican Asylum Seekers in the United States

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    J. Anna Cabot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Violence in Mexico rose sharply in response to President Felipe Calderón’s military campaign against drug cartels which began in late 2006. As a consequence, the number of Mexicans who have sought asylum in the United States has grown significantly. In 2013, Mexicans made up the second largest group of defensive asylum seekers (those in removal proceedings in the United States, behind only China (EOIR 2014b. Yet between 2008 and 2013, the grant rate for Mexican asylum seekers in immigration court fell from 23 percent to nine percent (EOIR 2013, 2014b. This paper examines—from the perspective of an attorney who represented Mexican asylum seekers on the US-Mexico border in El Paso, Texas—the reasons for low asylum approval rates for Mexicans despite high levels of violence in and flight from Mexico from 2008 to 2013. It details the obstacles faced by Mexican asylum seekers along the US-Mexico border, including placement in removal proceedings, detention, evidentiary issues, narrow legal standards, and (effectively judicial notice of country conditions in Mexico. The paper recommends that asylum seekers at the border be placed in affirmative proceedings (before immigration officials, making them eligible for bond. It also proposes increased oversight of immigration judges.

  19. Attitudes to Mental Illness and Its Demographic Correlates among General Population in Singapore.

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    Qi Yuan

    Full Text Available Public attitudes to mental illness could influence how the public interact with, provide opportunities for, and help people with mental illness.This study aims to explore the underlying factors of the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the general population in Singapore and the socio-demographic correlates of each factor.From March 2014 to April 2015, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey on mental health literacy with 3,006 participants was conducted in Singapore.Factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure for the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the Singapore general population, namely social distancing, tolerance/support for community care, social restrictiveness, and prejudice and misconception. Older age, male gender, lower education and socio-economic status were associated with more negative attitudes towards the mentally ill. Chinese showed more negative attitudes than Indians and Malays (except for prejudice and misconception.There is a need for culture-specific interventions, and the associated factors identified in this study should be considered for future attitude campaigns.

  20. Attitudes to Mental Illness and Its Demographic Correlates among General Population in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Abdin, Edimansyah; Picco, Louisa; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Shahwan, Shazana; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Shafie, Saleha; Tay, Jenny; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Public attitudes to mental illness could influence how the public interact with, provide opportunities for, and help people with mental illness. This study aims to explore the underlying factors of the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the general population in Singapore and the socio-demographic correlates of each factor. From March 2014 to April 2015, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey on mental health literacy with 3,006 participants was conducted in Singapore. Factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure for the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the Singapore general population, namely social distancing, tolerance/support for community care, social restrictiveness, and prejudice and misconception. Older age, male gender, lower education and socio-economic status were associated with more negative attitudes towards the mentally ill. Chinese showed more negative attitudes than Indians and Malays (except for prejudice and misconception). There is a need for culture-specific interventions, and the associated factors identified in this study should be considered for future attitude campaigns.

  1. Attitudes to Mental Illness and Its Demographic Correlates among General Population in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Abdin, Edimansyah; Picco, Louisa; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Shahwan, Shazana; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Shafie, Saleha; Tay, Jenny; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Background Public attitudes to mental illness could influence how the public interact with, provide opportunities for, and help people with mental illness. Aims This study aims to explore the underlying factors of the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the general population in Singapore and the socio-demographic correlates of each factor. Methods From March 2014 to April 2015, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey on mental health literacy with 3,006 participants was conducted in Singapore. Results Factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure for the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the Singapore general population, namely social distancing, tolerance/support for community care, social restrictiveness, and prejudice and misconception. Older age, male gender, lower education and socio-economic status were associated with more negative attitudes towards the mentally ill. Chinese showed more negative attitudes than Indians and Malays (except for prejudice and misconception). Conclusions There is a need for culture-specific interventions, and the associated factors identified in this study should be considered for future attitude campaigns. PMID:27893796

  2. Predictors of mental health competence in a population cohort of Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeld, Sharon; Kvalsvig, Amanda; Incledon, Emily; O'Connor, Meredith; Mensah, Fiona

    2014-05-01

    The child mental health epidemiology literature focuses almost exclusively on reporting the prevalence and predictors of child mental disorders. However, there is growing recognition of positive mental health or mental health competence as an independent outcome that cannot be inferred from the absence of problems, and requires epidemiological investigation in its own right. We developed a novel measure of child mental health competence within the framework of the Australian Early Development Index, a three-yearly national census of early child development. Predictors of this outcome were investigated by linking these census data at individual level to detailed background information collected by a large longitudinal cohort study. Predictors of competence were consistent with previously described theoretical and empirical models. Overall, boys were significantly less likely than girls to demonstrate a high level of competence (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.91). Other strong predictors of competence were parent education and a relative absence of maternal psychological distress; these factors also appeared to attenuate the negative effect of family hardship on child competence. This measure of mental health competence shows promise as a population-level indicator with the potential benefit of informing and evaluating evidence-based public health intervention strategies that promote positive mental health.

  3. Mental disability and discriminatory practices: effects of social representations of the Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, Espinola-Nadurille; Guadalupe, Delgado

    2009-05-01

    The prevalence of mental disorders in Mexico is 26.1%. This shows that an important percentage of the population suffers from mental disability. Despite this the country's healthcare system does not provide the least acceptable standard of care for the mentally disabled. The aim of this study was to describe the general population's social representations of the disabled and analyze their relationship with the discriminatory practices from the state towards the mentally ill with respect to their right to health. This study was a secondary analysis of the First National Survey on Discrimination in Mexico. In the survey 1,437 effective interviews that comprised a representative sample, were obtained from people aged 18 to 60 living in rural and urban settings. The response rate was 76.5%. The assessment tool was a self-administered questionnaire that yielded perceptions, attitudes, values and social representations about discrimination towards groups of people that supposedly were targets of discrimination by the general population. In the survey the mentally ill were included under disability. As a secondary analysis of the survey for the purpose of this study, we selected a subset of questions that provided important information about social representations of the general Mexican population towards persons with disabilities. The general population's social representations of the disabled were analyzed. The disabled are the second group after the elderly perceived as the most discriminated and neglected and bearing more suffering. A whole set of negative representations concerning the disabled, such as lack of acceptance and respect, low self-confidence, mistreatment, incomprehension, isolation, intolerance, indifference and bad attitudes from others, were elicited. Social representations are social correspondents of the discriminatory practices that the state exerts toward the mentally ill with respect to their right to health. These representations serve to

  4. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey

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    Milena Santric Milicevic

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. Aims: То explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households – 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5, and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index. The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at p<0.05. Results: Chronic anxiety or depression was seen in 4.9% of the respondents, and poor MHI-5 in 47% of respondents. Low education (Odds Ratios 1.32; 95% confidence intervals=1.16-1.51, unemployment (1.36; 1.18-1.56, single status (1.34; 1.23-1.45, and Wealth Index middle class (1.20; 1.08-1.32 or poor (1.33; 1.21-1.47 were significantly related with poor MHI-5. Unemployed persons in urban settlements had higher odds for poormMHI-5 than unemployed in rural areas (0.73; 0.59-0.89. Single (1.50; 1.26-1.78, unemployed (1.39; 1.07-1.80 and inactive respondents (1.42; 1.10-1.83 had a higher odds of chronic anxiety or depression than married individuals, or

  5. A group-based approach to stabilisation and symptom management in a phased treatment model for refugees and asylum seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. A. Robertson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatised asylum seekers and refugees may present with significant and complex mental health problems as a result of prolonged, extreme, and multiple traumatic events. This is further complicated by ongoing complex social circumstances. Concepts: In our work at the Traumatic Stress Clinic (TSC, the understanding afforded by the concept of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD together with the related notion of a phased treatment model, provides a useful framework for organising our work with this population. Clinical Applications: An explication of complex PTSD as it applies to our client group is presented, followed by a description of our phased treatment model and an outline of the core principles, which guide our clinical approach. Our symptom management and stabilisation groups have been developed and refined over time and draw on techniques from a variety of cognitive behavioural therapies. These are described in some detail with illustrative clinical case vignettes. Conclusion: This paper concludes with some reflections on the challenges inherent to working with this complex client group.

  6. Is poor mental health a risk factor for retirement? Findings from a longitudinal population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Sarah C; Butterworth, Peter; Rodgers, Bryan

    2012-05-01

    Poor mental health may influence people's decisions about, and ability to, keep working into later adulthood. The identification of factors that drive retirement provides valuable information for policymakers attempting to mitigate the effects of population ageing. This study examined whether mental health predicts subsequent retirement in a general population sample, and whether this association varied with the timing of retirement. Longitudinal data from 2,803 people aged 45-75 years were drawn from five waves of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey. Discrete-time survival analyses were used to estimate the association between mental health and retirement. Mental health was measured using the Mental Health Index (MHI-5). The relative influences of other health, social, financial, and work-related predictors of retirement were considered to determine the unique contribution of mental health to retirement behaviour. Poor mental health was associated with higher rates of retirement in men (hazard rate ratio, HRR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.29), and workforce exit more generally in women (HRR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07-1.22). These associations varied with the timing of retirement and were driven by early retirees specifically. Physical functioning, income, social activity, job conditions (including job stress for women and job control for men), and aspects of job satisfaction also predicted subsequent retirement. Poor mental and physical health predict workforce departure in mid-to-late adulthood, particularly early retirement. Strategies to accommodate health conditions in the workplace may reduce rates of early retirement and encourage people to remain at work into later adulthood.

  7. Transition from an asylum seeker–specific health service to mainstream primary care for community-based asylum seekers: a qualitative interview study

    OpenAIRE

    Genevieve L Fair; Mark F Harris; Mitchell M Smith

    2018-01-01

    Background and aim: Transition of asylum seekers from special-purpose health services to mainstream primary care is both necessary and difficult. This study explores the issues encountered by asylum seekers undergoing this transition in Sydney, Australia. Methods: Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted with nine asylum seeker patients and nine staff working in the sector. Results: Asylum seekers faced significant challenges in the transition to mainstream primary care. C...

  8. Problems Faced by Mexican Asylum Seekers in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    J. Anna Cabot

    2014-01-01

    Violence in Mexico rose sharply in response to President Felipe Calderón’s military campaign against drug cartels which began in late 2006. As a consequence, the number of Mexicans who have sought asylum in the United States has grown significantly. In 2013, Mexicans made up the second largest group of defensive asylum seekers (those in removal proceedings) in the United States, behind only China (EOIR 2014b). Yet between 2008 and 2013, the grant rate for Mexican asylum seekers in immigration...

  9. The stigma of mental illness in Southern Ghana: attitudes of the urban population and patients' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barke, Antonia; Nyarko, Seth; Klecha, Dorothee

    2011-11-01

    Stigma is a frequent accompaniment of mental illness leading to a number of detrimental consequences. Most research into the stigma connected to mental illness was conducted in the developed world. So far, few data exist on countries in sub-Saharan Africa and no data have been published on population attitudes towards mental illness in Ghana. Even less is known about the stigma actually perceived by the mentally ill persons themselves. A convenience sample of 403 participants (210 men, mean age 32.4±12.3 years) from urban regions in Accra, Cape Coast and Pantang filled in the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill (CAMI) questionnaire. In addition, 105 patients (75 men, mean age 35.9±11.0 years) of Ghana's three psychiatric hospitals (Accra Psychiatry Hospital, Ankaful Hospital, Pantang Hospital) answered the Perceived Stigma and Discrimination Scale. High levels of stigma prevailed in the population as shown by high proportions of assent to items expressing authoritarian and socially restrictive views, coexisting with agreement with more benevolent attitudes. A higher level of education was associated with more positive attitudes on all subscales (Authoritarianism, Social Restrictiveness, Benevolence and Acceptance of Community Based Mental Health Services). The patients reported a high degree of experienced stigma with secrecy concerning the illness as a widespread coping strategy. Perceived stigma was not associated with sex or age. The extent of stigmatising attitudes within the urban population of Southern Ghana is in line with the scant research in other countries in sub-Saharan Africa and mirrored by the experienced stigma reported by the patients. These results have to be seen in the context of the extreme scarcity of resources within the Ghanaian psychiatric system. Anti-stigma efforts should include interventions for mentally ill persons themselves and not exclusively focus on public attitudes.

  10. Image of Refugees and Asylum-Seekers in the Media: An Evaluation on Media Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Kolukırık

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The case of refugees and asylum-seekers constitutes one of the most important problems of today’s developed and developing countries. Immigration and sanctuary which arise generally from economic causes have reached a more intensified state due to deficiencies in the process of democratization and establishment of an environment of peace. Although it is difficult to provide an exact number, it is observed that a population of more than 10 million people in the world today continue their lives outside their home countries and seek new environments for survival. It is known that refugee mobility follows a route from the south to northern countries and in the case of Turkey it is realized along the coastal lines and through east/south highways, and occupies a significant area of coverage in the Turkish printed media. This article aims to analyze and evaluate the media language and discourse on the lives of refugees or asylum seekers through the perspective of democratization and human rights. Critical discourse analysis will be used to analyze the main axes of enquiry which include the news released in the Turkish printed media on refugees and asylum seekers, the approach adopted in shaping such news coverage, the messages they convey, and their role in molding public opinion

  11. When lives are put on hold: Lengthy asylum processes decrease employment among refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainmueller, Jens; Hangartner, Dominik; Lawrence, Duncan

    2016-08-01

    European governments are struggling with the biggest refugee crisis since World War II, but there exists little evidence regarding how the management of the asylum process affects the subsequent integration of refugees in the host country. We provide new causal evidence about how one central policy parameter, the length of time that refugees wait in limbo for a decision on their asylum claim, affects their subsequent economic integration. Exploiting exogenous variation in wait times and registry panel data covering refugees who applied in Switzerland between 1994 and 2004, we find that one additional year of waiting reduces the subsequent employment rate by 4 to 5 percentage points, a 16 to 23% drop compared to the average rate. This deleterious effect is remarkably stable across different subgroups of refugees stratified by gender, origin, age at arrival, and assigned language region, a pattern consistent with the idea that waiting in limbo dampens refugee employment through psychological discouragement, rather than a skill atrophy mechanism. Overall, our results suggest that marginally reducing the asylum waiting period can help reduce public expenditures and unlock the economic potential of refugees by increasing employment among this vulnerable population.

  12. When lives are put on hold: Lengthy asylum processes decrease employment among refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainmueller, Jens; Hangartner, Dominik; Lawrence, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    European governments are struggling with the biggest refugee crisis since World War II, but there exists little evidence regarding how the management of the asylum process affects the subsequent integration of refugees in the host country. We provide new causal evidence about how one central policy parameter, the length of time that refugees wait in limbo for a decision on their asylum claim, affects their subsequent economic integration. Exploiting exogenous variation in wait times and registry panel data covering refugees who applied in Switzerland between 1994 and 2004, we find that one additional year of waiting reduces the subsequent employment rate by 4 to 5 percentage points, a 16 to 23% drop compared to the average rate. This deleterious effect is remarkably stable across different subgroups of refugees stratified by gender, origin, age at arrival, and assigned language region, a pattern consistent with the idea that waiting in limbo dampens refugee employment through psychological discouragement, rather than a skill atrophy mechanism. Overall, our results suggest that marginally reducing the asylum waiting period can help reduce public expenditures and unlock the economic potential of refugees by increasing employment among this vulnerable population. PMID:27493995

  13. [Prevalence and Associated Factors of Mental Disorders in Colombian Child Population, the 2015 National Mental Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Aulí, Javier; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Gil, Fabián; Garzón, Daniel; Casas, Germán

    2016-12-01

    The 2015 National Mental Health Survey aimed to expand our knowledge about the real mental state of children in Colombia, taking into account the fact that most mental disorders in adults begin during childhood or adolescence. It is essential to have an improved knowledge of the magnitude of this issue and to design timely interventions that reduce long term complications. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the disorders in the last 12 months and 30 days according to the DSM-IV, as well as to collect data about social and demographic variables. The structured Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-P), which provides DSM-IV diagnoses, was applied to carers of non-institutionalised children between 7 and 11 years old. The disorders evaluated included: major depressive disorder, dysthymia, generalised anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in its three kinds (mixed, inattentive, and hyperactive), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. The instrumentation was computer-assisted. Prevalences of the disorders are present both in the last 30 days and in the last 12 months. In general, there is a prevalence of any of the disorders of 3% (95% CI, 2.2-4.0) in the last 30 days, and 4.7% (95% CI, 3.6-6.2) in the last 12 months. When evaluated individually, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is the most frequent disorder, with a prevalence of 2.3% and 3.0% in the last 30 days and the last 12 months, respectively. In addition, the disorders that are known to frequently begin during childhood are the most common disorders in the age group studied, with a prevalence of 2.5% in the last 30 days and 3.2% in the last year. The 2015 National Mental Health Survey provides precise information about the real mental situation in children between the ages of 7 and 11 years in Colombia, compared with past epidemiological studies in the country, which were restricted to specific populations. By

  14. Racial disparities in prescription drug use for mental illness among population in US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Euna; Liu, Gordon G

    2005-09-01

    Racial minorities are a rapidly growing portion of the US population. Research suggests that racial minorities are more vulnerable to mental illness due to risk factors, such as higher rates of poverty. Given that the burden of mental illnesses is significant, equal likelihood of mental health services utilization is important to reduce such burden. Racial minorities have been known to use mental health services less than Whites. However, it is unclear whether racial disparity in prescription drug use for mental illnesses exists in a nationally representative sample. For a valid estimation of prescription drug use patterns, the characteristic in the distribution of prescription drug use should be accounted for in the estimation model. This study is intended to document whether there was a disparity in psychiatric drug use in both extensive and intensive margins between Whites and three racial minorities: Blacks, Hispanics, and Asian-Indians. The study looked at several specified mental illnesses, controlling for underlying health status and other confounding factors. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the multiyear Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), a nationally representative panel sample from 1996 through 2000. This analysis provides estimates of the actual expenditure on prescription drug use for people with specified mental illnesses for this study, based on comparison of Whites and other racial minorities. We derived the estimates from the two-part model, a framework that adjusts the likelihood of using prescription drugs for the specified mental illnesses while estimating the total actual expenditures on prescription drugs among the users. This study found that Blacks, Hispanics, and Asian-Indians were less likely than Whites to use prescription drugs by 8.3, 6.1 and 23.6 percentage points, respectively, holding other factors constant in the sample, with at least one of the specified mental illnesses. The expenditure on prescription drugs for

  15. A UK population-based study of the relationship between mental disorder and victimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hart, C.; Vet, R. de; Moran, P.; Hatch, S.L.; Dean, K.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To establish the prevalence of victimisation in a UK population-based sample and to investigate the association between mental disorder and victimisation in both cross-sectional and prospective manner, whilst adjusting for potential confounds. METHODS: Data from the National Child

  16. Sexual orientation and mental and physical health status: findings from a Dutch population survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandfort, T.G.M.; Bakker, F.; Schellevis, F.G.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether sexual orientation is related to mental and physical health and health behaviors in the general population. METHODS: Data was derived from a health interview survey that was part of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, carried out in 2001

  17. Associations between common mental disorders and sexual dissatisfaction in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanwesenbeeck, W.M.A.; ten Have, M.; de Graaf, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the associations between common mental disorders and sexual dissatisfaction in the general population. Aims To assess the associations between the presence of 12-month and remitted (lifetime minus 12-month) mood, anxiety and substance use disorders and sexual

  18. Pathways to health in a deprived population: relationships between smoking, mental health & physical health

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Recently there has been increasing interest in understanding and addressing health inequalities and enhancing the well-being of the population as a whole through anticipatory care and better health care delivery. The current study aimed to investigate the predictive relationships between smoking behaviour, physical health, and mental health in a deprived population using models of mediation. Method: Participants had attended a Keep Well health check, a natio...

  19. A preliminary qualitative investigation into the relationship between pre-, peri- and post-migration factors/experiences and the psychological well-being of adolescent male Afghani asylum seekers living in the UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Button, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the influence of pre-, peri- and post-migration experiences on the psychological well-being of adolescent male Afghani asylum seekers living in the UK. It aims to provide a preliminary investigation of these experiences using the participants’ own voice in order to contribute towards addressing a gap in the research field and guide ongoing outreach, social and clinical work with this population, both locally, and nationally. Eight adolescent Afghani asylum seek...

  20. Sexual health is dead in my body: participatory assessment of sexual health determinants by refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keygnaert, Ines; Vettenburg, Nicole; Roelens, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-05-01

    Although migrants constitute an important proportion of the European population, little is known about migrant sexual health. Existing research mainly focuses on migrants' sexual health risks and accessibility issues while recommendations on adequate sexual health promotion are rarely provided. Hence, this paper explores how refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and The Netherlands define sexual health, search for sexual health information and perceive sexual health determinants. Applying Community-based Participatory Research as the overarching research approach, we conducted 223 in-depth interviews with refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and The Netherlands. The Framework Analysis Technique was used to analyse qualitative data. We checked the extensiveness of the qualitative data and analysed the quantitative socio-demographic data with SPSS. Our results indicate that gender and age do not appear to be decisive determinants. However, incorporated cultural norms and education attainment are important to consider in desirable sexual health promotion in refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and The Netherlands. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that these migrants have a predominant internal health locus of control. Yet, most of them feel that this personal attitude is hugely challenged by the Belgian and Dutch asylum system and migration laws which force them into a structural dependent situation inducing sexual ill-health. Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and The Netherlands are at risk of sexual ill-health. Incorporated cultural norms and attained education are important determinants to address in desirable sexual health promotion. Yet, as their legal status demonstrates to be the key determinant, the prime concern is to alter organizational and societal factors linked to the Belgian and Dutch asylum system. Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants

  1. Dating violence, quality of life and mental health in sexual minority populations: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janet Yuen-Ha; Choi, Edmond Pui-Hang; Lo, Herman Hay-Ming; Wong, Wendy; Chio, Jasmine Hin-Man; Choi, Anna Wai-Man; Fong, Daniel Yee-Tak

    2017-04-01

    Theories explaining the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) on mental health have focused on heterosexual relationships. It is unclear whether mental health disparities between heterosexual and sexual minority people are due to IPV or factors related to sexual orientation. The present study aimed to investigate pathways of how sexual orientation influenced quality of life and mental health. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 1076 young adults in a university population (934 heterosexual and 142 sexual minority groups). Structural equation modelling was used to examine the pathways of sexual orientation, dating violence, sexual orientation concealment, quality of life and mental health (perceived stress, anxiety and depression). After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, quality of life in sexual minority people was poorer [estimate -2.82, 95 % confidence interval (CI) -4.77 to -0.86, p = 0.005], and stress (estimate 2.77, 95 % CI 1.64-3.92, p violence and sexual orientation concealment were mediators, with the models showing a good fit. Our study has progressed investigation of the link between sexual orientation and quality of life and mental health in the Chinese context. It has helped identify health disparities between heterosexual and sexual minority people and determined specific factors affecting their quality of life and mental health.

  2. Systematic review of mental health disorders and intimate partner violence victimisation among military populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Katherine; Kwan, Jamie; Howard, Louise; Fear, Nicola; MacManus, Deirdre

    2017-09-01

    There is growing awareness of the problem of intimate partner violence (IPV) among military populations. IPV victimisation has been shown to be associated with mental disorder. A better understanding of the link between IPV and mental disorder is needed to inform service development to meet the needs of military families. We aimed to systematically review the literature on the association between IPV victimisation and mental health disorders among military personnel. Searches of four electronic databases (Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, and Web of Science) were supplemented by reference list screening. Heterogeneity among studies precluded a meta-analysis. Thirteen studies were included. There was stronger evidence for an association between IPV and depression/alcohol problems than between IPV and PTSD. An association between IPV and mental health problems was more frequently found among veterans compared to active duty personnel. However, the link between IPV and alcohol misuse was more consistently found among active duty samples. Finally, among active duty personnel psychological IPV was more consistently associated with depression/alcohol problems than physical/sexual IPV. The review highlighted the lack of research on male IPV victimisation in the military. There is evidence that the burden of mental health need may be significant among military personnel who are victims of IPV. The influence of attitudes towards gender in the military on research in this area is discussed. Further research is needed to inform development of services and policy to reduce IPV victimisation and the mental health consequences among military personnel.

  3. Detention in Kenya: risks for refugees and asylum seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Kiama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Refugees and asylum seekers detained in Kenya risk multiple convictions and protracted detention due to poor coordination between immigration officials, police and prison officers, coupled with lack of interpreters and low levels of knowledge among government officers.

  4. Adherence to antiretrovirals in refugees and asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwoguh, Francisca

    Adherence to antiretroviral regimes is essential in effective management of HIV. The cultural, social, religious and immigration status of refugees and asylum seekers can have an impact on their understanding of their care needs and maintenance of their treatment regimen.

  5. Detention in Kenya: risks for refugees and asylum seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy Kiama; Dennis Likule

    2013-01-01

    Refugees and asylum seekers detained in Kenya risk multiple convictions and protracted detention due to poor coordination between immigration officials, police and prison officers, coupled with lack of interpreters and low levels of knowledge among government officers.

  6. Public health metaphors in Australian policy on asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroulis, Glenda

    2009-02-01

    To analyse the way in which a public health metaphor has been incorporated into Australian political practice to justify the exclusion or mistreatment of unwelcome non-citizens, giving particular attention to recent asylum seekers. Starting with a personal experience of working in an immigration detention centre and then drawing on media reports and published scholarship, I critique political rhetoric and policy on asylum seekers, arguing that the significance of a public health metaphor lies in its effectiveness in persuading the public that refugees and asylum seekers are a moral contaminant that threatens the nation and has to be contained. Acceptance of the metaphor sanctions humanly degrading inferences, policies and actions. Public health professionals therefore have a responsibility to challenge the political use of public health and associated metaphors. Substituting the existing metaphor for one that is more morally acceptable could help to redefine refugees and asylum seekers more positively and promote compassion in political leaders and the community.

  7. When is return voluntary? Conditions of asylum in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Keith

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The decision of Syrian refugees in Lebanon to return to Syria must not be based on a deteriorating quality of asylum that creates physical, social and material pressures on decisions to return.

  8. The Asylum Centre as “Just Another Local Institution”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birgitte Romme

    2019-01-01

    This article investigates everyday practices of co-residency and ‘institutional neighbourliness’ amongst asylum seekers and local inhabitants in the small Danish town of Jelling. Where asylum centres in Denmark are sometimes faced with local opposition and are often isolated from nearby settlements...... an ethnographic exploration of how over time and outside of an urban, cosmopolitan setting processes of multiethnic co-residency are shaped, interacted, and narrated, through everyday physical meetings in public space. The article shows how local cultural history proves paramount for understanding the present......-day migratory encounter and outcome in Jelling in its complexity, including the mundane neighbourly routines and pragmatic workings through which the institutions of ‘the local community’ and ‘the asylum centre’ have spatially and socially merged. Today the asylum centre has become “just another local...

  9. Reconstructing Harry: A Genealogical Study of a Colonial Family ‘Inside’ and ‘Outside’ the Grahamstown Asylum, 1888–1918

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbraham, Lindy

    2014-01-01

    Recent scholarship has explored the dynamics between families and colonial lunatic asylums in the late nineteenth century, where families actively participated in the processes of custodial care, committal, treatment and release of their relatives. This paper works in this historical field, but with some methodological and theoretical differences. The Foucauldian study is anchored to a single case and family as an illness narrative that moves cross-referentially between bureaucratic state archival material, psychiatric case records, and intergenerational family-storytelling and family photographs. Following headaches and seizures, Harry Walter Wilbraham was medically boarded from his position as Postmaster in the Cape of Good Hope Colony of South Africa with a ‘permanent disease of the brain’, and was committed to the Grahamstown Asylum in 1910, where he died the following year, aged 40 years. In contrast to writings about colonial asylums that usually describe several patient cases and thematic patterns in archival material over time and place, this study’s genealogical lens examines one white settler male patient’s experiences within mental health care in South Africa between 1908 and 1911. The construction of Harry’s ‘case’ interweaves archival sources and reminiscences inside and outside the asylum, and places it within psychiatric discourse of the time, and family dynamics in the years that followed. Thus, this case study maps the constitution of ‘patient’ and ‘family’ in colonial life, c.1888–1918, and considers the calamity, uncertainty, stigma and silences of mental illness. PMID:24775428

  10. Haiti, insecurity, and the politics of asylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Erica Caple

    2011-09-01

    In this article, I seek to show how states of insecurity provoked by ongoing social, economic, and political ruptures in Haiti can disorder individual subjectivity and generate the flight of individuals seeking asylum within and across borders. Nongovernmental actors working in Haiti and with Haitians in the diaspora frequently managed the long-term psychosocial effects of insecurity. Their interventions can range from repressive to compassionate and influence the formation of identity and the embodied experiences of trauma for vulnerable Haitians. The case of a young Haitian refugee who was repatriated to Haiti from the United States in the 1990s demonstrates how insecurity is both an existential state reflecting the disordering of embodied experience, as well as a collective sociopolitical condition the effects of which cannot be managed or contained within national borders. The case is emblematic of the plight of thousands of Haitians affected by the January 12, 2010, earthquake.

  11. The mental health and wellbeing of first generation migrants: a systematic-narrative review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Ciara; Kouvonen, Anne; Bosqui, Tania; Patel, Kishan; O'Reilly, Dermot; Donnelly, Michael

    2016-08-25

    First generation migrants are reportedly at higher risk of mental ill-health compared to the settled population. This paper systematically reviews and synthesizes all reviews on the mental health of first generation migrants in order to appraise the risk factors for, and explain differences in, the mental health of this population. Scientific databases were searched for systematic reviews (inception-November 2015) which provided quantitative data on the mental ill-health of first generation migrants and associated risk factors. Two reviewers screened titles, abstracts and full text papers for their suitability against pre-specified criteria, methodological quality was assessed. One thousand eight hundred twenty articles were identified, eight met inclusion criteria, which were all moderate or low quality. Depression was mostly higher in first generation migrants in general, and in refugees/asylum seekers when analysed separately. However, for both groups there was wide variation in prevalence rates, from 5 to 44 % compared with prevalence rates of 8-12 % in the general population. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder prevalence was higher for both first generation migrants in general and for refugees/asylum seekers compared with the settled majority. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder prevalence in first generation migrants in general and refugees/ asylum seekers ranged from 9 to 36 % compared with reported prevalence rates of 1-2 % in the general population. Few studies presented anxiety prevalence rates in first generation migrants and there was wide variation in those that did. Prevalence ranged from 4 to 40 % compared with reported prevalence of 5 % in the general population. Two reviews assessed the psychotic disorder risk, reporting this was two to three times more likely in adult first generation migrants. However, one review on the risk of schizophrenia in refugees reported similar prevalence rates (2 %) to estimates of prevalence among the settled majority (3

  12. Anatomic study on mental canal and incisive nerve canal in interforaminal region in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Suo, Ning; Tian, Xiufen; Li, Fei; Zhong, Guangxin; Liu, Xiaoran; Bao, Yongxing; Song, Tao; Tian, Hua

    2015-08-01

    This study was aimed to detect the positions of mental canal and incisive nerve canal as well as the prolongation of mandibular canal in interforaminal region in Chinese population to supply the reference data of the surgical safe zone in chin for clinicians. A total of 80 formalin-fixed semi-mandibles of Chinese adult cadavers were dissected, the positions and courses of mental canal and incisive nerve canal as well as the prolongation of mandibular canal in interforaminal region were measured. The mental foramina were present in all cases (100 %), and most of them were located below 2nd premolar (58.75 %). Accessory mental foramina were observed in 5 %. The anterior end of mandibular canal, extending along the course of 7.37 ± 1.10 mm above the lower border of mandible to interforaminal region about 3.54 ± 0.70 mm medial to the mental foramen, most often ended below between the two premolars (73.75 %), where it continued as the incisive nerve canal (100 %) and the mental canal (96.25 %). Mental canal, with the wall formed by compact bone, being 2.60 ± 0.60 mm in diameter and 4.01 ± 1.20 mm in length, opened into mental foramen. Incisive nerve canal, with the wall formed by thin compact bone and/or partly or completely by spongy bone, being 1.76 ± 0.27 mm in diameter and 24.87 ± 2.23 mm in length, extended to the incisor region along the course of 9.53 ± 1.43 mm above the lower border of mandible, and most often ended below the lateral incisor (70.00 %). This research recommended for chin operations in Chinese population: the surgical safe zone could be set in the region about over 4 mm anterior to the mental foramen, and over 12 mm above inferior border of mandible for anterior alveolar surgery, or within 9 mm above inferior border of mandible for genioplasty.

  13. Mental Health Services Use Predicted by Number of Mental Health Problems and Gender in a Total Population Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj-Britt Posserud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between service use and the number of problem areas as reported by parents and teachers on questionnaires among children aged 7–9 years old in the Bergen Child Study, a total population study including more than 9000 children. A problem area was counted as present if the child scored above the 95th percentile on parent and/or teacher questionnaire. A total number of 13 problem areas were included. Odd ratios (ORs for contact with child and adolescent mental health services (CAMH, school psychology services (SPS, health visiting nurse/physician, and school support were calculated with gender as covariate. The number of symptom areas was highly predictive of service use, showing a dose-response relationship for all services. Children scoring on ≥4 problem areas had a more than hundredfold risk of being in contact with CAMH services compared to children without problems. The mean number of problem areas for children in CAMH and SPS was 6.1 and 4.4 respectively, strongly supporting the ESSENCE model predicting multisymptomatology in children in specialized services. Even after controlling for number of problem areas, boys were twice as likely as girls to be in contact with CAMH, replicating previous findings of female gender being a strong barrier to mental health services.

  14. The mental health of populations directly and indirectly exposed to violent conflict in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klungsøyr Ole

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large disasters affect people who live both near and far from the areas in which they occur. The mental health impact is expected to be similar to a ripple effect, where the risk of mental health consequences generally decreases with increasing distance from the disaster center. However, we have not been able to identify studies of the ripple effect of man-made disaster on mental health in low-income countries. Objectives The objective was to examine the hypothesis of a ripple effect on the mental health consequences in populations exposed to man-made disasters in a developing country context, through a comparison of two different populations living in different proximities from the center of disaster in Mollucas. Methods Cross-sectional longitudinal data were collected from 510 Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs living in Ambon, who were directly exposed to the violence, and non-IDPs living in remote villages in Mollucas, Indonesia, who had never been directly exposed to violence in Mollucas. Data were collected during home visits and statistical comparisons were conducted by using chi square tests, t-test and logistic regression. Results There was significantly more psychological distress "caseness" in IDPs than non-IDPs. The mental health consequences of the violent conflict in Ambon supported the ripple effect hypothesis as displacement status appears to be a strong risk factor for distress, both as a main effect and interaction effect. Significantly higher percentages of IDPs experienced traumatic events than non-IDPs in all six event types reported. Conclusions This study indicates that the conflict had an impact on mental health and economic conditions far beyond the area where the actual violent events took place, in a diminishing pattern in line with the hypothesis of a ripple effect.

  15. Common mental disorders and subsequent work disability: a population-based Health 2000 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, Kirsi; Virtanen, Marianna; Honkonen, Teija; Isometsä, Erkki; Aromaa, Arpo; Lönnqvist, Jouko

    2011-11-01

    Work disability due to common mental disorders has increased in Western countries during the past decade. The contribution of depressive, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders to all disability pensions at the population level is not known. Epidemiological health data from the Finnish Health 2000 Study, gathered in 2000-2001, was linked to the national register on disability pensions granted due to the ICD-10 diagnoses up to December 2007. Mental health at baseline was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Sociodemographic, clinical, and work-related factors, health behaviors, and treatment setting were used as covariates in the logistic regression analyses among the 3164 participants aged 30-58 years. Anxiety, depressive, and comorbid common mental disorders predicted disability pension when adjusted for sex and age. In the fully adjusted multivariate model, comorbid common mental disorders, as well as physical illnesses, age over 45 years, short education, high job strain, and previous long-term sickness absence predicted disability pension. The study population included persons aged 30 or over. Sub groups according to mental disorders were quite small which may have diminished statistical power in some sub groups. Baseline predictors were measured only once and the length of exposure could not be determined. The systems regarding financial compensation to employees differ between countries. Comorbid mental disorders pose a high risk for disability pension. Other independent predictors of work disability include socio-demographic, clinical, work-related, and treatment factors, but not health behavior. More attention should be paid to work-related factors in order to prevent chronic work disability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Access to general health care services by a New Zealand population with serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wheeler A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Literature suggests that good quality health care access can have a positive impact on the health of people with serious mental illness (SMI, but literature relating to patterns of access by this group is equivocal. AIM: This study was designed to explore health care access patterns in a group of people with SMI and to compare them with a general New Zealand population group, in order for health providers to understand how they might contribute to positive health outcomes for this group. METHODS: The study surveyed 404 mental health consumers aged 18-65 years receiving care from one district health board in Auckland about their patterns of health care access. Results were compared with those from the New Zealand Health Survey of the general population. RESULTS: Findings suggest that the SMI consumer respondents had poorer physical health than the general population respondents, accessed health care services in more complex ways and were more particular about who they accessed for their care than the general population respondents. There was some concern from SMI consumers around discrimination from health care providers. The study also suggested that some proactive management with SMI consumers for conditions such as metabolic syndrome was occurring within the health care community. DISCUSSION: The first point of access for SMI consumers with general health problems is not always the family general practitioner and so other health professionals may sometimes need to consider the mental and physical health of such consumers in a wider context than their own specialism.

  17. Prevalence of Children's Mental Health Problems and the Effectiveness of Population-Level Family Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Noriko; Yanagawa, Toshihiko; Fujiwara, Takeo; Morawska, Alina

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents is of growing importance. Intervening in children's mental health early in life has been shown to be more effective than trying to resolve these problems when children are older. With respect to prevention activities in community settings, the prevalence of problems should be estimated, and the required level of services should be delivered. The prevalence of children's mental health disorders has been reported for many countries. Preventive intervention has emphasized optimizing the environment. Because parents are the primary influence on their children's development, considerable attention has been placed on the development of parent training to strengthen parenting skills. However, a public-health approach is necessary to confirm that the benefits of parent-training interventions lead to an impact at the societal level. This literature review clarifies that the prevalence of mental health problems is measured at the national level in many countries and that population-level parenting interventions can lower the prevalence of mental health problems among children in the community.

  18. The relationship between religion and mental disorders in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Ik; Hong, Jin Pyo; Park, Subin; Cho, Maeng-Je

    2012-03-01

    The question of whether religion has beneficial or detrimental effects on the mental well-being of the adult individual is debatable. Because most Korean citizens are free to select their own religion, there is a higher proportion of non-believers than believers among the Korean population. The aim of this research was to investigate the association between spiritual values and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition mental disorders in Korea across all types of belief systems, including Koreans not affiliated with a particular religion. The Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 was used to interview 6,275 people across South Korea in 2001. While controlling for age and sex, we used logistic regression to analyze the relationship between mental disorders (both current and past) and the types of religion and spiritual values. Strong spiritual values were positively associated with increased rates of current depressive disorder and decreased rates of current alcohol use disorder. Using "atheist" as the reference category, Catholics had higher lifetime odds of single episodes of depression whilst Protestants had higher lifetime odds of anxiety disorder and lower lifetime odds of alcohol use disorders. The results of this study suggest that depressive episodes often lead to a search for spirituality and that religion may be helpful in overcoming depression or becoming less vulnerable to relapsing. The associations between religion, spiritual values, and mental health have not been fully elucidated and warrant further exploration.

  19. Construct Validity of the SF-12v2 for the Homeless Population with Mental Illness: An Instrument to Measure Self-Reported Mental and Physical Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chum, Antony; Skosireva, Anna; Tobon, Juliana; Hwang, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Self-reported health measures are important indicators used by clinicians and researchers for the evaluation of health interventions, outcome assessment of clinical studies, and identification of health needs to improve resource allocation. However, the application of self-reported health measures relies on developing reliable and valid instruments that are suitable across diverse populations. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the construct validity of the SF-12v.2, an instrument for measuring self-rated physical and mental health, for homeless adults with mental illness. Various interventions have been aimed at improving the health of homeless people with mental illness, and the development of valid instruments to evaluate these interventions is imperative. We measured self-rated mental and physical health from a quota sample of 575 homeless people with mental illness using the SF-12v2, EQ-5D, Colorado Symptoms Index, and physical/mental health visual analogue scales. We examined the construct validity of the SF-12v2 through confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), and using ANOVA/correlation analyses to compare the SF-12v2 to the other instruments to ascertain discriminant/convergent validity. Our CFA showed that the measurement properties of the original SF-12v2 model had a mediocre fit with our empirical data (χ2 = 193.6, df = 43, p physical and mental health status for a homeless population with mental illness.

  20. Moving towards a population health approach to the primary prevention of common mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacka Felice N

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is a need for the development of effective universal preventive approaches to the common mental disorders, depression and anxiety, at a population level. Poor diet, physical inactivity and smoking have long been recognized as key contributors to the high prevalence noncommunicable diseases. However, there are now an increasing number of studies suggesting that the same modifiable lifestyle behaviors are also risk factors for common mental disorders. In this paper we point to the emerging data regarding lifestyle risk factors for common mental disorders, with a particular focus on and critique of the newest evidence regarding diet quality. On the basis of this most recent evidence, we consequently argue for the inclusion of depression and anxiety in the ranks of the high prevalence noncommunicable diseases influenced by habitual lifestyle practices. We believe that it is both feasible and timely to begin to develop effective, sustainable, population-level prevention initiatives for the common mental illnesses that build on the established and developing approaches to the noncommunicable somatic diseases.

  1. Discrimination, Mental Health, and Substance Use Disorders Among Sexual Minority Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Gamarel, Kristi E; Bryant, Kendall J; Zaller, Nickolas D; Operario, Don

    2016-08-01

    Sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual) populations have a higher prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Such disparities have been attributed, in part, to minority stressors, including distal stressors such as discrimination. However, few studies have examined associations between discrimination, mental health, and substance use disorders by gender among sexual minority populations. We analyzed data from 577 adult men and women who self-identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual and participated in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Six questions assessed discrimination due to sexual orientation. Weighted multivariable logistic regression examined associations between experiences of sexual orientation discrimination and both mental health and substance use disorders. Analyses were conducted separately for sexual minority men and women, adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. Sexual minority men who ever experienced discrimination (57.4%) reported higher odds of any lifetime drug use disorder and cannabis use disorder compared to sexual minority men who never experienced discrimination. Sexual minority women who ever experienced discrimination (42.9%) reported higher odds of any lifetime mood disorder and any lifetime anxiety disorder compared to sexual minority women who never experienced discrimination. The findings suggest that discrimination is differentially associated with internalizing (mental health) and externalizing (substance use) disorders for sexual minority men and women. These findings indicate a need to consider how homophobia and heteronormative discrimination may contribute to distinct health outcomes for lesbian and bisexual women compared with gay and bisexual men.

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Asylum Seekers Ability Regarding Activities of Daily Living During Their Stay in the Asylum Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Amris, Kirstine; Eklund, Mona

    2015-01-01

    participated. ADL-ability was measured using Assessment of Motor and Process Skills and questionnaires about exposure to torture, self-reported mental health and pain. ADL motor and process measures, well-being and self-rated health declined from baseline to follow-up. Measures of pain and depression increased......The aim was to assess change in activities of daily living (ADL) ability amongst asylum seekers and if there were any difference between tortured and non-torture following a 10 months post-arrival period, and if self-reported health and exposure to torture were factors related to change in ADL....... Exposure to physical torture and change in ADL motor (r = 0.525) measures were associated, as well as change in current pain and change in ADL process (r = 0.525) measures. Due to preponderance of torture survivors analysis of group difference was not applicable. Health care workers should be aware of ADL...

  3. Governmental mobility : the power effects of the movement of detained asylum seekers around Britain's detention estate.

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which mobility can have governmental effects in the context of the management of asylum seekers awaiting deportation from the UK. Drawing upon the case of Campsfield House Immigration Removal Centre, a facility for the incarceration of immigration deportees near Oxford, the paper makes the case that the way asylum seekers are moved between detention centres within the UK has implications for the way they are represented to both asylum activists and asylum secto...

  4. Asylum seekers, refugees, and the politics of access to health care: a UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Keith

    2009-10-01

    The UK government has recently consulted on proposals to prohibit access to health care for some asylum seekers. This discussion paper considers the wider ethical, moral, and political issues that may arise from this policy. In particular, it explores the relationship between immigration and health and examines the impact of forced migration on health inequalities. It will be argued that it is both unethical and iniquitous to use health policy as a means of enforcing immigration policy. Instead, the founding principle of the NHS of equal access on the basis of need should be borne in mind when considering how to meet the needs of this population.

  5. The psychiatric profession and the Australian government: the debate over collective depression syndrome among asylum-seeking detainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W Bostock

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available William W BostockSchool of Government, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, AustraliaAbstract: Psychiatrists have long had involvement with the political process, both individually and as a profession. They have made valuable contributions to debate over such issues as war, conflict, terrorism, torture, human rights abuse, drug abuse, suicide and other public health issues. However, they have also been complicit in some gross atrocities. Over several years there has been debate over the Australian Government’s treatment of asylum seekers, and the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists took the unusual step of publicly criticizing the Australian Government’s policy on grounds of its toxicity leading to a diagnosis of collective depression syndrome, particularly among child detainees, but also adult detainees. The official Ministerial response was to deny that collective depression exists and to assert that the concept is meaningless. Can this intervention by psychiatrists be interpreted as a product of earlier political behaviors by psychiatrists? The willingness of psychiatrists to cooperate with other professions, notably psychologists, pediatricians, physicians and lawyers, is noted, as is presence of minority voices within the Australian psychiatric profession. The significance of the debate over the mental condition of asylum-seeking detainees is that its outcome has implications for how Australia sees itself and is seen by the rest of the world, that is, its national identity.Keywords: collective depression syndrome, psychiatric profession, political intervention, asylum seeker, Australian national identity

  6. Involuntary sterilization among HIV-positive Garifuna women from Honduras seeking asylum in the United States: Two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Holly G; Ottenheimer, Deborah

    2018-05-01

    Voluntary sterilization is one of the most widely used forms of contraception by women worldwide; however, involuntary sterilization is considered a violation of multiple human rights and grounds for asylum in the United States. Women have been disproportionately affected by this practice. We report two cases of involuntary sterilization in HIV-positive Garifuna women from Honduras who sought asylum in America and were medically evaluated at the request of their attorneys. Key lessons can be drawn from these cases with regard to the importance of medical evaluations in establishing persecution. These include the need for a detailed account of the events surrounding sterilization, radiologic proof of tubal blockage if at all possible, and confirmation of significant and enduring mental distress as a result of the involuntary sterilization. Immigration attorneys and medical evaluators need to be attuned to the possibility of a history of involuntary sterilization among at risk women seeking asylum in the United States. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychotropic drug use among persons with mental distress symptoms: a population-based study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausken, Anne M; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Rosvold, Elin O; Bramness, Jørgen G; Furu, Kari

    2007-01-01

    To explore psychotropic drug use in the general population and in particular among non-institutionalized persons with mental distress symptoms. A total of 14,139 women and 11,665 men participating in the Oslo Health Study or the Oppland/Hedmark Study 2000-2001 submitted a self-administered questionnaire on health status and drug use, lifestyle, and socioeconomic factors. Respondents using antidepressants, hypnotics, and/or anxiolytics during the last four weeks were defined as users. A high Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-10 score indicated mental distress. The 15% with the highest score in each gender and age group (adults: 30/40/45 years; elderly: 60 years) were studied. The prevalence of antidepressant use among those with mental distress was, for women: adults 21%; elderly 30%; and for men, adults 15%; elderly 15%. These figures were nearly four times higher than in the general population. Not participating in the labour market was the main factor associated with use of antidepressants for subjects with mental distress: adult women (odds ratio (OR) 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5-5.0); elderly women (OR 5.2; CI 2.7-10.2); adult men (OR 4.7; CI 3.0-7.3); and elderly men (OR 2.9; CI 1.4-6.0). Use of analgesics was the main factor associated with use of anxiolytics/hypnotics: adult women (OR 2.4; CI 1.7-3.4); elderly women (OR 2.3; CI 1.4-3.8); adult men (OR 2.1; CI 1.3-3.3); and elderly men (OR 3.4; CI 1.9-6.0). Among individuals with mental distress, not participating in the labour market and regular use of analgesics were the main factors associated with use of psychotropics in both genders regardless of age.

  8. The reliability and validity of the mini-mental state examination in the elderly Croatian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boban, Marina; Malojčić, Branko; Mimica, Ninoslav; Vuković, Sunčica; Zrilić, Ivan; Hof, Patrick R; Simić, Goran

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was standardization and validation of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in the general Croatian aging population. Three-hundred and forty-four participants underwent the MMSE test, 217 cognitively healthy subjects without neurological and psychiatric disorders and 127 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. The optimal cutoff point for screening of the general Croatian population (cognitively healthy vs. MCI and dementia) is 26/27; in the Croatian population aged ≥65 years, the cutoff point is 24/25, whereas for screening of highly educated persons (≥14 years of education) aged ≥65 years a higher cutoff point should be used (26/27). MMSE results when standardized and validated in a certain population might better contribute to recognition of the individuals at risk that should be directed to dementia outpatient clinics. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Profile of mental disorders among the elderly United Arab Emirates population: sociodemographic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghubash, Rafia; El-Rufaie, Omer; Zoubeidi, Taoufik; Al-Shboul, Qasim M; Sabri, Sufyan M

    2004-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence, nature and sociodemographic correlates of mental disorders among the elderly United Arab Emirates (UAE) population. STUDY SUBJECTS AND SAMPLE: UAE nationals aged 60 years or more, were recruited from within a random sample of households representing the UAE national population, irrespective of the age of individuals in each household. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS: (i) Geriatric Mental State Interview (GMS-A3): an Arabic version, using the AGECAT for analysis; (ii) A short questionnaire for relevant sociodemographic data. Purposely trained, Arabic speaking interviewers visited the targeted sample households to interview study subjects at their homes. The total number of screened subjects was 610: 166 (27.2%) in Al-Ain; 286 (46.9%) in Dubai and 158 (25.9%) in Ras Al-Khaimah. There were 347 (56.9%) male subjects and 263 (43.1%) female subjects. The mean age of the interviewed subjects was 68.6 (SD 8.3). The commonest diagnostic entities at the AGECAT syndrome case level were depression (20.2%), anxiety (5.6%), hypochondriasis (4.4%) and organic, mostly cognitive impairment with or without dementia (3.6%). Organic syndrome caseness, as an independent entity, showed significant correlation only to older age, while the rest of the mental disorders showed significant correlation with female gender, insufficient income and being single, separated, divorced or widowed. The GMS-AGECAT package proved to be a useful tool for psychiatric assessment among the elderly in this Arabian culture. The prevalence rates of mental disorders among the elderly UAE population were, more or less, within the same range reported by other comparable worldwide studies. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Exploring physical activity engagement and barriers for asylum seekers in Australia coping with prolonged uncertainty and no right to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Lisa; Fleay, Caroline; Tye, Marian E

    2017-05-01

    This paper explores the engagement in physical activity as a potential coping strategy for asylum seekers living in the Australian community without the right to work and with prolonged uncertainty, and benefits or barriers to undertaking such activity. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were held with 29 asylum seekers who had arrived to Australia by boat and were living in the community in the cities of Perth, Sydney or Melbourne in July-October 2013 after their release from immigration detention. The ratio of the numbers of men and women interviewed (23 men and 6 women) was comparable to the ratio of men and women who came by boat to Australia seeking asylum in 2012-2013. Nine participants reported that they participated in physical activity as a coping strategy. Seven other participants were so worried about their future and their families that they did not have the mental or physical energy to engage in physical activity. A further six wanted to participate in physical activity but faced a number of barriers to doing so. The seven remaining participants were either not asked about their physical activity engagement because they focused their discussion on other challenges or did not elaborate on why they were not engaging in physical activity. The findings suggest that physical activity, coupled with other coping strategies, are important for some asylum seekers in trying to manage the distress of being denied the right to work and living with prolonged uncertainty. In addition, these findings highlight the critical barrier that government policy plays in disabling engagement in physical activity, which further compounds social exclusion. This includes the lack of welfare support provided, which hinders people's financial ability to access activities and support in the community. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Survey on the use of mental health services and help-seeking behaviors in a community population in Northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Chen, Xiao-Li; Ni, Chun-Ping; Yang, Ping; Huang, Yue-Qin; Liu, Zhao-Rui; Wang, Bo; Yan, Yong-Ping

    2018-04-01

    There is little research into the patterns of mental health services use, related factors, and barriers in help-seeking behaviors among the community population in northwestern China. We conducted a community-based survey among the general population in Xi'an City with the stratified two-stage systematic selection scheme using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 computer-assisted personal interview (CIDI-CAPI 3.0). We interviewed 2447 individuals aged 16 years or older. The lifetime prevalence estimate of mental disorders was 21%. However, the lifetime use rate of mental health services of the 2447 responding subjects was 2.45% and 4.67% among those subjects who reported a mental disorder. Several variables were associated with lower use of mental health services: rural residence and divorced or unmarried. Among the group with mental disorders, 15/21 sought help from non-mental health specialty services such as a general physician (13/21). The high prevalence rate of mental disorders but low rate of mental health services use raises a significant public health issue in northwestern China. Reduction in the resource gap and encouraging people to seek treatment remain a challenge to the mental health services system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A REVIEW OF ASYLUM SEEKERS AND REFUGEES IN ITALY: WHERE IS THE PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH GOING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Tessitore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR, nowadays, 65,3 million individuals have been forcibly displaced worldwide. In Europe, Italy is one of the countries with the highest number of asylum seeker arrivals per year and the emergency nature of the present-day migratory flows are increasingly involving researchers and clinicians to come up with and develop new models of research and interventions. This article aims to conduct a review of the Italian psychological research in the field of forced migration in order to systematise the Italian studies, to compare the Italian situation with the international one and to define limits, resources and future directions of current Italian research. A literature review in the databases Scopus, PubMed and Web of Knowledge for documents published from 2012 to 2017 was conducted. From the analysis, twelve articles emerged principally following two main trajectories of investigation: a clinical and mental health-related trajectory and a psychosocial and community-based one. Compared with the wider international field of research, a general underdevelopment of Italian research emerged. Research into protective factors with regard to the development of psychopathological outcomes and on interventions is highly recommended. Results highlighted support for future research on the theme of asylum seekers and refugees. Some cause for reflection as regards levels of criticality, the direction of future research and specific links between research and Italian social policies were given.

  13. Stigma, Mental Health, and Resilience in an Online Sample of the US Transgender Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Michael H.; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca E.; Hamilton, Autumn; Coleman, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the association between minority stress, mental health, and potential ameliorating factors in a large, community-based, geographically diverse sample of the US transgender population. Methods. In 2003, we recruited through the Internet a sample of 1093 male-to-female and female-to-male transgender persons, stratified by gender. Participants completed an online survey that included standardized measures of mental health. Guided by the minority stress model, we evaluated associations between stigma and mental health and tested whether indicators of resilience (family support, peer support, identity pride) moderated these associations. Results. Respondents had a high prevalence of clinical depression (44.1%), anxiety (33.2%), and somatization (27.5%). Social stigma was positively associated with psychological distress. Peer support (from other transgender people) moderated this relationship. We found few differences by gender identity. Conclusions. Our findings support the minority stress model. Prevention needs to confront social structures, norms, and attitudes that produce minority stress for gender-variant people; enhance peer support; and improve access to mental health and social services that affirm transgender identity and promote resilience. PMID:23488522

  14. THE ASYLUM, BETWEEN HUMANITARIAN RESPONSE AND POLITICAL INSTRUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATRINEL BRUMAR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available At 9 November 2010, the European Court of Justice, in a preliminary ruling, decided to depart from the interpretation promoted by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, in the matter of the application of the exclusion clauses. The European Court considered that no proportionality test between human rights protection and gravity of a crime is to be applied in the case of a person suspected of having committed an act contrary to the principles and purposes of the United Nations. By eliminating this test, the Court is sending a signal on rethinking the asylum institution, from a humanitarian tool that it became, to a political instrument. This decision could not be read alone; corroborated to the concerns already raised on the suitable use of the asylum instrument to address massive humanitarian needs, it would indicate a reorientation in the interpretation of international norms governing the refugee law. Still, the human rights organs and the European Court of Human Rights continue to refer to the asylum as a situation where a humanitarian perspective, reflected in the proportionality test, or for those mechanisms the risk of human rights violation probability test, is still valid. The two apparently divergent directions will need to converge in the implementation of the European Union regulations on asylum. This paper is exploring the possible reinterpretation of the European norms, trying to identify the new trends in the political perspective of asylum and the limitations to these trends that the respect for human rights is establishing.

  15. Critical Analysis of a Population Mental Health Strategy: Effects on Stigma for People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Yani; Ary, Ayelet; Lunsky, Yona

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Stigma is widely identified as an issue affecting the health and well-being of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), and those with mental illnesses. To address this issue, a population mental health strategy, which includes a focus on reducing stigma and discrimination, was developed by the government of…

  16. Non-right-handedness and mental health problems among adolescents from the general population : The Trails Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, Anouk; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.; Bruggeman, R; Uiterwaal, C.S.P.M.; Burger, Huib

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether the association between non-right-handedness and mental problems among adolescents is specific for psychotic symptoms, we included a group of 2096 adolescents with a mean age of 14 years from the general population. Mental health problems were assessed using the parent,

  17. Attitudes within the general population towards seeking professional help in cases of mental distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskar, Saska; Bracic, Mark Floyd; Kolar, Urska; Lekic, Ksenija; Juricic, Nusa Konec; Grum, Alenka Tancic; Dobnik, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Vatovec, Mojca

    2017-11-01

    Although effective treatment is available for a variety of mental disorders, the treatment and help-seeking gap remains high. One of the main obstacles to help-seeking behaviour is prevailing stigmatizing attitudes. To examine attitudes within the general population towards seeking professional help in times of mental distress. A representative general population survey ( N = 594) was conducted in Slovenia by means of an Internet-based questionnaire, covering data on demographic variables and attitudes towards help-seeking behaviour. More stigmatizing attitudes towards help-seeking behaviour were found in men, single persons, those of a younger age and lower educational achievement and in respondents coming from regions with a high suicide rate. Furthermore, 52.50% of the total sample have had an experience with psychological problems, yet only 41.50% of those have sought professional help. Experience with help-seeking behaviour in the past was associated with less stigmatizing attitudes. Knowledge and understanding of mental health problems are necessary prerequisites to seeking help, but not the only ones. To improve help-seeking behaviour, it is also important to combat stigmatizing attitudes. Additionally, destigmatizing campaigns should also focus on social norms.

  18. Factors associated with psychological distress or common mental disorders in migrant populations across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Dolores; Alarcón, Renato D; Martínez-Ortega, José M; Mendieta-Marichal, Yaiza; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis; Gurpegui, Manuel

    We systematically review factors associated with the presence of psychological distress or common mental disorders in migrant populations. Articles published between January 2000 and December 2014 were reviewed and 85 applying multivariate statistical analysis were selected. Common mental disorders were significantly associated with socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, as observed in large epidemiological studies on general populations. The probability of common mental disorders occurrence differs significantly among migrant groups according to their region of origin. Moreover, traumatic events prior to migration, forced, unplanned, poorly planned or illegal migration, low level of acculturation, living alone or separated from family in the host country, lack of social support, perceived discrimination, and the length of migrants' residence in the host country all increase the likelihood of CMD. In contrast, language proficiency, family reunification, and perceived social support reduce such probability. Factors related with the risk of psychiatric morbidity among migrants should be taken into account to design preventive strategies. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Should she be granted asylum? Examining the justifiability of the persecution criterion and nexus clause in asylum law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Wirth Nogradi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The current international asylum regime recognizes only persecuted persons as rightful asylum applicants. The Geneva Convention and Protocol enumerate specific grounds upon which persecution is recognized. Claimants who cannot demonstrate a real risk of persecution based on one of the recognized grounds are unlikely to be granted asylum. This paper aims to relate real-world practices to normative theories, asking whether the Convention’s restricted preference towards persecuted persons is normatively justified. I intend to show that the justifications of the persecution criterion also apply to grounds currently lacking recognition. My main concern will be persecution on the grounds of gender.The first section introduces the dominant standpoints in theories of asylum, which give different answers to the question of who should be granted asylum, based on different normative considerations. Humanitarian theories base their claims on the factual neediness of asylum-seekers, holding that whoever is in grave danger of harm or deprivation should be granted asylum. Political theories base their justifications on conceptions of legitimacy and membership, holding that whoever has been denied membership in their original state should be granted asylum. Under political theories, Matthew Price’s theory will be discussed, which provides a normative justification of the currently recognized persecution criterion. The second section provides a descriptive definition of persecution based on Kuosmanen (2014, and evaluates the normative relevance of the different elements of this definition based on the theories presented previously. The third section is devoted to the examination of the normative justifiability of the nexus clause’s exclusive list of the bases (grounds upon which persons might be persecuted. The section argues that while the clause does not recognize that persecution might be based on gender, in fact many women experience harms based on

  20. Find and treat or find and lose? Tuberculosis treatment outcomes among screened newly arrived asylum seekers in Germany 2002 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, Anna; Hauer, Barbara; Brodhun, Bonita; Haas, Walter; Fiebig, Lena

    2018-03-01

    BackgroundGermany has a low tuberculosis (TB) incidence. A relevant and increasing proportion of TB cases is diagnosed among asylum seekers upon screening. Aim: We aimed to assess whether cases identified by screening asylum seekers had equally successful and completely reported treatment outcomes as cases diagnosed by passive case finding and contact tracing in the general population. Methods: We analysed characteristics and treatment outcomes of pulmonary TB cases notified in Germany between 2002 and 2014, stratified by mode of case finding. We performed three multivariable analyses with different dependent variables: Model A: successful vs all other outcomes, Model B: successful vs documented non-successful clinical outcome and Model C: known outcome vs lost to follow-up. Results: TB treatment success was highest among cases identified by contact tracing (87%; 3,139/3,591), followed by passive case finding (74%; 28,804/39,019) and by screening asylum seekers (60%; 884/1,474). Cases identified by screening asylum seekers had 2.4 times higher odds of not having a successful treatment outcome as opposed to all other outcomes (A), 1.4 times higher odds of not having a successful treatment outcome as opposed to known non-successful outcomes (B) and 2.3 times higher odds of loss to follow-up (C) than cases identified by passive case finding. Conclusion: Screened asylum seekers had poorer treatment outcomes and were more often lost to follow-up. Linking patients to treatment facilities and investigating potential barriers to treatment completion are needed to secure screening benefits for asylum seekers and communities.

  1. Find and treat or find and lose? Tuberculosis treatment outcomes among screened newly arrived asylum seekers in Germany 2002 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, Anna; Hauer, Barbara; Brodhun, Bonita; Haas, Walter; Fiebig, Lena

    2018-01-01

    Background Germany has a low tuberculosis (TB) incidence. A relevant and increasing proportion of TB cases is diagnosed among asylum seekers upon screening. Aim: We aimed to assess whether cases identified by screening asylum seekers had equally successful and completely reported treatment outcomes as cases diagnosed by passive case finding and contact tracing in the general population. Methods: We analysed characteristics and treatment outcomes of pulmonary TB cases notified in Germany between 2002 and 2014, stratified by mode of case finding. We performed three multivariable analyses with different dependent variables: Model A: successful vs all other outcomes, Model B: successful vs documented non-successful clinical outcome and Model C: known outcome vs lost to follow-up. Results: TB treatment success was highest among cases identified by contact tracing (87%; 3,139/3,591), followed by passive case finding (74%; 28,804/39,019) and by screening asylum seekers (60%; 884/1,474). Cases identified by screening asylum seekers had 2.4 times higher odds of not having a successful treatment outcome as opposed to all other outcomes (A), 1.4 times higher odds of not having a successful treatment outcome as opposed to known non-successful outcomes (B) and 2.3 times higher odds of loss to follow-up (C) than cases identified by passive case finding. Conclusion: Screened asylum seekers had poorer treatment outcomes and were more often lost to follow-up. Linking patients to treatment facilities and investigating potential barriers to treatment completion are needed to secure screening benefits for asylum seekers and communities. PMID:29560856

  2. OCCURRENCE OF MENTAL DISORDERS IN POPULATION AFFECTED BY RADIATION ACCIDENT: STRUCTURE, DYNAMICS, RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Rumyantseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of damage to mental health of individuals born after theChernobylaccident remains of high interest, especially in the regions which have been subjected to significant contamination as a result of the accident. The article analyzes the dynamics of psychiatric morbidity in population of contaminated and non-contaminated areas of theBryanskregion according to state statistics and to files of neuropsychiatric ambulatory institutions. The incidence rates in the contaminated areas are found to be significantly different from those in the non-contaminated areas. Dynamics of mentally handicapped contingents after the radiation accident depends, at different stages of postaccidental situation, on a complex of factors: social, economic, radiation, and general toxic ones, which once again underlines the general social character of such disasters.

  3. When and why should mentally ill prisoners be transferred to secure hospitals: a proposed algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Tobias; Lanquillon, Stefan; Graf, Marc

    2013-01-01

    For reasons well known and researched in detail, worldwide prevalence rates for mental disorders are much higher in prison populations than in general, not only for sentenced prisoners but also for prisoners on remand, asylum seekers on warrant for deportation and others. Moreover, the proportion of imprisoned individuals is rising in most countries. Therefore forensic psychiatry must deal not only with the typically young criminal population, vulnerable to mental illness due to social stress and at an age when rates of schizophrenia, suicide, drug abuse and most personality disorders are highest, but also with an increasingly older population with age-related diseases such as dementia. While treatment standards for these mental disorders are largely published and accepted, and scientific evidence as to screening prisoners for mental illness is growing, where to treat them is dependent on considerations for public safety and local conditions such as national legislation, special regulations and the availability of treatment facilities (e.g., in prisons, in special medical wards within prisons or in secure hospitals). While from a medical point of view a mentally ill prisoner should be treated in a hospital, the ultimate decision must consider these different issues. In this article the authors propose an algorithm comprising screening procedures for mental health and a treatment chain for mentally ill prisoners based on treatment facilities in prison, medical safety, human rights, ethics, and the availability of services at this interface between prison and medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Safeguarding vulnerable families: work with refugees and asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchill, John

    2011-02-01

    This paper will highlight one of the key findings of a qualitative study based on the analysis of in-depth interviews with 14 health visitors describing their experiences working with refugees and asylum seekers. Despite changes in government legislation to improve children's services in order to prevent harm to children, this recent study demonstrated that health visitors were working with the complexities of needs among refugees and asylum seekers related to safeguarding both children and vulnerable women. The health visitors often worked with families and individuals with no support from other professional services, they worked with failed asylum seekers who were unable to access other forms of support and they worked with women and children who were caught in a cycle of domestic abuse due to their immigration status. They were also working with families who would disappear from the systems in place to safeguard children.

  5. Gender-related mental health differences between refugees and non-refugee immigrants - a cross-sectional register-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burström Bo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being an immigrant in a high-income country is a risk factor for severe mental ill health. Studies on mental ill health among immigrants have found significant differences in mental health outcome between immigrants from high income countries and low-income countries. Being an asylum seeker or a refugee is also associated with mental ill health. This study aimed to assess if there is a difference in mental ill health problems between male and female refugee and non-refugee immigrants from six low-income countries in Sweden. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study design was used comparing refugees with non-refugees. The study size was determined by the number of persons in Sweden fulfilling the inclusion criteria at the time of the study during 2006. Outcome: Mental ill health, as measured with the proxy variable psychotropic drugs purchased. Refugee/Non-refugee: Sweden grants asylum to refugees according to the Geneva Convention and those with a well-grounded fear of death penalty, torture or who need protection due to an internal or external armed conflict or an environmental disaster. The non-refugees were all family members of those granted asylum in Sweden. Covariates: Gender and origin. Potential confounders: Age, marital status, education and duration of stay in Sweden. Background variables were analysed using chi square tests. The association between outcome, exposure and possible confounders was analysed using logistic regression analyses. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for potential confounders. Results The study population comprised 43,168 refugees and non-refugees, of whom 20,940 (48.5% were women and 24,403 (56.5% were refugees. Gender, age, origin, marital status and education were all associated with the outcome. For female, but not male, refugees there was a significantly higher likelihood of purchasing psychotropic drugs than non-refugees (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.15 - 1

  6. Gender-related mental health differences between refugees and non-refugee immigrants--a cross-sectional register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Anna-Clara; Bruce, Daniel; Burström, Bo; Ekblad, Solvig

    2011-03-24

    Being an immigrant in a high-income country is a risk factor for severe mental ill health. Studies on mental ill health among immigrants have found significant differences in mental health outcome between immigrants from high income countries and low-income countries. Being an asylum seeker or a refugee is also associated with mental ill health. This study aimed to assess if there is a difference in mental ill health problems between male and female refugee and non-refugee immigrants from six low-income countries in Sweden. A cross-sectional, population-based study design was used comparing refugees with non-refugees. The study size was determined by the number of persons in Sweden fulfilling the inclusion criteria at the time of the study during 2006. Mental ill health, as measured with the proxy variable psychotropic drugs purchased. Refugee/Non-refugee: Sweden grants asylum to refugees according to the Geneva Convention and those with a well-grounded fear of death penalty, torture or who need protection due to an internal or external armed conflict or an environmental disaster. The non-refugees were all family members of those granted asylum in Sweden. Covariates: Gender and origin. Potential confounders: Age, marital status, education and duration of stay in Sweden. Background variables were analysed using chi square tests. The association between outcome, exposure and possible confounders was analysed using logistic regression analyses. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for potential confounders. The study population comprised 43,168 refugees and non-refugees, of whom 20,940 (48.5%) were women and 24,403 (56.5%) were refugees. Gender, age, origin, marital status and education were all associated with the outcome. For female, but not male, refugees there was a significantly higher likelihood of purchasing psychotropic drugs than non-refugees (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.15-1.40). Female refugees from low-income countries seem to be a risk group

  7. Graduate public health training in healthcare of refugee asylum seekers and clinical human rights: evaluation of an innovative curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin

    2016-04-01

    An innovative curriculum was developed to equip public health students with appropriate attitude and skills to address healthcare of asylum seekers. Implemented in 2005 the curriculum included: (1) didactic sessions covering epidemiology and health sequelae of torture, asylum laws, and approaches to identify survivors' healthcare needs; (2) panel discussions with survivors and advocates; and (3) participating in medico-legal process of asylum seeking. Complementary mixed methods evaluations included pre- and post-curriculum questionnaires, formal curriculum evaluations, final papers and oral presentations. 125 students participated. Students showed improved knowledge regrading sequelae of abuse and survivors' healthcare needs (P health and human rights careers. As an advocacy and cultural competency training in public health practice addressing healthcare of refugees domestically, this curriculum was well received and effective, and will also help students better serve other similar populations. Population case-based domestic opportunities to teach global health and health and human rights should be effectively utilized to develop a well-equipped global health corps.

  8. Adult Asylum Seekers from the Middle East Including Syria in Central Europe: What Are Their Health Care Problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Andrea Pfortmueller

    Full Text Available Forced displacement related to persecution and violent conflict has reached a new peak in recent years. The primary aim of this study is to provide an initial overview of the acute and chronic health care problems of asylum seekers from the Middle East, with special emphasis on asylum seekers from Syria.Our retrospective data analysis comprised adult patients presenting to our emergency department between 01.11.2011 and 30.06.2014 with the official resident status of an "asylum seeker" or "refugee" from the Middle East.In total, 880 patients were included in the study. Of these, 625 (71.0% were male and 255 (29.0% female. The median age was 34 (range 16-84. 222 (25.2% of our patients were from Syria. The most common reason for presentation was surgical (381, 43.3%, followed by medical (321, 36.5% and psychiatric (137, 15.6%. In patients with surgical presentations, trauma-related problems were most common (n = 196, 50.6%. Within the group of patients with medical presentation, acute infectious diseases were most common (n = 141, 43.9%, followed by neurological problems (n = 70, 21.8% and gastrointestinal problems (n = 47, 14.6%. There were no differences between Syrian and non-Syrian refugees concerning surgical or medical admissions. The most common chronic disorder of unclear significance was chronic gastrointestinal problems (n = 132, 15%, followed by chronic musculoskeletal problems (n = 108, 12.3% and chronic headaches (n = 78, 8.9%. Patients from Syria were significantly younger and more often suffered from a post-traumatic stress disorder than patients of other nationalities (p<0.0001, and p = 0.05, respectively.Overall a remarkable number of our very young group of patients suffered from psychiatric disorders and unspecified somatic symptoms. Asylum seekers should be carefully evaluated when presenting to a medical facility and physicians should be aware of the high incidence of unspecified somatic symptoms in this patient population

  9. Moral urbanism, asylum, and the politics of critique

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Darling

    2013-01-01

    The city of Sheffield was the UK’s first ‘City of Sanctuary’, an identification which suggested that the city would act to welcome asylum seekers and refugees through promoting a ‘culture of hospitality’. In this paper I seek to interrogate such claims and explore how the promotion of a language of hospitality marks a form of ‘moral urbanism’ through which the city is linked to specific values and obligations that enable the governmental ordering of responses to asylum. In exploring public st...

  10. Threatened or Threatening? How Ideology Shapes Asylum Seekers' Immigration Policy Attitudes in Israel and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti, Daphna; Snider, Keren L G; Pedersen, Anne; Hall, Brian J

    2016-12-01

    Can different political ideologies explain policy preferences regarding asylum seekers? We focus on attitudes regarding governmental policy towards out-group members and suggest that perceptions of threat help to shape these policy attitudes. Study 1 compared public opinion regarding asylum policy in Israel ( N = 137) and Australia ( N = 138), two countries with restrictive asylum policies and who host a large number of asylum seekers; Study 2, a longitudinal study, was conducted during two different time periods in Israel-before and during the Gaza conflict. Results of both studies showed that threat perceptions of out-group members drive the relationship between conservative political ideologies and support for exclusionary asylum policies among citizens. Perceptions of threat held by members of the host country (the in-group) towards asylum seekers (the out-group) may influence policy formation. The effect of these out-groups threats needs to be critically weighed when considering Israeli and Australian policies towards asylum seekers.

  11. Threatened or Threatening? How Ideology Shapes Asylum Seekers’ Immigration Policy Attitudes in Israel and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti, Daphna; Snider, Keren L. G.; Pedersen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Can different political ideologies explain policy preferences regarding asylum seekers? We focus on attitudes regarding governmental policy towards out-group members and suggest that perceptions of threat help to shape these policy attitudes. Study 1 compared public opinion regarding asylum policy in Israel (N = 137) and Australia (N = 138), two countries with restrictive asylum policies and who host a large number of asylum seekers; Study 2, a longitudinal study, was conducted during two different time periods in Israel—before and during the Gaza conflict. Results of both studies showed that threat perceptions of out-group members drive the relationship between conservative political ideologies and support for exclusionary asylum policies among citizens. Perceptions of threat held by members of the host country (the in-group) towards asylum seekers (the out-group) may influence policy formation. The effect of these out-groups threats needs to be critically weighed when considering Israeli and Australian policies towards asylum seekers. PMID:28190933

  12. The Occupy Central (Umbrella) movement and mental health distress in the Hong Kong general public: political movements and concerns as potential structural risk factors of population mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Kim, Yoona; Wu, Anise M S; Wang, Zixin; Huang, Bishan; Mo, Phoenix K H

    2017-05-01

    Political tension, as expressed by mass movements such as the Occupy Central movement (2014) in Hong Kong, is a potential but understudied structural factor of population mental health. A random population-based telephone survey anonymously interviewed 344 Hong Kong Chinese adults aged 18-65 years during the 2 weeks since the termination date of the 2-month-long Occupy Central movement (15/12/2014). Linear regression models were fit using mental distress (depression, anxiety and negative mood) and self-perceived changes in mood/sleeping quality as dependent variables. Prevalence of participation in the movement was 10.5% (self), 17.7% (family members/relatives), and 34.0% (peers); 8.5% had participated for ≥2 days. Young age, but not participation, was associated with mental distress. In adjusted analysis, three types of responses to the movement (worry about safety, negative emotional responses to media reports, and conflicts with peers about the movement) and emotional responses to local political situations were significantly associated with all/some of the dependent variables related to mental distress. The variable on emotions toward local political situations was correlated with the three responses to the movement; it fully mediated the associations between such responses and mental distress. Many citizens participated in the movement, which was led by youths and might have increased the general public's mental distress. Negative personal responses to the movement and emotions toward political situations were potential risk factors. As the political tension would last and political pessimism is globally found, politics may have become a regular and persistent structural risk factor negatively affecting population mental health.

  13. Violence Affects Physical and Mental Health Differently: The General Population Based Tromsø Study.

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    Oddgeir Friborg

    Full Text Available This general population-based study examined associations between violence and mental health, musculoskeletal pain, and early disability pension. The prevalence and consequences of good vs. poor adjustment (resilience vs. vulnerability following encounters with violence were also examined. Data were based on the sixth wave of the "Tromsø Study" (N = 12,981; 65.7% response rate, 53.4% women, M-age = 57.5 years, SD-age = 12.7 years. Self-reported data on psychological (threats and physical violence (beaten/kicked, mental health (anxiety/depression, musculoskeletal pain (MSP, and granting of disability pension (DP were collected. Men suffered more violent events during childhood than women did, and vice versa during adulthood. Psychological violence implied poorer mental health and slightly more MSP than physical violence. The risk of MSP was highest for violence occurring during childhood in women and during the last year for men. A dose-response relationship between an increasing number of violent encounters and poorer health was observed. About 58% of individuals reported no negative impact of violence (hence, resilience group, whereas 42% considered themselves as more vulnerable following encounters with violence. Regression analyses indicated comparable mental health but slightly more MSP in the resilience group compared to the unexposed group, whereas the vulnerable group had significantly worse health overall and a higher risk of early granting of DP. Resilience is not an all-or-nothing matter, as physical ailments may characterize individuals adapting well following encounters with violence.

  14. Migraine and Mental Health in a Population-Based Sample of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Serena L; Potter, Beth K; Ma, Jinhui; Colman, Ian

    2017-01-01

    To explore the relationship between migraine and anxiety disorders, mood disorders and perceived mental health in a population-based sample of adolescents. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) is a cross-sectional health survey sampling a nationally representative group of Canadians. In this observational study, data on all 61,375 participants aged 12-19 years from six survey cycles were analyzed. The relationships between self-reported migraine, perceived mental health, and mood/anxiety disorders were modeled using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The migraine-depression association was also explored in a subset of participants using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form (CIDI-SF) depression scale. The odds of migraine were higher among those with mood disorders, with the strongest association in 2011-2 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=4.59; 95% confidence interval [CI 95%]=3.44-6.12), and the weakest in 2009-10 (aOR=3.06, CI 95%=2.06-4.55). The migraine-mood disorders association was also significant throughout all cycles, other than 2011-2, when the CIDI-SF depression scale was employed. The odds of migraine were higher among those with anxiety disorders, with the strongest association in 2011-2 (aOR=4.21, CI 95%=3.31-5.35) and the weakest in 2010 (aOR=1.87, CI 95%=1.10-3.37). The inverse association between high perceived mental health and the odds of migraine was observed in all CCHS cycles, with the strongest association in 2011-2 (aOR=0.58, CI 95%=0.48-0.69) and the weakest in 2003-4 (aOR=0.75, CI 95%=0.62-0.91). This study provides evidence, derived from a large population-based sample of adolescents, for a link between migraine and mood/anxiety disorders.

  15. The relationship between work stress and mental disorders in men and women: findings from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J L; Lesage, A; Schmitz, N; Drapeau, A

    2008-01-01

    [corrected] This analysis estimated the gender-specific associations between work stress, major depression, anxiety disorders and any mental disorder, adjusting for the effects of demographic, socioeconomic, psychological and clinical variables. Data from the Canadian national mental health survey were used to examine the gender-specific relationships between work stress dimensions and mental disorders in the working population (n = 24,277). Mental disorders were assessed using a modified version of the World Mental Health - Composite International Diagnostic Interview. In multivariate analysis, male workers who reported high demand and low control in the workplace were more likely to have had major depression (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.69) and any depressive or anxiety disorders (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.04) in the past 12 months. In women, high demand and low control was only associated with having any depressive or anxiety disorder (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.84). Job insecurity was positively associated with major depression in men but not in women. Imbalance between work and family life was the strongest factor associated with having mental disorders, regardless of gender. Policies improving the work environment may have positive effects on workers' mental health status. Imbalance between work and family life may be a stronger risk factor than work stress for mental disorders. Longitudinal studies incorporating important workplace health research models are needed to delineate causal relationships between work characteristics and mental disorders.

  16. Iron deficiency among children of asylum seekers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga-Boelen, A. A. M.; Storm, H.; Wiegersma, P. A.; Bijleveld, C. M. A.; Verkade, H. J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate, in asylum seekers' children in the Netherlands, biochemical iron status and the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and anemia in relation to age, region of origin, length of stay in the Netherlands, body mass index (BMI), and dietary iron intake. Patients and Methods:

  17. The Complexity of Survival: Asylum Seekers, Resilience and Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Gitte; Lorensen, Marlene Ringgaard

    to a simple instrument to obtain asylum. In this article, we show how his recommendation ignores the complexity of motives involved in the change of religious affiliation. By our adjustment of Bourdieu’s theory of social capital, we demonstrate how conversion is also a way of existential survival...

  18. Iron deficiency among children of asylum seekers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga-Boelen, A. A. M.; Storm, H.; Wiegersma, P. A.; Bijleveld, C. M. A.; Verkade, H. J.

    Objectives: To investigate, in asylum seekers' children in the Netherlands, biochemical iron status and the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and anemia in relation to age, region of origin, length of stay in the Netherlands, body mass index (BMI), and dietary iron intake. Patients and Methods:

  19. Assets, Aliens or Asylum Seekers? Immigration and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haste, Helen

    2006-01-01

    British attitudes toward immigrants are complex. The United Kingdom has received regular waves of immigrants, both political and economic asylum seekers and, especially in recent decades, recruited labor from the former nations of the British Empire. Throughout its history, ambivalence among the Britons is seen due to these developments. In this…

  20. Post-deportation risks for failed asylum seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Alpes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available What happens to people who are deported after their asylum applications have failed? Many who are deported are at risk of harm when they return to their country of origin but there is little monitoring done of deportation outcomes.

  1. Satisfaction with daily occupations amongst asylum seekers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2015-01-01

    to their satisfaction with daily occupations and activity level. METHODS: A total of 43 asylum seekers at baseline and 17 at follow-up were included. The questionnaires Satisfaction with Daily Occupations, Major Depression Inventory, WHO-5 Wellbeing, Pain Detect, a questionnaire covering torture, and basic social...

  2. Inspecting asylum seekers upon entry: a medico-ethical complex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francois, G.; Hambach R.; Sprundel, M. van; Devillé, W.; Hal, G. van

    2008-01-01

    In September 2007, the UN Refugee Agency UNHCR summarized the main asylum application levels and trends during the first six months of the year in 36 industrialized countries, including 26 European Union (EU) Member States. Based on the assumption of unchanged yearly patterns, the total number of

  3. Postnational or National Europe? European Asylum Policies and Immigration Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedrana Baričević

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the theories of the transformation of the modern functions of the nation state and the immigrant membership associated with the (legally defined status of community members exemplified by asylum policies. In the process, two fundamental approaches to the issue are distinguished: the first one emphasizing changes in the institution of the traditional national citizenship and competences of the nation state, while stressing a predominantly national character of the institution of citizenship, and the second one, which emphasizes the transformation of traditional citizenships, stressing the weakening of the role of the nation state. Therefore, in the latter case, there is increasingly more talk about postnationalism, which is a term denoting the transformation of the substantive aspects of citizenship in the EU countries. The mentioned theoretical approaches are applied to three groups of issues. First, the impact of the EU on the processes of the globalisation of the rights of asylum migrants are examined. Second, the paper works out the details of the way of formulating the policy of asylum membership in the EU member states. Third, the question of whether universal postnational inclusion of asylum migrants is at work in the EU member states, or whether the status of this group of immigrants should be found within the limits of the traditional theory of state membership and national sovereignty is addressed

  4. Transnational entanglements in the history of psychiatry. South Tyrolian patients in German asylums, c. 1940-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Müller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Object of this article is the destiny of psychiatric inmates in Wuerttemberg asylums, 1940-1945. These patients from Italian regions of Vicenza, Udine, Trento, Alto Adige and various locations more were delegated and, to a substantial number, illegally deported to the German asylums Zwiefalten, Schussenried and Weissenau, all in South Wuerttemberg, in 1940 and 1943. Attention is focused on the pioneering state pre-negotiations, and the so-called option treaties between the German Reich and Fascist Italy as part of the general aspect of National Socialist bio-Politics. The treatment of these South Tyrol patients in the asylums themselves, as well as their fate will be put into the context of the resettlement actions at the margins of the Third Reich, which started in 1939 and widely affected the European continent. It is referred to other sub-groups of migrating population from Italy to the German Reich as well, as a contrasting aspect of this contribution

  5. Refugees, asylum-seekers and undocumented migrants and the experience of parenthood: a synthesis of the qualitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Lisa; Pelaez, Sandra; Edwards, Nancy C

    2017-09-19

    To synthesize the recent qualitative literature and identify the integrative themes describing the parenthood experiences of refugees, asylum-seekers and undocumented migrants. We searched seven online databases for the period January 2006 to February 2017. We included English and French published peer-reviewed articles and graduate-level dissertations, which qualitatively examined the parenthood experiences of refugees, asylum-seekers and undocumented migrants. We summarized study characteristics and performed a thematic analysis across the studies. One hundred thirty eight studies met inclusion criteria. All but three were conducted in high-income countries, mainly in the US. Migrants studied were mostly undocumented from Latin America and refugees from Sub-Saharan Africa. Almost all studies (93%) included mothers; about half (47%) included fathers; very few (5%) included extended family members. We identified three integrative themes: 1) experiencing hardship and/or loss in the context of precarious migration and past traumas; 2) building resilience and strength by bridging language, norms and expectations; and 3) living transnationally: obligations, challenges and resources. Each theme contributed to shaping the parenthood experience; the transnationalism theme intersected with the themes on hardship and loss and resilience and strength. More research is needed with fathers, extended family members, asylum-seekers and in the LMIC context. A transnational lens needs to be applied to programs, policies and future research for refugee, asylum-seeker and undocumented migrant parents. Addressing transnational concerns (family separation and reunification), acknowledging transnational resources, fostering a transnational family identity and conducting transnational and longitudinal studies are potentially pivotal approaches for this sub-population of parents.

  6. HIV-infected mental health patients: characteristics and comparison with HIV-infected patients from the general population and non-infected mental health patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schadé Annemiek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of developing mental health symptoms, which negatively influence the treatment of the HIV-infection. Mental health problems in HIV-infected patients may affect public health. Psychopathology, including depression and substance abuse, can increase hazardous sexual behaviour and, with it, the chance of spreading HIV. Therefore, it is important to develop an optimal treatment plan for HIV-infected patients with mental health problems. The majority of HIV-infected patients in the Netherlands (almost 60% are homosexual men. The main objectives of this study were to describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with HIV who seek treatment for their mental health symptoms in the Netherlands. Secondly, we tested whether HIV infected and non-infected homosexual patients with a lifetime depressive disorder differed on several mental health symptoms. Methods We compared a cohort of 196 patients who visited the outpatient clinic for HIV and Mental Health with HIV-infected patients in the general population in Amsterdam (ATHENA-study and with non-HIV infected mental health patients (NESDA-study. DSM-IV diagnoses were determined, and several self-report questionnaires were used to assess mental health symptoms. Results Depressive disorders were the most commonly occurring diagnoses in the cohort and frequent drug use was common. HIV-infected homosexual men with a depressive disorder showed no difference in depressive symptoms or sleep disturbance, compared with non-infected depressive men. However, HIV-positive patients did express more symptoms like fear, anger and guilt. Although they showed significantly more suicidal ideation, suicide attempts were not more prevalent among HIV-infected patients. Finally, the HIV-infected depressive patients displayed a considerably higher level of drug use than the HIV-negative group. Conclusion Habitual drug use is a risk factor for

  7. Bereavement, multimorbidity and mortality: a population-based study using bereavement as an indicator of mental stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, A; Fenger-Grøn, M; Davydow, D S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mental stress is associated with higher mortality, but it remains controversial whether the association is causal or a consequence of a higher physical disease burden in those with a high mental stress load. Understanding causality is important when developing targeted interventions. We...... with bereavement rose with increasing number of physical diseases (1.33 v. 7.00 excess death per 1000 person-months for individuals with 0 v. ⩾3 physical conditions during the first month) and was exacerbated by the presence of mental illness. The excess mortality among bereaved individuals was primarily due...... aimed to estimate the effect of mental stress on mortality by performing a 'natural' experiment using spousal bereavement as a disease-independent mental stressor. METHODS: We followed a population-based matched cohort, including all individuals in Denmark bereaved in 1997-2014, for 17 years...

  8. The oral health of refugees and asylum seekers: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keboa, Mark Tambe; Hiles, Natalie; Macdonald, Mary Ellen

    2016-10-07

    Improving the oral health of refugees and asylum seekers is a global priority, yet little is known about the overall burden of oral diseases and their causes for this population. To synthesize available evidence on the oral health of, and access to oral health care by this population. Using a scoping review methodology, we retrieved 3321 records from eight databases and grey literature; 44 publications met the following inclusion criteria: empirical research focused on refugees and/or asylum seekers' oral health, published between 1990 and 2014 in English, French, Italian, Portuguese, or Spanish. Analysis included descriptive and thematic analysis, as well as critical appraisal using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) criteria for quantitative and qualitative studies. The majority of publications (86 %) were from industrialized countries, while the majority of refugees are resettled in developing countries. The most common study designs were quantitative (75 %). Overall, the majority of studies (76 %) were of good quality. Studies mainly explored oral health status, knowledge and practices; a minority (9 %) included interventions. The refugee populations in the studies showed higher burden of oral diseases and limited access to oral health care compared to even the least privileged populations in the host countries. Minimal strategies to improve oral health have been implemented; however, some have impressive outcomes. Oral health disparities for this population remain a major concern. More research is needed on refugees in developing countries, refugees residing in refugee camps, and interventions to bridge oral health disparities. This review has utility for policymakers, practitioners, researchers, and other stakeholders working to improve the oral health of this population.

  9. Epidemiology and genetics of common mental disorders in the general population: the PEGASUS-Murcia project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Tormo, MJ; Vilagut, G; Alonso, J; Ruíz-Merino, G; Escámez, T; Salmerón, D; Júdez, J; Martínez, S; Navarro, C

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians, epidemiologists, neurogeneticists and statisticians on research projects has been encouraged to improve our knowledge of the complex mechanisms underlying the aetiology and burden of mental disorders. The PEGASUS-Murcia (Psychiatric Enquiry to General Population in Southeast Spain-Murcia) project was designed to assess the prevalence of common mental disorders and to identify the risk and protective factors, and it also included the collection of biological samples to study the gene–environmental interactions in the context of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Methods and analysis The PEGASUS-Murcia project is a new cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey based on a representative sample of non-institutionalised adults in the Region of Murcia (Mediterranean Southeast, Spain). Trained lay interviewers used the latest version of the computer-assisted personal interview of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) for use in Spain, specifically adapted for the project. Two biological samples of buccal mucosal epithelium will be collected from each interviewed participant, one for DNA extraction for genomic and epigenomic analyses and the other to obtain mRNA for gene expression quantification. Several quality control procedures will be implemented to assure the highest reliability and validity of the data. This article describes the rationale, sampling methods and questionnaire content as well as the laboratory methodology. Ethics and dissemination Informed consent will be obtained from all participants and a Regional Ethics Research Committee has approved the protocol. Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications and presented at the national and the international conferences. Discussion Cross-sectional studies, which combine detailed personal information with biological data, offer new and exciting opportunities to study the gene

  10. Finding "hard to find" literature on hard to find groups: A novel technique to search grey literature on refugees and asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Joanne; Buck, Kimberly; Shawyer, Frances

    2018-03-01

    There is a lack of information on how to execute effective searches of the grey literature on refugee and asylum seeker groups for inclusion in systematic reviews. High-quality government reports and other grey literature relevant to refugees may not always be identified in conventional literature searches. During the process of conducting a recent systematic review, we developed a novel strategy for systematically searching international refugee and asylum seeker-related grey literature. The approach targets governmental health departments and statistical agencies, who have considerable access to refugee and asylum seeker populations for research purposes but typically do not publish findings in academic forums. Compared to a conventional grey literature search strategy, our novel technique yielded an eightfold increase in relevant high-quality grey sources that provided valuable content in informing our review. Incorporating a search of the grey literature into systematic reviews of refugee and asylum seeker research is essential to providing a more complete view of the evidence. Our novel strategy offers a practical and feasible method of conducting systematic grey literature searches that may be adaptable to a range of research questions, contexts, and resource constraints. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A history in-care predicts unique characteristics in a homeless population with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Leslie E; Distasio, Jino; Bolton, Shay-Lee; Katz, Laurence Y; Afifi, Tracie O; Isaak, Corinne; Goering, Paula; Bruce, Lucille; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-10-01

    Multiple studies of homeless persons report an increased prevalence of a history in-care, but there is a dearth of information on associated outcomes or relevant demographic profiles. This information is critical to understanding if certain individuals are at elevated risk or might benefit from specific intervention. Here, we investigate how a history in-care relates to demographics and multiple outcome measures in a homeless population with mental illness. Using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), the Short-Form 12, and a trauma questionnaire, we investigated baseline differences in demographics and length of homelessness in the At Home/Chez Soi Trial (N=504) Winnipeg homeless population with and without a history in-care. Approximately 50% of the homeless sample reported a history in-care. This group was significantly more likely to be young, female, married or cohabitating, of Aboriginal heritage, have less education, and have longer lifetime homelessness. Individuals of Aboriginal heritage with a history in-care were significantly more likely to report a familial history of residential school. Individuals with a history in-care experienced different prevalence rates of Axis 1 mental disorders. Those with a history in-care also reported significantly more traumatic events (particularly interpersonal). A distinctive high-risk profile emerged for individuals with a history in-care. Sociocultural factors of colonization and intergenerational transmission of trauma appear to be particularly relevant in the trajectories for individuals of Aboriginal heritage. Given the high prevalence of a history in-care, interventions and policy should reflect the specific vulnerability of this population, particularly in regards to trauma-informed services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Personal stigma and use of mental health services among people with depression in a general population in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuulari Jyrki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A minority of people suffering from depression seek professional help for themselves. Stigmatizing attitudes are assumed to be one of the major barriers to help seeking but there is only limited evidence of this in large general population data sets. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between mental health attitude statements and depression and their links to actual use of mental health services among those with depression. Methods We used a large cross-sectional data set from a Finnish population survey (N = 5160. Attitudes were measured by scales which measured the belief that people with depression are responsible for their illness and their recovery and attitudes towards antidepressants. Desire for social distance was measured by a scale and depression with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form (CIDI-SF instrument. Use of mental health services was measured by self-report. Results On the social discrimination scale, people with depression showed more social tolerance towards people with mental problems. They also carried more positive views about antidepressants. Among those with depression, users of mental health services, as compared to non-users, carried less desire for social distance to people with mental health problems and more positive views about the effects of antidepressants. More severe depression predicted more active use of services. Conclusions Although stronger discriminative intentions can reduce the use of mental health services, this does not necessarily prevent professional service use if depression is serious and views about antidepressant medication are realistic.

  13. Effort-Reward Imbalance and Mental Health Problems in 1074 German Teachers, Compared with Those in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Andreas; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar; Spitzer, Silvia; Scheuch, Klaus; Seibt, Reingard

    2016-08-01

    High degrees of premature retirement among teachers warrant investigating the occupational burden and the mental health status of this profession. A sample of 1074 German teachers participated in this study. Two samples of the general population (N = 824 and N = 792) were used as comparison groups. Work distress was assessed with the Effort-Reward-Imbalance questionnaire, and mental health problems were measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Teachers reported more effort-reward imbalance (M = 0.64) compared with the general population (M = 0.57), and they perceived more mental health problems (GHQ: M = 12.1) than the comparison group (M = 9.5). School type was not associated with work stress and mental health. Teachers with leading functions perceived high degrees of effort and reward, resulting in a moderate effort-reward ratio and no heightened mental health problems. Teachers working full time reported more effort than teachers working part time, but the reward mean values of both groups were similar. This results in a somewhat unfavourable effort-reward ratio of teachers working full time. Moreover, teachers working full time reported more mental health problems. The results support the appropriateness of the effort-reward conception, applied to the profession of teachers. The higher degree of effort-reward imbalance and the level of mental health problems warrant preventive measures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Ethnic Differences in Mental Health Status and Service Utilization: A Population-Based Study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Maria; Amartey, Abigail; Wang, Xuesong; Kurdyak, Paul

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported mental health factors, mental health service use, and unmet needs across the 4 largest ethnic groups in Ontario, Canada: white, South Asian, Chinese, and black groups. The study population was derived from the Canadian Community Health Survey, using a cross-sectional sample of 254,951 white, South Asian, Chinese, and black residents living in Ontario, Canada, between 2001 and 2014. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence estimates for mental health factors, mental health service use, and unmet needs were calculated for each of the 4 ethnic groups overall and by sociodemographic characteristics. We found that self-reported physician-diagnosed mood and anxiety disorders and mental health service use were generally lower among South Asian, Chinese, and black respondents compared to white respondents. Chinese individuals reported the weakest sense of belonging to their local community and the poorest self-rated mental health and were nearly as likely to report suicidal thoughts in the past year as white respondents. Among those self-reporting fair or poor mental health, less than half sought help from a mental health professional, ranging from only 19.8% in the Chinese group to 50.8% in the white group. The prevalence of mental health factors and mental health service use varied widely across ethnic groups. Efforts are needed to better understand and address cultural and system-level barriers surrounding high unmet needs and to identify ethnically tailored and culturally appropriate clinical supports and practices to ensure equitable and timely mental health care.

  15. [Alcohol Consumption in the Colombian Population, 2015 National Mental Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Espriella Guerrero, Ricardo Andrés; Rodriguez, Viviana; Rincón, Carlos J; Morales, Diana Cabrera; Rodríguez, Sandy Johanna Pérez; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    National Survey of Mental Health (ENSM) in 2015 in Colombia asks, among other conditions, about alcohol consumption in people 12-17 years old, and 18 and older. Data were presented by age and region, with no cross-references to other categories of mental health problems, disorders, access to services, and health status. To assess alcohol consumption in Colombia, taking into account sociodemographic and clinical screening categories included. Secondary database analysis, sample size: 15,231 people from 13,200 households of five regions (Atlantic, Bogotá, Central, Eastern, and Pacific), with an age range from 12 to 96 years. AUDIT and AUDIT-C were used and stratified according to score and other variables included in the survey analysis. The high-risk drinking category was observed in 2.7% of children studied, with the highest percentage of drinking risk lying in the range of 18 to 44 years, with a clear majority of men. The study finds that a positive AUDIT-C in adults is associated with a higher percentage of non-anxiety, less anxiety problems, and traumatic events and traumatic events related to armed conflict. This requires further studies. Adults with positive AUDIT-C have a greater perception of well-being, but also a higher percentage of households in poverty. The study of individual, social, family and environmental factors in specific populations should be developed in order to make more appropriate interventions. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  16. Facilitating mental health screening of war-torn populations using mobile applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Bahar; Ali, Sara; Awaad, Rania; Soudi, Laila; Housel, Lawrence; Sosebee, Stephen J

    2017-01-01

    War-torn populations are often hard to screen for mental health disorders. Classical data collection approaches, such as paper-based, online, or SMS-operated, are either infeasible or lack accuracy due to a variety of challenges associated with dynamics and consequences of war. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach for accurate and fast screening using free open-source software, Open Data Kit (ODK) mobile application. This approach was developed by the Palestine Children's Relief Fund (PCRF) to assess the mental health symptoms of 986 Palestinian children (age 6-18) in the aftermath of Israel's Operation Protective Edge (OPE) in 2014. The organization developed assessment questionnaires and trained local field workers on the use of the mobile application, and on recruiting and interviewing war victims. War-affected children were found to suffer from several alarming symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and somatic symptoms. Children with highest number of psychological symptoms were referred for further evaluation and treatment. The use of ODK mobile technologies facilitated efficient screening of affected children in war zones. The offline data collection capability was crucial for handling the difficult conditions associated with war-torn areas, enabling timely intervention for urgent cases. Further applications of the novel mobile technology are to be explored.

  17. Meal replacements as a weight loss tool in a population with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, Hollie A; Kwan, Crystal L; Mena, Shirley J; Erickson, Zachary D; Baker, Matthew R; Chamberlin, Valery; Nguyen, Charles; Rosen, Jennifer A; Shah, Chandresh; Ames, Donna

    2015-12-01

    Weight gain and worsening metabolic parameters are often side effects of antipsychotic medications used by individuals with severe mental illness. To address this, a randomized, controlled research study of a behavioral weight management program for individuals with severe mental illness was undertaken to assess its efficacy. Patients unable to meet weight loss goals during the first portion of the year-long study were given the option of using meal replacement shakes in an effort to assist with weight loss. Specific requirements for use of meal replacement shakes were specified in the study protocol; only five patients were able to use the shakes in accordance with the protocol and lose weight while improving metabolic parameters. Case studies of two subjects are presented, illustrating the challenges and obstacles they faced, as well as their successes. Taking responsibility for their own weight loss, remaining motivated through the end of the study, and incorporating the meal replacement shakes into a daily routine were factors found in common with these patients. Use of meal replacements shakes with this population may be effective. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Assessing service use for mental health by Indigenous populations in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America: a rapid review of population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Cecily; Harris, Meredith G; Baxter, Amanda J; Leske, Stuart; Diminic, Sandra; Gone, Joseph P; Hunter, Ernest; Whiteford, Harvey

    2017-08-04

    Indigenous people in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America experience disproportionately poor mental health compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. To optimally allocate resources, health planners require information about the services Indigenous people use for mental health, their unmet treatment needs and the barriers to care. We reviewed population surveys of Indigenous people to determine whether the information needed to guide service development is being collected. We sought national- or state-level epidemiological surveys of Indigenous populations conducted in each of the four selected countries since 1990 that asked about service use for mental health. Surveys were identified from literature reviews and web searches. We developed a framework for categorising the content of each survey. Using this framework, we compared the service use content of the surveys of Indigenous people to each other and to general population mental health surveys. We focused on identifying gaps in information coverage and topics that may require Indigenous-specific questions or response options. Nine surveys met our inclusion criteria. More than half of these included questions about health professionals consulted, barriers to care, perceived need for care, medications taken, number, duration, location and payment of health professional visits or use of support services or self-management. Less than half included questions about interventions received, hospital admissions or treatment dropout. Indigenous-specific content was most common in questions regarding use of support services or self-management, types of health professionals consulted, barriers to care and interventions received. Epidemiological surveys measuring service use for mental health among Indigenous populations have been less comprehensive and less standardised than surveys of the general population, despite having assessed similar content. To better understand the gaps in mental

  19. From morality to madness: a reappraisal of the asylum movement in psychiatry 1800-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosky, R

    1986-06-01

    This essay outlines the history of the asylum movement in psychiatry, but from a somewhat different angle than usual. It attempts to delineate the historical interactions between perceptions of morality and of madness. Changes in these interactions relate to the rise of the asylum movement, around 1800, and its demise, just after World War II. I argue that, whilst insanity was defined against the rational, secular morality of the eighteenth century, it could be separated from immorality and put aside into its asylum. Once mechanistic science and medical scientism began, during the nineteenth century, to include immorality in the systems of disease, the distinction could not hold. The asylums became flooded with the immoral, and management became custodial and nihilistic. This nexus was broken when the asylums were defined, by a few revolutionary superintendents, as instruments of social control. Nevertheless, intellectual paradigms derived from asylum psychiatry persist.

  20. Fake passports and appointed communities: Nation and transnationalism in the Danish asylum system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Zachary

    2003-01-01

    Nationality underwrites a great deal of the Danish asylum process, and of the refugee regime as a whole. The housing and care of asylum seekers, handled by the Danish Red Cross, is based on classifications by nationality. Bending a phrase from Benedict Anderson, these might be called "appointed...... communities". While the Danish asylum system in principle performs individual determination procedures for asylum seekers, granting refugee status on a case-by-case basis, in practice those identified as Iraqi or Afghani have had a very high acceptance rate. However, it is clearly the case that not all asylum...... seekers have citizenship of the countries they claim to come from, or indeed feel they come from the countries of which they have citizenship. In this context, we must enquire about the mechanics of determining nationality and about how asylum seekers themselves relate to national identities. I argue...

  1. A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Golestan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Bagheri Yazdi, Seyed Abbas; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Kamali, Koorosh; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Hajebi, Ahmad; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Shakiba, Alia; Hashemi Nasab, Seyedeh Maryam

    2017-11-01

    This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Golestan in 2015. The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Golestan province in Iran. An estimated sample size of 1200 people was chosen using systematic random cluster sampling. The access was provided by the contribution of Geographical Post Office of Gorgan, Gonbad-e-Qabus, and Aqqala cities. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used as the screening tool for mental disorders. The analysis of data in the current study was carried out using the SPSS-18 computer software. Using GHQ traditional scoring method, the results showed that 12.8% of the subjects showed to be at risk of mental disorders (13.3% of females and 12.3% of males). Urban areas (13%) were more at risk of mental disorders compared with rural residents (12.3%). Anxiety and somatization symptoms were more frequent than depression and social dysfunction among respondents. The obtained data revealed that the prevalence of mental disorders increased with age. The results also indicated that mental disorders were more common in certain subgroups, in particular women, those aged 65 years and above, the divorced and widowed, illiterate and retired adults. Our findings suggest that one eighth of the participants were at risk of developing mental disorders. Although the prevalence of these disorders has decreased from 39.1% to 12.8% between 1999 and 2015, it is still of great importance to further promote mental health policies and advocate psychological welfare of those suffering from mental disorders along with their re-empowerment.

  2. Malnutrition as a cause of mental retardation: A population-based study from Sub-Himalayan India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental retardation is one of the most common disabilities of childhood. The research on childhood malnutrition and its relationship with cognitive functioning suggests that malnutrition alone does not cause mental retardation. Objective: To identify the relation between malnutrition and cognition among children from a Sub-Himalayan state in North India. Materials and Methods: A two-phase cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural, urban, and slum area of district Kangra. A 30-cluster sampling technique was used to screen a population of children 1–10 years of age from five randomly selected panchayats (village government units of district Kangra. The screening was based on a modified version of the ten questions screen, adapted to the local population. In the first phase, a door-to-door survey was done to identify suspects of mental retardation. In the second phase, the children found positive in the first phase were called for clinical examination to confirm mental retardation. Anthropometric assessment of all study children was done by measuring weight and height. The nutritional assessment was done by categorizing them according to Waterlow classification for malnutrition. Results: Out of the total 5300 children, 1.7% were diagnosed as mentally retarded. No positive association was reported with different types of malnutrition and mental retardation. A weakly positive association existed between nutritional status and mental retardation (correlation coefficient-0.04. Children who were both wasted and stunted had the highest risk (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval - 5.57, 2.29–10.36 of mental retardation as compared to normal. Conclusion: Malnutrition may be one of the causes but certainly not the only cause of mental retardation. Other causes may be contributing more significantly toward it.

  3. Validation Study of the Mini-Mental State Examination in Urdu Language for Pakistani Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Safia; Shahbaz, Naila; Akhtar, Syed Wasim; Ahmad, Arsalan; Iqbal, Sadaf; Ahmed, Sellal; Naqvi, Haider; Wasay, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Validation study of the Mini-Mental State Examination in Urdu language for Pakistani population. This study was conducted primarily to validate and determine the optimal cutoff score in the diagnosis of dementia among Pakistani's and study the effects of gender and education on the MMSE performance in our population. Four hundred participants took part in the study. Patient with dementia recruited from five major hospitals from Pakistan. The MMSE was translated into Urdu. There were 61 men and 39 women in dementia group and 225 men and 75 women in the control group. The mean score of Urdu MMSE were lower in patients with dementia 18.5 ± 5.6 (range 0-30) as compared to the controls 26.8 ± 2.6 (range 7-30). This difference between groups was statistically significant (p<0.001). Educational based MMSE score below 15 yielded perfect sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of dementia. These finding confirm the influence of level of education on MMSE score and education stratified cutoff scores should be used while screening for cognitive impairment in this population.

  4. Assessing the mental health and wellbeing of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Marcia; Mackereth, Catherine

    2013-03-01

    Health needs assessment is a fundamental tool in public health practice. It entails the identification of needs from a range of perspectives, including epidemiological data, the views of local and professional people, and the comparative needs of the group under consideration. This paper describes the process undertaken with the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) population of an area in the north-east of England. The findings were used to inform and influence commissioners and service providers about services and interventions that will address these needs, and bring about better emotional and mental health and wellbeing as identified by LGBT people themselves. Research shows that there are great inequalities in the experience of these groups when compared with the heterosexual population. This was confirmed by the local LGBT communities. Consultation with the LGBT population showed that they experience ongoing stigma and discrimination, despite the greater apparent acceptance of diversity within the community. Recommendations were identified, which particularly focus on increasing the visibility of these groups, highlighting training issues and addressing generic or specialist services, in order to reduce discrimination.

  5. A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Bagheri Yazdi, Seyed Abbas; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Kamali, Koorosh; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Hajebi, Ahmad; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Abbasinejad, Maryam; Zarkesh, Alieh; Amirloo, Farnaz; Ghafarzadeh, MohammadReza

    2017-11-01

    This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Tehran in 2015. This cross-sectional survey was performed on 1,200 individuals aged fifteen years and older, living in urban, and rural areas of the three main districts of Tehran, Shahriar, and Nasimshahr of Tehran Province. Individuals were enrolled in the study by clustered and systematic randomization. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used for screening for common mental disorders. Those scoring above the cut-off point of the GHQ-28 were considered to be suffering from at least one mental disorder. All data was analyzed using the SPSS-18 software. According to our data, 30.2% of the subjects (34.2% of females and 26.4% of males) were suspected of having mental disorders. The prevalence of suspected psychiatric disorders in urban areas (35.1%) was higher than the prevalence of these disorders in rural areas (18.2%). Scoring above the cut-off point of the GHQ-28 also had a positive correlation with age, especially among those aged 65 years old and above. Somatization and also symptoms of anxiety were more prevalent than social dysfunction and depressive symptoms, and also more prevalent among females compared to males. Being suspected of a mental disorder was also more prevalent among those who had been divorced, widowed, unemployed, and having post-graduate university education. The results of this study show that about one third of our sample population were suspected of suffering from a mental disorder. The prevalence of common mental disorders has increased from 21.2% in 1999 to 31.7% in 2015. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that public health authorities put more effort to ensure necessary requirements encompassing prevention and promotion of mental health of the Iranian population residing in Tehran province.

  6. Consistency in Physical Activity and Increase in Mental Health in Elderly over a Decade: Are We Achieving Better Population Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler C. Smith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Over the past century, advances in medicine and public health have resulted in an extraordinary increase in life expectancy. As a result, focus has shifted from infectious to chronic diseases. Though current guidelines for healthy behaviors among the elderly exist, it remains unclear whether this growing segment of the population has shifted their behaviors in response to public health campaigns. The objective of this study was to investigate mental health and physical activity trends that may be leading indicators for healthier living and increased life expectancy. Methods: Using nearly a decade of continuous serial cross-sectional data collected in the nationwide Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, this study investigated trends of health behaviors and mental health in a population of nearly 750,000 who were 65 or older from 2003 through 2011. Weighted univariate and multivariable analyses were utilized including investigation of trend analyses over the decade, producing adjusted annual odds of physical activity and mental health. Results: After controlling for demographic and other factors, higher education and income, lower BMI, and current or previous smoking was associated with higher odds of adverse mental health and lower odds of physical activity engagement. Adjusted odds of adverse mental health climbed over the decade of observation whereas the odds of physical activity remained static. Conclusions: These data, encompassing a very large population over a decade of time, suggest that physical activity is stable though mental health challenges are on the rise in this older population. Public health campaigns may face greater barriers in an elderly population due to lifelong habits, dissemination and educational approaches, or decreasing gains. Further research should be conducted to identify more effective approaches towards increasing physical activity in this important and growing subset of the population and

  7. The art of being mentally healthy: a study to quantify the relationship between recreational arts engagement and mental well-being in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Christina; Knuiman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-01-05

    Little is known about the dose-response relationship between recreational arts engagement (for enjoyment, entertainment or as a hobby, rather than therapy) and mental well-being in the general population. The quantification of this relationship is of value to: (1) health professionals, clinicians and researchers interested in utilising the arts as a method for improving mental health; (2) to health promoters and policy makers in the development of population based health messages, policy and practice; and (3) to members of the general public in maintaining or improving their own well-being. As guided by theories of social epidemiology and the biopsychosocial model of health, the first aim of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between arts engagement (hours per year) and mental well-being in the general population. If an association was demonstrated, the second aim was to quantify this relationship. A random sample of 702 Western Australian adults aged 18+ years (response rate = 71%) were invited to take part in a telephone survey. The survey took 15 min to complete and included questions about arts engagement, mental well-being, demographics and potential confounders/effect modifiers. The dependent variable was subjective mental well-being (Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, WEMWBS). The independent variable was hours engaged in the arts in the last 12 months. Respondent engagement in the arts ranged from zero to 1572 hours/year (mean = 100.8 hours/year, SD = 206.0). The prevalence of engagement was 83 %. The average WEMWBS score was 53 (SD = 7.4). After adjustment for demographics (i.e. sex, age group, location, income, education, marital status, children), general health, sports engagement, religious activities and holidays, respondents with high levels of arts engagement (100 or more hours/year, WEMWBS score = 55) had significantly better mental well-being than those with none (0 hours/year, WEMWBS score = 53), low (0.1-22.9 hours

  8. Head injury in asylum seekers and refugees referred with psychological trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, S.M.; Craig, R.; Gardani, M.; McMillan, T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Individuals who seek asylum are frequently fleeing violent persecution and may experience head injury (HI). However, little is known about the prevalence of HI in asylum seekers and refugees (ASR) despite the potential for HI to significantly affect cognitive and emotional functioning and to compromise asylum outcomes. This preliminary study investigates the prevalence of HI in ASR referred to a complex psychological trauma service. Method. Participants were 115 adult ASR referred ...

  9. "Infiltrators" or refugees? An analysis of Israel's policy towards African asylum seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John; Yaron, Hadas; Hashimshony-Yaffe, Nurit

    2013-01-01

    This article adopts a genealogical approach in examining Israeli immigration policy by focusing on the situation confronting African asylum seekers who have been forced back into Egypt, detained and deported but who have not had their asylum claims properly assessed. Based on immigration policies formulated at the time of Israeli independence, whose principle objective was to secure a Jewish majority state, we argue that Israel’s treatment of African asylum seekers as ‘infiltrators’/economic ...

  10. Medical and psychological examination of women seeking asylum: documentation of human rights abuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, A; Patsalides, B

    1997-01-01

    Human rights abuses of women are ubiquitous throughout the world. Those perpetrated by governments entitle women to seek political asylum, and many women refugees do so in the United States. The asylum process often requires medical or psychological evaluations to corroborate women's reports of torture or other abuses. This article provides an overview of how to conduct such examinations and how to document findings for the asylum process.

  11. The impact of comorbidity of mental and physical conditions on role disability in the US adult household population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikangas, Kathleen R; Ames, Minnie; Cui, Lihong; Stang, Paul E; Ustun, T Bedirhan; Von Korff, Michael; Kessler, Ronald C

    2007-10-01

    There is limited information that accounts for comorbidity on the impact of role disability associated with a wide range of mental and physical disorders in population-based samples. To estimate the comparative effects of common mental and physical conditions on role disability in the general population using a novel method that accounts for comorbidity. Direct interviews about physical and mental conditions during the past year. The National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative series of face-to-face interviews. A nationally representative sample of adults living in households (N = 5962 respondents, 18 years and older). Disability in major life roles was assessed with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule. Simulations that allow for complex interactions among conditions were used to estimate the conditions' effects on disability days, when respondents were completely unable to carry out their usual daily activities because of problems with mental or physical health, in the past 12 months. An estimated 53.4% of US adults have 1 or more of the mental or physical conditions assessed in the survey. These respondents report an average 32.1 more role-disability days in the past year than demographically matched controls, equivalent to nearly 3.6 billion days of role disability in the population. Musculoskeletal disorders and major depression had the greatest effects on disability days. Mental conditions accounted for more than half as many disability days as all physical conditions at the population level. Associations of specific conditions with disability decreased substantially after controlling for comorbidity, suggesting that prior studies, which generally did not control for comorbidity, overestimated disease-specific effects. The staggering amount of health-related disability associated with mental and physical conditions should be considered in establishing priorities for the allocation of health care and research

  12. The fractured history of the mental hospital in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sanjeev; Sarin, Alok

    2018-02-01

    The history of the mental hospital in Delhi is a fascinating story. Set up in colonial times, the asylum in Delhi seems to reflect the tumultuous and chaotic history of the city itself. It was perhaps established in the early 19 th century, and functions till 1857, when it is ransacked in the Mutiny. It is subsequently merged with the asylum at Lahore in 1861, set up again, and incredibly, closed again at the turn of the century. Subject to the whims of administrators and policy makers, the asylum then ceases to exist till the 1960s when a new avatar appears. In it's non continuity is the story of the neglect of mental illness.

  13. Predicting the impact of the 2011 conflict in Libya on population mental health: PTSD and depression prevalence and mental health service requirements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J Charlson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are likely to be elevated in the Libyan population during the post-conflict period. We estimated cases of severe PTSD and depression and related health service requirements using modelling from existing epidemiological data and current recommended mental health service targets in low and middle income countries (LMIC's. METHODS: Post-conflict prevalence estimates were derived from models based on a previously conducted systematic review and meta-regression analysis of mental health among populations living in conflict. Political terror ratings and intensity of exposure to traumatic events were used in predictive models. Prevalence of severe cases was applied to chosen populations along with uncertainty ranges. Six populations deemed to be affected by the conflict were chosen for modelling: Misrata (population of 444,812, Benghazi (pop. 674,094, Zintan (pop. 40,000, displaced people within Tripoli/Zlitan (pop. 49,000, displaced people within Misrata (pop. 25,000 and Ras Jdir camps (pop. 3,700. Proposed targets for service coverage, resource utilisation and full-time equivalent staffing for management of severe cases of major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD are based on a published model for LMIC's. FINDINGS: Severe PTSD prevalence in populations exposed to a high level of political terror and traumatic events was estimated at 12.4% (95%CI 8.5-16.7 and was 19.8% (95%CI 14.0-26.3 for severe depression. Across all six populations (total population 1,236,600, the conflict could be associated with 123,200 (71,600-182,400 cases of severe PTSD and 228,100 (134,000-344,200 cases of severe depression; 50% of PTSD cases were estimated to co-occur with severe depression. Based upon service coverage targets, approximately 154 full-time equivalent staff would be required to respond to these cases sufficiently which is substantially below the current level of resource estimates for these regions. DISCUSSION

  14. A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Razavi Khorasan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Bagheri Yazdi, Seyed Abbas; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Kamali, Koorosh; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Hajebi, Ahmad; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Ghazizadeh Hashemi, Fatemah; Okhravi, Neda

    2017-11-01

    This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Razavi Khorasan in 2015. The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Razavi Khorasan in Iran. An estimated sample size of 1200 people was chosen using systematic random cluster sampling. The access was provided by the contribution of Geographical Post Office of Mashhad, Torbate Jam and Sabzavar cities. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used as the screening tool for mental disorders. Data analysis in the current study was carried out using the SPSS-18 software. Using GHQ traditional scoring method, the results showed that 23.7% of individuals (26.9% of females and 20.6% of males) were suspected of mental disorders. The prevalence of suspected cases of mental disorders was 23.6% in urban and 23.8% in rural areas. It was also shown that somatization and anxiety symptoms were more prevalent than social dysfunction and depression symptoms, and were more common in women than men. The results of this research also showed that the prevalence of suspected cases of mental disorders increased with aging. Such disorders were more common in females, people living in rural areas, divorced and widowed, illiterate, housewives and retired individuals compared with the other groups. The results of this study showed that about a fourth of the people in the province were suspected to have mental disorders and the prevalence rate of mental disorders increased from 7.7% in 1999 to 23.7% in 2015. Therefore, it is mandatory for the provincial public health authorities to take the needed steps to ensure that necessary requirements encompassing prevention and promotion of mental health are implemented.

  15. A Population-Level Data Analytics Portal for Self-Administered Lifestyle and Mental Health Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xindi; Warren, Jim; Corter, Arden; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes development of a prototype data analytics portal for analysis of accumulated screening results from eCHAT (electronic Case-finding and Help Assessment Tool). eCHAT allows individuals to conduct a self-administered lifestyle and mental health screening assessment, with usage to date chiefly in the context of primary care waiting rooms. The intention is for wide roll-out to primary care clinics, including secondary school based clinics, resulting in the accumulation of population-level data. Data from a field trial of eCHAT with sexual health questions tailored to youth were used to support design of a data analytics portal for population-level data. The design process included user personas and scenarios, screen prototyping and a simulator for generating large-scale data sets. The prototype demonstrates the promise of wide-scale self-administered screening data to support a range of users including practice managers, clinical directors and health policy analysts.

  16. Facebook as an effective recruitment strategy for mental health research of hard to reach populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rony Kayrouz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports indicate that Facebook (FB may facilitate recruitment of hard to reach participants into mental health research. The present study aimed to contribute to this emerging literature by exploring recruitment data from a recently completed trial of online treatment for symptoms of anxiety and depression that targeted Arab people. The present study compared traditional recruitment strategies such as media releases, emails, and print advertisements with Facebook strategies including boosting posts, promoting websites, events and FB public fan pages. The main outcomes of interest were the number of started applications and the time and cost per application associated with the FB and traditional recruitment strategies. A target sample of 350 was sought and a total of 81 participants applied to participate over the 42-week recruitment period. Overall, 86% of the resultant applications occurred via FB recruitment and a Poisson regression analysis indicated the FB strategies were more time-effective, recruiting participants 2.5 times faster than the traditional strategies. However, there were no differences in cost-effectiveness for FB ($US37 per participant and traditional strategies ($US40 per participant. The findings of the current study add to existing literature detailing the value of FB recruitment strategies, alongside more traditional strategies, as a way of recruiting hard-to-reach populations for research. However, more research is needed to explore alternative and optimal strategies for the successful recruitment of hard to reach populations via FB and other online social media platforms.

  17. Self-reported unemployment status and recession: An analysis on the Italian population with and without mental health problems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Starace

    Full Text Available During economic recession people with mental health problems have higher risk of losing their job. This paper analyses the issue by considering the Italian rates of unemployment amongst individuals with and without mental health problems in 2005 and 2013, that is prior and during the economic crisis.We used data from the National surveys on "Health conditions and use of health services" carried out by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT for the years 2005 and 2013. The surveys collected information on the health status and socioeconomic conditions of the Italian population. Self-reported unemployment status was analysed amongst individuals with and without reported mental health problems. In addition, descriptive statistics were performed in order to detect possible differences in the risk of unemployment within different regional contexts characterised by different socio-economic conditions.The recession determined increased disparities in unemployment rates between people with and without mental health problems. Regardless to the presence of mental health problems, young people were more likely to be unemployed. Among people who reported mental health problems, males were more likely to be unemployed than females. People with low education level were more likely to be unemployed, particularly during the recession and in presence of mental health problems. Changes in unemployment rates due to the crisis showed different patterns across different regions of the Country.These analyses confirm that in periods of economic crisis people with mental health problems are at risk of experiencing exclusion from labour market. In addition, the impact is even worse within the group with low education and younger age. These findings emphasise the importance of specific interventions aimed at promoting labour market participation and reintegration for people with mental health problems.

  18. Position of the Mental Foramen in Panoramic Radiography and Its Relationship to Age in a Selected Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The position of the mental foramen is critical for surgery and local anesthesia. Objectives This study was conducted to assess the position of the mental foramen and its relationship to age in a selected Iranian population. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Three hundred panoramic radiographs were assessed. Three variables were assessed for each radiograph: anterior-posterior position, superior-inferior position, and radiographic appearance. The position and appearance of the mental foramen were recorded according to gender and age. The results were analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. Results Considering the anterior-posterior position, the mental foramina were located in the following positions: between premolars (41.5%, at the apex of the second premolars (31.7%, in the posterior area of the second premolars (19.2%, in the anterior area of the first premolars (4.3%, and at the apex of the first premolars (3.3%.The superior-inferior position of the mental foramina were below, above, and at the level of the apices of the premolars in 78.8%, 2.5%, and 18.7% of cases, respectively. The appearance of the mental foramen was continuous in relation to the mandibular canal in 55.9% of cases, while it was separated, diffuse, and unidentified in 29.5%, 9.7%, and 5% of cases, respectively. Age was found to affect the position and appearance of mental foramen. Conclusions The mental foramina were most commonly located between the first and second premolars and below the apex. A continuous appearance was the most common appearance for the mental foramen, which was similar in males and females.

  19. Self-reported unemployment status and recession: An analysis on the Italian population with and without mental health problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starace, Fabrizio; Mungai, Francesco; Sarti, Elena; Addabbo, Tindara

    2017-01-01

    Purpose During economic recession people with mental health problems have higher risk of losing their job. This paper analyses the issue by considering the Italian rates of unemployment amongst individuals with and without mental health problems in 2005 and 2013, that is prior and during the economic crisis. Methods We used data from the National surveys on “Health conditions and use of health services” carried out by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) for the years 2005 and 2013. The surveys collected information on the health status and socioeconomic conditions of the Italian population. Self-reported unemployment status was analysed amongst individuals with and without reported mental health problems. In addition, descriptive statistics were performed in order to detect possible differences in the risk of unemployment within different regional contexts characterised by different socio-economic conditions. Results The recession determined increased disparities in unemployment rates between people with and without mental health problems. Regardless to the presence of mental health problems, young people were more likely to be unemployed. Among people who reported mental health problems, males were more likely to be unemployed than females. People with low education level were more likely to be unemployed, particularly during the recession and in presence of mental health problems. Changes in unemployment rates due to the crisis showed different patterns across different regions of the Country. Conclusions These analyses confirm that in periods of economic crisis people with mental health problems are at risk of experiencing exclusion from labour market. In addition, the impact is even worse within the group with low education and younger age. These findings emphasise the importance of specific interventions aimed at promoting labour market participation and reintegration for people with mental health problems. PMID:28376098

  20. A Population-Based Study of Postpartum Mental Health Service Use by Immigrant Women in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigod, Simone; Sultana, Anjum; Fung, Kinwah; Hussain-Shamsy, Neesha; Dennis, Cindy-Lee

    2016-11-01

    Postpartum mental disorders are twice as common among immigrant women compared to nonimmigrant women in developed countries. Immigrant women may experience barriers to access and use of postpartum mental health services, but little is known about their service use on a population level. We described postpartum mental health service use of immigrant mothers living in Ontario, Canada, comparing to a referent group of mothers who were either born in Canada or had lived in Ontario or another Canadian province since 1985. Among all women in Ontario, Canada, delivering a live infant from 2008 to 2012 (n = 450,622), we described mental health service use within 1 year postpartum, including mental health physician visits, psychiatric emergency department visits, and psychiatric hospitalization. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing immigrant women to the referent group were adjusted for maternal age, parity, income, rurality, mental health services in prior 2 years, and maternal and newborn health. Immigrant women (n = 123,231; 27%) were less likely to use mental health services than women in the referent group (14.1% vs. 21.4%; aOR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.61), including for physician-based (13.9% vs. 21.1%; aOR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.61) and emergency department (0.6% vs. 1.3%; aOR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.68) services. Hospitalization risk was lower among immigrants (0.20% vs. 0.33%) but became similar after covariate adjustment (aOR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.06). Underuse of postpartum mental health services may be contributing to the high burden of postpartum mental disorders among immigrant women. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Forensic dental investigations and age assessment of asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzolese, Emilio; Di Vella, Giancarlo

    2008-06-01

    Age estimation is useful in forensic investigations to aid in the process of identifying unknown victims as well as living individuals. In many countries age estimation is commonly used to assist immigration authorities in deciding whether refugees or illegal migrants have reached that designated age that separates a juvenile from an adult. This is particularly important for the protection of unaccompanied minors. Italy is a country of great appeal for immigration as people from other Mediterranean countries can easily reach Italian coasts. In Italy, as in other western world countries, unaccompanied asylum seekers deemed to be under 18 face a very different path through the immigration system. They cannot be deported and are sent through a juvenile system where they have access to education programmes and may be granted a residence permit. The Section of Legal Medicine of the University of Bari was approached by Judges and Immigration Police with the question to assess the age of unaccompanied asylum seekers who claim to be below 18 years of age. The contribution of forensic odontologists for age estimation was recognised and since November 2006 age estimation of asylum seekers in Bari (Italy) relies on clinical and dental examination together with skeletal maturation as seen on radiographs of the left hand and wrist, the pelvis for iliac crests and root development and mineralisation of third molars as seen on an orthopantomogram.

  2. Sanctioning international protection applicants for choosing the country of asylum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Mozetič

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Major disparities in the regulation and application of international protection exist among EU member states. Therefore, applicants for international protection want to choose the state where they lodge an application. Instead of harmonizing law on international protection, member states sanction applicants for international protection who lodge an application in the preferred member states and not in the one responsible under the Dublin III Regulation. According to the New International Protection Act, implementing EU procedural directive, it may be assumed that an applicant implicitly withdrew her/his application, if s/he left the asylum home without authorisation, and in that case the procedure is discontinued. If an applicant lodges a subsequent application after more than nine months or more than once, her/his application will possibly not be subject of a substantial examination.In order to prevent ”asylum shopping” EU allows for the possibility that some applicants, who would be entitled to refugee status or subsidiary protection, are never granted such protection. However, this is contrary to the principle of non-refoulement as developed in the case-law of the ECtHR and the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia. Mechanisms that aim to prevent ”asylum shopping” may be contrary to the well-established principles of human rights protection, unfair or unreasonable and affect the most marginalized applicants for international protection.

  3. Spiritual care may impact mental health and medication adherence in HIV+ populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oji VU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Valerie U Oji,1–3 Leslie C Hung,3 Reza Abbasgholizadeh,1,4 Flora Terrell Hamilton,5 E James Essien,6 Evaristus Nwulia7 1Lifefountain Center Ministries Inc, Houston, TX, USA; 2Feik School of Pharmacy, University of the Incarnate Word, San Antonio, TX, USA; 3University of Texas, College of Pharmacy, Austin, TX, USA; 4University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA; 5Administration, Family & Medical Counseling Service, Inc. (FMCS, Washington, DC, USA; 6University of Houston Institute for Community Health, Houston, TX, USA; 7Psychiatry, Howard University Translational Neuroscience Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA Objective: To explore a potential role for spirituality in medication-related needs assessment for integrated care in chronically ill populations. Method: A systematic literature review was conducted to explore the impact of faith beliefs on health and/or medication adherence in individuals with depression and/or HIV+/AIDS. Retrospective electronic medical record review of adult HIV+ patients of an urban primary care clinic with integrated mental health services was conducted, with Substance Abuse and Mental Illness Symptoms Screener (SAMISS, major depressive disorder (MDD incidence over the preceding year, and history of contact with a spiritual advisor. A convenience sample was interviewed to qualitatively assess potential medication therapy management needs and medication-related problems. Another sample was examined utilizing the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale. Results: The literature reports positive influence on health behaviors, coping and outcomes; and poor medication adherence and treatment decisions due to patient passivity or resistance. Spiritual advisor contact (not limited to a specific religion was significantly associated with MDD absence (1.7% vs. 15.3%, P<0.005 and inversely related to SAMISS, depression, and poor health behaviors. Patient interviews reflected significance of faith in terms of insight and acceptance of

  4. Adolescent mental health education InSciEd Out: a case study of an alternative middle school population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joanna; Lopez Cervera, Roberto; Tye, Susannah J; Ekker, Stephen C; Pierret, Chris

    2018-04-03

    Mental illness contributes substantially to global disease burden, particularly when illness onset occurs during youth and help-seeking is delayed and/or limited. Yet, few mental health promotion interventions target youth, particularly those with or at high risk of developing mental illness ("at-risk" youth). Community-based translational research has the capacity to identify and intervene upon barriers to positive health outcomes. This is especially important for integrated care in at-risk youth populations. Here the Integrated Science Education Outreach (InSciEd Out) program delivered a novel school-based anti-stigma intervention in mental health to a cohort of seventh and eighth grade at-risk students. These students were assessed for changes in mental health knowledge, stigmatization, and help-seeking intentions via a classroom activity, surveys, and teacher interviews. Descriptive statistics and Cohen's d effect sizes were employed to assess pre-post changes. Inferential statistical analyses were also conducted on pilot results to provide a benchmark to inform future studies. Elimination of mental health misconceptions (substance weakness p = 0.00; recovery p = 0.05; prevention p = 0.05; violent p = 0.05) was accompanied by slight gains in mental health literacy (d = 0.18) and small to medium improvements in help-seeking intentions (anxiety d = 0.24; depression d = 0.48; substance d = 0.43; psychosis d = 0.53). Within this particular cohort of students, stigma was exceptionally low at baseline and remained largely unchanged. Teacher narratives revealed positive teacher views of programming, increased student openness to talk about mental illness, and higher peer and self-acceptance of mental health diagnoses and help-seeking. Curricular-based efforts focused on mental illness in an alternative school setting are feasible and integrated well into general curricula under the InSciEd Out framework. Preliminary data suggest the

  5. Positive mental health and well-being among a third level student population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davoren, Martin P

    2013-01-01

    Much research on the health and well-being of third level students is focused on poor mental health leading to a dearth of information on positive mental health and well-being. Recently, the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale (WEMWBS) was developed as a measurement of positive mental health and well-being. The aim of this research is to investigate the distribution and determinants of positive mental health and well-being in a large, broadly representative sample of third level students using WEMWBS.

  6. An integrated healthcare service for asylum seekers and refugees in the South-Eastern Region of Melbourne: Monash Health Refugee Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Jacquie; Block, Andrew; Russo, Alana

    2017-09-01

    Asylum seekers and refugees generally have poorer health than the broader Australian population. However, these groups experience a range of barriers to accessing universal health services. Generalist and specialist refugee health services have been established in Australia to improve the health of humanitarian migrant groups. This article describes a refugee health service established in a high-settlement region of Melbourne, Australia, and explores clients' experiences with the service. Client feedback was captured through interviews (n=18) and surveys (n=159). Participants reported high levels of satisfaction with the service, and highlighted the value in having trusting relationships with staff, access to bicultural workers, onsite interpreting services and integrated care. The findings indicate that it is possible to engage asylum seekers and refugees through healthcare delivery that is responsive to the unique needs of this priority population.

  7. Asylansøgeres muligheder for at komme i arbejde: Asylum seekers opportunities to enter the labour market

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Adhami, Adnan Ibrahim; Thøgersen, Dicte Bjarup; Mikkelsen, Laura Barfoed; Robrahn, Pernille Viola

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the challenges that asylum seekers meet in the asylum system, when they want to enter the labour market. Furthermore, this paper wants to examine the issues that are connected to these challenges, and whether it has an impact on the integration, when asylum seekers are left outside of the labor market. To investigate our research question we have primarily used interviews, including a qualitative research interview with an asylum seeker, Nora, and two...

  8. How Do Countries' Health Information Systems Perform in Assessing Asylum Seekers' Health Situation? Developing a Health Information Assessment Tool on Asylum Seekers (HIATUS) and Piloting It in Two European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Goosen, Simone; Mohsenpour, Amir; Kuehne, Anna; Razum, Oliver; Kunst, Anton E

    2017-08-08

    Background: Accurate data on the health status, health behaviour and access to health care of asylum seekers is essential, but such data is lacking in many European countries. We hence aimed to: (a) develop and pilot-test an instrument that can be used to compare and benchmark the country health information systems (HIS) with respect to the ability to assess the health status and health care situation of asylum seekers and (b) present the results of that pilot for The Netherlands (NL) and Germany (DE). Materials and Methods : Reviewing and adapting existing tools, we developed a Health Information Assessment Tool on Asylum Seekers (HIATUS) with 50 items to assess HIS performance across three dimensions: (1) availability and detail of data across potential data sources; (2) HIS resources and monitoring capacity; (3) general coverage and timeliness of publications on selected indicators. We piloted HIATUS by applying the tool to the HIS in DE and NL. Two raters per country independently assessed the performance of country HIS and the inter-rater reliability was analysed by Pearson's rho and the intra-class correlation (ICC). We then applied a consensus-based group rating to obtain the final ratings which were transformed into a weighted summary score (range: 0-97). We assessed HIS performance by calculating total and domain-specific HIATUS scores by country as well as absolute and relative gaps in scores within and between countries. Results : In the independent rating, Pearson's rho was 0.14 (NL) and 0.30 (DE), the ICC yielded an estimated reliability of 0.29 (NL) and 0.83 (DE) respectively. In the final consensus-based rating, the total HIATUS score was 47 in NL and 15 in DE, translating into a relative gap in HIS capacity of 52% (NL) and 85% (DE) respectively. Shortfalls in HIS capacity in both countries relate to the areas of HIS coordination, planning and policies, and to limited coverage of specific indicators such as self-reported health, mental health, socio

  9. An Overview of Pending Asylum and Refugee Legislation in the US Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Nezer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been no significant legislation related to the asylum process enacted in Congress in nearly a decade.  In 1996, the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigration Responsibility Act (IIRIRA became law, rolling back protections for asylum seekers by including a one-year deadline for filing asylum applications, subjecting asylum seekers to “expedited removal” procedures, and expanding the detention of asylum seekers. In 2005, Congress enacted the REAL ID Act, which created additional legal barriers to asylum, including new requirements for proving an asylum claim. During the past several sessions of Congress, bills have been introduced that would make significant changes to the country’s asylum laws and refugee admissions program. This paper provides an overview of the pending legislation and the changes proposed.  This overview is instructive in understanding (1 which members of Congress have demonstrated interest and leadership in refugee and asylum issues; (2 which refugee and asylum reform issues have been of most interest to members of Congress in recent years; (3 the different approaches to refugee and asylum issues by members of Congress who have shown leadership on these issues; and (4 which provisions have been enacted, which have gained traction, and which remain pending without significant movement through the legislative process.While it is difficult to imagine in the current partisan climate how any asylum or refugee legislation could be enacted into law, some legislative provisions have been reintroduced over a number of sessions of Congress and some have a history of bipartisan support.  Legislation focused on a group of particular interest or concern to members of Congress could gain traction.  A more comprehensive legislative approach framed by the need generally to improve the system could be less effective, particularly in the context of the years-long stalemate on comprehensive immigration reform

  10. School experiences may be important determinants of mental health problems in middle childhood - a Swedish longitudinal population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waenerlund, Anna-Karin; Stenmark, Helena; Bergström, Erik; Hägglöf, Bruno; Öhman, Ann; Petersen, Solveig

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the association between school experiences and mental health in young schoolchildren. This study explored the cross-sectional and prospective associations between children's school experiences and mental health in middle childhood. We gathered comprehensive population-based data on the school experiences and mental health of 592 schoolchildren attending grades three and six in Sweden (ages approximately nine and 12 years). The KIDSCREEN questionnaire was used to measure school experiences in both age groups while the Child Behavior Checklist and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire measured mental health in grades three and six, respectively. Children with problematic school experiences in grade three had an approximately two times higher odds for concurrent total, internalised, externalised, attention-hyperactivity and social problems. They also had a 1.5-2.5 higher odds for these mental health problems three years later. Likewise, there was an association between problematic school experiences in grade three and lower levels of prosocial behaviour three years later. These associations were shown in both boys and girls, but were particularly pronounced in girls. This study indicated that school experiences in young schoolchildren may be important determinants of concurrent and later mental health problems. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Through the Looking-Glass: How Nineteenth Century Asylums Shaped School Architecture and Notions of Intellectual Abnormality Shaped Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roof, David J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper utilizes Henri Lefebvre's work to examine nineteenth century school architecture, in relation to asylums. The deployment of the asylums occurred in unison with the development of public schools. Based on archival research this paper seeks an examination of this interrelated development. The social/spatial arrangement of asylums and…

  12. A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Kermanshah, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Bagheri Yazdi, Seyed Abbas; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Kamali, Koorosh; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Hajebi, Ahmad; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Nejatisafa, Ali-Akbar; Haghighian, Reza Morad

    2017-11-01

    This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Kermanshah in 2015. The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Kermanshah in Iran. An estimated sample size of 1200 people was chosen in three clusters: Kermanshah, Islamabad-e-Gharb, and Sonqor by using the systematic random sampling method. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used as the screening tool for evaluation of status for mental disorders. The traditional method for scoring of GHQ-28 was used in this study. Data analysis was carried out using the SPSS-18 software. Response rate for the study was 97.83%. The results showed that 26.2% of individuals (29.4% of females and 23% of males) were suspected to suffer from mental disorder, in total. The prevalence of being suspected of mental disorders was 28.9% in urban and 19.7% in the rural areas. Somatization and anxiety symptoms were more prevalent than social dysfunction and depression symptoms and were more common in women than men. The results of this research also showed that the prevalence of being suspected of mental disorders increased with aging. Suspicion for these disorders was more common in females, those aged ≥65, people living in urban areas, divorced and widowed, illiterate, housewives and unemployed individuals compared with the other groups. This study showed that more than a quarter of the people in Kermanshah province were suspected to have mental disorders. These findings mandate further attention in the province health policy and program planning for prevention and promotion of mental health.

  13. A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Ardebil, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Bagheri Yazdi, Seyed Abbas; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Kamali, Koorosh; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Hajebi, Ahmad; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Sedighnia, Azadeh; Azimi, Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Ardebil in 2015. The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Ardebil province in Iran. An estimated sample size of 1200 people were chosen using systematic random cluster sampling. Access was provided by the contribution of Geographical Post Office of Ardebil, Pars abad and Germi cities. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used as the screening tool for mental disorders. Data analysis in the current study was carried out using the SPSS-18 software. Using GHQ traditional scoring method, the results showed that 21.4% of individuals (26.3% of females and 16.5% of males) were suspected of mental disorders. The prevalence of suspected cases of mental disorders was 20.8% in urban and 22.8% in rural areas. The results also showed that somatization and anxiety symptoms were more prevalent than social dysfunction and depression symptoms, and were more common in women than men. The results of this research also showed that the prevalence of suspected cases of mental disorders increased with aging. Such disorders were more common in females, age group of 65 and above, people living in rural areas, divorced and widowed, illiterate and unemployed individuals compared with other groups. The results of this study showed that about one fifth of people in the province were suspected of mental disorders. Therefore, it is mandatory for the provincial public health authorities to take the needed steps to ensure that necessary requirements encompassing prevention and promotion of mental health are implemented.

  14. A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Qazvin, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Bagheri Yazdi, Seyed Abbas; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Kamali, Koorosh; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Hajebi, Ahmad; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Jafarinia, Morteza; Mohammadizadeh, Lalah

    2017-11-01

    This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Qazvin in 2015. The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Qazvin in Iran. An estimated sample size of 1200 people was chosen using systematic random cluster sampling. The access was provided by the contribution of Geographical Post Office of Qazvin, Alvand, Mohammadieh and Abhar cities. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used as the screening tool for mental disorders. Data analysis in the current study was carried out using the SPSS-18 software. Using GHQ traditional scoring method, 25.8% of the subjects were shown to be at risk of mental disorders (29.5% of females and 22.1% of males). Urban areas (27%) were more at risk of mental disorders compared with rural residents (23.3%). Anxiety and somatization symptoms were more frequent than depression and social dysfunction among respondents. The obtained data revealed that the prevalence of mental disorders increased with age. These disorders were more common in females, age group of 65 and above, people living in rural areas, divorced and widowed, illiterate and unemployed individuals compared with the other groups. The results of this study showed that about a fourth of the people in the province were suspected to have mental disorders. Therefore, it is mandatory for the provincial public health authorities to take the needed steps to ensure that necessary requirements encompassing prevention and promotion of mental health are implemented.

  15. The dynamics of physical and mental health in the older population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrnberger, Julius; Fichera, Eleonora; Sutton, Matt

    2017-06-01

    Mental and physical aspects are both integral to health but little is known about the dynamic relationship between them. We consider the dynamic relationship between mental and physical health using a sample of 11,203 individuals in six waves (2002-2013) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). We estimate conditional linear and non-linear random-effects regression models to identify the effects of past physical health, measured by Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and past mental health, measured by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, on both present physical and mental health. We find that both mental and physical health are moderately state-dependent. Better past mental health increases present physical health significantly. Better past physical health has a larger effect on present mental health. Past mental health has stronger effects on present physical health than physical activity or education. It explains 2.0% of the unobserved heterogeneity in physical health. Past physical health has stronger effects on present mental health than health investments, income or education. It explains 0.4% of the unobserved heterogeneity in mental health. These cross-effects suggest that health policies aimed at specific aspects of health should consider potential spill-over effects.

  16. Inequalities in mental health in the working population of Spain: a National Health Survey-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-de la Torre, Jorge; Artazcoz, Lucía; Molina, Antonio José; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Martín, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    In the working population, poor mental health is a significant problem whose prevalence rates and associated factors could differ by gender, especially in a period of socioeconomic changes. The aims of this study were: a) to determine the prevalence of poor mental health in the working population of Spain in 2011; b) to identify the association of this prevalence with socioeconomic and work-related variables for men and women separately; c) to determine if the patterns differ by gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted with data from the National Health Survey of Spain (2011). Of the 21,007 participants in the survey, we selected 7396 whose employment status was described as "working" The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used as a screening tool to detect poor mental health. Prevalences were calculated and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to verify the association between variables. The prevalence of poor mental health was higher among women (19.9%) than men (13.9%), the overall prevalence being 16.8%. The variables associated with a higher prevalence were type of contract and work-related variables in men, and age and socioeconomic variables in women. This study shows that, in the working population of Spain, the prevalence of poor mental health and its related factors differ by gender. Poor mental health is mainly related to socioeconomic variables in women but is mostly associated with work-related variables in men. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Intimate partner violence among women with mental health-related activity limitations: a Canadian population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mont, Janice; Forte, Tonia

    2014-01-18

    There is strong evidence that women with serious or chronic mental illness experience higher rates of violence than women in the general population. Our objective was to examine the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV), a form of violence that is often recurrent and linked to negative physical and psychological consequences, among a representative sample of non-institutionalized women with activity limitations (ALs) due to a mental health condition. Data from the 2009 General Social Survey were used, a national, population-based, cross-sectional survey. The sample included 6851 women reporting contact with a current or former partner in the previous five years, of whom 322 (4.7%) reported a mental health-related AL always/often or sometimes. The prevalence of any type of IPV was highest among women with mental health-related ALs always/often (54.4%), followed by women reporting ALs sometimes (49.9%), and those reporting no ALs (18.3%, p mental health-related ALs always/often and sometimes, but were lower among those reporting no ALs (20.2%, 20.9%, 5.9%, p social capital variables, including perceptions of having experienced discrimination, a weak sense of belonging in their local community, and low trust toward family members and strangers were also significantly associated with having experienced IPV. Findings suggest that women with mental health-related ALs may be at increased risk of IPV. Health and social service providers may need, therefore, to better target prevention and intervention initiatives to this population.

  18. Development and validation of a prediction algorithm for the onset of common mental disorders in a working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ana; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Choi, Isabella; Calvo, Rafael; Harvey, Samuel B; Glozier, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Common mental disorders are the most common reason for long-term sickness absence in most developed countries. Prediction algorithms for the onset of common mental disorders may help target indicated work-based prevention interventions. We aimed to develop and validate a risk algorithm to predict the onset of common mental disorders at 12 months in a working population. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey, a longitudinal, nationally representative household panel in Australia. Data from the 6189 working participants who did not meet the criteria for a common mental disorders at baseline were non-randomly split into training and validation databases, based on state of residence. Common mental disorders were assessed with the mental component score of 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire (score ⩽45). Risk algorithms were constructed following recommendations made by the Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Prevention Or Diagnosis statement. Different risk factors were identified among women and men for the final risk algorithms. In the training data, the model for women had a C-index of 0.73 and effect size (Hedges' g) of 0.91. In men, the C-index was 0.76 and the effect size was 1.06. In the validation data, the C-index was 0.66 for women and 0.73 for men, with positive predictive values of 0.28 and 0.26, respectively Conclusion: It is possible to develop an algorithm with good discrimination for the onset identifying overall and modifiable risks of common mental disorders among working men. Such models have the potential to change the way that prevention of common mental disorders at the workplace is conducted, but different models may be required for women.

  19. The Contribution of Individual, Social and Work Characteristics to Employee Mental Health in a Coal Mining Industry Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Considine

    Full Text Available Evidence regarding the extent of mental health problems and the associated characteristics within an employee population is necessary to inform appropriate and tailored workplace mental health programs. Mental health within male dominated industries (such as mining has received recent public attention, chiefly through observations regarding suicide in such populations in Australia and internationally. Currently there is limited empirical evidence regarding the mental health needs in the mining industry as an exemplar of a male dominated workforce, and the relative contribution to such problems of individual, socio-economic and workplace factors. This study aimed to investigate the mental health and associated characteristics among employees in the Australian coal mining industry with a specific focus on identifying modifiable work characteristics.A cross-sectional study was conducted among employees (n = 1457 across eight coal mines stratified by key mine characteristics (state, mine type and employee commute arrangements. Participants completed measures of psychological distress (K10+ and key variables across four categories (socio-demographic characteristics, health history, current health behaviours, work attitudes and characteristics.Psychological distress levels within this sample were significantly higher in comparison with a community sample of employed Australians. The following factors contributed significantly to levels of psychological distress using hierarchical linear regression analysis: lower social networks; a past history of depression, anxiety or drug/alcohol problems; high recent alcohol use; work role (managers and a set of work characteristics (level of satisfaction with work, financial factors and job insecurity; perception of lower workplace support for people with mental health problems.This is the first study to examine the characteristics associated with mental health problems in the Australian coal mining industry. The

  20. The Contribution of Individual, Social and Work Characteristics to Employee Mental Health in a Coal Mining Industry Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Robyn; Tynan, Ross; James, Carole; Wiggers, John; Lewin, Terry; Inder, Kerry; Perkins, David; Handley, Tonelle; Kelly, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Evidence regarding the extent of mental health problems and the associated characteristics within an employee population is necessary to inform appropriate and tailored workplace mental health programs. Mental health within male dominated industries (such as mining) has received recent public attention, chiefly through observations regarding suicide in such populations in Australia and internationally. Currently there is limited empirical evidence regarding the mental health needs in the mining industry as an exemplar of a male dominated workforce, and the relative contribution to such problems of individual, socio-economic and workplace factors. This study aimed to investigate the mental health and associated characteristics among employees in the Australian coal mining industry with a specific focus on identifying modifiable work characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted among employees (n = 1457) across eight coal mines stratified by key mine characteristics (state, mine type and employee commute arrangements). Participants completed measures of psychological distress (K10+) and key variables across four categories (socio-demographic characteristics, health history, current health behaviours, work attitudes and characteristics). Psychological distress levels within this sample were significantly higher in comparison with a community sample of employed Australians. The following factors contributed significantly to levels of psychological distress using hierarchical linear regression analysis: lower social networks; a past history of depression, anxiety or drug/alcohol problems; high recent alcohol use; work role (managers) and a set of work characteristics (level of satisfaction with work, financial factors and job insecurity; perception of lower workplace support for people with mental health problems. This is the first study to examine the characteristics associated with mental health problems in the Australian coal mining industry. The findings

  1. Some Present-Day Asylum Seekers in the U.S.: Machismo and “Women on the Run”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Eisold

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Following a brief review of international asylum law (The Geneva Conventions, and the role of American mental health professionals in the asylum process, this paper attempts to understand the ways in which the often trauma-creating custom of machismo is transferred across generations in Central American families. Using as background the work of self psychologist Alan Roland (1989,1996, 2005, I have described families from these areas as so powerfully father-centric that children develop a sense of themselves based largely on their ability to sustain their father’s positive regard. In addition, without discussion, they present a positive image of him to the outside world, even when his behavior at home is brutal. To do otherwise would be humiliating. Having no place to reflect on these customs, often they are acted upon/acted out in the next generation. Note:We publish thi paper also tranlated in italian by Francesca Tessitore (Francesca Tessitore, Psychologist, PhD Student in Mind, Gender and Languages, her research fields are the processes of female immigration and motherhood at risk through a psychodynamic framework. francitessitore@gmail.com.

  2. The psychiatric profession and the Australian government: the debate over collective depression syndrome among asylum-seeking detainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, William W

    2009-01-01

    Psychiatrists have long had involvement with the political process, both individually and as a profession. They have made valuable contributions to debate over such issues as war, conflict, terrorism, torture, human rights abuse, drug abuse, suicide and other public health issues. However, they have also been complicit in some gross atrocities. Over several years there has been debate over the Australian Government's treatment of asylum seekers, and the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists took the unusual step of publicly criticizing the Australian Government's policy on grounds of its toxicity leading to a diagnosis of collective depression syndrome, particularly among child detainees, but also adult detainees. The official Ministerial response was to deny that collective depression exists and to assert that the concept is meaningless. Can this intervention by psychiatrists be interpreted as a product of earlier political behaviors by psychiatrists? The willingness of psychiatrists to cooperate with other professions, notably psychologists, pediatricians, physicians and lawyers, is noted, as is presence of minority voices within the Australian psychiatric profession. The significance of the debate over the mental condition of asylum-seeking detainees is that its outcome has implications for how Australia sees itself and is seen by the rest of the world, that is, its national identity.

  3. Mental health care use in medically unexplained and explained physical symptoms: findings from a general population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Eck van der Sluijs JF

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jonna F van Eck van der Sluijs,1,2 Margreet ten Have,3 Cees A Rijnders,4 Harm WJ van Marwijk,5,6 Ron de Graaf,3 Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis1,2 1Clinical Centre of Excellence for Body, Mind and Health, GGz Breburg, 2Tranzo Department, Tilburg University, Tilburg, 3Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Utrecht, 4Department of Residency training, GGz Breburg, Tilburg, the Netherlands; 5Centre for Primary Care, Institute of Population Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; 6Department of General Practice and Elderly Care Medicine, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Objective: The aim of this study was to explore mental health care utilization patterns in primary and specialized mental health care of people with unexplained or explained physical symptoms. Methods: Data were derived from the first wave of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2, a nationally representative face-to-face cohort study among the general population aged 18–64 years. We selected subjects with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS only (MUSonly; n=177, explained physical symptoms only (PHYonly, n=1,952, combined MUS and explained physical symptoms (MUS + PHY, n=209, and controls without physical symptoms (NONE, n=4,168. We studied entry into mental health care and the number of treatment contacts for mental problems, in both primary care and specialized mental health care. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and presence of any 12-month mental disorder assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. Results: At the primary care level, all three groups of subjects with physical symptoms showed entry into care for mental health problems significantly more often than controls. The adjusted odds ratios were 2.29 (1.33, 3.95 for MUSonly, 1.55 (1.13, 2.12 for PHYonly, and 2.25 (1.41, 3.57 for MUS + PHY. At the

  4. Coercion, prohibition and great expectations: The continuing failure of the Common European Asylum System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, M.; Rijpma, J.; Spijkerboer, T.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution explains the European asylum policy crisis from three structural weaknesses of the Common European Asylum System: its reliance on coercion within the EU, its unrealistic expectations of what borders can achieve and the premise of prohibition of refugee movement in its external

  5. Refugees at Our Border. The U.S. Response to Asylum Seekers. Issue Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelick, Bill

    This report examines the background of and the newest developments in U.S. asylum policy in relation to Haitian, Central American, and Vietnamese refugees. The following background areas are explored: (1) the change in policy to stop the influx of asylum seekers; and (2) internal policy debate at the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS)…

  6. Gender stereotyping in the Dutch asylum procedure: ‘independent’ men versus ‘dependent’ women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mascini, P.; van Bochove, M.

    2009-01-01

    Attention for discrimination against women in asylum law has grown considerably during the last few decades. Yet it is male claimants who have had smaller success Rates in the asylum procedures of different countries. Using administrative data from the Dutch INS, we show this difference is caused by

  7. Treatment of Chechen IDPs, asylum-seekers and refugees in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Rimmer, Clare

    2008-01-01

    In March 2007, the European Council on Refugees and Exiles (ECRE) launched updated Guidelines on the Treatment of Chechen Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), Asylum Seekers and Refugees in Europe. This article analyses the treatment of Chechen IDPs, asylum seekers and refugees in Europe, concentrating on these groups of people from the Chechen Republic outside of the Russian Federation.

  8. The Occurrence of Diseases and Related Factors in a Center for Asylum Seekers in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firenze Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Italy is the main recipient of asylum seekers in the European region, and Sicily is their first point of arrival. This geographical position creates a large job for Health Authorities to identify and deal with the health of immigrants. This study evaluates the prevalence of disease among asylum seekers, assessing which are associated factors.

  9. 8 CFR 209.2 - Adjustment of status of alien granted asylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of status of alien granted asylum. 209.2 Section 209.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS OF REFUGEES AND ALIENS GRANTED ASYLUM § 209.2 Adjustment of status of alien...

  10. 8 CFR 1209.2 - Adjustment of status of alien granted asylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of status of alien granted asylum. 1209.2 Section 1209.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS OF REFUGEES AND ALIENS GRANTED ASYLUM § 1209...

  11. Dietary intake in asylum seeker children in The Netherlands, strongly related to age and origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga-Boelen, A. A. M.; Wiegersma, P. A.; Bijleveld, C. M. A.

    Objective: To monitor the dietary intake of energy, macro- and micronutrients in asylum seeker children. Design and setting: Cross-sectional study in three asylum seeker centres in The Netherlands. Subjects: Hundred and sixteen children 2-12 years old (86% of the study cohort) provided a dietary

  12. [Mental Problems, Mood and Anxiety Disorders in The Population Displaced by Violence in Colombia; Results of The National Mental Health Survey 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Rincón Rodríguez, Carlos Javier; de Santacruz, Cecilia; Bautista Bautista, Nubia; Collazos, Jaime; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Colombia has a large population exposed to violence. Our data suggest a significant number displaced by the conflict. As there is an increased risk of vulnerability, their problems and mental disorders need to be assessed in order to determine specific treatments. To determine the prevalence of problems and mental disorders in those internally displaced by the conflict. Data was obtained from the National Mental Health Survey 2015. The diagnostic tools used were the composite international diagnosis interview (CIDI-CAPI), Self-reporting questionnaire (SQR). Alcohol consumption was assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification test (AUDIT). A survey based on the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) was developed. The modified Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist-Civilian version (PCL-C) was used to determine possible post-traumatic stress Disorder. Multidimensional poverty index (MPI) and Family-Apgar questionnaire were applied to general individual and household data. A total of 943 persons displaced by the conflict were reported, with self-report of symptoms in 16.4% (95% CI, 13.2-20.1). The prevalence of any of the measured mental disorders (CIDI-CAPI) ever in life was 15.9% (95% CI, 11.9-21.1), with a suicidal ideation of 12.5% (95%CI, 9.0-17.1), and excessive alcohol consumption in 10.1% (95% CI, 7.2-13.9). More than one-third (35.6%, (95% CI, 30.7-40.8) of people report having experienced, witnessed, or been told that someone close had had a traumatic event related to the armed conflict. An increased risk of PTSD is reported by 3.6% (95% CI, 2.2-5.9) displaced people that had reported at least one traumatic event. Family dysfunction in the displaced population is absent (74.8% (95%.CI, 70.4-78.8). The displaced population has a high prevalence of problems and mental disorders, which confirms their disadvantaged situation. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier Espa

  13. [Prevalence trends of high risk of mental disorders in the Spanish adult population: 2006-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basterra, Virginia

    To evaluate the prevalence of high risk of psychiatric morbidity in the Spanish adult population and its changes between 2006 and 2012. Data from 47,905 participants obtained from the National Health Surveys in 2006 and 2012 were used. Mental health status was assessed with the General Health Questionnaire score. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted. The prevalence of high risk of psychiatric morbidity was 20.5% in 2012 and 21.3% in 2006. Using 2006 as the reference, the odds ratio (OR) for these problems in 2012 was 0.84 (0.79-0.89) in women and 1.10 (1.02-1.18) in men. In women, it decreased for all ages. In men, these ORs were 1.15 (1.04-1.27) in the aged 16-44 group, 1.23 (1.08-1.40) in the aged 45-64 group and 0.81 (0.68-0.96) in the aged ≥ 65 group. The prevalence of high risk of psychiatric morbidity decreased except in males <65 years of age, who are more sensitive to the economic crisis. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive Deficits in Healthy Elderly Population With "Normal" Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether healthy older adults with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores above 23 exhibit cognitive impairment on neuropsychological tests. Participants completed the MMSE and a neuropsychological battery including tests of 10 domains. Results were compared to published normative data. On neuropsychological testing, participants performed well on measures of naming and recall but showed mild to moderate impairment in working memory and processing speed and marked impairment in inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Almost everyone (91%) scored at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean in at least 1 domain. The median number of domains in which individuals scored below 1 SD was 3.0 of 10.0, whereas over 21% scored below 1 SD in 5 domains or more. With the strictest of definitions for impairment, 20% of this population scored below 2.0 SDs below the norm in at least 2 domains, a necessary condition for a diagnosis of dementia. The finding that cognitive impairment, particularly in attention and executive functioning, is found in healthy older persons who perform well on the MMSE has clinical and research implications in terms of emphasizing normal variability in performance and early identification of possible impairment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Mini-Mental State Examination in Elderly Chinese: A Population-Based Normative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanzhi; Jia, Jianping; Yang, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-07

    Chinese nationwide norms of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) have not been established despite its wide use. To obtain norms for the MMSE based on age, gender, education, and rural or urban residences and to determine the optimal cut-off points of the MMSE in elderly Chinese. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chinese community residents aged 65 years or over selected by cluster random sampling. The MMSE was administered to 9,629 subjects (7,110 cognitively normal, 2,024 with mild cognitive impairment, and 495 with dementia). The demographic influences on MMSE scores were investigated and the norms were established considering those factors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off points. Years of education (standardized β= 0.399), rural residence (standardized β= -0.261), age (standardized β= -0.198), and being female (standardized β= -0.101) had significant effects on MMSE scores (p < 0.001). Accordingly, we presented the demographic-stratified normative data for the MMSE. The optimal cut-off points for dementia screening were 16/17 for illiterate (sensitivity 87.6% and specificity 80.8%), 19/20 for individuals with 1-6 years of education (sensitivity 93.6% and specificity 92.7%), and 23/24 for individuals with 7 or more years of education (sensitivity 94.3% and specificity 94.3%). We provide the age-, gender-, education-, and residence-specific reference norms for the MMSE derived from an investigation of a large-scale, multicenter, nationwide representative Chinese elderly population. It could be of great improvement for the use of the MMSE in dementia screening in Chinese elderly population.

  16. [Personality Traits Screening in a Colombian Adult Population Sample - Colombian National Survey of Mental Health-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Gabriel Fernando; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rondón, Martín; Borda Bohigas, Juan Pablo; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    Personality refers to the individual style in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. Traits may configure a personality disorder when there is a long-lasting rigid pattern of inner experience that deviates from the expectations of the individual's culture, are inflexible and form maladaptative schemes in different interpersonal scenarios. Given the pervasiveness of this structure, they cause impairment of functioning in the affected person. To establish the prevalence of personality traits in all selected adults, using the module-structured interview WHO WHM-CIDI-CAPI for clusters A, B and C of personality traits. Colombian National Survey on Mental Health with persons older than 18 years of age. Personality traits that are the most frequently described: Cluster A 46% (95%CI, 45.2-48.1) of people believe they are convinced that there are conspiracies behind many things in the world. Regarding the features of cluster B, 35.6% (95%CI, 34.2-37.0) of the population reports that generally they do not feel bad when offending or upsetting someone and 35.4% (95%CI, 33.9-36.8) refer to show feelings to anyone. The highest proportion of traits were found to the probable borderline personality disorder, as 4.6% (95%CI, 4.1-5.2) of the Colombian population aged 18 and older has 6 or more features of this type, and is the widely reported as an individual entity with similar rates in men and women. The high prevalence of disruptive personality traits requires more research. The high prevalence reported for borderline personality traits suggests the need to implement measures to improve and integrate a collaborative model of care for people afflicted with a possible borderline personality disorder. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. The dynamics of physical and mental health in the older population

    OpenAIRE

    Ohrnberger, Julius; Fichera, Eleonora; Sutton, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Mental and physical aspects are both integral to health but little is known about the dynamic relationship between them. We consider the dynamic relationship between mental and physical health using a sample of 11,203 individuals in six waves (2002?2013) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). We estimate conditional linear and non-linear random-effects regression models to identify the effects of past physical health, measured by Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and past mental ...

  18. Bibliometric analysis of medicine - related publications on refugees, asylum-seekers, and internally displaced people: 2000 - 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M

    2017-03-20

    Wars and violent domestic conflicts have forced millions of people to move outside their homes. Meeting the basic health needs of those people requires an understanding of research activity and research output on this topic. The objective of this study was to shed light on the quantity and impact of medicine - related publications on refugees, asylum seekers and internally displaced people (IDP). Scopus database was used to retrieve required data. Specifically, the number of publications, top productive countries and institutions, highly cited articles, citation analysis, international collaboration, and journals involved in publishing articles on refugees, asylum seekers and IDP were reviewed and analyzed. The time span for the study was set from year 2000 to 2015. Two thousands five hundred and thirty publications were retrieved. The h-index of retrieved articles was 64. A steep rise in number of publications was noticed after 2011. Top productive countries were the United States of America, Australia and the United Kingdom. The American public health institute (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and the United Nations refugee agency were among the top active organizations on this topic. Active journals in publishing on health of refugees, asylum seekers and IDP were those on mental health, psychology, public health and general medicine. Publications on Somali, Afghani, Iraqi, and Syrian refugees received a significant share of medicine-related publications. Analysis of publications based on region showed that publications on refugees from Middle East is rising sharply and is approaching those on African refugees. Bibliometric analysis reveals that research publications on refugees have been increasing in a dramatic way and articles are being published in journals with high impact factor and international reputation, not only in general medicine and public health, but also mental health and psychology journals. Analysis of publications related to

  19. Impact of national policy on the health of people seeking asylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joels, Claire

    Recent Department of Health policy has modified the stage in the application process that people seeking asylum are entitled to free NHS health care. This has caused confusion, not only among asylum seekers and settled refugees, but also among healthcare professionals. In turn, this has led to increased difficulty for people seeking asylum in accessing healthcare services. This article identifies when in the process asylum seekers are entitled to free NHS care. It considers how current legislation and the government stance on immigration are having a negative effect on the health of people seeking asylum while they are in the U.K., and to what extent nurses and other health professionals can help.

  20. Positive thinking elevates tolerance: Experimental effects of happiness on adolescents' attitudes toward asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Harriet R; Capelos, Tereza; Lorimer, Jessica; Stocks, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Inducing emotional reactions toward social groups can influence individuals' political tolerance. This study examines the influence of incidental fear and happiness on adolescents' tolerant attitudes and feelings toward young Muslim asylum seekers. In our experiment, 219 16- to 21-year-olds completed measures of prejudicial attitudes. After being induced to feel happiness, fear, or no emotion (control), participants reported their tolerant attitudes and feelings toward asylum-seeking young people. Participants assigned to the happiness condition demonstrated more tolerant attitudes toward asylum-seeking young people than did those assigned to the fear or control conditions. Participants in the control condition did not differ from participants in the fear condition. The participants in the happiness condition also had more positive feelings toward asylum-seeking young people than did participants in the control condition. The findings suggest that one way to increase positive attitudes toward asylum-seeking young people is to improve general emotional state.

  1. Do socio-economic factors, elderly population size and service development factors influence the development of specialist mental health programs for older people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2008-12-01

    Despite the increase in the proportion of older people in the population, little is known about factors that facilitate the development of specialist mental health services for older people. The relationship between the presence of specialist mental health programs for older people and elderly population size, proportion of older people in the population, gross national domestic product (GDP), and various parameters of health funding, mental health funding and mental health service provision was examined in an ecological study using data from the World Health Organization. The presence of specialist mental health programs for older people was significantly associated with higher GDP, higher expenditure on healthcare and mental healthcare, the presence of a national mental health policy and a national mental health program, the availability of mental health care in primary care and the community, and higher density of psychiatric beds, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses, psychologists and social workers. The challenge will be to persuade policy-makers in low and medium income countries, where the increase in the elderly population is most rapid, to develop specialist mental health services for older people.

  2. Comparison of mental distress in patients with low back pain and a population-based control group measured by Symptoms Check List

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan; Fisker, Annette; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to compare mental symptoms and distress as measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 in sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed patients with low back pain with a population-based control group. METHODS: Mental distress was compared in a group of patients with low back pain (n......=770) and a randomly selected population-based reference group (n=909). Established Danish cut-off values for mental distress were used to evaluate the mental distress status in the low back pain and control group and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for the Global Severity Index......PURPOSE: Mental distress is common in persons experiencing low back pain and who are sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed. It is, however, not known how mental distress measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 differs between patients with low back pain and the general population...

  3. Does neuroticism explain variations in care service use for mental health problems in the general population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Have, M; Oldehinkel, A; Vollebergh, W; Ormel, J

    Little is known about the role of personality characteristics in service utilisation for mental health problems. We investigate whether neuroticism: 1) predicts the use of primary and specialised care services for mental health problems, independently of whether a person has an emotional disorder;

  4. Social support and mental health status of older people: a population-based study in Iran-Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajvar, Maryam; Grundy, Emily; Fletcher, Astrid

    2018-03-01

    To investigate direct and stress-buffering associations between social support from family and the mental health of older people in Iran, a country which has recently undergone an exceptionally fast fertility transition and is consequently experiencing rapid population ageing. A cross-sectional stratified random survey of 800 people aged 60+ years resident in Tehran was conducted. In total, 644 people responded. The Social Provisions Scale and the General Health Questionnaire were used to measure perceived social support and mental health, respectively. Multilevel mixed-effects models were used to examine the hypotheses. The findings supported the hypothesis of a direct association between perceived and received social support and mental health. However, we did not find strong evidence to suggest that social support buffered the effects of stress arising from limitations of physical functioning. Lack of help doing paperwork was associated with worse mental health for women but not men. Source of support did not seem to be important. Our results indicated that in Tehran, as in Western settings, social support is important for the mental well-being of older people. Recommendations for policy and further research priorities based on the study findings were provided.

  5. Working hours and mental health in Australia: evidence from an Australian population-based cohort, 2001-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Smith, Peter; LaMontagne, A D

    2015-08-01

    This paper assesses the impact of working less than or more than standard full-time hours on mental health, as well as possible differences in this relationship by gender and skill level. The study design was a longitudinal cohort with 12 annual waves of data collection over the period 2001-2012, yielding a sample of 90,637 observations from 18,420 people. Fixed effects within-person regression was used to control for time invariant confounding. The Mental Component Summary of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) measure was used as the primary outcome measure. Working hours over the preceding year was measured in five categories with standard full-time hours (35-40 h/week) as the reference. Results indicated that when respondents were working 49-59 h (-0.52, 95% CI -0.74 to -0.29, pworking 35-40 h/week (reference). The difference in mental health when working 49-59 h was greater for women than for men. There were greater declines in mental health in relation to longer working hours among persons in higher compared to lower occupational skill levels. Study results suggest the need for employers and governments to regulate working hours to reduce the burden of mental ill health in the working population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Training teachers to teach mental health skills to staff in primary care settings in a vast, under-populated area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D P; Gask, L; Zakroyeva, A; Proselkova, E; Ryzhkova, N; Williams, P

    2012-12-01

    Background The Arkhangelsk Oblast is an area the size of France with a sparsely distributed population. The existing primary care staff have had very little training in the management of mental health disorders, despite the frequency of these disorders in the population. They requested special teaching on depression, suicide, somatisation and alcohol problems. Methods An educational intervention was developed in partnership with mental health and primary care staff in Russia, to develop mental health skills using established, evidence-based methods. After a preliminary demonstration of teaching methods to be employed, a 5-day full-time teaching course was offered to trainers of general practitioners and feldshers. Results The findings are presented by providing details of improvements that occurred over a 3-month period in four areas, namely depression in primary care, somatic presentations of distress, dealing with suicidal patients, and alcohol problems. We present preliminary data on how the training has generalised since our visits to Archangelsk. Conclusions Teachers who are used to teaching by didactic lectures can be taught the value of short introductory talks that invite discussion, and mental health skills can be taught using role play. The content of such training should be driven by perceived local needs, and developed in conjunction with local leaders and teachers within primary care services. Further research will be needed to establish the impact on clinical outcomes.

  7. Fragile X founder effect and distribution of CGG repeats among the mentally retarded population of Andalusia, South Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda de Diego

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited form of mental retardation. We investigated the prevalence of the Fragile X syndrome in the population with mental retardation of unknown etiology in Andalusia, South Spain. We analyzed 322 unrelated patients (280 males and 42 females, and found a fragile X syndrome frequency of 6.5%. Among the non-fragile X chromosomes, the 29 CGG repeat was the most common allele. At the linked microsatellite DXS548 locus, we found a new allele which we called "allele 10" (17 CA. Similar to other south European populations, allele 2 (25 CA at the DXS548 locus and the fragile X allele were in linkage disequilibrium supporting the idea of a common founder chromosome predisposing to the CGG expansion.

  8. Women's mental health before, during, and after pregnancy: a population-based controlled cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bussel, Johan C H; Spitz, Bernard; Demyttenaere, Koen

    2006-12-01

    Common mental health disorders like depressive and anxiety disorders are frequent in antenatal and postpartum women. However, no agreement about the prevalence of these disorders and the course of women's mental health during the transition to motherhood exists. This study compared women's mental health before, during, and after pregnancy with a control group of nonpregnant women. Three hundred and twenty-four women were assessed before, during, and after their pregnancy with the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). A control group of 324 women who did not deliver during 3 subsequent years was assessed with the GHQ-12 at corresponding time-points. No differences in GHQ-12 mean scores, prevalence, and incidence of common mental health disorders between the study and control groups were found. No differences in prevalence and incidence rates within each group were found. The presence of a common mental health disorder before pregnancy or in early pregnancy predicted common mental health disorders in the postpartum period. Common mental health disorders are frequent during pregnancy and the postpartum period, but pregnant or postpartum women are not more at risk than those who are not pregnant or who did not deliver.

  9. Is parenting a determinant of adolescent mental health? - A population based study in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Asha; Kamath, Asha; Roy, Kallol

    2015-11-10

    The transitional phase encompassing the physiological and psychological changes during our lifespan is termed as adolescence. Adolescents get mislead to substance use, violence related activities, dating relationships, unhealthy lifestyle. Minimal studies are conducted in India to identify the parenting factors that affect an adolescent's mind. The aim of our study was to explore the role of parenting and social surroundings on - adolescent's mental health and involvement in violence related activities. Cross sectional study design was adopted. Semi structured questionnaire was used. Data obtained was entered and analyzed using SPSS 15. Proportions were used to report the findings. Chi-square test was used to find associations between mental health issues, involvement in violence related activities and Interpersonal Relationship (IPR) Status. Multiple logistic regressions were done to identify independent predictors of mental health. A total of 1770 adolescents participated. Proportion of adolescents with good IPR with parents reported to be having a better mental health status and low involvement in violent related activities. Schools also displayed similar effects. Neighborhood, peers did not display any significant effect on adolescent's mental health. Most significant predictor for adolescent mental health was IPR with parents and at school. The study highlights the need of a cordial environment at places which does influence the adolescent's mental health. Interventions enhancing the relationship status of adolescents with parents, at school must be carried out to observe the change in adolescent behavior.

  10. Discursive Representations of Asylum Seekers and Illegal Immigrants in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Burroughs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Migrants are often referred to as an all encompassing group of people and the “many faces of migration”, the variety of people, legalities and complexities involved, can be overlooked. The same can be said for non-EU migrants in the Irish context. Non-EU migrants (or those that are not Caucasian are generally viewed to be a distinct cohort of comparable migrants. Indeed, these migrants are often portrayed in a broadly negative way by key Irish institutions (such as the parliament or the media, and these representations impact upon how Irish society views non-EU migration and indeed migration in general. While Ireland is by no means the only European country in which this type of practice occurs, this paper aims to draw attention to generalized, inaccurate and misleading representations of non-EU migrants in Ireland, by specifically examining representations of asylum seekers and illegal immigrants. There can be an overlap in how these “types” of migrants are conceptualized and this paper therefore aims to develop an understanding of the implications involved for migrants categorized as an “asylum seeker” or an “illegal immigrant.” Furthermore, these topics are under-researched within the Irish context, yet they receive much political and public attention. At the same time however, this paper aims to challenge the labels assigned to non-EU migrants and the terminology that is used to define their identity so concretely. In the Irish context there is much confusion in relation to the multiple “faces” of non-EU migration, as a range of terminology is used to refer to them. This terminology is often used in an interchangeable manner, in an array of societal contexts. There is a consistent (whether this happens intentionally or unintentionally is debatable misuse of categories and migration terminology in Irish institutional discourses. Quite often those seeking asylum are referred to as illegal immigrants and vice versa

  11. Population norms for the AQoL derived from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Graeme; Korn, Sam; Richardson, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    To provide Australian health-related quality of life (HRQoL) population norms, based on utility scores from the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) measure, a participant-reported outcomes (PRO) instrument. The data were from the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. AQoL scores were analysed by age cohorts, gender, other demographic characteristics, and mental and physical health variables. The AQoL utility score mean was 0.81 (95%CI 0.81-0.82), and 47% obtained scores indicating a very high HRQoL (>0.90). HRQoL gently declined by age group, with older adults' scores indicating lower HRQoL. Based on effect sizes (ESs), there were small losses in HRQoL associated with other demographic variables (e.g. by lack of labour force participation, ES(median) : 0.27). Those with current mental health syndromes reported moderate losses in HRQoL (ES(median) : 0.64), while those with physical health conditions generally also reported moderate losses in HRQoL (ES(median) : 0.41). This study has provided contemporary Australian population norms for HRQoL that may be used by researchers as indicators allowing interpretation and estimation of population health (e.g. estimation of the burden of disease), cross comparison between studies, the identification of health inequalities, and to provide benchmarks for health care interventions. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  12. Prevalence and sociodemographic associations of common mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of the general population of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapinakis, Petros; Bellos, Stefanos; Koupidis, Sotirios; Grammatikopoulos, Ilias; Theodorakis, Pavlos N; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2013-06-04

    No study in Greece has assessed so far the full range of common mental disorders using a representative sample of the population from both mainland and insular regions of the country. The aim of the present paper was to present the results of the first such study. The study was carried out between 2009-2010 in a nationally representative sample of 4894 individuals living in private households in Greece. Common mental disorders in the past week were assessed with the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R). We also assessed alcohol use disorders (using AUDIT), smoking and cannabis use. 14% of the population (Male: 11%, Female: 17%) was found to have clinically significant psychiatric morbidity according to the scores on the CIS-R. The prevalence (past seven days) of specific common mental disorders was as follows: Generalized Anxiety Disorder: 4.10% (95% CI: 3.54, 4.65); Depression: 2.90% (2.43, 3.37); Panic Disorder: 1.88% (1.50, 2.26); Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: 1.69% (1.33, 2.05); All Phobias: 2.79% (2.33, 3.26); Mixed anxiety-depression: 2.67% (2.22, 3.12). Harmful alcohol use was reported by 12.69% of the population (11.75, 13.62). Regular smoking was reported by 39.60% of the population (38.22, 40.97) while cannabis use (at least once during the past month) by 2.06% (1.66, 2.46). Clinically significant psychiatric morbidity was positively associated with the following variables: female gender, divorced or widowed family status, low educational status and unemployment. Use of all substances was more common in men compared to women. Common mental disorders were often comorbid, undertreated, and associated with a lower quality of life. The findings of the present study can help in the better planning and development of mental health services in Greece, especially in a time of mental health budget restrictions.

  13. Integrating mental health into primary care for displaced populations: the experience of Mindanao, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Tatiana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For more than forty years, episodes of violence in the Mindanao conflict have recurrently led to civilian displacement. In 2008, Medecins Sans Frontieres set up a mental health program integrated into primary health care in Mindanao Region. In this article, we describe a model of mental health care and the characteristics and outcomes of patients attending mental health services. Methods Psychologists working in mobile clinics assessed patients referred by trained clinicians located at primary level. They provided psychological first aid, brief psychotherapy and referral for severe patients. Patient characteristics and outcomes in terms of Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ20 and Global Assessment of Functioning score (GAF are described. Results Among the 463 adult patients diagnosed with a common mental disorder with at least two visits, median SRQ20 score diminished from 7 to 3 (p Conclusions Brief psychotherapy sessions provided at primary level during emergencies can potentially improve patients' symptoms of distress.

  14. Effect of routine mental health screening in a low-resource pediatric primary care population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Jenkins, Evelyn; McCord, Mary; Gallagher, Trish; Olfson, Mark

    2012-04-01

    Despite evidence for its feasibility, the usage of mental health screening in primary care practices with overburdened providers and few referral options remains unclear. This study explores the effects of routine screening on mental health problem identification and management in a low-resource setting. Medical records of 5 to 12 year-old children presenting for well visits before and after screening was implemented were reviewed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore associations between study period and identification/management practices. Changes in the number of visits and wait times for a co-located referral service were assessed post hoc. Parents disclosed more mental health problems, and providers initiated more workups but referred fewer patients after screening was implemented. The proportion of new visits and wait times for the referral service did not change. Even in low-resource settings, screening may facilitate parental disclosure and increase clinical attention to mental health problems without overburdening referral services.

  15. Food insecurity among people with severe mental disorder in a rural Ethiopian setting: a comparative, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirfessa, K; Lund, C; Medhin, G; Hailemichael, Y; Fekadu, A; Hanlon, C

    2017-11-16

    In low-income African countries, ensuring food security for all segments of the population is a high priority. Mental illness is associated consistently with poverty, but there is little evidence regarding the association with food insecurity. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of food insecurity in people with severe mental disorders (SMD) with the general population in a rural African setting with a high burden of food insecurity. Households of 292 community-ascertained people with a specialist-confirmed diagnosis of SMD (including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) were compared with 284 households without a person with SMD in a rural district in south Ethiopia. At the time of the study, no mental health services were available within the district. Food insecurity was measured using a validated version of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. Disability was measured using the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Severe household food insecurity was reported by 32.5% of people with SMD and 15.9% of respondents from comparison households: adjusted odds ratio 2.82 (95% confidence interval 1.62 to 4.91). Higher annual income was associated independently with lower odds of severe food insecurity. When total disability scores were added into the model, the association between SMD and food insecurity became non-significant, indicating a possible mediating role of disability. Efforts to alleviate food insecurity need to target people with SMD as a vulnerable group. Addressing the disabling effects of SMD would also be expected to reduce food insecurity. Access to mental health care integrated into primary care is being expanded in this district as part of the Programme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME). The impact of treatment on disability and food insecurity will be evaluated.

  16. A Content Analysis on the Representation of Syrian Asylum Seekers in the Turkish Press

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    Müzeyyen Pandır

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a content analysis of the representation of Syrian asylum seekers in the Turkish press. The research sample includes news reports, columns and visuals published in 2014 in five national newspapers with the highest circulation figures (“Hürriyet”, “Sabah”, “Posta”, “Sözcü”, “Zaman”. The article is part of a larger research project, which is funded by TÜBİTAK, investigating the representation of Syrian asylum seekers between 2011 and 2015 in Turkish newspapers. Analysing news texts and columns is widely held in research projects. However, conducting a visual analysis on news photographs is usually overlooked. This study investigates news texts and news photographs together. The study shows that the coverage of Syrian asylum seekers has usually a positive or neutral content. However, the results also point out the ambivalence in the representations of asylum seekers. The representations of Syrian asylum seekers portray these individuals mostly as “poor” people “in need of help” as well as “threats” for social security. These frequently repeated representations and ambivalence show that the representation of Syrian asylum seekers in Turkish newspapers reproduces the stereotypical representation of asylum seekers as defined in international studies.

  17. Intimate partner violence and mental health effects: a population-based study among married women in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Tazeen S; Mogren, Ingrid; Krantz, Gunilla

    2013-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is recognized all over the world for its association with mental health problems in women. In Pakistan, such violence occurs commonly, but detailed information on mental health effects is scarce. The purpose of this study is to focused on married couples in urban Karachi to investigate mental health effects associated with physical, sexual and psychological violence perpetrated by husbands towards wives. Disclosure rates and health care-seeking behaviour were also investigated. This cross-sectional study involved 759 women between the ages of 25 and 60 years, selected using a multi-stage random sampling technique. The women were interviewed by trained community midwives using a structured questionnaire. In the total population of women, mental symptoms were prevalent. Women subjected to any form of violence reported, however, considerably poorer mental health than unexposed women. A statistically significant difference for almost all of the studied health parameters persisted even after controlling for socio-demographic factors. The strongest associations were found for suicidal thoughts and physical violence (OR 4.41; 3.18-6.12), sexual abuse (OR 4.39; 3.17-6.07) and psychological abuse (OR 5.17; 3.28-8.15). The interviews revealed that only 27% of the women subjected to violence had disclosed this to anyone, in most cases to their parents. The findings in this study highlight that the violence women have to face contributes to the development of multiple forms of psychological stress and serious mental health problems. Women's restrictive life circumstances seriously hamper women's empowerment. Reliable health surveillance system and health care services are needed to serve abused women. Policy initiatives focused on IPV and gender inequality in Pakistan should be initiated.

  18. Realization of personal values predicts mental health and satisfaction with life in a german population

    OpenAIRE

    Ostermann, Miriam; Huffziger, Silke; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Mata, Jutta; Schmahl, Christian; Beierlein, Constanze; Bohus, Martin; Lyssenko, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Living according to one's personal values is expected to promote mental health and satisfaction with life. However, there is scarce empirical research on the effects of the relative importance of values and their realization in daily life. We implemented a new measure to examine the realization of Schwartz's values and its correlation with mental health and satisfaction with life in two German online samples. Analysis of sample 1 (n = 6,989; 70.2% female) reveals that both the impor...

  19. Utilization of health services in relation to mental health problems in adolescents: A population based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik D; Rödje, Kjetil; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2006-01-01

    Background Only a minority of adolescents reporting symptoms above case-levels on screenings for mental health seeks and receives help from specialist health services. The objective of this study was to a) examine help-seeking for symptoms of anxiety and depression in relation to symptom load dimensionally, b) identify the level of specialization in mental health among service-providers, and c) identify associations between mental health problems and contact with different types of health services. Methods This cross-sectional school-based study (response-rate 88%, n = 11154) is based on Norwegian health surveys among 15 and 16 year olds. Results We found a dose-response association between symptom-load and help seeking. Only 34% of individuals with mental symptom-load above 99th percentile reported help-seeking in the last 12 months. Forty percent of help seekers were in contact with specialists (psychiatrists or psychologists), the remaining were mainly in contact with GPs. Mental health problems increased help seeking to all twelve service providers examined. Conclusion It might not be reasonable to argue that all adolescents with case-level mental health problems are in need of treatment. However, concerning the 99th percentile, claiming treatment need is less controversial. Even in the Norwegian context where mental health services are relatively available and free of charge, help-seeking in individuals with the highest symptom-loads is still low. Most help seekers achieved contact with health care providers, half of them at a non specialized level. Our results suggest that adolescents' recognition of mental health problems or intention to seek help for these are the major "filters" restricting treatment. PMID:16480522

  20. Stigma among Singaporean youth: a cross-sectional study on adolescent attitudes towards serious mental illness and social tolerance in a multiethnic population

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Shirlene; Liu, Jianlin; Mahesh, Mithila; Chua, Boon Yiang; Shahwan, Shazana; Lee, Siau Pheng; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Abdin, Edimansyah; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Stigma against mental illnesses is one of the significant obstacles faced by mental health service users and providers. It can develop at a young age and is also influenced by culture. Youths in Southeast Asian countries are under-represented in mental health research, thus this study aims to explore the dimensions of stigma and social tolerance and examine its correlates in the younger, multiethnic population of Singapore. Design An online survey collected data with sociodemograph...

  1. Increase in imported malaria in the Netherlands in asylum seekers and VFR travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Brechje; Suryapranata, Franciska S T; Croughs, Mieke; van Genderen, Perry J J; Keuter, Monique; Visser, Leo G; van Vugt, Michele; Sonder, Gerard J B

    2017-02-02

    Malaria is a notifiable disease in the Netherlands, a non-endemic country. Imported malaria infections occur regularly among travellers, migrants and visitors. Surveillance data were analysed from 2008 to 2015. Trends in amounts of notifications among risk groups were analysed using Poisson regression. For asylum seekers, yearly incidence was calculated per region of origin, using national asylum request statistics as denominator data. For tourists, denominator data were used from travel statistics to estimate incidence per travel region up to 2012. A modest increase in overall imported malaria notifications occurred in 2008-2015 (from 222 in 2008 to 344 in 2015). Notably, in 2014 and 2015 sharp increases were seen in malaria among travellers visiting friends and relatives (VFR), and in asylum seekers. Of all Plasmodium falciparum infections, most (1254/1337; 93.8%) were imported from Africa; 1037/1337 (77.6%) were imported from Central and West Africa. Malaria in VFR was mostly caused by P. falciparum infection after visiting Ghana (22%) or Nigeria (19%). Malaria in asylum seekers was mostly caused by Plasmodium vivax infection from the Horn of Africa. The large number of notifications in asylum seekers resulted from both an increase in number of asylum seekers and a striking increase of malaria incidence in this group. Incidence of malaria in asylum seekers from the Horn of Africa ranged between 0.02 and 0.3% in 2008-2013, but rose to 1.6% in 2014 and 1.3% in 2015. In 2008-2012, incidence in tourists visiting Central and West Africa dropped markedly. Imported malaria is on the rise again in the Netherlands, most notably since 2013. This is mostly due to immigration of asylum seekers from the Horn of Africa. The predominance of P. vivax infection among asylum seekers warrants vigilance in health workers when a migrant presents with fever, as relapses of this type of malaria can occur long after arrival in the Netherlands.

  2. Health status of and health-care provision to asylum seekers in Germany: protocol for a systematic review and evidence mapping of empirical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christine; Mohsenpour, Amir; Joos, Stefanie; Bozorgmehr, Kayvan

    2014-11-29

    There are more than 100,000 asylum seekers registered in Germany, who are granted limited access to health services. This study aims to provide a systematic overview of the empirical literature on the health status of and health-care provision to asylum seekers in Germany in order to consolidate knowledge, avoid scientific redundance, and identify research gaps. A systematic review and evidence mapping of empirical literature on the health status of and health-care provision to asylum seekers in Germany will be performed. We will apply a three-tiered search strategy: 1. search in databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, IBSS, Sociological Abstracts, Worldwide Political Science Abstracts, CINAHL, Sowiport, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, MedPilot, DNB), dissertation and theses databases, and the internet (Google); 2. screening references of included studies; 3. contacting authors and civil society organizations for grey literature. Included will be studies which report quantitative and/or qualitative data or review articles on asylum seekers in Germany, published in German or English language. Outcome measures will include physical, mental, or social well-being, and all aspects of health-care provision (access, availability, affordability, and quality). Search results will be screened for eligibility by screening titles, abstracts and full texts. Data extraction comprises information on study characteristics, research aims, and domains of health or health-care services analyzed. The quality of studies will be appraised and documented by appropriate assessment tools. A descriptive evidence map will be drawn by categorizing all included articles by research design and the health conditions and/or domains of health-care provision analyzed. The body of evidence will be evaluated, and a narrative evidence synthesis will be performed by means of a multi-level approach, whereby quantitative and qualitative evidence are analyzed as separate streams and the product

  3. Mental health policy in Kenya -an integrated approach to scaling up equitable care for poor populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Rachel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although most donor and development agency attention is focussed on communicable diseases in Kenya, the importance of non-communicable diseases including mental health and mental illness is increasingly apparent, both in their own right and because of their influence on health, education and social goals. Mental illness is common but the specialist service is extremely sparse and primary care is struggling to cope with major health demands. Non health sectors e.g. education, prisons, police, community development, gender and children, regional administration and local government have significant concerns about mental health, but general health programmes have been surprisingly slow to appreciate the significance of mental health for physical health targets. Despite a people centred post colonial health delivery system, poverty and global social changes have seriously undermined equity. This project sought to meet these challenges, aiming to introduce sustainable mental health policy and implementation across the country, within the context of extremely scarce resources. Methods A multi-faceted and comprehensive programme which combined situation appraisal to inform planning, sustained intersectoral policy dialogue at national and regional level; establishment of a health sector system for coordination, supervision and training of at each level (national, regional, district and primary care; development workshops; production of toolkits, development of guidelines and standards; encouragement of intersectoral liaison at national, regional, district and local levels; public education; and integration of mental health into health management systems. Results The programme has achieved detailed situation appraisal, epidemiological needs assessment, inclusion of mental health into the health sector reform plans, and into the National Package of Essential Health Interventions, annual operational plans, mental health policy guidelines

  4. Mental health policy in Kenya -an integrated approach to scaling up equitable care for poor populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiima, David; Jenkins, Rachel

    2010-06-28

    Although most donor and development agency attention is focussed on communicable diseases in Kenya, the importance of non-communicable diseases including mental health and mental illness is increasingly apparent, both in their own right and because of their influence on health, education and social goals. Mental illness is common but the specialist service is extremely sparse and primary care is struggling to cope with major health demands. Non health sectors e.g. education, prisons, police, community development, gender and children, regional administration and local government have significant concerns about mental health, but general health programmes have been surprisingly slow to appreciate the significance of mental health for physical health targets. Despite a people centred post colonial health delivery system, poverty and global social changes have seriously undermined equity. This project sought to meet these challenges, aiming to introduce sustainable mental health policy and implementation across the country, within the context of extremely scarce resources. A multi-faceted and comprehensive programme which combined situation appraisal to inform planning, sustained intersectoral policy dialogue at national and regional level; establishment of a health sector system for coordination, supervision and training of at each level (national, regional, district and primary care); development workshops; production of toolkits, development of guidelines and standards; encouragement of intersectoral liaison at national, regional, district and local levels; public education; and integration of mental health into health management systems. The programme has achieved detailed situation appraisal, epidemiological needs assessment, inclusion of mental health into the health sector reform plans, and into the National Package of Essential Health Interventions, annual operational plans, mental health policy guidelines to accompany the general health policy, tobacco

  5. Roundway, Wiltshire County Asylum attendants and nurses, 1881-1905: a window onto Victorian sobriety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, D

    2000-01-01

    The only detailed surving Male and Female Registers of Roundway provide a rich documentary glimpse of nineteenth century mental health care staff. An analysis is made of what constituted desirable behavior and problems occurring in the workplace. More primary source material has been gathered from visitors books, medical superintendents' reports, patient case records, admission/discharge registers and account books. An attempt will be made to show how the dominant characteristics of Victorianism shaped the lives of the staff. Religion, morality and personal qualities appear more influential than scientific inquiry in determining the pattern of events. The 'Asylum for the Pauper Insane of the County of Wiltshire' later came to be called 'Roundway Hospital'. It is commonly remembered as 'Roundway' and that is how it is referred to here. The nursing staff changed their titles in minor ways during the period considered, but for convenience the dominant titles - 'attendants' for men and 'nurses' for women - are used. The period chosen, 1881-1905, begins from when Dr John Bowes was appointed Medical Superintendent and started to write in the new Staff Registers. The period finishes when he ceased to make entries. There are no detailed registers for any other nineteenth century period.

  6. Erving Goffman's asylums and institutional culture in the mid-twentieth-century United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Sociologist Erving Goffman based his seminal work Asylums (1961) on a year of field research at St. Elizabeths Hospital in Washington, DC. Goffman described the mental hospital as a "total institution," in which regimentation dominated every aspect of daily life and patients were denied even the most basic means of self-expression; rather than promote recovery, such conditions produced the sorts of disordered behavior for which men and women were ostensibly admitted. A closer look at the changes transforming St. Elizabeths around the time of Goffman's research reveals a far richer portrait of institutional culture. Group therapy, psychodrama, art and dance therapy, patient newspapers, and patient self-government-each of which debuted at the hospital in the 1940s and 1950s-provided novel opportunities for men and women to make themselves heard and to take their fate into their own hands. While these initiatives did not reach all of the patients at St. Elizabeths, surviving documentation suggests that those who participated found their involvement rewarding and empowering. Goffman explicitly set out to describe "the social world of the hospital inmate." His failure to appreciate fully the capacities of his subjects, however, appears to have led him to underestimate the importance of these developments.

  7. Vicarious resilience and vicarious traumatisation: Experiences of working with refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvimanasinghe, Teresa; Denson, Linley A; Augoustinos, Martha; Somasundaram, Daya

    2015-12-01

    The negative psychological impacts of working with traumatised people are well documented and include vicarious traumatisation (VT): the cumulative effect of identifying with clients' trauma stories that negatively impacts on service providers' memory, emotions, thoughts, and worldviews. More recently, the concept of vicarious resilience (VR) has been also identified: the strength, growth, and empowerment experienced by trauma workers as a consequence of their work. VR includes service providers' awareness and appreciation of their clients' capacity to grow, maintaining hope for change, as well as learning from and reassessing personal problems in the light of clients' stories of perseverance, strength, and growth. This study aimed at exploring the experiences of mental health, physical healthcare, and settlement workers caring for refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia. Using a qualitative method (data-based thematic analysis) to collect and analyse 26 semi-structured face-to-face interviews, we identified four prominent and recurring themes emanating from the data: VT, VR, work satisfaction, and cultural flexibility. These findings-among the first to describe both VT and VR in Australians working with refugee people-have important implications for policy, service quality, service providers' wellbeing, and refugee clients' lives. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Implementing a Mentally Healthy Schools Framework Based on the Population Wide Act-Belong-Commit Mental Health Promotion Campaign: A Process Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar-McHenry, Julia; Donovan, Robert John; Nicholas, Amberlee; Kerrigan, Simone; Francas, Stephanie; Phan, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Mentally Healthy WA developed and implemented the Mentally Healthy Schools Framework in 2010 in response to demand from schools wanting to promote the community-based Act-Belong-Commit mental health promotion message within a school setting. Schools are an important setting for mental health promotion, therefore, the Framework encourages…

  9. Forensic age assessment of asylum seekers in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsäniitty, Mari; Varkkola, Olli; Waltimo-Sirén, Janna; Ranta, Helena

    2017-01-01

    In Finland, forensic age assessment is strictly regulated by legislation. According to the Aliens Act (301/2004) and the amendment of the Act (549/2010), the police authorities, the frontier guard authorities, and the immigration authorities have the right to refer asylum seekers to the University of Helsinki, Department of Forensic Medicine, for age assessment. These assessments are especially performed to solve if the person is of major age, the cutoff being 18 completed years. The forensic age assessment is largely based on dental development, since the special permit of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to the Department of Forensic Medicine of the University of Helsinki, allowing the use of ionizing radiation for non-medical purposes, includes dental and hand X-rays. Forensic age assessment is always performed by two forensic odontologists. In 2015, the total number of forensic age assessment examinations was 149, and the countries of origin of the asylum seekers were most commonly Iraq, Afghanistan, and Somalia. The current legislation on forensic age assessment has been well received and approved. Radiological and other examinations can be performed in different parts of Finland, but the forensic odontologist at the University of Helsinki is always involved in the process and ensures joint quality standards for the forensic age assessment.

  10. Medicalizing versus psychologizing mental illness: what are the implications for help seeking and stigma? A general population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, E; Verhaeghe, M; Sercu, C; Bracke, P

    2013-10-01

    This study contrasts the medicalized conceptualization of mental illness with psychologizing mental illness and examines what the consequences are of adhering to one model versus the other for help seeking and stigma. The survey "Stigma in a Global Context-Belgian Mental Health Study" (2009) conducted face-to-face interviews among a representative sample of the general Belgian population using the vignette technique to depict schizophrenia (N = 381). Causal attributions, labeling processes, and the disease view are addressed. Help seeking refers to open-ended help-seeking suggestions (general practitioner, psychiatrist, psychologist, family, friends, and self-care options). Stigma refers to social exclusion after treatment. The data are analyzed by means of logistic and linear regression models in SPSS Statistics 19. People who adhere to the biopsychosocial (versus psychosocial) model are more likely to recommend general medical care and people who apply the disease view are more likely to recommend specialized medical care. Regarding informal help, those who prefer the biopsychosocial model are less likely to recommend consulting friends than those who adhere to the psychosocial model. Respondents who apply a medical compared to a non-medical label are less inclined to recommend self-care. As concerns treatment stigma, respondents who apply a medical instead of a non-medical label are more likely to socially exclude someone who has been in psychiatric treatment. Medicalizing mental illness involves a package deal: biopsychosocial causal attributions and applying the disease view facilitate medical treatment recommendations, while labeling seems to trigger stigmatizing attitudes.

  11. Exposure to secondhand smoke in the home and mental health in children: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrón, Alicia; Galán, Iñaki; García-Esquinas, Esther; Fernández, Esteve; Ballbè, Montse; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    To examine the association between exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in the home and mental health among children. Cross-sectional study of 2357 children representative of the Spanish population aged 4-12 years in 2011-2012. Duration of SHS exposure in children was reported by parents. Probable mental disorder was defined as a score>90th centile in the parental version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Statistical analysis was performed with logistic regression and adjusted for sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, neighbourhood environment and family characteristics, including parental mental health. Among study participants, 6.9% (95% CI 5.7% to 8.0%) were exposed to SHS in the home for exposureexposure≥1 h/day (p for linear trend=0.002). The corresponding ORs for attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were 2.18 (95% CI 1.30 to 3.64) for exposure and 3.14 (95% CI 1.63 to 6.04) for ≥1 h/day exposure (p for linear trendexposure in the home during ≥1 h/day is associated with a higher frequency of mental disorder. This association was mostly due to the impact of SHS on ADHD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Asking women about mental health and social adversity in pregnancy: results of an Australian population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, Jane; Brown, Stephanie J

    2014-03-01

    Social adversity undermines health in pregnancy. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which pregnant women were asked about their mental health and life circumstances in pregnancy checkups. Population-based postal survey of recent mothers in two Australian states. Around half of the 4,366 participants reported being asked about depression (45.9%) and whether they were anxious or worried about things happening in their life (49.6%); fewer reported being asked about relationship issues (29.6%), financial problems (16.6%), or family violence (14.1%). One in five women (18%) reported significant social adversity. These women were more likely to recall being asked about their mental health and broader social health issues. Far higher levels of inquiry were reported by women in the public maternity system with midwives more likely than doctors to ask about mental health, family violence, and other social hardships. Routine pregnancy visits afford a window of opportunity for identifying and supporting women experiencing mental health problems and social adversity. Changing practice to take advantage of this opportunity will require concerted and coordinated efforts by practitioners and policy makers to build systems to support public health approaches to antenatal care. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Systematic review and evidence mapping of empirical studies on health status and medical care among refugees and asylum seekers in Germany (1990-2014)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Mohsenpour, Amir; Saure, Daniel; Stock, Christian; Loerbroks, Adrian; Joos, Stefanie; Schneider, Christine

    2016-05-01

    Owing to a lack of routine statistics on the health status and medical care of asylum seekers, empirical studies play a major role in the mapping of these aspects. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the research landscape in this area, synthesizing knowledge from empirical studies and identifying evidence gaps. A three-tiered search strategy included searching for empirical studies in national/international databases and on the internet, screening reference lists, and contacting experts. Studies meeting predefined inclusion criteria were thematically organized and described in a narrative synthesis. The searches generated 1,190 hits; 52 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 41 were quantitative studies (78.9 %), 10 qualitative (19.2 %), and 1 was a review (1.9 %). A total of 30 primary articles (58.9 %) analyzed mental health aspects, followed by infectious diseases (n = 12, 23.5 %). Qualitative studies, mainly ethnographies and case studies, explored mental health and social determinants of health, providing evidence for the impact of living conditions on health and medical care. Few studies analyzed chronic diseases (n = 3) or childhood illnesses (n = 6). No studies analyzed the health needs or medical care of asylum-seeking women during pregnancy and child birth. In 62.7 % of the primary studies, a single sampling point was used to recruit asylum seekers. Nationwide external validity was given in two quantitative studies. The priority research areas identified are chronic diseases and childhood and maternal health. The divergency and heterogeneity of the studies hamper a comprehensive and comparable acquisition of knowledgeand emphasize the  need for collaborative research to close the existing evidence gaps.

  14. Employability of mentally ill persons in India: A self-report-based population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chellamuthu Ramasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The employment status of mentally ill patients is a reflection of their productivity, control of illness besides providing therapeutic benefits and integration into mainstream society. Owing to the associated stigma, self-reporting of mental illness (SRMI often is rare. Census exercise of India in 2011 provides an insight of SRMI and employment status of such people. This study was undertaken to consider the role of gender, age group, and place on the employment status of SRMI. Methodology: Frequency of SRMI, age group, gender, and employment status was gathered from Indian 2011 census sources. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were employed. P≤ 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Majority (68.6% of the SRMI people resides in rural areas, in the economically productive age group of 15–59 years (75.88% and often males (57.51%. Of the SRMI as reported in the data, 78.62% were not employed while 2.4% of them were currently employed. The employability frequency distributions of SMRIs were statistically different in terms of area, age group, and gender with significance. Discussion: Although the mental illness data of 2011 census was rejected by mental health professionals citing discrepancy and underestimating of the prevalence of mental illness, it provides a robust estimate of the employability, self-reporting tendency of mental illness. The association of the factors provides a unique insight into SRMIs in India. Conclusion: Understanding the interplay of factors may yield robust estimates and clues for policy framers to formulate employment-related policies for employment opportunities for mentally ill patients.

  15. "Idiots, infants, and the insane": mental illness and legal incompetence

    OpenAIRE

    Szasz, T

    2005-01-01

    Prior to the second world war, most persons confined in insane asylums were regarded as legally incompetent and had guardians appointed for them. Today, most persons confined in mental hospitals (or treated involuntarily, committed to outpatient treatment) are, in law, competent; nevertheless, in fact, they are treated as if they were incompetent. Should the goal of mental health policy be providing better psychiatric services to more and more people, or the reduction and ultimate elimination...

  16. Positive mental health and well-being among a third level student population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P Davoren

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Much research on the health and well-being of third level students is focused on poor mental health leading to a dearth of information on positive mental health and well-being. Recently, the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale (WEMWBS was developed as a measurement of positive mental health and well-being. The aim of this research is to investigate the distribution and determinants of positive mental health and well-being in a large, broadly representative sample of third level students using WEMWBS. METHODS: Undergraduate students from one large third level institution were sampled using probability proportional to size sampling. Questionnaires were distributed to students attending lectures in the randomly selected degrees. A total of 2,332 self-completed questionnaires were obtained, yielding a response rate of 51% based on students registered to relevant modules and 84% based on attendance. One-way ANOVAs and multivariate logistic regression were utilised to investigate factors associated with positive mental health and well-being. RESULTS: The sample was predominantly female (62.66%, in first year (46.9% and living in their parents' house (42.4% or in a rented house or flat (40.8%. In multivariate analysis adjusted for age and stratified by gender, no significant differences in WEMWBS score were observed by area of study, alcohol, smoking or drug use. WEMWBS scores were higher among male students with low levels of physical activity (p=0.04. Men and women reporting one or more sexual partners (p<0.001 were also more likely to report above average mental health and well-being. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to examine positive mental health and well-being scores in a third level student sample using WEMWBS. The findings suggest that students with a relatively adverse health and lifestyle profile have higher than average mental health and well-being. To confirm these results, this work needs to be replicated across

  17. Severe physical punishment and mental health problems in an economically disadvantaged population of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, Isabel Altenfelder Santos; Paula, Cristiane Silvestre; do Nascimento, Rosimeire; Duarte, Cristiane Seixas

    2006-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of severe physical punishment of children/adolescents in a low-income community, and to examine child mental health problems as a potential correlate. This study is a Brazilian cross-sectional pilot study of the World Studies of Abuse in Family Environments. A probabilistic sample of clusters including all eligible households (women aged 15-49 years, son/daughter branding, beating, or threatening with weapon. Three groups of potential correlates were examined: child/adolescent (age, gender, physical/mental health); mother (education, unemployment, physical/mental health, harsh physical punishment in childhood, marital violence); father (unemployment, drunkenness). Severe marital violence was defined as kicking, hitting, beating or use of /threat to use a weapon. The following standardized questionnaires were applied by trained interviewers: World Studies of Abuse in Family Environments Core Questionnaire, Child Behavior Checklist, Self-Report Questionnaire. Outcome prevalence was 10.1%. Final logistic regression models identified two correlates: maternal harsh physical punishment in childhood (total sample, OR = 5.3, p = 0.047), and child/adolescent mental health problems (sub-sample aged 4-17 years, n = 67, OR = 9.1, p = 0.017). Severe physical punishment of children/adolescents is frequent in the studied community. The victims have a higher probability of becoming future perpetrators. When intrafamilial violence occurs, child/adolescent mental health may be compromised.

  18. Immigrants' Pathways to Outpatient Mental Health: Are there Differences with the Native Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramaglia, Carla; Gambaro, Eleonora; Rossi, Annalisa; Toso, Alessandra; Feggi, Alessandro; Cattaneo, Carlo Ignazio; Castignoli, Giorgio; Mainini, Piera; Tarricone, Ilaria; Torre, Eugenio; Zeppegno, Patrizia

    2016-08-01

    A poor use of mental health services has been described in immigrants. We compared the sociodemographic, clinical and treatment features of immigrants and natives attending a Community Mental Health Centre (CMHC). 191 immigrants and 191 randomly selected natives applying to the Borgomanero CMHC between 1 January 2003 and 31 August 2013 were compared. Our sample consisted mainly of the so-called "economic" immigrant. Adjustment disorders and reaction to stress were the most frequent diagnoses; in most cases symptoms onset occurred after migration. Although treatment features overlapped in the two groups (duration, number of contacts), immigrants showed a higher frequency of treatment dropout. While it is necessary to improve access to mental health services for immigrants, for the "economic" immigrant it may be more important to focus on establishing a therapeutic relationship that can be experienced as reliable and trustworthy. The finding of similar pathways to access the CMHC in natives and immigrants is encouraging.

  19. Biocultural research in global mental health: mapping idioms of distress onto blood pressure in a population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancilio, Amelia; Eggerman, Mark; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Biocultural research remains a challenge in the field of global mental health. We sought to test associations between blood pressure and idioms of distress in a population survey. We drew on a randomly selected sample of 991 adults (498 men, 493 women) in Afghanistan, for whom physiological and psychosocial data were systematically collected. Assessment of mental health (Self-Reported Questionnaire, Afghan Symptom Checklist) included conceptualizations of distress related to pressure (fishar), anxiety, and dysphoria, as well as dimensions of negative affect and aggression. We used principal component analysis to map survey responses to fishar, and multiple regressions to examine associations with systolic/diastolic blood pressure, controlling for age, body mass index, and wealth, and differentiating by gender, mental health, and medication. The Afghan sample averaged 129/80 mmHg, with 27.14% of hypertensive individuals. SBP showed inverse associations with reports of low fishar (β = -4.58, P < .001) and high fishar (β = 6.90, P < .001), as did DPB with low fishar (β = -1.55, P < .001) and high fishar (β = 3.77, P < .001). Low and high fishar responses accounted for substantial proportions of SBP data variation (R 2  = 20% and R 2  = 24%), especially in adults on blood pressure medication (R 2  = 58% and R 2  = 49%). Subjective reports of fishar map onto physiological blood pressure more robustly than other conceptualizations of mental distress related to anxiety, dysphoria, negative affect, or aggression. Our results point to the utility of mapping biological and cultural measures of stress and distress, advancing biopsychosocial understandings of wellbeing in global mental health surveys. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Primary schools and the amplification of social differences in child mental health: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marryat, Louise; Thompson, Lucy; Minnis, Helen; Wilson, Philip

    2018-01-01

    Background This paper examines socioeconomic inequalities in mental health at school entry and explores changes in these inequalities over the first 3 years of school. Methods The study utilises routinely collected mental health data from education records and demographic data at ages 4 and 7 years, along with administrative school-level data. The study was set in preschool establishments and schools in Glasgow City, Scotland. Data were available on 4011 children (59.4%)at age 4 years, and 3166 of these children were followed at age 7 years (46.9% of the population). The main outcome measure was the teacher-rated Goodman’s Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (4–16 version) at age 7 years, which measures social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. Results Children living in the most deprived area had higher levels of mental health difficulties at age 4 years, compared with their most affluent counterparts (7.3%vs4.1% with abnormal range scores). There was a more than threefold widening of this disparity over time, so that by the age of 7 years, children from the most deprived area quintile had rates of difficulties 3.5 times higher than their more affluent peers. Children’s demographic backgrounds strongly predicted their age 7 scores, although schools appeared to make a significant contribution to mental health trajectories. Conclusions Additional support to help children from disadvantaged backgrounds at preschool and in early primary school may help narrow inequalities. Children from disadvantaged backgrounds started school with a higher prevalence of mental health difficulties, compared with their more advantaged peers, and this disparity widened markedly over the first 3 years of school. PMID:29056594

  1. Primary schools and the amplification of social differences in child mental health: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marryat, Louise; Thompson, Lucy; Minnis, Helen; Wilson, Philip

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines socioeconomic inequalities in mental health at school entry and explores changes in these inequalities over the first 3 years of school. The study utilises routinely collected mental health data from education records and demographic data at ages 4 and 7 years, along with administrative school-level data. The study was set in preschool establishments and schools in Glasgow City, Scotland. Data were available on 4011 children (59.4%)at age 4 years, and 3166 of these children were followed at age 7 years (46.9% of the population). The main outcome measure was the teacher-rated Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (4-16 version) at age 7 years, which measures social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. Children living in the most deprived area had higher levels of mental health difficulties at age 4 years, compared with their most affluent counterparts (7.3%vs4.1% with abnormal range scores). There was a more than threefold widening of this disparity over time, so that by the age of 7 years, children from the most deprived area quintile had rates of difficulties 3.5 times higher than their more affluent peers. Children's demographic backgrounds strongly predicted their age 7 scores, although schools appeared to make a significant contribution to mental health trajectories. Additional support to help children from disadvantaged backgrounds at preschool and in early primary school may help narrow inequalities. Children from disadvantaged backgrounds started school with a higher prevalence of mental health difficulties, compared with their more advantaged peers, and this disparity widened markedly over the first 3 years of school. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Negligible import of enteric pathogens by newly-arrived asylum seekers and no impact on incidence of notified Salmonella and Shigella infections and outbreaks in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, January 2015 to May 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlkes, Lutz; George, Maja; Knautz, Donald; Burckhardt, Florian; Jahn, Klaus; Vogt, Manfred; Zanger, Philipp

    2018-05-01

    IntroductionThe 2015 refugee crisis raised concerns about an import of infectious diseases affecting the German population. Aims: To evaluate public and individual health benefits of stool screening, and explore whether importation of enteric pathogens by newly-arrived asylum seekers impacts on the host population. Methods : We used data from mandatory stool screening to determine the overall, age, sex, and country-specific prevalence of enteric bacteria and helminths. We used surveillance data to assess whether the number of incoming asylum seekers influenced notifications of salmonellosis and shigellosis in Rhineland-Palatinate. Results : Salmonella were found in 0.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2-0.3%) of 23,410 samples collected from January 2015 to May 2016. Prevalence was highest in children under 5 years (0.8%; 95% CI: 0.5-1.3%). No Shigella or invasive Salmonella spp. were detected. In a subset of 14,511 samples, the prevalence of helminth infestation was 2.4% (95% CI: 2.1-2.6%), with highest proportions detected in adolescents (4.6%; 95% CI 3.8-5.4%) and among Eritreans (9.3%; 95% CI: 7.0-12.0%); in the latter particularly Schistosoma mansoni and Taenia spp. The increase in asylum applications did not increase notifications of salmonellosis and shigellosis. No transmission from asylum seekers to German residents was notified. Conclusion : Public health risk associated with imported enteric pathogens is very low overall. Addressing individual and public health risks, we recommend replacing stool screening of all newly-arrived asylum seekers by a targeted approach, with target groups and approaches being adapted if necessary. Target groups supported by our data are children, adolescents, and Eritreans.

  3. [Depression and Anxiety Disorders and Associated Factors in the Adult Colombian Population, 2015 National Mental Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Bohórquez, Adriana; Rondón, Martín; Medina Rico, Mauricio; Rengifo, Hernet; Bautisa, Nubia

    2016-12-01

    Mental disorders are the first causes of disability adjusted life years (DALY), contributing with the 7.4%. This value increases as the DALYs of the transmittable diseases decrease. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of the major depressive and anxious disorders. Data obtained from the IV Mental Health Survey with representation from 5 regions. A computerised interview was conducted, focusing on the most frequent anxiety and depressive disorders, using the CIDI CAPI 3.0. A sample of 10,870 adults over 18 years old was obtained. The lifetime prevalence of any of these disorders is 10.1% (95% CI: 8.8-11.5) in the population between 18 and 44 years, and of 7.7% (95% CI: 6.5-9.1) in those older than 45 years. The prevalence in the last 12 months was 5.1% (95% CI: 4.3-6.0) in the younger group, and 2.3% (95% CI: 1.8-3.0) in the older group. Of the people with evaluated mental disorders, 17.6% (95% CI: 13.1-23.4) had 2 or more disorders, a comorbidity that is more common in the female population (20.4%, 95% CI: 14.2-28.3) than in males (13.5%, 95% CI: 7.9-22.0). Major depressive disorder is the most prevalent of the disorders, with a lifetime prevalence of 4.3% (95% CI: 3.7-5.0). After adjusting in a multivariate model, being divorced or widowed (OR=1.3), previous suicide attempt (OR=3.3), and having 6 or more features of border-line personality, were associated with an increased risk of presenting with any of the studied disorders. Anxiety and depressive mental disorders are an important health burden in Colombia. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  4. Does Mental Health Status Influence Susceptibility to the Physiologic Effects of Air Pollution? A Population Based Study of Canadian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dales, Robert E; Cakmak, Sabit

    2016-01-01

    Both air pollution exposure and the presence of mental illness are associated with an increased risk of physical illness. To determine whether or not children with less favourable mental health are more susceptible to pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of ambient air pollution, compared to those who are mentally healthy. We carried out a cross-sectional study of 1,883 children between the ages of 6 and 17 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures population survey between 2007 and 2009. Subjects were assigned the air pollution values obtained from the National Air Pollution monitor closest to their neighborhood. Lung function, heart rate and blood pressure were stratified by indicators of mental health. The latter were ascertained by questions about feelings of happiness, a diagnosed mood disorder, and the emotional symptom subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Among those who reported a mood disorder, an interquartile increase in ozone was associated with increases in systolic and diastolic pressures of 3.8 mmHg (95% CI 1.6, 5.9) and 3.0mmHg (95%CI 0.9, 5.2) respectively, and a decreases in FVC of 7.6% (95% CI 2.9, 12.3). No significant changes in these variables were observed in those who did not report a mood disorder. Among those with unfavourable emotional symptoms, ozone was associated with a 6.4% (95% CI 1.7, 11.3) increase in heart rate, a 4.1% (95%CI 1.2, 7.1) increase in systolic blood pressure, and a 6.0% (95% CI 1.4, 10.6) decrease in FEVl. No significant effect was seen in these variables among those with no emotional symptoms. In the Canadian population, children who report mood disorders or unfavourable emotional symptoms appear to be more vulnerable to the adverse physiologic effects of air pollution.

  5. The positive mental health instrument: development and validation of a culturally relevant scale in a multi-ethnic asian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaingankar Janhavi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Instruments to measure mental health and well-being are largely developed and often used within Western populations and this compromises their validity in other cultures. A previous qualitative study in Singapore demonstrated the relevance of spiritual and religious practices to mental health, a dimension currently not included in exiting multi-dimensional measures. The objective of this study was to develop a self-administered measure that covers all key and culturally appropriate domains of mental health, which can be applied to compare levels of mental health across different age, gender and ethnic groups. We present the item reduction and validation of the Positive Mental Health (PMH instrument in a community-based adult sample in Singapore. Methods Surveys were conducted among adult (21-65 years residents belonging to Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicities. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA, CFA were conducted and items were reduced using item response theory tests (IRT. The final version of the PMH instrument was tested for internal consistency and criterion validity. Items were tested for differential item functioning (DIF to check if items functioned in the same way across all subgroups. Results: EFA and CFA identified six first-order factor structure (General coping, Personal growth and autonomy, Spirituality, Interpersonal skills, Emotional support, and Global affect under one higher-order dimension of Positive Mental Health (RMSEA = 0.05, CFI = 0.96, TLI = 0.96. A 47-item self-administered multi-dimensional instrument with a six-point Likert response scale was constructed. The slope estimates and strength of the relation to the theta for all items in each six PMH subscales were high (range:1.39 to 5.69, suggesting good discrimination properties. The threshold estimates for the instrument ranged from -3.45 to 1.61 indicating that the instrument covers entire spectrums for the six dimensions. The

  6. Changes in attitudes, intended behaviour, and mental health literacy in the Swedish population 2009-2014: an evaluation of a national antistigma programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, L; Stjernswärd, S; Svensson, B

    2016-08-01

    Public stigma of mental illness is still a major problem where numerous population studies during the last decade have mainly shown no improvements. A Swedish national antistigma campaign has been running 2010-2014. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in public stigma during this period as compared to baseline in 2009. Yearly population surveys were made between 2009 and 2014 including assessments of mental health literacy, attitudes, and intended future behaviour. Two surveys were made, one including a nationally representative sample and one including a representative sample from three original campaign regions. Multiple regression analyses, also including age, gender, education, and familiarity with mental illness were made to investigate yearly changes in public stigma compared to baseline. Mental health literacy improved significantly in the campaign regions between 2009 and 2014, as did intended future behaviour. Attitudes toward mental illness also improved significantly. Improvements were also shown in the national population surveys, but the time pattern of these compared to that of the original campaign regions indicated that these changes took place mainly after the campaign had been extended to a further five Swedish regions. The results of our surveys suggest that a campaign primarily based on social contact theory and involving people with lived experience of mental illness may, even in a rather short-term perspective, have a significant positive impact on mental health literacy, attitudes, and intentions of social contact with people with mental illness. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Humanitarian Power – Rough Care: National politics of asylum in the humanitarian (biopolitical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duško Petrović

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a short field research conducted at the refugee transit center in Slavonski Brod, the paper analyzes contemporary asylum policies in Croatia. The author is suggesting that the structure and function of a centre plays a crucial role in the securitization and humanitarization of the asylum policy. The analysis has shown that the asylum policy in Croatia has the same structure as the dominant asylum policies in Europe. Both of them oscillate between two poles: compassion and repression. Humanitarian policy in Croatia is more restrictive and is based on radical inequality, nationalism, racism, the suspension of rights and the normalization of structural violence. Due to its exclusive national focus, it will not provide any long term solutions for dealing with refugees in the future.

  8. Communities of belonging in the temporariness of the Danish Asylum System: Shalini’s anchoring points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdasco, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Refugees often find themselves in a protracted situation of temporariness, as applications for asylum are processed, deportations negotiated and possible extensions of temporary protection status considered within the context of increasingly restrictive governmental policies across Europe. Through...

  9. Serbian migration policy concerning irregular migration and asylum in the context of the EU integration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Stojić-Mitrović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to present Serbian migration policy concerning irregular migration and asylum in the context of the attempts of the Serbian state to become a member of the European Union. I would describe the history of the asylum system prior and after the implementation of the independent asylum system in Serbia in 2008. My presentation of the Serbian migration policy would be channelled by the analysis of some particular political issues, such as the externalization of the EU borders’ control, as well as some relevant elements of the European integration process, like visa liberalization. The second, more culturally specific dimension of the issue would be accessed through the demonstration of both legislative and public conceptualizations of the irregular migrants, asylum seekers and refugees in Serbia.

  10. Early Childhood Aetiology of Mental Health Problems: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Jordana K.; Hiscock, Harriet; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Price, Anna; Wake, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mental health problems comprise an international public health issue affecting up to 20% of children and show considerable stability. We aimed to identify child, parenting, and family predictors from infancy in the development of externalising and internalising behaviour problems by age 3 years. Methods: "Design"…

  11. The Importance of Humidity in the Relationship between Heat and Population Mental Health: Evidence from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Berry, Helen L; Bennett, Charmian M

    2016-01-01

    Despite many studies on the effects of heat on mental health, few studies have examined humidity. In order to investigate the relationship among heat, humidity and mental health, we matched data from the Social, Economic and Environmental Factors (SEEF) project with gridded daily temperature and water vapour pressure data from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Logit models were employed to describe the associations among heat (assessed using temperature, °C), humidity (assessed using vapour pressure, hPa) and two measures of mental health, (i) high or very high distress (assessed using K10 scores ≥ 22) and (ii) having been treated for depression or anxiety. We found a one-unit increase in temperature and vapour pressure was associated with an increase in the occurrence of high or very high distress by 0.2% (p humidity rose to the 99th percentile of the sample, the estimated marginal effect of heat was more than doubled (0.5%, p humidity was related to having been treated for depression or anxiety in the last month. Humidity compounds the negative association between hot weather and mental health and thus should be taken into account when reforming the health care system to respond to the challenge of climate change.

  12. The relevance and implications of organizational involvement for serious mental illness populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treichler, Emily B H; Evans, Eric A; Johnson, J Rock; O'Hare, Mary; Spaulding, William D

    2015-07-01

    Consumer involvement has gained greater prominence in serious mental illness (SMI) because of the harmonious forces of new research findings, psychiatric rehabilitation, and the recovery movement. Previously conceived subdomains of consumer involvement include physical involvement, social involvement, and psychological involvement. We posit a fourth subdomain, organizational involvement. We have operationally defined organizational involvement as the involvement of mental health consumers in activities and organizations that are relevant to the mental health aspect of their identities from an individual to a systemic level across arenas relevant to mental health. This study surveyed adults with SMI regarding their current level of organizational involvement along with their preferences and beliefs about organizational involvement. Additionally, a path model was conducted to understand the relationships between domains of consumer involvement. Although participants reported wanting to be involved in identified organizational involvement activities and believing it was important to be involved in these kinds of activities, organizational involvement was low overall. The path model indicated that psychological involvement among other factors influence organizational involvement, which informed our suggestions to improve organizational involvement among people with SMI. Successful implementation must be a thoroughly consumer-centered approach creating meaningful and accessible involvement opportunities. Our study and prior studies indicate that organizational involvement and other subdomains of consumer involvement are key to the health and wellbeing of consumers, and therefore greater priority should be given to interventions aimed at increasing these essential domains. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy with Diverse Student Populations: Meeting the Mental Health Needs of All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Tachelle I.

    2012-01-01

    Mental health curriculum should be delivered in classroom settings to address and remediate the socio-emotional needs of students with and without disabilities. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is a comprehensive, universal, and humanistic approach that focuses on the emotional distress manifested by individuals has been used with children…

  14. The impact of immigration detention on the mental health of torture survivors is poorly documented--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Tania; Engberg, Marianne

    2013-11-01

    Torture has enduring mental and physical health consequences for survivors. Detention of asylum seekers is an integrated part of the immigration systems in many countries. Among the asylum seekers are vulnerable groups such as survivors of torture and severely traumatized refugees. The aim of the present study is to review the scientific evidence on the mental health consequences of immigration detention for adult survivors of torture. The review was conducted according to a modified version of the PRISMA guidelines. A systematic search was made in: PubMed (Medline), PsychINFO, PILOTS and IBSS, and reference lists were screened. The search yielded 241 results and two records came from additional sources. A total of 15 studies were included. Merely two case studies focused on survivors of torture. Both reported severe effects of detention on the detainees' mental health. High levels of psychological problems were found in studies identifying torture survivors among the asylum seekers. The impact of detention on the mental health of torture survivors is poorly documented, and the available data are insufficient to allow analysis of any specific effects. The studies do report severe mental health issues among detained torture survivors. In general, serious mental health problems are found among the detainees and formerly detained asylum seekers. Systematically identifying torture survivors and other vulnerable groups, and assessing and monitoring mental health issues is crucial. The health risks that detention may pose to the wellbeing of each individual should be carefully considered.

  15. Perceived causes of severe mental disturbance and preferred interventions by the Borana semi-nomadic population in southern Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Culture affects the way people conceptualize causes of severe mental disturbance which may lead to a variation in the preferred intervention methods. There is a seemingly dichotomous belief regarding what causes severe mental disturbance: people living in western countries tend to focus mainly on biological and psychosocial risk factors; whereas, in non-western countries the focus is mainly on supernatural and religious factors. These belief systems about causation potentially dictate the type of intervention preferred. Studying such belief systems in any society is expected to help in planning and implementation of appropriate mental health services. Methods A qualitative study was conducted among the Borana semi-nomadic population in southern Ethiopia to explore perceived causes of severe mental disturbance and preferred interventions. We selected, using purposive sampling, key informants from three villages and conducted a total of six focus group discussions: three for males and three for females. Results The views expressed regarding the causes of mental disturbance were heterogeneous encompassing supernatural causes such as possession by evil spirits, curse, bewitchment, ‘exposure to wind’ and subsequent attack by evil spirit in postnatal women and biopsychosocial causes such as infections (malaria), loss, ‘thinking too much’, and alcohol and khat abuse. The preferred interventions for severe mental disturbance included mainly indigenous approaches, such as consulting Borana wise men or indigenous healers, prayer, holy water treatment and seeking modern mental health care as a last resort. Conclusions These findings will be of value for health care planners who wish to expand modern mental health care to this population, indicating the need to increase awareness about the causes of severe mental disturbance and their interventions and collaborate with influential people and indigenous healers to increase acceptability of modern mental

  16. Ethical aspects of medical age assessment in the asylum process : a Swedish perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Malmqvist, Erik; Furberg, Elisabeth; Sandman, Lars

    2018-01-01

    According to European regulations and the legislations of individual member states, children who seek asylum have a different set of rights than adults in a similar position. To protect these rights and ensure rule of law, migration authorities are commonly required to assess the age of asylum seekers who lack reliable documentation, including through various medical methods. However, many healthcare professionals and other commentators consider medical age assessment to be ethically problema...

  17. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B, C and HIV/AIDS in Asylum Seekers in Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Kart Yaşar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:This study aimed to determine prevalence of hepatitis B, C and HIV/AIDS in asylum seekers in Istanbul, Turkey. Methods: The data about asylum seekers who applied in Istanbul between March 2008 and March 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. Demographic features and markers of blood borne infections (HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV results of asylum seekers were reviewed. Results: In total 3043 asylum seekers were included into the study. The leading origin countries of the refugees were from Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan and majority of them (2328 people, 77% were male. The young adults between 25 and 45 years constituted the most crowded group. Overall prevalence of HCV, HBsAg and HIV/AIDS were 12.2%, 5.9% and 0.7%, respectively. The highest seropositivity rate for anti-HCV, HBsAg and anti-HIV were found in Georgian males (47.1%; in Moldovan males (13.2% and in Somali males (3.1%, respectively. Conclusion:Mostly asylum seekers who have migrated to our country were young adult males from Asia. The highest prevalence rate of HCV was found in Georgian males. Therefore, the increased potential of migration to our country along the recent years necessitates development of an appropriate health approach concerning asylum seekers. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014;4(1: 20-25

  18. Hospital and asylum visiting in historical perspective: themes and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Graham; Reinarz, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Compared to doctors, patients and institutions, visitors are an understudied constituency in medical history. The collection of essays in this book situates the historical practice of hospital and asylum visiting in broad social, cultural and geographical perspectives. This introduction loosely categorises visitors into four groups: patient visitors, including family and friends; public visitors, such as entertainers, tourists and the clergy, who have no direct formal ties with the institution or the patients; house visitors involved with the management and government of the hospital; and official visitors, who have inspectorial responsibilities. Discussion of the wider historical significance of visiting draws attention to issues such as urban governance, philanthropy, the public sphere, civil society and citizenship.

  19. ‚Getting Asylum Seekers into Employment‘? – Ein Allheilmittel für die Europäische Einwanderungspolitik?

    OpenAIRE

    Tausch, Arno

    2012-01-01

    The cross-national empirics of the international asylum system are in their infancy. While Hatton, 2009, and Neumayer, 2005, 2006a and 2006b provided important and valuable cross-national insights on the drivers of the asylum seeking process, as yet little is known in terms of hard-core evidence about the effects of asylum-driven migration processes on the recipient countries. But such analyses are necessary, since asylum plays such an important role in the overall South-North migration proce...

  20. Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in recently fled asylum seekers in comparison to permanently settled immigrants and non-immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, R; Reich, H; Skoluda, N; Seele, F; Nater, U M

    2017-03-07

    Recently fled asylum seekers generally live in stressful conditions. Their residency status is mostly insecure and, similar to other immigrants, they experience stress due to acculturation. Moreover, they often suffer from traumatization and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). All of these factors can result in chronic maladaptive biological stress responses in terms of hyper- or hypocortisolism and, ultimately, illness. We believe the current study is the first to compare hair cortisol concentration (HCC) of recently fled asylum seekers with PTSD to those without PTSD, and to compare HCC of asylum seekers to HCC of permanently settled immigrants and non-immigrant individuals. HCC of the previous 2 months was compared between 24 asylum seekers without PTSD, 32 asylum seekers with PTSD, 24 permanently settled healthy Turkish immigrants and 28 non-immigrant healthy Germans as the reference group. Statistical comparisons were controlled for age, sex and body mass index. No significant difference in HCC was found between asylum seekers with and without PTSD. However, the asylum seekers showed a 42% higher HCC than the reference group. In contrast, the permanently settled immigrants exhibited a 23% lower HCC than the reference group. We found relative hypercortisolism in recently fled asylum seekers, but no difference between persons with and without PTSD. These findings add to the very few studies investigating HCC in groups with recent traumatization and unsafe living conditions. Contrary to the findings in asylum seekers, permanently settled immigrants showed relative hypocortisolism. Both hyper- and hypocortisolism may set the stage for the development of stress-related illnesses.

  1. Cognitive social capital and mental illness during economic crisis: a nationwide population-based study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Marina; Madianos, Michael; Peppou, Lily Evangelia; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Patelakis, Athanasios; Stefanis, Costas

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing financial crisis in Greece has yielded adverse effects on the mental health of the population. In this context, the particular study investigates the link between two indices of cognitive social capital; namely interpersonal and institutional trust, and the presence of major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. A random and representative sample of 2256 respondents took part in a cross-sectional nationwide telephone survey the time period February-April 2011 (Response Rate = 80.5%), after being recruited from the national phone number databank. Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview, while for interpersonal and institutional trust the pertinent questions of the European Social Survey were utilized. Socio-demographic variables were also encompassed in the research instrument, while participants' degree of financial strain was assessed through the Index of Personal Economic Distress. Both interpersonal and institutional trust were found to constitute protective factors against the presence of major depression, but not against generalized anxiety disorder for people experiencing low economic hardship. Nonetheless, in people experiencing high financial strain, interpersonal and institutional trust were not found to bear any association with the presence of the two disorders. Consistent with these, the present study shows that the effect of social capital on mental health is not uniform, as evident by the different pattern of results for the two disorders. Furthermore, cognitive social capital no longer exerts its protective influence on mental health if individuals experience high economic distress. As a corollary of this, interventions aiming at mitigating the mental health effects of economic downturns cannot rely solely on the enhancement of social capital, but also on alleviating economic burden. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anthropometrics of mental foramen in dry dentate and edentulous mandibles in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Moogala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the morphological features and morphometrics of mental foramen with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred and nineteen dry dentate and edentulous mandibles are examined in this study. Out of these 127 were dentate and 92 were edentulous. Various morphological and morphometrical parameters were measured by using digital Vernier caliper, metallic wire and metallic scale on both the right and left sides. Results: In the present study, the distance between most anterior margin of mental foramen and posterior border of ramus of the mandible is [MF-PR], MF-PR is 69.61 ± 6.03 mm on the right side and is 69.17 ± 6. 0 mm on left side in dentate mandible. In edentulous type, MF-PR is 68.39 ±6.4 mm on right side and 68.81 ± 6.55 mm on left side. In the present study, the distance between symphysis menti and most anterior margin of mental foramen [MF-SM] in dentate mandible is 28.24 ± 5.09 mm on right side and is 27.45 ± 3.7 mm on left side. In edentulous mandible (MF-SM is 28.51 ± 4.5 mm on right side and on left side is 27.99 ± 4.50 mm. Conclusion: Acquiring the knowledge and importance of anatomy of mental foramen is helpful in avoiding neurovascular complications, during regional anesthesia, peri apical surgeries, nerve repositioning and dental implant placement.

  3. [Violence due to Armed Conflict and Prevalence of Mood Disorders, Anxiety and Mental Problems in the Colombian Adult Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Tamayo-Martínez, Nathalie; Buitrago, Giancarlo; Guarnizo-Herreño, Carol Cristina; Garzón-Orjuela, Nathaly; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier; de Vries, Esther; Rengifo, Herney; Rodríguez, Andrea; Rincón, Carlos Javier

    2016-12-01

    Violence in Colombia has a history of over 50 years. Between 1985 and 2012 an estimated of 220,000 Colombians have died and about 6,000,000 have been displaced by violence. To describe and compare the prevalence of some problems and mental disorders in the adult population in Colombia, taking into account the characteristics of the municipality, as regards its history of violence or armed conflict. The results for adults (over 18 years) of some problems and mental disorders were taken from the ENSM-2015. The municipalities were classified according to the presence and intensity of the conflict using the classification proposed by the CERAC. Disorders were measured using CIDI-CAPI, and problems with AUDIT, modified PCL (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist). An estimate was also made of psychoactive substances consumption. A total of 10,870 people were interviewed, of whom 5,429 had not changed residence. There was had permanent conflict in 21.8% of the municipalities, 65.5% had a discontinued conflict, and only 12.7% had been pacified or had no conflict. The intensity of the conflict was reported as high by 31.8% of the people. Violent municipalities have a higher prevalence of anxiety disorders, depression, possible Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and smoking. Alcohol consumption was more common in municipalities with less intense conflict. The municipalities classified as having high levels of violence have a higher prevalence of mental disorders and the majority of the mental problems. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  4. Physical and sexual violence, mental health indicators, and treatment seeking among street-based population groups in Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio Navarro, Javier; Cohen, Julien; Rocillo Arechaga, Eva; Zuniga, Edgardo

    2012-05-01

    To establish the prevalence of exposure to physical and sexual violence, mental health symptoms, and medical treatment-seeking behavior among three street-based subpopulation groups in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, and to assess the association between sociodemographic group, mental health indicators, and exposure to violence. An anonymous, cross-sectional survey among randomly selected street-based adolescents, adults, and commercial sex workers (CSWs) was undertaken at the end of 2010 in Tegucigalpa. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) mapped places where the study population gathers. Stratified probability samples were drawn for all groups, using two-stage random sampling. Trained MSF staff administered on-site standardized face-to-face questionnaires. Self-reported exposure to severe physical violence in the previous year was 20.9% among street-based adolescents, 28.8% among adults, and 30.6% among CSWs. For the physical violence event self-defined as most severe, 50.0% of the adolescents, 81.4% of the adults, and 70.6% of the CSWs sought medical treatment. Their exposure to severe sexual violence was 8.6%, 28.8%, and 59.2%, respectively. After exposure to the self-defined most severe sexual violence event, 14.3% of adolescents, 31.9% of adults, and 29.1% of CSWs sought treatment. Common mental health and substance abuse symptoms were highly prevalent and strongly associated with exposure to physical (odds ratio 4.5, P < 0.0001) and sexual (odds ratio 3.7, P = 0.0001) violence. Exposure to physical and sexual violence reached extreme levels among street-based subpopulations. Treatment-seeking behavior, particularly after severe sexual violence, was limited. The association of mental health and substance abuse symptoms with exposure to violence could lead to further victimization. Medical and psychological treatments targeting these groups are needed and could help decrease their vulnerability.

  5. LIFE IN A BACKPACK: THE EU’S ASYLUM POLICIES AND ITS IMPACT ON THE MACEDONIAN ASYLUM LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Stanojoska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Starting the Arab spring in 2010 and going through the latest and ongoing Syrian conflict and crises, Balkans and Macedonian railways have been and are a place where many human destinies cross their paths walking to the Member States of the European Union. On the other side, Macedonia is struggling with an influx of refugees, finding itself in a status quo position, even looking as it does not know how to solve the situation. Migrants were killed on railways every day not being able to use any kind of public transportation; their smuggling became a normal business for organized crime groups; Macedonian citizens started to earn money on refugees’ misfortune. The paper using the comparative method and document analysis, gives an overview of the EU’s legislation in the area, its improvement and current impact on things, all of it concluded with the Macedonian legal solutions regarding asylum and authors’ recommendations.

  6. Validation study of the Mini-Mental State Examination in a Malay-speaking elderly population in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Norlinah M; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Chong, Heng-Thay; Rahman, Abdul Hamid Abdul; Razali, Rosdinom; Esther, Ebernezer; Basri, Hamidon B

    2009-01-01

    In view of the differing sensitivity and specificity of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in the non-English-speaking populations, we conducted the first validation study of the Malay version (M-MMSE) in Malaysia among 300 subjects (from the community and outpatient clinics). Three versions were used: M-MMSE-7 (serial 7), M-MMSE-3 (serial 3) and M-MMSE-S (spell 'dunia' backwards). Dementia was assessed using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV. The optimal cutoff scores were obtained from the receiver operating characteristics curves. Seventy-three patients (24.3%) had dementia and 227 (75.7%) were controls. Three hundred patients completed the M-MMSE-7, 160 the M-MMSE-3 and 145 the M-MMSE-S. All 3 versions were valid and reliable in the diagnosis of dementia. The optimal cutoff scores varied with each version and gender. In the control group, significant gender differences were observed in the patients with the lowest educational status. Increasing educational levels significantly improved the M-MMSE performance in both genders. All 3 versions of the M-MMSE are valid and reliable as a screening tool for dementia in the Malaysian population, but at different cutoff scores. In those with the lowest educational background, gender-adjusted cutoff scores should be applied. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. [Reliability and validity of the standardized Mini Mental State Examination in the diagnosis of mild dementia in Turkish population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngen, Can; Ertan, Turan; Eker, Engin; Yaşar, Resmiye; Engin, Funda

    2002-01-01

    Reliability and validity of the Mini Mental State Examination in differentiating mild dementia from normal controls in Turkish population. The Standardized Mini Mental State Examination (SMMSE) and its instruction were translated into Turkish. A total of 212 subjects with mean age of 77 +/- 6, were recruited for the study. 71 were diagnosed to be demented and 141 were evaluated as normal controls. The scale total score was analysed for discriminant validity using Student's t-test. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and kappa score were calculated for all of the scores between 18 and 29. Kappa value was calculated for the comparison of the dementia diagnosis between the two investigators using the best cut off score obtained in the analysis above. Statistical analysis revealed that the Turkish version of the SMMSE has high discriminant validity and interrater reliability in the diagnosis of mild dementia. The cut off score 23/24 was found to have the highest sensitivity (0.91), specificity (0.95), positive and negative predictive values (0.90 and 0.95) and kappa score (0.86). Interrater reliability analysis showed high correlation (r:0.99) and kappa value (0.92). The results of this study showed that the Turkish version of the SMMSE has high reliability and validity for the diagnosis of mild dementia in Turkish population.

  8. Ethnic Differences in Mental Illness Severity: A Population-Based Study of Chinese and South Asian Patients in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Maria; Lebenbaum, Michael; Newman, Alice M; Zaheer, Juveria; Kurdyak, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the sociocultural determinants of mental illness at hospital presentation. Our objective was to examine ethnic differences in illness severity at hospital admission among Chinese, South Asian, and the general population living in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a large, population-based, cross-sectional study of psychiatric inpatients aged from 19 to 105 years who were discharged between 2006 and 2014. A total of 133,588 patients were classified as Chinese (n = 2,582), South Asian (n = 2,452), or the reference group (n = 128,554) using a validated surnames algorithm (specificity: 99.7%). Diagnoses were based on DSM-IV criteria. We examined the association between ethnicity and 4 measures of disease severity: involuntary admissions, aggressive behaviors, and the number and frequency of positive symptoms (ie, hallucinations, command hallucinations, delusions, and abnormal thought process) (Positive Symptoms Scale, Resident Assessment Instrument-Mental Health [RAI-MH]). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, immigration status, and discharge diagnosis, Chinese patients had greater odds of involuntary admissions (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.64-1.95) and exhibiting severe aggressive behaviors (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.23-1.51) and ≥ 3 positive symptoms (OR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.24-1.56) compared to the general population. South Asian ethnicity was also an independent predictor of most illness severity measures. The association between Chinese ethnicity and illness severity was consistent across sex, diagnostic and immigrant categories, and first-episode hospitalization. Chinese and South Asian ethnicities are independent predictors of illness severity at hospital presentation. Understanding the role of patient, family, and health system factors in determining the threshold for hospitalization is an important future step in informing culturally specific care for these large and growing populations worldwide. © Copyright 2016 Physicians

  9. Mental distress in treatment seeking young adults (18-25 years) with severe obesity compared with population controls of different body mass index levels: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreber, H; Reynisdottir, S; Angelin, B; Tynelius, P; Rasmussen, F; Hemmingsson, E

    2017-02-01

    Young adults (18-25) with severe obesity constitute a challenging patient group, and there is limited evidence about their mental health status compared to population controls. Mental distress in treatment seeking young adults with severe obesity (n = 121, mean body mass index [BMI] = 39.8 kg m -2 ) was compared with matched (1:3 for age, gender and socioeconomic status) population controls of normal weight (n = 363, mean BMI = 22.4 kg m -2 ), as well as unmatched population controls with class I obesity (n = 105, mean BMI = 32.1 kg m -2 ) or severe obesity (n = 41, mean BMI = 39.7 kg m -2 ). Mental distress was measured by the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), and we quantified physician-diagnosed depression, present anxiety and suicide attempts. Poisson regression and linear regression analysis were used for analysing differences in mental distress between groups. Treatment seekers experienced more mental distress than normal weight controls as measured by continuous (adjusted mean: 3.9 vs. 2.2 points, P obesity (adjusted mean: 2.3 points) or severe obesity (adjusted mean: 2.1; both, P Young adult treatment seekers with severe obesity constitute a risk group for mental distress compared to population controls of different BMI levels. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  10. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  11. Business mergers and acquisitions and the risk of mental disorders: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, JianLi; Patten, Scott; Currie, Shawn; Sareen, Jitender; Schmitz, Norbert

    2012-08-01

    Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) activities are increasing and may negatively affect workers mental health. However, the impact of M&A on the risk of developing a mental disorder, rather than psychiatric symptoms, has not been investigated. The objectives of this study were to estimate and compare the 12-month incidence of depressive and anxiety disorders in workers who had and who had not experienced M&A in the last year. Employees aged 25 and 64 years old were randomly selected from the community and were followed for 1 year (n=3280). Questions about their experience in M&A in the past 12 months were asked. WHO's Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Auto 2.1 was used to assess depressive and anxiety disorders. The 12-month prevalence and 1-year incidence of mental disorders were estimated and compared in relation to M&A. Participants who were exposed to M&A had a significant higher 1-year incidence of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) (6.7%) than the unexposed (2.4%). They were not different in the incidence of major depressive disorder. The exposed participants were 2.8 times more likely to have had a GAD than others and were about 2.4 times more likely to have developed any anxiety disorders over 1 year. M&A may lead to increased risk of GAD, which may, in return, evolve into major depression. Governments, employers and health professionals should be aware of this and work out plans to reduce the negative health outcomes of M&A.

  12. The right location? Experiences of refugee adolescents seen by school-based mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Mina; Garcia, Jo; Stein, Alan

    2016-07-01

    Access to needed mental health services can be particularly difficult for newly arrived refugee and asylum-seeking adolescents, although many attend school. This study examined young refugees' impressions and experience of mental health services integrated within the school system. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 adolescent refugees discharged by three school-based mental health services across the United Kingdom. Two-thirds preferred to be seen at school. Rumination and worry about insecurity in the asylum process had a negative impact particularly on the adolescents' social functioning and ability to focus at school. The important role played by teachers in supporting and mediating contact with mental health services was valued by those interviewed. The study confirms that schools offer an important location for mental health services for adolescent refugees and provide an important portal for integration of services. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Utilization of Professional Mental Health Services Related to Population-Level Screening for Anxiety, Depression, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Public High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, John D; Le, Vi Donna; Baillargeon, Jacques; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    This study examines results from three mental health screening measures in a cohort of adolescent public school students in seven public schools in Southeast Texas affiliated with the Dating it Safe study. We estimated the odds of receiving professional mental health treatment in the previous year given results from different mental health screening batteries: the CES-D 10 battery for depression screening, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, and the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder screen. Overall, students with higher scores on screening instruments for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and combinations of screening instruments were more likely to have sought past-year professional mental health treatment than non-symptomatic youth. However, the proportion of students screening positive and receiving professional treatment was low, ranging from 11 to 16 %. This study emphasizes the need for broader evaluation of population-based mental health screening among adolescents.

  14. Mental health morbidity among people subject to immigration detention in the UK: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, P; Arugnanaseelan, J; Connell, E; Katona, C; Khan, A A; Moran, P; Robjant, K; Slade, K; Tan, J; Widyaratna, K; Youd, J; Forrester, A

    2017-06-22

    The UK has one of the largest systems of immigration detention in Europe.. Those detained include asylum-seekers and foreign national prisoners, groups with a higher prevalence of mental health vulnerabilities compared with the general population. In light of little published research on the mental health status of detainees in immigration removal centres (IRCs), the primary aim of this study was to explore whether it was feasible to conduct psychiatric research in such a setting. A secondary aim was to compare the mental health of those seeking asylum with the rest of the detainees. Cross-sectional study with simple random sampling followed by opportunistic sampling. Exclusion criteria included inadequate knowledge of English and European Union nationality. Six validated tools were used to screen for mental health disorders including developmental disorders like Personality Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Intellectual Disability, as well as for needs assessment. These were the MINI v6, SAPAS, AQ-10, ASRS, LDSQ and CANFOR. Demographic data were obtained using a participant demographic sheet. Researchers were trained in the use of the screening battery and inter-rater reliability assessed by joint ratings. A total of 101 subjects were interviewed. Overall response rate was 39%. The most prevalent screened mental disorder was depression (52.5%), followed by personality disorder (34.7%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (20.8%). 21.8% were at moderate to high suicidal risk. 14.9 and 13.9% screened positive for ASD and ADHD, respectively. The greatest unmet needs were in the areas of intimate relationships (76.2%), psychological distress (72.3%) and sexual expression (71.3%). Overall presence of mental disorder was comparable with levels found in prisons. The numbers in each group were too small to carry out any further analysis. It is feasible to undertake a psychiatric morbidity survey in an IRC

  15. Refugee, Asylum, and Related Legislation in the US Congress: 2013–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Magner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Members of Congress have introduced numerous pieces of legislation in recent years related to refugees, asylum seekers, and other populations of migrants seeking protection in the United States. These bills were drafted in reaction to dramatic events within the United States, at its borders, and around the world. For example, roughly 400,000 children traveling alone and mothers with children have arrived at the southern US border since 2013, many seeking protection from organized crime, gang violence, and threats of human trafficking. Similarly, more than a million refugees from the Middle East, North Africa, and Asia sought to reach safety on the European continent in 2015 alone. Terrorist attacks fueled attempts to curtail the US commitment to offer protection to those fleeing persecution, even when those attacks had no connection to refugees or only tenuous links. And yet existing US law has been left virtually unchanged throughout this tumultuous period. This article describes the significant attempts to enact legislation related to refugees and international migrants since 2013 and examines the reasons why those attempts have not succeeded. It also describes American attitudes toward refugees and assesses whether those attitudes affected the fate of legislation.

  16. Mental health and other clinical correlates of euthanasia attitudes in an Australian outpatient cancer population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, G L; Clover, K A; Parkinson, L; Rainbird, K; Kerridge, I; Ravenscroft, P; Cavenagh, J; McPhee, J

    2007-04-01

    A majority of patients with cancer have been reported to endorse euthanasia and physician assisted suicide (PAS) in general and a substantial proportion endorse these for themselves. However, the potential influence of mental health and other clinical variables on these decisions is not well understood. This study of 228 outpatients attending an oncology clinic in Newcastle, Australia used a cross-sectional design and logistic regression modelling to examine the relationship of demographic, disease status, mental health and quality of life variables to attitudes toward euthanasia and PAS. The majority reported support for euthanasia (79%, n=179), for PAS (69%, n=158) and personal support for euthanasia/PAS (68%, n=156). However, few reported having asked their doctor for euthanasia (2%, n=5) or PAS (2%, n=5). Three outcomes were modelled: support for euthanasia was associated with active religious belief (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.21, 95% CI: 0.10-0.46); support for PAS was associated with active religious belief (AOR 0.35, 95% CI: 18-0.70) and recent pain (AOR 0.87, 95% CI: 0.0.76-0.99); and personal support for euthanasia/PAS was associated with active religious belief (AOR 0.26, 95% CI: 0.14-0.48). Depression, anxiety, recent suicidal ideation, and lifetime suicide attempt were not independently associated with any of the three outcomes modelled. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  18. Mental health symptoms in relation to socio-economic conditions and lifestyle factors--a population-based study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molarius, Anu; Berglund, Kenneth; Eriksson, Charli; Eriksson, Hans G; Lindén-Boström, Margareta; Nordström, Eva; Persson, Carina; Sahlqvist, Lotta; Starrin, Bengt; Ydreborg, Berit

    2009-08-20

    Poor mental health has large social and economic consequences both for the individual and society. In Sweden, the prevalence of mental health symptoms has increased since the beginning of the 1990 s. There is a need for a better understanding of the area for planning preventive activities and health care. The study is based on a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 18-84 years in 2004. The overall response rate was 64%. The area investigated covers 55 municipalities with about one million inhabitants in central part of Sweden. The study population includes 42,448 respondents. Mental health was measured with self-reported symptoms of anxiety/depression (EQ-5D, 5th question). The association between socio-economic conditions, lifestyle factors and mental health symptoms was investigated using multivariate multinomial logistic regression models. About 40% of women and 30% of men reported that they were moderately or extremely anxious or depressed. Younger subjects reported poorer mental health than older subjects, the best mental health was found at ages 65-74 years. Factors that were strongly and independently related to mental health symptoms were poor social support, experiences of being belittled, employment status (receiving a disability pension and unemployment), economic hardship, critical life events, and functional disability. A strong association was also found between how burdensome domestic work was experienced and anxiety/depression. This was true for both men and women. Educational level was not associated with mental health symptoms. Of lifestyle factors, physical inactivity, underweight and risk consumption of alcohol were independently associated with mental health symptoms. Our results support the notion that a ground for good mental health includes balance in social relations, in domestic work and in employment as well as in personal economy both among men and women. In addition, physical inactivity, underweight

  19. Stigma among Singaporean youth: a cross-sectional study on adolescent attitudes towards serious mental illness and social tolerance in a multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shirlene; Liu, Jianlin; Mahesh, Mithila; Chua, Boon Yiang; Shahwan, Shazana; Lee, Siau Pheng; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Abdin, Edimansyah; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-10-16

    Stigma against mental illnesses is one of the significant obstacles faced by mental health service users and providers. It can develop at a young age and is also influenced by culture. Youths in Southeast Asian countries are under-represented in mental health research, thus this study aims to explore the dimensions of stigma and social tolerance and examine its correlates in the younger, multiethnic population of Singapore. An online survey collected data with sociodemographic questions, the Attitudes Towards Serious Mental Illness (Adolescent version) Scale, Social Tolerance Scale and an open-text question on words or phrases participants associated with the term 'mental illness'. Principal component analysis and multiple regression models were conducted to investigate the factor structure of the attitudes and social tolerance scales and their sociodemographic correlates. Participants included 940 youths aged 14-18 years old who were residing in Singapore at the time of the survey and were recruited through local schools. About a quarter of the students (22.6%) reported participating in mental health awareness campaigns while nearly half (44.5%) associated pejorative words and phrases with the term mental illness. The Attitudes Towards Serious Mental Illness (Adolescent version) Scale yielded five factors while the Social Tolerance Scale yielded two. Ethnicity, gender and nationality were significantly correlated with factors of both scales. Chinese youths showed higher sense of 'physical threat' and lower 'social tolerance' than those of other ethnicities. Females showed more 'wishful thinking', 'social concern' and 'social responsibility' towards the mentally ill than males. The dimensions of stigma and social tolerance are different in Asian cultures compared with Western cultures. Sociodemographic differences in attitudes towards the mentally ill were found among youths living in Singapore. Misconceptions and negative attitudes towards mental illness are

  20. No Time for Nostalgia!: Asylum-Making, Medicalized Colonialism in British Columbia (1859-97) and Artistic Praxis for Social Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Leslie G.; Brown, Sheena; Noble, Steven; Wainer, Rafael; Young, Alannah Earl

    2009-01-01

    This article asks: How have disability, indigenous arts and cultural praxis transformed and challenged the historical sociological archival research into relationships among asylum-making, medicalized colonialism and eugenics in the Woodlands School, formerly the Victoria Lunatic Asylum, the Provincial Asylum for the Insane in Victoria, BC 1859-72…

  1. Association between perceived social stigma against mental disorders and use of health services for psychological distress symptoms in the older adult population: validity of the STIG scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préville, Michel; Mechakra Tahiri, Samia Djemaa; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Quesnel, Louise; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Berbiche, Djamal

    2015-01-01

    To document the reliability, construct and nomological validity of the perceived Social Stigmatisation (STIG) scale in the older adult population. Cross-sectional survey. Primary medical health services clinics. Probabilistic sample of older adults aged 65 years and over waiting for medical services in the general medical sector (n = 1765). Perceived social stigma against people with a mental health problem was measured using the STIG scale composed of seven indicators. A second-order measurement model of perceived social stigma fitted adequately the observed data. The reliability of the STIG scale was 0.83. According to our results, 39.6% of older adults had a significant level of perceived social stigma against people with a mental health problem. RESULTS showed that the perception of social stigma against mental health problems was not significantly associated with a respondent gender and age. RESULTS also showed that the perception of social stigma against the mental health problems was directly associated with the respondents' need for improved mental health (b = -0.10) and indirectly associated with their use of primary medical health services for psychological distress symptoms (b = -0.07). RESULTS lead us to conclude that social stigma against mental disorders perceived by older adults may limit help-seeking behaviours and warrants greater public health and public policy attention. Also, results lead us to conclude that physicians should pay greater attention to their patients' attitudes against mental disorders in order to identify possible hidden mental health problems.

  2. [The residents of mental health services in 1994. Population characteristics and its opinions about graduation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrest, M

    1995-09-01

    Departing from two surveys that took place during a Mental Health Meeting of the Health Residents from Buenos Aires, the main features and their opinions upon their education and work are analyzed. The results are discriminated by profession. Two problems are highlighted: one of them refers to the general insatisfaction of this group with their theoretical learning; the other, shows the exit of prepared human resources from public hospitals. The data suggest that, despite sharing most of their activities, psychologists and psychiatrists have significant different opinions about the clinic education they think are getting. Further research is suggested in order to have a deeper comprehension of what is going on in these training programs.

  3. Violence against children, later victimisation, and mental health: a cross-sectional study of the general Norwegian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Siri; Myhre, Mia; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Aakvaag, Helene Flood; Hjemdal, Ole Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Background Violence in childhood is associated with mental health problems and risk of revictimisation. Less is known about the relative importance of the various types of childhood and adult victimisation for adult mental health. Objective To estimate the associations between various types of childhood and adult violence exposure, and their combined associations to adult mental health. Method This study was a cross-sectional telephone survey of the Norwegian adult population; 2,435 women and 2,092 men aged 18–75 participated (19.3% of those we tried to call and 42.9% of those who answered the phone). The interview comprised a broad array of violence exposure in both childhood and adulthood. Anxiety/depression was measured by the Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL-10). Results Victimisation was commonly reported, for example, child sexual abuse (women: 10.2%, men: 3.5%), childhood–parental physical violence (women: 4.9%, men: 5.1%), and lifetime forcible rape (women: 9.4%, men: 1.1%). All categories of childhood violence were significantly associated with adult victimisation, with a 2.2–5.0 times higher occurrence in exposed children (pviolence categories experienced (pviolence were significantly associated with anxiety/depression (pviolence/neglect had the highest levels of anxiety/depression. Conclusions Results should be interpreted in light of the low response rate. Childhood violence in all its forms was a risk factor for victimisation in adulthood. Adult anxiety/depression was associated with both the number of violence categories and the type of childhood violence experienced. A broad assessment of childhood and adult violence exposure is necessary both for research and prevention purposes. Psychological violence and neglect should receive more research attention, especially in combination with other types of violence. PMID:25591729

  4. HIV-infected mental health patients: characteristics and comparison with HIV-infected patients from the general population and non-infected mental health patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schade, A.; Grootheest, G.; Smit, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of developing mental health symptoms, which negatively influence the treatment of the HIV-infection. Mental health problems in HIV-infected patients may affect public health. Psychopathology, including depression and substance abuse, can

  5. Impact of physical and mental health on life satisfaction in old age: a population based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvill, Thomas; Lindenberg, Jolanda; de Craen, Antonius J M; Slaets, Joris P J; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2016-11-25

    It is widely assumed that poor health lowers life satisfaction when ageing. Yet, research suggests this relationship is not straightforward. This study investigated how older people evaluate their life when facing disease and disabilities. The Leiden 85-plus Study, a prospectively followed cohort of a cohort of a middle-sized city in the Netherlands, all aged 85 years, that was age-representative of the general population, was used. Those with severe cognitive dysfunction were excluded (n = 501). Comorbidities, physical performance, cognitive function, functional status, residual lifespan, depressive symptoms and experienced loneliness were measured during home visits. Life satisfaction was self-reported with Cantril's ladder. All analyses were performed using regression analysis. Participants reported high life satisfaction (median 8 out of 10 points) despite having representative levels of disease and disability. Comorbidity, low cognitive function, and residual lifespan as markers of health were not associated with life satisfaction. Poor physical performance and low functional status were weakly but significantly associated with lower life satisfaction (p life satisfaction (both p life satisfaction, whereas poor mental health was strongly related to lower life satisfaction. This indicates that mental health has a greater impact on life satisfaction at old age than physical health, and that physical health is less relevant for a satisfactory old age.

  6. Acute admissions among immigrants and asylum seekers to a psychiatric hospital in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Valentina Cabral; Morken, Gunnar

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare admission rates, including admission by coercion, length of hospital stay and diagnosis among immigrants, asylum seekers and Norwegian-born patients. All admissions (n=3053) to Østmarka Hospital during the period 1995-2000 were examined. A sample including all immigrants (94) and asylum seekers (39) as well as a control group of 133 Norwegians was analysed. Immigrants and Norwegians had the same relative risk of admission (1.07). The relative risk of admission was higher for asylum seekers compared to Norwegians (8.84). There were differences in the diagnoses given at discharge in the three groups of patients, both among men (chi2=22.33, df=6, pimmigrants. The number of admissions by coercion was highest among immigrants, and lowest among asylum seekers (chi2=12.03, df=2, pimmigrants, asylum seekers had high admission rates and low frequency of admissions by coercion. Schizophrenia was frequent among female immigrants admitted to hospital.

  7. The epidemiology of tuberculosis among asylum seekers in The Netherlands: implications for screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Burg, J L; Verver, S; Borgdorff, M W

    2003-02-01

    To identify low-risk groups among asylum seekers in the Netherlands that may be excluded from tuberculosis (TB) screening at entry or during follow-up. A retrospective cohort study of medical records of asylum seekers entering the country between January 1994 and March 1997. Medical records were available for 46,424 of the 96,000 asylum seekers (48%) in this period. One hundred and three pulmonary TB cases were diagnosed at entry (prevalence 222/100,000). Risk factors were age >11 years, history of imprisonment and country of origin at war or with TB incidence >100/100,000. During a mean follow-up period of 10 months, 51 pulmonary TB cases were diagnosed (incidence 134/100,000 person-years). Risk factors were age >11 years, old lesions on entry X-ray, and country of origin whose asylum seekers had a prevalence of TB at entry >200/100,000. We conclude that 1) those with abnormal X-ray at entry should receive preventive therapy after exclusion of active TB, or undergo intensive follow-up, 2) periodic screening is not indicated for immigrants from countries whose asylum seekers have a low prevalence of pulmonary TB at entry, and 3) children <12 years can be excluded from screening.

  8. Ethical aspects of medical age assessment in the asylum process: a Swedish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmqvist, Erik; Furberg, Elisabeth; Sandman, Lars

    2018-05-01

    According to European regulations and the legislations of individual member states, children who seek asylum have a different set of rights than adults in a similar position. To protect these rights and ensure rule of law, migration authorities are commonly required to assess the age of asylum seekers who lack reliable documentation, including through various medical methods. However, many healthcare professionals and other commentators consider medical age assessment to be ethically problematic. This paper presents a simplified and amended account of the main findings of a recent ethical analysis of medical age assessment in the asylum process commissioned by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. A number of ethical challenges related to conflicting goals, equality and fairness, autonomy and informed consent, privacy and integrity, and professional values and roles are identified and analysed. It is concluded that most of these challenges can be met, but that this requires a system where the assessment is sufficiently accurate and where adequate safeguards are in place. Two important ethical questions are found to warrant further analysis. The first is whether asylum seekers' consent to the procedure can be considered genuinely voluntary. The second is whether and how medical age assessments could affect negative public attitudes towards asylum seekers or discriminatory societal views more generally.

  9. Screening for infectious diseases of asylum seekers upon arrival : The necessity of the moral principle of reciprocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeres, Dorien T; Cornish, Darren; Vonk, Machiel; Ravensbergen, Sofanne J; Maeckelberghe, Els L M; Boele Van Hensbroek, Pieter; Stienstra, Ymkje

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With a large number of forcibly displaced people seeking safety, the EU is facing a challenge in maintaining solidarity. Europe has seen millions of asylum seekers crossing European borders, the largest number of asylum seekers since the second world war. Endemic diseases and often

  10. The common European asylum system and the rights of the child : an exploration of meaning and compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smyth, Ciara Mary

    2013-01-01

    This thesis addresses the question of whether the EU Common European Asylum System (CEAS) complies with the rights of the child. A significant proportion of people seeking asylum in EU countries are children. These children may be totally alone, with people who are not their customary caregivers

  11. The Importance of Being Gay: The Perils and Possibilities of LGBTI Asylum Seekers' Involvement in "Rights of Passage"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerskill, Clare

    2018-01-01

    In order to claim asylum in the UK, lesbians and gay men are required to 'prove' their sexual orientation during an interview, demonstrating the dangers that their sexuality poses for them in their countries of origin. Playwrights who create verbatim theatre addressing LGBTI asylum issues will also interview contributors eliciting personal…

  12. Divorce, divorce rates, and professional care seeking for mental health problems in Europe: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracke, Piet F; Colman, Elien; Symoens, Sara A A; Van Praag, Lore

    2010-04-29

    Little is known about differences in professional care seeking based on marital status. The few existing studies show more professional care seeking among the divorced or separated compared to the married or cohabiting. The aim of this study is to determine whether, in a sample of the European general population, the divorced or separated seek more professional mental health care than the married or cohabiting, regardless of self-reported mental health problems. Furthermore, we examine whether two country-level features--the supply of mental health professionals and the country-level divorce rates--contribute to marital status differences in professional care-seeking behavior. We use data from the Eurobarometer 248 on mental well-being that was collected via telephone interviews. The unweighted sample includes 27,146 respondents (11,728 men and 15,418 women). Poisson hierarchical regression models were estimated to examine whether the divorced or separated have higher professional health care use for emotional or psychological problems, after controlling for mental and somatic health, sociodemographic characteristics, support from family and friends, and degree of urbanization. We also considered country-level divorce rates and indicators of the supply of mental health professionals, and applied design and population weights. We find that professional care seeking is strongly need based. Moreover, the divorced or separated consult health professionals for mental health problems more often than people who are married or who cohabit do. In addition, we find that the gap between the divorced or separated and the married or cohabiting is highest in countries with low divorce rates. The higher rates of professional care seeking for mental health problems among the divorced or separated only partially correlates with their more severe mental health problems. In countries where marital dissolution is more common, the marital status gap in professional care seeking is

  13. Divorce, divorce rates, and professional care seeking for mental health problems in Europe: a cross-sectional population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Symoens Sara AA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about differences in professional care seeking based on marital status. The few existing studies show more professional care seeking among the divorced or separated compared to the married or cohabiting. The aim of this study is to determine whether, in a sample of the European general population, the divorced or separated seek more professional mental health care than the married or cohabiting, regardless of self-reported mental health problems. Furthermore, we examine whether two country-level features--the supply of mental health professionals and the country-level divorce rates--contribute to marital status differences in professional care-seeking behavior. Methods We use data from the Eurobarometer 248 on mental well-being that was collected via telephone interviews. The unweighted sample includes 27,146 respondents (11,728 men and 15,418 women. Poisson hierarchical regression models were estimated to examine whether the divorced or separated have higher professional health care use for emotional or psychological problems, after controlling for mental and somatic health, sociodemographic characteristics, support from family and friends, and degree of urbanization. We also considered country-level divorce rates and indicators of the supply of mental health professionals, and applied design and population weights. Results We find that professional care seeking is strongly need based. Moreover, the divorced or separated consult health professionals for mental health problems more often than people who are married or who cohabit do. In addition, we find that the gap between the divorced or separated and the married or cohabiting is highest in countries with low divorce rates. Conclusions The higher rates of professional care seeking for mental health problems among the divorced or separated only partially correlates with their more severe mental health problems. In countries where marital dissolution is more

  14. A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Kohghilouyeh and Bouyerahmad, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Bagheri Yazdi, Seyed Abbas; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Kamali, Koorosh; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Hajebi, Ahmad; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Hormozpour, Mehdi; Aranpour, Hamdad

    2017-11-01

    This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Kohghilouyeh and Bouyerahmad in 2015. The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Kohghilouyeh and Bouyerahmad in Iran. An estimated sample size of 1200 people was chosen using systematic random cluster sampling. The access was provided by the contribution of Geographical Post Office of Yasuj, Dogonbadan, and Dehdasht cities. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used as a screening tool for mental disorders. Data analysis in the current study was carried out using the SPSS-18 software. Using GHQ traditional scoring method, the results showed that 16.9% of the subjects showed to be at risk of mental disorders (20.1% of females and 13.4% of males). Urban areas (18.3%) were more at risk of mental disorders compared with rural residents (13.9%). Anxiety and somatization symptoms were more frequent than depression and social dysfunction among respondents. The obtained data revealed that the prevalence of mental disorders increased with age. The results also indicated that mental disorders were more common in certain subgroups; in particular women, those aged 65 years and above, the divorced and widowed, illiterate and retired adults. Our findings suggest that one sixth of the participants are at risk of developing mental disorders. Although the prevalence of these disorders has decreased from 26.2% to 16.9% between 1999 and 2015, it is still of great importance to further promote mental health policies and advocate psychological welfare of those suffering from mental disorders along with their re-empowerment.

  15. A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Bagheri Yazdi, Seyed Abbas; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Kamali, Koorosh; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Hajebi, Ahmad; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Shahmansouri, Nazila; Shakeri, Mostafa

    2017-11-01

    This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari in 2015. The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari in Iran. An estimated sample size of 1200 people was chosen using systematic random cluster sampling. The access was provided by the contribution of Geographical Post Office of Shahre Kord, Farsan and Farrokhshar cities. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used as the screening tool for mental disorders. The analysis of data in the current study was carried out using the SPSS-18 software. Using GHQ traditional scoring method, the results showed that 24.9% of the subjects were at risk of mental disorders (26.8% of females and 23% of males). Urban areas (27.1%) were more at risk of mental disorders compared with rural residents (19.1%). Anxiety and somatization symptoms were more frequent than depression and social dysfunction among respondents. The obtained data revealed that the prevalence of mental disorders increased with age. The results also indicated that mental disorders were more common in certain subgroups, in particular females, people aged 65 years and above, the divorced and widowed, illiterate and unemployed adults. Our findings suggest that one fourth of the participants are at risk of developing mental disorders. Although the prevalence of these disorders has decreased from 39.1% to 24.9% between 1999 and 2015, it is still of great importance to further promote mental health policies and advocate psychological welfare of those suffering from mental disorders along with their re-empowerment.

  16. Chronic Physical Illness and Mental Health in Children. Results from a Large-Scale Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, Mari; Elgen, Irene; Gillberg, Christopher; Lie, Stein Atle; Lundervold, Astri J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in detecting emotional and behavioural problems among children with chronic illness (CI). Methods: Parents and teachers of a population of primary school children in Norway (n = 9430) completed a…

  17. Is the Partners in Recovery program connecting with the intended population of people living with severe and persistent mental illness? What are their prioritised needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Nicola; Smith-Merry, Jennifer; Gillespie, James A; Yen, Ivy

    2017-10-01

    Objective The Partners in Recovery (PIR) program is an Australian government initiative designed to make the mental health and social care sectors work in more coordinated ways to meet the needs of those with severe and complex mental illness. Herein we reflect on demographic data collected during evaluation of PIR implementation in two Western Sydney sites. The aims of the present study were to: (1) explore whether two Sydney-based PIR programs had recruited their intended population, namely people living with severe and persistent mental illness; and (2) learn more about this relatively unknown population and their self-identified need priorities. Methods Routinely collected initial client assessment data were analysed descriptively. Results The data suggest that the two programs are engaging the intended population. The highest unmet needs identified included psychological distress, lack of daytime activities and company, poor physical health and inadequate accommodation. Some groups remain hard to connect, including people from Aboriginal and other culturally diverse communities. Conclusions The data confirm that the PIR program, at least in the two regions evaluated, is mostly reaching its intended audience. Some data were being collected inconsistently, limiting the usefulness of the data and the ability to build on PIR findings to develop ongoing support for this population. What is known about the topic? PIR is a unique national program funded to engage with and address the needs of Australians living with severe and persistent mental illness by facilitating service access. What does this paper add? This paper reports on recruitment of people living with severe and persistent mental illness, their need priorities and data collection. These are three central elements to successful roll-out of the much anticipated mental health component of the National Disability Insurance Scheme, as well as ongoing PIR operation. What are the implications for practitioners

  18. [Changes in behaviors and indicators of mental health between 2006 and 2010 in the French working population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malard, L; Chastang, J-F; Niedhammer, I

    2017-08-01

    The 2008 economic crisis may have had an impact on mental health but the studies on this topic are sparse, in particular among the working population. However, mental health at work is a crucial issue involving substantial costs and consequences. The aim of the study was to assess changes in behaviors and indicators of mental health in the French working population between 2006 and 2010, and to explore the differential changes according to age, origin, occupation, activity sector, public/private sector, self-employed/employee status and work contract. The data came from the prospective national representative Santé et itinéraire professionnel (SIP) survey, including a sample of 5600 French workers interviewed in 2006 and 2010. The behaviors and indicators of mental health studied were excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, sleep problems (sleep disorders and/or insufficient sleep duration), psychotropic drug use (antidepressants, anxiolytics and/or hypnotics), and poor self-reported health. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze changes in behaviors and indicators of mental health, and the analyses were adjusted for age. Covariates (age, origin, occupation, activity sector, public/private sector, self-employed/employee status and type of contract) were added separately to assess differential changes. Increases in excessive alcohol consumption among women, sleep problems among men, and smoking, insufficient sleep duration and poor self-reported health for both genders were observed in the French working population between 2006 and 2010. Some differential changes were observed, negative changes being more likely to affect young workers and workers with a permanent contract. Prevention policies should consider that behavior and indicators of mental health may deteriorate in times of economic crisis, especially among some sub-groups of the working population, such as young workers and workers with a permanent contract. These changes might

  19. Associations among Substance Use, Mental Health Disorders, and Self-Harm in a Prison Population: Examining Group Risk for Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madison L. Gates

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Substance use disorders (SUD and mental health disorders are significant public health issues that co-occur and are associated with high risk for suicide attempts. SUD and mental health disorders are more prevalent among offenders (i.e., prisoners or inmates than the non-imprisoned population, raising concerns about the risk of self-harm. This cross-sectional study examined the population of a state prison system (10,988 out of 13,079 to identify associations among SUD (alcohol, cannabis, intravenous drugs, narcotics, and tobacco smoking, mental health disorders (anxiety, bipolar, depression, and psychotic disorders, and suicide attempts. The primary aim was to determine which groups (SUD, mental health disorders, and co-occurrences were strongly association with suicide attempts. Groups with a documented SUD or mental health disorders compared to peers without these issues had 2.0 and 9.2 greater odds, respectively, for attempting suicide, which was significant at p < 0.0001 for both conditions. There were also significant differences within SUD and mental health disorders groups in regard to suicide attempts. Groups with the greatest odds for suicide attempts were offenders with comorbid bipolar comorbid and anxiety, alcohol combined with depression, and cannabis co-occurring with depression. Documentation of suicide attempts during imprisonment indicates awareness, but also suggest a need to continue enhancing screening and evaluating environmental settings.

  20. Mental health problems among conflict-affected adults in Grozny, Chechnya: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Amanda J; Feo, Concetta; Idrisov, Kyuri; Pintaldi, Giovanni; Lenglet, Annick; Tsatsaeva, Zalina; Bolton, Paul; Bass, Judith

    2016-01-01

    A decade of conflict in Chechnya destroyed infrastructure and resulted in widespread exposure to violence. Amidst substantial reconstruction, periodic violence has contributed to an ongoing atmosphere of insecurity. We conducted a qualitative study to understand the mental health and psychosocial problems affecting adult Chechens in this context to inform development of assessment tools for an evaluation study related to individual counseling. Data were collected in July 2014. A convenience sample of 59 Chechen adults was asked to Free List all problems affecting people in the area. Four problems were explored further in 19 Key Interviewee (KI) interviews, with respondents identified using snowball sampling. Data analysis was conducted in Russian by the Chechen interviewers. Multiple mental health and psychosocial problems emerged, including 'bad psychological health', 'depression', 'stress and nervous people', and 'problems in the family'. Aggression, 'emotional blowing', and 'not adequate' behavior were frequently reported indicators of these problems, with negative effects on the whole family. Chechens reported seeking help through informal social networks, psychiatric and psychological services, and Islamic Centers. Chechens reported mental health and psychosocial problems similar to those experienced in other post-conflict settings. The description of 'emotional blowing' mirrored prior findings in Chechen asylum seekers and fits within a cluster of cultural concepts of distress featuring anger that has been identified in other conflict-affected populations. Further exploration of the nature and prevalence of this construct, as well as evaluations of interventions aimed at reducing these symptoms, is warranted.

  1. Mental Health Disparities Within the LGBT Population: A Comparison Between Transgender and Nontransgender Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Dejun; Irwin, Jay A.; Fisher, Christopher; Ramos, Athena; Kelley, Megan; Mendoza, Diana Ariss Rogel; Coleman, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: This study assessed within a Midwestern LGBT population whether, and the extent to which, transgender identity was associated with elevated odds of reported discrimination, depression symptoms, and suicide attempts. Methods: Based on survey data collected online from respondents who self-identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or transgender persons over the age of 19 in Nebraska in 2010, this study performed bivariate t- or chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regre...

  2. A 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'? Poor Law, Lunacy Law and Scotland's parochial asylums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    Scotland's parochial asylums are unfamiliar institutional spaces. Representing the concrete manifestation of the collision between two spheres of legislation, the Poor Law and the Lunacy Law, six such asylums were constructed in the latter half of the nineteenth century. These sites expressed the enduring mandate of the Scottish Poor Law 1845 over the domain of 'madness'. They were institutions whose very existence was fashioned at the directive of the local arm of the Poor Law, the parochial board, and they constituted a continuing 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'. Their origins and operation significantly subverted the intentions and objectives of the Lunacy Act 1857, the aim of which had been to institute a public district asylum network with nationwide coverage.

  3. The Moral Economy of Lying: Subjectcraft, Narrative Capital, and Uncertainty in the Politics of Asylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneduce, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Based on narratives of asylum-seekers from sub-Saharan Africa in northern Italy, in this article I analyze the narrative strategies used by immigrants to meet the eligibility criteria established by asylum law. For many of them, this means "arranging" biographical details within what I call "a moral economy of lying." The first question I discuss is what types of experience and 'subject positions' these narrative strategies reveal or generate. I then examine the arbitrariness and the bureaucratic violence of the asylum evaluation process, and the role of these procedures in the making of nation-language and current technologies of citizenship. Finally, I consider the politics of testification, recognition, and memory these discourses and practices combine to shape. I analyze these issues from an historical point of view of the politics of identity, truth, and falsehood as imposed in a recent past by colonizers onto the colonized.

  4. Refugee reception and pedagogical work with asylum-seeking and refugee children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldenhawer, Bolette

    on family reunification, cuts to social benefits, and granting more temporary or subsidiary forms of protection, with fewer rights attached (ibid. 106). In this paper, the aim is to illuminate how this broad range of restrictive policies is informing the professional work with asylum-seeking and refugee...... children. Since children in the asylum system are regarded as part of the family's unity and are not heard independently in asylum cases, such as for example in Norway (Vitus 2011, 147), I argue that children – along with their families – are in a position of permanent temporality; a position that at all...... and immigration system is ambiguous because it officially does express a concern for preparing applicants for a life in Denmark, but in reality, “the more powerful and concerted political will is directed at keeping the applicants at a distance, socially disconnected, so as to facilitate their possible...

  5. Measuring the health impact of human rights violations related to Australian asylum policies and practices: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Vanessa; Allotey, Pascale; Mulholland, Kim; Markovic, Milica

    2009-02-03

    Human rights violations have adverse consequences for health. However, to date, there remains little empirical evidence documenting this association, beyond the obvious physical and psychological effects of torture. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether Australian asylum policies and practices, which arguably violate human rights, are associated with adverse health outcomes. We designed a mixed methods study to address the study aim. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 71 Iraqi Temporary Protection Visa (TPV) refugees and 60 Iraqi Permanent Humanitarian Visa (PHV) refugees, residing in Melbourne, Australia. Prior to a recent policy amendment, TPV refugees were only given temporary residency status and had restricted access to a range of government funded benefits and services that permanent refugees are automatically entitled to. The quantitative results were triangulated with semi-structured interviews with TPV refugees and service providers. The main outcome measures were self-reported physical and psychological health. Standardised self-report instruments, validated in an Arabic population, were used to measure health and wellbeing outcomes. Forty-six percent of TPV refugees compared with 25% of PHV refugees reported symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of clinical depression (p = 0.003). After controlling for the effects of age, gender and marital status, TPV status made a statistically significant contribution to psychological distress (B = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.71, p basic human rights, culminated in a strong sense of injustice. Government asylum policies and practices violating human rights norms are associated with demonstrable psychological health impacts. This link between policy, rights violations and health outcomes offers a framework for addressing the impact of socio-political structures on health.

  6. Under-diagnosis of mental disorder in people with intellectual disabilities: study of prevalence in population with different degrees of intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos PEÑA SALAZAR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are a few studies in the literature analyzing the prevalence of mental illness in people with intellectual disabilities (ID. This study explores the prevalence of mental disorders in adults without previous mental disorder and different degrees of ID. We assessed 142 individuals with varying degrees of ID and with unknown previous psychiatric disorder. We applied the diagnostic battery PAS-ADD based on criteria ICD-10 and DSM-IV TR to analyzed the prevalence of mental disorders in people with mild / moderate ID. We applied the Spanish version of the scale DASH-II to analyze the prevalence of mental disorders in people with severe and profound ID. We found a psychiatric disorder previously undiagnosed in 29.57% of our sample. In people with mild/ moderate ID the most common psychiatric disorder was depressive disorder (33.3%, but in people with severe and profound ID was the anxiety disorder. The most prevalent medical comorbidity was epilepsy (22.5% of the total sample and 39.2% in the population with severe / profound intellectual disabilities. Psychiatric disorders seem to be more common in the population with ID than in the general population, increasing their prevalence and medical comorbidity in severe and profound ID.

  7. The effectiveness of psychotherapy with refugees and asylum seekers: preliminary results from an Austrian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Walter

    2009-02-01

    An Austrian Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) offered psychotherapy to 37 asylum seekers and refugees (21 of them female) with a mean age of 36.1 years (s = 7.5), with the majority of them from Chechnya or Afghanistan. Comparative data between the start of therapy and the time of evaluation revealed a highly significant positive effect (d = 0.77), while most therapies were still going on. By a retrospective measure of perceived change, 85% of the participants reported significant improvements. The results show that even under difficult conditions, when working with asylum seekers and refugees, psychotherapy can be effective.

  8. Increasing prevalence of infectious diseases in asylum seekers at a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine Bloch-Infanger

    Full Text Available The increasing number of refugees seeking asylum in Europe in recent years poses new challenges for the healthcare systems in the destination countries. The goal of the study was to describe the evolution of medical problems of asylum seekers at a tertiary care centre in Switzerland.At the University Hospital Basel, we compared all asylum seekers during two 1-year time periods in 2004/05 and 2014/15 concerning demographic characteristics and reasons for referrals and hospitalizations.Hundred ninety five of 2'544 and 516 of 6'243 asylum seekers registered at the national asylum reception and procedure centre Basel were referred to the University Hospital Basel in 2004/05 and 2014/15, and originated mainly from Europe (62.3%, mainly Turkey and Africa (49.1%, mainly Eritrea, respectively. Median age was similar in both study periods (26.9 and 26.2 years. Infectious diseases in asylum seekers increased from 22.6% to 36.6% (p<0.001 and were the main reasons for hospitalizations (33.3% of 45 and 55.6% of 81 hospitalized patients, p = 0.017 in 2004/05 compared to 2014/15. The leading infectious diseases in hospitalized patients were tuberculosis (n = 4 and bacterial skin infections (n = 2 in 2004/05; Malaria (n = 9, pneumonia (n = 6, Chickenpox (n = 5, other viral infections (n = 5 and bacterial skin infections (n = 5 in 2014/15. Infectious diseases like malaria, cutaneous diphtheria, louseborne-relapsing fever or scabies were only found in the second study period. Almost one third of the admitted asylum seekers required isolation precautions with median duration of 6-9.5 days in both study periods.The changing demography of asylum seekers arriving in Switzerland in the current refugee crisis has led to a shift in disease patterns with an increase of infectious diseases and the re-emergence of migration-associated neglected infections. Physicians should be aware of these new challenges.

  9. Pedagogical work with asylum-seeking and refugee children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldenhawer, Bolette

    Interpersonal and emotional aspects of pedagogical work have during the last decades been of great interest among educational researchers. This paper offers an analysis of social and moral dimensions of education by using professional interactions with asylum-seeking and refugee children...... as a privileged prism through which to study the emotional aspects of pedagogical work. The paper argues that the link between education and emotion is well addressed by considering the positioning of asylum-seeking and refugee children as a particularly vulnerable group characterized by anxiety and insecurity...

  10. The Impact of Direct Provision Accommodation for Asylum Seekers on Organisation and Delivery of Local Primary Care and Social Care Services: A Case Study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pieper, Hans-Olaf

    2011-05-15

    Abstract Background Many western countries have policies of dispersal and direct provision accommodation (state-funded accommodation in an institutional centre) for asylum seekers. Most research focuses on its effect on the asylum seeking population. Little is known about the impact of direct provision accommodation on organisation and delivery of local primary care and social care services in the community. The aim of this research is to explore this issue. Methods In 2005 a direct provision accommodation centre was opened in a rural area in Ireland. A retrospective qualitative case study was designed comprising in-depth interviews with 37 relevant stakeholders. Thematic analysis following the principles of framework analysis was applied. Results There was lack of advance notification to primary care and social care professionals and the community about the new accommodation centre. This caused anxiety and stress among relevant stakeholders. There was insufficient time to plan and prepare appropriate primary care and social care for the residents, causing a significant strain on service delivery. There was lack of clarity about how primary care and social care needs of the incoming residents were to be addressed. Interdisciplinary support systems developed informally between healthcare professionals. This ensured that residents of the accommodation centre were appropriately cared for. Conclusions Direct provision accommodation impacts on the organisation and delivery of local primary care and social care services. There needs to be sufficient advance notification and inter-agency, inter-professional dialogue to manage this. Primary care and social care professionals working with asylum seekers should have access to training to enhance their skills for working in cross-cultural consultations.

  11. The impact of direct provision accommodation for asylum seekers on organisation and delivery of local primary care and social care services: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Hans-Olaf; Clerkin, Pauline; MacFarlane, Anne

    2011-05-15

    Many western countries have policies of dispersal and direct provision accommodation (state-funded accommodation in an institutional centre) for asylum seekers. Most research focuses on its effect on the asylum seeking population. Little is known about the impact of direct provision accommodation on organisation and delivery of local primary care and social care services in the community. The aim of this research is to explore this issue. In 2005 a direct provision accommodation centre was opened in a rural area in Ireland. A retrospective qualitative case study was designed comprising in-depth interviews with 37 relevant stakeholders. Thematic analysis following the principles of framework analysis was applied. There was lack of advance notification to primary care and social care professionals and the community about the new accommodation centre. This caused anxiety and stress among relevant stakeholders. There was insufficient time to plan and prepare appropriate primary care and social care for the residents, causing a significant strain on service delivery. There was lack of clarity about how primary care and social care needs of the incoming residents were to be addressed. Interdisciplinary support systems developed informally between healthcare professionals. This ensured that residents of the accommodation centre were appropriately cared for. Direct provision accommodation impacts on the organisation and delivery of local primary care and social care services. There needs to be sufficient advance notification and inter-agency, inter-professional dialogue to manage this. Primary care and social care professionals working with asylum seekers should have access to training to enhance their skills for working in cross-cultural consultations.

  12. The impact of direct provision accommodation for asylum seekers on organisation and delivery of local primary care and social care services: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerkin Pauline

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many western countries have policies of dispersal and direct provision accommodation (state-funded accommodation in an institutional centre for asylum seekers. Most research focuses on its effect on the asylum seeking population. Little is known about the impact of direct provision accommodation on organisation and delivery of local primary care and social care services in the community. The aim of this research is to explore this issue. Methods In 2005 a direct provision accommodation centre was opened in a rural area in Ireland. A retrospective qualitative case study was designed comprising in-depth interviews with 37 relevant stakeholders. Thematic analysis following the principles of framework analysis was applied. Results There was lack of advance notification to primary care and social care professionals and the community about the new accommodation centre. This caused anxiety and stress among relevant stakeholders. There was insufficient time to plan and prepare appropriate primary care and social care for the residents, causing a significant strain on service delivery. There was lack of clarity about how primary care and social care needs of the incoming residents were to be addressed. Interdisciplinary support systems developed informally between healthcare professionals. This ensured that residents of the accommodation centre were appropriately cared for. Conclusions Direct provision accommodation impacts on the organisation and delivery of local primary care and social care services. There needs to be sufficient advance notification and inter-agency, inter-professional dialogue to manage this. Primary care and social care professionals working with asylum seekers should have access to training to enhance their skills for working in cross-cultural consultations.

  13. Normalized Mini-Mental State Examination for assessing cognitive change in population-based brain aging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipps, Viviane; Amieva, Hélène; Andrieu, Sandrine; Dufouil, Carole; Berr, Claudine; Dartigues, Jean-François; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Proust-Lima, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in population-based longitudinal studies to quantify cognitive change. However, its poor metrological properties, mainly ceiling/floor effects and varying sensitivity to change, have largely restricted its usefulness. We propose a normalizing transformation that corrects these properties, and makes possible the use of standard statistical methods to analyze change in MMSE scores. The normalizing transformation designed to correct at best the metrological properties of MMSE was estimated and validated on two population-based studies (n = 4,889, 20-year follow-up) by cross-validation. The transformation was also validated on two external studies with heterogeneous samples mixing normal and pathological aging, and samples including only demented subjects. The normalizing transformation provided correct inference in contrast with models analyzing the change in crude MMSE that most often lead to biased estimates of risk factors and incorrect conclusions. Cognitive change can be easily and properly assessed with the normalized MMSE using standard statistical methods such as linear (mixed) models. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Preliminary study to evaluate the validity of the mini-mental state examination in a normal population in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükdeveci, Ayse A; Kutlay, Sehim; Elhan, Atilla H; Tennant, Alan

    2005-03-01

    Although the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in clinical practice, normative scores for a healthy population have not been documented in Turkey. The aim in this study was to validate the MMSE in a healthy population and to provide normal scores. Internal construct validity of the Turkish version of MMSE among a preliminary sample of 406 normal people was assessed by Rasch unidimensional measurement model. Scores of the normal sample varied according to age and education but not according to sex. The data derived from this sample showed poor fit to the Rasch model (mean item fit, -2.082, SD 3.022). Only four of 11 items met model expectations. There was also differential item functioning by education and age for most items. Thus the internal construct validity of the Turkish MMSE in a normative sample could not be demonstrated by Rasch analysis. The scale failed modern psychometric criteria for scalability. We would therefore suggest other large normative MMSE data sets to be tested in terms of internal construct validity. If these findings are replicated, the validity of MMSE norms and their consequent use in clinical practice should be reconsidered.

  15. Social inequalities in the prevalence of common mental disorders in adults: a population-based study in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Sant’Ana Maggi de Moraes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with Common Mental Disorders (CMD in adults in a capital city in Southern Brazil. Methods: Population-based survey conducted on 1,720 adults aged 20 - 59 years from Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. The CMD were investigated through the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. The independent variables were demographic, socioeconomic, health-related behaviors, health conditions and use of health services. Multivariable Poisson regression was used for the estimation of prevalence ratios (PR and 95%CI. Results: The prevalence of CMD was 14.7%. Adjusted analyses showed that the prevalence was higher among women, those self-reported as blacks, with lower educational level, poor, divorced/separated/widowed, inactive in leisure time, heavy smokers, people with chronic diseases, those who reported negative health self-rating, those who had medical appointments and who were hospitalized before the interview. Conclusion: CMD is relatively high among population subgroups most vulnerable to social inequalities and with worse conditions related to health indicators.

  16. Five years of lifestyle intervention improved self-reported mental and physical health in a general population: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotte; Ladelund, Steen; Glümer, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Self-reported health has been shown to predict mortality. We lack knowledge on whether a lifestyle intervention can improve self-reported mental and physical health in a general population. METHODS: Inter99, Denmark (1999-2006) is a randomised population-based intervention study. We...... of the intervention on self-reported health over time. RESULTS: At baseline men had higher physical health-component scores (PCS) than women. Living with a partner, being employed, and being healthy was associated with high PCS. The mental health-component scores (MCS) showed the same socio-demographic differences......, except that MCS increased with age. Significantly fewer participants in the intervention groups had decreased their PCS and MCS compared with the control group. Adjusted multilevel analyses confirmed that the intervention significantly improved physical- (p=0.008) and mental health (p...

  17. Characteristics and health conditions of a group of nursing home patients with mental-physical multimorbidity - the MAPPING study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, Anne M. A.; Gerritsen, Debby L.; de Valk, Miranda M. H.; Oude Voshaar, Richard C.; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.

    Background: Long-term care facilities have partly taken over the traditional asylum function of psychiatric hospitals and house an increasing group of patients with mental-physical multimorbidity (MPM). Little is known about the characteristics, behavior, and care dependency of these patients. This

  18. Relationship of Sleep Duration with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Lifestyle, Mental Health, and Chronic Diseases in a Large Chinese Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibin; Li, Bo; Wu, Yanhua; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Fu, Yingli; Kou, Changgui; Yu, Yaqin; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-03-15

    Pattern of sleep duration and its correlates have rarely been reported in China. This study examined the sleep duration and its relationship with sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, mental health, and chronic diseases in a large Chinese adult population. This cross-sectional study used multistage stratified cluster sampling. A total of 17,320 participants from Jilin province were selected and interviewed using standardized assessment tools. Basic socio-demographic and clinical data were collected. Sleep duration was classified as short ( 9 h per day) and medium sleep (7-9 h per day). The mean age of the sample was 42.60 ± 10.60 y, with 51.4% being female. The mean sleep duration was 7.31 ± 1.44 h. Short and long sleepers accounted for 30.9% and 6.9% of the sample, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that older age, current smoking, irregular meal pattern, lack of physical exercise, poor mental health, and chronic diseases or multimorbidity were positively associated with short sleep. Being married and living in rural areas were, however, negatively associated with short sleep. In addition, living in rural area, current smoking, current alcohol use and lack of physical exercise were positively associated with long sleep, while older age and lower education were negatively associated with long sleep. Given the high frequency of short sleep and its negative effect on health, health professionals should pay more attention to sleep patterns in general health care. Nationwide epidemiologic surveys in China are needed to further explore the relationship between sleep duration and health. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  19. Violence against children, later victimisation, and mental health: a cross-sectional study of the general Norwegian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Thoresen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence in childhood is associated with mental health problems and risk of revictimisation. Less is known about the relative importance of the various types of childhood and adult victimisation for adult mental health. Objective: To estimate the associations between various types of childhood and adult violence exposure, and their combined associations to adult mental health. Method: This study was a cross-sectional telephone survey of the Norwegian adult population; 2,435 women and 2,092 men aged 18–75 participated (19.3% of those we tried to call and 42.9% of those who answered the phone. The interview comprised a broad array of violence exposure in both childhood and adulthood. Anxiety/depression was measured by the Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL-10. Results: Victimisation was commonly reported, for example, child sexual abuse (women: 10.2%, men: 3.5%, childhood–parental physical violence (women: 4.9%, men: 5.1%, and lifetime forcible rape (women: 9.4%, men: 1.1%. All categories of childhood violence were significantly associated with adult victimisation, with a 2.2–5.0 times higher occurrence in exposed children (p<0.05 for all associations. Anxiety/depression (HSCL-10 associated with adult abuse increased with the number of childhood violence categories experienced (p<0.001. All combinations of childhood violence were significantly associated with anxiety/depression (p<0.001 for all associations. Individuals reporting psychological violence/neglect had the highest levels of anxiety/depression. Conclusions: Results should be interpreted in light of the low response rate. Childhood violence in all its forms was a risk factor for victimisation in adulthood. Adult anxiety/depression was associated with both the number of violence categories and the type of childhood violence experienced. A broad assessment of childhood and adult violence exposure is necessary both for research and prevention purposes. Psychological violence

  20. Disability pension due to common mental disorders and subsequent suicidal behaviour: a population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syed Ghulam; Alexanderson, Kristina; Jokinen, Jussi; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2016-04-04

    Adverse health outcomes, including suicide, in individuals on disability pension (DP) due to mental diagnoses have been reported. However, scientific knowledge on possible risk factors for suicidal behaviour (suicide attempt and suicide) in this group, such as age, gender, underlying DP diagnoses, comorbidity and DP duration and grade, is surprisingly sparse. This study aimed to investigate associations of different measures (main and secondary diagnoses, duration and grade) of DP due to common mental disorders (CMD) with subsequent suicidal behaviour, considering gender and age differences. Population-based prospective cohort study based on Swedish nationwide registers. A cohort of 46,515 individuals aged 19-64 years on DP due to CMD throughout 2005 was followed-up for 5 years. In relation to different measures of DP, univariate and multivariate HRs and 95% CIs for suicidal behaviour were estimated by Cox regression. All analyses were stratified by gender and age. During 2006-2010, 1036 (2.2%) individuals attempted and 207 (0.5%) completed suicide. Multivariate analyses showed that a main DP diagnosis of 'stress-related mental disorders' was associated with a lower risk of subsequent suicidal behaviour than 'depressive disorders' (HR range 0.4-0.7). Substance abuse or personality disorders as a secondary DP diagnosis predicted suicide attempt in all subgroups (HR range 1.4-2.3) and suicide in women and younger individuals (HR range 2.6-3.3). Full-time DP was associated with a higher risk of suicide attempt compared with part-time DP in women and both age groups (HR range 1.4-1.7). Depressive disorders as the main DP diagnosis and substance abuse or personality disorders as the secondary DP diagnosis were risk markers for subsequent suicidal behaviour in individuals on DP due to CMD. Particular attention should be paid to younger individuals on DP due to anxiety disorders because of the higher suicide risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  1. Mental Health Disparities Within the LGBT Population: A Comparison Between Transgender and Nontransgender Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dejun; Irwin, Jay A; Fisher, Christopher; Ramos, Athena; Kelley, Megan; Mendoza, Diana Ariss Rogel; Coleman, Jason D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed within a Midwestern LGBT population whether, and the extent to which, transgender identity was associated with elevated odds of reported discrimination, depression symptoms, and suicide attempts. Methods: Based on survey data collected online from respondents who self-identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or transgender persons over the age of 19 in Nebraska in 2010, this study performed bivariate t - or chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analysis to examine differences in reported discrimination, depression symptoms, suicide attempts, and self-acceptance of LGBT identity between 91 transgender and 676 nontransgender respondents. Results: After controlling for the effects of selected confounders, transgender identity was associated with higher odds of reported discrimination (OR=2.63, p LGBT identity was associated with substantially lower odds of reporting depression symptoms (OR=0.46, p LGBT identity was associated with depression symptoms among transgender individuals.

  2. Predictors of suicidality in depressive spectrum disorders in the general population : results of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, Jan; de Graaf, Ron; ten Have, Margreet; Nolen, Willem A.; Speckens, Anne

    The aim was to assess determinants of suicidality (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts) in a general population cohort with depressive spectrum disorders, and to compare determinants for suicidal ideation and determinants for suicide attempts in this cohort. The Netherlands Mental Health Survey

  3. Living with the physical and mental consequences of an ostomy : A study among 1–10-year rectal cancer survivors from the population-based PROFILES registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, F.; Lemmens, V.E.P.P.; Bosscha, K.J.; Broek van den, W.; Thong, M.S.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined the physical and mental consequences of an ostomy among 1–10-year rectal cancer survivors. Methods Patients with rectal cancer diagnosed from 2000 to 2009, as registered in the population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry, received a questionnaire on quality of life

  4. Hospital contact for mental disorders in survivors of childhood cancer and their siblings in Denmark: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, Jeanette F; Dalton, Susanne O; Cederkvist, Luise; Jeppesen, Pia; Deltour, Isabelle; Hargreave, Marie; Kjær, Susanne K; Jensen, Allan; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Andersen, Klaus K; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Johansen, Christoffer

    2013-09-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer are known to be at risk for long-term physical and mental effects. However, little is known about how cancers can affect mental health in the siblings of these patients. We aimed to assess the long-term risks of mental disorders in survivors of childhood cancer and their siblings. Hospital contact for mental disorders was assessed in a population-based cohort of 7085 Danish children treated for cancer by contemporary protocols between 1975 and 2010 and in their 13 105 siblings by use of data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) for first hospital contact were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model. We compared these sibling and survivor cohorts with two population-based cohorts who were not childhood cancer survivors or siblings of survivors. Survivors of childhood cancer were at increased risk of hospital contact for mental disorders, with HRs of 1·50 (95% CI 1·32-1·69) for males and 1·26 (1·10-1·44) for females. Children younger than 10 years at diagnosis had the highest risk, and increased risks were seen in survivors of CNS tumours, haematological malignancies, and solid tumours. Survivors had higher risk of neurodevelopmental, emotional, and behavioural disorders than population-based comparisons and siblings, and male survivors had higher risk for unipolar depression. Overall, siblings had no excess risk for mental disorders. However, our data suggest that siblings who were young at the time of cancer diagnosis of the survivor were at increased risk for mental disorders, whereas those older than 15 years at diagnosis were at a lower risk than the general population. Childhood cancer survivors should be followed up for mental late effects, especially those diagnosed in young age. Further, clinicians should also be aware that siblings who were young at the time of cancer diagnosis might be at increased risk for mental health disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  5. Pilot of Te Tomokanga: A Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service Evaluation Tool for an Indigenous Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahu McClintock

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe acceptability of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS to Indigenous peoples is little studied. There has been a lack of evaluation tools able to take account of the more holistic approach to the attainment of mental health that characterises Māori, the Indigenous population of Aotearoa (New Zealand. This study aimed to develop such an instrument and establish some of its psychometric properties. Then, to use the measure to establish whānau (family or caregiver views on desirable CAMHS characteristics.MethodA self-administered survey, Te Tomokanga, was developed by modifying a North American questionnaire, the Youth Services Survey for Families (YSS-F. The intent of the tool was to record whānau experiences and views on service acceptability.The Te Tomokanga survey is unique in that it incorporates questions designed to examine CAMHS delivery in light of the Whare Tapa Whā[1], a Māori comprehensive model of health with a focus on whānau involvement and culturally responsive services. This mail or telephone survey was completed by a cohort of 168 Māori whānau. Their children had been referred to one of the three types of CAMHS, mainstream, bicultural, and kaupapa Māori[2], of the District Health Board (DHBs in the Midland health region, Aotearoa. The Midland health region is an area with a large Māori population with high levels of social deprivation.ResultsThe Te Tomokanga instrument was shown to have a similar factor structure to the North American questionnaire from which it had been derived. It identified issues relevant to Māori whānau satisfaction with CAMHS. The work supports the concept that Māori desire therapeutic methods consistent with the Whare Tapa Whā, such as whānau involvement and the importance of recognising culture and spirituality.The participants were generally positive about the services they received from the three different CAMHS types, which shows good acceptability of CAMHS for

  6. World Cup's impact on mental health and lifestyle behaviors in the general population: comparing results of 2 serial population-based surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph Tai Fai; Tsui, Hi Yi; Mo, Phoenix Kit Han; Mak, Winnie Wing Sze; Griffiths, Sian

    2015-03-01

    This study compares the prevalence of health-related behaviors and mental health well-being in the Hong Kong general male population before and after the 2006 World Cup finals. Two anonymous, serial, comparable cross-sectional surveys. A total of 500 and 530 adult Chinese men, respectively, were interviewed in 2 telephone surveys before and after the finals. Those interviewed after the World Cup were more likely to eat snacks more than 3 d/wk, to be binge drinkers, or to spend more than 2 h/d communicating with family members. They were less likely to have higher General Health Questionnaire or lower Short Form-36 Health Survey Vitality scores (odds ratio [OR] = 0.684 and 0.765), to perceive family-related or work-related stress (OR = 0.327 and 0.345), or to self-report being sick or have visited a doctor (OR = 0.645 and 0.722). All variables between watchers versus nonwatchers of World Cup games were significant or marginally significant. Public health education should be incorporated into global sport events. © 2013 APJPH.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in people with severe mental illness: a total population study of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer-Staeb, Clarissa; Jörgensen, Lena; Lewis, Glyn; Dalman, Christina; Osborn, David P J; Hayes, Joseph F

    2017-09-01

    Severe mental illness is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The elevated risk of blood-borne viruses (BBVs) in people with severe mental illness is of concern, but the full extent of this problem is unclear. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for BBVs in people with severe mental illness. In this nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional study, we estimated the point prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B (HBV), and hepatitis C (HCV) in people with severe mental illness, including the total adult (≥18 years) Swedish population. We defined severe mental illness as a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, or other psychotic illness according to the Swedish version of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases version 8, 9, or 10. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds of BBVs in individuals with severe mental illness, relative to the general population, and to identify independent risk factors (age, sex, immigration status, socioeconomic status, education, and substance misuse) for BBV infection. We also did a sensitivity analysis excluding BBV diagnoses made before the introduction of the Register for Infection Disease Control (1997). Of 6 815 931 adults in Sweden, 97 797 (1·43%) individuals had a diagnosis of severe mental illness. Prevalence of BBVs was elevated in people with severe mental illness, of which 230 (0·24%) had HIV, 518 (0·53%) had HBV, and 4476 (4·58%) had HCV. After accounting for sociodemographic characteristics, the odds of HIV were 2·57 (95% CI 2·25-2·94, pmental illness than in the general population, whereas the odds of HBV were 2·29 (2·09-2·51, pmental illness and identify interventions preventing infection. Targeting of comorbid substance misuse would have particular effect on reduction of BBV prevalence in this population. Medical Research Council and Swedish Research Council. Copyright © 2017 The Author

  8. Perceived stigmatization and discrimination of people with mental illness: A survey-based study of the general population in five metropolitan cities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böge, Kerem; Zieger, Aron; Mungee, Aditya; Tandon, Abhinav; Fuchs, Lukas Marian; Schomerus, Georg; Tam Ta, Thi Minh; Dettling, Michael; Bajbouj, Malek; Angermeyer, Matthias; Hahn, Eric

    2018-01-01

    India faces a significant gap between the prevalence of mental illness among the population and the availability and effectiveness of mental health care in providing adequate treatment. This discrepancy results in structural stigma toward mental illness which in turn is one of the main reasons for a persistence of the treatment gap, whereas societal factors such as religion, education, and family structures play critical roles. This survey-based study investigates perceived stigma toward mental illness in five metropolitan cities in India and explores the roles of relevant sociodemographic factors. Samples were collected in five metropolitan cities in India including Chennai ( n = 166), Kolkata ( n = 158), Hyderabad ( n = 139), Lucknow ( n = 183), and Mumbai ( n = 278). Stratified quota sampling was used to match the general population concerning age, gender, and religion. Further, sociodemographic variables such as educational attainment and strength of religious beliefs were included in the statistical analysis. Participants displayed overall high levels of perceived stigma. Multiple linear regression analysis found a significant effect of gender ( P Gender differences in cultural and societal roles and expectations could account for higher levels of perceived stigma among female participants. A higher level of perceived stigma among female participants is attributed to cultural norms and female roles within a family or broader social system. This study underlines that while India as a country in transition, societal and gender rules still impact perceived stigma and discrimination of people with mental illness.

  9. Perceived stigmatization and discrimination of people with mental illness: A survey-based study of the general population in five metropolitan cities in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böge, Kerem; Zieger, Aron; Mungee, Aditya; Tandon, Abhinav; Fuchs, Lukas Marian; Schomerus, Georg; Tam Ta, Thi Minh; Dettling, Michael; Bajbouj, Malek; Angermeyer, Matthias; Hahn, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Background: India faces a significant gap between the prevalence of mental illness among the population and the availability and effectiveness of mental health care in providing adequate treatment. This discrepancy results in structural stigma toward mental illness which in turn is one of the main reasons for a persistence of the treatment gap, whereas societal factors such as religion, education, and family structures play critical roles. This survey-based study investigates perceived stigma toward mental illness in five metropolitan cities in India and explores the roles of relevant sociodemographic factors. Materials and Methods: Samples were collected in five metropolitan cities in India including Chennai (n = 166), Kolkata (n = 158), Hyderabad (n = 139), Lucknow (n = 183), and Mumbai (n = 278). Stratified quota sampling was used to match the general population concerning age, gender, and religion. Further, sociodemographic variables such as educational attainment and strength of religious beliefs were included in the statistical analysis. Results: Participants displayed overall high levels of perceived stigma. Multiple linear regression analysis found a significant effect of gender (P mental illness. PMID:29736059

  10. Could High Mental Demands at Work Offset the Adverse Association Between Social Isolation and Cognitive Functioning? Results of the Population-Based LIFE-Adult-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Francisca S; Schroeter, Matthias L; Witte, A Veronica; Engel, Christoph; Löffler, Markus; Thiery, Joachim; Villringer, Arno; Luck, Tobias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2017-11-01

    The study investigated whether high mental demands at work, which have shown to promote a good cognitive functioning in old age, could offset the adverse association between social isolation and cognitive functioning. Based on data from the population-based LIFE-Adult-Study, the association between cognitive functioning (Verbal Fluency Test, Trail Making Test B) and social isolation (Lubben Social Network Scale) as well as mental demands at work (O*NET database) was analyzed via linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, education, and sampling weights. Cognitive functioning was significantly lower in socially isolated individuals and in individuals working in low mental demands jobs-even in old age after retirement and even after taking into account the educational level. An interaction effect suggested stronger effects of mental demands at work in socially i