Vink, C.W.; Labots-Vogelesang, S.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between menstruation disorders and prior sexual abuse. DESIGN: Questionnaire investigation. METHOD: A questionnaire was developed consisting of 50 questions about menstruation disorders, premenstrual syndrome and sexual abuse. The questionnaire was mailed to
Liang, H-Y; Lee, L-W; Kelsen, B A; Hsu, S-C; Liu, C-Y; Chen, C-Y
The aims of this cross-sectional, case-controlled, observational study were to examine attitudes toward menstruation in female patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and in a control group, and to explore the associations between attitudes toward menstruation and psychopathology, menstrual regularity during antipsychotic treatment, and menstrual distress symptoms. Fifty-eight patients treated with anti-psychotic medications for at least the previous 6 months were placed in irregular (irregular menstrual cycle) (n = 31) and regular (regular menstrual cycle) (n = 27) groups. Sixty-two, age-matched, healthy female participants with regular menstrual cycles were enrolled as a control group. Psychopathology was assessed by psychiatrists using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ) was used to assess attitudes toward menstruation, and symptom checklists based on the Moos Menstruation Distress Questionnaire (MMDQ) were used to assess menstrual distress symptoms. Patients with psychotic disorders (both irregular and regular groups) had more negative attitudes toward menstruation than the control group. In the Schizophrenia group, there was no association between the severity of psychotic symptoms and their influence on attitudes toward menstruation. Moreover, regular menstrual cycles during antipsychotic treatment and fewer menstrual distress symptoms were the two main predictors for more positive attitudes toward menstruation in the patient group. This is one of the first studies to explore the relationship between psychotic symptoms and attitudes toward menstruation. The findings provide more support for the assumption that attitudes toward menstruation are derived from a woman's perception of her bodily experience rather than a psychiatric disorder.
Spierings, Egilius L H; Padamsee, Aliya
Migraine is a chronic condition of recurring moderate-to-severe headaches that affects an estimated 6% of men and 18% of women. The highest prevalence is in those 18-49 years of age, generally when women menstruate. It is divided into episodic and chronic migraine depending on the total number of headache days per month being 14 or less or 15 or more, respectively. Migraine has been associated with menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, and endometriosis, the latter particularly in chronic migraine. We conducted a questionnaire survey of 96 women with migraine, 18-45 years old, to determine the occurrence of the menstrual-cycle disorders, oligomenorrhea, polymenorrhea, and irregular cycle, and the menstruation disorders, dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia, in episodic vs chronic migraine. The prevalence of menstrual-cycle disorders in general (41.2 vs 22.2%) and dysmenorrhea (51.0 vs 28.9%) was statistically significantly higher in the women with chronic migraine than in those with episodic migraine (P ≤ 0.05) (not corrected for multiple comparisons). Whether the migraine was menstruation sensitive, that is, the headaches consistently occurred or worsened with menstruation, did not impact the prevalence of menstrual disorders. We conclude that chronic migraine is possibly more often than episodic migraine associated with menstrual-cycle disorders in general and dysmenorrhea, without impact on menstruation sensitivity of the headaches. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Vale, Beatriz; Brito, Sara; Paulos, Lígia; Moleiro, Pascoal
To analyse the progression of body mass index in eating disorders and to determine the percentile for establishment and resolution of the disease. A retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study. Review of clinical files of adolescents with eating disorders. Of the 62 female adolescents studied with eating disorders, 51 presented with eating disorder not otherwise specified, 10 anorexia nervosa, and 1 bulimia nervosa. Twenty-one of these adolescents had menstrual disorders; in that, 14 secondary amenorrhea and 7 menstrual irregularities (6 eating disorder not otherwise specified, and 1 bulimia nervosa). In average, in anorectic adolescents, the initial body mass index was in 75th percentile; secondary amenorrhea was established 1 month after onset of the disease; minimum weight was 76.6% of ideal body mass index (at 4th percentile) at 10.2 months of disease; and resolution of amenorrhea occurred at 24 months, with average weight recovery of 93.4% of the ideal. In eating disorder not otherwise specified with menstrual disorder (n=10), the mean initial body mass index was at 85th percentile; minimal weight was in average 97.7% of the ideal value (minimum body mass index was in 52nd percentile) at 14.9 months of disease; body mass index stabilization occurred at 1.6 year of disease; and mean body mass index was in 73rd percentile. Considering eating disorder not otherwise specified with secondary amenorrhea (n=4); secondary amenorrhea occurred at 4 months, with resolution at 12 months of disease (mean 65th percentile body mass index). One-third of the eating disorder group had menstrual disorder - two-thirds presented with amenorrhea. This study indicated that for the resolution of their menstrual disturbance the body mass index percentiles to be achieved by female adolescents with eating disorders was 25-50 in anorexia nervosa, and 50-75, in eating disorder not otherwise specified.
Lin, Ying; Zhang, Hong
A dispute about whether women are suitable to receive acupuncture treatment in the period of menstruation has existed for many years. There are some reports about acupuncture treatment induced abnormal menstruation in women experiencing menstruation. However, according to long-term clinical practice and current development of acupuncture therapy, the authors of the present paper hold that there are no absolute contradictions for acupuncture treatment of women during menstruation. Additionally, acupuncture induced menstrual disorder has no enough data support of large size example clinical trials. The key points of acupuncture administration for women during menstruation are: (1) reasonable selection of acupoints prescriptions, and (2) appropriate acupuncture needle manipulations, particularly avoiding strong stimulation.
Davies, Joanna; Kadir, Rezan A
Under normal physiological circumstances menstruation is a highly regulated, complex process that is under strict hormonal control. During normal menstruation, progesterone withdrawal initiates menstruation. The cessation of menstrual bleeding is achieved by endometrial haemostasis via platelet aggregation, fibrin deposition and thrombus formation. Local endocrine, immunological and haemostatic factors interact at a molecular level to control endometrial haemostasis. Tissue factor and thrombin play a key role locally in the cessation of menstrual bleeding through instigation of the coagulation factors. On the other hand, fibrinolysis prevents clot organisation within the uterine cavity while plasminogen activator inhibitors (PAI) and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitors control plasminogen activators and plasmin activity. Abnormalities of uterine bleeding can result from imbalance of the haemostatic factors. The most common abnormality of uterine bleeding is heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). Modern research has shown that an undiagnosed bleeding disorder, in particular von Willebrand disease (VWD) and platelet function disorders, can be an underlying cause of HMB. This has led to a change in the approach to the management of HMB. While full haemostatic assessment is not required for all women presenting with HMB, menstrual score and bleeding score can help to discriminate women who are more likely to have a bleeding disorder and benefit from laboratory haemostatic evaluation. Haemostatic agents (tranexamic acid and DDAVP) enhance systemic and endometrial haemostasis and are effective in reducing menstrual blood loss in women with or without bleeding disorders. Further research is required to enhance our understanding of the complex interactions of haemostatic factors in general, and specifically within the endometrium. This will lead to the development of more targeted interventions for the management of abnormal uterine bleeding in the future.
Brosens, Ivo; Benagiano, Giuseppe
Past studies have clearly shown the existence of a spectrum of endometrial progesterone responses in neonatal endometrium, varying from proliferation to full decidualization with menstrual-like shedding. The bleedings represent, similar to what occurs in adult menstruation, a progesterone withdrawal bleeding. Today, the bleeding is completely neglected and considered an uneventful episode of no clinical significance. Yet clinical studies have linked the risk of bleeding to a series of events indicating fetal distress. The potential link between the progesterone response and major adolescent disorders requires to be investigated by prospective studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stevens, Gwendolyn; Gardner, Sheldon
To explore current conceptions about menstruation, 50 male and female undergraduate students were asked to Q sort symptoms from the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ). The MDQ is a scale which contains 47 symptoms which have been associated with the menstrual cycle. The Q sort is a statistical technique in which data are analyzed as…
This article investigates James Joyce's fascination with a wide variety of medical texts, sexual folklores, religious beliefs, and persistent superstitions about menstruation. That fascination finds its way into Ulysses, which draws upon a number of intertexts to inform a curiosity about the female body most strikingly articulated by Bloom, Molly, and Gerty MacDowell. These intertexts are not simply imported into the novel but are dismantled and interrogated, as Joyce exposes, rather than endorses, clichés of essential femininity.
O'Grady, Kathleen; Wansbrough, Paula
This book combines short stories with clear, factual health information for adolescent females about menstruation and their bodily changes they are experiencing. It focuses on young girls' concerns and questions about menstruation and educates through a combination of the front matter and the stories themselves. Coming from different generations…
Evans, Jemma; Salamonsen, Lois A
Menstruation has many of the features of an inflammatory process. The complexity and sequence of inflammatory-type events leading to the final tissue breakdown and bleeding are slowly being unravelled. Progesterone has anti-inflammatory properties, and its rapidly declining levels (along with those of estrogen) in the late secretory phase of each non-conception cycle, initiates a sequence of interdependent events of an inflammatory nature involving local inter-cellular interactions within the endometrium. Intracellular responses to loss of progesterone (in decidualized stromal, vascular and epithelial cells) lead to decreased prostaglandin metabolism and loss of protection from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased ROS results in release of NFκB from suppression with activation of target gene transcription and increased synthesis of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins, cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). The resultant leukocyte recruitment, with changing phenotypes and activation, provide further degradative enzymes and MMP activators, which together with a hypoxic environment induced by prostaglandin actions, lead to the tissue breakdown and bleeding characteristic of menstruation. In parallel, at sites where shedding is complete, microenvironmentally-induced changes in phenotypes of neutrophils and macrophages from pro- to anti-inflammatory, in addition to induction of growth factors, contribute to the very rapid re-epithelialization and restoration of tissue integrity.
Tan, Delfin A; Haththotuwa, Rohana; Fraser, Ian S
The objective of this chapter is to present an overview of how menstruation, a normal bodily function, was and is perceived in various ethnic groups and cultures in the world, from ancient mythology, historical, or traditional practices to contemporary belief systems. Mythical tales about menstruation abound in the legends and prehistory of ancient cultures. These tales characterize menstrual blood variously as sacred, a gift from the gods, or a punishment for sin, but it is almost always magical and powerful. In contrast, most world religions view menstruation, with varying degrees of severity, as a major problem, a sign of impurity and uncleanliness, and therefore, menstruating women are isolated, prohibited from polluting the holy places, and shunned. Many of these myths and cultural misperceptions persist to the present day, reflected in a wide range of negative attitudes toward menstruation, which can have serious and direct implications for reproductive health. In view of the increasingly globalized nature of current clinical practice, it is crucial that health care providers are familiar with existing cultural and social views and attitudes toward the menstrual function. The ultimate goal is to be able to provide women culturally sensitive and medically appropriate therapies for their menstrual disorders. This biocultural approach to menstruation management is desirable in contemporary medical practice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Emera, D.; Romero, R.; Wagner, G.
Why do humans menstruate while most mammals do not? Here, we present our answer to this long-debated question, arguing that (i) menstruation occurs as a mechanistic consequence of hormone-induced differentiation of the endometrium (referred to as spontaneous decidualization, or SD); (ii) SD evolved because of maternal-fetal conflict; and (iii) SD evolved by genetic assimilation of the decidualization reaction, which is induced by the fetus in non-menstruating species. The idea that menstruation occurs as a consequence of SD has been proposed in the past, but here we present a novel hypothesis on how SD evolved. We argue that decidualization became genetically stabilized in menstruating lineages, allowing females to prepare for pregnancy without any signal from the fetus. We present three models for the evolution of SD by genetic assimilation, based on recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of endometrial differentiation and implantation. Testing these models will ultimately shed light on the evolutionary significance of menstruation, as well as on the etiology of human reproductive disorders like endometriosis and recurrent pregnancy loss. PMID:22057551
Clarke, Anne E.; Ruble, Diane N.
A sample of 54 young adolescent girls (both pre- and postmenarcheal) and boys responded to a questionnaire assessing evaluative attitudes toward menstruation, expected symptomatology, perceived effects on moods and activities, and sources of information for these beliefs. (Author/JMB)
Walsh, C H; Malins, J M
Seventy per cent of the patients aged 45 years or under and suffering from diabetic ketoacidosis who were seen in one diabetic clinic over five years were women. The association of menstruation with ketoacidosis was assessed over two and a half years, and it was found that menstruation was associated with ketoacidosis more often than would be expected by chance (P less than 0-01). Two hundred women were interviewed and 76 observed that menstruation changed their diabetic control. Fifty-three found that control deteriorated and hyperglycaemia occurred, while 23 found that control improved and hypoglycaemia was a common problem. Menstruation appears to be an important factor in influencing control of diabetes. The mechanism of the changes observed has not yet been determined, but it seems to be a subject worthy of further investigation. PMID:406008
Brenner, Robert M; Slayden, Ov D
Much of our understanding of the molecular control of menstruation arises from laboratory models that experimentally recapitulate some, but not all, aspects of uterine bleeding observed in women. These models include: in vitro culture of endometrial explants or isolated endometrial cells, transplantation of human endometrial tissue into immunodeficient mice and the induction of endometrial breakdown in appropriately pretreated mice. Each of these models has contributed to our understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms of menstruation, but nonhuman primates, especially macaques, are the animal model of choice for evaluating therapies for menstrual disorders. In this chapter we review some basic aspects of menstruation, with special emphasis on the macaque model and its relevance to the clinical issues of irregular and heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB).
The aim of this study was to investigate the concepts of objectification and self-objectification among young women in the context of attitudes towards menstruation, menstrual suppression, menstrual and menarche experiences, disorder eating and exercise habits and to detect predictors of objectification and self-objectification. The negative effects of objectification are well founded. Considering the central role menstruation plays in female biology, it comes as quite a surprise that so little attention is given to the subject in the research on objectification. Cross-sectional explorative survey design. A questionnaire that included the Self-Objectification Questionnaire, the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, the Belief and Attitudes Towards Menstruation Questionnaire and the Suppress Menstruation subscale of the Attitudes Towards Menstrual Suppression Questionnaire was administered at the end of 2013 to 319 Icelandic women who represented the population by age. A stepwise multiple linear regression model was employed to calculate significant predictors of objectification and self-objectification. Four models of objectification are presented: the self-objectification model, the body surveillance model, the body shame model and the control belief model. Taken together, the strongest predictors of these models were related to eating habits. However, the findings also support the proposition that menstrual-related experiences influence women's objectification, particularly in terms of age at menarche, of belief in the prescriptive role of menstruation and of use of pain medication for menstrual pain. Healthcare providers in general and nurses in particular could and should assist girls and women in developing a positive view of their body and its reproductive functions by discussing the body and menstruation based on women's concerns. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
MacGregor, E Anne
Migraine is most prevalent in women during their reproductive years. An understanding of the effects of menstruation and menopause on migraine can enable neurologists to provide targeted and appropriate medical and hormonal strategies, enabling their patients to achieve better control of migraine and reduced disability. This article reviews the effects of hormonal events on migraine and summarizes the evidence-based options available for management. Estrogen "withdrawal" during the late luteal phase of the natural menstrual cycle and the hormone-free interval of combined hormonal contraceptives has long been implicated in the pathophysiology of menstrual migraine. However, more recent research suggests that other independent mechanisms may be relevant. Prostaglandin inhibitors used for management of dysmenorrhea are effective for associated menstrual migraine, suggesting a common pathophysiology. The interplay between serotonin and estrogen also deserves further research. Menstrual and perimenopausal migraine can be managed effectively using a variety of strategies, the choice of which depends on the efficacy of acute treatment, predictability and regularity of menstruation, use of contraception, and presence of menstrual disorders or perimenopausal vasomotor symptoms.
Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Kordi, Masoumeh
Background: Menstruation signs are among the most common disorders in adolescents and are influenced by various environmental and psychosocial factors. This study aimed to define the association between menstruation signs and anxiety, depression, and stress in school girls in Mashhad in 2011-2012. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on 407 high school girls in Mashhad who were selected through two-step random sampling. The students completed a questionnaire concerning demographic characteristics, menstruation, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale of 21 questions (DASS-21), and menstruation signs in three phases of their menstruation. Data were analyzed by the statistical tests of Pearson correlation coefficient, Student's t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and regression through SPSS version 14. Results: Based on the findings, 74% of the subjects reported pre-menstruation signs, 94% reported signs during bleeding, and 40.8% reported post-menstruation signs. About 44.3% of the subjects had anxiety, 45.5% had depression, and 47.2% had stress. In addition, Pearson correlation coefficient test showed a significant positive correlation between menstruation signs and depression, anxiety, and stress (P menstruation signs and psycho-cognitive variables, prevention and treatment of these disorders by the authorities of education and training and the Ministry of Health are essential. PMID:24403944
Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Kordi, Masoumeh
Menstruation signs are among the most common disorders in adolescents and are influenced by various environmental and psychosocial factors. This study aimed to define the association between menstruation signs and anxiety, depression, and stress in school girls in Mashhad in 2011-2012. This was a cross-sectional study on 407 high school girls in Mashhad who were selected through two-step random sampling. The students completed a questionnaire concerning demographic characteristics, menstruation, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale of 21 questions (DASS-21), and menstruation signs in three phases of their menstruation. Data were analyzed by the statistical tests of Pearson correlation coefficient, Student's t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and regression through SPSS version 14. Based on the findings, 74% of the subjects reported pre-menstruation signs, 94% reported signs during bleeding, and 40.8% reported post-menstruation signs. About 44.3% of the subjects had anxiety, 45.5% had depression, and 47.2% had stress. In addition, Pearson correlation coefficient test showed a significant positive correlation between menstruation signs and depression, anxiety, and stress (P menstruation signs and psycho-cognitive variables, prevention and treatment of these disorders by the authorities of education and training and the Ministry of Health are essential.
Derry, Paula S; Derry, Gregory N
This article argues that menstruation, including the transition to menopause, results from a specific kind of complex system, namely, one that is nonlinear, dynamical, and chaotic. A complexity-based perspective changes how we think about and research menstruation-related health problems and positive health. Chaotic systems are deterministic but not predictable, characterized by sensitivity to initial conditions and strange attractors. Chaos theory provides a coherent framework that qualitatively accounts for puzzling results from perimenopause research. It directs attention to variability within and between women, adaptation, lifespan development, and the need for complex explanations of disease. Whether the menstrual cycle is chaotic can be empirically tested, and a summary of our research on 20- to 40-year-old women is provided.
Secor-Turner, Molly; Schmitz, Kaitlin; Benson, Kristen
Although menstruation is a universal experience, girls in resource-poor areas face unique challenges related to menstruation management. In Kenya, girls miss nearly 3.5 million learning days per month because of limited access to sanitary products and lack of adequate sanitation. Global priorities to address gender inequality-especially related to education-often do not consider the impact of poverty on gendered experiences, such as menstruation. The aim of the study was to describe the experiences of menstruation from the perspective of adolescent girls living in rural Kenya. Data for this qualitative study were collected through 29 individual interviews with adolescent girls and separate field observations. Descriptive content analysis was used to identify themes reflective of the data from the individual interviews and field notes. Four themes were developed to summarize the data: (a) receiving information about menstruation, (b) experiences of menstruation, (c) menstrual hygiene practices, and (d) social norms and the meaning of menstruation. Findings from this study describe the impact of menstruation on the lives of adolescent girls in rural Kenya. Menstrual hygiene management and its associated challenges may impact girls' academic continuity. Experiences of menstruation also reinforce gender inequality and further marginalize girls in low-income, rural areas of Kenya. Consideration of menstruation is critical to promote health and academic continuity for girls in rural Kenya.
Shimizu, Makiko; Cashman, John R; Yamazaki, Hiroshi
Background Trimethylaminuria, or fish odor syndrome, includes a transient or mild malodor caused by an excessive amount of malodorous trimethylamine as a result of body secretions. Herein, we describe data to support the proposal that menses can be an additional factor causing transient trimethylaminuria in self-reported subjects suffering from malodor and even in healthy women harboring functionally active flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3). Methods FMO3 metabolic capacity (conversion of trimethylamine to trimethylamine N-oxide) was defined as the urinary ratio of trimethylamine N-oxide to total trimethylamine. Results Self-reported Case (A) that was homozygous for inactive Arg500stop FMO3, showed decreased metabolic capacity of FMO3 (i.e., ~10% the unaffected metabolic capacity) during 120 days of observation. For Case (B) that was homozygous for common [Glu158Lys; Glu308Gly] FMO3 polymorphisms, metabolic capacity of FMO3 was almost ~90%, except for a few days surrounding menstruation showing 90%) metabolic capacity, however, on days around menstruation the FMO3 metabolic capacity was decreased to ~60–70%. Conclusion Together, these results indicate that abnormal FMO3 capacity is caused by menstruation particularly in the presence, in homozygous form, of mild genetic variants such as [Glu158Lys; Glu308Gly] that cause a reduced FMO3 function. PMID:17257434
This study surveyed 120 student nurses from two schools of nursing in Ibadan, Nigeria to assess the symptoms experienced during menstruation, attitude towards and management of menstruation. The student nurses overall mean age at menarche was 14 years, average duration of menstrual period was five days and ...
Chrisler, Joan C; Marván, Maria Luisa; Gorman, Jennifer A; Rossini, Meghan
Menstruation is an important function of the female body, yet it has rarely been included in research on body image. As women's attitudes toward menstruation are so often negative, this study was designed to examine whether women with positive body image would have more positive attitudes toward menstruation. Seventy-two American women, ages 18-45 years, were recruited online to complete the Body Appreciation Scale (Avalos et al., 2005) and the Beliefs about and Attitudes toward Menstruation Scale (Marván et al., 2006) and to answer some questions about their interest in menstrual suppression. Linear regressions showed that higher scores on body appreciation predicted more positive attitudes toward and beliefs about menstruation, but were not related to interest in menstrual suppression. Our findings may be useful in designing interventions to increase women's comfort with their bodies and bodily functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This autoinstructional program deals with the study of human develpment with emphasis on the female reproductive system. It is considered as part of a secondary school human anatomy and physiology course. Students should have a previous knowledge of the parts of the female reproductive organs or system. Behavioral objectives are suggested. The…
Garry, R; Hart, R; Karthigasu, K A; Burke, C
To prospectively observe the changes occurring in endometrial glandular morphology during menstrual shedding and regeneration. Prospective observational study. The academic gynaecological endoscopy unit of a university teaching hospital. Population Thirteen patients investigated for a variety of benign, non-infective gynaecological disorders during the active bleeding phase of the menstrual cycle. The morphological appearances of concurrent histological and scanning electron microscopic images of endometrium taken at different stages of the active bleeding phase of menstruation were studied and correlated with the simultaneous immunohistochemical expression of the Ki-67 proliferation marker and the CD68 marker of macrophage activity. Change in morphology of endometrial glands at various stages of menstruation. Endometrial glands within the basalis show evidence of apoptosis and associated macrophage activity immediately before and during menstruation. There is subsequent destruction and removal of old secretory glandular epithelial elements, and rapid replacement with new narrow glands lined with small epithelial cells. There is no evidence of mitotic cell division or expression of Ki-67 in the glandular cells during this replacement process, but there is evidence of marked macrophage activity prior to glandular cell loss. Early endometrial epithelial repair after menstruation is not a consequence of mitotic cell division. It occurs without evidence of Ki-67 expression. There is structural evidence of programmed cell death and intense macrophage activity associated with glandular remodelling. Dead epithelial cells are shed from the glands and accumulate within the endometrial cavity to be replaced by new small epithelial cells that appear to arise by differentiation of the surrounding stromal cells. We propose that these stromal cells are endometrial progenitor/stem cells.
...) are compounds that bind to the P receptor and block P action. Continuous blockade of P action during the menstrual cycle by PAs would prevent progestational priming of the endometrium and thus inhibit menstruation...
Leenaars, Antoon A; Dogra, T D; Girdhar, Shalini; Dattagupta, S; Leenaars, Lindsey
Previous research, albeit limited, has reported mixed findings on the impact of menstruation cycle on suicidal behavior. The contribution of menstruation to completed suicide is also controversial; the studies are, in fact, very limited and are not carefully designed. To examine whether the menstruation cycle impacts on suicide. In order to explore this relationship, 56 autopsies on completed suicides in females were performed and matched to a control group of 44 females who had died from other causes, at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi. Histopathological examination, a method of collecting tissue from the uterus through biopsy, was used to determine the stage of the menstrual cycle. The results show that 25% of women who had died by suicide were menstruating at the time, compared to 4.5% of the control group; this is statistically (chi2) significant at the p Menstruation in the women who completed suicide, compared to a control group, appeared to have an association, though more research is warranted. Not only there are serious methodological problems in the study of menstruation and suicide (largely because of problematic tissue storage and examination), but also because of the need to understand the impact within a larger psychological, social, and cultural frame.
Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Kordi, Masoumeh
Background: Menstruation signs are among the most common disorders in adolescents and are influenced by various environmental and psychosocial factors. This study aimed to define the association between menstruation signs and anxiety, depression, and stress in school girls in Mashhad in 2011-2012. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on 407 high school girls in Mashhad who were selected through two-step random sampling. The students completed a questionnaire concerning demo...
Henriet, Patrick; Gaide Chevronnay, Héloïse P; Marbaix, Etienne
During the reproductive life, the human endometrium undergoes cycles of substantial remodeling including, at menstruation, a massive but delimited tissue breakdown immediately followed by scarless repair. The present review aims at summarizing the current knowledge on the endocrine and paracrine control of menstruation in the light of recent observations that undermine obsolete dogmas. Menstruation can be globally considered as a response to falling progesterone concentration. However, tissue breakdown is heterogeneous and tightly controlled in space and time by a complex network of regulators and effectors, including cytokines, chemokines, proteases and various components of an inflammatory response. Moreover, menstruation must be regarded as part of a complex and integrated mechanism of tissue remodeling including features that precede and follow tissue lysis, i.e. decidualization and immediate post-menstrual regeneration. The understanding of the regulation of menstruation is of major basic and clinical interest. Indeed, these mechanisms largely overlap with those controlling other histopathological occurrences of tissue remodeling, such as development and cancer, and inappropriate control of menstrual features is a major potential cause of two frequent endometrial pathologies (i.e. abnormal uterine bleeding and endometriosis). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kwak, Yeunhee; Kim, Yoonjung
This cross-sectional study explored associations of irregular menstruation with occupational characteristics, using secondary analyses of data from 4,731 women aged 19-54 years, collected from a nationally representative sample, the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-V during 2010-2012. The associations between irregular menstruation and occupation were explored using multiple logistic regression. Compared to non-manual workers, service/sales workers had a greater odds of irregular menstruation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.44; 95percent confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.99) as did manual workers and unemployed women (aOR: 1.56; 95percent CI: 1.10-2.22, aOR: 1.46; 95percent CI: 1.14-1.89, respectively). Compared to regular workers, temporary workers and unemployed women had aORs of 1.52 (95percent CI: 1.08-2.13) and 1.33 (95percent CI: 1.05-1.69), respectively. Also, when compared to full-time workers, part-time workers and unemployed women had greater odds of irregular menstruation (aOR: 1.41; 95percent CI: 1.00-2.00 and aOR: 1.29; 95percent CI: 1.03-1.63, respectively). Furthermore, compared to daytime workers, shift workers and unemployed women had greater odds irregular menstruation (aOR: 1.39; 95percent CI: 1.03-1.88 and aOR: 1.28; 95percent CI: 1.04-1.59, respectively). Women with these occupational characteristics should be screened for early diagnosis and intervention for irregular menstruation.
Conducted a content analysis of 10 years of feminine hygiene advertisements in "Seventeen" and "Teen" magazines. Finds that advertising copy in these magazines works to dispel myths about menstruation but that few black models are shown. Discusses advertising as an element of socialization for adolescent girls. (SLD)
McNab, Warren L.
Lists common misconceptions about menstruation and suggests a unit on menstrual education. Activities and guidelines are presented along with unit outline. The outline consists of six major areas: definition and purpose; history; anatomy and reproduction; physiology; protection and discomfort; and related topics. (DH)
Brantelid, Ida Emilie; Nilvér, Helena; Alehagen, Siw
Menstruation is a natural phenomenon for women during their reproductive years. Our aim was to describe women's experiences of menstruation across the lifespan. Qualitative interviews with a narrative approach were conducted with 12 women between 18 and 48 years of age in Sweden. Using thematic analysis, we found menstruation to be a complex phenomenon that binds women together. It is perceived as an intimate and private matter, which makes women want to conceal the occurrence of menstrual bleeding. Over time, menstruation becomes a natural part of women's lives and gender identity. Health professionals play a central role supporting women to deal with menstruation.
Emera, Deena; Romero, Roberto; Wagner, Günter
Why do humans menstruate while most mammals do not? Here, we present our answer to this long-debated question, arguing that (i) menstruation occurs as a mechanistic consequence of hormone-induced differentiation of the endometrium (referred to as spontaneous decidualization, or SD); (ii) SD evolved because of maternal-fetal conflict; and (iii) SD evolved by genetic assimilation of the decidualization reaction, which is induced by the fetus in non-menstruating species. The idea that menstruation occurs as a consequence of SD has been proposed in the past, but here we present a novel hypothesis on how SD evolved. We argue that decidualization became genetically stabilized in menstruating lineages, allowing females to prepare for pregnancy without any signal from the fetus. We present three models for the evolution of SD by genetic assimilation, based on recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of endometrial differentiation and implantation. Testing these models will ultimately shed light on the evolutionary significance of menstruation, as well as on the etiology of human reproductive disorders like endometriosis and recurrent pregnancy loss. Copyright © 2012 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.
Weston, Jaclyn; Speroni, Karen Gabel; Ellis, Terri; Daniel, Marlon G
This study evaluated the effect of menstruation on psychiatric hospitalization. We conducted a retrospective chart review of the medical records of 177 women who met the eligibility criteria. Data collected included demographic details, primary and secondary diagnoses, date of last menstrual period (LMP), medication adherence, psychiatric hospitalization length of stay, previous psychiatric admissions (including those related to menstruation), discharge referrals, and readmissions. The majority of women were admitted for major depression, were single, Caucasian, and had a mean age of 34. A disproportionate percentage (37%) of women had their LMP within 5 days of psychiatric hospitalization (p = 0.0006). The overall average length of stay was 4.37 days, and 48.3% had a previous psychiatric admission. Medication adherence was routinely not documented (77.4%). Psychiatric hospitalizations for women are significantly greater within 5 days of their LMP. Nursing education and improved documentation are warranted to decrease the potential for readmission. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
Chothe, Vikas; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Seabert, Denise; Asalkar, Mahesh; Rakshe, Sarika; Firke, Arti; Midha, Inuka; Simmons, Robert
Menstrual education is a vital aspect of adolescent health education. Culture, awareness, and socioeconomic status often exert profound influence on menstrual practices. However, health education programs for young women in developing countries do not often address menstrual hygiene, practices, and disorders. Developing culturally sensitive menstrual health education and hygiene programs for adolescent females has been recommended by professional health organizations like the World Health Organization and UNICEF. These programs cannot be developed without understanding existing myths and perceptions about menstruation in adolescent females of developing countries. Thus, the purpose of this qualitative study from India was to document existing misconceptions regarding menstruation and perceptions about menarche and various menstrual restrictions that have been understudied. Out of the 612 students invited to participate by asking questions, 381 girls participated by asking specific questions about menstruation (response rate = 62%). The respondents consisted of 84 girls from sixth grade, 117 from seventh grade, and 180 from eighth grade. The questions asked were arranged into the following subthemes: anatomy and physiology, menstrual symptoms, menstrual myths and taboos, health and beauty, menstrual abnormalities, seeking medical advice and home remedies; sanitary pads usage and disposal; diet and lifestyle; and sex education. Results of our study indicate that students had substantial doubts about menstruation and were influenced by societal myths and taboos in relation to menstrual practices. Parents, adolescent care providers, and policy makers in developing countries should advocate for comprehensive sexuality education and resources (e.g., low-cost sanitary pads and school facilities) to promote menstrual health and hygiene promotion.
Fujiwara, Tomoko; Nakata, Rieko
In this study, to estimate the current status of young women with menstrual disorders, the relation among dysmenorrhea, irregular menstruation and premenstrual symptoms was investigated by a questionnaire. Subjects ranging from 18 to 20 years old were recruited from 522 female students at Ashiya College in Japan. The intensity of dysmenorrhea was classified into 3 grades (score 1, not requiring analgesic; score 2, painful, requiring analgesic; score 3, painful, not relieved by analgesic). All participants were further divided into subsequent groups as having premenstrual symptoms or not and those having regular or irregular menstruation. Dysmenorrhea scores in the students with premenstrual symptoms or irregular menstruation were significantly higher than those without these symptoms (1.66+/-0.66 vs 1.41+/-0.59; 1.62+/-0.68 vs 1.49+/-0.61, respectively). There was no significant relation in the incidence between premenstrual symptoms and irregular menstruation. These findings suggest that considerable numbers of young women with dysmenorrhea are associated with premenstrual symptoms.
Suman Bodat, Mrunalini M Ghate, Jyoti R Majumdar
Background: Menstrual related problems and inadequate school sanitation facilities have an adverse effect on adolescent girl?s academic performance and school attendance especially in rural setting. The following study was undertaken to determine school absenteeism during menstruation period. Objective: To assess the impact of menstruation on school attendance and factors affecting menstruation management. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in rural field practice area o...
Havens, Beverly; Swenson, Ingrid
Reviewed 31 audiovisual media for content related to physical and psychological aspects of menstruation; portrayal of adolescent girls, parents, and peers; and relationship of menstruation to developmental process. In general, variations in physical and emotional responses were described as normal. In all cases, fear and embarrassment were…
Cheng, Ching-Yu; Yang, Kyeongra; Liou, Shwu-Ru
The purpose of the study was to explore gender differences in knowledge and attitudes towards menstruation among Taiwanese adolescents. This study was a secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional comparison study conducted in Taiwan. A total of 287 female and 269 male students at a junior high school participated in the study. The results showed that almost all the students had heard about menstruation and most of them had received menstrual information at school. However, their knowledge about menstruation was not accurate. Moreover, the male students expressed more negative attitudes towards menstruation than the female students. Taboos were heard by most students and, although many female students doubted the reality of the taboos they had heard, they observed them anyway. The study calls for an evaluation of sex education and suggests more open discussions about menstruation among young people in those education sessions. In addition, school nurses and obstetrical/gynecological nurses should be involved more in adolescents' sexual education.
Full Text Available Menstruation-associated disorders negatively interfere with the quality of life of many women. However, mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of menstrual disorders remain poorly investigated up to date. Among others, this is based on a lack of appropriate pre-clinical animal models. We here employ a mouse menstruation model induced by priming mice with gonadal hormones and application of a physical stimulus into the uterus followed by progesterone removal. As in women, these events are accompanied by menstrual-like bleeding and tissue remodeling processes, i.e. disintegration of decidualized endometrium, as well as subsequent repair. We demonstrate that the onset of bleeding coincides with strong upregulation of inflammatory mediators and massive granulocyte influx into the uterus. Uterine granulocytes play a central role in regulating local tissue remodeling since depletion of these cells results in dysregulated expression of matrix modifying enzymes. As described here for the first time, uterine blood loss can be quantified by help of tampon-like cotton pads. Using this novel technique, we reveal that blood loss is strongly reduced upon inhibition of endometrial vascularization and thus, is a key regulator of menstrual bleeding. Taken together, we here identify angiogenesis and infiltrating granulocytes as critical determinants of uterine bleeding and tissue remodeling in a mouse menstruation model. Importantly, our study provides a technical and scientific basis allowing quantification of uterine blood loss in mice and thus, assessment of therapeutic intervention, proving great potential for future use in basic research and drug discovery.
Morrison, Lynn A; Larkspur, Louona; Calibuso, Marites J; Brown, Susan
To examine the relationships between attitudes towards menstruation, health, and behavioral characteristics. The 136 women who completed questionnaires varied in their sexual activity, sexual orientation, and use of hormonal contraception. Women's estimated cycle length was accurate when compared to observed cycle length (F (3,156) = .05; P = .98). Smokers had decreased durations of flow (P menstruation as natural compared to abstinent, sexually active heterosexuals or those using traditional oral contraception (F (5,141) = 2.43; P = .04). Hormonal contraception use, but not sexual orientation, was associated with attitudes about menstruation.
Menstruation in Rural Igbo Women of South East Nigeria: Attitudes, Beliefs and Practices. ... African Journal of Reproductive Health ... Some respondents observed self-imposed restrictions on exercises, food items, visits and sex in order to ...
Kieren, Dianne K.
Critiques current menstrual education efforts and reviews current data about the nature of adolescent girls' attitudes toward menstruation as the basis for redesigning comprehensive, effective menstrual education programs. (Author)
Jiang, Xing-Hui; Liu, Han-Ping; Guo, Zhou-Yi; Meng, Yao-Yong; Zeng, Chang-Chun; Liu, Song-Hao
Acupoint was reaction of viscera and its optical parameter was an important characteristic of tissue. In the present work, in order to discuss specificity of acupuncture on the response of qi and blood in human body, we compared the diffuse reflectance of Taichong (LV3), Taibai (SP3), and Chongyang (ST42) before, during and after menstruation. All the acupoints had the same shape of the spectrum and troughs were all at 423.16, 544.06 and 577.47 nm. The values of reflectance during menstruation were greater than before and after menstruation, especially for SP3 and ST42 (P menstruation. Diffuse reflectance may be possibly used in the quantitative analysis of qi and blood.
Kumar, Anant; Srivastava, Kamiya
The study attempts to find out the existing social and cultural practices regarding menstruation, awareness levels, and the behavioral changes that come about in adolescent girls during menstruation, their perception about menarche, how do they treat it, and the various taboos, norms, and cultural practices associated with menarche. The study was conducted on 117 adolescent girls (age 11-20 years) and 41 mothers from various communities and classes in Ranchi comprising residential colonies and urban slums. The findings unfolds many practices: cultural and social restrictions associated with menstruation, myth, and misconception; the adaptability of the adolescent girls toward it; their reaction, reaction of the family; realization of the importance of menstruation; and the changes that have come in their life after menarche and their resistance to such changes. The article also suggests the strategies to improve menstrual health and hygiene among adolescent girls. The study concludes that cultural and social practices regarding menstruation depend on girls' education, attitude, family environment, culture, and belief.
Rajoo, Sangeetha Govinda; Gandhewar, Jaishree
To describe a case of recurrent episcleritis associated with a patient's menstrual cycle. A retrospective case review of a 39-year-old woman who presented with a 12-year history of recurrent episcleritis in relation to her menstruation. She was seen during an acute attack and started on a reducing regime of topical steroids for 5 weeks. She was then advised to use it a week before and after menstruation. Examination and investigations revealed episcleritis with a negative systems review. After starting the treatment, she was symptom free when reviewed at 4, 8, 14, and 33 weeks. Now, the patient uses topical steroids only 1 week before menstruation. Literature review revealed no recent case reports and provided insufficient evidence to understand this relationship. We recommend increased awareness and reporting because there is a need for more studies to understand this relationship and to provide evidence for management.
Wu, Jie; Yang, Lijie; Chen, Yajie; Li, Qing; Chen, Lin
Through the discussion on TCM physiological characters of females in follicular, ovulatory, luteal and menstrual phases and treatment principles, the clinical application of artificial cycle therapy of acupuncture and moxibustion was introduced for irregular menstruation and the typical cases were attached. It is suggested that the menstrual cycle follows the growth-consumption rule of yin, yang, qi and blood. The corresponding treatment principles should be applied in accordance with the change rule of menstrual cycle. Hence, it is worth to adopt the artificial cycle therapy of acupuncture and moxibustion for irregular menstruation in clinical application.
Orringer, Kelly; Gahagan, Sheila
Incomplete understanding of menstruation may place girls at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and unintended pregnancy. Prior research suggests that European American and African American girls incompletely understand menstruation, yet little is known about menstrual knowledge in other ethnic groups. Using audiotaped focus group and individual interviews with 73 African American, Mexican American, Arab American, and European American girls, we assessed girls' menstrual understanding. Responses included reproduction, growing up, cleansing, messages about femininity, and not knowing. We found ethnic differences in the prominence of these themes. We learned that social and cultural factors play an important role in transmission of menstrual knowledge.
Menstruation is an endocrine mediated physiologic cyclical bleeding per vagina in a non-pregnant woman of the reproductive age group. Blood is a good culture medium for bacteria and as such, menstruation can affect leucocytes count. This study is aimed at evaluating leucocytes count during menstruation. Fifty-eight ...
Agnew, Shire; Sandretto, Susan
When Agnew found the same, largely negative, dominant discourses of menstruation present in classroom lessons that researchers have been identifying for over 30 years, she sought different approaches to menstruation education. In this article the authors highlight the power of the media to (re)construct dominant discourses of menstruation and the…
Chrisler, Joan C.
The purpose of this article is (a) to consider reasons why women's reproductive processes receive so little attention in psychology courses and (b) to make an argument for why more attention is needed. Menstruation, menopause, and other reproductive events are important to the psychology of women. Reproductive processes make possible a social role…
While pelvic endometriosis is relatively common, thoracic menstruation is rare. A report of what is believed to be the first case of thoracic endometriosis in Uganda is given. A 34 year old female was complaining of on and off chest pain mainly on the right side. Clinically she had signs of pleural effusion and 500 mls of altered ...
Information derived from researching cultural information on menstruation and other forms of blood flow in adolescent girls in Nigeria can contribute extensively to existing knowledge about the female world in general and on adolescent girls in particular. This will further encourage ongoing advocacy programmes in ...
Herrmann, Mariesa A.; Rockoff, Jonah E.
Ichino and Moretti (2009) find that menstruation may contribute to gender gaps in absenteeism and earnings, based on evidence that absences of young female Italian bank employees follow a 28-day cycle. We find this evidence is not robust to the correction of coding errors or small changes in specification, and we find no evidence of increased…
Jarrah, Samiha Suhail; Kamel, Andaleeb Abu
The purpose of this study was to (i) investigate attitude and menstruation-related practices in Jordanian school-aged girls; (ii) identify the influence of premenstrual preparation on girls' attitude and menstruation-related practices. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data was collected from a convenience sample of 490 school-age girls (12-18 years) from different districts in Jordan. Self-report instruments [Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ), and Menstrual Practices Questionnaires (MPQ)] were used to assess the study variables. Descriptive statistics, correlation and chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. It was found that menstrual attitude and practices were positively correlated. Poor attitude toward menstruation and low menstrual practices were significantly associated with inadequate premenstrual preparation. There is a need to prepare girls for menstruation before menarche. The role of the schools and teachers should be reinforced through formal and well planned reproductive health educators for girls and their mothers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Havens, Beverly; Swenson, Ingrid
Analyzed imagery in advertisements in "Seventeen" magazine for sanitary products and products for relief of menstrual symptoms, looking for recurrent themes in text, context, and tone. Found menstruation depicted as a "hygienic crisis" best managed by an effective "security system" affording protection and "peace…
Adinma, Echendu Dolly; Adinma, J I B
This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted amongst 550 secondary school girls in southeastern Nigeria to determine their perceptions, problems, and practices on menstruation. Majority of the students, (75.6%), were aged 15-17 years. Only 39.3% perceived menstruation to be physiological. Abdominal pain/discomfort, (66.2%), was the commonest medical problem encountered by the respondents, although 45.8% had multiple problems. Medical problems were most commonly discussed with the mother, (47.1%), and least commonly discussed with the teachers, 0.4%. Analgesics, (75.6%), were most commonly used to relieve menstrual pain. Only 10% of respondents used non-pharmacologic remedies. Unsanitary menstrual absorbents were used by 55.7% of the respondents. Menstruation perceptions are poor, and practices often incorrect. A multi-dimensional approach focusing on capacity building of mothers, and teachers on sexuality education skills; using religious organizations as avenues for sexuality education; and effectively using the Mass Media as reproductive health education channels are recommended towards improving adolescents' perceptions and practices on menstruation.
Havens, B; Swenson, I
Education about menstruation is not restricted to school instruction or information provided by adults and peers; exposure to advertisements in teen media provides imagery depicting menstruation and feminine role expectations. This paper analyzes the imagery in advertisements for sanitary products and products for the relief of menstrual symptoms. A 25% random sample of Seventeen magazine issues from 1976 to 1986 stratified by year were reviewed. A total of 135 ads for sanitary products and 32 ads for products for the relief of menstrual discomfort were analyzed. Each ad was examined for recurrent themes in text, context and tone. Data collected were examined for similarities in themes across both product type and time. The ads depict menstruation as a "hygienic crisis" that is best managed by an effective "security system" affording protection and "peace of mind." The failure of adequate protection places the woman at risk for soiling, staining, embarrassment and odor. Menstruating women are depicted as dynamic, energetic and always functioning at their optimal level. Such imagery may encourage guilt and diminished self-esteem in the adolescent who experiences discomfort. A lack of maternal, teacher or male figures in the ads is evident; the importance of peer support is reinforced.
Marvan, Maria Luisa; Trujillo, Paulina
Women living in rural and urban areas of Mexico answered a questionnaire about what they were told at home about menstruation before their menarche (first menstruation), and answered the Beliefs About and Attitudes Toward Menstruation Questionnaire. Around half of both urban and rural women were told that they were going to experience negative perimenstrual changes. There were fewer urban than rural women who were advised to do or not to do certain activities while menstruating. Menstrual socialization affected the beliefs and attitudes concerning menstruation held by women as adults. These findings are discussed in light of the sociocultural background of the participants.
Barra, Mathias; Dahl, Fredrik A; Vetvik, Kjersti G
To repair and refine a previously proposed method for statistical analysis of association between migraine and menstruation. Menstrually related migraine (MRM) affects about 20% of female migraineurs in the general population. The exact pathophysiological link from menstruation to migraine is hypothesized to be through fluctuations in female reproductive hormones, but the exact mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, the main diagnostic criterion today is concurrency of migraine attacks with menstruation. Methods aiming to exclude spurious associations are wanted, so that further research into these mechanisms can be performed on a population with a true association. The statistical method is based on a simple two-parameter null model of MRM (which allows for simulation modeling), and Fisher's exact test (with mid-p correction) applied to standard 2 × 2 contingency tables derived from the patients' headache diaries. Our method is a corrected version of a previously published flawed framework. To our best knowledge, no other published methods for establishing a menstruation-migraine association by statistical means exist today. The probabilistic methodology shows good performance when subjected to receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. Quick reference cutoff values for the clinical setting were tabulated for assessing association given a patient's headache history. In this paper, we correct a proposed method for establishing association between menstruation and migraine by statistical methods. We conclude that the proposed standard of 3-cycle observations prior to setting an MRM diagnosis should be extended with at least one perimenstrual window to obtain sufficient information for statistical processing. © 2014 American Headache Society.
Chrisler, Joan C; Gorman, Jennifer A; Manion, Jen; Murgo, Michael; Barney, Angela; Adams-Clark, Alexis; Newton, Jessica R; McGrath, Meaghan
Menstruation has long been viewed as an important aspect of women's health. However, scholars and healthcare providers have only recently begun to recognise that transgender men and people with masculine gender identities also menstruate, thus little is known about their attitudes toward and experiences with menstruation. A sample of masculine of centre and transgender individuals with a mean age of 30 years was recruited online to complete measures of attitudes toward menstruation and menstrual suppression and to answer exploratory questions about their experiences managing menstruation. Participants reported mixed attitudes toward menstruation, but generally positive attitudes toward menstrual suppression. Many participants said that they try to avoid public restrooms during menstruation because of practical and psychological concerns. Implications of our findings for the transgender health are discussed.
Amaral, André F S; Strachan, David P; Gómez Real, Francisco; Burney, Peter G J; Jarvis, Deborah L
Little is known about the effect of cessation of menstruation on lung function. The aims of the study were to examine the association of lung function with natural and surgical cessation of menstruation, and assess whether lower lung function is associated with earlier age at cessation of menstruation.The study was performed in 141 076 women from the UK Biobank, who had provided acceptable and reproducible spirometry measurements and information on menstrual status. The associations of lung function (forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ), spirometric restriction (FVC menstruation and age at cessation of menstruation were assessed using regression analysis.Women who had natural cessation of menstruation showed a lower FVC (-42 mL; 95% CI -53- -30) and FEV 1 (-34 mL; 95% CI -43- -24) and higher risk of spirometric restriction (adjusted odds ratio 1.27; 95% CI 1.18-1.37) than women still menstruating. These associations were stronger in women who had had a hysterectomy and/or oophorectomy. The earlier the natural cessation of menstruation, the lower the lung function. There was no clear association of lung function with age at hysterectomy and/or oophorectomy. Airflow obstruction was not associated with cessation of menstruation.Lower lung function associates with cessation of menstruation, especially if it occurs early in life. Copyright ©ERS 2016.
Grant, Monica J.; Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Mensch, Barbara S.
The provision of toilets and menstrual supplies has emerged as a promising programmatic strategy to support adolescent girls’ school attendance and performance in less developed countries. We use the first round of the Malawi Schooling and Adolescent Survey (MSAS) to examine the individual- and school-level factors associated with menstruation-related school absenteeism. The MSAS is a school-based longitudinal survey of adolescent students enrolled in coed public primary schools in the southe...
Body composition, disordered eating and menstrual regularity in a group of South African ... e between body composition and disordered eating in irregular vs normal menstruating athletes. ... measured by air displacement plethysmography.
Marván, Ma Luisa; Alcalá-Herrera, Verónica
To investigate the relationships between menarcheal timing and both menarcheal experience and attitudes toward menstruation in Mexican girls. Cross-sectional survey. Sample of adolescents attending 10 different public schools. Mexican postmenarcheal adolescents, aged 11-16 years. Participants answered 1 questionnaire about menarcheal experience and another about attitudes towards menstruation. Early maturers (menarche before 11 years) were more likely than average (menarche at 11 or 12 years) or late maturers (menarche at 13 or more years) to state they had not known what they should do at the moment they got their first period (P menstruating (P menstruation (P menstruation than their peers (P menstruation. Since these girls have limited or in some cases no time for preparation, they need special support. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective : To ascertain the perceptions and experiences of women regarding menstruation. Methods : An integrated qualitative and quantitative study on reproductive health of Indian women was conducted in two primary health centre areas of rural north India. Present article reports on the perceptions of 1205 women regarding various aspects of menstruation. Results : Major source of information about menarche/menstruation was friends/relatives (72%. Mean age at menarche was ~ 15 years. Very few women (0.4% used sanitary napkins. Majority of women had strong beliefs about effect of diet on menstruation. Most of them considered menstruation a dirty act and indulged in various taboo behaviours. Initial reaction was of fear/apprehension at menarche in majority of girls. Conclusion: Women in rural north India still hold tranditional beliefs regarding menstruation. Provision of a balanced and healthy family health education package to all girls is recommended.
Abraham, S; Fraser, I; Gebski, V; Knight, C; Llewellyn-Jones, D; Mira, M; McNeil, D
The results of a survey of 1377 young Australian women aged 14 to 19 years, conducted to determine their attitudes, state of knowledge and practices with regard to menstruation, are presented. The young women, as a group, lacked sufficient information about menstruation, about the time of ovulation, about menstrual discharge, and about the use of tampons. A high proportion (80%) considered menstruation to be inconvenient or embarrassing. Certain measures aimed at remedial action are suggested.
Bellofiore, Nadia; Cousins, Fiona; Temple-Smith, Peter; Dickinson, Hayley; Evans, Jemma
We recently discovered the first known menstruating rodent. With the exception of four bats and the elephant shrew, the common spiny mouse ( Acomys cahirinus ) is the only species outside the primate order to exhibit menses. There are few widely accepted theories on why menstruation developed as the preferred reproductive strategy of these select mammals, all of which reference the evolution of spontaneous decidualisation prior to menstrual shedding. Though menstruating species share several reproductive traits, there has been no identifiable feature unique to menstruating species. Such a feature might suggest why spontaneous decidualisation, and thus menstruation, evolved in these species. We propose that a ≥3-fold increase in progesterone during the luteal phase of the reproductive cycle is a unique characteristic linking menstruating species. We discuss spontaneous decidualisation as a consequence of high progesterone, and the potential role of prolactin in screening for defective embryos in these species to aid in minimising implantation of abnormal embryos. We further explore the possible impact of nutrition in selecting species to undergo spontaneous decidualisation and subsequent menstruation. We summarise the current knowledge of menstruation, discuss current pre-clinical models of menstruation and how the spiny mouse may benefit advancing our understanding of this rare biological phenomenon. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.
Mehta, Christopher K; Stanifer, Bryan P; Fore-Kosterski, Susan; Gillespie, Colin; Yeldandi, Anjana; Meyerson, Shari; Odell, David D; DeCamp, Malcolm M; Bharat, Ankit
Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is treated on the basis of studies that have predominantly consisted of tall male subjects. Here, we determined recurrence of PSP in average-statured menstruating women and studied prevalence of catamenial pneumothorax (CP) in this population. Men and menstruating women, aged 18 to 55 years, without underlying lung disease or substance abuse were retrospectively studied between 2009 and 2015. A chest pathologist reviewed all specimens for thoracic endometriosis. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to determine recurrence. The median age of women (n = 33) and men (n = 183) was 33.4 and 31.6 years, respectively. In women, 9 (27%) had left-sided and 24 (73%) had right-sided PSP, treated with tube thoracostomy. Recurrence occurred in 21 women (64%) with median follow-up of 14 months, and they were treated with thoracoscopic pleurodesis. Right PSP had higher recurrence (70%) than left PSP (56%, p = 0.02). Four women (12%) presented with recurrent tension pneumothorax within 6 months. Eight patients (24%) had PSP within 72 hours of menses, meeting clinical criteria of CP. All these were placed on hormonal suppression after initial episode but went on to experience recurrence that was treated with pleurodesis. Classical endometrial glands were not found in any biopsy specimens obtained during the thoracoscopy. In contrast to female subjects, only 8 average-statured men (4.4%) had recurrence (p < 0.001) with a median follow-up of 16 months. PSP in healthy average-statured menstruating women has high recurrence compared with male counterparts. CP is a clinical diagnosis and often recurs despite hormonal suppression therapy. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mehta, Christopher K.; Stanifer, Bryan P.; Fore-Kosterski, Susan; Gillespie, Colin; Yeldandi, Anjana; Meyerson, Shari; Odell, David D.; DeCamp, Malcolm M.; Bharat, Ankit
Background Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is treated based on studies that have predominantly consisted of tall male subjects. Here we determined recurrence of PSP in average-statured menstruating women and studied prevalence of catamenial pneumothorax (CP) in this population. Methods Males and menstruating females, aged 18-55 years, without underlying lung disease or substance abuse were retrospectively studied between 2009-2015. A chest pathologist reviewed all specimens for thoracic endometriosis. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to determine recurrence. Results The median age of females (n=33) and males (n=183) was 33.4 and 31.6 years, respectively. In females, nine (27%) had left-sided and 24 (73%) had right-sided PSP, treated with tube thoracostomy. Recurrence occurred in 21 (64%) females with median follow up of 14 months and was treated with thoracoscopic pleurodesis. Right PSP had higher recurrence (70%) compared to left (56%, p=0.02). Four females (12%) presented with recurrent tension pneumothorax within six months. Eight (24%) patients had PSP within 72 hours of menses, meeting clinical criteria of CP. All these were placed on hormonal suppression after initial episode but went on to develop recurrence that was treated with pleurodesis. However, classic endometrial glands were not found in any biopsy specimens obtained during the thoracoscopy. In contrast to female subjects, only 8 (4.4%) average-statured males had recurrence (p<0.001) with a median follow up of 16 months. Conclusions PSP in healthy average-statured menstruating women has high recurrence compared to male counterparts. CP is a clinical diagnosis and often recurs despite hormonal suppression therapy. PMID:27345097
Taylor, Christina J.
Presents nine exercises designed to help students and teachers become more aware of their attitudes about menstruation and to move beyond the realms of mystery, ignorance, and taboos. Participants list and analyze expressions used to refer to menstruation, discuss pleasant and unpleasant experiences, and recall feelings on first learning of…
Diorio, Joseph A.; Munro, Jennifer A.
Pubertal changes in girls and boys are treated differently in New Zealand schools. Girls learn about menstruation in a scientific, bleak manner, getting an unrealistic picture of growing up. Boys receive positive information about exciting, powerful bodily changes. By protecting girls from problems associated with menstruation, schools risk…
Mason, Linda; Cunningham, Cliff
Background: There is little research on issues related to menstruation for women with Down syndrome, yet they may experience menstruation in a qualitatively different way from normal women, which impacts on their quality of life and that of their families and carers. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore issues with the women and/or…
Stubbs, Margaret L.; And Others
This paper reports findings that have emerged from several studies conducted concerning young girls' and boys' attitudes toward menstruation. The research work discussed included: (1) cross-sectional data about menarcheal experience and about attitudes toward menstruation from early adolescent girls in grades six through nine; (2) cross-sectional…
Allen, Katherine R.; Kaestle, Christine E.; Goldberg, Abbie E.
Parents, peers, schools, and the media are the primary contexts for educating young people about sexuality. Yet girls receive more sex education than boys, particularly in terms of menstruation. Lack of attention to how and what boys learn about menstruation has consequences for their private understanding about the biology of reproduction and…
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane
Background: The concerns of mothers and their experiences while providing help to their daughters with intellectual disability (ID) and considerable support needs during menstruation have rarely been addressed. This qualitative study explored mothers' experiences and perceptions of managing their daughters' menstruation. Method: Twelve Taiwanese…
This article examines the argument concerning “menstruation” in late nineteenth-century America. With regard to an expansion of women's higher education, Sex in Education (1873) by Dr. Edward Clarke generated a controversy by stating that young women needed rest during menstruation; therefore the rigor of higher education would fail their health. Dr. Mary Putnam Jacobi refuted this argument in The Question of Rest for Women during Menstruation (1877). She attempted to combat the male research...
McPherson, Marianne E; Korfine, Lauren
This study explored the relationship between early and current menstrual experiences. The primary hypothesis was that women who reported positive menarcheal experiences (including menstrual education and menarche) would tend to report positive current menstrual attitudes, experiences, and/or behaviors, and vice versa for women who reported negative menarcheal experiences. In this survey-based study, college-aged women (n = 327) were screened by completing a questionnaire concerning their menarcheal experiences. Women who had extremely negative ("negative group," n = 46) or extremely positive ("positive group," n = 38) early menstrual experiences returned to complete questionnaires concerning current menstrual attitudes, experiences, and behaviors. Early and current menstrual experiences were most strongly associated in the domain of menstrual attitudes. Women in the negative group reported more negative menstrual attitudes than did women in the positive group. There were additional associations between early menstrual experiences and measures of body image and health behaviors. Positive group participants reported more positive body image and better general health behaviors. Results suggest that early menstrual experiences may be related to menstrual experiences later in life. This study invites further investigation of the psychology of menstruation and suggests connecting menstruation with other women's health issues.
Moronkola, O A; Uzuegbu, V U
This study surveyed 120 student nurses from two schools of nursing in Ibadan, Nigeria to assess the symptoms experienced during menstruation, attitude towards and management of menstruation. The student nurses overall mean age at menarche was 14 years, average duration of menstrual period was five days and mean of menstrual cycle was 28 days. Out of the 120 study participants, 93% were having menstruation regularly. More participants experienced symptoms during premenstrual periods than menstrual periods. Majority (70%) used sanitary pad to manage their menstruation, 93% had positive attitude towards menstruation while only 20% consulted medical doctors whenever they experienced menstrual symptoms. Paracetamol was the drug of choice for many of the participants whenever they experienced menstrual symptoms It was recommended that authorities in schools of nursing should not overlook reproductive health needs of students. Also teaching of reproductive health education early in primary and secondary schools should be encouraged.
Rose, Jennifer Gorman; Chrisler, Joan C; Couture, Samantha
The present study investigated American women's attitudes toward menstrual suppression and the effect of priming attitudes toward menstruation on women's willingness to suppress menstruation. One hundred college women randomly were assigned to either a positive priming group or a negative priming group. The positive priming group first completed the menstrual joy questionnaire (MJQ) followed by a willingness to suppress menstruation (WSM) questionnaire, the beliefs and attitudes toward menstruation (BATM) questionnaire, the menstrual distress questionnaire (MDQ), and a demographic questionnaire. The negative priming group completed, in the following order: the MDQ, WSM, BATM, MJQ, and demographics. Priming affected women's reports of positive cycle-related changes on the MDQ, but not women's willingness to suppress menstruation. Higher scores on the MJQ, positive attitudes toward menstrual suppression, and previous oral contraceptive (OC) use were predictors of women's willingness to suppress menstruation. Women's primary source of information about menstrual suppression was "media," and their primary concern was "safety." Thus, researchers should continue to investigate the long-term effects of continuous OC use and to analyze information about menstrual suppression in the popular press.
Marván, Ma Luisa; Vázquez-Toboada, Rocío; Chrisler, Joan C
The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between ambivalent sexism and beliefs and attitudes towards menstruation, and, in turn, to study the influence of these variables on menstrual cycle-related symptoms. One hundred and six Mexican women completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, the Beliefs about and Attitudes toward Menstruation Questionnaire and the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire. The higher scores on benevolent sexism were associated with the most positive attitudes towards menstruation and also with the belief that a menstruating woman should or should not do some activities and that menstruation keeps women from their daily activities. The higher scores on hostile sexism were associated with rejection of menstruation as well as with feelings of embarrassment about it. Beliefs about and attitudes towards menstruation predicted menstrual cycle-related symptoms related to negative affect, impaired concentration and behavioural changes, but did not predict somatic symptoms. These results will be useful to health professionals and advocates who want to change the negative expectations and stereotypes of premenstrual and menstrual women and reduce the sexism and negative attitudes towards women that are evident in Mexican culture. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.
Padmanabhanunni, Anita; Jaffer, Labeeqah; Steenkamp, Jeanette
A growing body of research has emphasised the salience of cultural beliefs and traditional practices to women's experiences of menstruation. Relatively less research has, however, been undertaken in South Africa. This study explored the experience of menstruation among women from the ama-Xhosa ethnic group, one of the largest ethnic groups in the country. Among the ama-Xhosa, there are distinct cultural practices associated with menstruation, including the female rite of passage (intonjane) and virginity testing (inkciyo). However, few studies have explored the experience of menstruation for women from this cultural group. This study involved the synthesis of data from individual interviews and focus group discussions conducted among a sample of ama-Xhosa women. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Distinctive findings included women's participation in traditional cultural practices of intonjane and inkciyo and the presence of cultural taboos associated with menstruation. Women's narratives revealed strong ambivalence regarding these practices. On the one hand, they wanted to adhere to traditional practices but experienced these customs as evoking discomfort and shame. The study confirmed the prevalence of negative constructions of menstruation. Positive appraisals of menstruation as evoking joy and happiness were also encountered.
Rembeck, Gun I; Möller, Margareta; Gunnarsson, Ronny K
To elucidate early adolescent girls' attitudes, thoughts and feelings towards menstruation and their bodies. 309 12-y-old girls answered questionnaires. One part of the questionnaire dealt with thoughts and feelings towards menstruation. The other part dealt with thoughts and feelings towards menstruation and sex and ability to communicate on aspects of womanhood. Postmenarcheal girls were less positive towards menstruation than premenarcheal girls (p = 1 x 10(-6)). Many girls (43%) did not reaffirm the statement "I like my body" and almost one quarter stated being teased for their appearance. Many of the girls claimed that they had been called "cunt" (38%) or "whore" (46%). If called "cunt" or "whore", 17% stated that they felt alone, 76% felt anger and 50% were offended. Mothers were those with whom girls could most easily "chat" about their period. Sixty-seven per cent received information about menstruation from school nurses. Wanting to be an adult and liking that their body develops seem to be associated with a more positive feeling towards menstruation. Furthermore, mothers' timing and ability to communicate attitudes towards menstruation and the body are as important as those in a girl's immediate environment.
Nishikitani, Mariko; Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Tsurugano, Shinobu; Inoure, Mariko; Yano, Eiji
Menstrual problems can significantly impact daily and work life. In reaction to a shrinking population, the Japanese government is encouraging more women to participate in the labor force. Actual success in achieving this aim, however, is limited. Specifically, participation in the workforce by women during their reproductive years is impacted by their health, which involves not only work conditions, but also traditional family circumstances. Therefore, it is important to further assess and gather more information about the health status of women who work during their reproductive years in Japan. Specifically, women's health can be represented by menstruation status, which is a pivotal indicator. In this study, we assessed the association between short rest periods in work intervals and menstruation and other health status indicators among female workers in Japan. Study participants were recruited from the alumnae of a university, which provided a uniform educational level. All 9864 female alumnae were asked to join the survey and 1630 (17%) accepted. The final sample of study participants ( n = 505) were aged 23-43 years, had maintained the same job status for at least 1 year, and were not shift workers, had no maternal status, and did not lack any related information. The participants were divided into two groups according to interval time, with 11 h between end of work and resumption of daily work as a benchmark. This interval time was based on EU regulations and the goal set by the government of Japan. Health outcomes included: menstrual cycle, dysmenorrhoea symptoms, anxiety regarding health, and satisfaction in terms of health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for health indexes in association with interval time by adjusting for confounding variables that included both psychosocial and biological factors. We compared the health status of women in the workforce with
Ma, Wenhong; Zhan, Zhongping; Liang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jianhui; Huang, Xingfang; Liao, Caiyun
Disease activity is a major factor in menstrual disorders in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients not receiving alkylating therapy. However, the ovarian reserve of SLE women with normal menstruation is still unclear. Twenty-three SLE patients naïve to cytotoxic agents (SLE group) and nineteen SLE patients receiving current or previous cyclophosphamide (CTX) therapy (without other cytotoxic agents; SLE-CTX group) were enrolled. Twenty-one age-matched healthy women served as controls. All patients and controls had a regular menstrual cycle. Basal hormone levels, including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), and antral follicle count (AFC) were analyzed in the two study groups and compared with the control group. No significant differences were found between the SLE, SLE-CTX, and control groups in age, body mass index (BMI), and basal FSH and LH levels. The E2 (P=0.023) levels were high and the AMH (P=0.000) values and AFC (P=0.001) were significantly lower in the SLE and SLE-CTX groups compared to control. However, these values were similar between the SLE and SLE-CTX groups. SLE patients not receiving alkylating therapy who had normal menstruation and short illness duration still had an impaired ovarian reserve.
Grose, Rose Grace; Grabe, Shelly
We extend objectification theory research to consider the relationship between self-objectification and attitudes toward an alternative menstrual product in a diverse sample of female undergraduates from the United States (N = 151). We use a survey design to investigate attitudes toward one's menstruation as a potential mechanism that may explain this relationship. Reactions to an alternative menstrual product were predominantly negative, supporting prior research on stigma and shame surrounding menstruation. Exploratory structural equation modeling revealed attitudes toward one's menstruation mediated the relationship between self-objectification and participants' reactions to an alternative menstrual product. Implications for women's health are discussed.
Mason, Linda; Sivakami, Muthusamy; Thakur, Harshad; Kakade, Narendra; Beauman, Ashley; Alexander, Kelly T; van Eijke, Anna Maria; Laserson, Kayla F; Thakkar, Mamita B; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A
In low-middle income countries and other areas of poverty, menstrual hygiene management (MHM) can be problematic for women and girls. Issues include lack of knowledge about menstruation and MHM, and stigma around menstruation, also access to affordable and absorbent materials; privacy to change; adequate washing, cleaning and drying facilities; as well as appropriate and accessible disposal facilities. In order to effect change and tackle these issues, particularly in patriarchal societies, males may need to become advocates for MHM alongside women. However, little is known about their knowledge and attitudes towards menstruation, which may need addressing before they can assist in acting as advocates for change. The present study was undertaken to explore knowledge and attitudes about menstruation among adolescent boys across India, in order to gauge their potential to support their 'sisters'. The study was undertaken across three states in India, chosen a priori to represent the cultural and socio-economic diversity. Qualitative data using focus group discussions with 85 boys aged 13-17 years, from 8 schools, was gathered. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. The results were organised into three main themes, reflecting the key research questions: boys' knowledge of menstruation, source of knowledge, and attitudes towards menstruation and menstruating girls. Knowledge comprised three aspects; biological function which were generally poorly understood; cultural rites which were recognized by all; and girls' behaviour and demeanour, which were noted to be withdrawn. Some boys learnt about puberty and menstruation as part of the curriculum but had concerns this was not in-depth, or was missed out altogether. Most gathered knowledge from informal sources, from overhearing conversations or observing cultural rituals. Few boys openly displayed a negative attitude, although a minority voiced the idea that menstruation is a 'disease'. Boys were mostly sympathetic
James, Andra H.; Kouides, Peter A.; Abdul-Kadir, Rezan; Edlund, Mans; Federici, Augusto B.; Halimeh, Susan; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Konkle, Barbara A.; Martínez-Perez, Oscar; McLintock, Claire; Peyvandi, Flora; Winikoff, Rochelle
Reproductive tract bleeding in women is a naturally occurring event during menstruation and childbirth. In women with menorrhagia, however, congenital bleeding disorders historically have been underdiagnosed. This consensus is intended to allow physicians to better recognize bleeding disorders as a
Hawkey, Alexandra J; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette; Metusela, Christine
Experiences and constructions of menarche and menstruation are shaped by the sociocultural environment in which women are embedded. We explored experiences and constructions of menarche and menstruation among migrant and refugee women resettled in Sydney, Australia, and Vancouver, Canada. Seventy-eight semistructured individual interviews and 15 focus groups comprised of 82 participants were undertaken with women from Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Sri Lanka, and varying South American countries. We analyzed the data using thematic decomposition, identifying the overall theme "cycles of shame" and two core themes. In "becoming a woman," participants constructed menarche as a marker of womanhood, closely linked to marriage and childbearing. In "the unspeakable," women conveyed negative constructions of menstruation, positioning it as shameful, something to be concealed, and polluting. Identifying migrant and refugee women's experiences and constructions of menarche and menstruation is essential for culturally safe medical practice, health promotion, and health education.
Kennett, Deborah J; O'Hagan, Fergal T; Meyerhoff, Tanya J
Although research has examined women's thoughts toward menstruation, the role passive and active coping strategies play in the acceptance of menses and getting-on with daily activities remains relatively unexplored. In total, 217 undergraduate females having normal regular monthly menstrual periods completed inventories assessing severity of menstrual symptoms, cognitive and emotional representation of health state, general and specific coping strategies, and acceptance. It was found that women having a more emotionally focused representation of menstruation (passive coping style) had a heightened belief that menstruation is debilitating and bothersome and, regardless of symptom severity, scored lower in acceptance of menstruation. Conversely, women using more active strategies to cope with menstrual symptoms were observed to be more generally resourceful and to conjunctively use more palliative coping strategies. More importantly, for women experiencing high levels of menstrual discomfort, use of active coping was associated with better acceptance and getting-on with everyday activities. © The Author(s) 2015.
Wang, Xue; Xu, Xin; Liu, Yangyang
The objective of the present study is to investigate gender differences in the ability to identify females' voice during menstruation. In Study 1, 55 male participants (M age = 19.6 years, SD = 1.0) were asked to listen to vocal samples from women during both ovulation and menstruation and to identify which recordings featured menstruating women. The results showed that the accuracy of men's responses (M = 56.73%, SD = 0.21) was significantly higher than 50%. In Study 2, 118 female students (M age = 19.4 years, SD = 1.6) completed the same task. The results indicated that the accuracy of women's performance was nearly 50%. These preliminary findings suggest that men are better able to identify women's voices during menstruation than women. Future work could consider several significant variables for the purpose of validating the results. © The Author(s) 2016.
Liu, H-L; Chen, K-H; Peng, N-H
The aim of this study was to qualitatively record the cultural attitudes and practices associated with menarche and menstruation in Taiwanese girls, particularly with respect to coping mechanisms. Forty-eight adolescent girls participated. Adolescent girls were individually interviewed to investigate the effects of their cultural practices, coping mechanisms, and physiological symptoms during menarche and menstruation. The qualitative investigation revealed mixed reactions to menstruation, such as eating chocolate, using sanitary napkins, and feeling irritable or embarrassed. Cluster construction suggested that adolescents were prepared for menarche but required emotional support; in addition, the new generation employed the Internet to learn how to cope. A phenomenological approach showed that menarche and menstrual attitudes among Taiwanese adolescents were comprised in 4 dimensions: self-perception, information, and cultural practices with regard to menarche; physiological symptoms and psychological reactions during menstruation; coping mechanisms during menarche and menstruation; and methods for coping and cultural practices for menstruation. Cultural beliefs and the Internet have changed cross-cultural contacts. Educators and health professionals should seek to understand this generation of girls, who perceive the world as more flexible and available and have more creativity and new eating behaviors and hobbies. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wodarska, M; Witkoś, J; Drosdzol-Cop, A; Dąbrowska, J; Dąbrowska-Galas, M; Hartman, M; Plinta, R; Skrzypulec-Plinta, V
The aim of this study was to examine the relation between increased physical activity and menstrual disorders in adolescent female volleyball players. The study was conducted on 210 Polish female volleyball players, aged 13-17 years, the authorship questionnaire was used. The results of the study showed that irregular menstruation occurred in 19% of girls, spotting between menstrual periods in 27% and heavy menstruation was reported in 33% of girls. Out of all volleyball female players participating in the study, 94 girls (45%) declared absence of menstrual periods after regular cycles. Statistical analysis showed that the more training hours per week, the bigger probability of the occurrence of irregular menstruation. It was concluded that the number of hours of volleyball training per week affects regularity of menstrual cycles in female volleyball players. The absence of menstruation might be caused by the duration of training per week or years of training.
Graziottin, A; Zanello, P P
Menstruation is the genital sign of systemic endocrine events. Heterogeneity of perimenstrual symptoms is associated with levels of inflammation, triggered by the fall of estrogens at genital and systemic level. Aim of the review is to concisely analyze the evidence on: 1) genital and systemic endocrine and inflammatory events associated with periods and perimenstrual symptoms; 2) rationale of intervention to reduce their intensity and impact on women's lives. This review of the literature, selected with a clinical perspective, supports the inflammatory basis of the menstrual event, triggered by the estrogens' and progesterone' fall. Moreover, the review analyzes the endocrine and inflammatory basis of perimenstrual pelvic and extrapelvic symptoms such as: menstrual pain, menstrual irregularities, premenstrual syndrome, gastrointestinal symptoms, catamenial headache, depression, perimenstrual myalgia, joint pain, allergies and asthma, heavy menstrual bleeding, associated ironless anemia, brain and behavioral consequences. Inflammation, with increase of cytokines and other markers, is modulated by the degranulation of mast cells at the basal level of the endometrium, in the blood, in all the organs where mast-cell are already activated from local pathologies and within the brain. The shift of inflammation from physiological to a pathologic intensity increases the severity of perimenstrual symptoms. Symptoms persist, moderately attenuated, also during the hormone free interval (HFI) in contraception. The HFI reduction from seven to two days significantly reduces menstrual inflammation and associated symptoms.
Carman, K B; Arslantas, D; Unsal, A; Atay, E; Ocal, E E; Demirtas, Z; Saglan, R; Dinleyici, M; Yarar, C
To study the prevalence of menstruation-related headache and the impact of associated factors in adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted in seven randomly selected high schools, and 3,886 girls attending those schools were invited. After the consent of the school principals, a final total of 2,485 girls (63.9%) were involved in the study. A specific questionnaire was distributed to adolescent girls (14-19 years old). The first part of the survey investigated the features of menstruation (age of first menstruation, duration of period, pad fully soaked per day). The last part of the questionnaire surveyed the presence of headache during the menstruation period. The severity of headache was measured by a visual analogue scale. Lastly, participants were requested to complete the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The prevalence of menstruation-related headache and associated factors were studied. The mean age of the study group was 15.89 ± 1.07 (14-19) years old. The age of onset of menarche was younger than 12 years old in 32.4% of girls, and mean age of onset of menarche was 12.96 ± 1.09 years old. The prevalence of menstruation-related headache was calculated to be 25.9% (n = 646). The onset of menstruation before the age of 12 years old, longer duration of menstruation period, dysmenorrhea, daily consumption of coffee and cola and smoking significantly affected the frequency of menstruation-related headache. The mean scores of the BDI were calculated as 21.68 ± 13.65 and a significant relationship was found between headache and BDI scores. Our study indicates that menstruation-related headache is a common problem of adolescent girls. It might be associated with different comorbidities such as depression. Accordingly, a multidisciplinary treatment approach must be considered to improve their life quality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chen, Hua; Feng, You-ji; Shu, Hui-min; Lu, Tian-mei; Zhu, Hong-mei; Yang, Bin-lie; Xiong, Miao
To investigate natural spontaneous menopausal age, menstruation span and their relationship with menarche age and parity in Pudong district of Shanghai. From Jan 2007 to Jul 2008, 15 083 spontaneous menopause women undergoing cervical cancer screening were enrolled in this study. The questionnaire included menarche age, parity, spontaneous menopausal age and menstruation span. Those women were divided into four groups based on age, which were group of 56 - 60, 61 - 65, 66 - 70 and more than 70.Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparing difference between menopausal age and menstruation span. Multiple factor regressions was used to analyze the relationship between menarche age, parity and menopausal age and menstruation span. (1) Spontaneous menopausal age: the minimum was 29 years old, the maximum was 61 years old, and the mean age was (50.6 ± 3.7) years old. The mean spontaneous menopause age were (50.9 ± 3.4), (50.7 ± 3.7), (50.0 ± 4.1), (49.6 ± 4.0) years in groups of 56 - 60, 61 - 65, 66 - 70 and more than 70 years. With the increasing age range in four groups, the increasing trends of menopausal age were observed, which the difference of 1.36 year was shown between groups of 56 - 60 and more than 70 years. (2) Menstruation span: the mean of menstruation span was (34.3 ± 4.1) years, which the minimal age of 12 years and maximal age of 48 years were recorded. (34.6 ± 3.8), (34.3 ± 4.1), (33.9 ± 4.6), (33.2 ± 4.5) were observed in groups of 56 - 60, 61 - 65, 66 - 70 and more than 70 years. With the increasing age range in four groups, the increasing trends of menstruation span were observed, which the difference of 1.41 year was shown between groups of 56 - 60 and more than 70 years. (3) The impact of menarche age on menopausal age and menstruation span: there was no correlation between menarche age and menopausal age (r = 0.02); however, menstruation span was found to be negatively correlated with the menarche age (r = -0.43). (4) The impact
Marván, M L; Molina-Abolnik, M
First, to explore the kind of information that Mexican mothers give their daughters about menstruation before their menarche, and to study the impact of this communication on how prepared the daughters felt when they experienced their menarche. Second, to investigate the influence of the menarcheal experience on attitudes toward menstruation. Cross-sectional survey. Sample of adolescents attending 3 different public schools. 405 Mexican postmenarcheal adolescents, aged 12-15 years. Participants answered a questionnaire that had 3 parts: (a) General data, (b) topics related to menses that participants had discussed with their mothers prior to menarche, and (c) menarcheal experience. They also answered a questionnaire about menstrual attitudes. Although most of the participants knew what they should do when they experienced their menarche, only 39% stated they had felt prepared to start menstruating. Regarding menstrual attitudes, adolescents scored highest on Negative Feelings and Secrecy rather than on Positive Feelings. Participants who had previously discussed the emotional aspects of menses with their mothers were more likely to claim they had felt prepared to start menstruating when they got their first period (OR = 3.45). The fact that adolescents felt prepared to start menstruating predicted positive attitudes toward menstruation (β = .19) Discussing the emotional aspects of menses prior to menarche is crucial to being prepared for menarche, and to holding positive attitudes toward menstruation. Information on biological knowledge and practical aspects of menses needs to be supplemented with emotional issues. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Garti, Helene Akpene
Positive perception about menstruation and good menstrual hygiene practice safeguards the health of postpubescent females by reducing their vulnerability to reproductive and urinary tract infections. Using a questionnaire, a cross-sectional study involving 293 randomly selected female undergraduate students in northern Ghana assessed the relationship between knowledge on menstruation and the practice of safe menstrual hygiene. Data collected was analyzed using GraphPad 5.01. This study found that although majority of respondents (73.4%) were aware of menstruation before menarche, most of them experienced fear and panic when it occurred. Mothers were the first to be informed when menstruation occurred, although teachers first provided them knowledge on menstruation. Respondents' knowledge on menstruation was average (57.3%) but their menstrual hygiene practice was good (80.2%). Age (p = 0.005) and course of study (p = 0.0008) significantly influenced respondents' knowledge on menstruation with older students as well as the medical and midwifery students being most knowledgeable. Muslim rather than Christian female students practiced better menstrual hygiene (p = 0.0001). Average knowledge score on menstruation indicated a deficit of knowledge on the anatomy and physiology of the female reproductive system. Increasing knowledge on menstruation had a positive and significant effect on practice of good menstrual hygiene. PMID:27525125
Koga, Chinami; Akiyoshi, Sayuri; Ishida, Mayumi; Nakamura, Yoshiaki; Ohno, Shinji; Tokunaga, Eriko
For premenopausal women with breast cancer, information on the effects of chemotherapy and the risk of infertility is important. In this study, the effect of chemotherapy on the ovarian function in premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer was investigated, with an age-stratified analysis of the appearance of amenorrhea and the resumption of menstruation after the use of chemotherapy with anthracyclines or taxanes. Premenopausal women diagnosed with operable Stage I-III hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and underwent neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy with the standard regimen of anthracyclines and/or taxanes were included. The patients were classified into age groups in 5-year increments, and the rates of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA), resumption of menstruation, and duration of CIA after chemotherapy were analyzed. The subjects consisted of 101 patients (median age 45 years). CIA occurred in 97 (96%) patients and 40 patients resumed menstruation. In all patients aged ≤39 years menstruation restarted, whereas in all patients aged ≥50 years, menstruation did not restart. For the patients who resumed menstruation, the younger the patients, the sooner menstruation tended to restart. The resumption of menstruation occurred within 1 year for younger patients aged around 30 years, but for those aged ≥35 years, 60% of cases took around 2-3 years for resumption. The incidence of CIA, the resumption of menstruation and duration of CIA after chemotherapy depend greatly on the patient's age.
Evans, Jemma; Yap, Joanne; Gamage, Thillini; Salamonsen, Lois; Dimitriadis, Evdokia; Menkhorst, Ellen
Menstruation involves the shedding of the functional layer of the endometrium in the absence of pregnancy. At sites where tissue shedding is complete, re-epithelialization of the tissue is essential for repair and termination of bleeding. The complement of growth factors that mediate post-menstrual endometrial repair are yet to be completely elucidated. Galectins regulate many cell functions important for post-menstrual repair, such as cell adhesion and migration. Galectin-7 has a well characterized role in re-epithelialization and wound healing. We hypothesized that galectin-7 would be important in re-epithelialization during post-menstrual repair. We aimed to identify endometrial expression of galectin-7 in women undergoing normal endometrial repair and in women with amenorrhoea who do not experience endometrial breakdown and repair, and to determine whether galectin-7 enhances endometrial re-epithelialization in vitro. Galectin-7 immunolocalized to the endometrial luminal and glandular epithelium during the late secretory and menstrual phases, and to decidualized stroma in regions exhibiting tissue breakdown. Immunostaining intensity was significantly reduced in the endometrium of women with amenorrhoea compared with normally cycling woman. ELISA identified galectin-7 in menstrual fluid at significantly elevated levels compared with matched peripheral plasma. Exogenous galectin-7 (2.5 µg/ml) significantly enhanced endometrial epithelial wound repair in vitro; this was abrogated by inhibition of integrin binding. Galectin-7 elevated epithelial expression of extracellular matrix-related molecules likely involved in repair including β-catenin, contactin and TGF-β1. In conclusion, galectin-7 is produced by the premenstrual and menstrual endometrium, where it accumulates in menstrual fluid and likely acts as a paracrine factor to facilitate post-menstrual endometrial re-epithelialization. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the
Slayden, Ov D; Brenner, Robert M
Macaques are menstruating nonhuman primates that provide important animal models for studies of hormonal regulation in the uterus. In women and macaques the decline of progesterone (P) at the end of the cycle triggers endometrial expression of a variety of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes that participate in tissue breakdown and menstrual sloughing. To determine the minimal duration of P withdrawal required to induce menses, we assessed the effects of adding P back at various time points after P withdrawal on both frank bleeding patterns and endometrial MMP expression. Artificial menstrual cycles were induced by treating the animals sequentially with implants releasing estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P). To assess bleeding patterns, P implants were removed at the end of a cycle and then added back at 12, 24, 30, 36, 40, 48, 60, or 72 hours (h) after the initial P withdrawal. Observational analysis of frank bleeding patterns showed that P replacement at 12 and 24 h blocked menses, replacement at 36 h reduced menses but replacement after 36 h failed to block menses. These data indicate that in macaques, a critical period of P withdrawal exists and lasts approximately 36 h. In other similarly cycled animals, we withdrew P and then added P back either during (12–24 h) or after (48 h) the critical period, removed the uterus 24 h after P add back and evaluated endometrial MMP expression. Immunocytochemistry showed that replacement of P during the critical period suppressed MMP-1, -2 and -3 expression along with menses, but replacement of P at 48 h, which failed to suppress mense, suppressed MMP-1 and MMP-3 but did not block MMP-2. We concluded that upregulation of MMPs is essential to menses induction, but that after the critical period, menses will occur even if some MMPs are experimentally blocked. PMID:17118170
Guzelant, Gul; Ozguler, Yesim; Esatoglu, Sinem Nihal; Karatemiz, Guzin; Ozdogan, Huri; Yurdakul, Sebahattin; Yazici, Hasan; Seyahi, Emire
Menstruation triggers several conditions such as migraine, recurrent aphthous stomatitis and acne vulgaris in healthy individuals. There is evidence that Behçet's syndrome (BS) and familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) may exacerbate during menstruation. The aim is to assess whether BS and FMF patients experience menstrual flares. Females of reproductive age with BS and FMF seen consecutively at the outpatient clinic of Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty at Istanbul, as well as apparently healthy hospital workers were studied using a standardised questionnaire. BS patients were asked whether they experienced increased skin-mucosa lesions during the menstrual period. A similar questionnaire assessing this time the frequency of abdominal pain, chest pain and fever attacks was given to the patients with FMF. The healthy controls received both questionnaires. A total of 200 BS patients, 240 FMF patients and 250 healthy controls were studied. The most commonly reported symptom among both BS patients (51%) and healthy controls (62%) was the acneiform lesion. At least 79% patients with FMF reported attacks with menstruation, notably abdominal pain which, majority thought, could be differentiated from dysmenorrhea. Additionally, 76% of healthy controls reported having abdominal pain consistent most probably with dysmenorrhea. This survey showed that, in 68% of the patients with BS at least one skin mucosa lesion was exacerbated with menstruation, this was most commonly acneiform lesion. Menstruation had a slightly stronger effect on FMF, triggering at least one symptom in 79%. The main limitation of the study was the self-reported assessment methodology.
Stubbs, Margaret L
This overview details the persistence of negative characterizations of the menstrual cycle as a feature of the current cultural context in which girls begin menstrual life in the United States. In addition, research on girls' current menstrual attitudes and experiences within this context are reviewed. Current research suggests that girls are not very knowledgeable about menstruation, and that menstrual education continues to provide girls with mixed messages, such as: menstruation is a normal, natural event, but it should be hidden. Girls' attitudes and expectations about menstruation are negatively biased and have been found to contribute to self-objectification, body shame, and lack of agency in sexual decision-making. Although preparation has been found to be associated with more positive menarcheal and menstrual experiences, specificity about what constitutes "good" preparation has not been well articulated. Implications for promoting the menstrual cycle among young girls as a vital sign in service of monitoring their health are discussed.
Sánchez-Borrego, Rafael; García-Calvo, Carmen
The main objective of this survey was to explore the attitude of Spanish women towards menstruation, as well as their acceptability of a daily, continuous, combination oral contraceptive regimen. National survey carried out in Spain in 2006. A total of 588 women aged between 18 and 45 years old answered an anonymous questionnaire that included questions regarding menstruation and acceptability of new contraceptive regimens. Overall, 24.5% of women expressed interest in using the continuous oral contraceptive regimen. This percentage increased up to nearly 50% in women younger than 25 years old and those not using any contraceptive method but willing to use them in the future. The attitude of Spanish women towards menstruation observed in this survey seems to be more conservative than that obtained in other recent international surveys. An improvement in the education provided by practitioners would help women to make informed decisions.
Memarian, Azadeh; Mehrpisheh, Shahrokh
Intellectual disability is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and skills. Autism is a group of developmental brain disorders, collectively called autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Teenagers with learning and physical disabilities are more likely to have menstrual problems compared to the general populations. The parents of a 12-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability referred to the coroner due to her numerous problems of puberty (menstruation) including: poor hygiene and polluting herself and the environment, not allowing to put or change the pads and changes in mood and physical health prior period, requested for the surgery (hysterectomy). In legal medicine organization after reviewing the medical records, physical exams and medical consultations with a gynecologist and psychiatric, surgery was not accepted. Hysterectomy (surgery) due to the age of the child, either physically or morally is not recommended. The use of hormone replacement therapy has side effects such as osteoporosis. In these cases, it seems noninvasive methods (behavioral therapy and learning care skills) under the welfare experts is also more effective and morally.
To explore young women's health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and investigate whether menstrual and menarche experiences and objectification predict mental and physical health components of HRQOL. Menstruation plays a fundamental role in female biology, in women's relationship to their bodies and consequently in women's health and their HRQOL. Cross-sectional explorative survey design. A questionnaire that included the SF-36v2, the Self-objectification Questionnaire (SOQ), the Body Surveillance and Body Shame subscales of the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, the Belief and Attitudes Towards Menstruation Questionnaire (four subscales), and questions on menarche and menstruation was administered at the end of 2013 to 319 Icelandic women who represented the population by age. The SF-36v2 includes eight dimensions addressing the mental and physical components of HRQOL. Scores are presented as raw data scores and scores based on standardised score of American women and range from 0 to 100 with higher scores indicating better HRQL. A hierarchical multiple linear regression model was employed to calculate significant predictors of mental and physical health components of HRQOL. Mean raw data scores on SF36-v2 dimensions ranged from 54.7 to 91.5. The participants scored below the standardised, mean norm-based score for all dimensions. Secrecy of menstruation, experience of body shame and pain during menstruation predicted worse mental HRQOL. To believe in the proscriptive role and the unpleasantness of menstruation, experience of body shame, medication for menstrual pain and not holding a university education predicted worse physical HRQOL. These two models explained 30% and 22% of the variance of the mental and physical components of SF36-v2, respectively. Young women's mental and physical HRQOL is influenced by the specific context of their lives. Women's health education should take into account the various relationships women may have with their bodies. © 2017
Li, Wei; Qiu, Yi
Resumption of menstrual cycles is one of the indicators for restoration of reproductive capability in postpartum women. However, menstruation does not necessarily mean that ovulation has taken place. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of supplementary feeding to return of menstruation and ovulation after delivery. A questionnaire was used to obtain data from 101 breastfeeding mothers. The following elements were analyzed: age, education level, breastfeeding practice, time of return of menstruation, contraceptive practice, and starting time of supplementary feeding during the lactation at intervals of 6 weeks to 18 months after delivery. The ovulation was continuously monitored by ultrasonography and basal body temperature (BBT) measurement. By ultrasonography, 53 of the 101 women (52.5%) had the first ovulation (follicle > 1.8 cm in diameter) within 154 days after delivery on average, among whom 11 (10.9%, 11/101) had restoration of ovulation within 4 months and 42 (41.6%, 42/101) had it after 4 months. In women with follicles > 1.8 cm in diameter (n = 53), the menstruation resumed (138 +/- 84) days after delivery, and the supplementary feeding was started at (4.0 +/- 1.1) months, which were significantly earlier than those in the women with follicular diameter menstruation before the end of ultrasonographic monitoring, while only 8 in the women with follicular diameter menstruation (n = 100, r = 0.4764, P < 0.01) and first ovulation after delivery (n = 53, r = 0.5554, P < 0.01). In this series, no woman had pregnancy within 18 months postpartum. Supplementary feeding can affect the restoration of menstrual cycles and ovulation in lactating postpartum women.
Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling
To explore male students' attitudes towards menstruation. Menstruation is a biological event that is often surrounded by secrecy and social stigma that causes anxiety amongst many young girls. A key element of this is the attitudes of young males towards this reproductive health issue. However, the literature around what young males think and feel about menstruation is limited. Qualitative. A sample of 27 male students aged between 10-12 years participated in five focus groups. Data were then subject to a thematic analysis. Five themes emerged from the data analysis that reflected the boys' feelings, experiences and attitudes towards menstruation: 'A silent topic', 'An unimportant issue', 'Errant information about menstruation'. In addition, according to their experience, participants gradually came to see menstruation from the 'menstrual stereotype' viewpoint. In their social life, they made choices that resulted in gradually regulating their behaviour that affected their 'relationships with girls'. Young boys have misguided knowledge about menstruation and this helps to perpetuate the stigma surrounding this element of reproductive health. Boys also express a desire to learn more but are often restricted in this by home and school. School nurses are the best placed professionals to address this issue. Menstrual education with boys should take a greater prominence than it often does in sexual health education in schools. Such inclusion will provide boys with a balanced and accurate knowledge base and therefore help towards reducing the social stigma around menstruation that is often experienced by young girls. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Sakurai, Kenichi; Matsuo, Sadanori; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao; Shiono, Motomi
Little is known about the period required for menstruation recovery after long-term luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist plus tamoxifen therapy following chemotherapy. In this study we investigated the period required for menstruation recovery after the therapy. The subjects comprised 105 premenopausal breast cancer patients who had undergone surgery. All patients were administered an LH-RH agonist for 24 months and tamoxifen for 5 years following the postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, and the status of menstruation recovery was examined. Menstruation resumed in 16 cases (15.2%) after the last LH-RH agonist treatment session. The mean period from the last LH-RH agonist treatment to the recovery of menstruation was 6.9 months. The rate of menstruation recovery was 35.5% in patients aged 40 years or younger and 8.0% in those aged 41 years or older, and it was significantly higher in those aged 40 years or younger. The period until menstruation recovery tended to be longer in older patients at the end of treatment. This study showed that menstruation resumed after treatment at higher rates in younger patients. However, because it is highly likely that ovarian function will be destroyed by the treatment even in young patients, it is considered necessary to explain the risk to patients and obtain informed consent before introducing this treatment modality.
Kita, Hidefumi; Shiraishi, Yuji; Katsuragi, Naoya; Shimoda, Kiyomi; Saitou, Miyako
A 39-year-old female was referred to our hospital due to repeated right pneumothorax. Each episode was related to the onset of menstruation, suggesting catamenial pneumothorax. Thoracoscopy showed multiple blue berry spots on the diaphragm. Partial resection of the diaphragm including these lesions were performed. But she had a recurrent right pneumothorax. Treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue was started, resulting in failure to introduce menopose and the pneumothorax repeatedly appeared again. Reoperation was intentionally done at the time of menstruation enable to find the lesion. Patient is free from pneumothorax more than 6 years after surgery.
Rembeck, Gun I; Gunnarsson, Ronny K
Adolescence is a time of rapid changes, including risk for unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. Education may improve understanding and attitudes toward menstruation among adolescents thus increasing their awareness of risks and enabling them to protect themselves accordingly. To investigate effects of education on attitudes, two interventions were compared in 345 12-year-old girls. The new, active intervention given to premenarcheal girls just before menarche resulted in improvements in attitudes toward menstruation compared with standard intervention. Thus, just before menarche girls should be offered education modeled after the active intervention. The education must be concrete and based on multisensory learning.
Tavakol, Shima; Shakibapour, Sahar; Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi
Multiple sclerosis is one of the most salient degenerative disorders of CNS with dysregulated immune process that resulted in axonal damage and demyelination. In the present investigation, the serum level of testosterone was assessed in women who were struggling with multiple sclerosis (MS). Also, the level of omega-3, vitamin D, and the irregular menstruation in women 5 years before the onset MS symptoms were surveyed. Although the levels of omega-3 and vitamin D in women MS patients were non-significant and significantly less than the healthy ones, they were significantly less in the whole population of MS patients. However, the MS patients more experienced more irregular menstruation some years before the onset of MS with the low level of testosterone. Based on the presented findings, it might be said that the vitamin D intake has significant protective role in women and men MS patients unlike the omega-3 that had significant protective role just in men. However, vitamin D metabolism encoding genes of CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 and predicting MS risk gene of HLA-DRB1*15:01 define its fate as well. Besides, vitamin D intake, through the proliferation decrement of pro-inflammatory cells, decreases of pro-inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-α, INF-γ) and auto-immune pathways have potential role in recovery of irregular menstruation in women with the low level of testosterone as a red warning factor of MS development. The low level of testosterone and vitamin D consumption increase the neural damage and pro-inflammatory pathways in MS patients, and the difference among the investigations is related to the long-standing history of MS that influences severity of damage to the neural cells and biomolecules and complicate its recovery.
Rodgers, Jackie; Lipscombe, Jo
Menstruation has been shown to be problematic for many women with intellectual disabilities. There has been a greater focus on menstrual suppression or elimination than on help and training to manage menstrual care successfully. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in England to investigate the help and training currently given to…
Marvan, Luisa; Bejarano, Janett
This survey explored how fifth-grade Mexican premenarcheal girls (N = 80) and their teachers (N = 16) view the preparation students receive about menstruation at school. The most discussed topics in class included hygiene and body functions. The main discrepancies between girls and teachers were as follows: (a) more teachers than girls reported…
Ilias, I; Spanoudi, F; Koukkou, E; Adamopoulos, D A; Nikopoulou, S C
We assessed with cross-approximate entropy menstruation onset versus moon phases in 74 women with 980 menstrual cycles over a calendar year. In defiance of traditional beliefs and contrary to what some researchers have argued with short-term research work, in this long-term study we did not find any synchrony of lunar phases with the menstrual cycle.
Guvenc, Gulten; Kilic, Ayse; Akyuz, Aygul; Ustunsoz, Ayfer
The aim of this study was to evaluate baccalaureate nursing students' attitudes toward menstruation, and to analyze the frequency of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms, as well as the relationship between attitudes toward menstruation and PMS symptoms. This cross-sectional study was carried out between February 15 and March 10, 2009, in Ankara Turkey. The study participants were 250 undergraduate nursing student volunteers. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, the validated Turkish version of the Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ), and the validated Turkish Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) Scale. Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. The average age of participants was 19.89 ± 1.43. The MAQ's five subscales' mean scores ranged from 2.67 ± 0.58 to 3.37 ± 0.52, indicating natural to moderate attitudes toward menstruation. The mean PMS score was 114.86 ± 35.15, indicating moderate PMS symptoms. PMS symptoms were detected in 36.4% of the nursing students. Thirty one percent of the students reported having dysmenorrhoea during every menstrual cycle. Students who had PMS symptoms scored significantly higher on the debilitation subscale and scored significantly lower on the denial subscale of the MAQ (p menstruation was considered to be a natural event by most of the nursing students. In addition, dysmenorrhea was found to be the most common menstrual problem and the rate of PMS was found lower than that found in previous researches conducted in Turkey.
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Wang, Frank T. Y.; Lan, Chang-Fu; Lin, Li-Chan
Background: No studies have ever been conducted concerning menstrual experiences among women with an intellectual disability in Taiwan. Materials and Methods: An in-depth interview was conducted at three public institutions and perceptions and experiences regarding menstruation were elicited from 55 women aged 21-65 years. Results: The…
With voices for women's education coming from around the globe, it is a real setback when girls are unable to attend schools during their menstruation or periods, a process they encounter every month. The absence of Nepalese rural female students from schools during their periods does not only have the biological aspect to it but incorporates a…
Sasamoto, Naoko; Ueda, Yutaka; Amemiya, Kyoka; Enomoto, Takayuki; Morii, Eiichi; Adachi, Kazushige
Women with Turner's syndrome exhibit anovulation, and the majority do not spontaneously menstruate. We present an unusual case of endometrial adenocarcinoma developing in a Turner's syndrome patient who was exhibiting spontaneous menstruation while not receiving regular hormone therapy. The patient's karyotype from blood lymphocytes was a mosaic of 45,XO/ 46,XX. Menarche and sexual development were normal. Her menstrual cycle had been regular for one year, but then became noticeably irregular. At age 26 she was referred to our hospital after bleeding for almost 1 year. An endometrial adenocarcinoma was detected during performance of diagnostic endometrial curettage. A total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy was conducted. The final histological diagnosis was endometrial adenocarcinoma, Grade 1, pT1a N0 M0. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of the right and left ovaries revealed a mosaic karyotype of 45,XO/ CONCLUSION: Previous reports regarding Turner's syndrome detected spontaneous menstruation in only 16% of patients; however, spontaneous menstruation was observed in 8 of 10 (80%) Turner's syndrome cases that developed endometrial carcinoma without receiving regular hormone therapy (p < 0.0001). Hormone therapy may be indicated for an irregular menstrual cycle in Turner's syndrome patients.
Udgiri, Rekha; Angadi, M M; Patil, Shailaja; Sorganvi, Vijaya
Adolescence is a crucial period in woman's life. The adolescent girls of today are the mothers of tomorrow in whose hand lie the future of her family, community and the nation. Because of the scarcity of information regarding the problems of adolescent girls, particularly in urban areas, the present study was undertaken to elicit information about the knowledge and practices regarding menstruation among adolescent girls. With this objective, a community-based cross-sectional study was done in an urban field practice area of BLDEA's Shri BM Patil Medical College, Bijapur. The study subjects included all adolescent girls who had attained menarche. Data was collected by questionnaire method and analysed. Out of 342 adolescent girls 324 (94.74%) were literate. Only 63 (18.42%) had knowledge about menstruation prior to attainment of menarche and this association was found to be statistically significant. The main source of information about menstruation was mother ie, 195 (57.01%). Nearly 81.58% adolescent girls were lacking knowledge about menstruation prior to menarche, this reflects upon the standard of awareness in the society to such important event and it also leads to negative reaction to menarche.
Laher, Fatima; Todd, Catherine S; Stibich, Mark A; Phofa, Rebecca; Behane, Xoliswa; Mohapi, Lerato; Martinson, Neil; Gray, Glenda
Contraceptive preferences of HIV-infected women must be considered in efforts to integrate HIV and reproductive health services. In South Africa, contraception is often discontinued due to bleeding pattern changes. It is unknown whether HIV-infected women are more sensitive to menstrual changes and how this affects contraceptive choice. This study describes perceptions toward menses and contraceptive-induced amenorrhea among HIV-infected women. A convenience sample of 42 HIV-infected women aged 15 to 45 years was purposively recruited for three focus groups and 15 in-depth qualitative interviews which were conducted at the Perinatal HIV Research Unit, South Africa. Transcripts were coded and emergent themes grouped. One third of women reported HIV-related menstrual changes, unchanged by antiretroviral use. Menstruation was believed to purge the body of "dirty blood." Women perceived that menstruation had a negative effect on male partner sexual desire, with concern about higher HIV transmission during menstruation. Ninety-six percent of injectable contraceptive users experienced amenorrhea, regarded as troublesome and a reason for discontinuation. In Soweto, HIV diagnosis may accentuate linking menstruation with health, leading to avoidance or discontinuation of methods causing amenorrhea. Providers should intensify education on the safety of contraceptive-induced oligo/amenorrhea.
Jain, Rakhi; Anand, Puneet; Dhyani, Anuj; Bansal, Deshant
Menstruation in our country is associated with various myths and restrictions leading to lack of awareness among adolescent girls. Insufficient menstrual hygiene practices are the cause of stress associated with menstruation and reproductive tract infections. Sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS are not openly discussed in our society making adolescents vulnerable to them. To assess the knowledge of school going adolescent girls regarding menstrual hygiene and HIV/AIDS. Girls studying in class 8 th -12 th standard and who have attained menarche were included in the study. A predesigned questionnaire, which consisted of questions related to menstrual awareness and knowledge about HIV/AIDS was used for data collection. Data was analysed using SPSS software and results were interpreted into percentages. 282 girls took part in the study. Mean age of girls was 14.70 ± 1.5 years. Median age of girls was 15 years. Knowledge regarding menstrual hygiene and HIV/AIDS was found to be only satisfactory leaving a scope of improvement. Mother was the main source of information regarding both menstruation and HIV/AIDS. A comprehensive health education programme involving mothers is required to remove various misconceptions and taboos associated with menstruation and make it a pleasant experience for adolescent girls. Information, education and awareness programmes need to be strengthened to spread awareness regarding HIV/AIDS.
Full Text Available Introduction: Menstruation in our country is associated with various myths and restrictions leading to lack of awareness among adolescent girls. Insufficient menstrual hygiene practices are the cause of stress associated with menstruation and reproductive tract infections. Sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS are not openly discussed in our society making adolescents vulnerable to them. Aim: To assess the knowledge of school going adolescent girls regarding menstrual hygiene and HIV/AIDS. Materials and Methods: Girls studying in class 8th-12th standard and who have attained menarche were included in the study. A predesigned questionnaire, which consisted of questions related to menstrual awareness and knowledge about HIV/AIDS was used for data collection. Data was analysed using SPSS software and results were interpreted into percentages. Results: 282 girls took part in the study. Mean age of girls was 14.70 ± 1.5 years. Median age of girls was 15 years. Knowledge regarding menstrual hygiene and HIV/AIDS was found to be only satisfactory leaving a scope of improvement. Mother was the main source of information regarding both menstruation and HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: A comprehensive health education programme involving mothers is required to remove various misconceptions and taboos associated with menstruation and make it a pleasant experience for adolescent girls. Information, education and awareness programmes need to be strengthened to spread awareness regarding HIV/AIDS.
Full Text Available Context: Menstrual hygiene is an issue that every girl and woman has to deal with in her life, but there is lack of awareness on the process of menstruation. The taboos surrounding this issue in the society prevent girls and women from articulating their menstrual needs. It is now becoming increasingly recognized that the social and cultural significance of menstruation interacts with the physiological process to produce culturally determined norms and practices. Settings and Design: Cross-Sectional conducted in two randomly selected Inter colleges (one rural and one urban of district Dehradun of Uttarakhand state.Methods and Material: 453 girls studying in 9th to 12th grades were interviewed by using a prestructured and pretested questionnaire regarding various aspects of menstruation process.Statistical analysis used: percentages and Chi-square testResults: Most of the girls faced one or the other kind of social and / or religious restriction during their menstrual periods. Maximum restriction was observed in going to the temple (87.4 % followed by prohibition in touching pickles (48.6 %. These restrictions were equally reported by the urban and rural girls.Conclusions: Girls should be made aware regarding physiological basis of menstruation and a change in beliefs and attitudes need to be attained to ensure optimal behaviour and thereby prompting of a healthy menstrual life styles and practices.
Schaumberg, Mia A; Emmerton, Lynne M; Jenkins, David G; Burton, Nicola W; Janse de Jonge, Xanne A K; Skinner, Tina L
Menstruation and menstrual symptoms are commonly cited barriers to physical activity in women. The delay or avoidance of menstruation through extended oral-contraceptive (OC) regimens may mitigate these barriers, yet information on menstrual-manipulation practices in young physically active women is sparse. The objective of this study was to investigate prevalence of, and reasons for, menstrual manipulation with OCs in recreationally and competitively active women. One hundred ninety-one recreationally active (self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity 150-300 min/wk) women (age 23 ± 5 y), 160 subelite recreationally active (self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity >300 min/wk) women (age 23 ± 5 y), and 108 competitive (state-, national- or international-level) female athletes (age 23 ± 4 y) completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing OC-regimen habits and reasons for manipulation of menstruation. The majority (74%) of OC users reported having deliberately manipulated menstruation at least once during the previous year, with 29% reporting having done so at least 4 times. Prevalence of menstrual manipulation (at least once in the previous year) was not different between competitive athletes, subelite recreationally active women, and recreationally active women (77% vs 74% vs 72%; P > .05). The most cited reasons for manipulating menstruation were special events or holidays (rated by 75% as important/very important), convenience (54%), and sport competition (54%). Menstrual manipulation through extended OC regimens is common practice in recreationally and competitively active young women, for a range of reasons relating to convenience that are not limited to physical activity. This strategy may help reduce hormone-related barriers to exercise participation, thereby positively affecting participation and performance.
Background: Rural Igbo women frequently perceive disorders of menstruation in the context of their inability to achieve pregnancy, and may otherwise not volunteer information on such abnormalities in the gynaecological clinic. This study determined the prevalence and pattern of menstrual disorders in rural Igbo women of ...
Sakurai, Kenichi; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao
A luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist and tamoxifen (TAM) are used in hormonal therapy following pre- and post-operative chemotherapy in pre-menopausal advanced breast cancer patients who are positive for hormone receptors. However, it remains to be clarified how often patients recover menstruation after long-term LH-RH agonist plus TAM therapy. In this study, the incidence of menstruation recovery after therapy was examined. The subjects included 125 pre-menopausal patients with breast cancer who were positive for hormone receptors and had undergone surgery at our institution. They were treated with four cycles of the CEF regimen and four cycles of docetaxel (Doc) before surgery as adjuvant chemotherapy. Thereafter, they were treated with an LH-RH agonist plus TAM for 24 months and followed to determine menstruation recovery. Menstruation resumed in 24 cases (19.2%) after the last LH-RH agonist treatment session. It took 7.3 ± 2.8 months for the patients to recover menstruation. The rate of menstruation recovery was 42.1% in patients aged 40 or younger and 9.2% in those aged 41 or older; the difference was significant. The period until menstruation recovery tended to be longer in older patients at the end of treatment. The menstruation recovery rate after therapy was higher in younger women. However, since ovarian function may be lost even in younger patients, the potential consequences of this therapy should be fully explained beforehand to patients who may wish to become pregnant.
Lawan, U M; Yusuf, Nafisa Wali; Musa, Aisha Bala
This study examined the knowledge and practices of adolescent school girls in Kano, Nigeria around menstruation and menstrual hygiene. Data was collected quantitatively and analyzed using Epi info version 3.2.05. The mean age of the students was 14.4 +/- 1.2 years; majority was in their mid adolescence. The students attained menarche at 12.9 +/- 0.8 years. Majority had fair knowledge of menstruation, although deficient in specific knowledge areas. Most of them used sanitary pads as absorbent during their last menses; changed menstrual dressings about 1-5 times per day; and three-quarter increased the frequency of bathing. Institutionalizing sexuality education in Nigerian schools; developing and disseminating sensitive adolescent reproductive health massages targeted at both parents and their adolescent children; and improving access of the adolescents to youth friendly services are veritable means of meeting the adolescent reproductive health needs in Nigeria.
Sommer, Marni; Chandraratna, Sahani; Cavill, Sue; Mahon, Therese; Phillips-Howard, Penelope
The potential menstrual hygiene management barriers faced by adolescent girls and women in workplace environments in low- and middle-income countries has been under addressed in research, programming and policy. Despite global efforts to reduce poverty among women in such contexts, there has been insufficient attention to the water and sanitation related barriers, specifically in relation to managing monthly menstruation, that may hinder girls? and women?s contributions to the workplace, and ...
Newton, Victoria Louise; Hoggart, Lesley
Irregular bleeding is one of the most common side effects of hormonal contraception and a key reason for the discontinuation of hormonal methods. A qualitative study in which 12 young women volunteered to be interviewed in depth, along with six focus group discussions (23 participants). The study had two main research objectives: to document and investigate what young women think and feel about menstruation and contraception, and to explore young women's preferences regarding the intersection of contraceptives and bleeding patterns. Although participants held a broad view that menstruation can be an inconvenience, they did ascribe positive values to having a regular bleed. Bleeding was seen as a signifier of non-pregnancy and also an innate part of being a woman. A preference for a 'natural' menstruating body was a strong theme, and the idea of selecting a hormonal contraceptive that might stop the bleeding was not overly popular, unless the young woman suffered with painful natural menstruation. Contraceptives that mimicked the menstrual cycle were acceptable to most, suggesting that cyclic bleeding still holds a symbolic function for women. When counselling young women about the effect of different contraceptive modalities on their bleeding, practitioners should explore how the women feel about their bleeding, including how they might feel if their bleeding stopped or if they experienced erratic bleeding patterns. Practitioners also need to recognise the subjective understanding of the 'natural body' as held by some women, and in these cases to support them in their seeking out of non-hormonal methods of contraception. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Uchihashi, M; Bergin, I L; Bassis, C M; Hashway, S A; Chai, D; Bell, J D
The vaginal microbiome is believed to influence host health by providing protection from pathogens and influencing reproductive outcomes such as fertility and gestational length. In humans, age-associated declines in diversity of the vaginal microbiome occur in puberty and persist into adulthood. Additionally, menstruation has been associated with decreased microbial community stability. Adult female baboons, like other non-human primates (NHPs), have a different and highly diverse vaginal microbiome compared to that of humans, which is most commonly dominated by Lactobacillus spp. We evaluated the influence of age, reproductive cycling status (cycling vs. non-cycling) and menstruation on the vaginal microbiome of 38 wild-caught, captive female olive baboons (Papio anubis) by culture-independent sequencing of the V3-V5 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. All baboons had highly diverse vaginal microbial communities. Adult baboons had significantly lower microbial diversity in comparison to subadult baboons, which was attributable to decreased relative abundance of minor taxa. No significant differences were detected based on cycling state or menstruation. Predictive metagenomic analysis showed uniformity in relative abundance of metabolic pathways regardless of age, cycle stage, or menstruation, indicating conservation of microbial community functions. This study suggests that selection of an optimal vaginal microbial community occurs at puberty. Since decreased diversity occurs in both baboons and humans at puberty, this may reflect a general strategy for selection of adult vaginal microbial communities. Comparative evaluation of vaginal microbial community development and composition may elucidate mechanisms of community formation and function that are conserved across host species or across microbial community types. These findings have implications for host health, evolutionary biology, and microbe-host ecosystems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are often less informed, less experienced, and less comfortable accessing reproductive health information and services than adults. In many developing countries, a culture of silence surrounds the topic of menstruation and related issues; as a result many young girls lack appropriate and sufficient information regarding menstrual hygiene. This may result in incorrect and unhealthy behaviour during their menstrual period. Objectives: To assess and compare knowledge, belief, ideas, source of knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene between school-going adolescents in an urban and a rural school of West Bengal, India. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescent female students of Howrah district of West Bengal, India in the year 2011. Data was collected by pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured self administered questionnaire. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.1 years among urban and 12.2 years among the rural participants. More than 80% participants had some restrictions imposed during menstruation. Significantly higher number of urban girls had pre-menarchal knowledge on menstruation and used sanitary napkins. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. For improvement of menstrual hygiene, sanitary napkins should be made universally available and affordable.
Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are often less informed, less experienced, and less comfortable accessing reproductive health information and services than adults. In many developing countries, a culture of silence surrounds the topic of menstruation and related issues; as a result many young girls lack appropriate and sufficient information regarding menstrual hygiene. This may result in incorrect and unhealthy behaviour during their menstrual period. Objectives: To assess and compare knowledge, belief, ideas, source of knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene between school-going adolescents in an urban and a rural school of West Bengal, India. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescent female students of Howrah district of West Bengal, India in the year 2011. Data was collected by pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured self administered questionnaire. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.1 years among urban and 12.2 years among the rural participants. More than 80% participants had some restrictions imposed during menstruation. Significantly higher number of urban girls had pre-menarchal knowledge on menstruation and used sanitary napkins. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. For improvement of menstrual hygiene, sanitary napkins should be made universally available and affordable.
Wiegratz, Inka; Kissler, Stefan; Kuhl, Herbert; Kaufmann, Manfred
During the use of long-cycle regimens of monophasic oral contraceptives, the total number of bleeding and cycle-dependent complaints is considerably lower than during conventional treatment with oral contraceptives. Despite an initially higher rate of irregular bleeding, the majority of women prefer the long-cycle treatment since it may improve quality of life. As this regimen provides an enhanced ovarian suppression, it may prevent pregnancies, especially in noncompliant women or patients who are concomitantly treated with drugs that may impair the efficacy of oral contraceptives. Postponement or suppression of withdrawal bleeding also reduces menses-associated disorders such as menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea, and has beneficial effects in patients with hemorrhagic diathesis, endometriosis, uterine leiomyomas and polycystic ovary syndrome. Long-term studies are necessary to assess the impact of long-term use of extended regimens of oral contraceptives on safety, for example, the risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease, and on fertility after discontinuation of treatment.
Li, L; Leng, J H; Zhang, J J; Jia, S Z; Li, X Y; Shi, J H; Dai, Y; Zhang, J R; Li, T; Xu, X X; Liu, Z Z; You, S S; Chang, X Y; Lang, J H
Objective: To investigate the changes of mestruation patterns and adverse effects during the treatment of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system(LNG-IUS)for symptomatic adenomyosis in a prospective cohort study. Methods: From December, 2006 to December, 2014, patients of symptomatic adenomyosis diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were given LNG-IUS. Before and after placement of IUS, all patients' parameters were recorded, including carrying status of IUS, symptoms and scores of dysmenorrhea, menstruation scores, biochemical indicators, physical parameters, menstruation patterns and adverse effects. Risk factors for changes of menstruation patterns and adverse effects, and their impact on treatment effects were analyzed. Results: Totally 1 100 cases met inclusion criteria, with median age 36 years(range 20-44 years), median follow-up 35 months(range 1 -108 months). During follow-up changes of menstruation patterns increased significantly with amenorrhea and shortened-menstruation being the most common manifestations. On 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after the placement of LNG-IUS, 0, 5.8%(43/744), 6.9%(47/682), 10.1%(60/595), 17.3%(87/502), 27.2%(104/383)and 29.6%(82/277)patients achieved amenorrhea respectively( P 12 months after placement, abdominal pain and body weight increasing ≥5 kg/year were the most common adverse effects. Changes of menstruation patterns, total and subclassifications of adverse effects were neither dependent on patient parameters, treatment modes and treatment effects, nor could predict future LNG-IUS carrying status(all P > 0.05). After taking out of LNG-IUS, most changes of menstruation and adverse effects disappeared. Conclusions: During the treatment of LNG-IUS for symptomatic adenomyosis, changes of menstruation patterns increase gradually with amenorrhea and shortened-menstruation being the most common manifestations, while adverse effects decrease significantly. Changes of
Singh, Amita; Kiran, Dukhu; Singh, Harminder; Nel, Bithika; Singh, Prabhakar; Tiwari, Pavan
Dysmenorrhea is the most common of gynecologic complaints. It affects half of all female adolescents today and represents the leading cause of periodic college/school absenteeism among that population. To evaluate the menstrual problem specially dysmenorrhea and its severity in female medical students and its effect on their regular activities. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study; conducted on 107 female medical students, all participants were given a questionnaire to complete; questions were related to menstruation elucidating variations in menstrual patterns, history of dysmenorrhea and its severity, pre-menstrual symptom and absenteeism from college and/or class; to detect the severity of dysmenorrhea we used the verbal multi-dimensional scoring system, participants were given 20 minutes to complete the questionnaire. The mean age of subjects at menarche was 12.5 (+/-1.52) years, with a range of 10-15 years. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 73.83%; approximately 4.67% of dysmenorrhic subjects had severe dysmenorrhea. The average duration between two periods and the duration of menstrual flow were 28.34 (+/-7.54) days and 4.5 (+/-2.45) days respectively. Prevalence of other menstrual disorders like irregularity, prolonged menstrual bleeding, heavy menstrual bleeding and PCOD were 7.47%, 10.28%, 23.36% and 3.73% respectively. Among female medical students who reported dysmenorrhea; 31.67% and 8.68% were frequently missing college & classes respectively. Premenstrual symptom was the second most (60.50%) prevalent disorder and 67.08% reported social withdrawal. Dysmenorrhea and PMS is highly prevalent among female medical students, it is related to college/class absenteeism, limitations on social, academic, sports and daily activities. Maximum participants do not seek medical advice and self treat themselves with prostaglandin inhibitors; like Ibuprofen.
Menstruation stigmas and a lack of facilities to manage periods have been identified as possible hinders for girls’ equal access to education all over of the world. This paper focuses on investigating how menstruation stigmas generate obstacles for girls’ equal access to, and participation in, education. Its aim is to investigate how girls in an Indian context perceive menstruation stigmas to affect them, particularly when it comes to school attendance and ability to learn in school. This is ...
Zachar, Peter; Kendler, Kenneth S
The proposals to include a menstruation-related mood disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition (DSM-III-R), and DSM-IV led to intense public and behind-the-scenes controversy. Although the controversies surrounding the DSM-5 revision were greater in number than the controversies of the earlier revisions, the DSM-5 proposal to include a menstruation-related mood disorder was not among them. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder was made an official disorder in the DSM-5 with no significant protest. To understand the factors that led to this change, we interviewed those psychiatrists and psychologists who were most involved in the DSM-IV revision. On the basis of these interviews, we offer a list of empirical and nonempirical considerations that led to the DSM-IV compromise and explore how key alterations in these considerations led to a different outcome for the DSM-5.
Chang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Mei-Ling
Menstruation is a significant part of women's lives. It has been studied from many perspectives to draw various conclusions about biological and physiological development, gender differences, and sociocultural environments. The purpose of this study was to explore how male and female pubescent students perceive and interpret menarche and menstruation and how their perceptions reflect gender differences and the sociocultural environment in eastern Taiwan. This was an exploratory qualitative study that employed focus group interviews. Data were collected from 20 girls and 27 boys, aged 10-12 years, who were recruited from two elementary schools. Participants engaged in 19 focus group discussions, which lasted 45-60 minutes each. Discussion transcripts were collected, encoded, categorized, and analyzed using the Atlas V 5.0 software. The central theme in menarche and menstruation experiences among pubescent students in eastern Taiwan can be summarized as, "Struggling to grow up amidst contradictions," an attitude that reflects gender divisions and sociocultural representations and practices. Generally, participants' views on menstruation fell within five subthemes: "Ambiguous," "Disregarded," "Dirty," "Personal," and "Transitional." These themes were analyzed within the contexts of society, school, and family. In line with previous research, this study shows the need for more individual reproductive health consultations, reliable sex education, and well-planned health policies to assist pubescent students manage menstruation. In addition, this study suggests that the subjugation of girls and women remains a critical issue that must be addressed and challenged.
Nwokocha, Ada R C; Chinawa, Josephat M; Ubesie, Agozie C; Onukwuli, Vivian I; Manyike, Pius C
Menstruation in the teenage age has assumed variable trends which is been influenced by several variables. This study is aimed at determining the pattern and trend of menstruation among teens attending secondary school in south east Nigeria and associated factors. Menstruation patterns were investigated using a stratified random sampling method of teens from junior secondary schools in Enugu, south east Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire was developed and data analyzed using SPSS version 19. A total of 897 female teenagers aged 9-18 years completed the questionnaire with a mean age of 13.9±1.9 years. The mean age (SD) at onset of menarche was 12.5±1.2 years. Teenage girls with higher BMI achieved menarche earlier at age 8 and 9 when compared with their counterparts with lower BMI and this is statistically significant. F=7.60, df=8, p<0.001. Teens with a 14-day cycle had a higher BMI when compared with teens with longer cycle but this is not statistically significant. F=1.05, df=4, p=0.381. There is a statistical significance difference between teens duration of menstrual flow and BMI. Those with higher BMI had longer duration(4-5 days) compared with those with lower BMI. F=3.329, df=4, p=0.01 CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the mean age at onset of menarche was 12.5±1.2 years showing a continuing decreasing trend. Teens with higher BMI attain menarche earlier and had longer days of periods when compared with their counterpart with lower BMI.
John Cleland's 1740s pornographic novel, Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure repeatedly depicts and eroticises the act of defloration. As such it is a revealing illustration of what Ivan Bloch termed the 'defloration mania' of the eighteenth century. This article maps narrative events on to contemporary medical depictions of first intercourse to show the ways that the theories and ideas presented in medical and pseudo-medical texts transferred into erotic fiction and demonstrates how in some instances the bloody defloration scenes can be read as being sex during menstruation, an act which was culturally forbidden at this time.
van Vliet, J A; Favier, I; Helmerhorst, F M; Haan, J; Ferrari, M D
In contrast with migraine, little is known about the relation between cluster headache and menstrual cycle, oral contraceptives, pregnancy, and menopause. A population based questionnaire study was performed among 224 female cluster headache patients, and the possible effect of hormonal influences on cluster headache attacks studied. For control data, a similar but adjusted questionnaire was sent to healthy volunteers and migraine patients. It was found that menstruation, use of oral contraceptives, pregnancy, and menopause had a much smaller influence on cluster headache attacks than in migraine. Cluster headache can, however, have a large impact on individual women, for example to refrain from having children. PMID:16407458
Yagnik, Arpan Shailesh
In this study I hypothesize metamorphosis of the menstrual taboo by examining the image and perception shifts of two social taboos-HIV/AIDS and homosexuality-from estranged taboos to embraced social issues. Trends identified in their media framing and respective image shifts were applied to menstruation in India. Based on my understanding of theory, topic, and geographical location, I construct a metamorphosis. I contribute the hypothesized final stage of metamorphosis, and explain how framing is likely instrumental in bringing about these changes.
Full Text Available Intellectual disability is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and skills. Autism is a group of developmental brain disorders, collectively called autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Teenagers with learning and physical disabilities are more likely to have menstrual problems compared to the general populations. The parents of a 12-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability referred to the coroner due to her numerous problems of puberty (menstruation including: poor hygiene and polluting herself and the environment, not allowing to put or change the pads and changes in mood and physical health prior period, requested for the surgery (hysterectomy. In legal medicine organization after reviewing the medical records, physical exams and medical consultations with a gynecologist and psychiatric, surgery was not accepted. Hysterectomy (surgery due to the age of the child, either physically or morally is not recommended. The use of hormone replacement therapy has side effects such as osteoporosis. In these cases, it seems noninvasive methods (behavioral therapy and learning care skills under the welfare experts is also more effective and morally.
Elias, Sjoerd G; van Noord, Paulus A H; Peeters, Petra H M; den Tonkelaar, Isolde; Kaaks, Rudolf; Grobbee, Diederick E
To investigate the relation between exposure to the 1944-45 Dutch famine and concurrent and subsequent menstrual disturbances. Cohort study. Doorlopend Onderzoek Mammacarcinoom breast cancer screening project, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Between 1983 and 1986, approximately 12,500 women (born 1911-41) reported their individual famine experiences. Irregular menstruation during the famine; time to regular menses after menarche, and menstrual patterns in adulthood after childhood famine. The famine had a direct impact on menstruation. The odds ratio (OR) of concurrent irregular menses in severely versus unexposed women was 8.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.31-10.70). Women exposed to severe famine before menarche were 1.51 (95% CI, 1.15-1.98) times more likely to experience irregular menses for a prolonged time after menarche compared with the unexposed. This association was stronger in women with an early menarche. When the menstrual pattern was assessed in adulthood by menstrual diaries, a nonsignificant tendency of increased irregularity (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.82-1.54) and regular but long menstrual cycles (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 0.89-2.23) was observed in women exposed to severe famine. Famine relates to concurrent menstrual irregularity, and exposure in childhood seems to affect the subsequent menstrual pattern.
Namrata Arvind Thakur
Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence marks the onset of female puberty. The first menstruation is often horrifying and traumatic to an adolescent girl because it usually occurs without her knowing about it. Implications of a girl′s response to menarche have a socio-cultural and religious significance. Aim and Objective: To study the sociocultural and physiological implications of menstruation in college going girls. Materials and Methods: This was a community-based cross-sectional observational study undertaken among college girls. All the girls (n = 252 of the college were enrolled in the study. A structured questionnaire was used as the study tool. The questionnaire included topics related to sociodemographic information, sociocultural implications and first informant about the physiological process of menstruation along with its timing. Results: Majority of the study subjects (77.40% observed restrictions for religious/holy things. Sleep disturbances were the most common (59% disturbance faced by the study subjects. Of a total of 252 respondents, majority [104 (41.30%] had leg cramps. The first informant of menstruation was the mother in 196 (77.78% girls. Of 252 girls, 86 (34.12% had pre-menarcheal knowledge of menstruation. Mothers from the urban area and with better education tend to give knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche of her daughter. An increasing trend was observed with increasing educational status of the mother and proportion of them giving pre-menarcheal knowledge of menstruation to their daughter. Conclusions: Menstruation is associated with a high burden of sociocultural implications. Pre-menarcheal knowledge of menstruation is poor. Mothers from the urban area and with better educational level tend to give knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche of their daughter.
Wong, Wing Chi; Li, Mei Kuen; Chan, Wai Ying Veronica; Choi, Yuen Yu; Fong, Chi Hung Sandra; Lam, Ka Wah Kara; Sham, Wun Chi; So, Ping Ping; Wong, Kit; Yeung, Kuen Ha; Yeung, Tsz Yan
To explore the beliefs and attitudes towards menstruation of Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong and to compare those of (1) male and female undergraduates with those of (2) undergraduates studying health-related vs. nonhealth-related programmes. Menstruation is typically viewed as a forbidden topic or a troublesome experience. These negative beliefs and attitudes result from existing myths and taboos associated with cultural factors and health education levels. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in all universities in Hong Kong. Undergraduates were invited through convenience sampling to complete a questionnaire assessing their attitudes and beliefs towards menstruation. A questionnaire on 'beliefs about and attitudes towards menstruation' was adopted. Questionnaires were self-administered by the respondents. A total of 450 questionnaires were distributed, and a response rate of 96.6% was obtained; 416 completed questionnaires were collected and analysed. Many Chinese undergraduates agreed that menstruation is annoying, causes disability, involves prescription and proscription and is not pleasant. When comparing the beliefs and attitudes towards menstruation of Chinese male undergraduates with those of female undergraduates, females tended to disagree that menstruation should be maintained secret, but tended to agree that it was annoying. When comparing the beliefs and attitudes towards menstruation of Chinese undergraduates studying health-related programmes with those under nonhealth-related programmes, the latter group exhibited a higher level of belief in prescription and proscription for menstruation than the former group. Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong were influenced by the traditional Chinese culture and social environment, resulting in negative attitudes towards menstruation. This study recommends that sex education, especially reproductive health education, be extended to tertiary education. This study provides relevant information on planning
Fukaya, Keiichi; Kawamori, Ai; Osada, Yutaka; Kitazawa, Masumi; Ishiguro, Makio
Women's basal body temperature (BBT) shows a periodic pattern that associates with menstrual cycle. Although this fact suggests a possibility that daily BBT time series can be useful for estimating the underlying phase state as well as for predicting the length of current menstrual cycle, little attention has been paid to model BBT time series. In this study, we propose a state-space model that involves the menstrual phase as a latent state variable to explain the daily fluctuation of BBT and the menstruation cycle length. Conditional distributions of the phase are obtained by using sequential Bayesian filtering techniques. A predictive distribution of the next menstruation day can be derived based on this conditional distribution and the model, leading to a novel statistical framework that provides a sequentially updated prediction for upcoming menstruation day. We applied this framework to a real data set of women's BBT and menstruation days and compared prediction accuracy of the proposed method with that of previous methods, showing that the proposed method generally provides a better prediction. Because BBT can be obtained with relatively small cost and effort, the proposed method can be useful for women's health management. Potential extensions of this framework as the basis of modeling and predicting events that are associated with the menstrual cycles are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mikkelsen, A L; Andersson, A M; Skakkebaek, N E
Retrospectively it was examined whether the number of retrieved oocytes, the maturation rate and cleavage rate can be predicted in regularly menstruating women by the use of the following predictive variables on cycle day 3-4: the concentration of FSH, oestradiol, inhibin B and inhibin A in serum...
Zhou, Jieru; Yao, Min; Wang, Husheng; Tan, Weilin; Chen, Pin; Wang, Xipeng
Owing to the increase in cesarean sections (C-sections) worldwide, long-term complications such as postmenstrual spotting, chronic pelvic pain, and C-section scar ectopic pregnancies have created a new medical era of gynecologic disease. A new type of vaginal repair is evaluated to repair C-section diverticulum (CSD) and rebuild the muscular layer to improve symptoms of abnormal uterine bleeding and decrease the risk of uterine rupture. Retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). University hospital. A total of 121 patients with CSD diagnoses by transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) presented with postmenstrual spotting between June 2012 and March 2015. All patients had undergone at least 1 C-section delivery and had no history of postmenstrual spotting before undergoing C-section. Vaginal excision and suture of CSD. The mean duration of menstruation was 14.87 ± 3.46 days preoperatively and decreased to 8.22 ± 2.73 days at 1 month after surgery, 8.89 ± 2.67 days at 3 months after surgery, and 9.02 ± 2.47 days at 6 months after surgery (p menstruation and imaging data did not differ markedly between 3 months and 6 months, suggesting that follow-up at 3 months represents an adequate endpoint for evaluating the effectiveness of surgery. At 6 months, 80.3% of patients (94 of 117) reached ≤10 days of menstruation. Further study revealed that a TRM at 6 months of ≥8.5 mm measured by TVU (relative risk [RR], 6.418; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.478-28.443) and an interval between CS and vaginal repair of ≤2.5 years (RR, 12.0; 95% CI, 1.541- 93.454) were good prognostic factors associated with surgery. Vaginal repair of CSD improved the symptoms of postmenstrual spotting and anatomically corrected the scars. An interval between C-section and a surgery of ≤2.5 years was optimal for vaginal repair, and a TRM at 6 months of ≥8.5 mm represented the standard healing of CSD. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by
Dudeja, Puja; Sindhu, Apoorva; Shankar, Pooja; Gadekar, Tukaram
Reproductive health of adolescent girls is crucial as it determines the health of future generations. School girls when experiencing menarche find themselves in a setting without water, toilets or a supportive female teacher to explain the changes happening in their body. An important concern for adolescent girls is to have adequate, correct knowledge along with facilities and the cultural environment to manage menstruation hygienically and with dignity. Hence, the present study was done to assess knowledge and practices about menstruation in adolescent school girls of an urban slum. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among girls of a Government School located in an urban slum of western Maharashtra. A total of 250 girls participated. Data collection was through a pilot-tested questionnaire. The data thus collected were entered into Microsoft Excel and analyzed using the SPSS 20 software. All girls were educated about menstrual hygiene after the study. The mean age of the students was 14.9±1.75 years. The mean age at menarche was 11.97 (95% CI: 11.94-11.99). It was observed that only half (56.4%) had acquired prior knowledge about attaining menarche. Out of these in a large proportion, the knowledge was imparted to them by their mothers (60.7%), followed by friends (31.8%). There was no significant association between educational status of mother and awareness in respondent about menstruation. Regarding the organ of menstrual blood flow, half (50.7%) knew the correct answer (i.e. uterus); whereas the rest believed that it was stomach/kidney, etc. Most of the school girls (90.5%) used sanitary pads. Almost 90% of the young women faced physical complaints or health problems during menstruation. Most of the participants had some kind of restrictions on them during the menstruation and most of these were religious restrictions (69.7%) followed by physical (41.2%) and social restrictions (22.3%). All of them were unsatisfied with the toilets and
Shalabi-Abbas, Eatimad; Dweikat, Saba; Al Gazawy, Israa; Draghmah, Sajeda
Menstruation is a natural phenomenon that occurs throughout the reproductive life of every woman. The aim of this study was to explore knowledge and self-care practices among Palestinian adolescent girls during their menstrual period. Reproductive health issues in adolescent girls is an important but neglected area of Palestinian research. For this cross-sectional study we recruited girls from grades seven, eight, and nine in the three biggest schools for girls in Nablus district. Participants were given a self-administered questionnaire that included questions about diet habits, daily activity, medication usage, and social norms related to the menstrual period. Data were analysed using SPSS version 17. The study protocol was approved ethically by Ibn Sina College for Health Sciences board. Verbal informed consent was obtained from the participants. 100 girls completed the questionnaire. 68 (68%) respondents referred to their mothers as the main source of information about dealing with menstrual periods. 52 (52%) respondents believed that salty food affects adversely on their health during the menstrual period, and 85 (85%) answered that showering is important during menstruation and that no harm comes from touching things during menstruation. 38 (38%) girls did not change food quality or quantity during menstruation, and 36 (36%) girls often take hot herbal drinks to relieve menstrual pain, whereas 63 (63%) girls reported use of analgesics. 94 (94%) respondents had a proper way of disposing of dirty pads. 45 (45%) girls said they used school toilets, 70 (70%) mentioned the availability of private doors, and 60 (60%) reported the availability of soap and water. Self-care practices during menstruation could be improved in adolescent Palestinian girls by establishing comprehensive puberty education programmes in schools and providing appropriate sanitation conditions in school toilets. None. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sommer, Marni; Chandraratna, Sahani; Cavill, Sue; Mahon, Therese; Phillips-Howard, Penelope
The potential menstrual hygiene management barriers faced by adolescent girls and women in workplace environments in low- and middle-income countries has been under addressed in research, programming and policy. Despite global efforts to reduce poverty among women in such contexts, there has been insufficient attention to the water and sanitation related barriers, specifically in relation to managing monthly menstruation, that may hinder girls' and women's contributions to the workplace, and their health and wellbeing. There is an urgent need to document the specific social and environmental barriers they may be facing in relation to menstrual management, to conduct a costing of the implications of inadequate supportive workplace environments for menstrual hygiene management, and to understand the implications for girls' and women's health and wellbeing. This will provide essential evidence for guiding national policy makers, the private sector, donors and activists focused on advancing girls' and women's rights.
Maybin, Jacqueline A; Murray, Alison A; Saunders, Philippa T K; Hirani, Nikhil; Carmeliet, Peter; Critchley, Hilary O D
Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is common and debilitating, and often requires surgery due to hormonal side effects from medical therapies. Here we show that transient, physiological hypoxia occurs in the menstrual endometrium to stabilise hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and drive repair of the denuded surface. We report that women with HMB have decreased endometrial HIF-1α during menstruation and prolonged menstrual bleeding. In a mouse model of simulated menses, physiological endometrial hypoxia occurs during bleeding. Maintenance of mice under hyperoxia during menses decreases HIF-1α induction and delays endometrial repair. The same effects are observed upon genetic or pharmacological reduction of endometrial HIF-1α. Conversely, artificial induction of hypoxia by pharmacological stabilisation of HIF-1α rescues the delayed endometrial repair in hypoxia-deficient mice. These data reveal a role for HIF-1 in the endometrium and suggest its pharmacological stabilisation during menses offers an effective, non-hormonal treatment for women with HMB.
This paper examines girls' voiced experiences of menstruation, puberty and schooling in northern Tanzania. The study was conducted in Moshi and Rombo Districts of Kilimanjaro, a predominantly Chagga region with historically strong support for girls' education. The major question explored was how the onset of menses and puberty may be impacting on girls' school participation, given societal implications of pubertal onset and potentially gender discriminatory school environments. The methodology included a comparative case study using in-depth interviews and participatory research with young women living in urban and rural Kilimanjaro. Along with important findings about how menstrual onset creates challenges for girls attending school emerged findings about the significant gaps in girls' knowledge about body changes, sexual health and HIV/AIDS. These findings underline the importance of identifying new girl-centred approaches to guidance on bodily development and HIV prevention.
Simmer, H H
Pflüger's hypothesis of a nerve reflex as the cause of menstruation published in 1865 and accepted by many, nonetheless did not lead to experimental investigations for 25 years. According to this hypothesis the nerve reflex starts in the ovary by an increase of the intraovarian pressure by the growing follicles. In 1884 Adolph Kehrer proposed a program to test the nerve reflex, but only in 1890, Cohnstein artificially increased the intraovarian pressure in women by bimanual compression from the outside and the vagina. His results were not convincing. Six years later, Strassmann injected fluids into ovaries of animals and obtained changes in the uterus resembling those of oestrus. His results seemed to verify a prognosis derived from Pflüger's hypothesis. Thus, after a long interval, that hypothesis had become a paradigma. Though reasons can be given for the delay, it is little understood, why experimental testing started so late.
Jin Chul Lee
Full Text Available Purpose : Westernized eating habits have been associated with earlyage menstruation, which increases the incidence of dysmenorrhea and premenstrual syndrome among adolescent girls. We therefore surveyed changes in menarche timing and the general menstrual characteristics of adolescent girls in Seoul, Korea. Methods : We surveyed 538 teenage girls who visited our hospital between July and November 2007. Items explored included age at menarche, general menstrual characteristics, occurrence of premenstrual syndrome and treatment thereof, and an association between present dysmenorrhea and a family history of the condition. Results : Average age at menarche was 12.6 years, with 29% (n=156 subjects beginning menstruation at age 12 years. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 82% (n=435. The main symptoms were abdominal (53.2% and lower back pain (34.2%, and 15.2% of girls who experienced such symptoms required medication. Present dysmenorrhea, and a family history thereof, were statistically correlated (P<0.05. In addition, 58.8% (n=316 of teenage girls had symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. The most frequent psychological symptoms were fatigue (36.4% and nervousness (38.7%, whereas the most common physical symptom was menstrual cramps (46.5%. Most subjects (87.6% tolerated the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome without medication; 11.4% took medicines including painkillers; but only 0.1% of subjects visited a doctor. Conclusion : The average age at menarche in Korean girls was 12.6 years, thus younger than in the past. Most teenage girls experienced dysmenorrhea and premenstrual syndrome, but few consulted a doctor. Organized treatment plans are required to manage menstrual problems in teenage girls.
Nowak, Judyta; Borkowska, Barbara; Pawlowski, Boguslaw
Total leukocyte count (white blood cells-WBC) and the count of each subpopulation vary across the menstrual cycle, but results of studies examining the time and direction of these changes are inconsistent and methodologically flawed. Besides, no previous study focused on leukocyte count on the day of ovulation. Blood samples were obtained from 37 healthy and regularly cycling women aged 19.8-36.1 years. Samples were taken three times: during menstruation (M), ovulation (O), and in the mid-luteal phase (ML). WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, mixed cells, progesterone (P,) and estradiol (E) were measured in each of the three target phases of the cycle. Compared to menstruation, WBC (P = 0.002) and neutrophils (P < 0.001) increased around ovulation and remained stable in the mid-luteal phase, whereas lymphocyte and mixed cell counts did not change throughout the menstrual cycle. There were some correlations of sex hormone variation with leukocyte changes between M and O (positive for E and WBC, negative for P and WBC and for P and neutrophil count; P < 0.05), but not between O and ML. Peripheral leukocyte changes taking place in the second half of the cycle are already observable on the day of ovulation and they are associated with sex hormone variation. We speculate that these changes may lead to increased immune protection against pathogens at a time when fertilization and implantation typically occur. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:721-728, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Perigard, Christopher J; Parrula, M Cecilia M; Larkin, Matthew H; Gleason, Carol R
In preclinical studies with cynomolgus macaques, it is common to have one or more females presenting with menses. Published literature indicates that the blood lost during menses causes decreases in red blood cell mass variables (RBC, HGB, and HCT), which would be a confounding factor in the interpretation of drug-related effects on clinical pathology data, but no scientific data have been published to support this claim. This investigation was conducted to determine if the amount of blood lost during menses in cynomolgus macaques has an effect on routine hematology and serum chemistry variables. Ten female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), 5 to 6.5 years old, were observed daily during approximately 3 months (97 days) for the presence of menses. Hematology and serum chemistry variables were evaluated twice weekly. The results indicated that menstruation affects the erythrogram including RBC, HGB, HCT, MCHC, MCV, reticulocyte count, RDW, the leukogram including neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts, and chemistry variables, including GGT activity, and the concentrations of total proteins, albumin, globulins, and calcium. The magnitude of the effect of menstruation on susceptible variables is dependent on the duration of the menstrual phase. Macaques with menstrual phases lasting ≥ 7 days are more likely to develop changes in variables related to chronic blood loss. In preclinical toxicology studies with cynomolgus macaques, interpretation of changes in several commonly evaluated hematology and serum chemistry variables requires adequate clinical observation and documentation concerning presence and duration of menses. There is a concern that macaques with long menstrual cycles can develop iron deficiency anemia due to chronic menstrual blood loss. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Maybin, Jacqueline A; Thiruchelvam, Uma; Madhra, Mayank; Saunders, Philippa T K; Critchley, Hilary O D
Repair of the endometrial surface at menstruation must be efficient to minimize blood loss and optimize reproductive function. The mechanism and regulation of endometrial repair remain undefined. To determine the presence/regulation of CXCL4 in the human endometrium as a putative repair factor at menses. Endometrial tissue was collected throughout the menstrual cycle from healthy women attending the gynecology department. Menstrual blood loss was objectively measured in a subset, and heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) was defined as >80 mL per cycle. Monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood. CXCL4 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were identified by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The function/regulation of endometrial CXCL4 was explored by in vitro cell culture. CXCL4 mRNA concentrations were significantly increased during menstruation. Intense staining for CXCL4 was detected in late secretory and menstrual tissue, localized to stromal, epithelial and endothelial cells. Colocalization identified positive staining in CD68+ macrophages. Treatment of human endometrial stromal and endothelial cells (hESCs and HEECs, respectively) with steroids revealed differential regulation of CXCL4. Progesterone withdrawal resulted in significant increases in CXCL4 mRNA and protein in hESCs, whereas cortisol significantly increased CXCL4 in HEECs. In women with HMB, CXCL4 was reduced in endothelial cells during the menstrual phase compared with women with normal menstrual bleeding. Cortisol-exposed macrophages displayed increased chemotaxis toward CXCL4 compared with macrophages incubated with estrogen or progesterone. These data implicate CXCL4 in endometrial repair after menses. Reduced cortisol at the time of menses may contribute to delayed endometrial repair and HMB, in part by mechanisms involving aberrant expression of CXCL4. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society
Zacharin, Margaret; Savasi, Ingrid; Grover, Sonia
Information regarding menstrual difficulties for adolescents with developmental disabilities and their families is limited. To assess the impact of menstruation on adolescents with developmental disabilities and their families, and to compare this to previously reported experiences of age-matched normal girls. Families of girls aged 12-18 years with known disabilities, attending the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, were recruited into a questionnaire based study evaluating issues of menstruation and associated problems, together with the consequent psychological, social and emotional impact on their families and carers. Information was sought regarding menstrual management strategies, outcome satisfaction and specific areas of family concern. 103 questionnaires were completed. The average age of participating girls was 15.11 years, mean menarchal age 12.3 years. 79 girls were postmenarchal. The severity of menstrual problems was similar to a normal population. 59 (76%) were happy with the impact of menses on their social activities. More than 50% sought menstrual advice before menarche. Advice seeking strongly correlated with disability severity (p=0.01) and impact of menses on social activities (p=0.01), which in turn were highly predictive of seeking assistance (p=0.005). Carer satisfaction with current management inversely correlated with treatment seeking behaviour (p=0.034). Menstrual characteristics in this population are similar to those without disabilities. There is a high level of parental anxiety regarding the impact of menses, particularly when disability is severe. Medical therapies may be required but information for families is lacking. Clinicians should play a proactive and educational role with families and adolescents with disabilities.
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Zxy-yann J; Pu, Cheng-yun; Lan, Chung-Fu
No previous research has examined the importance of both individual and environmental factors for predicting caregivers' menstrual attitudes. To explore the predictors of female caregivers' attitudes towards menstruation and the help they give to women with intellectual disabilities, we conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey which was completed by 725 female workers from 12 institutions in Taiwan. The Menstrual Attitudes Questionnaire (MAQ) and a structured questionnaire were used. Logistic regression analysis revealed that individual characteristics such as age and education were significantly associated with menstrual attitudes of female caregivers working with institutionalized women with intellectual disabilities. Furthermore, the environmental context, such as the frequency of discussions with colleagues, training in menstrual management care and the level of difficulty when giving help in menstruation management, was important for improving caregivers' menstrual attitudes. This study contributes to the existing literature by determining both individual and environmental predictors of caregivers' menstrual attitudes.
Kelly T. Alexander
Full Text Available Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH programs in African schools have received increased attention, particularly around the potential impact of poor menstrual hygiene management (MHM on equity for girls’ education. This study was conducted prior to a menstrual feasibility study in rural Kenya, to examine current WASH in primary schools and the resources available for menstruating schoolgirls. Cross-sectional surveys were performed in 62 primary schools during unannounced visits. Of these, 60% had handwashing water, 13% had washing water in latrines for menstruating girls, and 2% had soap. Latrines were structurally sound and 16% were clean. Most schools (84% had separate latrines for girls, but the majority (77% had no lock. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs supported WASH in 76% of schools. Schools receiving WASH interventions were more likely to have: cleaner latrines (Risk Ratio (RR 1.5; 95% Confidence Intervals [CI] 1.0, 2.1, handwashing facilities (RR 1.6, CI 1.1, 2.5, handwashing water (RR 2.7; CI 1.4, 5.2, and water in girls’ latrines (RR 4.0; CI 1.4, 11.6. Schools continue to lack essential WASH facilities for menstruating girls. While external support for school WASH interventions improved MHM quality, the impact of these contributions remains insufficient. Further support is required to meet international recommendations for healthy, gender-equitable schools.
Bonnar, J; Sheppard, B L
To compare the efficacy and acceptability of ethamsylate, mefenamic acid, and tranexamic acid for treating menorrhagia. Randomised controlled trial. A university department of obstetrics and gynaecology. 76 women with dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Treatment for five days from day 1 of menses during three consecutive menstrual periods. 27 patients were randomised to take ethamsylate 500 mg six hourly, 23 patients to take mefenamic acid 500 mg eight hourly, and 26 patients to take tranexamic acid 1 g six hourly. Menstrual loss measured by the alkaline haematin method in three control menstrual periods and three menstrual periods during treatment; duration of bleeding; patient's estimation of blood loss; sanitary towel usage; the occurrence of dysmenorrhoea; and unwanted events. Ethamsylate did not reduce mean menstrual blood loss whereas mefenamic acid reduced blood loss by 20% (mean blood loss 186 ml before treatment, 148 ml during treatment) and tranexamic acid reduced blood loss by 54% (mean blood loss 164 ml before treatment, 75 ml during treatment). Sanitary towel usage was significantly reduced in patients treated with mefenamic acid and tranexamic acid. Tranexamic acid given during menstruation is a safe and highly effective treatment for excessive bleeding. Patients with dysfunctional uterine bleeding should be offered medical treatment with tranexamic acid before a decision is made about surgery.
Çatlı, Gönül; Alparslan, Caner; Can, P Şule; Akbay, Sinem; Kelekçi, Sefa; Atik, Tahir; Özyılmaz, Berk; Dündar, Bumin N
46,XY pure gonadal dysgenesis (Swyer syndrome) is characterized by normal female genitalia at birth. It usually first becomes apparent in adolescence with delayed puberty and amenorrhea. Rarely, patients can present with spontaneous breast development and/or menstruation. A fifteen-year-old girl presented to our clinic with the complaint of primary amenorrhea. On physical examination, her external genitals were completely female. Breast development and pubic hair were compatible with Tanner stage V. Hormonal evaluation revealed a hypergonadotropic state despite a normal estrogen level. Chromosome analysis revealed a 46,XY karyotype. Pelvic ultrasonography showed small gonads and a normal sized uterus for age. SRY gene expression was confirmed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Direct sequencing on genomic DNA did not reveal a mutation in the SRY, SF1 and WT1 genes. After the diagnosis of Swyer syndrome was made, the patient started to have spontaneous menstrual cycles and therefore failed to attend her follow-up visits. After nine months, the patient underwent diagnostic laparoscopy. Frozen examination of multiple biopsies from gonad tissues revealed gonadoblastoma. With this report, we emphasize the importance of performing karyotype analysis, which is diagnostic for Swyer syndrome, in all cases with primary or secondary amenorrhea even in the presence of normal breast development. We also suggest that normal pubertal development in patients with Swyer syndrome may be associated with the presence of a hormonally active tumor.
Zhu, Jia-qing; Che, Yu-xia
In this paper, menstruation prescriptions were selected from "Fu Qingzhu's Obstetrics and Gynecology" and analyzed by using GRI algorithm, correlation analysis, hierarchical clustering method through SPSS, Clementine and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance auxiliary systems, in order to screen out 15 menopathy prescriptions, which involve 45 traditional Chinese medicine herbs. In the study, blood-tonifying and qi-tonifying herbs were found to be frequent in the prescriptions. The most frequent single herb was white paeony root, accounting for 9.6% in the total number of prescriptions; The most frequent herb pairs were white paeony root-radix rehmanniae preparata and paeony root-angelica sinensis. Among Fu Shan's menopathy prescriptions, 61 herbal pairs showed a correlation coefficient exceeding 0.05, which evolved into 16 pairs of core combinations. The analysis showed that menopathy prescriptions in volume 1 of "Fu Qingzhu's Obstetrics and Gynecology" focused on tonic traditional Chinese medicines involving liver, spleen and kidney and were adjusted according to changes in qi, blood, cold, hot and wet, which could provide a specific reference for further studies on Fu Shan's academic thoughts and traditional Chinese medicine clinical treatment of menopathy.
Iacovides, S; Avidon, I; Baker, F C
Monthly primary dysmenorrhoeic pain is associated with increased sensitivity to painful stimuli, particularly in deep tissue. We investigated whether women with dysmenorrhoea, compared with controls, have increased sensitivity to experimentally induced deep-tissue muscle ischaemia in a body area distant from that of referred menstrual pain. The sub-maximal effort tourniquet test was used to induce forearm ischaemia in 11 women with severe dysmenorrhoea and in nine control women both during menstruation and in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Von Frey hair assessments confirmed the presence of experimental ischaemia. Women rated the intensity of menstrual and ischaemic pain on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Women with dysmenorrhoea [mean (SD): 68 (20) mm] reported significantly greater menstrual pain compared with controls [mean (SD): 2 (6) mm; p = 0.0001] during the menstruation phase. They also rated their forearm ischaemic pain as significantly greater than the controls during the menstruation [dysmenorrhoeics vs. controls mean (SD): 58 (19) mm vs. 31 (21) mm, p menstruation phase and pain-free follicular phase. These findings suggest the presence of long-lasting changes in muscle pain sensitivity in women with dysmenorrhoea. Our findings that dysmenorrhoeic women are hyperalgesic to a clinically relevant, deep-muscle ischaemic pain in areas outside of referred menstrual pain confirm other studies showing long-lasting changes in pain sensitivity outside of the painful period during menstruation. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®
Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Morotomi, Nobuo; Imamura, Yuri; Mishima, Junko; Imai, Shigeo; Miyazawa, Kiyoshi; Taniguchi, Hatsumi
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of menstruation on the bacterial population of healthy Japanese women's vulvas, especially the labia minora. Labia minora swabs were obtained from 10 premenopausal, nonpregnant Japanese women at premenstruation and on day 2 of menstruation. Vaginal swabs were also obtained from 3 out of the 10 women. No significant difference was found in the average bacterial cell count between the menstruation and premenstruation samples. Molecular analysis using a 16S rRNA gene-based clone library method detected 22 genera from the labia minora swabs (total 20), with the genus Lactobacillus being predominant at both premenstruation and during menstruation in 7 out of the 10 women. Of the other 3 women, 2 showed various kinds of bacterial species, including oral and fecal bacteria, with Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis predominating in the remaining woman's vulva in both conditions. In total, 6 out of 10 cases (60%) showed significantly different microbiota of the labia minora between the two conditions. These results imply that menstruation may promote a distortion of the bacterial flora around the vulva, although it causes no significant increase of the bacterial count.
Kang, Huili; Chen, Yu-Ming; Han, Guiyuan; Huang, Hua; Chen, Wei-Qing; Wang, Xidan; Zhu, Ying-Ying; Xiao, Su-Mei
This study aimed to elucidate the associations of age, BMI, and years of menstruation with proximal femur strength in Chinese postmenopausal women, which may improve the prediction of hip fracture risk. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1322 Chinese postmenopausal women recruited from communities. DXA images were used to generate bone mineral density (BMD) and geometric parameters, including cross-sectional area (CSA), outer diameter (OD), cortical thickness (CT), section modulus (SM), buckling ratio (BR) at the narrow neck (NN), intertrochanter (IT), and femoral shaft (FS). Relationships of age, BMI, and years of menstruation with bone phenotypes were analyzed with the adjustment of height, age at menarche, total daily physical activity, education, smoking status, calcium tablet intake, etc. Age was associated with lower BMD, CSA, CT, SM, and higher BR (p menstruation had the positive relationships with proximal femur strength (p menstruation were 0.14%-1.34%, 0.20%-2.70%, and 0.16%-0.98%, respectively. These results supported that bone strength deteriorated with aging and enhanced with higher BMI and longer time of years of menstruation in Chinese postmenopausal women.
Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate the associations of age, BMI, and years of menstruation with proximal femur strength in Chinese postmenopausal women, which may improve the prediction of hip fracture risk. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1322 Chinese postmenopausal women recruited from communities. DXA images were used to generate bone mineral density (BMD and geometric parameters, including cross-sectional area (CSA, outer diameter (OD, cortical thickness (CT, section modulus (SM, buckling ratio (BR at the narrow neck (NN, intertrochanter (IT, and femoral shaft (FS. Relationships of age, BMI, and years of menstruation with bone phenotypes were analyzed with the adjustment of height, age at menarche, total daily physical activity, education, smoking status, calcium tablet intake, etc. Age was associated with lower BMD, CSA, CT, SM, and higher BR (p < 0.05, which indicated a weaker bone strength at the proximal femur. BMI and years of menstruation had the positive relationships with proximal femur strength (p < 0.05. Further analyses showed that the ranges of absolute value of change slope per year, per BMI or per year of menstruation were 0.14%–1.34%, 0.20%–2.70%, and 0.16%–0.98%, respectively. These results supported that bone strength deteriorated with aging and enhanced with higher BMI and longer time of years of menstruation in Chinese postmenopausal women.
Li, Cui-Lan; Chen, Dun-Jin; Deng, Yi-Fan; Song, Li-Ping; Mo, Xue-Tang; Liu, Kai-Jie
What is the efficacy of maintaining or restoring non-pregnant status with low-dose mifepristone combined with misoprostol administered before expected menstruation? Low-dose mifepristone and misoprostol administered at the time of expected menstruation was effective and safe in maintaining or restoring non-pregnant status, with no obvious menstrual disturbance. Menstrual regulation involves the medical or mechanical stimulation of uterine sloughing in women with up to 2-3 weeks of menstrual delay. Low-dose mifepristone plus misoprostol is efficacious for termination of ultra-early pregnancy (≤ 35 days of amenorrhoea) with no obvious menstrual disturbance. A total of 678 women fulfilled all criteria and were recruited. Seventeen women dropped out after deciding to remain pregnant and 11 others were lost to follow-up. Thus, data from 650 women who completed the procedure were included in analyses. Participants were enrolled at any time during their menstrual cycle and administered medication 1 day before expected menstruation. The end of the study was defined on a per-patient basis as the date of completion of the post-treatment menstrual cycle. The primary outcome was the efficacy of abortion induction (for pregnant women) or menstrual regulation (for non-pregnant women). Women with regular menstrual cycles (25-35 days) were voluntarily recruited for this study between February 2012 and December 2014. Serum β-hCG was measured before mifepristone intake. Mifepristone (50 mg) was administered orally 1 day before expected menstruation and 200 µg misoprostol was administered orally on the day of expected menstruation. Efficacy, disturbance in bleeding patterns in the treatment and post-treatment cycles, satisfaction with the treatment, and subsequent contraception preference were analysed. Retrospective analysis of serum β-hCG levels at admission indicated that 23.3% (158/678) of the women were pregnant. The success rate for pregnancy termination was 98.6% (136
Parker, Samantha E; Troisi, Rebecca; Wise, Lauren A; Palmer, Julie R; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Strohsnitter, William C; Hatch, Elizabeth E
Estrogen is critical for bone formation and growth in women. Estrogen exposures occur throughout life, including prenatally, and change with reproductive events, such as menarche and menopause. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between age at menarche, age at menopause, and years of menstruation with incidence of osteoporosis and assess the impact of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen, on such associations. Participants were 5573 women in the National Cancer Institute Combined Cohort Study of DES (1994-2006). Data on reproductive history and medical conditions were collected through questionnaires at baseline in 1994 and subsequently in 1997, 2001, and 2006. Age-stratified Cox regression models were used to calculate multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Effect measure modification by prenatal DES exposure was assessed using cubic restricted spline regression models. Osteoporosis was the main outcome measure. The IRRs for osteoporosis incidence with age at menarche less than 11 years and age at menopause of 50 years or younger were 0.82 (CI 0.59, 1.14) and 0.61 (CI 0.40, 0.92), respectively. Fewer than 25 years of menstruation was associated with an increased incidence of osteoporosis (IRR 1.80; CI 1.14, 2.86) compared with 35 years or more of menstruation. Associations were stronger among women who had not been prenatally exposed to DES. Our data support the hypothesis that lifetime cumulative exposure to estrogens is protective against osteoporosis. Furthermore, prenatal exposure to estrogen appears to modify these associations, although the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown.
Thakur, Harshad; Aronsson, Annette; Bansode, Seema; Stalsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Dalvie, Suchitra; Faxelid, Elisabeth
The main objective was to assess knowledge, practices, and restrictions faced by young women regarding their menstrual hygiene. The views of adult women having young daughters were also included and both views were compared. In addition, the factors influencing the menstrual hygiene practices were also studied. The study was carried out during 2008 in Mumbai, India. The mixed methods approach was followed for the data collection. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect the data. For quantitative survey, totally 192 respondents (96 adult and 96 younger women) were selected. While young women were asked about questions related to their menstruation, adult women were asked questions to find out how much they know about menstrual history of their daughters. The qualitative data helped to supplement the findings from the quantitative survey and to study the factors affecting menstrual practices in young women. The mean age at menarche reported was 13.4 years and 30–40% of young girls did not receive any information about menstruation before menarche. It is thus seen that very few young girls between the age group 15 and 24 years did receive any information before the onset of menstruation. Among those who received some information, it was not adequate enough. The source of information was also not authentic. Both young and adult women agreed on this. Due to the inadequate knowledge, there were certain unhygienic practices followed by the young girls resulting in poor menstrual hygiene. It also leads to many unnecessary restrictions on young girls and they faced many health problems and complaints, which were either ignored or managed inappropriately. The role of health sector was almost negligible from giving information to the management of health problems of these young girls. This paper reemphasizes the important, urgent, and neglected need of providing correct knowledge to the community including adolescent girls. PMID:25072044
Clasen, Thomas F; Hadley, Craig; Yount, Kathryn M; Haardörfer, Regine; Rout, Manaswini; Dasmohapatra, Munmun; Cooper, Hannah LF
Background Research suggests that the lived experience of inadequate sanitation may contribute to poor health outcomes above and beyond pathogen exposure, particularly among women. The goal of this research was to understand women’s lived experiences of sanitation by documenting their urination-related, defecation-related and menstruation-related concerns, to use findings to develop a definition of sanitation insecurity among women in low-income settings and to develop a conceptual model to explain the factors that contribute to their experiences, including potential behavioural and health consequences. Methods We conducted 69 Free-List Interviews and eight focus group discussions in a rural population in Odisha, India to identify women’s sanitation concerns and to build an understanding of sanitation insecurity. Findings We found that women at different life stages in rural Odisha, India have a multitude of unaddressed urination, defecation and menstruation concerns. Concerns fell into four domains: the sociocultural context, the physical environment, the social environment and personal constraints. These varied by season, time of day, life stage and toilet ownership, and were linked with an array of adaptations (ie, suppression, withholding food and water) and consequences (ie, scolding, shame, fear). Our derived definition and conceptual model of sanitation insecurity reflect these four domains. Discussion To sincerely address women’s sanitation needs, our findings indicate that more is needed than facilities that change the physical environment alone. Efforts to enable urinating, defecating and managing menstruation independently, comfortably, safely, hygienically, privately, healthily, with dignity and as needed require transformative approaches that also address the gendered, sociocultural and social environments that impact women despite facility access. This research lays the groundwork for future sanitation studies to validate or refine the proposed
Thakur, Harshad; Aronsson, Annette; Bansode, Seema; Stalsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Dalvie, Suchitra; Faxelid, Elisabeth
The main objective was to assess knowledge, practices, and restrictions faced by young women regarding their menstrual hygiene. The views of adult women having young daughters were also included and both views were compared. In addition, the factors influencing the menstrual hygiene practices were also studied. The study was carried out during 2008 in Mumbai, India. The mixed methods approach was followed for the data collection. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect the data. For quantitative survey, totally 192 respondents (96 adult and 96 younger women) were selected. While young women were asked about questions related to their menstruation, adult women were asked questions to find out how much they know about menstrual history of their daughters. The qualitative data helped to supplement the findings from the quantitative survey and to study the factors affecting menstrual practices in young women. The mean age at menarche reported was 13.4 years and 30-40% of young girls did not receive any information about menstruation before menarche. It is thus seen that very few young girls between the age group 15 and 24 years did receive any information before the onset of menstruation. Among those who received some information, it was not adequate enough. The source of information was also not authentic. Both young and adult women agreed on this. Due to the inadequate knowledge, there were certain unhygienic practices followed by the young girls resulting in poor menstrual hygiene. It also leads to many unnecessary restrictions on young girls and they faced many health problems and complaints, which were either ignored or managed inappropriately. The role of health sector was almost negligible from giving information to the management of health problems of these young girls. This paper reemphasizes the important, urgent, and neglected need of providing correct knowledge to the community including adolescent girls.
Chung, Soo-Ho; Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Lee, Arum; Jeon, Dong-Su; Park, Junsik; Kim, Yesol
Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) of perimenopausal women at a university hospital along with their menstrual characters. Methods A questionnaire survey regarding premenstrual symptoms was carried out in 100 perimenopausal women (43 to 53, years). The pattern of menstruation and, the intensity of dysmenorrhea were assessed; and further, the symptoms were classified according to their number, intensity, and persisten...
Wong, M; O'Neill, S; Walsh, G; Smith, I E
Premature ovarian failure and infertility following chemotherapy in early breast cancer (EBC) are major concerns for young women. The role of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists with chemotherapy in EBC in reducing the incidence of chemotherapy-induced early menopause remains uncertain, and long-term data on the recovery of fertility are sparse. We report an audit of our experience with the GnRH agonist, goserelin (Zoladex®), used with chemotherapy to preserve ovarian function and maintain fertility. Pre-menopausal women were given goserelin subcutaneously every 28 days during chemotherapy, starting 0-14 days before treatment. The main clinical end point was recovery of menstruation after chemotherapy. The other end points were rate of successful conception and median time to recovery of menses. About 84% of 125 women recovered menstruation with the median time to recovery of 6 months (1-43 months), including 76% of 71 patients aged over 35. Of the 42 patients who attempted pregnancy, 71% (n=30) managed to achieve pregnancies. At the time of analysis, there were 42 pregnancies and 30 healthy deliveries. The GnRH agonist, goserelin, given with chemotherapy for EBC is associated with a low risk of long-term chemotherapy-induced amenorrhoea and a high chance of pregnancy. Further randomised trials are needed.
Grandi, Giovanni; Toss, Angela; Cortesi, Laura; Botticelli, Laura; Volpe, Annibale; Cagnacci, Angelo
Although endometriosis frequently involves multiple sites in the pelvis, malignancies associated with this disease are mostly confined to the ovaries, evolving from an endometrioma. Endometriomas present a 2-3-fold increased risk of transformation in clear-cell, endometrioid, and possibly low-grade serous ovarian cancers, but not in mucinous ovarian cancers. These last cancers are, in some aspects, different from the other epithelial ovarian cancers, as they do not appear to be decreased by the inhibition of ovulation and menstruation. The step by step process of transformation from typical endometrioma, through atypical endometrioma, finally to ovarian cancer seems mainly related to oxidative stress, inflammation, hyperestrogenism, and specific molecular alterations. Particularly, activation of oncogenic KRAS and PI3K pathways and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes PTEN and ARID1A are suggested as major pathogenic mechanisms for endometriosis associated clear-cell and endometrioid ovarian cancer. Both the risk for endometriomas and their associated ovarian cancers seems to be highly and similarly decreased by the inhibition of ovulation and retrograde menstruation, suggesting a common pathogenetic mechanism and common possible preventive strategies during reproductive life.
Mercer, Catherine L; Lachlan, Katherine; Karcanias, Alexandra; Affara, Nabeel; Huang, Shuwen; Jacobs, Patricia A; Thomas, N Simon
Integrity of the long arm of the X chromosome is important for maintaining female fertility and several critical regions for normal ovarian function have been proposed. In order to understand further the importance of specific areas of the X chromosome, we describe a series of 20 previously unreported patients missing part of Xq in whom detailed phenotypic information has been gathered as well as precise chromosome mapping using array Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Features often associated with Turner syndrome were not common in our study and excluding puberty, menarche and menstruation, the phenotypes observed were present in only a minority of women and were not specific to the X chromosome. The most frequently occurring phenotypic features in our patients were abnormalities of menstruation and fertility. Larger terminal deletions were associated with a higher incidence of primary ovarian failure, occurring at a younger age; however patients with similar or even identical deletions had discordant menstrual phenotypes, making accurate genetic counselling difficult. Nevertheless, large deletions are likely to be associated with complete skewing of X inactivation so that the resulting phenotypes are relatively benign given the amount of genetic material missing, even in cases with unbalanced X;autosome translocations. Some degree of ovarian dysfunction is highly likely, especially for terminal deletions extending proximal to Xq27. In conjunction with patient data from the literature, our study suggests that loss of Xq26-Xq28 has the most significant effect on ovarian function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Brekke, Beverly W.; And Others
A 40-item behavior analysis task, the Menstrual Care Scale, was developed and tested with 75 randomly selected institutionalized severely retarded women (13-59 years old). The need for developing personal care skills in menstruation habits had been identified as a priority area for sexuality instruction by staff and confirmed by analysis of…
Son, Jungmin; Seong, Eun Young; Song, Sang Heon; Lee, Soo Bong; Kang, Jin; Yang, Byeong Yun; Lee, Su Jin; Choi, Jong-Ryeol; Lee, Kyu-Sup; Kwak, Ihm Soo
The authors report a case of acute kidney injury (AKI) resulting from menstruation-related disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in an adenomyosis patient. A 40-yr-old woman who had received gonadotropin for ovulation induction therapy presented with anuria and an elevated serum creatinine level. Her medical history showed primary infertility with diffuse adenomyosis. On admission, her pregnancy test was negative and her menstrual cycle had started 1 day previously. Laboratory data were consistent with DIC, and it was believed to be related to myometrial injury resulting from heavy intramyometrial menstrual flow. Gonadotropin is considered to play an important role in the development of fulminant DIC. This rare case suggests that physicians should be aware that gonadotropin may provoke fulminant DIC in women with adenomyosis. PMID:20808684
Jeon, Se Jeong; Lee, Jae Il; Jeon, Myung Jae; Lee, Maria
Abstract Chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA) is a side effect that occurs in patients with breast cancer (BC) as a result of chemotherapy. These patients require special treatments to avoid infertility and menopause. However, the factors controlling CIA, resumption of menstruation (RM), and persistence of menstruation after chemotherapy are unknown. The long-term prognosis for premenopausal patients with BC and the prognostic factors associated with CIA and RM are subject to debate. We performed a retrospective study by reviewing the medical records of 249 patients with BC (stage I to stage III) who were treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy. The median patient age was 43 (range, 26–55 years) and the median duration of follow-up was 64 months (range, 28–100 months). The medical records indicated that 219 patients (88.0%) scored as positive for the hormone receptor (HR); the majority of these patients completed chemotherapy and then received additional therapy of tamoxifen. Our analyses revealed that 88.0% (n = 219) of patients experienced CIA, and the percentage of RM during follow-up was 48.6% (n = 121). A total of 30 patients (12.0%) did not experience CIA. Disease-free survival (DFS) was affected by several factors, including tumour size ≥2 cm, node positivity, HR negative status, and body mass index ≥23 kg/m2. Multivariate analysis indicated that tumour size ≥2 cm remained as a significant factor for DFS (hazard ratio = 3.3, P = 0.034). In summary, this study finds that the majority of premenopausal patients with BC (stage I to stage III) who receive chemotherapy experience CIA and subsequent RM. Although tumour size ≥2 cm is negatively associated with DFS, RM after CIA is not associated with poor prognosis. PMID:27057900
Shetty, Vishwaprakash; Dave, Aparna; Arora, Manpreet; Hans, Vibha; Madan, Ajay
Objective: There are five situations in a women’s life during which hormone fluctuations make them more susceptible to oral health problems – during puberty, at certain points in the monthly menstrual cycle, when using birth control pills, during pregnancy, and at menopause. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of menstruation, pregnancy and menopause on salivary flow rate, pH and gustatory function. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 120 patients including 30 controls (with normal menstrual cycle of 28 to 30 d) and 90 cases (30 patients within three days of menstruation, 30 pregnant and 30 postmenopausal). Paraffin-stimulated saliva samples were obtained by expectoration to calculate salivary flow rate, pH was measured electrometically and patients were prospectively evaluated for gustatory function. Then, whole mouth taste test was performed in which the quality identification and intensity ratings of taste solutions were measured. Results: No statistically significant difference was found between the groups with respect to salivary flow rate but pH values were significantly lower in post menopausal women (pwomen than intensity of taste perception for other tastes (pwomen reported change in their dietary habits as all of them expressed liking for sweeter food. Conclusion: Reduced salivary flow rate and pH in postmenopausal women may make them more prone to the occurrence of oral health problems. Also, pregnant and postmenopausal women appeared to have a reduced perception of sucrose, which can alter eating habits, such as intake of more sweet foods whereas no significant difference is observed in taste perception of NaCl, citric acid and quinine hydrochloride between the subjects. PMID:25478455
Saluja, Pulin; Shetty, Vishwaprakash; Dave, Aparna; Arora, Manpreet; Hans, Vibha; Madan, Ajay
There are five situations in a women's life during which hormone fluctuations make them more susceptible to oral health problems - during puberty, at certain points in the monthly menstrual cycle, when using birth control pills, during pregnancy, and at menopause. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of menstruation, pregnancy and menopause on salivary flow rate, pH and gustatory function. The study was carried out on 120 patients including 30 controls (with normal menstrual cycle of 28 to 30 d) and 90 cases (30 patients within three days of menstruation, 30 pregnant and 30 postmenopausal). Paraffin-stimulated saliva samples were obtained by expectoration to calculate salivary flow rate, pH was measured electrometically and patients were prospectively evaluated for gustatory function. Then, whole mouth taste test was performed in which the quality identification and intensity ratings of taste solutions were measured. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups with respect to salivary flow rate but pH values were significantly lower in post menopausal women (pwomen than intensity of taste perception for other tastes (pwomen reported change in their dietary habits as all of them expressed liking for sweeter food. Reduced salivary flow rate and pH in postmen-opausal women may make them more prone to the occurrence of oral health problems. Also, pregnant and postmenopausal women appeared to have a reduced perception of sucrose, which can alter eating habits, such as intake of more sweet foods whereas no significant difference is observed in taste perception of NaCl, citric acid and quinine hydrochloride between the subjects.
Jeon, Se Jeong; Lee, Jae Il; Jeon, Myung Jae; Lee, Maria
Chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA) is a side effect that occurs in patients with breast cancer (BC) as a result of chemotherapy. These patients require special treatments to avoid infertility and menopause. However, the factors controlling CIA, resumption of menstruation (RM), and persistence of menstruation after chemotherapy are unknown. The long-term prognosis for premenopausal patients with BC and the prognostic factors associated with CIA and RM are subject to debate. We performed a retrospective study by reviewing the medical records of 249 patients with BC (stage I to stage III) who were treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy. The median patient age was 43 (range, 26-55 years) and the median duration of follow-up was 64 months (range, 28-100 months). The medical records indicated that 219 patients (88.0%) scored as positive for the hormone receptor (HR); the majority of these patients completed chemotherapy and then received additional therapy of tamoxifen. Our analyses revealed that 88.0% (n = 219) of patients experienced CIA, and the percentage of RM during follow-up was 48.6% (n = 121). A total of 30 patients (12.0%) did not experience CIA. Disease-free survival (DFS) was affected by several factors, including tumour size ≥2 cm, node positivity, HR negative status, and body mass index ≥23 kg/m. Multivariate analysis indicated that tumour size ≥2 cm remained as a significant factor for DFS (hazard ratio = 3.3, P = 0.034). In summary, this study finds that the majority of premenopausal patients with BC (stage I to stage III) who receive chemotherapy experience CIA and subsequent RM. Although tumour size ≥2 cm is negatively associated with DFS, RM after CIA is not associated with poor prognosis.
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the influence of the menstruation phase on changes of respective indicators of the gas exchange and on biochemical parameters of blood during physical efforts with the sub-maximal intensity. Fifteen female students of the Academy of Physical Education took part in the study. Girls were aged from 19 to 22 years old and did not practice sports. The effort tests were conducted in the follicular and luteal phase of two succeeding menstrual cycles. As far the aerobic capacity determination is concerned, one cyclo-ergometric test with graded effort was conducted and it was performed till the “refusal”. It allowed to mark a threshold (TDMA and a maximal level of physiological and biochemical indicators. Basing on the results of the graded test individual loads were determined for every next effort trial (repeated 4 times in every phase of the two succeeding menstrual cycles. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the reaction of women’s constitution on work with the sub-maximal intensity. The above trial consisted on two 10 min efforts divided with the 2 min pause (the first effort with the intensity of 80% of the TDMA threshold, second with the intensity bigger about 30-40% of difference between TDMA and a maximal load established by the graded test. The research did not reveal statistically significant differentiation as considering effort changes of basic physiological and biochemical indicators, determining reaction of women’s organisms on work with the sub- and over- threshold intensity (TDMA. It showed that menstruation has not significant effect on the level of changes of analysed parameters caused by the physical effort with the sub-maximal intensity.
Full Text Available Background: This study was undertaken to assess the impact of health education on knowledge regarding menstruation, misconceptions related to it as the prevalence of RTI is still very high in India. Aims: To study the existing level of status of hygiene, knowledge and practices regarding menstruation among adolescent school girls and to assess the change in their knowledge level and practices after health education. Materials A community-based pre and post interventional study was conducted among 200 adolescents’ girls of class IX and X of rural part of district Ambala. Multistage random sampling technique was used to draw the representative sample. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered and later health education regarding menstruation and healthy menstrual practices was imparted to the girls. Post-test was done after 3 months to assess the impact of health education. Pre- and post-intervention, data were compared using the paired t test, z test for proportions, chi-squared test for paired proportions. Difference between Proportions of the pre-post data and its 95% confidence interval has been calculated of the findings. SPSS for Windows software version 20 (IBM, Chicago, USA have been used for data analysis. The level of significance has been considered at p value 0.05 while in the post-test preceding health education, significant improvements were observed in their practices. Conclusion: Overall significant improvement was found in knowledge and practices regarding menstruation among adolescent school girls.
Dun, Wang-Huan; Yang, Jing; Yang, Ling; Ding, Dun; Ma, Xue-Ying; Liang, Feng-Li; von Deneen, Karen M; Ma, Shao-Hui; Xu, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Jixin; Zhang, Ming
Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the critical role of the insula in pain pathways and its close relation with the perceived intensity of nociceptive stimuli. We aimed to identify the structural and functional characteristics of the insula during periovulatory phase in women with primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), and further investigate its association with the intensity of perceived pain during menstruation. Optimized voxel-based morphometry and functional connectivity (FC) analyses were applied by using 3-dimensional T1-weighted and resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 36 patients at the peri-ovulation phase and 29 age-, education-, and gender-matched healthy controls (HC). A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to examine the intensity of the abdominal pain at periovulation and menstruation. In our results, PDM patients had significant higher VAS-rating during menstruaion than periovulation. Compared with the HC, PDM patients had lower gray matter density in the left anterior insula (aINS). Taken the left aINS as a seed region, we further found hypoconnectivity between aINS and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which showed negative relation with the VAS during menstruation. As the aINS is a key site of the salience network (SN) and the mPFC is a critical region in the default mode network (DMN), it's implicated a trait-related central-alteration that communications between pain attention and perception networks were disrupted without the ongoing menstrual pain. Moreover, result of correlation analysis, at least in part, suggested a possible role of altered FC (pain-free period) in predicting pain perception (menstruation).
Zwahr, C; Knorre, P; Kunz, L
Rehabilitation after abortion is an important consideration for fertile women and is defined here as recovery of the physical, psychic, and social condition that had been present prior to abortion. 206 women were studied 6-12 months after induced abortion (before 12 weeks by the vacuum suction apparatus method). 9.2% of the women attributed worsening of their physical condition to recent abortion. Duration of work incapacity was 8-21 days, with an average of 19 days; younger women and women with fewer children recuperated more quickly. In most cases menstruation returned late, an average of 35 days after the last period. 33% of the menstruations were unusually heavy. Duration of menstruation decreased from an average of 6.5 days for the 1st period to an average of 5.4 days by the 6th, women over 30 became regular more quickly than younger women. The study revealed that 33% of the women did not use contraceptives even after abortion. After intensive counseling, a disappointing 22.9% still resisted using contraceptives.
Trego, Lori L; Jordan, Patricia J
To determine military women's attitudes toward menstruation and menstrual suppression with oral contraceptives in the deployed environment. A cross-sectional descriptive design with the administration of the Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ) and the 55-item Military Women's Attitudes Towards Menstrual Suppression Scale (MWATMS) to a convenience sample (n = 278) of women in the U.S. Army with deployment experience. The MAQ's five subscales' mean scores ranged from 3.4 (+/-1.11) to 5.1 (+/-1.06), indicating neutral to moderate attitudes toward menstruation. Measurement development on the MWATMS produced a nine-item scale with three components: stress effects, benefits to self, and environmental barriers. Menstrual attitudes were generally neutral in this sample; however, military women favor menstrual suppression during deployment owing to the effects of stress during deployment, benefits that suppression would provide, and the barriers to menstrual hygiene in the deployed environment. Women who perceived menstruation as bothersome and debilitating had positive attitudes toward menstrual suppression. These findings can contribute to appropriate predeployment women's health care and improve the readiness for deployment in female soldiers. Providers should educate women on the risks and benefits of menstrual suppression methods and provide guidance on impact that the deployed environment can have on their menstrual experiences.
Reid, Robert L; Soares, Claudio N
Most ovulatory women experience premenstrual symptoms (premenstrual syndrome, molimina) which indicate impending menstruation and are of little clinical relevance because they do not affect quality of life. A few women, however, experience significant physical and/or psychological symptoms before menstruation that, if left untreated, would result in deterioration in functioning and relationships. The precise etiology remains elusive, although new theories are gaining support in pre-clinical and early clinical trials. Refined diagnostic criteria allow better discrimination of this condition from other psychiatric diagnoses and the selection of symptom appropriate therapies that afford relief for most women. Pharmacotherapies (particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and SNRIs) represent the first-line treatment for premenstrual dysphoric disorder and severe, mood-related premenstrual syndrome. Continuous combined oral contraceptives have limited evidence for usefulness in premenstrual dysphoric disorder, whereas medical ovarian suppression is often recommended for patients who fail to respond or cannot tolerate first-line treatments (e.g., selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). The use of cognitive behavioural therapies is promising, but it remains limited by sparse data and restricted access to trained professionals. A proper diagnosis (particularly the distinction from other underlying psychiatric conditions) is crucial for the implementation of effective therapy and alleviation of this impairing condition. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grunfeld, E; Gresty, M A
The similarities between the symptoms reported by patients with migraine and those experienced by severely motion sick individuals raises the question of whether the two conditions involve common mechanisms. In women, attacks of migraine may follow the menstrual cycle, and anecdote suggests this may also be true of motion sickness. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a cyclical pattern in the occurrence of migraine/headache and motion sickness among crew members of a "round the world" yacht race. The participants were asked to complete pre- and postrace questionnaires that related to their susceptibility to motion sickness and headache/migraine; additionally, the female subjects were asked for details about their menstrual cycle. During the race the subjects completed a logbook to record the occurrence of motion sickness (using a four-point scale), migraine/headache (including the type of headache), menstruation, medication consumption and duties aboard the yacht. Female sailors were found to be more prone to motion sickness than the males. Motion sickness was also found to be linked to time at sea, and subjects who suffered migraine during the race were also more susceptible to motion sickness. A distinct pattern was found in the occurrence of motion sickness and headache that related to the menstrual cycle, although motion sickness and headache did not generally occur together in most of the subjects. A cyclical pattern was not obvious for the male subjects.
Despite variations worldwide and within the U.S. population, median age at menarche has remained relatively stable-between 12 years and 13 years-across well-nourished populations in developed countries. Environmental factors, including socioeconomic conditions, nutrition, and access to preventive health care, may influence the timing and progression of puberty. A number of medical conditions can cause abnormal uterine bleeding, characterized by unpredictable timing and variable amount of flow. Clinicians should educate girls and their caretakers (eg, parents or guardians) about what to expect of a first menstrual period and the range for normal cycle length of subsequent menses. Identification of abnormal menstrual patterns in adolescence may improve early identification of potential health concerns for adulthood. It is important for clinicians to have an understanding of the menstrual patterns of adolescent girls, the ability to differentiate between normal and abnormal menstruation, and the skill to know how to evaluate the adolescent girl patient. By including an evaluation of the menstrual cycle as an additional vital sign, clinicians reinforce its importance in assessing overall health status for patients and caretakers.
Morris, Kasey Lynn; Goldenberg, Jamie L; Heflick, Nathan A
Research and theorizing suggest that objectification entails perceiving a person not as a human being but, quite literally, as an object. However, the motive to regard the self as an object is not well understood. The current research tested the hypothesis that literal self-objectification can serve a terror management function. From this perspective, the female body poses a unique existential threat on account of its role in reproduction, and regarding the self as an object is posited to shield women from this threat because objects, in contrast to humans, are not mortal. Across 5 studies, 3 operationalizations of literal self-objectification were employed (a denial of essentially human traits to the self, overlap in the explicit assignment of traits to the self and objects, and implicit associations between self and objects using an implicit association test) in response to 3 aspects of women's bodies involved in reproduction (pregnancy, menstruation, and breastfeeding). In each study, priming mortality led women (but not men, included in Studies 1, 3, 4, and 5) to literally self-objectify in conditions where women's reproductive features were salient. In addition, literal self-objectification was found to mediate subsequent responsiveness to death-related stimuli (Study 4). Together, these findings are the first to demonstrate a direct link between mortality salience, women's role in reproduction, and their self-objectification, supporting an existential function of self-objectification in women.
Wong, Li Ping
Folk culture surrounding menstrual-related matters has considerable implications for symptom expression and treatment-seeking behavior. A cross-sectional survey of 1,295 rural adolescent girls aged 13 to 19 years was conducted between February 4 and April 16, 2009 to examine these associations. With a higher score indicating a more positive attitude toward menstruation, the mean attitude score was 3.84 (SD ± 1.62) out of a maximum of six. No significant association was observed between the severity of menstrual symptoms and attitudes. Most (63.1%) of the participants identified themselves as having premenstrual symptoms, and 61.1% viewed premenstrual symptoms as a normal part of menstrual cycle. Participants with a higher severity of symptoms in the premenstrual (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10) and menstrual phase (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07), were more likely to consult a physician for premenstrual symptoms, and having a divorced/separated parents was associated with a reduced odds of consulting a physician compared to those having parents that were married (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.05-0.83). The findings imply the need for education to help adolescent girls manage menstrual symptoms and increase awareness of the benefit of treating them. Given that menstrual-related information was widely available from mothers, family, and social culture are potentially important in shaping good menstrual attitudes.
Schatz, Frederick; Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Ozlem; Arlier, Sefa; Kayisli, Umit A; Lockwood, Charles J
Human pregnancy requires robust hemostasis to prevent hemorrhage during extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion of the decidualized endometrium, modification of spiral arteries and post-partum processes. However, decidual hemorrhage (abruption) can occur throughout pregnancy from poorly transformed spiral arteries, causing fetal death or spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), or it can promote the aberrant placentation observed in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and pre-eclampsia; all leading causes of perinatal or maternal morbidity and mortality. In non-fertile cycles, the decidua undergoes controlled menstrual bleeding. Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) accompanying progestin-only, long-acting, reversible contraception (pLARC) accounts for most discontinuations of these safe and highly effective agents, thereby contributing to unwanted pregnancies and abortion. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of decidual cells in uterine hemostasis, menstruation, inflammation, adverse pregnancy outcomes and abnormal uterine bleeding. We conducted a critical review of the literature arising from PubMed searches up to December 2015, regarding in situ and in vitro expression and regulation of several specific proteins involved in uterine hemostasis in decidua and cycling endometrium. In addition, we discussed clinical and molecular mechanisms associated with pLARC-induced AUB and pregnancy complications with abruptions, chorioamnionitis or pre-eclampsia. Progestin-induced decidualization of estradiol-primed human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) increases in vivo and in vitro expression of tissue factor (TF) and type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) while inhibiting plasminogen activators (PAs), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and the vasoconstrictor, endothelin-1 (ET-1). These changes in decidual cell-derived regulators of hemostasis, fibrinolysis, extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover, and vascular tone prevent hemorrhage during EVT invasion and
This paper summarizes the effects of A-bomb radiation on menstruation, pregnancy ability, and the process from pregnancy to delivery, with a review in the literature. Amenorrhea was transiently observed as an acute symptom immediately after A-bombing, especially in the group of A-bomb survivors exposed to high doses of A-bomb radiation. A delayed recovery of this symptom was associated with larger radiation doses. Regarding the time of first menstruation, there was no difference between the exposed and control groups. Menopause definitely occurred earlier in A-bomb survivors with acute symptoms than those without symptoms and control persons. This was noticeable in heavily exposed A-bomb survivors when the time of menopause was immediate after A-bombing, probably due to the effects of A-bomb radiation on the ovary. Regarding the pregnancy ability, spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, and stillborn, there was no difference between the exposed and control groups. (N.K.)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency anaemia is a worldwide health problem in which environmental, physiologic and genetic factors play important roles. The associations between iron status biomarkers and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs known to be related to iron metabolism were studied in menstruating women. Methods A group of 270 Caucasian menstruating women, a population group at risk of iron deficiency anaemia, participated in the study. Haematological and biochemical parameters were analysed and 10 selected SNPs were genotyped by minisequencing assay. The associations between genetic and biochemical data were analysed by Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA test and decision trees. Dietary intake of a representative subgroup of these volunteers (n = 141 was assessed, and the relationship between nutrients and iron biomarkers was also determined by linear regression. Results Four variants, two in the transferrin gene (rs3811647, rs1799852 and two in the HFE gene (C282Y, H63D, explain 35% of the genetic variation or heritability of serum transferrin in menstruating women. The minor allele of rs3811647 was associated with higher serum transferrin levels and lower transferrin saturation, while the minor alleles of rs1799852 and the C282Y and H63D mutations of HFE were associated with lower serum transferrin levels. No association between nutrient intake and iron biomarkers was found. Conclusions In contrast to dietary intake, these four SNPs are strongly associated with serum transferrin. Carriers of the minor allele of rs3811647 present a reduction in iron transport to tissues, which might indicate higher iron deficiency anaemia risk, although the simultaneous presence of the minor allele of rs1799852 and HFE mutations appear to have compensatory effects. Therefore, it is suggested that these genetic variants might potentially be used as markers of iron deficiency anaemia risk.
Mason, Linda; Nyothach, Elizabeth; Alexander, Kelly; Odhiambo, Frank O; Eleveld, Alie; Vulule, John; Rheingans, Richard; Laserson, Kayla F; Mohammed, Aisha; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A
Keeping girls in school offers them protection against early marriage, teen pregnancy, and sexual harms, and enhances social and economic equity. Studies report menstruation exacerbates school-drop out and poor attendance, although evidence is sparse. This study qualitatively examines the menstrual experiences of young adolescent schoolgirls. The study was conducted in Siaya County in rural western Kenya. A sample of 120 girls aged 14-16 years took part in 11 focus group discussions, which were analysed thematically. The data gathered were supplemented by information from six FGDs with parents and community members. Emergent themes were: lack of preparation for menarche; maturation and sexual vulnerability; menstruation as an illness; secrecy, fear and shame of leaking; coping with inadequate alternatives; paying for pads with sex; and problems with menstrual hygiene. Girls were unprepared and demonstrated poor reproductive knowledge, but devised practical methods to cope with menstrual difficulties, often alone. Parental and school support of menstrual needs is limited, and information sparse or inaccurate. Girls' physical changes prompt boys and adults to target and brand girls as ripe for sexual activity including coercion and marriage. Girls admitted 'others' rather than themselves were absent from school during menstruation, due to physical symptoms or inadequate sanitary protection. They described difficulties engaging in class, due to fear of smelling and leakage, and subsequent teasing. Sanitary pads were valued but resource and time constraints result in prolonged use causing chafing. Improvised alternatives, including rags and grass, were prone to leak, caused soreness, and were perceived as harmful. Girls reported 'other girls' but not themselves participated in transactional sex to buy pads, and received pads from boyfriends. In the absence of parental and school support, girls cope, sometimes alone, with menarche in practical and sometimes hazardous
Mason, Linda; Nyothach, Elizabeth; Alexander, Kelly; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Eleveld, Alie; Vulule, John; Rheingans, Richard; Laserson, Kayla F.; Mohammed, Aisha; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.
Background Keeping girls in school offers them protection against early marriage, teen pregnancy, and sexual harms, and enhances social and economic equity. Studies report menstruation exacerbates school-drop out and poor attendance, although evidence is sparse. This study qualitatively examines the menstrual experiences of young adolescent schoolgirls. Methods and Findings The study was conducted in Siaya County in rural western Kenya. A sample of 120 girls aged 14–16 years took part in 11 focus group discussions, which were analysed thematically. The data gathered were supplemented by information from six FGDs with parents and community members. Emergent themes were: lack of preparation for menarche; maturation and sexual vulnerability; menstruation as an illness; secrecy, fear and shame of leaking; coping with inadequate alternatives; paying for pads with sex; and problems with menstrual hygiene. Girls were unprepared and demonstrated poor reproductive knowledge, but devised practical methods to cope with menstrual difficulties, often alone. Parental and school support of menstrual needs is limited, and information sparse or inaccurate. Girls’ physical changes prompt boys and adults to target and brand girls as ripe for sexual activity including coercion and marriage. Girls admitted ‘others’ rather than themselves were absent from school during menstruation, due to physical symptoms or inadequate sanitary protection. They described difficulties engaging in class, due to fear of smelling and leakage, and subsequent teasing. Sanitary pads were valued but resource and time constraints result in prolonged use causing chafing. Improvised alternatives, including rags and grass, were prone to leak, caused soreness, and were perceived as harmful. Girls reported ‘other girls’ but not themselves participated in transactional sex to buy pads, and received pads from boyfriends. Conclusions In the absence of parental and school support, girls cope, sometimes
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Keeping girls in school offers them protection against early marriage, teen pregnancy, and sexual harms, and enhances social and economic equity. Studies report menstruation exacerbates school-drop out and poor attendance, although evidence is sparse. This study qualitatively examines the menstrual experiences of young adolescent schoolgirls. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study was conducted in Siaya County in rural western Kenya. A sample of 120 girls aged 14-16 years took part in 11 focus group discussions, which were analysed thematically. The data gathered were supplemented by information from six FGDs with parents and community members. Emergent themes were: lack of preparation for menarche; maturation and sexual vulnerability; menstruation as an illness; secrecy, fear and shame of leaking; coping with inadequate alternatives; paying for pads with sex; and problems with menstrual hygiene. Girls were unprepared and demonstrated poor reproductive knowledge, but devised practical methods to cope with menstrual difficulties, often alone. Parental and school support of menstrual needs is limited, and information sparse or inaccurate. Girls' physical changes prompt boys and adults to target and brand girls as ripe for sexual activity including coercion and marriage. Girls admitted 'others' rather than themselves were absent from school during menstruation, due to physical symptoms or inadequate sanitary protection. They described difficulties engaging in class, due to fear of smelling and leakage, and subsequent teasing. Sanitary pads were valued but resource and time constraints result in prolonged use causing chafing. Improvised alternatives, including rags and grass, were prone to leak, caused soreness, and were perceived as harmful. Girls reported 'other girls' but not themselves participated in transactional sex to buy pads, and received pads from boyfriends. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of parental and school support, girls cope
High exposure to progesterone between the end of menstruation and the day of triggering final oocyte maturation is associated with a decreased probability of pregnancy in patients treated by in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
Kyrou, Dimitra; Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Fatemi, Human M; Camus, Michel; Tournaye, Herman; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Devroey, Paul
To investigate the association between the probability of pregnancy and hormone exposure between the end of menstruation and the day of triggering final oocyte maturation (menstruation-free interval). Prospective study. University. One hundred women (aged ≤ 39 years) stimulated with a fixed dose of recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (200 IU). Daily gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH, 0.25 mg) used from day 6 of stimulation onward, final oocyte maturation triggered by administration of 10,000 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as soon as ≥ 3 follicles ≥ 17 mm were present, and hormone assessment performed at initiation of stimulation, on the first day after menstruation had stopped, on the day of antagonist initiation, and on the day of hCG administration. The association between hormone exposure during the menstruation-free interval and the probability of ongoing pregnancy. The exposure to progesterone during the menstruation-free interval was statistically significantly higher in patients who did not become pregnant compared with those who did (4.20 ± 2.54 vs. 3.13 ± 1.14, respectively). Binary logistic regression confirmed the adverse effect of the increased exposure to progesterone for the achievement of pregnancy. In recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone/gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles, a lower probability of pregnancy is associated with a higher exposure to progesterone during the menstruation-free interval. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the combined influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status in Spanish menstruating women (n = 142. Dietary intake was assessed by a 72-h detailed dietary report and menstrual blood loss by a questionnaire, to determine a Menstrual Blood Loss Coefficient (MBLC. Five selected SNPs were genotyped: rs3811647, rs1799852 (Tf gene; rs1375515 (CACNA2D3 gene; and rs1800562 and rs1799945 (HFE gene, mutations C282Y and H63D, respectively. Iron biomarkers were determined and cluster analysis was performed. Differences among clusters in dietary intake, menstrual blood loss parameters and genotype frequencies distribution were studied. A categorical regression was performed to identify factors associated with cluster belonging. Three clusters were identified: women with poor iron status close to developing iron deficiency anemia (Cluster 1, n = 26; women with mild iron deficiency (Cluster 2, n = 59 and women with normal iron status (Cluster 3, n = 57. Three independent factors, red meat consumption, MBLC and mutation C282Y, were included in the model that better explained cluster belonging (R2 = 0.142, p < 0.001. In conclusion, the combination of high red meat consumption, low menstrual blood loss and the HFE C282Y mutation may protect from iron deficiency in women of childbearing age. These findings could be useful to implement adequate strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia.
Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Toxqui, Laura; López-Parra, Ana M; Baeza-Richer, Carlos; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Vaquero, M Pilar
The aim of this study was to investigate the combined influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status in Spanish menstruating women (n = 142). Dietary intake was assessed by a 72-h detailed dietary report and menstrual blood loss by a questionnaire, to determine a Menstrual Blood Loss Coefficient (MBLC). Five selected SNPs were genotyped: rs3811647, rs1799852 (Tf gene); rs1375515 (CACNA2D3 gene); and rs1800562 and rs1799945 (HFE gene, mutations C282Y and H63D, respectively). Iron biomarkers were determined and cluster analysis was performed. Differences among clusters in dietary intake, menstrual blood loss parameters and genotype frequencies distribution were studied. A categorical regression was performed to identify factors associated with cluster belonging. Three clusters were identified: women with poor iron status close to developing iron deficiency anemia (Cluster 1, n = 26); women with mild iron deficiency (Cluster 2, n = 59) and women with normal iron status (Cluster 3, n = 57). Three independent factors, red meat consumption, MBLC and mutation C282Y, were included in the model that better explained cluster belonging (R2 = 0.142, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the combination of high red meat consumption, low menstrual blood loss and the HFE C282Y mutation may protect from iron deficiency in women of childbearing age. These findings could be useful to implement adequate strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia.
Yao, Dong; Wang, Zheng; Miao, Li; Wang, Linyan
Carthamus tinctorius is used as one of the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) materials in prescriptions and composite to promote blood circulation to remove blood stasis, regulate menstruation and alleviate pain for over 2500 years. Modern pharmacological experiments have demonstrated that safflower has wide-reaching biological activities, including dilating coronary artery, modulating immune system, improving myocardial ischemia, anticoagulation and thromboprophylaxis, antioxidation, antihypoxic, antiaging, antifatigue, antiinflammation, anti-hepatic fibrosis, antitumor, analgesia, etc. Platelet aggregation of safflower extract and main constituents in safflower were determined by PAF-induced or ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Anticoagulation activity was measured by clotting assay of thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) according to the methods provided by the biological reagents provider (Sun Biochemical). Antioxidant effects of safflower were assessed using DPPH radical-scavenging activity test, ABTS radical-scavenging activity test and ferric reducing antioxidant power test. In addition, rats ovary granulosa cell proliferation activity was used for the bio-activity index on regulate menstruation of safflower. Safflower extract at the concentration of 0.7g/mL (P<0.001) and 0.5g/mL (P<0.01) had significantly antagonistic effect on PAF-induced platelet aggregation, compared with negative control. And the anti-platelet aggregation of 0.7g/mL safflower extract was significantly stronger than that of positive control (P<0.001). 0.7g/mL of hydroxysafflor yellow A (P<0.01), anhydrosafflor yellow B (P<0.05), 6-hydroxykaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (P<0.05), keampferol-3-O-β-rutinoside (P<0.01) had significant effect on platelet aggregation compared with negative control. Safflower extract at the concentration of 0.5g/mL (P<0.001) and 0.125g/mL (P<0.01) could significantly inhibit ADP-induced platelet
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... or do not improve with treatment Thoughts of suicide or of harming others Alternative Names Mood disorder - schizoaffective disorder; Psychosis - schizoaffective disorder Images Schizoaffective disorder ...
Chung, Soo-Ho; Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Lee, Arum; Jeon, Dong-Su; Park, Junsik; Kim, Yesol
To evaluate the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) of perimenopausal women at a university hospital along with their menstrual characters. A questionnaire survey regarding premenstrual symptoms was carried out in 100 perimenopausal women (43 to 53, years). The pattern of menstruation and, the intensity of dysmenorrhea were assessed; and further, the symptoms were classified according to their number, intensity, and persistence. The PMS criteria of American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) and PMDD criteria by American Psychiatric Association (APA) were evaluated. The approximate prevalence of PMS criteria was 95% and that of PMDD criteria was 23%. The most dominant symptoms were 'breast tenderness', 'abdominal bloating', 'and headache'. PMDD was significantly associated with the severity of dysmenorrhea (P = 0.020). There was no significant relation with age, height, weight, body mass index and the cycle of menstruation. Most women experience PMS and PMDD, which and have a significant impact on the activity of perimenopause women. However in most women that do not know well about PMS and PMDD. We should educate and inform women of PMS and PMDD, thus helping them increase their quality of life.
Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate plasma TBARS and blood GSH concentration and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase in active, regularly menstruating female physical education students with ovulatory and anovulatory menstrual cycles and in their male counterparts. A total of 27 subjects (12 males and 15 females volunteered to participate in the study. All females were regularly menstruating with cycle length between 26-31 days. Plasma progesterone and 17-β-estradiol concentrations were assayed during the 7th-9th and 22nd-25th day of the menstrual cycle. Women with plasma progesterone concentration exceeding 19 nmol•l-1 during the 22nd-25th day were referred to as ovulatory (Group OV; n=7. Women without a peak plasma progesterone concentration were referred to as anovulatory (Group AN; n=8. Blood from male subjects was withdrawn twice - two weeks apart, at their convenience. It was found that the menstrual cycle phases did not affect plasma TBARS and blood glutathione concentration and erythrocyte GPX, CAT and SOD activity. However, erythrocyte GPX activity either in ovulatory or anovulatory women was by about 30% higher than in male subjects. Erythrocyte SOD activity in ovulatory women both in follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle (1557 U/g Hb and 1394.6 U/g Hb, respectively was markedly lower than in men (1951.8 and 1937.7 U/g Hb for blood sampling I and II, respectively. In contrast, erythrocyte SOD activity in anovulatory women (1855.5 U/g Hb and 1745.7 U/g Hb in the follicular and luteal phases, respectively was similar to that found in men. The above data indicated that erythrocyte GPX and SOD activities are sensitive to plasma ovarian hormone concentration. In addition, they suggested that due to higher erythrocyte GPX activity females even with anovulatory menstrual cycles are protected better than males against hydrogen peroxide action. However, lower superoxide
Rapkin, Andrea J; Berman, Steven M; London, Edythe D
The cerebellum constitutes ten percent of brain volume and contains the majority of brain neurons. Although it was historically viewed primarily as processing motoric computations, current evidence supports a more comprehensive role, where cerebro-cerebellar feedback loops also modulate various forms of cognitive and affective processing. Here we present evidence for a role of the cerebellum in premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), which is characterized by severe negative mood symptoms during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Although a link between menstruation and cyclical dysphoria has long been recognized, neuroscientific investigations of this common disorder have only recently been explored. This article reviews functional and structural brain imaging studies of PMDD and the similar but less well defined condition of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). The most consistent findings are that women with premenstrual dysphoria exhibit greater relative activity than other women in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior lobules VI and VII of the neocerebellum. Since both brain areas have been implicated in emotional processing and mood disorders, working memory and executive functions, this greater activity probably represents coactivation within a cerebro-cerebellar feedback loop regulating emotional and cognitive processing. Some of the evidence suggests that increased activity within this circuit may preserve cerebellar structure during aging, and possible mechanisms and implications of this finding are discussed.
Albert-Sabater, Josep Amílcar; Martínez, José Miguel; Baste, Valborg; Moen, Bente E; Ronda-Perez, Elena
To assess the association between work in a rotating shift schedule and menstruation characteristics among nurse staff in a prospective study. Rotating shifts have been linked to alterations in the reproductive cycle. In the case of menstrual alterations, the conclusions are not clear. Prospective epidemiological study with follow-up over four months. All the female nurse staff (shifts and characteristics of their menstruation (duration, amount of blood, dysmenorrhoea). They had two types of shifts: (1) Rotating shift schedule (two mornings, two afternoons, one night and two days off) including morning shifts (8:00-15:00), afternoon/evening shifts (15:00-22:00) and night shifts (22:00-8:00), and (2) Day shift schedule including morning shifts (8:00-15:00) and/or afternoon/evening shifts (15:00-22:00). The crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were calculated using logistic generalised estimating equations (GEE) taking into account the correlations of multiple cycles per worker. One hundred and thirteen workers on the rotating shift and 75 on the day shift participated, and information from 730 menstrual cycles were obtained. There were no differences in prolonged duration, dysmenorrhoea, prolonged duration dysmenorrhoea and excessive bleeding among nurses on rotating shift compared to those on the day shift. For prolonged duration of menstruation, workers with more than five years on the rotating shift showed a slightly lower (nonsignificant) risk compared with those with shift did not show increased risk of having menstrual disorders comparing with day staff. Shifts with short rotation cycles and a progressive sequence do not appear to cause menstrual disorders in nurse staff who work rotating shifts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available In females, absence of at least three consecutive menstrual cycles when otherwise expected to occur or cessation of pubescence (primary and secondary amenorrhea are the symptoms of anorexia nervosa, secondary to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Disturbances in sexual organs are seen in inappropriate for age pelvic ultrasound scanning. The aim of the study was to determine the ovarian and uterine maturity at the onset of anorexia nervosa (AN in adolescence, using pelvic ultrasound scanning, and their relations to clinical factors describing the course of AN. Material and method: The group consisted of 38 adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa diagnosed acc. to ICD-10 criteria – mean age 14.3±2.1 years, mean age at the beginning of AN symptoms 13±2.3 years, mean BMI 14±1.6 kg/m2. On initial assessment, all girls underwent physical examination, clinical interview concerning AN symptoms and pelvic ultrasound scanning. Results: Sixteen patients (42% had primary amenorrhea. In 32% of patients cessation of menses occurred before a significant decrease in weight. Ovarian and uterine volumes significantly below the expected were found in 11 and 15 patients with secondary amenorrhea, respectively. The varian and uterine maturity was related to shorter duration of amenorrhea and longer duration of adequate menstruation before the onset of AN. There were no BMI differences between the groups with more and less mature ultrasound picture.
Shen, Z Q; Xu, J J; Lin, J F
Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) refers to a functional menstrual disorder with various causes and presentations. Recovery of menstrual cyclicity is common in long-term follow-up but the affecting factors remain unknown. To explore factors affecting the menstrual resumption and to evaluate the pituitary response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in FHA. Thirty cases with FHA were recruited. All subjects were put on continuous 1 mg/day estradiol valerate orally and followed up monthly. Recovery was defined as the occurrence of at least three consecutive regular cycles. Responder referred to those who recovered within two years of therapy. Gonadotropin response to the 50 μg GnRH challenge was tested every three months. Nineteen (63.3%) subjects recovered with a mean time to recovery of 26.8 months. Time to recovery was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) before and by amenorrhea. Twentyone cases had undertaken therapy for more than two years and 10 of them recovered. BMI before and by amenorrhea were negatively correlated with the recovery. Significant increase of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and LH response to GnRH were noted after recovery. Menstrual resumption was common in FHA undertaking estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). The likelihood of recovery was affected by their BMI before and by amenorrhea but not by the weight gain during therapy. Low serum LH and attenuated LH response to GnRH were the main features of pituitary deficiency in FHA. The menstrual resumption in FHA was accompanied by the recovery of serum LH and the LH response to GnRH.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Similarities between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and trichotillomania (TTM have been widely recognized. Nevertheless, there is evidence of important differences between these two disorders. Some authors have conceptualized the disorders as lying on an OCD spectrum of conditions. Methods Two hundred and seventy eight OCD patients (n = 278: 148 male; 130 female and 54 TTM patients (n = 54; 5 male; 49 female of all ages were interviewed. Female patients were compared on select demographic and clinical variables, including comorbid axis I and II disorders, and temperament/character profiles. Results OCD patients reported significantly more lifetime disability, but fewer TTM patients reported response to treatment. OCD patients reported higher comorbidity, more harm avoidance and less novelty seeking, more maladaptive beliefs, and more sexual abuse. OCD and TTM symptoms were equally likely to worsen during menstruation, but OCD onset or worsening was more likely associated with pregnancy/puerperium. Conclusions These findings support previous work demonstrating significant differences between OCD and TTM. The classification of TTM as an impulse control disorder is also problematic, and TTM may have more in common with conditions characterized by stereotypical self-injurious symptoms, such as skin-picking. Differences between OCD and TTM may reflect differences in underlying psychobiology, and may necessitate contrasting treatment approaches.
Lochner, Christine; Seedat, Soraya; du Toit, Pieter L; Nel, Daniel G; Niehaus, Dana JH; Sandler, Robin; Stein, Dan J
Background Similarities between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and trichotillomania (TTM) have been widely recognized. Nevertheless, there is evidence of important differences between these two disorders. Some authors have conceptualized the disorders as lying on an OCD spectrum of conditions. Methods Two hundred and seventy eight OCD patients (n = 278: 148 male; 130 female) and 54 TTM patients (n = 54; 5 male; 49 female) of all ages were interviewed. Female patients were compared on select demographic and clinical variables, including comorbid axis I and II disorders, and temperament/character profiles. Results OCD patients reported significantly more lifetime disability, but fewer TTM patients reported response to treatment. OCD patients reported higher comorbidity, more harm avoidance and less novelty seeking, more maladaptive beliefs, and more sexual abuse. OCD and TTM symptoms were equally likely to worsen during menstruation, but OCD onset or worsening was more likely associated with pregnancy/puerperium. Conclusions These findings support previous work demonstrating significant differences between OCD and TTM. The classification of TTM as an impulse control disorder is also problematic, and TTM may have more in common with conditions characterized by stereotypical self-injurious symptoms, such as skin-picking. Differences between OCD and TTM may reflect differences in underlying psychobiology, and may necessitate contrasting treatment approaches. PMID:15649315
Montgomery, Paul; Hennegan, Julie; Dolan, Catherine; Wu, Maryalice; Steinfield, Laurel; Scott, Linda
Poor menstrual knowledge and access to sanitary products have been proposed as barriers to menstrual health and school attendance. In response, interventions targeting these needs have seen increasing implementation in public and private sectors. However, there has been limited assessment of their effectiveness. Assess the impact of providing reusable sanitary pads and puberty education on girls' school attendance and psychosocial wellbeing outcomes. A cluster quasi-randomised controlled trial was conducted across 8 schools, including 1124 girls, in rural Uganda. Schools were allocated to one of four conditions: the provision of puberty education alone; reusable sanitary pads alone; puberty education and reusable sanitary pads; and a control (no intervention). The primary outcome was school attendance. Secondary outcomes reflected psychosocial wellbeing. At follow-up, school attendance had worsened for girls across all conditions. Per-protocol analysis revealed that this decline was significantly greater for those in the control condition d = 0.52 (95%CI 0.26-0.77), with those in control schools having a 17.1% (95%CI: 8.7-25.5) greater drop in attendance than those in any intervention school. There were no differences between the intervention conditions. High rates of school drop-out and transfer meant the trial suffered from substantial participant drop-out. Intention-to-treat analyses using two different imputation strategies were consistent with the main results, with mean differences of 5.2% attendance in best-case and 24.5% in worst-case imputations. Results were robust to adjustments for clustering. There was no impact of the interventions on girls' self-reported shame or insecurity during menstruation. Results of the trial support the hypothesised positive impact of providing sanitary pads or puberty education for girls' school attendance in a developing country context. Findings must be interpreted with caution in light of poor participant retention
Zukov, I; Ptácek, R; Raboch, J; Domluvilová, D; Kuzelová, H; Fischer, S; Kozelek, P
It is known that mood disorders in women explicitly relates to estrogen production. Except for these findings phenomenon as Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder, directly connected to menstrual cycle in women, is widely discussed. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a set of subjectively unpleasant mental and somatic symptoms. It appears in luteal phase of ovarian cycle. During menstruation it remits and disappears up to one week from its termination. DSM IV classified PMDD into the category of "Other specific depressive disorders" and further revision DSM IV-TR classifies PMDD as a separate strictly defined psychiatric diagnosis. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) does not include any specific category as PMDD or similar. The closest category F38.8 does not represent the core of the phenomenon because it relates only to general depressive symptomatology and does not give specific diagnostic criteria to menstrual cycle related mood disorders (Grady-Weliky, 2003). In the presented article, possible effectivity of PMDD treatment with the focus to antidepressants of SSRI type (Serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors) is discussed. In spite of interesting and significant findings, the treatment of PMDD and accordingly PMS is above all multidisciplinary question and it must be treated like that.
... of-control eating Women are more likely than men to have eating disorders. They usually start in the teenage years and often occur along with depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. Eating disorders can ...
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... variations in brain chemistry and structure. Risk factors Factors that increase the risk of developing schizoaffective disorder include: Having a close blood relative who has schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia or bipolar disorder Stressful events that trigger symptoms ...
Futterman, Lori A
Premenstrual disorders negatively impact the quality of life and functional ability of millions of women. The two generally recognized premenstrual disorders are premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). These disorders are characterized by a wide variety of nonspecific mood, somatic and behavioral symptoms that occur only during the late luteal phase of a woman's cycle and disappear soon after the onset of menstruation. This paper reviews the diagnostic criteria for PMS and PMDD, describes some of the more common symptom diaries and other tools used to diagnose premenstrual disorders, and discusses the challenges inherent in diagnosing PMS and PMDD. A survey of peer-reviewed articles and relevant texts provided diagnostic criteria, descriptions of diagnostic tools and information about diagnostic challenges. The many nonspecific symptoms associated with premenstrual disorders complicate the diagnostic process. The use of proven symptom diaries and other diagnostic tools should aid in the differential diagnosis of premenstrual disorders. Patients need to report bothersome premenstrual symptoms, and clinicians should become more proficient in the diagnostic process in order to prevent underdiagnosis of these disorders.
... related disorders; Somatization disorder; Somatiform disorders; Briquet syndrome; Illness anxiety disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Somatic symptom disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . ...
Full Text Available Poor menstrual knowledge and access to sanitary products have been proposed as barriers to menstrual health and school attendance. In response, interventions targeting these needs have seen increasing implementation in public and private sectors. However, there has been limited assessment of their effectiveness.Assess the impact of providing reusable sanitary pads and puberty education on girls' school attendance and psychosocial wellbeing outcomes.A cluster quasi-randomised controlled trial was conducted across 8 schools, including 1124 girls, in rural Uganda. Schools were allocated to one of four conditions: the provision of puberty education alone; reusable sanitary pads alone; puberty education and reusable sanitary pads; and a control (no intervention. The primary outcome was school attendance. Secondary outcomes reflected psychosocial wellbeing.At follow-up, school attendance had worsened for girls across all conditions. Per-protocol analysis revealed that this decline was significantly greater for those in the control condition d = 0.52 (95%CI 0.26-0.77, with those in control schools having a 17.1% (95%CI: 8.7-25.5 greater drop in attendance than those in any intervention school. There were no differences between the intervention conditions. High rates of school drop-out and transfer meant the trial suffered from substantial participant drop-out. Intention-to-treat analyses using two different imputation strategies were consistent with the main results, with mean differences of 5.2% attendance in best-case and 24.5% in worst-case imputations. Results were robust to adjustments for clustering. There was no impact of the interventions on girls' self-reported shame or insecurity during menstruation.Results of the trial support the hypothesised positive impact of providing sanitary pads or puberty education for girls' school attendance in a developing country context. Findings must be interpreted with caution in light of poor participant
Montgomery, Paul; Hennegan, Julie; Dolan, Catherine; Wu, Maryalice; Steinfield, Laurel; Scott, Linda
Background Poor menstrual knowledge and access to sanitary products have been proposed as barriers to menstrual health and school attendance. In response, interventions targeting these needs have seen increasing implementation in public and private sectors. However, there has been limited assessment of their effectiveness. Objectives Assess the impact of providing reusable sanitary pads and puberty education on girls’ school attendance and psychosocial wellbeing outcomes. Methods A cluster quasi-randomised controlled trial was conducted across 8 schools, including 1124 girls, in rural Uganda. Schools were allocated to one of four conditions: the provision of puberty education alone; reusable sanitary pads alone; puberty education and reusable sanitary pads; and a control (no intervention). The primary outcome was school attendance. Secondary outcomes reflected psychosocial wellbeing. Results At follow-up, school attendance had worsened for girls across all conditions. Per-protocol analysis revealed that this decline was significantly greater for those in the control condition d = 0.52 (95%CI 0.26–0.77), with those in control schools having a 17.1% (95%CI: 8.7–25.5) greater drop in attendance than those in any intervention school. There were no differences between the intervention conditions. High rates of school drop-out and transfer meant the trial suffered from substantial participant drop-out. Intention-to-treat analyses using two different imputation strategies were consistent with the main results, with mean differences of 5.2% attendance in best-case and 24.5% in worst-case imputations. Results were robust to adjustments for clustering. There was no impact of the interventions on girls’ self-reported shame or insecurity during menstruation. Conclusion Results of the trial support the hypothesised positive impact of providing sanitary pads or puberty education for girls’ school attendance in a developing country context. Findings must be interpreted
... girl might notice an increased amount of clear vaginal discharge. This discharge is common. There's no need for ... topic for: Teens Why Are My Breasts Sore? Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not Tampons, Pads, and Other ...
Mann, Gurdeep S. [Alder Hey Children' s Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology; Blair, Joanne C. [Alder Hey Children' s Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom). Dept. of Paediatric Endocrinology; Garden, Anne S. (eds.) [Alder Hey Children' s Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom). Dept. of Paediatric Gynaecology; Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Lancaster Medical School
This textbook provides a comprehensive review of gynecological imaging in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Experts from the disciplines of pediatric radiology, gynecology, surgery, and endocrinology have come together to produce a textbook that, while written primarily from the perspective of the radiologist, will be of interest to all professionals involved in the management of these patients. The normal development of the female reproductive tract is described in detail through embryological development, normal childhood appearances, and puberty. Congenital abnormalities are addressed in chapters reviewing structural abnormalities of the reproductive tract and disorders of sex development. A symptoms-based approach is followed in chapters devoted to the assessment of the patient with gynecological pain and disorders of menstruation. Disorders of the breast and the imaging of patients with gynecological neoplasia are considered in dedicated chapters. The specialty of pediatric gynecology is evolving rapidly, drawing on the skills and expertise of professionals from a wide range of specialties. This textbook should prove valuable to all who are involved in this new field of medicine. (orig.)
Mann, Gurdeep S.; Blair, Joanne C.; Garden, Anne S.; Lancaster Univ.
This textbook provides a comprehensive review of gynecological imaging in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Experts from the disciplines of pediatric radiology, gynecology, surgery, and endocrinology have come together to produce a textbook that, while written primarily from the perspective of the radiologist, will be of interest to all professionals involved in the management of these patients. The normal development of the female reproductive tract is described in detail through embryological development, normal childhood appearances, and puberty. Congenital abnormalities are addressed in chapters reviewing structural abnormalities of the reproductive tract and disorders of sex development. A symptoms-based approach is followed in chapters devoted to the assessment of the patient with gynecological pain and disorders of menstruation. Disorders of the breast and the imaging of patients with gynecological neoplasia are considered in dedicated chapters. The specialty of pediatric gynecology is evolving rapidly, drawing on the skills and expertise of professionals from a wide range of specialties. This textbook should prove valuable to all who are involved in this new field of medicine. (orig.)
... the death of a loved one or parents' divorce) and major life transitions (like moving to a ... Ways to Deal With Anxiety Dealing With Difficult Emotions Anxiety Disorders Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Fears and Phobias ...
Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...
Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...
... destructive lesions, but are sometimes the result of abnormal development. The disorder can occur before or after birth. Porencephaly most ... decade of life. SCHIZENCEPHALY is a rare developmental disorder characterized by abnormal slits, or clefts, in the cerebral hemispheres. Schizencephaly ...
... as possibilities: Anxiety disorders Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Bipolar disorder Depression Learning disorders Substance abuse disorders Treatment The best treatment for the child is to ...
... health illnesses Alcoholism, substance abuse, and addictive behavior Anxiety disorders Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Bipolar disorder (manic depressive illness) Borderline personality disorder Depression Eating disorders Post-traumatic ...
Gucciardi, Enza; Celasun, Nalan; Ahmad, Farah; Stewart, Donna E
Abstract Health Issue Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. Key Issues Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women. In addition to eating disorders, preoccupation with weight, body image and...
Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…
... disorder; Voice disorders; Vocal disorders; Disfluency; Communication disorder - speech disorder; Speech disorder - stuttering ... evaluation tools that can help identify and diagnose speech disorders: Denver Articulation Screening Examination Goldman-Fristoe Test of ...
Vieta, Eduard; Berk, Michael; Schulze, Thomas G
Bipolar disorders are chronic and recurrent disorders that affect >1% of the global population. Bipolar disorders are leading causes of disability in young people as they can lead to cognitive and functional impairment and increased mortality, particularly from suicide and cardiovascular disease...... and accurate diagnosis is difficult in clinical practice as the onset of bipolar disorder is commonly characterized by nonspecific symptoms, mood lability or a depressive episode, which can be similar in presentation to unipolar depression. Moreover, patients and their families do not always understand...... a bipolar disorder from other conditions. Optimal early treatment of patients with evidence-based medication (typically mood stabilizers and antipsychotics) and psychosocial strategies is necessary....
. Amongst DSM's most vocal 'insider' critics has been Thomas Insel, Director of the US National Institute of Mental Health. Insel has publicly criticised DSM's adherence to a symptom-based classification of mental disorder, and used the weight ...
Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa
Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders.
Frackiewicz, E J; Shiovitz, T M
To review premenstrual disorders, their varied symptoms, possible etiology, and treatment options. Published articles identified through MEDLINE (1966-2001) using the search terms premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and the additional terms treatment and etiology. Additional references were identified from the bibliographies of the retrieved articles. PMS refers to a group of menstrually related disorders that are estimated to affect up to 40% of women of childbearing age. The varied symptoms of PMS include mood swings, tension, anger, irritability, headache, bloating, and increased appetite with food cravings. PMS symptoms occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and remit with the onset of menstruation or shortly afterward. Approximately 5% of women with PMS suffer from PMDD, a more disabling and severe form of PMS in which mood symptoms predominate. Because no tests can confirm PMS or PMDD, the diagnosis should be made on the basis of a patient-completed daily symptom calendar and the exclusion of other medical disorders. The causes of PMS and PMDD are uncertain, but are likely associated with aberrant responses to normal hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle. For most women, symptoms can be relieved or reduced through lifestyle interventions, such as dietary changes and exercise, and drug therapy with hormonal or psychotropic agents. For PMDD, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have recently emerged as first-line therapy. Certain dietary supplements, including calcium, also may be an option for some women. PMS and PMDD are complex but highly treatable disorders. Pharmacists can improve the recognition and management of these common conditions by providing patient education on premenstrual symptoms and counseling women on lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapy to relieve their discomfort.
... information sheet compiled by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Patient Organizations Birth Defect Research for Children, Inc. 976 Lake Baldwin Lane Suite 104 Orlando ...
A 1.37-Mb 12p11.22-p11.21 deletion coincident with a 367-kb 22q11.2 duplication detected by array comparative genomic hybridization in an adolescent girl with autism and difficulty in self-care of menstruation.
Chen, Chih-Ping; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Su, Jun-Wei; Lee, Chen-Chi; Wang, Wayseen
To present an array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) characterization of a 12p11.22-p11.21 microdeletion and 22q11.2 microduplication in an adolescent girl with autism, mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, microcephaly, behavior problems, and an apparently balanced reciprocal translocation of t(8;12)(q24.3;p11.2). A 13-year-old girl was referred to the hospital because of autism, mental retardation, and difficulty in the self-care of her menstruation. Cytogenetic analysis revealed an apparently balanced reciprocal translocation and a karyotype of 46,XX,t(8;12) (q24.3;p11.2)dn. The girl manifested microcephaly, hypertelorism, flat facial profile, prominent forehead, thick scalp hair, upslanting palpebral fissures, broad nasal bridge, bulbous nose, right simian crease, bilateral clinodactyly of the fifth fingers, bilateral pes cavus, learning difficulties, mental retardation, emotional instability, cognitive impairment, behavior problems, jumping-like gaits, and autistic spectrum disorder. aCGH was performed to evaluate genomic imbalance in this patient. aCGH analysis revealed a 1.37-Mb 12p11.22-p11.21 microdeletion or arr [hg 19] 12p11.22-p11.21 (30,645,008-32,014,774)×1 and a 367-kb 22q11.21 microduplication or arr [hg 19] 22q11.21 (18,657,470-19,024,306)×3. The 1.37-Mb 12p11.22-p11.21 microdeletion encompassed 26 genes including IPO8, CAPRIN2, and DDX11, and the 367-kb 22q11.21 microduplication encompassed 20 genes including USP18, DGCR6, PRODH, and DGCR2. An apparently balanced translocation may be in fact affected by concurrent deletion and duplication in two different chromosomal regions. Our presentation provides information on diagnostic phenotype of 12p11.22-p11.21 microdeletion and 22q11.2 microduplication. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Buitelaar, J.K.; Smeets, K.C.; Herpers, P.; Scheepers, F.; Glennon, J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.
Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic
van den Bosch, L.M.C.; Verheul, R.; Verster, J.C.; Brady, K.; Galanter, M.; Conrod, P.
Subject of this chapter is the often found combination of personality disorders and substance abuse disorders. The serious nature of this comorbidity is shown through the discussion of prevalence and epidemiological data. Literature shows that the comorbidity, hampering the diagnostic process, is
Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike
and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting......Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services...... increasing evidence that some treatments, mainly psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task....
Hodgins, David C; Stea, Jonathan N; Grant, Jon E
Gambling disorders, including pathological gambling and problem gambling, have received increased attention from clinicians and researchers over the past three decades since gambling opportunities have expanded around the world. This Seminar reviews prevalence, causes and associated features, screening and diagnosis, and treatment approaches. Gambling disorders affect 0·2-5·3% of adults worldwide, although measurement and prevalence varies according to the screening instruments and methods used, and availability and accessibility of gambling opportunities. Several distinct treatment approaches have been favourably evaluated, such as cognitive behavioural and brief treatment models and pharmacological interventions. Although promising, family therapy and support from Gamblers Anonymous are less well empirically supported. Gambling disorders are highly comorbid with other mental health and substance use disorders, and a further understanding is needed of both the causes and treatment implications of this disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. Raviola GJ, ...
McHichi alami, Kh; Tahiri, S M; Moussaoui, D; Kadri, N
Menstruation is a biological phenomenon that has been subject of myths and taboos within and among various cultures. These myths distort the reality surrounding menstruation and create ambivalent feelings about the value and usefulness of this function outside of its necessity as mean of reproduction. Thus studies concerning menstruation need to take into account cultural and psychosocial factors that define the meaning, values and behavior associated with this biological phenomenon. According to several studies, 70% of women experience psychological faintness during this menstrual phase, 40% of them have these symptoms at each menstruation and between 3 to 8% of them suffer severely reacquiring medical support. This entity called premenstrual dysphoric disorder is defined by the presence of several symptoms (distress, tension, irritability, moodiness.) with a significant impairment in work or social functioning beginning during the week before and ending within a few days after the onset of menses. Several studies conducted over the past few years suggested that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotoninergic tricyclic drugs may be more effective than other types of antidepressants in treating PMS symptoms. Two protocols are proposed; a continuous treatment or intermittent use during few days during pre-menstrual and menstrual phase for several cycles. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the prevalence of a potential premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) during one menstrual cycle, in a representative sample of general population of Casablanca, according the DSM IV criteria. On the other hand, a questionnaire, available from the authors, was used to explore socio-demographic data. Among 618 women interviewed, 310 met the criteria of a potential PMDD (50.2%). The mean age of the population with PMDD was 32.2 8 years ranging from 20 to 50 years; 54.8% of them were married, 33.9% of them were single and 66.5% of them had between 1
Montant, J; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Pringuey, D; Da Fonseca, D; Azorin, J-M
The phenomenology of dissociative disorders may be complex and sometimes confusing. We describe here two cases who were initially misdiagnosed. The first case concerned a 61 year-old woman, who was initially diagnosed as an isolated dissociative fugue and was actually suffering from severe major depressive episode. The second case concerned a 55 year-old man, who was suffering from type I bipolar disorder and polyvascular disease, and was initially diagnosed as dissociative fugue in a mooddestabilization context, while it was finally a stroke. Yet dissociative disorders as affective disorder comorbidity are relatively unknown. We made a review on this topic. Dissociative disorders are often studied through psycho-trauma issues. Litterature is rare on affective illness comorbid with dissociative disorders, but highlight the link between bipolar and dissociative disorders. The later comorbidity often refers to an early onset subtype with also comorbid panic and depersonalization-derealization disorder. Besides, unipolar patients suffering from dissociative symptoms have more often cyclothymic affective temperament. Despite the limits of such studies dissociative symptoms-BD association seems to correspond to a clinical reality and further works on this topic may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.
Yager, Joel; Katzman, Jeffrey W
Although meetings are central to organizational work, considerable time devoted to meetings in Academic Health Centers appears to be unproductively spent. The primary purposes of this article are to delineate and describe Meeting Disorders, pathological processes resulting in these inefficient and ineffective scenarios, and Meeting Fatigue Disorder (MFD), a clinical syndrome. The paper also offers preliminary approaches to remedies. The authors integrate observations made during tens of thousands of hours in administrative meetings in academic medical settings with information in the literature regarding the nature, causes and potential interventions for dysfunctional groups and meetings. Meeting Disorders, resulting from distinct pathologies of leadership and organization, constitute prevalent subgroups of the bureaucrapathologies, pathological conditions caused by dysfunctional bureaucratic processes that generate excesses of wasted time, effort, and other resources. These disorders also generate frustration and demoralization among participants, contributing to professional burnout. Meeting Fatigue Disorder (MFD) is a subjective condition that develops in individuals who overdose on these experiences and may reflect one manifestation of burnout. Meeting disorders and Meeting Fatigue Disorder occur commonly in bureaucratic life. Resources and potential remedies are available to help ameliorate their more deleterious effects.
... develop problems with drug abuse and the law. Depression and bipolar disorder may develop in the teen years and early adulthood. Suicide and violence toward others are also possible complications.
... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...
... to control them. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) ARFID is a new term that some people think ... eating issues can also cause it. People with ARFID don't have anorexia or bulimia, but they ...
This article presents an up-to-date summary of the genetic etiology, diagnostic criteria, clinical features, and current management recommendations for the most common neurocutaneous disorders encountered in clinical adult and pediatric neurology practices. The phakomatoses are a phenotypically and genetically diverse group of multisystem disorders that primarily affect the skin and central nervous system. A greater understanding of the genetic and biological underpinnings of numerous neurocutaneous disorders has led to better clinical characterization, more refined diagnostic criteria, and improved treatments in neurofibromatosis type 1, Legius syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 2, Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines, tuberous sclerosis complex, Sturge-Weber syndrome, and incontinentia pigmenti. Neurologists require a basic knowledge of and familiarity with a wide variety of neurocutaneous disorders because of the frequent involvement of the central and peripheral nervous systems. A simple routine skin examination can often open a broad differential diagnosis and lead to improved patient care.
... support their claims. Factitious disorder signs and symptoms may include: Clever and convincing medical or psychological problems Extensive knowledge of medical terms and diseases Vague or inconsistent symptoms Conditions that get worse for no apparent ...
... lead to twitching, cramps, aches and pains, and joint and movement problems. Sometimes it also affects heart function and your ability to breathe. Examples of neuromuscular disorders include Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Multiple sclerosis Myasthenia ...
... objections runs away from home often truant from school Children who exhibit these behaviors should receive a comprehensive evaluation by an experience mental health professional. Many children with a conduct disorder may ...
Kessels, R.P.C.; Savage, G.; Cautin, R.L.; Lilienfeld, S.O.
Amnestic disorders may involve deficits in the encoding or storage of information in memory, or in retrieval of information from memory. Etiologies vary and include traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative disease, and psychiatric illness. Different forms of amnesia can be distinguished:
Rahbek Kornum, Birgitte; Mignot, Emmanuel
mediates circadian regulation of sleep. Misalignment with the rhythm of the sun results in circadian disorders and jet lag. The molecular basis of homeostatic sleep regulation is mostly unknown. A network of mutually inhibitory brain nuclei regulates sleep states and sleep-wake transitions. Abnormalities...... in these networks create sleep disorders, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep walking, and narcolepsy. Physiological changes associated with sleep can be imbalanced, resulting in excess movements such as periodic leg movements during sleep or abnormal breathing in obstructive sleep apneas....... As every organ in the body is affected by sleep directly or indirectly, sleep and sleep-associated disorders are frequent and only now starting to be understood....
... Aching pain in and around your ear Difficulty chewing or pain while chewing Aching facial pain Locking of the joint, making ... disorder. When to see a doctor Seek medical attention if you have persistent pain or tenderness in ...
... exact cause of autoimmune disorders is unknown. One theory is that some microorganisms (such as bacteria or ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...
Kontić Olga; Vasiljević Nadja; Trišović Marija; Jorga Jagoda; Lakić Aneta; Jašović-Gašić Miroslava
Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis...
... Antisocial behavior Impulse control problems Substance use disorder Suicide Many children and teens with ODD also have other mental health disorders, such as: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Conduct disorder Depression Anxiety Learning and communication disorders Treating these other ...
Martino, Davide; Mink, Jonathan W
Primary tic disorders are complex, multifactorial disorders in which tics are accompanied by other sensory features and an array of comorbid behavioral disorders. Secondary tics are proportionally much less frequent, but their etiology is diverse. This review aims to guide clinicians in the recognition of the phenomenology, pathophysiology, and treatment of these disorders. Advances include greater phenomenologic insights, particularly of nonmotor (sensory) features; increased knowledge of disease mechanisms, particularly coming from neuropsychological, functional imaging, pathologic, and animal model studies; growing evidence on the efficacy of alpha-2 agonists and the newer generation of dopamine-modulating agents; and recent strides in the evaluation of cognitive-behavioral therapy and deep brain stimulation surgery. The correct diagnostic approach to tic disorders requires accurate historical gathering, a thorough neurologic examination, and detailed definition of the patient's psychopathologic profile. Treatment should always begin with individualized psychoeducational strategies. Although pharmacologic treatments remain beneficial for most patients, cognitive-behavioral treatments have thus far shown promising efficacy. Deep brain stimulation surgery should still be limited to adult patients refractory to pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy.
DeForte, Shelly; Reddy, Krishna D; Uversky, Vladimir N
The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins is overwhelming. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a “Digested Disorder” project and represent a series of reader’s digest type articles objectively representing the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the period of April, May, and June of 2013. The papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings. PMID:28516028
Reddy, Krishna D; DeForte, Shelly; Uversky, Vladimir N
The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins grows fast. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a “Digested Disorder” project and represent a new issue of reader’s digest of the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the third quarter of 2013; i.e., during the period of June, July, and September of 2013. Similar to previous issues, the papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings. PMID:28232877
Ismaili, Elgerta; Walsh, Sally; O'Brien, Patrick Michael Shaughn; Bäckström, Torbjorn; Brown, Candace; Dennerstein, Lorraine; Eriksson, Elias; Freeman, Ellen W; Ismail, Khaled M K; Panay, Nicholas; Pearlstein, Teri; Rapkin, Andrea; Steiner, Meir; Studd, John; Sundström-Paromma, Inger; Endicott, Jean; Epperson, C Neill; Halbreich, Uriel; Reid, Robert; Rubinow, David; Schmidt, Peter; Yonkers, Kimberley
Whilst professional bodies such as the Royal College and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have well-established standards for audit of management for most gynaecology disorders, such standards for premenstrual disorders (PMDs) have yet to be developed. The International Society of Premenstrual Disorders (ISPMD) has already published three consensus papers on PMDs covering areas that include definition, classification/quantification, clinical trial design and management (American College Obstetricians and Gynecologists 2011; Brown et al. in Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:CD001396, 2009; Dickerson et al. in Am Fam Physician 67(8):1743-1752, 2003). In this fourth consensus of ISPMD, we aim to create a set of auditable standards for the clinical management of PMDs. All members of the original ISPMD consensus group were invited to submit one or more auditable standards to be eligible in the inclusion of the consensus. Ninety-five percent of members (18/19) responded with at least one auditable standard. A total of 66 auditable standards were received, which were returned to all group members who then ranked the standards in order of priority, before the results were collated. Proposed standards related to the diagnosis of PMDs identified the importance of obtaining an accurate history, that a symptom diary should be kept for 2 months prior to diagnosis and that symptom reporting demonstrates symptoms in the premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle and relieved by menstruation. Regarding treatment, the most important standards were the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) as a first line treatment, an evidence-based approach to treatment and that SSRI side effects are properly explained to patients. A set of comprehensive standards to be used in the diagnosis and treatment of PMD has been established, for which PMD management can be audited against for standardised and improved care.
This thesis describes the measurement of brain-tissue functions in patients with movement disorders using positron emission tomography (PET). This scanning technique is a method for direct in vivo quantitation of the regional tissue content of positron emitting radionuclides in brain (or other organs) in an essentially non-invasive way. Ch. 2 outlines some general features of PET and describes the scanner which has been used for the studies in this thesis. Also the tracer methodology, as applied to data investigations of movement disorders, are discussed. Ch. 3 contains the results of the PET investigations which were performed in the study of movement disorders. The results are presented in the form of 12 papers. The main goals of these studies were the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, Steele-Richardson-Olzewski syndrome and special case reports. Ch. 4 summarizes the results of these publications and Ch. 5 concludes the main part of this thesis with a general discussion of movement disorders in relation to PET investigations. 697 refs.; 60 figs.; 31 tabs
Problems with the penis can cause pain and affect a man's sexual function and fertility. Penis disorders include Erectile dysfunction - inability to get or ... not go away Peyronie's disease - bending of the penis during an erection due to a hard lump ...
... one or other traumatic event Drug or alcohol abuse Complications Left untreated, bipolar disorder can result in serious problems that affect every area of your life, such as: Problems related to drug and alcohol use Suicide or suicide attempts Legal or financial problems Damaged ...
... a reminder of happier times or representing beloved people or pets They feel safer when surrounded by the things ... that are part of hoarding disorder. Hoarding animals People who hoard animals may collect dozens or even hundreds of pets. Animals may be confined inside or outside. Because ...
Rao, Satish S. C.; Bharucha, Adil E.; Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Felt-Bersma, Richelle; Knowles, Charles; Malcolm, Allison; Wald, Arnold
This report defines criteria and reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of the following common anorectal disorders: fecal incontinence (FI), functional anorectal pain, and functional defecation disorders. FI is defined as the recurrent uncontrolled passage of fecal material for at least 3 months. The clinical features of FI are useful for guiding diagnostic testing and therapy. Anorectal manometry and imaging are useful for evaluating anal and pelvic floor structure and function. Education, antidiarrheals, and biofeedback therapy are the mainstay of management; surgery may be useful in refractory cases. Functional anorectal pain syndromes are defined by clinical features and categorized into 3 subtypes. In proctalgia fugax, the pain is typically fleeting and lasts for seconds to minutes. In levator ani syndrome and unspecified anorectal pain, the pain lasts more than 30 minutes, but in levator ani syndrome there is puborectalis tenderness. Functional defecation disorders are defined by ≥2 symptoms of chronic constipation or irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, and with ≥2 features of impaired evacuation, that is, abnormal evacuation pattern on manometry, abnormal balloon expulsion test, or impaired rectal evacuation by imaging. It includes 2 subtypes: dyssynergic defecation and inadequate defecatory propulsion. Pelvic floor biofeedback therapy is effective for treating levator ani syndrome and defecatory disorders. PMID:27144630
Brown, Jacqueline A.; Russell, Samantha; Rasor, Kaitlin
Depression is among the most common mental disorders in the United States. Its diagnosis is often related to impairment of functioning across several domains, including how an individual thinks, feels, and participates in daily activities. Although depression has a relatively high prevalence among adults, the rate is alarmingly higher among…
Full Text Available Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient’s health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one’s own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases.
... vertigo. If you have additional problems with motor control, such as weakness, slowness, tremor, or rigidity, you can lose your ability to recover properly from imbalance. This raises the risk of falling and injury. What are some types of balance disorders? There are more than a dozen different ...
... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Vascular Disorders Email to a friend * required fields ...
McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R.
The Pervasive Developmental Disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD), and Rett’s Disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, and PDD-NOS) are currently referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorders, reflecting divergent phenotypic and etiologic characteristics compared to Rett’s Disorder and CDD. This chapter reviews relevant research and clinical information relevant to appropriate medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22608634
Full Text Available The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders is a well known concept. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is the most commonly seen comorbid anxiety disorder in bipolar patients. Some genetic variants, neurotransmitters especially serotonergic systems and second-messenger systems are thought to be responsible for its etiology. Bipolar disorder alters the clinical aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder and is associated with poorer outcome. The determination of comorbidity between bipolar disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder is quite important for appropriate clinical management and treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 429-437
... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Contact Us Donate Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ...
... Disorder Among Adolescents Data Sources Share Panic Disorder Definition Panic Disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...
Simonsen, Sebastian; Heinskou, Torben; Sørensen, Per
BACKGROUND: In this naturalistic study, patients with personality disorders (N = 388) treated at Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Center, Mental Health Services, Capital Region of Denmark were allocated to two different kinds of treatment: a standardized treatment package with a preset number of treatment...... characteristics associated with clinicians' allocation of patients to the two different personality disorder services. METHODS: Patient characteristics across eight domains were collected in order to study whether there were systematic differences between patients allocated to the two different treatments....... Patient characteristics included measures of symptom severity, personality pathology, trauma and socio-demographic characteristics. Significance testing and binary regression analysis were applied to identify important predictors. RESULTS: Patient characteristics on fifteen variables differed...
Satherley, R; Howard, R; Higgs, S
To systematically review evidence concerning disordered eating practices in dietary-controlled gastrointestinal conditions. Three key questions were examined: a) are disordered eating practices a feature of GI disorders?; b) what abnormal eating practices are present in those with GI disorders?; and c) what factors are associated with the presence of disordered eating in those with GI disorders? By exploring these questions, we aim to develop a conceptual model of disordered eating development in GI disease. Five key databases, Web of Science with Conference Proceedings (1900-2014) and MEDLINE (1950-2014), PubMed, PsycINFO (1967-2014) and Google Scholar, were searched for papers relating to disordered eating practices in those with GI disorders. All papers were quality assessed before being included in the review. Nine papers were included in the review. The majority of papers reported that the prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is greater in populations with GI disorders than in populations of healthy controls. Disordered eating patterns in dietary-controlled GI disorders may be associated with both anxiety and GI symptoms. Evidence concerning the correlates of disordered eating was limited. The presence of disordered eating behaviours is greater in populations with GI disorders than in populations of healthy controls, but the direction of the relationship is not clear. Implications for further research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Social Anxiety Disorder is a common disorder leading functional impairment. The comorbidity between mood disorders with social anxiety disorder is relatively common. This comorbidity impacts the clinical severity, resistance and functionality of patients. The systematic evaluation of the comorbidity in both patient groups should not be ignored and be carefully conducted. In general, social anxiety disorder starts at an earlier age than mood disorders and is reported to be predictor for subsequent major depression. The absence of comorbidity in patients with social anxiety disorder is a predictor of good response to treatment. In bipolar disorder patients with comorbid social anxiety disorder, there is an increased level of general psychopathology. Besides, they have poor outcome and increased risk of suicide. In this article, comorbidity between these two disorders has been evaluated in detail.
Eggermann, Thomas; Perez de Nanclares, Guiomar; Maher, Eamonn R
Congenital imprinting disorders (IDs) are characterised by molecular changes affecting imprinted chromosomal regions and genes, i.e. genes that are expressed in a parent-of-origin specific manner. Recent years have seen a great expansion in the range of alterations in regulation, dosage or DNA...... sequence shown to disturb imprinted gene expression, and the correspondingly broad range of resultant clinical syndromes. At the same time, however, it has become clear that this diversity of IDs has common underlying principles, not only in shared molecular mechanisms, but also in interrelated clinical...
Gislene C. Valadares
Full Text Available Estudos epidemiológicos demonstram que até 80% das mulheres apresentam sintomas físicos e/ou psíquicos no período pré-menstrual e que cerca de 3% a 11% os apresentam de maneira severa, havendo prejuízos sociais, familiares ou profissionais, o que caracteriza o transtorno disfórico pré-menstrual (TDPM. O TDPM apresenta sintomas que aparecem na semana que antecede a menstruação, cessando nos primeiros dias após o início desta. Diversas teorias têm sido propostas para justificar a sua etiologia. Fatores hormonais, psicológicos e ambientais parecem estar envolvidos; no entanto, ainda não há conclusões precisas que justifiquem essa patologia.Epidemiologic studies show that till 80% of the women have physical and/or psychiatric symptoms in the premenstrual period, and in about 3% till 11% of them, this disease has serious consequences, causing familiar or professional damages; characterizing the premenstrual dysphoric disorder. The premenstrual dysphoric symptoms happen in the week before menstruation, stopping in the first days after menstruation beginning. A lot of theories have been proposed to justify its etiology. Hormonals, psychological and environmental factors seem to be involved, however there are no strict conclusions to justify this pathology.
Bandelow, Borwin; Michaelis, Sophie; Wedekind, Dirk
Anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder/agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, and others) are the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, and are associated with a high burden of illness. Anxiety disorders are often underrecognized and undertreated in primary care. Treatment is indicated when a patient shows marked distress or suffers from complications resulting from the disorder. The treatment recommendations given in this article are based on guidelines, meta-analyses...
Buitelaar, Jan K; Smeets, Kirsten C; Herpers, Pierre; Scheepers, Floor; Glennon, Jeffrey; Rommelse, Nanda N J
Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to CD in the light of the forthcoming DSM-5 definition. The diagnostic criteria for CD will remain unchanged in DSM-5, but the introduction of a specifier of CD with a callous-unemotional (CU) presentation is new. Linked to this, we discuss the pros and cons of various other ways to subtype aggression/CD symptoms. Existing guidelines for CD are, with few exceptions, already of a relatively older date and emphasize that clinical assessment should be systematic and comprehensive and based on a multi-informant approach. Non-medical psychosocial interventions are recommended as the first option for the treatment of CD. There is a role for medication in the treatment of comorbid syndromes and/or in case of insufficient response to psychosocial interventions and severe and dangerous aggressive and violent behaviours.
Gokce Nur Say
Full Text Available Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that plays critical role in mother-infant bonding, pair bonding and prosocial behaviors. Several neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol/substance addiction, aggression, suicide, eating disorders and personality disorders show abnormalities of oxytocin system. These findings have given rise to the studies searching therapeutic use of oxytocin for psychi-atric disorders. The studies of oxytocin interventions in psychiatric disorders yielded potentially promising findings. This paper reviews the role of oxytocin in emotions, behavior and its effects in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 102-113
Laura Beth Mann Dosier
Full Text Available Genetic advances in the past three decades have transformed our understanding and treatment of many human diseases including neurogenetic disorders. Most neurogenetic disorders can be classified as “rare disease,” but collectively neurogenetic disorders are not rare and are commonly encountered in general pediatric practice. The authors decided to select eight relatively well-known neurogenetic disorders including Down syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Smith–Magenis syndrome, congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, achondroplasia, mucopolysaccharidoses, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Each disorder is presented in the following format: overview, clinical characteristics, developmental aspects, associated sleep disorders, management and research/future directions.
Alam, Farzana; Nayyar, Sanket; Richie, William; Archibong, Anthony; Nayyar, Tultul
Depression is very common in reproductive women particularly with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), which is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Beta-arrestins were previously implicated in the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment for mood disorders. This study examined whether a measurement for beta-arrestin1 levels in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBMC), could aid to distinguish between PMDD and PMS. Study participants (n = 25) were non-pregnant women between 18-42 years of age with the symptoms of PMS/PMDD, but not taking any antidepressants/therapy and at the luteal phase of menstruation. The levels of beta-arrestin1 protein in the PBMCs were determined by ELISA using human beta-arrestin1 kit. The beta-arrestin1 levels were compared with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores among these women. The magnitude of the different parameters for Axis 1 mental disorders were significantly higher and beta arrestin1 protein levels in PBMCs were significantly lower in women with PMDD as compared to PMS women. The reduction in beta arrestin1 protein levels was significantly correlated with the severity of depressive symptoms. Beta-arrestin1 measurements in women may potentially serve for biochemical diagnostic purposes for PMDD and might be useful as evidence-based support for questionnaires.
Full Text Available Depression is very common in reproductive women particularly with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD, which is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS. Beta-arrestins were previously implicated in the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment for mood disorders. This study examined whether a measurement for beta-arrestin1 levels in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBMC, could aid to distinguish between PMDD and PMS. Study participants (n = 25 were non-pregnant women between 18–42 years of age with the symptoms of PMS/PMDD, but not taking any antidepressants/therapy and at the luteal phase of menstruation. The levels of beta-arrestin1 protein in the PBMCs were determined by ELISA using human beta-arrestin1 kit. The beta-arrestin1 levels were compared with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores among these women. The magnitude of the different parameters for Axis 1 mental disorders were significantly higher and beta arrestin1 protein levels in PBMCs were significantly lower in women with PMDD as compared to PMS women. The reduction in beta arrestin1 protein levels was significantly correlated with the severity of depressive symptoms. Beta-arrestin1 measurements in women may potentially serve for biochemical diagnostic purposes for PMDD and might be useful as evidence-based support for questionnaires.
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) KidsHealth / For Parents / Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ( ... My Child? Looking Ahead Print What Is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)? Someone who is the victim of ( ...
R. Hoekstra (Rocco)
textabstractThe pathophysiology of affective disorders is largely unknown. In patients with various affective disorders the activity of pterins and related amino acids were investigated before and after clinical treatment. In particular the bipolar affective disorder could be
Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent among children and are associated with serious morbidity. Lifetime prevalence of paediatric anxiety disorders is about fifteen percent. Social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder are included in the triad of paediatric anxiety disorders. Specific phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder are also commonly seen in children. Overprotection by parents, parental death or separation, female sex, low educational status, family history of anxiety disorder, financial stress in family and adverse childhood experiences are risk factors for the development of anxiety disorders. If not diagnosed and managed at the earliest, paediatric anxiety disorders can cause life threatening problems in the future. Hence early and scientific management of anxiety disorders is essential. Cognitive behavioural therapy is the effective evidence based treatment for paediatric anxiety disorders.
Phobia - social; Anxiety disorder - social; Social phobia; SAD - social anxiety disorder ... People with social anxiety disorder fear and avoid situations in which they may be judged by others. It may begin in ...
... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally your enzymes break carbohydrates down into glucose (a type of sugar). If ...
... Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Men's Health Rare Diseases Pituitary Disorders Thyroid Disorders Transgender Health Obesity and Weight Management Women's Health You and Your ...
Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...
Wold, P N
Patients with Major Affective Disorder (MAD), Secondary Depression, Panic Disorder, and bulimia with and without MAD, were given the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the General Behavior Inventory at presentation. It was found that patients with MAD have a triad of eating disorder symptoms: a disturbance in interoceptive awareness, the sense of ineffectiveness, and a tendency toward bulimia. The data supported the concept that the sense of ineffectiveness is secon...
Information about children reported to have ever been diagnosed with four different neurodevelopmental disorders: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disabilities, autism, and intellectual disability.
This booklet focuses on classic autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome, with brief descriptions of Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. The booklet describes possible indicators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), their diagnosis, available aids, treatment options, adults…
Nooh, Ahmed M; Abdul-Hady, Atiea; El-Attar, Nadia
To determine the nature and prevalence of menstrual disorders among teenage girls. An observational descriptive cross-sectional study. Zagazig University Students' Hospital, Zagazig, Egypt. A representative sample of female students who attended the university pre-enrollment medical examination. Self-administered questionnaire covering items on the adolescents' demographic data and menstruation characteristics. Information about menarche, body mass index, physical exercise, cycle length and regularity, duration of menses, menstrual blood loss, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual syndrome. A total of 285 questionnaires were analyzed. Mean age at menarche was 12.3 ± 1.5 years. Oligomenorrhea was reported by 18 participants (6.3%) and 5 others (1.8%) mentioned having polymenorrhea. Hypomenorrhea was noted in 25 students (8.8%), and hypermenorrhea was reported by 12 (4.2%). Irregular periods were mentioned by 24 students (8.4%). Dysmenorrhea was reported in 188 students (66.0%). Of these, 81 (28.4%) graded their pain as mild, 69 (24.2%) as moderate, and 38 (13.3%) as severe. Premenstrual syndrome was mentioned by 160 girls (56.1%). Consulting somebody regarding their menstrual problems was reported by 36 students (12.6%). Our results are not greatly different from those in other parts of the world. Data on nature and prevalence of menstrual disorders and their effect on young women's health status, quality of life, and social integration suggest that management of these disorders should be given more attention within the available reproductive health care programs. Further research into prevalence of and risk factors for menstrual disorders and their morbidity is warranted and anxiously awaited. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... with the details should depend on your child's maturity and ability to understand. Throughout childhood, kids ask ... two, what matters is a girl's physical and emotional comfort. A tampon can be uncomfortable in the ...
Álvarez Ruiz, Eva M; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis
The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders has not been studied in depth. In addition, clinical implications involved in the appearance of both disorders are very important. A systematic literature review of MEDLINE published up to September 2013 was performed, analyzing all the articles that studied the comorbidity of both conditions (bipolar disorder and eating disorders) and others research that studied the efficacy of pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy to improve these illnesses. In this review we found a high comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders, especially of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Studies show that lithium and topiramate are 2 of the more effective pharmacological agents in the treatment of both disorders. There are a lot of studies that show evidence of comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders. However, further research is needed on assessment and treatment when these conditions co-exist, as well as study into the biopsychological aspects to determine the comorbid aetiology. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Soderberg, S F
Chronic vaginitis is the most common vaginal disorder. Dogs with vaginitis show no signs of systemic illness but often lick at the vulva and have purulent or hemorrhagic vaginal discharges. Vaginitis is most commonly secondary to a noninfectious inciting factor such as congenital vaginal anomalies, clitoral hypertrophy, foreign bodies, trauma to the vaginal mucosa, or vaginal tumors. Inspection of the caudal vagina and vestibule both visually and digitally will often reveal the source of vaginal irritation. Vaginal cytology is used to establish the stage of the estrous cycle as well as distinguish uterine from vaginal sources of discharge. Vaginal cultures are used to establish the predominant offending organism associated with vaginal discharges and may be used as a guide for selection of a therapeutic agent. Vaginitis is best managed by removing the inciting cause and treating the area locally with antiseptic douches. Congenital malformations at the vestibulovaginal or vestibulovulvar junction may prevent normal intromission. Affected bitches may be reluctant to breed naturally because of pain. Such defects are detected best by digital examination. Congenital vaginal defects may be corrected by digital or surgical means. Prolapse of tissue through the lips of the vulva may be caused by clitoral hypertrophy, vaginal hyperplasia, or vaginal tumors. Enlargement of clitoral tissue is the result of endogenous or exogenous sources of androgens. Treatment of this condition includes removal of the androgen source and/or surgical removal of clitoral tissue. Vaginal hyperplasia is detected during proestrus or estrus of young bitches. Hyperplastic tissue will regress during diestrus. Tissue that is excessively traumatized and/or prolapse of the entire vaginal circumference may be removed surgically. Ovariohysterectomy may be used to prevent recurrence. Vaginal tumors are detected most often in older intact bitches. Such tumors are generally of smooth muscle or fibrous
Stahl, Nicole D.; Clarizio, Harvey F.
Provides critical examination of research published during past ten years addressing Conduct Disorder (CD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and internalizing disorders. Concludes comorbidity varies with age, gender, informant, diagnostic criteria, and nature of the sample. Implications of comorbidity…
Full Text Available Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etiological studies displayed the role of both psychosocial factors like childhood traumas and biological factors like dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems and genetics. In differential diagnosis of the disorder, disorders involving agression as a symptom such as alcohol and drug intoxication, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, personality changes due to general medical conditions and behavioral disorder should be considered. A combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are suggested in the treatment of the disorder. This article briefly reviews the historical background, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiology and treatment of intermittent explosive disorder.
Chouinard, S.; Ford, B.
BACKGROUND—Tic disorders presenting during adulthood have infrequently been described in the medical literature. Most reports depict adult onset secondary tic disorders caused by trauma, encephalitis, and other acquired conditions. Only rare reports describe idiopathic adult onset tic disorders, and most of these cases represent recurrent childhood tic disorders. OBJECTIVE—To describe a large series of patients with tic disorders presenting during adulthood, to compare cl...
Pathan Dilnawaz N; Ziyaurrahaman A.R; Bhise K.S.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric disorder that results in poor global functioning, reduced quality of life and high relapse rates. Research finds that many adults with bipolar disorder identify the onset of symptoms in childhood and adolescence, indicating the importance of early accurate diagnosis and treatment. Accurate diagnosis of mood disorders is critical for treatment to be effective. Distinguishing between major depression and bipolar disorders, especially the depressed p...
Family functioning and anxiety disorders, the most prevalent forms of psychiatric disorder, influence one another. The empirical literature on family studies of anxiety disorder (ie, aggregration of disorders within families), on parent-child relationships and anxiety disorders, and on marriage and anxiety disorders is reviewed. Finally, the challenges for patients and their families of post-traumatic stress disorder are discussed.
Latalova, Klara; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Sedlackova, Jana; Ociskova, Marie
Outcome in bipolar patients can be affected by comorbidity of other psychiatric disorders. Comorbid personality disorders are frequent and may complicate the course of bipolar illness. We have much information about treating patients with uncomplicated bipolar disorder (BD) but much less knowledge about possibilities for patients with the comorbidity of BD and personality disorder. We conducted a series of literature searches using, as key words or as items in indexed fields, bipolar disorder and personality disorder or personality traits. Articles were obtained by searching MEDLINE from 1970 to 2012. In addition, we used other papers cited in articles from these searches, or cited in articles used in our own work. Tests of personality traits indicated that euthymic bipolar patients have higher scores on harm avoidance, reward dependence, and novelty seeking than controls. Elevation of novelty seeking in bipolar patients is associated with substance abuse comorbidity. Comorbidity with personality disorders in BD patients is associated with a more difficult course of illness (such as longer episodes, shorter time euthymic, and earlier age at onset) and an increase in comorbid substance abuse, suicidality and aggression. These problems are particularly pronounced in comorbidity with borderline personality disorder. Comorbidity with antisocial personality disorder elicits a similar spectrum of difficulties; some of the antisocial behavior exhibited by patients with this comorbidity is mediated by increased impulsivity.
Full Text Available Binge Eating Disorder, characterized by frequent and persistent overeating episodes that are accompanied by feeling of loss of control over eating without regular compensatory behaviors and was identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition as a new eating disorder category. Binge Eating Disorder is the most common eating disorder among adults. Binge Eating Disorder is associated with significant morbidity, including medical complications related to obesity, eating disorder psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity; reduced quality of life, and impaired social functioning. Current treatments of Binge Eating Disorder include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy and bariatric surgery. In this review, the definition, epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and also mainly treatment of Binge Eating Disorder are discussed.
Mueller, Elizabeth R; Kenton, Kimberly; Rogers, Rebecca G; Fenner, Dee E
Many physicians in primary care and medical/surgical specialties will care for female patients with pelvic floor disorders (PFD). A survey was mailed to 266 United States and Canadian clerkship directors that queried how medical students were being educated in PFD. Forty-four percent of clerkship directors responded. The mean clerkship size was 105 medical students. Over 97% of third year medical students received lectures on hypertension in pregnancy, normal labor, and abnormal uterine bleeding and at least 90% received lectures on obstetric hemorrhage, placenta previa, and menstruation. Forty percent to 85% of medical students received lectures in PFD depending on the topic. Eighty percent of medical students had no exposure to PFD during their first 2 years of medical school. During their third year, 95% of the students were exposed to PFD topics but only 60% had an opportunity to spend at least a day in an urogynecology practice. Clerkship directors indicate that PFD are relevant to medical student training, however, they have limited time in the clerkship to cover all of the required topics. We are missing an important opportunity to educate future clinicians about PFD, which dramatically impact women's quality of life.
Schneider, Lisa F; Warren, Michelle P
To determine whether ghrelin, an orexigen released by the stomach, is elevated in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea who are of normal weight and whether this is associated with abnormal eating behaviors. Controlled clinical study. Healthy volunteers in an academic research environment. Twenty-seven women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) and 42 normally menstruating women. None. Ghrelin and eating behavior. Ghrelin was significantly elevated in FHA (648.4 +/- 92.0 pg/mL vs. controls 596.7 +/- 79.0 pg/mL), while leptin, although lower, was not significantly so (FHA 5.4 +/- 2.8 ng/mL vs. controls 6.4 +/- 3 ng/mL). Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) scores were also significantly elevated in FHA (15.3 +/- 10.6 vs. controls 10.3 +/- 8.4), particularly on the subscale that measured bulimic behaviors. However, FHA patients consumed significantly more kilocalories (1,930 kcal/day vs. 1,588 kcal/day). High ghrelin in women with FHA may be linked to abnormal dietary behaviors, as reflected in high EAT scores yet characterized by normal caloric intake. Ghrelin may act as a restraining metabolic signal preventing a return to cyclicity in women with both disordered eating and FHA, prolonging amenorrhea when leptin has returned to normal.
DeFilippis, Melissa; Wagner, Karen Dineen
Bipolar disorder is a serious psychiatric condition that may have onset in childhood. It is important for physicians to recognize the symptoms of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents in order to accurately diagnose this illness early in its course. Evidence regarding the efficacy of various treatments is necessary to guide the management of bipolar disorder in youth. For example, several medications commonly used for adults with bipolar disorder have not shown efficacy for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. This article reviews the prevalence, diagnosis, course, and treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents and provides physicians with information that will aid in diagnosis and treatment.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a common and often chronic psychiatric illness that significantly interferes with the patient´s functioning and quality of life. The disorder is characterized by excessive intrusive and inappropriate anxiety evoking thoughts as well as time consuming compulsions that cause significant impairment and distress. The symptoms are often accompanied by shame and guilt and the knowledge of the general public and professional community about the disorder is limited. Hence it is frequently misdiagnosed or diagnosed late. There are indications that the disorder is hereditary and that neurobiological processes are involved in its pathophysiology. Several psychological theories about the causes of obsessive-compulsive disorder are supported by empirical evidence. Evidence based treatment is either with serotoninergic medications or cognitive behavioral therapy, particularly a form of behavioral therapy called exposure response prevention. Better treatment options are needed because almost a third of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder respond inadequatly to treatment. In this review article two cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder are presented. The former case is a young man with typical symptoms that respond well to treatment and the latter is a middle aged lady with severe treatment resistant symptoms. She underwent stereotactic implantation of electrodes and received deep brain stimulation, which is an experimental treatment for severe obsessive-compulsive disorder that does not respond to any conventional treatment. Landspitali University Hospital, Division of Psychiatry. Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland.
... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. Raviola GJ, ...
J Gordon Millichap
The behavioral and neuropsychological characteristics of tic disorder, with or without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), were examined in 78 children followed at Seoul National University College of Medicine, Korea.
... the mental health field. Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Addiction and Co-occurring Disorders: Co-occurring Disorders and ... 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 820 Alexandria, VA 22314 Phone (703) 684.7722 Toll Free (800) 969.6642 ...
Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M
Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.
A genetic brain disorder is caused by a variation or a mutation in a gene. A variation is a different form ... mutation is a change in a gene. Genetic brain disorders affect the development and function of the ...
... to being completely unable to speak or understand speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, ... or those caused by cleft lip or palate Speech problems like stuttering Developmental disabilities Learning disorders Autism ...
... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... in "crossed eyes" or "walleye." Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some ...
... of Delirium Additional Content Medical News Overview of Movement Disorders By Hector A. Gonzalez-Usigli, MD, Professor ... Neurology, HE UMAE Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente; Movement Disorders Clinic, Neurology at IMSS Alberto Espay, MD, ...
... Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Autism Spectrum Disorder Fact Sheet What is autism spectrum disorder? What are some ... of mutations in individual genes but rather spontaneous coding mutations across many genes. De novo mutations may ...
... and language-based learning disabilities are commonly called dyslexia . These disorders are present from a young age ... information about these problems. Types of Reading Disorders Dyslexia is a brain-based type of learning disability ...
Okubo, Yoshiro; Yahata, Noriaki
Neuroimaging has been involved in recent biological approaches with evidence for neurotic disorders in place of diagnostic criteria on Freud theory hitherto. This review describes the present states of brain imaging in those disorders. Emotion has such three bases for environmental stimuli as recognition/evaluation of causable factors, manifestation, and its control, each of which occurs in various different regions connected by neuro-net work in the brain. The disorders are regarded as abnormality of the circuit that can be imaged. Documented and discussed are the actual regions imaged by MRI and PET in panic disorder, social phobia, phobias to specified things, posttraumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The approach is thought important for elucidating not only the pathogenesis of the disorders but also the human emotional functions and mechanism of the mind, which may lead to a better treatment of the disorders in future. (T.I)
... Submit" /> Information For… Media Policy Makers Diagnosing Tic Disorders Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... or postviral encephalitis). Persistent (Chronic) Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder To be diagnosed with a persistent tic ...
... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...
... have problems with alcohol if you: Are a young adult under peer pressure Have depression, bipolar disorder , anxiety disorders , or schizophrenia Can easily obtain alcohol Have low self-esteem Have problems with relationships Live a stressful lifestyle ...
... disorders are rarely caused by a lack of intelligence. Language disorders are different than delayed language. With ... 2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...
manic-depressive disorder, is a chronic disorder characterised by abnormal mood ... of onset, family history, atypical features and mixed symptoms. Screening tools .... has been associated with mood irritability, anxiety, mania and psychosis.
Swartz, C M
Betaxolol, a long-acting beta-adrenergic blocker that enters the central nervous system, was examined for therapeutic effects on the persistent anxiety of anxiety disorders. Prior studies of beta-blockers examined only agents that were short-acting or did not enter the brain. Betaxolol was administered to 31 patients in open trials. Of 13 outpatients, 11 had generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and 2 had adjustment disorder with anxiety. Five with GAD had concurrent panic disorder. Of 18 inpatients, 16 had GAD and 2 had adjustment disorder with anxiety. Betaxolol doses were increased until the patient responded or declined further dosage. Severity was rated on a 4-point global scale. Before betaxolol, all were moderately or severely ill. In all patients with panic disorder panic attacks stopped within 2 days (pAnxiety decreased to no more than marginally ill in 85% of outpatients (panxiety and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Preliminary observations in posttraumatic stress disorder are similar.
... Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Back to Patient Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Millions of people experience irregular or abnormal ... harmless and happen in healthy people free of heart disease. However, some abnormal heart rhythms can be serious ...
... compulsive disorder. Environment. Your environment, life experiences and culture may contribute to body dysmorphic disorder, especially if they involve negative social evaluations about your body or self-image, or even childhood neglect or abuse. Risk factors ...
Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo
Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sleep disturbances-particularly insomnia - are highly prevalent in anxiety disorders and complaints such as insomnia or nightmares have even been incorporated in some anxiety disorder definitions, such as generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. In the first part of this review, the relationship between sleep and anxiety is discussed in terms of adaptive response to stress. Recent studies suggested that the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and the locus ceruleus-a...
Gale, Christopher K; Millichamp, Jane
Generalised anxiety disorder is characterised by persistent, excessive and difficult-to-control worry, which may be accompanied by several psychic and somatic symptoms, including suicidality. Generalized anxiety disorder is the most common psychiatric disorder in the primary care, although it is often underrecognised and undertreated. Generalized anxiety disorder is typically a chronic condition with low short- and medium-term remission rates. Clinical presentations often include depression, ...
Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Vedel Kessing, Lars
BACKGROUND: Current research and hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder suggests the involvement of immune system dysfunction that is possibly related to disease activity. Our objective was to systematically review evidence of cytokine alterations in bipolar disorder according...... to affective state. METHODS: We conducted a systemtic review of studies measuring endogenous cytokine concentrations in patients with bipolar disorder and a meta-analysis, reporting results according to the PRISMA statement. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included, comprising 556 bipolar disorder patients...
Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E; Umar, Sarah B; Crowell, Michael D
Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management.
Montgomery, Keith A.
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder (SAD) are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. As physicians, we need to move beyond our own unease in order to adequately address our patients’ sexual problems and implement appropriate treatment. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the phys...
Clouse, R; Richter, J; Heading, R; Janssens, J; Wilson, J
The functional esophageal disorders include globus, rumination syndrome, and symptoms that typify esophageal diseases (chest pain, heartburn, and dysphagia). Factors responsible for symptom production are poorly understood. The criteria for diagnosis rest not only on compatible symptoms but also on exclusion of structural and metabolic disorders that might mimic the functional disorders. Additionally, a functional diagnosis is precluded by the presence of a pathology-based motor disorder or p...
... If I have a seizure disorder, can it cause problems during pregnancy? • What risks are associated with having a seizure ... If I have a seizure disorder, can it cause problems during pregnancy? Seizure disorders can affect pregnancy in several ways: • ...
... Expand Section Mood Disorders: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Trastornos del estado de ánimo: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine Bipolar Disorder (An Introduction) - English PDF Bipolar Disorder (An ...
Nauta, M.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sturmey, P.; Hersen, M.
Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is the only anxiety disorder that is specific to childhood; however, SAD has hardly ever been addressed as a separate disorder in clinical trials investigating treatment outcome. So far, only parent training has been developed specifically for SAD. This particular
Seligman, Linda; Moore, Bonita Marcus
Provides an overview of mood disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (fourth edition) criteria and other relevant information. Differential diagnosis is facilitated through discussion of differences and similarities among mental disorders, age and gender-related patterns of mood disorders, and useful diagnostic tools. (Author)
Few psychological disorders in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual have generated as much controversy as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). For the past 35 years diagnoses of DID, previously referred to as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), have increased exponentially, causing various psychological researchers and clinicians to question the…
... using blood tests. If there is a family history of one of these disorders, parents can get genetic testing to see whether they carry the gene. Other genetic tests can tell whether the fetus has the disorder or carries the gene for the disorder. Enzyme replacement therapies can help with a few of ...
... of connective tissue. Over 200 disorders that impact connective tissue. There are different types: Genetic disorders, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and scleroderma Cancers, like some types of soft tissue sarcoma Each ...
Cascade, Elisa; Kalali, Amir H.; Buckley, Peter
In this article, we investigate the range of treatments prescribed for schizoaffective disorder. The data show that the majority of those treated, 87 percent, receive two or more pharmaceutical classes. From a therapeutic class perspective, 93 percent of schizoaffective disorder patients receive an antipsychotic, 48 percent receive a mood disorder treatment, and 42 percent receive an antidepressant. An expert commentary is also included.
van West, D.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.
Psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents who abuse substances is the rule rather than the exception, and common comorbidities include depression, anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, conduct disorder, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Among adolescents, the presence of both mental
The classification of movement disorders has evolved. Even the terminology has shifted, from an anatomical one of extrapyramidal disorders to a phenomenological one of movement disorders. The history of how this shift came about is described. The history of both the definitions and the classifications of the various neurologic conditions is then reviewed. First is a review of movement disorders as a group; then, the evolving classifications for 3 of them--parkinsonism, dystonia, and tremor--are covered in detail. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.
Gabriel Fernando Oviedo Lugo
Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder in which tic symptoms emerge prior to age of 18 and have, at least, a minimum duration of 12 months. This disorder produces distress and impairs normal functioning; it has a well-known chronic-waxing and waning course. TS has several comorbid conditions like obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, and learning disorders, among others. This article will review the epidemiologic, etiologic and phenomenological concepts of the disease and its therapeutic perspectives.
Full Text Available The research on gender's role in bipolar disorders has drawn significant interest recently. The presentation and course of bipolar disorder differs between women and men. Women experience depressive episodes, dysphoric mood, mixed states, rapid cycling and seasonal patterns more often than men. Comorbidity, particularly thyroid disease, migraine, obesity, and anxiety disorders laso occur more frequently in women than men. On the other hand men with bipolar disorder are also more likely than women to have problems with drug or alcohol abuse. The pregnancy and postpartum period is a time of high risk for onset and recurrence of bipolar disorder in women.
Full Text Available Living organizms show cyclic rhythmicity in a variety of physiological, hormonal, behavioral, and psychological processes. Sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, hormone levels, mood and cognition display a circadian rhythm in humans. Delays, advances or desynchronizations of circadian rhythm are known to be strongly associated with mental illness especially mood disorders such as bipolar disorder, major depression and seasonal affective disorder. Furthermore, some of the mood stabilizers, sleep deprivation and light treatment are employed to treat mood disorders by shifting circadian rhythm. This paper reviews the relationship between mood disorders and circadian rhythm, and describes treatment options by altering circadian rhythm.
Bojana Avguštin Avčin
Full Text Available Generalised anxiety disorder is characterised by persistent, excessive and difficult-to-control worry, which may be accompanied by several psychic and somatic symptoms, including suicidality. Generalized anxiety disorder is the most common psychiatric disorder in the primary care, although it is often underrecognised and undertreated. Generalized anxiety disorder is typically a chronic condition with low short- and medium-term remission rates. Clinical presentations often include depression, somatic illness, pain, fatigue and problems sleeping. The evaluation of prognosis is complicated by frequent comorbidity with other anxiety disorders and depression, which worsen the long-term outcome and accompanying burden of disability. The two main treatments for generalised anxiety disorder are medications and psychotherapy. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors represent first-line psychopharmacologic treatment for generalised anxiety disorder. The most extensively studied psychotherapy for anxiety is cognitive behavioural therapy which has demonstrated efficacy throughout controlled studies.
Full Text Available Berit Kerner Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and bipolar disorder. Currently, attempts are under way to translate these findings into clinical practice, genetic counseling, and predictive testing. However, some experts remain cautious. After all, common variants explain only a very small percentage of the genetic risk, and functional consequences of the discovered SNPs are inconclusive. Furthermore, the associated SNPs are not disease specific, and the majority of individuals with a “risk” allele are healthy. On the other hand, population-based genome-wide studies in psychiatric disorders have rediscovered rare structural variants and mutations in genes, which were previously known to cause genetic syndromes and monogenic Mendelian disorders. In many Mendelian syndromes, psychiatric symptoms are prevalent. Although these conditions do not fit the classic description of any specific psychiatric disorder, they often show nonspecific psychiatric symptoms that cross diagnostic boundaries, including intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit, impulse control deficit, and psychosis. Although testing for chromosomal disorders and monogenic Mendelian disorders is well established, testing for common variants is still controversial. The standard concept of genetic testing includes at least three broad criteria that need to be fulfilled before new genetic tests should be introduced: analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. These criteria are
Mustafa Ozkan; Abdurrahman Altindag
Personality disorders are common in subjects with panic disorder. Personality disorders have shown to affect the course of panic disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine which personality disorders effect clinical severity in subjects with panic disorder. This study included 122 adults (71 female, 41 male), who met DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia). Clinical assessment was conducted by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders...
Amami, O; Aloulou, J; Siala, M; Aribi, L
We propose some reflexions on the validity of the conceptualization of panic disorder, its nosographical place, and its clinical homogeneity, through the study of the frequency of some of its psychiatric comorbidities. To define a panic attack, DSM IV requires a number of symptoms which vary from four to 13. However, some patients suffer from panic attacks with less than four symptoms (paucisymptomatic attacks) and which fill the other criteria of panic disorder. These patients would have a biological vulnerability, familial antecedents, and a treatment response which are similar to those that fill the criteria of the panic attack according to the DSM. Some authors differentiate the panic disorder in several sub-groups, such as the panic disorder with cardiorespiratory symptoms, or vestibular symptoms, or cognitive symptoms. This division of the panic disorder in several sub-groups would have an interest in the knowledge of the etiopathogeny, the attacks' frequency, the disorder severity and the treatment response. Panic disorder with prevalent somatic expression includes crises without cognitive symptoms. This sub-type can be common in the medical context, especially in cardiology, but it is often ignored, at the price of loss of socio-professional adaptability, and a medical overconsumption. The relationship between panic disorder and agoraphobia appears to be the subject of controversies. According to the behavioral theory, phobic disorder is the primum movens of the sequence of appearance of the disorders. American psychiatry considers agoraphobia as a secondary response to the panic disorder, and pleads for a central role of panic attacks as an etiopathogenic factor in the development of agoraphobia. The distinction between panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder can be difficult. This is due to the existence of paucisymptomatic panic attacks. Their paroxystic nature is difficult to distinguish from the fluctuations of the generalized anxiety disorder
Djambas Khayat, C; Samaha, H; Noun, P; Bakhos Asmar, J D; Taher, A; Adib, S; Inati, A; Sakr, S
To promote management and awareness of bleeding disorders in Lebanon, a pilot programme was launched in 2009 by the Lebanese Hemophilia Association assisted by World Federation of Hemophilia. The aim of this study was to diagnose patients with bleeding disorders and to assess the potential challenges in implementing a screening programme. The pilot project was launched in 26 social health centres in the Bekaa valley. The study tools included the evaluation of the Tossetto Bleeding Score and the Pictorial Bleeding Assessment Chart (PBAC) for menstruation. Persons with a bleeding score higher than 2 and PBAC higher than 185 were eligible for further blood tests including the prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, complete blood count, bleeding time and von Willebrand ristocetin cofactor activity. 643 patients were enrolled, of whom 60.6% were women. Overall, 91 persons had an abnormal score. 50 eligible patients were tested: 32 had normal tests, nine new patients with severe Von Willebrand were discovered, 4 had VW:RiCo of 40, 3 prolonged APTT and 2 thrombocytopaenia. There was a clear correlation between the severity of the score and the willingness to perform the tests (P = 0.02). Women were reluctant to participate fully when investigators were men. The probability of adherence to the screening protocol is significantly increased when directed by women health care professional. For patients with milder forms, global screening programmes were neither feasible nor acceptable but those more severely affected have to be identified. Providers are crucial in preselecting patients with blood problems who are not coping well. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The guideline for the treatment of people with gender identity disorder (GID) of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology was revised in January 2012. The guideline eased restrictions for the endocrine treatment of transsexual adolescents. A medical specialist can start treating transsexual adolescents at the age of 15 after the diagnosis of GID. It recommends that transsexual adolescents (Tanner stage 2 [mainly 12-13 years of age]) are treated by endocrinologists to suppress puberty with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists until the age of 15 years old, after which cross-sex hormones may be given. Female-to-male transsexuals do not necessarily want to start androgen therapy before presenting female secondary sexual characteristics because androgen can easily stop menstruation, cause beard growth, and lower the voice. On the contrary, male-to-female transsexuals want to start estrogen therapy before presenting male secondary sexual characteristics because estrogen cannot alter the beard and low voice. It is important to identify children with gender dysphoria in school and help them receive medical advice. However, approximately half of school teachers think that children with gender dysphoria are very rare and they do not know of the notification from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, JAPAN, which aims to help children with gender dysphoria. The revision of the guideline for the treatment of transsexual people and endocrine treatment of transsexual adolescents by medical specialists may prevent them from attempting suicide, being depressive, and refusing to attend school. Furthermore, the treatment may help avoid mental disorders, aid being employed with the desired sexuality, and, subsequently, getting married and having children.
Amesse Lawrence S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet function disorders (PFDs have emerged as an important etiology of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB in adolescents. However, neither clinical nor laboratory data have been methodically analyzed in this population subset. The objective of this study was to evaluate these parameters in order to distinguish characteristics of the disorder that in turn will lead to earlier diagnosis and therapy initiation. Methods Retrospective review of medical records from postmenarcheal adolescents with documented PFDs referred to a hemophilia treatment center and university faculty practices for bleeding diatheses with their clinical and laboratory data evaluated. Results Of 63 teens with documented PFDs, HMB was the most common clinical manifestation of PFD (43; 68.3%. Of these, 37 (86% were diagnosed with PFD either at or after menarche with the diagnosis based on HMB symptoms alone. Only 6 (14% were diagnosed with a PFD prior to menarche, based on associated bleeding, i.e., epistaxis, ecchymosis, and all developed HMB after menstruation onset. Interestingly, 20 girls were diagnosed with a PFD prior to menarche and of these, only 6 (30% went on to develop HMB after pubertal transition, while the majority (14; 70% did not. The average age-at-PFD diagnosis was 14.5yrs, significantly differing from the 10.9yrs average age-at-PFD diagnosis in their counterparts that, after menarche, did not develop HMB (PP P Conclusions Adolescents with PFDs and HMB appear to be clinically distinct from their non-HMB counterparts. This group of girls is characterized by HMB the major bleeding symptom, significantly high incidences of blood group O and the δ-SPD with a PFD diagnosed well after menarche. High false negative standard platelet function study results indicate additional diagnostic strategies, particularly for δ-SPD, should be considered.
Lim, Thien Thien
To provide an overview of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders presenting with various movement disorders. The spectrum of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders has been expanding with the discovery of new antibodies against cell surface and intracellular antigens. Many of these paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders manifest as a form of movement disorder. With the discovery of new neuronal antibodies, an increasing number of idiopathic or neurodegenerative movement disorders are now being reclassified as immune-mediated movement disorders. These include anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis which may present with orolingual facial dyskinesia and stereotyped movements, CRMP-5 IgG presenting with chorea, anti-Yo paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration presenting with ataxia, anti-VGKC complex (Caspr2 antibodies) neuromyotonia, opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome, and muscle rigidity and episodic spasms (amphiphysin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, glycine receptor, GABA(A)-receptor associated protein antibodies) in stiff-person syndrome. Movement disorders may be a presentation for paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders. Recognition of these disorders and their common phenomenology is important because it may lead to the discovery of an occult malignancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gambling disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior, associated with impaired functioning, reduced quality of life, and frequent divorce and bankruptcy. Gambling disorder is reclassified in the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders in the DSM-5 because its clinical features closely resemble those of substance use disorders, and gambling activates the reward system in brain in much the same way drugs do. Prevalence of gambling disorder in Japan is high rate because of slot machines and pachinko game are very popular in Japan. The author recommend group psychotherapy and self-help group (Gamblers Anonymous), because group dynamics make them accept their wrongdoings related to gambling and believe that they can enjoy their lives without gambling.
Bateman, Anthony W; Gunderson, John; Mulder, Roger
The evidence base for the effective treatment of personality disorders is insufficient. Most of the existing evidence on personality disorder is for the treatment of borderline personality disorder, but even this is limited by the small sample sizes and short follow-up in clinical trials, the wide range of core outcome measures used by studies, and poor control of coexisting psychopathology. Psychological or psychosocial intervention is recommended as the primary treatment for borderline personality disorder and pharmacotherapy is only advised as an adjunctive treatment. The amount of research about the underlying, abnormal, psychological or biological processes leading to the manifestation of a disordered personality is increasing, which could lead to more effective interventions. The synergistic or antagonistic interaction of psychotherapies and drugs for treating personality disorder should be studied in conjunction with their mechanisms of change throughout the development of each. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rebecca E. Rosenberg
Full Text Available We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-assigned lifetime psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher with each additional year of life, with increasing autism severity, and with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified compared with autistic disorder. Overall, in this largest study of parent-reported community diagnoses of psychiatric comorbidity, gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD all emerged as significant factors correlating with cumulative prevalence. These findings could suggest both underlying trends in actual comorbidity as well as variation in community interpretation and application of comorbid diagnoses in ASD.
Bykova, S V; Sabel'nikova, E A; Parfenov, A I; Gudkova, R B; Krums, L M; Chikunova, B Z
Violation of reproductive function in patients with celiac disease can manifest as delayed puberty, infertility, amenorrhea, premature menopause, spontaneous abortion, low birth weight. The aim of the study was to establish the frequency and nature of reproductive function violation in patients with CD in the Russian Federation. The study included 132 women (average age 38,5 +/- 1,17 years) with CD observed in CSRIG in the period from 2000 to 2010. Comparison group consisted 105 women (average age 38,7 +/- 1,6 years) with predominantly functional bowel disorders (irritable bowel syndrome, functional constipation, functional bloating, inert colon). Were took into account information regarding obstetric history, physical and laboratory signs of malabsorption syndrome (MS) study of antibodies to alpha-gliadin immunoglobulin (IG) A class (AGA) and tissue transglutaminase (AtTG). The average age of onset of menses was 14,3 +/- 1,4 years, and in the control group - 13,0 +/- 1,3 years (p > 0.05), half of patients with C (43.9%) had menstruation begun at age 15 years and older, while 7.6% of the women--aged 17 and older. In the comparison group menses beginning after 15 years was only at 13.3% of women. In 61.3% of patients with CD was irregular menstrual cycle while in the comparison group such violations were noted in 13.3% (p 0.05). The frequency of reproductive disorders increased with the growth of the severity of MS. In 43% of women after 6-8 months of strict adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) had disappeared amenorrhea and there were regular menses. Three women of childbearing age, strictly abided the GFD and had a history of repeated spontaneous abortion during the year managed to get pregnant and give birth to healthy full-term baby. Reproductive disorders in women with celiac disease are significantly more likely than at women with functional bowel disease. One of the reasons of reproductive disorders in patients with CD can be malabsorption of necessary
Jaime O. Oliver
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered as among the most common yet serious brain disorders significant number of children are subjected to; the seriousness of which manifests in the ability of the disorder to continue to show up even after the childhood years, during the period of adolescence as well as adulthood. Considering the findings delivered by Brain Imaging Studies conducted on youth, it is revealed that people suffering from ADHD experiences del...
Srinivasan, T.N.; Suresh, T.R.; Jayaram, Vasantha; Fernandez, M. Peter
Data on the nature and extent of major eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia is lacking in non-white, native populations of the developing world, leaving a gap in understanding the determinants of these disorders. In a study on 210 medical students examined by a two-stage survey method, 31 subjects were found to have distress relating to their eating habits and body size not amounting to criterion-based diagnosis of eating disorders. The characteristics of this eating distress syndro...
In this article, we investigate the range of treatments prescribed for schizoaffective disorder. The data show that the majority of those treated, 87 percent, receive two or more pharmaceutical classes. From a therapeutic class perspective, 93 percent of schizoaffective disorder patients receive an antipsychotic, 48 percent receive a mood disorder treatment, and 42 percent receive an antidepressant. An expert commentary is also included. PMID:19724749
Full Text Available According to International Classification of Diseases by World Health Organization, eating disorders are behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances . Eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, atypical bulimia nervosa, overeating associated with other psychological disturbances and vomiting associated with other psychological disturbances . Maladaptive eating pattern and inadequate physical activity are seen in adolescents with eating disorders and obesity . Those with comorbid eating disorder and obesity have a poorer prognosis and are at higher risk for future medical problems.
Graff-Radford, Steven B; Abbott, Jeremy J
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and primary headaches can be perpetual and debilitating musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. The presence of both can affect up to one-sixth of the population at any one time. Initially, TMDs were thought to be predominantly musculoskeletal disorders, and migraine was thought to be solely a cerebrovascular disorder. The further understanding of their pathophysiology has helped to clarify their clinical presentation. This article focuses on the role of the trigeminal system in associating TMD and migraine. By discussing recent descriptions of prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of headache and TMD, we will further elucidate this relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gastrointestinal motility disorders in the pediatric population are common and can range from benign processes to more serious disorders. Performing and interpreting motility evaluations in children present unique challenges. There are primary motility disorders but abnormal motility may be secondary due to other disease processes. Diagnostic studies include radiographic scintigraphic and manometry studies. Although recent advances in the genetics, biology, and technical aspects are having an important impact and have allowed for a better understanding of the pathophysiology and therapy for gastrointestinal motility disorders in children, further research is needed to be done to have better understanding of the pathophysiology and for better therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Language therapy has trafficked from a medical focus until a preventive focus. However, difficulties are evidenced in the development of this last task, because he is devoted bigger space to the correction of the disorders of the language. Because the speech disorders is the dysfunction with more frequently appearance, acquires special importance the preventive work that is developed to avoid its appearance. Speech education since early age of the childhood makes work easier for prevent the appearance of speech disorders in the children. The present work has as objective to offer different activities for the prevention of the speech disorders.
Truong, Anh; Moukaddam, Nidal; Toledo, Alexander; Onigu-Otite, Edore
Addictive disorders in youth represent a dynamic field characterized by shifting patterns of substance use and high rates of experimentation, while retaining the risky behaviors and negative outcomes associated with established drug classes. Youth/adolescents are also at the forefront of use of new technologies, and non-substance-related disorders are pertinent. These disorders present with similar pictures of impairment, and can be diagnosed following the same principles. An underlying mental disorder and the possibility of a dual diagnosis need to be assessed carefully, and optimal treatment includes psychosocial treatments with applicable pharmacologic management, the latter representing an expanding field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.
Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A
Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jun 19, 2009 ... Bipolar mood disorder (BMD) has traditionally been seen as an adult disorder and .... antisocial behaviour, such as conduct disorder.3. In young ... In personality structure and temperament, children with BMD are more likely to ...
Full Text Available According to epidemiological studies, rates of social anxiety disorder(SAD or social phobia range from 3% to 16% in the generalpopulation.[1,2]Social phobia and specific phobias have an earlier ageof onset than other anxiety disorders.
Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos
This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…
Ffytche, Dominic H.; Blom, J. D.; Catani, M.
Visual perceptual disorders are often presented as a disparate group of neurological deficits with little consideration given to the wide range of visual symptoms found in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disease. Here, the authors attempt a functional anatomical classification of all disorders
Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Pfaus, James; Laan, Ellen
Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined in one entity.
Zinkstok, J.; Buitelaar, J.K.
BACKGROUND: The 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) was published in May, 2013. AIM: To review the changes in the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD in DSM-5, compared to DSM-IV. METHOD: The diagnostic criteria for ASD and ADHD
Rowe, Richard; Maughan, Barbara; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian
Background: ICD-10 and DSM-IV include similar criterial symptom lists for conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), but while DSM-IV treats each list separately, ICD-10 considers them jointly. One consequence is that ICD-10 identifies a group of children with ODD subtype who do not receive a diagnosis under DSM-IV. Methods: We…
Klatte, Julia; Vulink, Nienke; Kemperman, Patrick
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a mental disorder by which the patient is obsessed with a perceived or minor defect in appearance, usually affecting the skin, hair, or nose, a defect hardly or not seen by others. This obsession can cause severe suffering and suicidality. Most patients consult a
Harrison, Glenn W.; Jessen, Lasse J.; Lau, Morten
to all subjects and estimate prospective risk for disordered gambling. We find that 87.6% of the population is indicated for no detectable risk, 5.4% is indicated for early risk, 1.7% is indicated for intermediate risk, 2.6% is indicated for advanced risk, and 2.6% is indicated for disordered gambling...
... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that can cause ... work. Autism: What's New MMWR article: Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Data Community Report Press release: Autism Prevalence Slightly ...
Nakamura, N.; Ejiri, S.; Matsubara, Y.; Suzuki, T.
The disorder parameter of confinement-deconfinement phase transition based on the monopole action determined previously in SU(2) QCD are investigated. We construct an operator which corresponds to the order parameter defined in the abelian Higgs model. The operator shows proper behaviors as the disorder parameter in the numerical simulations of finite temperature QCD. (orig.)
Knowles, Byron Don; Pleacher, Michael D
Individuals with seizure disorders have long been restricted from participation in certain sporting activities. Those with seizure disorders are more likely than their peers to have a sedentary lifestyle and to develop obesity. Regular participation in physical activity can improve both physical and psychosocial outcomes for persons with seizure disorders. Seizure activity often is reduced among those patients who regularly engage in aerobic activity. Recent literature indicates that the diagnosis of seizure disorders remains highly stigmatizing in the adolescent population. Persons with seizure disorders may be more accepted by peer groups if they are allowed to participate in sports and recreational activities. Persons with seizure disorders are encouraged to participate in regular aerobic activities. They may participate in team sports and contact or collision activities provided that they utilize appropriate protective equipment. There seems to be no increased risk of injury or increasing seizure activity as the result of such participation. Persons with seizure disorders still are discouraged from participating in scuba diving and skydiving. The benefits of participation in regular sporting activity far outweigh any risk to the athlete with a seizure disorder who chooses to participate in sports.
Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary
Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…
Ffytche, Dominic H.; Blom, J. D.; Catani, M.
Visual perceptual disorders are often presented as a disparate group of neurological deficits with little consideration given to the wide range of visual symptoms found in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disease. Here, the authors attempt a functional anatomical classification of all disorders
Sjåstad, Hege Nordem; Gråwe, Rolf W; Egeland, Jens
The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders. In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N = 36 773), we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N = 1 043) had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N = 2 636). Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice. More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders. The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than disorders in the unipolar spectrum. This association may reflect
Tsao, Chang-Yong; Mendell, Jerry R
Autistic disorder is a heterogeneous disorder. The majority of the cases are idiopathic, and only a small number of the autistic children have associated secondary diagnosis. This article reports 2 children with mitochondrial disorders associated with autistic disorder fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of the American Psychiatric Association Manual of Psychiatric Diseases, 4th edition, and briefly reviews the literature on autistic disorder associated with mitochondrial disorders.
This thesis focuses on relationship between specific learning disorders and conduct disorders in puberty. The theoretical part explains the basic terms apearing in the thesis such as specific learning disorders, conduct disorders, puberty and prevention of conduct disorder formation. It presents Czech and foreign research which have already been done in this and related areas. The empirical part uses a quantitative method to measure anxiety and occurrence of conduct disorders in second grade ...
Hege Nordem Sjåstad
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders. METHODS: In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N = 36 773, we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N = 1 043 had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N = 2 636. Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice. RESULTS: More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than
Sjåstad, Hege Nordem; Gråwe, Rolf W.; Egeland, Jens
Background The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders. Methods In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N = 36 773), we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N = 1 043) had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N = 2 636). Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice. Results More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders. Conclusions The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than disorders in the unipolar
Kessing, L V; Olsen, E W; Andersen, P K
The risk of recurrence in affective disorder is influenced by the number of prior episodes and by a person's tendency toward recurrence. Newly developed frailty models were used to estimate the effect of the number of episodes on the rate of recurrence, taking into account individual frailty toward...... recurrence. The study base was the Danish psychiatric case register of all hospital admissions for primary affective disorder in Denmark during 1971-1993. A total of 20,350 first-admission patients were discharged with a diagnosis of major affective disorder. For women with unipolar disorder and for all...... kinds of patients with bipolar disorder, the rate of recurrence was affected by the number of prior episodes even when the effect was adjusted for individual frailty toward recurrence. No effect of episodes but a large effect of the frailty parameter was found for unipolar men. The authors concluded...
Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James
Introduction. Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined...... and psychological disorders, as well as to discuss different medical and psychological assessment and treatment modalities. Methods. The experts of the International Society for Sexual Medicine's Standard Committee convened to provide a survey using relevant databases, journal articles, and own clinical experience....... Results. Female Arousal Disorders have been defined in several ways with focus on the genital or subjective response or a combination of both. The prevalence varies and increases with increasing age, especially at the time of menopause, while distress decreases with age. Arousal disorders are often...
Fernandez, Thomas V; State, Matthew W; Pittenger, Christopher
Tourette disorder is a developmental neuropsychiatric condition characterized by vocal and motor tics that can range in severity from mild to disabling. It represents one end of a spectrum of tic disorders and is estimated to affect 0.5-0.7% of the population. Accumulated evidence supports a substantial genetic contribution to disease risk, but the identification of genetic variants that confer risk has been challenging. Positive findings in candidate gene association studies have not replicated, and genomewide association studies have not generated signals of genomewide significance, in large part because of inadequate sample sizes. Rare mutations in several genes have been identified, but their causality is difficult to establish. As in other complex neuropsychiatric disorders, it is likely that Tourette disorder risk involves a combination of common, low-effect and rare, larger-effect variants in multiple genes acting together with environmental factors. With the ongoing collection of larger patient cohorts and the emergence of affordable high-throughput genomewide sequencing, progress is expected to accelerate in coming years. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... Home Health Topics English Español Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF ... they? Points To Remember About Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue There are more than 200 heritable disorders that ...
... About Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Adrenal Gland Disorders The adrenal glands, located on the top of ... as estrogen and testosterone. What are adrenal gland disorders? Adrenal gland disorders occur when the adrenal glands do not ...
Vanesa Carina Góngora
Full Text Available The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presented and the possible sources of discrepancy are analyzed. In general, there is a moderate comorbidity between personality disorders and eating disorders. The most frequent disorders are borderline, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, dependent and avoidant personality disorders. Borderline and histrionic personality disorders are more frequently associated with bulimia, whereas avoidant and obsessive- compulsive personality disorders are more characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Nevertheless, the effect of the relationship between eating disorders and personality disorders in treatment remains uncertain, giving raise to several controversies and researches.
Full Text Available Mood disorders are the most common psychiatric comorbid disorder that affects quality of life and prognosis in epilepsy. The relation between depression and epilepsy is bidirectional. Not only the risk of having a depression among epilepsy cases is more than the healthy control cases, but also the risk of having epilepsy among depressive cases is more than the healthy control cases. People diagnosed with epilepsy are five times more likely than their peers to commit suicide. Moreover it seems that some epilepsy types like temporal lobe epilepsy have a much higher risk (25 times for suicide. Risk of suicide in epilepsy, which is independent from depression, increases more with the presence of depression. The common pathway between epilepsy, depression and suicide is hypofrontality and irregularity of serotonin metabolism. Contrary to depression, data on relationship between bipolar disorder and epilepsy is limited. However, mood disorder, mixed episodes with irritable character and mania are more frequent than assumed. As a matter of fact, both disorders share some common features. Both are episodic and can become chronic. Kindling phenomenon, irregularities in neurotransmitters, irregularities in voltage gate ion channels and irregularities in secondary messenger systems are variables that are presented in the etiologies of both disorders. Anticonvulsant drugs with mood regulatory effects are the common points of treatment. Understanding their mechanisms of action will clarify the pathophysiological processes. In this article, the relationhip between epilepsy and mood disorders, comorbidity, secondary states and treatment options in both cases have been discussed.
Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia; Wahbi, Karim
According to the American Heart Association, cardiomyopathies are classified as primary (solely or predominantly confined to heart muscle), secondary (those showing pathological myocardial involvement as part of a neuromuscular disorder) and those in which cardiomyopathy is the first/predominant manifestation of a neuromuscular disorder. Cardiomyopathies may be further classified as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, or unclassified cardiomyopathy (noncompaction, Takotsubo-cardiomyopathy). This review focuses on secondary cardiomyopathies and those in which cardiomyopathy is the predominant manifestation of a myopathy. Any of them may cause neurological disease, and any of them may be a manifestation of a neurological disorder. Neurological disease most frequently caused by cardiomyopathies is ischemic stroke, followed by transitory ischemic attack, syncope, or vertigo. Neurological disease, which most frequently manifests with cardiomyopathies are the neuromuscular disorders. Most commonly associated with cardiomyopathies are muscular dystrophies, myofibrillar myopathies, congenital myopathies and metabolic myopathies. Management of neurological disease caused by cardiomyopathies is not at variance from the same neurological disorders due to other causes. Management of secondary cardiomyopathies is not different from that of cardiomyopathies due to other causes either. Patients with neuromuscular disorders require early cardiologic investigations and close follow-ups, patients with cardiomyopathies require neurological investigation and avoidance of muscle toxic medication if a neuromuscular disorder is diagnosed. Which patients with cardiomyopathy profit most from primary stroke prevention is unsolved and requires further investigations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The cerebellum has been considered for a long time to play a role solely in motor coordination. However, studies over the past two decades have shown that the cerebellum also plays a key role in many motor, cognitive, and emotional processes. In addition, studies have also shown that the cerebellum is implicated in many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss existing studies reporting cerebellar dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders. We will also discuss future directions for studies linking the cerebellum to psychiatric disorders.
Dos Santos, E.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Fillion, G.; Scorzelli, R.B.
Tetrataenite is a chemically ordered L1 0 -type Fe 50 Ni 50 alloy detected for the first time in 1977 by 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy studies in iron meteorites. The thermal history of meteorites, in particular short thermal events like those associated to hypervelocity impacts, can be constrained by tracing the presence of tetrataenite or its disordering into taenite. The knowledge of the disordering kinetics of tetrataenite, that is associated with changes in its magnetic properties, is still very fragmentary so that the time–temperature history of these meteorites cannot be constrained in details. Furthermore, knowledge of disordering kinetics is important due to potential technological application of tetrataenite as a rare-earth free strong magnet. Thus, this work provides the first time–temperature data for disordering reaction of tetrataenite. We have shown that disordering is not an instantaneous process but is a kinetic limited reaction. It was shown that disordering may take place at any temperature above the order–disorder transition for L 10 superstructure phase (∼320 °C) when the appropriate time-scale is considered. This result means that the apparent Curie point for tetrataenite is not an absolute property in the sense that any estimate of this parameter should be referred to a given time-scale. - Highlights: • The first time–temperature data for tetrataenite disordering reaction is provided. • Previous works does not give a complete picture of tetrataenite disordering. • Apparent Curie temperature of tetrataenite should be referred to a time-scale. • Tetrataenite can be used as a probe to detect thermal/shock events recorded in meteorites
Jawad, Mustafa Bashir M; Sjögren, Magnus
Body dysmorphic disorder is defined by a preoccupation of one or more non-existent or slight defects or flaws in the physical appearance. The prevalence is 1.7-2.4% in the general population with a higher incidence rate in women. The rate of suicidal ideation is as high as 80%, and up to 25......% of the patients attempt to commit suicide. Comorbidities, such as obsessive compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety, are frequent. These patients may seek cosmetic or dermatologic rather than psychological treatment. In the view of the high prevalence and risk of suicide, recognizing this disorder...
Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Hallikainen, Tero
Antisocial personality disorder (ASP), especially psychopathy as its extreme form, has provoked fear and excitement over thousands of years. Ruthless violence involved in the disorder has inspired scientists, too.The abundance of research results concerning epidemiology, physiology, neuroanatomy, heritability, and treatment interventions has made ASP one of the best documented disorders in psychiatry. Numerous interventions have been tested, but there is no current treatment algorithm. Biological and sociological parameters indicate the importance of early targeted interventions among the high risk children. Otherwise, as adults they cause the greatest harm. The use of medications or psychotherapy for adults needs careful consideration.
Atalayer, Deniz; Gibson, Charlisa; Konopacka, Alexandra; Geliebter, Allan
There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Ghrelin is one of the key gut signals associated with appetite, and the only known circulating hormone that triggers a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake. This review summarizes recent findings and several conflicting reports on ghrelin in eating disorders. Understanding these findings and inconsistencies may help in developing new methods to prevent and treat patients with these disorders. PMID:22960103
Perihan Cam Ray
Full Text Available Body dysmorphic disorder is a type of mental illness, wherein the affected person is concerned with body image, manifested as excessive concern about and preoccupation with a perceived defect of their physical features. Although it is a common disease and has been defined in the literature over a century, it is not a well known disease. Chronic, treatment resistant and sometimes delusional nature could result in severe functional impairment. The diagnosis and appropriate therapy of disorder are crucial because of increased suicidality and reduction in life quality. In this article the symptoms, etiology, clinical features and treatment of body dysmorphic disorder are briefly reviewed.
The influence of the clothing material properties(like water absorbency and rapid dryness, water vapor absorption, water vapor permeability and air permeability) and the design factor of the clothing(like opening condition and fitting of clothing), which contributed to prevent heat disorder, was outlined. WBGT(wet-bulb globe temperature) is used to show a guideline for environmental limitation of activities to prevent heat disorder. As the safety function is more important than thermal comfort for some sportswear and protective clothing with high cover area, clothing itself increases the risk of heat disorder. WBGT is corrected by CAF (clothing adjustment factor) in wearing such kind of protective clothing.
With regard to delusional disorder-somatic subtype there may be a relationship with body dysmorphic disorder. There are reports that some delusional disorders can evolve to become schizophrenia. Similarly, the treatment of such disorders with antipsychotics has been documented. This report describes a case of ...
Conclusion The proportion of sleep disorder in children with ADHD is relatively high, with the majority having a disorder of initiating and maintaining sleep. Children with combined type ADHD experience a higher amount of sleep disorder than those with either the inattention or hyperactive-impulsive types of ADHD. Children with poor sleep hygiene have significantly more severe sleep disorders.
Kessing, L V; Olsen, E W; Mortensen, P B
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether patients with affective disorder have increased risk of developing dementia compared to other groups of psychiatric patients and compared to the general population. METHOD: In the Danish psychiatric central register, 3363 patients...... with unipolar affective disorder, 518 patients with bipolar affective disorder, 1025 schizophrenic and 8946 neurotic patients were identified according to the diagnosis at the first ever discharge from psychiatric hospital during the period from 1970 to 1974. The rate of discharge diagnosis of dementia...... on readmission was estimated during 21 years of follow-up. In addition, the rates were compared with the rates for admission to psychiatric hospitals with a discharge diagnosis of dementia for the total Danish population. RESULTS: Patients with unipolar and with bipolar affective disorder had a greater risk...
substance abuse, and the disorder impacts significantly on social and ... characteristic fear of social and performance situations where exposure to unfamiliar ... concomitant therapy from psychoactive medications other than chloral hydrate; if ...
... down” Have trouble sleeping Think about death or suicide Can someone have bipolar disorder along with other problems? Yes. Sometimes people having very strong mood episodes may have psychotic symptoms. Psychosis affects thoughts ...
Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...
... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... greater chance of experiencing learning disabilities such as reading disorders and verbal impairment. But what distinguishes children ...
... Types of Cancer Treatment Surgery Radiation Therapy External Beam Radiation Internal Radiation Therapy Side Effects Chemotherapy Immunotherapy ... asleep, sleeping, or waking from sleep, such as walking, talking, or eating. Sleep disorders keep you from ...
... Publications Patient Organizations International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) See all related organizations Publications Order NINDS Publications Definition Psychogenic movement is an unwanted muscle movement such ...
... Baby Bottle Tooth Decay? Pacifiers Have Negative and Positive Effects What is Dental Amalgam (Silver Filling)? Check Menstrual Calendar for Tooth Extraction Temporomandibular Joint Disorder Learn what those dental words mean. Check out how your teeth and mouth ...
... Cushing's syndrome, there's too much cortisol, while with Addison's disease, there is too little. Some people are born unable to make enough cortisol. Causes of adrenal gland disorders include Genetic mutations Tumors ...
This podcast discusses autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a developmental disability that causes problems with social, communication, and behavioral skills. CDC estimates that one in 68 children has been identified as having ASD.
Kirkpatrick, Brian; Miller, Brian; García-Rizo, Clemente; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio
The concept of schizophrenia that is most widely taught is that it is a disorder in which psychotic symptoms are the main problem, and a dysregulation of dopamine signaling is the main feature of pathophysiology. However, this concept limits clinical assessment, the treatments offered to patients, research, and the development of therapeutics. A more appropriate conceptual model is that: 1) schizophrenia is not a psychotic disorder, but a disorder of essentially every brain function in which psychosis is present; 2) it is not a brain disease, but a disorder with impairments throughout the body; 3) for many patients, neuropsychiatric problems other than psychosis contribute more to impairment in function and quality of life than does psychosis; and, 4) some conditions that are considered to be comorbid are integral parts of the illness. In conclusion, students, patients, and family members should be taught this model, along with its implications for assessment, research, and therapeutics. PMID:23518782
Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with ...
lifetime incidence), recurrent mood disorder, with strong genetic undertones ... self-esteem/grandiosity, significantly decreased need for sleep, racing speech .... chaperone protein, GRP 78.26 Valproate's effects on DNA histone acetylation may ...
B one marrow aplasia ... Laboratory approach to a suspected acquired bleeding disorder. (LER = leuko- .... lymphocytic leukaemia, and lymphoma). ... cells), a bone marrow aspirate and trephine biopsy (BMAT) is not ..... transplantation.
Arendt, Elizabeth A
Sex is defined as the classification of living things according to their chromosomal compliment. Gender is defined as a person's self-representation as a male or female or how social institutions respond to that person on the basis of his or her gender presentation. One frequently divides the topic or dimorphism into the biologic response inherent in their sex and the environmental response that might be better termed "gender differences." Clinicians have anecdotally agreed for years that patellofemoral disorders are more common in women. Given the difficulty in classifying patellofemoral disorders, literature support for this assumption is meager. For the purposes of this article we divide patellofemoral disorders into three categories: patellofemoral pain, patellofemoral instability, and patellofemoral arthritis. possible sex difference in these disorders are reviewed.
... Print this form Follow Us Facebook Twitter RSS YouTube Advertisement Find A Therapist Search our directory of ADAA mental health professional members who specialize in anxiety, depression and co-occurring disorders. Understand the Facts Anxiety ...
... overall treatment regimen. Follow Us Facebook Twitter RSS YouTube Advertisement Find A Therapist Search our directory of ADAA mental health professional members who specialize in anxiety, depression and co-occurring disorders. Understand the Facts Anxiety ...
... finding a therapist . Follow Us Facebook Twitter RSS YouTube Advertisement Advertisement Find A Therapist Search our directory of ADAA mental health professional members who specialize in anxiety, depression and co-occurring disorders. Understand the Facts Anxiety ...
Developmental coordination disorder can lead to: Learning problems Low self-esteem resulting from poor ability at sports and teasing by other children Repeated injuries Weight gain as a result of not wanting to participate ...
... explosive disorder involves repeated, sudden episodes of impulsive, aggressive, violent behavior or angry verbal outbursts in which you react grossly out of proportion to the situation. Road rage, domestic abuse, throwing or breaking objects, or other temper tantrums ...
... Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Small Business Research Labs at NIMH Labs at NIMH Home Research ... Chat on Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (Archived Transcript) Research and ... Journal Articles: References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National ...
Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.
Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656
Morin, Alexandre; Desreumaux, Nicolas; Caussin, Jean-Baptiste; Bartolo, Denis
How do flocks, herds and swarms proceed through disordered environments? This question is not only crucial to animal groups in the wild, but also to virtually all applications of collective robotics, and active materials composed of synthetic motile units. In stark contrast, appart from very rare exceptions, our physical understanding of flocking has been hitherto limited to homogeneous media. Here we explain how collective motion survives to geometrical disorder. To do so, we combine experiments on motile colloids cruising through random microfabricated obstacles, and analytical theory. We explain how disorder and bending elasticity compete to channel the flow of polar flocks along sparse river networks akin those found beyond plastic depinning in driven condensed matter. Further increasing disorder, we demonstrate that collective motion is suppressed in the form of a first-order phase transition generic to all polar active materials.
... within the category. These were autistic disorder ("classic" autism), Asperger syndrome (which usually involved milder symptoms, mostly related ... but not all, of the features of classic autism or Asperger syndrome). 2 Health care providers no longer use ...
Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...
Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Demyttenaere, Koen
of the patients (40-80%) had erroneous views as to the effect of antidepressants. Older patients (over 40 years of age) consistently had a more negative view of the doctor-patient relationship, more erroneous ideas concerning the effect of antidepressants and a more negative view of antidepressants in general....... Moreover, their partners agreed on these negative views. Women had a more negative view of the doctor-patient relationship than men, and patients with a depressive disorder had a more negative view of antidepressants than patients with bipolar disorder. The number of psychiatric hospitalizations......BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that attitudes and beliefs are important in predicting adherence to treatment and medication in depressive and bipolar disorders. However, these attitudes have received little study in patients whose disorders were sufficiently severe to require...
Soria, Virginia; Uribe, Javiera; Salvat-Pujol, Neus; Palao, Diego; Menchón, José Manuel; Labad, Javier
The immune system is a key element in the organism's defence system and participates in the maintenance of homeostasis. There is growing interest in the aetiopathogenic and prognostic implications of the immune system in mental disorders, as previous studies suggest the existence of a dysregulation of the immune response and a pro-inflammatory state in patients with mental disorders, as well as an increased prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases or receiving immune treatments. This study aims to conduct a narrative review of the scientific literature on the role of Psychoneuroimmunology in mental disorders, with special focus on diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic issues. The development of this body of knowledge may bring in the future important advances in the vulnerability, aetiopathogenic mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of some mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
... enough to enjoy talking with friends or family. Hearing disorders make it hard, but not impossible, to ... often be helped. Deafness can keep you from hearing sound at all. What causes hearing loss? Some ...
... himself. Understanding Binge Eating If you gorged on chocolate during Halloween or ate so much pumpkin pie ... binge eating, doctors may prescribe medications along with therapy and nutrition advice. People with binge eating disorder ...
Apology. 1. Order-disorder transitions; 2. The Ising model; 3. The classical theories; 4. The exact analysis of the Ising model; 5. Series expansions; 6. Relations between critical indices; 7. Other models; 8. Concluding remarks. (author)
... a death in the family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening ...
Full Text Available The schizoid personality disorder is characterized by a lack of interest in close relationships, both in the family and in other interpersonal relationships, including intimate/sexual interactions, a superiority of introverted activities, emotional coldness, estrangement and flattened affect (DSM-5. This video lecture is devoted to the review of the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of this disorder. In addition, the lecture examines clinical cases and an example of managing such patients.
Full Text Available The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking coagulation and some psychiatric disorders.
Malhi, Gin S; Byrow, Yulisha; Fritz, Kristina; Das, Pritha; Baune, Bernhard T; Porter, Richard J; Outhred, Tim
In recent years, a number of neurocognitive models stemming from psychiatry and psychology schools of thought have conceptualized the pathophysiology of mood disorders in terms of dysfunctional neural mechanisms that underpin and drive neurocognitive processes. Though these models have been useful for advancing our theoretical understanding and facilitating important lines of research, translation of these models and their application within the clinical arena have been limited-partly because of lack of integration and synthesis. Cognitive neuroscience provides a novel perspective for understanding and modeling mood disorders. This selective review of influential neurocognitive models develops an integrative approach that can serve as a template for future research and the development of a clinically meaningful framework for investigating, diagnosing, and treating mood disorders. A selective literature search was conducted using PubMed and PsychINFO to identify prominent neurobiological and neurocognitive models of mood disorders. Most models identify similar neural networks and brain regions and neuropsychological processes in the neurocognition of mood, however, they differ in terms of specific functions attached to neural processes and how these interact. Furthermore, cognitive biases, reward processing and motivation, rumination, and mood stability, which play significant roles in the manner in which attention, appraisal, and response processes are deployed in mood disorders, are not sufficiently integrated. The inclusion of interactions between these additional components enhances our understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of mood disorders. Through integration of key cognitive functions and understanding of how these interface with neural functioning within neurocognitive models of mood disorders, a framework for research can be created for translation to diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is categorized as a subclass in depressive disorders of DSM-5. Speaking without fear of misunderstanding, my opinion is that patients with PMDD should be treated with medication, if there is no misdiagnosis as premenstrual syndrome (PMS). For the appropriate treatment of PMDD, it must be diagnosed accurately according to the DSM-5 criteria. The differential diagnosis and treatment of PMDD should be carried out by experienced psychiatrists.
Costa e Silva, Jorge Alberto
Sleep is an active state that is critical for our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Sleep is also important for optimal cognitive functioning, and sleep disruption results in functional impairment. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in psychiatry. At any given time, 50% of adults are affected with 1 or more sleep problems such as difficulty in falling or staying asleep, in staying awake, or in adhering to a consistent sleep/wake schedule. Narcolepsy affects as many individuals as does multiple sclerosis or Parkinson disease. Sleep problems are especially prevalent in schizophrenia, depression, and other mental illnesses, and every year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and sleepiness add billions to the national health care bill in industrialized countries. Although psychiatrists often treat patients with insomnia secondary to depression, most patients discuss their insomnia with general care physicians, making it important to provide this group with clear guidelines for the diagnosis and management of insomnia. Once the specific medical, behavioral, or psychiatric causes of the sleep problem have been identified, appropriate treatment can be undertaken. Chronic insomnia has multiple causes arising from medical disorders, psychiatric disorders, primary sleep disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, social or therapeutic use of drugs, or maladaptive behaviors. The emerging concepts of sleep neurophysiology are consistent with the cholinergic-aminergic imbalance hypothesis of mood disorders, which proposes that depression is associated with an increased ratio of central cholinergic to aminergic neurotransmission. The characteristic sleep abnormalities of depression may reflect a relative predominance of cholinergic activity. Antidepressant medications presumably reduce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep either by their anticholinergic properties or by enhancing aminergic neurotransmission. Intense and prolonged dreams often accompany abrupt withdrawal
Plecash, Alyson R; Leavitt, Blair R
Aquatherapy is used for rehabilitation and exercise; water provides a challenging, yet safe exercise environment for many special populations. We have reviewed the use of aquatherapy programs in four neurodegenerative disorders: Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington's disease. Results support the use of aquatherapy in Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis, however further evidence is required to make specific recommendations in all of the aforementioned disorders.
SŁOTWIŃSKA, SYLWIA MAŁGORZATA; SŁOTWIŃSKI, ROBERT
Anorexia nervosa is a disease involving eating disorders. It mainly affects young people, especially teenage women. The disease is often latent and occurs in many sub-clinical and partial forms. Approximately from 0.3% to 1% of the population suffers from anorexia. It has been shown that patients with anorexia develop neurotransmitter-related disorders, leading to uncontrolled changes in the immune and endocrine systems. Interactions between cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters pla...
Kripke, Daniel F.; Shadan, Farhad F.; Dawson, Arthur; Cronin, John W.; Jamil, Shazia M.; Grizas, Alexandra P.; Koziol, James A.; Kline, Lawrence E.
Objective The genetic susceptibility factors underlying sleep disorders might help us predict prognoses and responses to treatment. Several candidate polymorphisms for sleep disorders have been proposed, but there has as yet inadequate replication or validation that the candidates may be useful in the clinical setting. Methods To assess the validity of several candidate associations, we obtained saliva deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples and clinical information from 360 consenting research p...
Deniz Tuncel; Fatma Özlem Orhan
Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES) is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, even...
Eating disorders are serious psychiatric conditions often demanding specialized psychiatric care. Several effective treatments have been developed and disseminated, but more needs to be done, as not all patients respond well to intervention, let alone achieve recovery. Obvious candidates such as eating disorder diagnosis, symptoms and psychiatric comorbidity have generally failed to explain variability in prognosis and outcome, warranting investigation of a wider range of relevant factors. Ac...
Knaap, M.S. van der.
The first part of this thesis contains the results of a study into the capabilities of MR in the assessment of normal cerebral development. The process of normal myelination under the age of 1 year is divided into stages with specific MRI characteristics. An indication of normal age limits for each stage is given. The relationships between changes in signal intensities and biochemical background, and between progress of myelination and psychomotor development are discussed. The latter in the light of a study performed in hydrocephalic children, prior to and repeatedly after shunt implantation. Normal changes in 1 H and 31 P spectra of the brain in infants and children are described. The relationship between observed spectral changes and cerebral maturational processes is discussed. The second part deals with assessment of myelin disorders with MRI. Basic information about demyelinating disorders and biochemical background are reviewed. A new classification of myelin disorders, underlying the development of an MRI pattern recognition scheme, is proposed based on the most recent scientific developments. Common histological characteristics are described for all main categories of myelin disorders. Extensive information is presented about MRI patterns of abnormalities in patients in whom the disease is predominantly or exclusively located in the white matter. On the basis of the data of these patients a global MRI pattern recognition scheme has been developed covering all white matter disorders that were encountered. Also an example of an in-depth pattern recognition in a circumscribed category of disorders is presented. Finally a study of MRS in demyelinating disorders as opposed to neuronal disorders is described. While MRI provides information about the extent of the process of demyelination and about the disease category, MRS turns out to provide information about the severity of the demyelination and of the concomitant neuronal damage. (H.W.). 725 refs.; 53 figs
Montgomery, Paul; Dunne, Danielle
Sleep disorders may affect 20-30% of young children, and include excessive daytime sleepiness, problems getting to sleep (dysomnias), or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors, and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.
Bruni, Oliveiero; Novelli, Luana
Sleep disorders may affect between 20% and 30% of young children, and include problems getting to sleep (dyssomnias) or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.
Kelly, Claire M; Jorm, Anthony F
To update the reader on current research on stigmatizing attitudes towards people suffering from mood disorders and to describe recent interventions in this area. The public generally feels their own attitudes are more favourable to people with depression than 'most other people's' attitudes are. Among those with depressive symptoms, self-stigma in relation to depression is higher than perceived stigma from others, including professionals, thus hindering help seeking. The main factor that seems to improve the attitudes towards people with any mental illness is personal contact. Moderate improvements in attitudes have been achieved with an online intervention. Caution must be taken when ensuring that improvements in knowledge about mental disorders do not lead to increased social distance. There exists little research on stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mood disorders. Most of the literature on the stigma towards people with mental illness relates to people with more severe disorders such as schizophrenia. When research has been done on mood disorders, the focus has been on perceived stigma and self-stigma. No up-to-date research exists on discrimination experienced by people with mood disorders, and very little research exists on interventions designed to decrease stigmatizing attitudes towards them.
Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A. Shyam
Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646
van Lankveld, Jacques J D M; Granot, Michal; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord C M; Binik, Yitzchak M; Wesselmann, Ursula; Pukall, Caroline F; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Achtrari, Chahin
Women's sexual pain disorders include dyspareunia and vaginismus and there is need for state-of-the-art information in this area. To update the scientific evidence published in 2004, from the 2nd International Consultation on Sexual Medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of women's sexual pain disorders. An expert committee, invited from six countries by the 3rd International Consultation, was comprised of eight researchers and clinicians from biological and social science disciplines, for the purpose of reviewing and grading the scientific evidence on nosology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of women's sexual pain disorders. Expert opinion was based on grading of evidence-based medical literature, extensive internal committee discussion, public presentation, and debate. Results. A comprehensive assessment of medical, sexual, and psychosocial history is recommended for diagnosis and management. Indications for general and focused pelvic genital examination are identified. Evidence-based recommendations for assessment of women's sexual pain disorders are reviewed. An evidence-based approach to management of these disorders is provided. Continued efforts are warranted to conduct research and scientific reporting on the optimal assessment and management of women's sexual pain disorders, including multidisciplinary approaches.
Santos, Maruska D' Aparecida; Bittar, Roseli Saraiva Moreira
Metabolic disorders are accepted by many authors as being responsible for balance disorders. Because of the importance of metabolic disorders in the field of labyrinthine dysfunction, we decided to assess the prevalence of carbohydrates, lipids and thyroid hormones disorders in our patients with vestibular diseases. The study evaluates the metabolic profile of 325 patients with vertigo who sought the Otolaryngology Department of the University of São Paulo in the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo. The laboratory tests ordered according to the classical research protocol were: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction, TSH, T3, T4 and fasting blood sugar level. The metabolic disorders found and the ones that were observed in the general population were compared. The high level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the altered levels of thyroid hormones, the higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus were the most significant changes found in the group of study. The higher amount of metabolic disorders in patients with vertigo disease reinforces the hypothesis of its influence on the etiopathogenesis of cochleovestibular symptoms.
Pinar Cetinay Aydin
Full Text Available Skin picking disorder is not a dermatological disorder and it is a table characterized with picking skin excessively and repetitively, leading to damage in skin tissue. Unlike normal picking behaviour, psychogenic skin picking is repetitive and it can lead to severe damage in the skin and even complications which constitute vital danger. While some patients define frequent but short lasting picking attacks, others define rarer attacks which last a few hours. Skin picking disorder, which is not included in the classification systems up to DSM-5 as a separate diagnosis category, is included as an independent diagnosis in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Associated Disorders category in DSM-5. In case reports, open label studies and double blind studies selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are shown to be effective in the treatment of skin picking disorder. Mostly, cognitive-behaviourial techniques are used and have been proven to be useful in psychotherapy. Habit reversal is one of the behaviourial techniques which are frequently applied, give positive results in which well-being state can be maintained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 401-428
Shenoy, Chetana; Shenoy, Manjunath Mala; Rao, Gururaja K.
Dyslipidemias are one of the common metabolic disorders. A link between dermatological disorders like psoriasis and dyslipidemia has been established in the recent past. Many dermatological disorders could have a systemic inflammatory component which explains such association. Chronic inflammatory dermatological disorders could also have other metabolic imbalances that may contribute to dyslipidemia. Presence of such abnormal metabolism may justify routine screening of these disorders for associated dyslipidemia and other metabolic abnormalities and early treatment of such comorbidities to improve quality of life. Some of the drugs used by dermatologists such as retinoids are also likely to be a cause of dyslipidemia. Hence, it is imperative that the dermatologists obtain scientific knowledge on the underlying mechanisms involved in dyslipidemia and understand when to intervene with therapies. A systematic review of the English language literature was done by using Google Scholar and PubMed. In this review, attempts are made to list the dermatological disorders associated with dyslipidemia; to simplify the understanding of underlying mechanisms; and to give a brief idea about the interventions. PMID:26713286
Full Text Available Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders, ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal behavior and associated factors in eating disorders are briefly reviewed.
Elisei, Sandro; Anastasi, Serena; Verdolini, Norma
Several studies have been carried out regarding the possible overlap between Bipolar Disorder and borderline personality disorder. Up to now, it is not possible to provide a definitive picture. In fact, there is currently significant debate about the relationship between Borderline Personality Disorder and Bipolar Disorder. MEDLINE searches were performed to identify the latest studies of these disorders, considering psychodynamic aspects. Bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder share common clinical features, namely affective instability and impulsivity which however differ in quality. Consequently, to better understand these aspects, it is necessary to trace the stages of childhood psychological development. It has been claimed that Bipolar Disorder Type II can be divided into two subtypes: one stable and functional between episodes and one unstable between episodes which is related to Borderline Personality Disorder. However, better diagnostic theories, psychiatrist's empathy and patience remain the essential tool to understand and to face human suffering.
Parker, Gordon; Bayes, Adam; McClure, Georgia; Del Moral, Yolanda Romàn Ruiz; Stevenson, Janine
The status and differentiation of comorbid borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder is worthy of clarification. To determine whether comorbid borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder are interdependent or independent conditions. We interviewed patients diagnosed with either a borderline personality disorder and/or a bipolar condition. Analyses of participants grouped by DSM diagnoses established that those with comorbid conditions scored similarly to those with a borderline personality disorder alone on all key variables (i.e. gender, severity of borderline personality scores, developmental stressors, illness correlates, self-injurious behaviour rates) and differed from those with a bipolar disorder alone on nearly all non-bipolar item variables. Similar findings were returned for groups defined by clinical diagnoses. Comorbid bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder is consistent with the formal definition of comorbidity in that, while coterminous, individuals meeting such criteria have features of two independent conditions. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Nordgaard, Julie; Nilsson, Lars Siersbæk; Sæbye, Ditte
Self-disorders have been hypothesized to be an underlying and trait-like core feature of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and a certain degree of temporal stability of self-disorders would therefore be expected. The aim of the study was to examine the persistence of self-disorders measured...... by the Examination of Anomalous Self Experiences over a time span of 5 years. 48 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were thoroughly assessed for psychopathology at baseline and 5 years later. Self-disorders were assessed by the Examination of Anomalous Self Experiences. The level of self-disorders...... was same at the two occasions for the full Examination of Anomalous Self Disorders and for four out of the five domains. For one domain, the level of self-disorders increased slightly from baseline to follow-up. The correlations between baseline and follow-up were moderate. 9 out of the 13 most...
Meier, Sandra M; Pavlova, Barbara; Dalsgaard, Søren
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorders have been proposed as precursors of bipolar disorder, but their joint and relative roles in the development of bipolar disorder are unknown.AimsTo test the prospective relationship of ADHD and anxiety with onset...... of bipolar disorder. METHOD: We examined the relationship between ADHD, anxiety disorders and bipolar disorder in a birth cohort of 2 409 236 individuals born in Denmark between 1955 and 1991. Individuals were followed from their sixteenth birthday or from January 1995 to their first clinical contact...... for bipolar disorder or until December 2012. We calculated incidence rates per 10 000 person-years and tested the effects of prior diagnoses on the risk of bipolar disorder in survival models. RESULTS: Over 37 394 865 person-years follow-up, 9250 onsets of bipolar disorder occurred. The incidence rate...
Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaBehavioral Sciences Institute and Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Neuroimaging techniques have been useful tools for accurate investigation of brain structure and function in eating disorders. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry have been the most relevant technologies in this regard. The purpose of this review is to update the existing data on neuroimaging in eating disorders. The main brain changes seem to be reversible to some extent after adequate weight restoration. Brain changes in bulimia nervosa seem to be less pronounced than in anorexia nervosa and are mainly due to chronic dietary restrictions. Different subtypes of eating disorders might be correlated with specific brain functional changes. Moreover, anorectic patients who binge/purge may have different functional brain changes compared with those who do not binge/purge. Functional changes in the brain might have prognostic value, and different changes with respect to the binding potential of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and D2/D3 receptors may be persistent after recovering from an eating disorder.Keywords: neuroimaging, brain changes, brain receptors, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders
Full Text Available Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia, and insomnia with awakenings followed by nocturnal food ingestion. Recently night eating syndrome, conceptualized as a delayed circadian intake of food. Sleep-related eating disorder, thought to represent a parasomnia and as such included within the revised International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2, and characterized by nocturnal partial arousals associated with recurrent episodes of involuntary food consumption and altered levels of consciousness. Whether, however, sleep-related eating disorder and night eating syndrome represent different diseases or are part of a continuum is still debated. This review summarizes their characteristics, treatment outcomes and differences between them.
The influence of disorder on the superconducting transition temperature is discussed. The main steps on the way to complete theory of disordered superconductors follows the steps in the authors' understanding of disorder and its effect on the quasiparticles in metals. Loosely speaking one can distinguish three such steps. First is the study of weakly disordered systems and this resulted in famous, celebrated Anderson theorem. The second step is ultimately connected with the coherent potential approximation as a method to study the spectrum and transport in concentrated alloys. The discovery of the role of usually neglected interferences between scattered waves in disordered conductors leading to decrease in mobility and increase of the mutual interactions between quantum particles, known as localization and interaction effects has given the new impetus to the theory of superconductivity. This is third step to be discussed in this lecture. The authors limit themselves to homogeneous bulk superconductors. In this paper some experiments on thin films as well as on copper oxides related to the presented theory are briefly mentioned
Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. PMID:24800202
Maçkalı, Zeynep; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Oral, Timuçin
The relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder has been an intriguing topic since ancient times. Early studies focused on describing characteristics of creative people. From the last quarter of the twentieth century, researchers began to focus on the relationship between mood disorders and creativity. Initially, the studies were based on biographical texts and the obtained results indicated a relationship between these two concepts. The limitations of the retrospective studies led the researchers to develop systematic investigations into this area. The systematic studies that have focused on artistic creativity have examined both the prevalence of mood disorders and the creative process. In addition, a group of researchers addressed the relationship in terms of affective temperaments. Through the end of the 90's, the scope of creativity was widened and the notion of everyday creativity was proposed. The emergence of this notion led researchers to investigate the associations of the creative process in ordinary (non-artist) individuals. In this review, the descriptions of creativity and creative process are mentioned. Also, the creative process is addressed with regards to bipolar disorder. Then, the relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder are evaluated in terms of aforementioned studies (biographical, systematic, psychobiographical, affective temperaments). In addition, a new model, the "Shared Vulnerability Model" which was developed to explain the relationship between creativity and psychopathology is introduced. Finally, the methodological limitations and the suggestions for resolving these limitations are included.
Full Text Available Sexual problems that are psychological in origin, rather than physiological, are called psychosexual disorders. Multiple factors, such as general health of the patient, chronic illnesses, psychiatric/psychological disorders, and socio-cultural factors, alone or in combination can be attributed to the development of psychosexual dysfunctions. The symptoms of these disorders vary for each individual and differ with gender. These disorders may be categorized as sexual dysfunction, paraphilias, and gender identity disorders. Dermatologists are sometimes consulted for sexual dysfunctions in their routine practice by the patients visiting sexually transmitted infections (STI clinics because a majority of the patients believe that these problems are caused by dysfunctions in the sex organs, and because people are hesitant to go to sexuality clinics and psychiatrists for such problems. Sometimes these patients are referred from other specialties such as urology or gynecology; most often, we attempt to search for STIs or other dermatoses on the genitalia and refer them back. We often underestimate the prevalence of sexual concerns of the patients or feel uncomfortable discussing matters of sexuality with them. Dermatologists should understand basic sexual medicine and ask patients for sexual problems. They should be trained to manage such patients accordingly. In this review, we will be focusing on sexual dysfunctions, their etiopathogenesis, and management from a dermatologist's perspective.
Narang, Tarun; Garima; Singh, Shubh M.
Sexual problems that are psychological in origin, rather than physiological, are called psychosexual disorders. Multiple factors, such as general health of the patient, chronic illnesses, psychiatric/psychological disorders, and socio-cultural factors, alone or in combination can be attributed to the development of psychosexual dysfunctions. The symptoms of these disorders vary for each individual and differ with gender. These disorders may be categorized as sexual dysfunction, paraphilias, and gender identity disorders. Dermatologists are sometimes consulted for sexual dysfunctions in their routine practice by the patients visiting sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinics because a majority of the patients believe that these problems are caused by dysfunctions in the sex organs, and because people are hesitant to go to sexuality clinics and psychiatrists for such problems. Sometimes these patients are referred from other specialties such as urology or gynecology; most often, we attempt to search for STIs or other dermatoses on the genitalia and refer them back. We often underestimate the prevalence of sexual concerns of the patients or feel uncomfortable discussing matters of sexuality with them. Dermatologists should understand basic sexual medicine and ask patients for sexual problems. They should be trained to manage such patients accordingly. In this review, we will be focusing on sexual dysfunctions, their etiopathogenesis, and management from a dermatologist's perspective. PMID:27294047
Hannig, C.; Rummeny, E.; Wuttge-Hannig, A.
For the better understanding of esophageal motility, the muscle texture and the distribution of skeletal and smooth muscle fibers in the esophagus are of crucial importance. Esophageal physiology will be shortly mentioned as far as necessary for a comprehensive understanding of peristaltic disturbances. Besides the pure depiction of morphologic criteria, a complete esophageal study has to include an analysis of the motility. New diagnostic tools with reduced radiation for dynamic imaging (digital fluoroscopy, videofluoroscopy) at 4-30 frames/s are available. Radiomanometry is a combination of a functional pressure measurement and a simultaneous dynamic morphologic analysis. Esophageal motility disorders are subdivided by radiologic and manometric criteria into primary, secondary, and nonclassifiable forms. Primary motility disorders of the esophagus are achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus, and the hypertonic lower esophageal sphincter. The secondary motility disorders include pseudoachalasia, reflux-associated motility disorders, functionally caused impactions, Boerhaave's syndrome, Chagas' disease, scleroderma, and presbyesophagus. The nonclassificable motility disorders (NEMD) are a very heterogeneous collective. (orig.) [de
Vijay Kumar Ambaldhage
Full Text Available For maintenance of the health of an individual, taste sensation is very important. It is an important sensation that serves to assess the nutritious content of food, support oral intake, and prevent ingestion of potentially toxic substances. Disturbances in the perception of taste can lead to loss of appetite, causing malnutrition and thus distressing both the physical and psychological well-being of the patient. Oral physicians are often the first clinicians who hear complaints about alteration in taste from the patients. In spite of the effect of taste changes on health, literature on the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and precise treatment of taste disorders are less. Taste changes may lead patients to seek inappropriate dental treatments. Proper diagnosis of the etiology is the foremost step in the treatment of taste disorders. Thus, it is important that dental clinicians to be familiar with the various causes and proper management of taste changes. In this article, we have reviewed related articles focusing on taste disorders and their management, to provide a quick sketch for the clinicians. A detailed search was performed to identify the systematic reviews and research articles on taste disorders, using PUBMED and Cochrane. All the authors independently extracted data for analysis and review. Ultimately, 26 articles underwent a full text review. In conclusion, the research to date certainly offers us valid management strategies for taste disorders. Meanwhile, practical strategies with the highest success are needed for further intervention.
Full Text Available Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance – IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus – T2DM or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopausal period. Undiagnosed and untreated, metabolic disorders may adversely affect the length and quality of women’s life. Prevention and treatment preceded by early diagnosis should be the main goal for the physicians involved in menopausal care. This article represents a short review of the current knowledge concerning metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome or thyroid diseases in menopause, including the role of a tailored menopausal hormone therapy (HT. According to current data, HT is not recommend as a preventive strategy for metabolic disorders in menopause. Nevertheless, as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic diseases after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered (after balancing benefits/risks and excluding women with absolute contraindications to this therapy. Life-style modifications, with moderate physical activity and healthy diet at the forefront, should be still the first choice recommendation for all patients with menopausal metabolic abnormalities.
Michels, Aaron W.; Eisenbarth, George S.
Autoimmunity affects multiple glands in the endocrine system. Animal models and human studies highlight the importance of alleles in HLA (human leukocyte antigen)-like molecules determining tissue specific targeting that with the loss of tolerance leads to organ specific autoimmunity. Disorders such as type 1A diabetes, Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Addison's disease, and many others result from autoimmune mediated tissue destruction. Each of these disorders can be divided into stages beginning with genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers, active autoimmunity, and finally metabolic derangements with overt symptoms of disease. With an increased understanding of the immunogenetics and immunopathogenesis of endocrine autoimmune disorders, immunotherapies are becoming prevalent, especially in type 1A diabetes. Immunotherapies are being used more in multiple subspecialty fields to halt disease progression. While therapies for autoimmune disorders stop the progress of an immune response, immunomodulatory therapies for cancer and chronic infections can also provoke an unwanted immune response. As a result, there are now iatrogenic autoimmune disorders arising from the treatment of chronic viral infections and malignancies. PMID:20176260
Hirschfeld, R M
Patients with bipolar disorder spend approximately half of their lives symptomatic and the majority of that time suffering from symptoms of depression, which complicates the accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Challenges in the differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder are reviewed, and the clinical utility of several screening instruments is evaluated. The estimated lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder (i.e., unipolar depression) is over 3 and one-half times that of bipolar spectrum disorders. The clinical presentation of a major depressive episode in a bipolar disorder patient does not differ substantially from that of a patient with major depressive disorder (unipolar depression). Therefore, it is not surprising that without proper screening and comprehensive evaluation many patients with bipolar disorder may be misdiagnosed with major depressive disorder (unipolar depression). In general, antidepressants have demonstrated little or no efficacy for depressive episodes associated with bipolar disorder, and treatment guidelines recommend using antidepressants only as an adjunct to mood stabilizers for patients with bipolar disorder. Thus, correct identification of bipolar disorder among patients who present with depression is critical for providing appropriate treatment and improving patient outcomes. Clinical characteristics indicative of bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder identified in this review are based on group differences and may not apply to each individual patient. The overview of demographic and clinical characteristics provided by this review may help medical professionals distinguish between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Several validated, easily administered screening instruments are available and can greatly improve the recognition of bipolar disorder in patients with depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Melissa Audry Rampen
disorder in female flight attendants.Methods: A cross-sectional study with convenient sampling was conducted on civilian female flightattendants age 19–50 years who underwent routine medical examination at Civil Aviation Medical Centerand Garuda Sentra Medika, Jakarta on May 18-29 2015. Menstrual duration disorder is menstruation morethan 8 days and/or shorter than usual perid (3-5 days. Stress was identified by usingcriteria of NationalInstitute for Occupational Safety and Health Generic Job Stress Questionnaire Mental Demands FormNumber 11. Relative risk was analyzed usng Cox regression.Results: Among 521 female civilian flight attendants, 393 were willing to participate in this study. Nineteensubjects were excluded, leaving 374 subjects for this analysis, and 35.8% of subjects had menstrualduration disorder. Job stress, flight type and age were dominant risk factors for menstrual duration disorder.Subjects with job stress and long haul flight within three months had higher risk for having menstrualduration disorder by 58% [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.58; confidence interval (CI = 0.96-2.62; P =0.071] and 69% (RRa = 1.69; CI = 1.17-2.43 respectively. Those between aged 30-39 years had 50% hadless risk of having menstrual duration disorder (RRa=0.50; 95% CI = 0.22-1.02; P = 0.057.Conclusion: Female civilian flight attendants with job stress, long haul flight within three months and youngerage had higher risk to be menstrual duration disorder. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:87-91Key words: menstrual duration, job stress, female civilian flight attendant, Indonesia
Eggermann, Thomas; Netchine, Irène; Temple, I Karen
Imprinting disorders (IDs) are a group of eight rare but probably underdiagnosed congenital diseases affecting growth, development and metabolism. They are caused by similar molecular changes affecting regulation, dosage or the genomic sequence of imprinted genes. Each ID is characterised...... by specific clinical features, and, as each appeared to be associated with specific imprinting defects, they have been widely regarded as separate entities. However, they share clinical characteristics and can show overlapping molecular alterations. Nevertheless, IDs are usually studied separately despite...... EUCID.net (European network of congenital imprinting disorders) now aims to promote better clinical care and scientific investigation of imprinting disorders by establishing a concerted multidisciplinary alliance of clinicians, researchers, patients and families. By encompassing all IDs and establishing...
Full Text Available Previous studies concerned with neuropsychological aspect of delusions, were mainly focused on specific forms of this disorder. Comparatively small number of investigations were concerned with cognitive deficiencies accompanying the delusions. The substance of this study includes the detection of neuropsychological disfunctions in patients with persistent delusion disorder, and in tracing of these cognitive distortions to appropriate brain regions. Besides, characteristics of attribution style in these patients are analysed, from the aspect of their connections with unadjusted localized input for their reasoning system. The investigation is designed as a comparative study. The sample includes: a group of patients with persistent delusion disorder; a group of patients with paranoid schizophrenia; a group of healthy individuals. The participants have been tested by a neuropsychological battery that represents the following cognitive functions: attention, memory, vizuospatial and vizuoconstruction organization, executive ability, verbal divergent thinking. Projective Rorschach's method was used for estimation of attribution style.
Craner, Julia R; Sigmon, Sandra T; Martinson, Amber A; McGillicuddy, Morgan L
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) involve emotional, behavioral, and physical symptoms; however, there is little understanding of psychological factors that contribute to these disorders. It was hypothesized that rumination, a form of depressive self-focused attention, is related to premenstrual distress. Study 1 involved women (N = 735) meeting criteria for No/Mild PMS, Moderate/Severe PMS, and PMDD using retrospective self-report. Study 2 involved women (N = 85) meeting diagnostic criteria for PMS or PMDD (i.e., PMD group) and healthy controls (i.e., No PMD group) following 60-day symptom monitoring. Participants in both studies completed questionnaires of rumination, anxiety sensitivity, and coping styles. Rumination was strongly related to premenstrual disorders using both retrospective and prospective reports, as well as both categorical and continuous approaches to classification of premenstrual distress. Rumination, a transdiagnostic factor in psychopathology, may contribute to the onset and maintenance of premenstrual distress. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Brunelle, Julie; Milhet, Vanessa; Consoli, Angèle; Cohen, David
Juvenile mania is a concept widely developed but also highly debated since the 1990s. In the heart of this debate, Severe Mood Dysregulation (SMD) and "Temper Dysregulation disorder with Dysphoria" (recently integrated in DSM-5) showed their interest. Actually, the objective is to distinguish two clinical phenotypes in order to avoid confusion between (1) what would raise more of mood dysregulation with chronic manic like symptoms, and (2) bipolar disorder type I with episodic and acute manic episodes. Therapeutic stakes are major. In adolescents, even if DSM adult diagnostic criteria can be used and bipolar disorder type I clearly established, differential diagnostic at onset between acute manic episode and schizophrenia onset remain sometimes difficult to assess. Furthermore, it is crucial to better assess outcome of these adolescents, in terms of morbidity and potential prognosis factors, knowing that a younger age at onset is associated with a poorer outcome according to several adult studies. Therapeutic implications could then be drawn.
Soyka, M; Preuss, U; Hoch, E
Use and misuse of cannabis and marihuana are frequent. About 5% of the adult population are current users but only 1.2% are dependent. The medical use of cannabis is controversial but there is some evidence for improvement of chronic pain and spasticity. The somatic toxicity of cannabis is well proven but limited and psychiatric disorders induced by cannabis are of more relevance, e.g. cognitive disorders, amotivational syndrome, psychoses and delusional disorders as well as physical and psychological dependence. The withdrawal symptoms are usually mild and do not require pharmacological interventions. To date there is no established pharmacotherapy for relapse prevention. Psychosocial interventions include psychoeducation, behavioral therapy and motivational enhancement. The CANDIS protocol is the best established German intervention among abstinence-oriented therapies.
Full Text Available The treatment guideline draws on several international guidelines: (iPractice Guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association (APAfor the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder, SecondEdition;(ii Clinical Guidelines for the Treatment of DepressiveDisorders by the Canadian Psychiatric Association and the CanadianNetwork for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT;(iiiNational Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines;(iv RoyalAustralian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Clinical PracticeGuidelines Team for Depression (RANZCAP;(v Texas MedicationAlgorithm Project (TMAP Guidelines;(vi World Federation ofSocieties of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP Treatment Guideline forUnipolar Depressive Disorder;and (vii British Association forPsychopharmacology Guidelines.[7
disorders of the female genitals; treatment for disorders of menstruation; pregnancy test; and contraceptives , or contraceptive counseling.6 To determine the...Office on Violence Against Women, A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations, Adults/ Adolescents (September 2004...of the female genitals; treatment for disorders of menstruation; pregnancy test; and contraceptives , or contraceptive counseling. Health Care
Dikeos, Dimitris; Georgantopoulos, Georgios
Recently published literature indicates that sleep disorders present with medical comorbidities quite frequently. The coexistence of a sleep disorder with a medical disorder has a substantial impact for both the patient and the health system. Insomnia and hypersomnia are highly comorbid with medical conditions, such as chronic pain and diabetes, as well as with various cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary and neurological disorders. Restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movement syndrome have been associated with iron deficiency, kidney disease, diabetes, and neurological, autoimmune, cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. Rapid eye movement behaviour disorder has been described as an early manifestation of serious central nervous system diseases; thus, close neurological monitoring of patients referring with this complaint is indicated. Identification and management of any sleep disorder in medical patients is important for optimizing the course and prognosis. Of equal importance is the search for undetected medical disorder in patients presenting with sleep disorders.
Plessen, Kerstin J
Diagnostic categories of tic disorders include both transient and chronic tic disorders and Tourette's disorder. Changes for this group of disorders proposed for the forthcoming DSM-5 system include: (1) The term "stereotyped" will be eliminated in the definition of tics and the new definition...... will be applied consistently across all entities of tic disorders; (2) the diagnosis "Transient Tic Disorder" will change its name to "Provisional Tic Disorder"; (3) introduction of two new categories in individuals whose tics are triggered by illicit drugs or by a medical condition; (4) specification of chronic...... tic disorders into those with motor tics or with vocal tics only; (5) specification of the absence of a period longer than 3 months without tics will disappear for Tourette's Disorder. This overview discusses a number of implications resulting from these diagnostic modifications of the diagnostic...