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Sample records for menstrual cycle-related exacerbation

  1. Gender-based differences and menstrual cycle-related changes in specific diseases: implications for pharmacotherapy.

    Ensom, M H

    2000-05-01

    Pharmacists should be aware of gender-based differences and menstrual cycle-related changes in six diseases: asthma, arthritis, migraine, diabetes, depression, and epilepsy. In general, women report symptoms of physical illness at higher rates, visit physicians more frequently, and make greater use of other health care services than men. Whereas reasons for these gender differences are not fully clear, a combination of biologic, physiologic, social, behavioral, psychologic, and cultural factors most likely contributes. A significant percentage of women with asthma, arthritis, migraine, diabetes, depression, or epilepsy experience worsening of their disease premenstrually. The mechanism is unknown, but is speculated to be multifactorial because of many endogenous and exogenous modulators and mediators of each disease. As part of general therapy for cycle-related exacerbations of any one of these disorders, patients should be encouraged to use a menstrual calendar to track signs and symptoms for two to three cycles; if cyclic trends are identified, the women should anticipate exacerbations and avoid triggering factors. Cyclic modulation with pharmacotherapy may be attempted. If unsuccessful, a trial of medical ovulation suppression with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog may be warranted. If that is successful, continuous therapy with a GnRH analog and steroid add-back therapy or less expensive alternatives may be effective. If pharmacotherapy is impractical, hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy with estrogen replacement therapy is a last resort. Gender differences and menstrual cycle-related changes are important areas for clinical and mechanistic research.

  2. Ambivalent sexism, attitudes towards menstruation and menstrual cycle-related symptoms.

    Marván, Ma Luisa; Vázquez-Toboada, Rocío; Chrisler, Joan C

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between ambivalent sexism and beliefs and attitudes towards menstruation, and, in turn, to study the influence of these variables on menstrual cycle-related symptoms. One hundred and six Mexican women completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, the Beliefs about and Attitudes toward Menstruation Questionnaire and the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire. The higher scores on benevolent sexism were associated with the most positive attitudes towards menstruation and also with the belief that a menstruating woman should or should not do some activities and that menstruation keeps women from their daily activities. The higher scores on hostile sexism were associated with rejection of menstruation as well as with feelings of embarrassment about it. Beliefs about and attitudes towards menstruation predicted menstrual cycle-related symptoms related to negative affect, impaired concentration and behavioural changes, but did not predict somatic symptoms. These results will be useful to health professionals and advocates who want to change the negative expectations and stereotypes of premenstrual and menstrual women and reduce the sexism and negative attitudes towards women that are evident in Mexican culture. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  3. Menstrual Cycle-Related Changes of Functional Cerebral Asymmetries in Fine Motor Coordination

    Bayer, Ulrike; Hausmann, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Fluctuating sex hormone levels during the menstrual cycle have been shown to affect functional cerebral asymmetries in cognitive domains. These effects seem to result from the neuromodulatory properties of sex hormones and their metabolites on interhemispheric processing. The present study was carried out to investigate whether functional cerebral…

  4. Menstrual migraine

    Simić Svetlana; Slankamenac Petar; Cvijanović Milan; Banić-Horvat Sofija; Jovin Zita; Ilin Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. The prevalence of migraine in childhood and adolescence has not changed to a great extent, but it increases in adolescence, especially in female adolescents. Menstrual migraine – definition. There are two types of menstrual migraine: true menstrual migraine and menstrual related migraine. True menstrual migraine occurs predominantly around menstruation, whereas menstrual related migraine occurs during menstruation, but also at other times during the month. Causes. Exaggerated or...

  5. Menstrual migraine

    Moschiano, Franca; Grazzi, Licia; D?Amico, Domenico; Schieroni, Ferdinando; Bussone, Gennaro

    2001-01-01

    An association between migraine and menstruation can be ascertained by use of a diary for a minimum of three cycles. The pathophysiological and clinical peculiarities of menstrual migraine indicate that its management should differ from that of non?menstrual migraine. NSAIDS or migraine-specific medications (e.g. triptans) are often effective for the acute management of menstrual migraine. Preventive treatment is indicated when the attacks are long?lasting, severe and disabling and do not res...

  6. MENSTRUAL DISTURBANCES

    Enrique

    In sexually active women presenting with menstrual aberrations, pregnancy complications ... encourage the use of the COC; in ... (NSAID) will stop the bleeding. ... ectopic pregnancy or miscarriage must .... The risk of endometrial carcinoma in.

  7. Menstrual psychosis

    BROCKINGTON, IAN

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on menstrual psychosis and proposes a new classification, adapting that of v. Krafft-Ebing (1902) and Jolly (1914). The world literature consists mainly of case reports; they include a few with data good enough for a statistical demonstration of the link between onset and menses. These well-documented cases include examples of pre-menstrual, catamenial, paramenstrual and mid-cycle onsets, and continuous illnesses with phasic shifts rhythmic ...

  8. Painful menstrual periods

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... into two groups, depending on the cause: Primary dysmenorrhea Secondary dysmenorrhea Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain that ...

  9. Menstrual Cycle

    ... If no egg has been fertilized, estrogen and progesterone levels are low. As a result, the top layers of the endometrium are shed, and menstrual bleeding occurs. About this time, the pituitary gland slightly increases its production of follicle-stimulating hormone. This hormone then stimulates ...

  10. Menstrual arthritis.

    McDonagh, J E; Singh, M M; Griffiths, I D

    1993-01-01

    The menstrual cycle is characterised by variations in the absolute and relative concentrations of the hormones of the hypothalamic pituitary ovarian axis, which in turn affect cell function and cytokine and heat shock protein production. Menstruation involves the shedding of the secretory endometrium, which is part of the mucosal associated lymphoid tissue and hence is rich in immunologically competent cells such as CD8 T cells and macrophages. The case is reported here of a patient presentin...

  11. Your Menstrual Cycle

    ... your menstrual cycle What happens during your menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle includes not just your period, but the rise ... that take place over the weeks in your cycle. Want to know what happens on each day ...

  12. Menstrual Management for Adolescents With Disabilities.

    Quint, Elisabeth H; O'Brien, Rebecca F

    2016-07-01

    The onset of menses for adolescents with physical or intellectual disabilities can affect their independence and add additional concerns for families at home, in schools, and in other settings. The pediatrician is the primary health care provider to explore and assist with the pubertal transition and menstrual management. Menstrual management of both normal and abnormal cycles may be requested to minimize hygiene issues, premenstrual symptoms, dysmenorrhea, heavy or irregular bleeding, contraception, and conditions exacerbated by the menstrual cycle. Several options are available for menstrual management, depending on the outcome that is desired, ranging from cycle regulation to complete amenorrhea. The use of medications or the request for surgeries to help with the menstrual cycles in teenagers with disabilities has medical, social, legal, and ethical implications. This clinical report is designed to help guide pediatricians in assisting adolescent females with intellectual and/or physical disabilities and their families in making decisions related to successfully navigating menarche and subsequent menstrual cycles. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. The menstrual cycle and the skin.

    Raghunath, R S; Venables, Z C; Millington, G W M

    2015-03-01

    Perimenstrual exacerbations of dermatoses are commonly recognized, yet our knowledge of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remains imperfect. Research into the effects of oestrogen on the skin has provided evidence to suggest that oestrogen is associated with increases in skin thickness and dermal water content, improved barrier function, and enhanced wound healing. Research into the effects of progesterone suggests that the presence of various dermatoses correlates with peak levels of progesterone. Dermatoses that are exacerbated perimenstrually include acne, psoriasis, atopic eczema and irritant dermatitis, and possibly also erythema multiforme. Exacerbations occur at the peak levels of progesterone in the menstrual cycle. Underlying mechanisms include reduced immune and barrier functions as a result of cyclical fluctuations in oestrogen and/or progesterone. Autoimmune progesterone and oestrogen dermatitis are the best-characterized examples of perimenstrual cutaneous reactions to hormones produced during the menstrual cycle. In this review, we describe the current understanding of the menstrual cycle, and its effect on the skin and cutaneous disorders. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. Circulating vascular endothelial growth factor during the normal menstrual cycle

    Kusumanto, YH; Hospers, GAP; Sluiter, WJ; Dam, WA; Meijer, C; Mulder, NH

    2004-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the study was to investigate whether cycle-related variations in circulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) levels would increase the metastatic potential at specific times during the menstrual cycle. Materials and Methods: VEGF levels in serum and whole blood

  15. Understanding Menstrual Migraine.

    Calhoun, Anne H

    2018-04-01

    Menstrual-related migraine is very prevalent, very disabling, yet very easy to manage given a good understanding of its cause. This article is intended to help with that understanding and to enable headache specialists to prescribe or create effective hormonal preventives of menstrual-related migraine. © 2018 American Headache Society.

  16. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss.......To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss....

  17. Heavy Menstrual Bleeding

    ... you can, use a calendar or period-tracking smartphone app to keep track of your menstrual cycle ... condition characterized by two of the following three features: the presence of growths called cysts on the ...

  18. What Causes Menstrual Irregularities?

    ... to sexually transmitted infections , such as chlamydia or gonorrhea Heavy menstrual flow Citations Open Citations American College ... American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2016). FAQ: Gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis . Retrieved on August 2, 2016, ...

  19. Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Menorrhagia)

    ... Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Blood Disorders Heavy Menstrual Bleeding Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... It can also be bleeding that is very heavy. How do you know if you have heavy ...

  20. MENSTRUAL IRREGULARITIES IN HYPOTHYROIDISM

    Kalyani

    2015-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY: To study the effect of hypothyroidism, on the menstrual cycle of women in the reproductive age group. MATERIAL & METHODS: A total number of 50 cases of hypothyroidism patients recruited over a period of one year from the department of Nuclear Medicine K.G.H Visakhapatnam. All these subjects were evaluated clinically and the data recorded as per the proforma. RESULTS: In my study out of 50 hypothyroid women, 22% had normal menstrual cycle &...

  1. The premenstrual period and exacerbations in multiple sclerosis

    Zorgdrager, A; De Keyser, J

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether an association exists between the premenstrual period and exacerbations of multiple sclerosis (MS). The subjects were 56 premenopausal patients with relapsing MS and a regular menstrual cycle. Data over the previous 2 years were gathered from a structured

  2. Reproductive hormones in menstrual blood.

    Zhou, J P; Fraser, I S; Caterson, I; Grivas, A; McCarron, G; Norman, T; Tan, K

    1989-08-01

    Menstrual and peripheral blood samples were collected from 19 regularly cycling women on days 1-3 of the menstrual cycle. Menstrual samples were collected with a soft silicone rubber menstrual cup. Hematocrit, PRL, LH, FSH, estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P4) were measured in all samples. Validation studies were carried out for RIAs of PRL, LH, and FSH in menstrual plasma. The menstrual plasma PRL level was significantly higher than its peripheral blood level on day 1 (63.3 +/- 14.7 and 12.1 +/- 2.9 micrograms/L, respectively; t = 3.331; P less than 0.01), and menstrual PRL was significantly higher on day 1 than on day 2 (t = 3.340; P less than 0.01). There was a strong negative correlation between log menstrual PRL concentration and time of onset of menstruation (r = -0.596; P less than 0.01). Menstrual plasma FSH levels were significantly lower than peripheral levels on each of days 1-3 (day 1:t = 4.787; P less than 0.001), and there was a significant positive correlation between menstrual and peripheral levels (r = 0.607; P less than 0.01). By contrast, menstrual plasma LH was significantly higher than the peripheral level on days 1 and 2 (day 1:t = 3.105; day 2:t = 3.180; P less than 0.01), with no correlation between menstrual and peripheral levels. Menstrual E2 was slightly lower than and significantly positively correlated with peripheral E2 (r = 0.646; P less than 0.01). Menstrual P4 was lower than but showed no correlation with peripheral levels. As expected, the menstrual blood hematocrit was less than 0.20 and highly significantly lower than that of peripheral venous blood. These results suggest that PRL is released in substantial amounts from secretory endometrium into the menstrual flow during the first day of menstrual breakdown. LH may also be released in small amounts from menstrual endometrium, while menstrual FSH, E2, and P4 probably arise entirely from the peripheral circulation.

  3. A retained menstrual cup.

    Day, S

    2012-05-01

    A 20-year-old woman attended a genitourinary clinic with a retained vaginal Mooncup that she had inserted the night before. A Mooncup is one type of menstrual cup. On speculum examination the device was visualized high in the vagina and the cervix appeared firmly lodged within it. The physician experienced difficulty in retrieving the cup despite following product instructions. This case highlights a new adverse event with an increasingly used sanitation product. It is important that clinicians are familiar with the cup, its removal process and are able to counsel patients with retained devices on future correct placement.

  4. Premenstrual Exacerbation of Life-Threatening Asthma: Effect of Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone Analogue Therapy

    Alun L Edwards

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability in the severity of asthma during various phases of the menstrual cycle has been frequently suspected. However, the hormonal changes that might affect mediators of bronchospasm have yet to be elucidated. The case of a 41-year-old woman suffering from longstanding asthma with life-threatening exacerbations is reported. The patient was treated with buserelin, a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH analogue, which created a temporary chemical menopause and thus permitted diagnosis of a premenstrual exacerbation of asthma and offered insight into potential therapy. GnRH analogues may therefore be of value in assessing women with severe asthma suspected to vary with the menstrual cycle. The addition of estrogens and progestins at the same time as treatment with GnRH analogue may be of value in determining the role of these hormones in the pathogenesis of menstrually related exacerbations of asthma.

  5. Menstrual cycle characteristics in women with persistent schizophrenia.

    Gleeson, Pia C; Worsley, Roisin; Gavrilidis, Emorfia; Nathoo, Shainal; Ng, Elisabeth; Lee, Stuart; Kulkarni, Jayashri

    2016-05-01

    irregular cycles had significantly lower oestradiol levels than women with regular cycles (213.2 ± 25.0 vs 299.0 ± 27.3, p = 0.03), but there was no difference in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale or Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status between those with regular and irregular cycles. The most common menstrual associated symptoms were decrease in mood with the menstrual cycle (64.8%), bloating (64.8%), cramps (59.7%), back pain (37.6%) and worsening of psychosis symptoms (32.4%). Regular menses are associated with higher oestradiol levels and higher rates of cyclical mood symptoms but are not associated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores. Understanding the effect the menstrual cycle can have on psychiatric illness, such as premenstrual exacerbations, is important for the holistic care of women with schizophrenia. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  6. 21 CFR 884.5400 - Menstrual cup.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Menstrual cup. 884.5400 Section 884.5400 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5400 Menstrual cup. (a) Identification. A menstrual cup is a receptacle placed in the vagina to collect menstrual...

  7. [Menstrual cycle disorders in adolescence].

    Escobar, María E; Pipman, Viviana; Arcari, Andrea; Boulgourdjian, Elisabeth; Keselman, Ana; Pasqualini, Titania; Alonso, Guillermo; Blanco, Miguel

    2010-08-01

    The high prevalence of menstrual disorders during the first years after menarche is well recognized. This is usually a cause of concern for parents and patients, and a common reason for visiting the pediatrician. The immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis is the major cause of these disorders, but there are also some general organic or emotional conditions that may alter the menstrual cycle, which is a sensitive indicator of health. Physiology of the menstrual cycle, its alterations, etiology, assessment, diagnosis and treatment are reviewed in this article.

  8. Prevention of COPD exacerbations

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Exacerbations have significant impact on the morbidity and mortality of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most guidelines emphasise prevention of exacerbations by treatment with long-acting bronchodilators and/or anti-inflammatory drugs. Whereas most of this treatment is eviden...

  9. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Healthy couples recruited throughout Denmark....... PATIENT(S): Two hundred ninety-five couples who were planning their first pregnancy were followed up from the discontinuation of birth control until a pregnancy was recognized within six menstrual cycles. Early embryonal losses were detected by changes in urinary hCG levels. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN...... OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The probability of pregnancy occurring within one menstrual cycle (fecundity). RESULT(S): In women who had a cycle length that differed by >10 days from the usual cycle length, fecundity was approximately 25% that of women who had no variation (odds ratio 0.25, 95% confidence interval...

  10. Respiratory functions in asthmatic and normal women during different phases of menstrual cycle

    Arora, D.B.; Sandhu, P.K.; Dhillon, S.; Arora, A.

    2015-01-01

    Menstrual cycle is an integral part of life of women. There is widespread agreement that changes in the levels of oestrogen and progesterone associated with menstrual cycle also affect different systems of the body besides reproductive system. Levels of oestrogen and progesterone are maximum in the secretory phase and minimum just before the menstruation .Bronchial asthma is one of the commonest chronic respiratory diseases. Premenstrual worsening of asthma symptoms has been reported to affect 33-40% of asthmatic women. This exacerbation of asthma symptoms has been correlated with the oestrogen and progesterone levels. The association between menstrual cycle and lung functions in normal females has also been recognised. The pathophysiology of this process is still not proved. The purpose of our study was to confirm the probable effects of the female hormones on lung functions in normal and asthmatic women in different phases of menstrual cycle and to compare them. Methods: The study was done on 40 normal and 40 asthmatic females in the age group of 15-45 years. Pulmonary function tests were done in three phases of menstrual cycle i.e. follicular, secretory and menstrual in all the subjects. Results: The mean value of lung functions, i.e., FVC, FEV, PEFR, FEF25-75%, FEF 200-1200 were significantly lower in asthmatic females than normal ones (p<0.01) in all three phases. The lung functions of both asthmatic and non-asthmatic females in secretory phase were significantly higher than in menstrual phase (p<0.005). The PFTs in menstrual phase were even lower than the follicular phase (p<0.04). Conclusion: Respiratory parameters of both asthmatic and non-asthmatic women in reproductive age group show significant variation in different phases of menstrual cycle. The smooth muscle relaxant effect of progesterone and probably oestrogen might have contributed to it. The lung function parameters in asthmatics were of lower value compared to normal women. (author)

  11. Acute exacerbation of COPD.

    Ko, Fanny W; Chan, Ka Pang; Hui, David S; Goddard, John R; Shaw, Janet G; Reid, David W; Yang, Ian A

    2016-10-01

    The literature of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is fast expanding. This review focuses on several aspects of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) including epidemiology, diagnosis and management. COPD poses a major health and economic burden in the Asia-Pacific region, as it does worldwide. Triggering factors of AECOPD include infectious (bacteria and viruses) and environmental (air pollution and meteorological effect) factors. Disruption in the dynamic balance between the 'pathogens' (viral and bacterial) and the normal bacterial communities that constitute the lung microbiome likely contributes to the risk of exacerbations. The diagnostic approach to AECOPD varies based on the clinical setting and severity of the exacerbation. After history and examination, a number of investigations may be useful, including oximetry, sputum culture, chest X-ray and blood tests for inflammatory markers. Arterial blood gases should be considered in severe exacerbations, to characterize respiratory failure. Depending on the severity, the acute management of AECOPD involves use of bronchodilators, steroids, antibiotics, oxygen and noninvasive ventilation. Hospitalization may be required, for severe exacerbations. Nonpharmacological interventions including disease-specific self-management, pulmonary rehabilitation, early medical follow-up, home visits by respiratory health workers, integrated programmes and telehealth-assisted hospital at home have been studied during hospitalization and shortly after discharge in patients who have had a recent AECOPD. Pharmacological approaches to reducing risk of future exacerbations include long-acting bronchodilators, inhaled steroids, mucolytics, vaccinations and long-term macrolides. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of these interventions in preventing COPD exacerbations. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  12. Menstrual cycle and skin reactivity

    Agner, T; Damm, P; Skouby, S O

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that a cyclic variation exists in skin reactivity to irritant stimuli. Twenty-nine healthy women with regular menstrual cycles were challenged with sodium lauryl sulfate as an irritant patch test at day 1 and at days 9 through 11 of the menstrual cycle. The skin response...... to the applied irritant stimulus was evaluated by visual scoring and also quantified by measurements of transepidermal water loss, edema formation, and blood flow in the skin. The skin response to challenge with sodium lauryl sulfate was found to be significantly stronger at day 1 than at days 9 through 11...

  13. Menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls

    Rakesh Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Objective: To assess knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene before and after teaching program among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A true experimental study was conducted among 50 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the Bhaniyawala of Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Participants were randomly assigned into control (n=25 and experimental group (n=25. Adolescent girls from both groups were assessed for knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene on day 1 and on 15th day.  Participants of experimental group were administered educational programme regarding menstrual hygiene on day 1 after assessment for knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene. Data were analysed statistically by simple proportions. Results: The mean age of the adolescent girl was 13.88± 1.5 and age of menarche 12.74±0.98. Out of 50, 32 (64% mothers’ of adolescent girls were educated at graduate level.  The mean pre-test knowledge and practice in experimental group 8.04±1.54, 3.52±1.0 and control group 8.02±2.0, 3.24±1.0 respectively. The level of knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene of subjects who participated in educational program was significantly better than that of the control group. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the

  14. Dark chocolate exacerbates acne.

    Vongraviopap, Saivaree; Asawanonda, Pravit

    2016-05-01

    The effects of chocolate on acne exacerbations have recently been reevaluated. For so many years, it was thought that it had no role in worsening acne. To investigate whether 99% dark chocolate, when consumed in regular daily amounts, would cause acne to worsen in acne-prone male subjects, twenty-five acne prone male subjects were asked to consume 25 g of 99% dark chocolate daily for 4 weeks. Assessments which included Leeds revised acne scores as well as lesion counts took place weekly. Food frequency questionnaire was used, and daily activities were recorded. Statistically significant changes of acne scores and numbers of comedones and inflammatory papules were detected as early as 2 weeks into the study. At 4 weeks, the changes remained statistically significant compared to baseline. Dark chocolate when consumed in normal amounts for 4 weeks can exacerbate acne in male subjects with acne-prone skin. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  15. Prevention, Evaluation, and Rehabilitation of Cycling-Related Injury.

    Kotler, Dana H; Babu, Ashwin N; Robidoux, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The unique quality of the bicycle is its ability to accommodate a wide variety of injuries and disabilities. Cycling for recreation, transportation, and competition is growing nationwide, and has proven health and societal benefits. The demands of each type of cycling dictate the necessary equipment, as well as potential for injury. Prevention of cycling-related injury in both the athlete and the recreational cyclist involves understanding the common mechanisms for both traumatic and overuse injury, and early correction of strength and flexibility imbalances, technique errors, and bicycle fit.

  16. Environmental exposure and altered menstrual function

    Keye, W.R. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The impact of environmental agents and occupational factors on hypothalamic and pituitary function and menstruation are poorly understood. To date, most research related to environment, occupation, and reproduction has focused on pregnancy outcome, not menstrual function. It is imperative, however, that menstrual function be considered as an outcome variable in the study of reproduction and occupation.

  17. Menstrual hygiene practices among adolescents in selected ...

    Menstrual hygiene is vital to the health, well-being, dignity and productivity of women and girls. The study assessed menstrual hygiene practices among adolescents in selected secondary schools around the University of Ibadan. The study was descriptive. A semi structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 381 ...

  18. Impact of exacerbations on COPD

    A. Anzueto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD determine disease-associated morbidity, mortality, resource burden and healthcare costs. Acute exacerbation care requirements range from unscheduled primary care visits to emergency room, inpatient or intensive care, generating significant costs in COPD. Even after an exacerbation resolves, respiratory, physical, social and emotional impairment may persist for prolonged time. Frequent exacerbations, mainly in patients with severe COPD, accelerate disease progression and mortality. Thus, patients with frequent exacerbations have a more rapid decline in lung function, worse quality of life and decreased exercise performance. Management of COPD directed to reduce incidence and severity of exacerbations improves long-term health status and conserves health care resources and costs.

  19. Changes in coping and social motives for drinking and alcohol consumption across the menstrual cycle.

    Joyce, Kayla M; Hudson, Amanda; O'Connor, Roisin; Thompson, Kara; Hodgin, Megan; Perrot, Tara; Stewart, Sherry H

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol use has been reported to fluctuate over women's menstrual cycles (MCs), with increased intake occurring premenstrually/menstrually (phases characterized by heightened negative affect) and during the ovulatory phase (a phase characterized by positive affect). This suggests women may drink for particular emotion-focused reasons at specific points in their cycles. However, no research had yet examined MC variability in drinking motives, or links between cycle-related changes in drinking motives and alcohol consumption. Ninety-four normally cycling women (M age  = 22.9 years old, SD age  = 4.7) completed daily diary measures (via Smartphone surveys), with questions pertaining to state drinking motives and quantity of alcohol consumed for the course of a full MC. Drinking motives differed by cycle phase. Women reported a slight increase in drinking to self-medicate for negative affect premenstrually, with drinking to cope peaking in the menstrual phase and declining mid-cycle. Women reported a slight increasing trend across the cycle in social motives for drinking, while enhancement motives remained relatively stable across the cycle. Cycle-related changes in drinking motives predicted increases in the quantity of alcohol consumed. Drinking to cope with negative affect predicted a greater number of drinks menstrually (days 1-5). While social motives predicted a greater number of drinks during the follicular and ovulatory phases (days 5-16), enhancement motives were unrelated to drinking quantity across cycle phase. Clinicians should be attentive to cycle phase when treating reproductive-aged women with alcohol disorders (e.g., encouraging the use of healthier means of coping with negative affect during menses). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Exacerbations of asthma - A descriptive study of 425 severe exacerbations

    Tattersfield, AE; Postma, DS; Barnes, PJ; Svensson, K; Bauer, CA; O'Byrne, PM; Lofdahl, CG; Pauwels, RA; Ullman, A

    The identification, prevention, and prompt treatment of exacerbations are major objectives of asthma management. We looked at change in PEF, symptoms, and use of rescue p-agonists during the 425 severe exacerbations that occurred during a 12-mo parallel group study (FACET) in which low and high

  1. Exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy

    Ali, Z; Hansen, A V; Ulrik, C S

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is common among pregnant women, and the incidence of asthma exacerbations during pregnancy is high. This literature review provides an overview of the impact of exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy on pregnancy-related complications. The majority of published retrospective studies reveal...... that asthma exacerbations during pregnancy increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, placental abruption and placenta praevia. Furthermore, these women also have higher risk for breech presentation, haemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, caesarean delivery, maternal admission to the intensive care...... to these outcomes. In conclusion, asthma exacerbations during pregnancy are associated with complications of pregnancy, labour and delivery. Prevention of exacerbations is essential to reduce the risk of complications and poor outcome....

  2. Cardiovascular response to short-term fasting in menstrual phases in young women: an observational study.

    Ohara, Kumiko; Okita, Yoshimitsu; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Mase, Tomoki; Miyawaki, Chiemi; Nakamura, Harunobu

    2015-08-28

    Menstrual cycle-related symptoms are an important health issue for many women, and some may affect cardiac autonomic regulation. In the present study, we evaluated the cardiovascular and physiological stress response to 12-h short-term fasting in the menstrual phases of healthy young women. We performed a randomized crossover study. Subjects were seven female university students (age: 22.3 ± 1.0 years). The experiments comprised four sessions: meal intake in the follicular phase, meal intake in the luteal phase, fasting in the follicular phase, and fasting in the luteal phase. All subjects participated in a total of four experimental sessions during two successive phases (follicular and luteal phase in the same menstrual cycle, or luteal phase and follicular phase in the next menstrual cycle) according to a randomized crossover design. R-R intervals were continuously recorded before and after meals, and power spectral analysis of heart rate variability was performed. Other physiological data were obtained before and 20, 40, 60, and 80 min after meal intake or after the corresponding time point of meal intake (fasting in the follicular or luteal phase). Heart rate decreased during fasting in the follicular and luteal phases. High frequency power increased during fasting in the follicular and luteal phases. In addition, salivary cortisol concentrations decreased during fasting in the luteal phase. In the present study, short-term fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and lower cortisol levels in the luteal phase in these young women. These results indicate a possibility to produce an anti-stress effect in the luteal phase, which may reduce menstrual symptoms.

  3. Menstrual cycle disorders in female volleyball players.

    Wodarska, M; Witkoś, J; Drosdzol-Cop, A; Dąbrowska, J; Dąbrowska-Galas, M; Hartman, M; Plinta, R; Skrzypulec-Plinta, V

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relation between increased physical activity and menstrual disorders in adolescent female volleyball players. The study was conducted on 210 Polish female volleyball players, aged 13-17 years, the authorship questionnaire was used. The results of the study showed that irregular menstruation occurred in 19% of girls, spotting between menstrual periods in 27% and heavy menstruation was reported in 33% of girls. Out of all volleyball female players participating in the study, 94 girls (45%) declared absence of menstrual periods after regular cycles. Statistical analysis showed that the more training hours per week, the bigger probability of the occurrence of irregular menstruation. It was concluded that the number of hours of volleyball training per week affects regularity of menstrual cycles in female volleyball players. The absence of menstruation might be caused by the duration of training per week or years of training.

  4. Treatment of Menstrual-Related Migraine

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A review and meta-analysis of therapy trials for menstrual-related migraine headache (MRM and evidence-based recommendations for acute and short-term preventive treatment are reported from Toronto Western Hospital, ON, Canada.

  5. Spectrum of menstrual problems after tubal ligation

    Naqvi, S.S.B.; Akthar, S.; Mubeen, A.; Noor, A.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the frequency of menstrual problems after tubal ligation. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in gynae department of PAF Hospital Sargodha, Pakistan from September 2011 to September 2012. Patients and methods: Two hundred patients were included in the study with menstrual problems after tubal ligation. Results: Forty seven percent of patients presented with menorrhagia, 28% presented with metrorrhagia, 13% patients were having complaints of polymenorrhoea and 5% patients presented with dysmenorrhea and 7% had oligomenorrhoea after tubal ligation. Thirty one percent of patients ended up in hysterectomy and 37% of patients had improvement of symptoms with medical treatment. Conclusion: Menstrual problem is a common complaint in our gyn ecological patients. A large number of these patients had history of tubal ligation. Menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, polymenorrhoea and dysmenorrhoea can occur after tubal ligation. Patients giving the history of menstrual problems and wants tubal ligation should be counselled earlier for these symptoms. (author)

  6. Menstrual dysfunction in athletes: assessment and treatment.

    Patterson, D F

    1995-01-01

    The reported incidence of exercise induced menstrual dysfunction varies among adolescent athletes from 12% to 66%. Women who experience amenorrhea associated with exercise are at risk for irretrievable bone mineral density loss and increased rate of stress fractures. Nurses should provide information to parents, coaches, and athletes about changes in exercise intensity and frequency, dietary modifications, and estrogen and progesterone replacement therapy to minimize the sequelae of exercise induced menstrual dysfunction.

  7. A Dialogue on Menstrual Taboo

    Manju Kaundal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today in the 21st century, we may boast of gender equality and women empowerment but the truth is somewhat implausible. Today women may have excelled in many spheres of life but, somewhere, she is still struggling to get out of her veil. In the name of tradition a women is always told to follow the rules what the society has set for her. A look at major religions of the world shows that, without exception, they have placed restrictions on menstruating women. Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism have all made statements about menstruation and its negative effect, leading to prohibitions about attending places of worship, cooking, physical intimacy and sometimes requiring women to live separately at this time. Present paper is a compilation of the information available on the menstrual taboo and various practices regarding it. For this extensive search was done on internet along with personal observations. The present study is carried out in order to provoke the need for increased research on the psychosocial aspects of menstruation by exploring the attitudes of society toward this monthly event.

  8. KNOWLEDGE ABOUT MENSTRUAL PROBLEMS AND MENSTRUAL HYGIENE PRACTICES AMONG COLLEGE GOING UNMARRIED GIRLS IN CHANDIGARH, INDIA

    Amit Sachdeva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Menstruation is a vital part of the reproductive health of a woman. There is evident neglect of problems related to menstruation especially in young girls and they are lacking scientific knowledge regarding menstruation. The study was undertaken with the objective to assess the prevalence & patterns of menstrual problems, knowledge, belief, restrictions, menstrual hygiene and treatment seeking practice among college going unmarried girls of Chandigarh. MATERIALS AND METHODS A stratified multistage random sampling design was adopted for selection of participants from the selected colleges of Chandigarh. A total of 1000 girls who had attained menarche were selected. Information was collected through personal interviews conducted in privacy using semi -structured survey schedule. RESULTS The mean age of menarche was ± 13.89 years. Prior knowledge regarding menses was reported by 82.6% girls and 56.9% girls reported mother as the first source of information followed by 21.6% friends. 86.1% have regular menstrual history 86.8% of the respondents experienced pre menstrual syndrome while overall prevalence of menstrual problem in the present study was found 68.4%. Abdominal pain was the most common menstrual problem reported by 51.3% of participants having menstrual problems. 47.7% girls did not visit holy places during periods. 95.5% preferred sanitary napkins as menstrual absorbent. Treatment seeking behavior of the girls was poor and only about 34.9% of girls having menstrual problems approached for treatment. 72.4% of respondents were aware of emergency contraceptives. CONCLUSION The study revealed that there was an inappropriate knowledge and hygiene practice due to various Misconceptions, beliefs and taboos among college girls regarding menstruation. Reproductive health education in the school curriculum should be introduced for improving awareness regarding menstrual care practices.

  9. The role of circulating sex hormones in menstrual cycle dependent modulation of pain-related brain activation

    Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S.; Keaser, Michael L.; Traub, Deborah S.; Zhuo, Jiachen; Gullapalli, Rao P.; Greenspan, Joel D.

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in pain sensitivity have been consistently found but the basis for these differences is incompletely understood. The present study assessed how pain-related neural processing varies across the menstrual cycle in normally cycling, healthy females, and whether menstrual cycle effects are based on fluctuating sex hormone levels. Fifteen subjects participated in four test sessions during their menstrual, mid-follicular, ovulatory, and midluteal phases. Brain activity was measured while nonpainful and painful stimuli were applied with a pressure algometer. Serum hormone levels confirmed that scans were performed at appropriate cycle phases in 14 subjects. No significant cycle phase differences were found for pain intensity or unpleasantness ratings of stimuli applied during fMRI scans. However, lower pressure pain thresholds were found for follicular compared to other phases. Pain-specific brain activation was found in several regions traditionally associated with pain processing, including the medial thalamus, anterior and mid-insula, mid-cingulate, primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, cerebellum, and frontal regions. The inferior parietal lobule, occipital gyrus, cerebellum and several frontal regions demonstrated interaction effects between stimulus level and cycle phase, indicating differential processing of pain-related responses across menstrual cycle phases. Correlational analyses indicated that cycle-related changes in pain sensitivity measures and brain activation were only partly explained by varying sex hormone levels. These results show that pain-related cerebral activation varies significantly across the menstrual cycle, even when perceived pain intensity and unpleasantness remain constant. The involved brain regions suggest that cognitive pain or more general bodily awareness systems are most susceptible to menstrual cycle effects. PMID:23528204

  10. Effect of war on the menstrual cycle.

    Hannoun, Antoine B; Nassar, Anwar H; Usta, Ihab M; Zreik, Tony G; Abu Musa, Antoine A

    2007-04-01

    To study the effect of a short period of war on the menstrual cycles of exposed women. Six months after a 16-day war, women in exposed villages aged 15-45 years were asked to complete a questionnaire relating to their menstrual history at the beginning, 3 months after, and 6 months after the war. A control group, not exposed to war, was also interviewed. The data collected were analyzed to estimate the effect of war on three groups of women: those who stayed in the war zone for 3-16 days (Group A), those who were displaced within 2 days to safer areas (Group B), and women not exposed to war or displacement (Group C-control). More than 35% of women in Group A and 10.5% in Group B had menstrual aberrations 3 months after the cessation of the war. These percentages were significantly different from each other and from that in Group C (2.6%). Six months after the war most women regained their regular menstrual cycles with the exception of 18.6% in Group A. We found a short period of war, acting like an acute stressful condition, resulted in menstrual abnormalities in 10-35% of women and is probably related to the duration of exposure to war. This might last beyond the war time and for more than one or two cycles. In most women the irregular cycles reversed without any medical intervention. II.

  11. Haematological and electrocardiographic variations during menstrual cycle

    Rajnee, A.; Binawara, B.K.; Choudhary, S.; Chawla, V.K.; Choudhary, R.

    2010-01-01

    Menstruation coupled periodic bleeding from the blood vessels, at the time of shedding of the uterine mucosa has directed interest, more especially in the haematological changes during different phases of menstrual cycle. Methods: The present study was carried out on 30 healthy female medical students in the age group of 18 to 23 years with the normal menstrual cycle of 30 +- 3 days. The various haematological parameter and electrocardiography were studied on the second, eleventh, fourteenth and twenty second day of menstrual cycle. Result: The study reveals that the total leukocyte count and total platelet count significantly increased (p<0.001) around mid cycle, however total eosinophil count significantly decreased (p<0.05) during the same period. Differential leukocyte count, bleeding time, clotting time, heart rate, P-R interval and Q-T interval did not show any significant change during different phases of menstrual cycle, although some mild changes were observed. Conclusion: This study was a moderate attempt to determine regular variation in the different haematological parameters and ECG during the different phases of menstrual cycle in normal healthy females and evaluate conflicting reports on the subjects. (author)

  12. Pulse Wave Variation during the Menstrual Cycle in Women with Menstrual Pain

    Soo Hyung Jeon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study is performed to obtain objective diagnostic indicators associated with menstrual pain using pulse wave analysis. Methods. Using a pulse diagnostic device, we measured the pulse waves of 541 women aged between 19 and 30 years, placed in either an experimental group with menstrual pain (n=329 or a control group with little or no menstrual pain (n=212. Measurements were taken during both the menstrual and nonmenstrual periods, and comparative analysis was performed. Results. During the nonmenstrual period, the experimental group showed a significantly higher value in the left radial artery for the radial augmentation index (RAI (p=0.050 but significantly lower values for pulse wave energy (p=0.021 and time to first peak from baseline (T1 (p=0.035 in the right radial artery. During the menstrual period, the experimental group showed significantly lower values in the left radial artery for cardiac diastole and pulse wave area during diastole and significantly higher values for pulse wave area during systole, ratio of systolic phase to the full heartbeat, and systolic-diastolic ratio. Conclusion. We obtained indicators of menstrual pain in women during the menstrual period, including prolonged systolic and shortened diastolic phases, increases in pulse wave energy and area of representative pulse wave, and increased blood vessel resistance.

  13. Menstrual Patterns and Treatment of Heavy Menstrual Bleeding in Adolescents with Bleeding Disorders.

    Dowlut-McElroy, Tazim; Williams, Karen B; Carpenter, Shannon L; Strickland, Julie L

    2015-12-01

    To characterize menstrual bleeding patterns and treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding in adolescents with bleeding disorders. We conducted a retrospective review of female patients aged nine to 21 years with known bleeding disorders who attended a pediatric gynecology, hematology, and comprehensive hematology/gynecology clinic at a children's hospital in a metropolitan area. Prevalence of heavy menstrual bleeding at menarche, prolonged menses, and irregular menses among girls with bleeding disorders and patterns of initial and subsequent treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding in girls with bleeding disorders. Of 115 participants aged nine to 21 years with known bleeding disorders, 102 were included in the final analysis. Of the 69 postmenarcheal girls, almost half (32/69, 46.4%) noted heavy menstrual bleeding at menarche. Girls with von Willebrand disease were more likely to have menses lasting longer than seven days. Only 28% of girls had discussed a treatment plan for heavy menstrual bleeding before menarche. Hormonal therapy was most commonly used as initial treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. Half (53%) of the girls failed initial treatment. Combination (hormonal and non-hormonal therapy) was more frequently used for subsequent treatment. Adolescents with bleeding disorders are at risk of heavy bleeding at and after menarche. Consultation with a pediatric gynecologist and/or hematologist prior to menarche may be helpful to outline abnormal patterns of menstrual bleeding and to discuss options of treatment in the event of heavy menstrual bleeding. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bone mineral density and menstrual function in adolescent female ...

    Bone mineral density and menstrual function in adolescent female long-distance runners - A prospective comparative study of bone structure and menstrual function in adolescent female endurance athletes from five secondary schools in Pretoria.

  15. Redesigning Menstrual Education Programs Using Attitudes toward Menstruation.

    Kieren, Dianne K.

    1992-01-01

    Critiques current menstrual education efforts and reviews current data about the nature of adolescent girls' attitudes toward menstruation as the basis for redesigning comprehensive, effective menstrual education programs. (Author)

  16. Antifibrinolytics for heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Bryant-Smith, Alison C; Lethaby, Anne; Farquhar, Cindy; Hickey, Martha

    2018-04-15

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is an important physical and social problem for women. Oral treatment for HMB includes antifibrinolytic drugs, which are designed to reduce bleeding by inhibiting clot-dissolving enzymes in the endometrium.Historically, there has been some concern that using the antifibrinolytic tranexamic acid (TXA) for HMB may increase the risk of venous thromboembolic disease. This is an umbrella term for deep venous thrombosis (blood clots in the blood vessels in the legs) and pulmonary emboli (blood clots in the blood vessels in the lungs). To determine the effectiveness and safety of antifibrinolytic medications as a treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding. We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility (CGF) Group trials register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and two trials registers in November 2017, together with reference checking and contact with study authors and experts in the field. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing antifibrinolytic agents versus placebo, no treatment or other medical treatment in women of reproductive age with HMB. Twelve studies utilised TXA and one utilised a prodrug of TXA (Kabi). We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. The primary review outcomes were menstrual blood loss (MBL), improvement in HMB, and thromboembolic events. We included 13 RCTs (1312 participants analysed). The evidence was very low to moderate quality: the main limitations were risk of bias (associated with lack of blinding, and poor reporting of study methods), imprecision and inconsistency.Antifibrinolytics (TXA or Kabi) versus no treatment or placeboWhen compared with a placebo, antifibrinolytics were associated with reduced mean blood loss (MD -53.20 mL per cycle, 95% CI -62.70 to -43.70; I² = 8%; 4 RCTs, participants = 565; moderate-quality evidence) and higher rates of improvement (RR 3.34, 95% CI 1.84 to 6.09; 3 RCTS, participants = 271; moderate-quality evidence). This suggests that

  17. Menstrual management in developmentally delayed adolescent females.

    Chuah, Irene; McRae, Alexandra; Matthews, Kim; Maguire, Ann M; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2017-06-01

    Requests for assistance in menstrual management and menstrual suppression are a common, emotive and sometimes controversial aspect of adolescent disability care. To review the uptake and outcomes of menstrual suppression among adolescent patients with developmental delay. A retrospective review of the medical records of adolescent females with intellectual disability referred for menstrual management to the Paediatric and Adolescent Gynaecology Clinic, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, for the three-year period between January 1, 2010 and January 1, 2013. Eighty adolescent patients with developmental delay were identified. A third (n = 28) of the patients were pre-menarcheal at first review with parent/caregivers seeking anticipatory advice. Of the post-menarcheal patients, the median age of menarche was 12 years (range 10-15 years). First and second line interventions were documented as were reasons for change where applicable. The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) was the most frequently used therapy (67%), and 19 patients in total had a levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) inserted (31%). Our study population differs from similar previously published groups in the marked absence of the use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate or the subdermal etonogestrel releasing device. As a paediatrician, it is important to address menstrual management issues and allay caregiver concerns with appropriate advice. Our study supports the use of the COCP as sound first line management in achieving menstrual suppression. The LNG-IUS appears to be a favourable second line option. Further investigation into longer-term outcomes and potential complications of device insertion is recommended. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  18. Trastornos menstruales y dismenorrea en laadolescencia

    P. Carolina Sghulin-Zeuthen, Dra.; R. Carolina Conejero, Dra.

    2011-01-01

    Las alteraciones del ciclo menstrual son un motivo de consulta frecuente en el grupo de adolescentes, siendo un motivo de preocupación para ellas y sus padres. En la mayor parte de los casos, se debe a una inmadurez del eje hipotálamo -hipófisis- ovario (HHO), sin embargo, es importante destacar que pueden corresponder a la primera manifestación de una enfermedad aguda o crónica o tener implicancias en el futuro reproductivo. En este artículo revisaremos la fisiología del ciclo menstrual n...

  19. Perimenarchal air pollution exposure and menstrual disorders.

    Mahalingaiah, S; Missmer, S E; Cheng, J J; Chavarro, J; Laden, F; Hart, J E

    2018-01-25

    What is the association between perimenarchal exposure to total suspended particulate (TSP) in air, menstrual irregularity phenotypes and time to menstrual cycle regularity? Exposures to TSP during high school are associated with slightly increased odds of menstrual irregularity and longer time to regularity in high school and early adulthood. The menstrual cycle is responsive to hormonal regulation. Particulate matter air pollution has demonstrated hormonal activity. However, it is not known if air pollution is associated with menstrual cycle regularity. Cross sectional study of 34 832 of the original 116 430 women (29.91%) enrolled in 1989 from the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). The follow-up rate for this analytic sample was 97.76% at the 1991 survey. Annual averages of TSP were available for each year of high school attendance. We created three case definitions including high school menstrual irregularity and androgen excess. The time to menstrual cycle regularity was reported by participants as air pollution in the adolescent and early adulthood window may be especially important, given its association with phenotypes of menstrual irregularity. The data from this study agrees with existing literature regarding air pollution and reproductive tract diseases. Shruthi Mahalingaiah: Reproductive Scientist Development Program HD000849, and a research grant from the Boston University Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stacey Missmer: R01HD57210 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Center for Environmental Health Sciences Translational Pilot Project Program, R01CA50385 from the National Cancer Institute, Jaime Hart and Francine Laden: 5R01ES017017 from the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences, Jaime Hart: P30 ES00002 from the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences at the National Institute of Health, The Nurses' Health Study II is supported by

  20. Relationship between Menstrual Profile and Psychological Stress with Dysmenorrhea

    Maryam; Mulyanusa Amarullah Ritonga; Istriati

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dysmenorrhea or menstrual cramps is the most common menstrual complaint among reproductive women in developing countries. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea is ranged from 19–91%. Many studies showed that factors associated with dysmenorrhea include a younger age, nulliparity, family history of dysmenorrhea, prolonged menstrual duration, high menstrual flow, psychological factors, and lifestyle. The objective of this study was to compare female medical students with dysmenorrhea and w...

  1. Integrating Menstrual Cycle Data into The Smart Home

    Homewood, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Menstrual cycle data gathered through self-tracking apps are increasingly used to understand, control and monitor bodies that menstruate. This work-in-progress explores the effects of representing menstrual cycle data within the smart home through critical design and planned fieldwork. Themes...... presented in this paper include the taboo of menstrual cycles, the question of what kinds of data do we represent in the smart home and menstrual cycle tracking technologies as examples of affective computing....

  2. The effect of mefenamic acid and naproxen on heavy menstrual ...

    Background. Heavy menstrual bleeding is a common complaint. Various therapeutic approaches have been suggested. Aim. To compare the efficacy of mefenamic acid and naproxen in reducing heavy menstrual bleeding. Methods. Women referred to an outpatient centre for treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding were ...

  3. The relationship between premenstrual symptoms, menstrual pain, irregular menstrual cycles, and psychosocial stress among Japanese college students.

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Okazaki, Ai; Sakamoto, Yoko; Funatsu, Michiko

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between menses-associated health problems of women, such as premenstrual symptoms, menstrual pain and irregular menstrual cycles, and psychosocial stress. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Japanese college students, measuring psychosocial stress levels by means of IMPS (The Inventory to Measure Psychosocial Stress). A total of 264 female students (mean age 19.4 years), who were invited to participate in the study in October 2007, completed the questionnaire, which dealt with anthropometric data, lifestyle, menstrual history, and menstrual health status. Forty-three students were excluded due to missing data, and the remaining 221 were analyzed. The proportions of students who reported premenstrual symptoms, menstrual pain, and the experience of irregular menstrual cycles were 79%, 79%, and 63%, respectively. Students who reported premenstrual symptoms, menstrual pain, and the experience of irregular menstrual cycles had higher stress scores than those who did not. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent factors associated with having premenstrual symptoms, menstrual pain, and the experience of irregular menstrual cycles. Stress score, heavy menstrual flow, and menstrual pain were significant predictors for premenstrual symptoms, while age at menarche and having premenstrual symptoms were significant predictors for menstrual pain. Both stress score and body mass index were found to be significant predictors for having experienced irregular menstrual cycles. The results suggest that psychosocial stress is independently associated with premenstrual symptoms and the experience of irregular menstrual cycles among college students, implying that changes in the functional potentiality of women as a result of stress are related with changes in their menstrual function.

  4. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  5. Medical treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding

    Yi-Jen Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy menstrual bleeding, or menorrhagia, is subjectively defined as a “complaint of a large amount of bleeding during menstrual cycles that occurs over several consecutive cycles” and is objectively defined as menstrual blood loss of more than 80 mL per cycle that is associated with an anemia status (defined as a hemoglobin level of <10 g/dL. During their reproductive age, more than 30% of women will complain of or experience a heavy amount of bleeding, which leads to a debilitating health outcome, including significantly reduced health-related quality of life, and a considerable economic burden on the health care system. Although surgical treatment might be the most important definite treatment, especially hysterectomy for those women who have finished bearing children, the uterus is still regarded as the regulator and controller of important physiological functions, a sexual organ, a source of energy and vitality, and a maintainer of youth and attractiveness. This has resulted in a modern trend in which women may reconsider the possibility of organ preservation. For women who wish to retain the uterus, medical treatment may be one of the best alternatives. In this review, recent trends in the management of women with heavy menstrual bleeding are discussed.

  6. Systemic causes of heavy menstrual bleeding

    Verschueren, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a common problem in fertile women. In addition to local factors, such as a polyp or a uterine fibroid, systemic causes may lead to HMB. These systemic causes are discussed in this thesis. For years, women with HMB were tested underlying thyroid disorder, but our

  7. Menstruation across time: menarche, menstrual attitudes, experiences, and behaviors.

    McPherson, Marianne E; Korfine, Lauren

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between early and current menstrual experiences. The primary hypothesis was that women who reported positive menarcheal experiences (including menstrual education and menarche) would tend to report positive current menstrual attitudes, experiences, and/or behaviors, and vice versa for women who reported negative menarcheal experiences. In this survey-based study, college-aged women (n = 327) were screened by completing a questionnaire concerning their menarcheal experiences. Women who had extremely negative ("negative group," n = 46) or extremely positive ("positive group," n = 38) early menstrual experiences returned to complete questionnaires concerning current menstrual attitudes, experiences, and behaviors. Early and current menstrual experiences were most strongly associated in the domain of menstrual attitudes. Women in the negative group reported more negative menstrual attitudes than did women in the positive group. There were additional associations between early menstrual experiences and measures of body image and health behaviors. Positive group participants reported more positive body image and better general health behaviors. Results suggest that early menstrual experiences may be related to menstrual experiences later in life. This study invites further investigation of the psychology of menstruation and suggests connecting menstruation with other women's health issues.

  8. Menstrual pain and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer

    Babic, Ana; Harris, Holly R; Vitonis, Allison F

    2018-01-01

    to lack of power. We assessed menstrual pain using either direct questions about having experienced menstrual pain, or indirect questions about menstrual pain as indication for use of hormones or medications. We used multivariate logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for the association......Menstrual pain, a common gynecological condition, has been associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer in some, but not all studies. Furthermore, potential variations in the association between menstrual pain and ovarian cancer by histologic subtype have not been adequately evaluated due...... between severe menstrual pain and ovarian cancer, adjusting for potential confounders and multinomial logistic regression to calculate ORs for specific histologic subtypes. We observed no association between ovarian cancer and menstrual pain assessed by indirect questions. Among studies using direct...

  9. Identifying and Assessing Life-Cycle-Related Critical Technology Elements (CTEs) for Technology Readiness Assessments (TRAs)

    Mandelbaum, Jay

    2006-01-01

    .... Because these technologies are not emphasized in the current Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) process this document is intended to improve the focus on life-cycle-related technologies in TRAs...

  10. Cortisol levels during prolonged exercise: the influence of menstrual phase and menstrual status.

    Kanaley, J A; Boileau, R A; Bahr, J M; Misner, J E; Nelson, R A

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of menstrual phase and menstrual status on the cortisol response during 90 minutes of treadmill running at 60% VO2max. Eight eumenhorrheic athletes were tested in the early follicular (EF) (day 3-5), late follicular (LF) (day 13-15) and mid-luteal (ML) (day 22-24) phases. Six amenorrheic athletes were tested on two separate occasions. The resting cortisol levels were similar in each menstrual phase and overall a decreasing pattern of cortisol response to exercise was observed in all menstrual phases (P greater than .05). The amenorrheic athletes had a significantly greater (P less than .01) pattern of cortisol response than was observed in eumenorrheic athletes. The net increment in cortisol levels during exercise were distinctly greater (P less than .01) in amenorrheic than eumenorrheic athletes (amenorrheic: 413.8 +/- 113.1, eumenorrheic: EF: -482.8 +/- 88.3, LF: -311.8 +/- 102.1, ML: -386.3 +/- 146.2 nmol.l-1). In conclusion the cortisol levels are independent of menstrual phase. Also a larger cortisol increment is observed in amenorrheic athletes in response to prolonged submaximal exercise. The elevated cortisol levels in amenorrheics at rest and throughout exercise provides further evidence that disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function are associated with exercise-induced amenorrhea, although the site(s) of physiological disturbance have not been identified.

  11. Trastornos menstruales y dismenorrea en laadolescencia

    P. Carolina Sghulin-Zeuthen, Dra.

    2011-01-01

    En este artículo revisaremos la fisiología del ciclo menstrual normal y las características de éste en las adolescentes. Además describiremos las alteraciones más frecuentes como son: amenorrea, metrorragia disfuncional y dismenorrea desde el punto de vista etiológico y propondremos un enfoque diagnóstico.

  12. Menstrual characteristics and night work among nurses.

    Moen, Bente E; Baste, Valborg; Morken, Tone; Alsaker, Kjersti; Pallesen, Ståle; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    Night work has been associated with adverse effects in terms of reproductive health. Specifically, menstruation has been suggested to be negatively impacted by night work, which again may influence fertility. This study investigated whether working nights is related to menstrual characteristics and if there is a relationship between shift work disorder (SWD) and menstruation. The study was cross-sectional, response rate 38%. The sample comprised female nurses who were members of the Norwegian Nurses Association; below 50 yr of age, who were not pregnant, did not use hormonal pills or intrauterine devices and who had not reached menopause (n=766). The nurses answered a postal survey including questions about night work and menstrual characteristics. Fifteen per cent reported to have irregular menstruations. Thirty-nine per cent of the nurses were classified as having SWD. Logistic regression analyses concerning the relationship between irregular menstruations and night work did not show any associations. Furthermore, no associations were found between cycle length or bleeding period and night work parameters. No associations were found between menstrual characteristics and SWD.

  13. Heavy menstrual bleeding: An update on management.

    Davies, Joanna; Kadir, Rezan A

    2017-03-01

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is defined as excessive menstrual blood loss (MBL) >80 mL per cycle, that interferes with a woman's physical, emotional, social wellbeing and quality of life. Aetiology is due to underlying uterine pathologies, coagulopathy, ovulation dysfunction, or iatrogenic. Up to 20% of women with HMB will have an underlying inherited bleeding disorder (IBD). Assessment of HMB should entail a menstrual and gynaecological history and a bleeding score to distinguish those women who require additional haematological investigations. A pelvic examination and ultrasound scan help to rule out presence of any underlying pathology. Management depends on the underlying cause and the woman's preference and her fertility wishes. Medical therapies include hormonal treatments; levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and combined hormonal contraceptives are most commonly used. Ulipristal acetate is an approved preoperative treatment for uterine fibroids, and has demonstrated efficacy in reducing MBL. Haemostatic therapies include tranexamic acid and DDAVP (1-deamino-8-D-arginine). DDAVP is used for HMB associated with certain IBDs. These therapies can be used in isolation or in combination with hormonal treatments. HMB associated with certain severe IBDs may require factor concentrate administration during menses to alleviate symptoms. Endometrial ablation is a minor surgical procedure that is associated with low operative morbidity and can be performed as an outpatient. Hysterectomy remains the definitive treatment of choice when medical therapies have failed and endometrial ablation is not suitable. Crown Copyright © 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterisation of exacerbation risk and exacerbator phenotypes in the POET-COPD trial.

    Beeh, Kai M; Glaab, Thomas; Stowasser, Susanne; Schmidt, Hendrik; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Rabe, Klaus F; Vogelmeier, Claus F

    2013-10-29

    Data examining the characteristics of patients with frequent exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and associated hospitalisations and mortality are scarce. Post-hoc analysis of the Prevention Of Exacerbations with Tiotropium in COPD (POET-COPD) trial, targeting exacerbations as the primary endpoint. Patients were classified as non-, infrequent, and frequent exacerbators (0, 1, or ≥ 2 exacerbations during study treatment), irrespective of study treatment. A multivariate Cox regression model assessed the effect of covariates on time to first exacerbation. In total, 7376 patients were included in the analysis: 63.5% non-exacerbators, 22.9% infrequent, 13.6% frequent exacerbators. Factors significantly associated with exacerbation risk were age, sex, body mass index, COPD duration and severity, smoking history, baseline inhaled corticosteroid use, and preceding antibiotic or systemic corticosteroid courses. Frequent exacerbators had greater severity and duration of COPD, received more pulmonary medication, and ≥ 2 systemic corticosteroid or antibiotic courses in the preceding year, and were more likely to be female and ex-smokers. The small proportion of frequent exacerbators (13.6%) accounted for 56.6% of exacerbation-related hospitalisations, which, overall, were associated with a three-fold increase in mortality. The frequent exacerbator phenotype was closely associated with exacerbation-related hospitalisations, and exacerbation-related hospitalisations were associated with poorer survival. NCT00563381; Study identifier: BI 205.389.

  15. Exacerbation of Behçet's syndrome and familial Mediterranean fever with menstruation.

    Guzelant, Gul; Ozguler, Yesim; Esatoglu, Sinem Nihal; Karatemiz, Guzin; Ozdogan, Huri; Yurdakul, Sebahattin; Yazici, Hasan; Seyahi, Emire

    2017-01-01

    Menstruation triggers several conditions such as migraine, recurrent aphthous stomatitis and acne vulgaris in healthy individuals. There is evidence that Behçet's syndrome (BS) and familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) may exacerbate during menstruation. The aim is to assess whether BS and FMF patients experience menstrual flares. Females of reproductive age with BS and FMF seen consecutively at the outpatient clinic of Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty at Istanbul, as well as apparently healthy hospital workers were studied using a standardised questionnaire. BS patients were asked whether they experienced increased skin-mucosa lesions during the menstrual period. A similar questionnaire assessing this time the frequency of abdominal pain, chest pain and fever attacks was given to the patients with FMF. The healthy controls received both questionnaires. A total of 200 BS patients, 240 FMF patients and 250 healthy controls were studied. The most commonly reported symptom among both BS patients (51%) and healthy controls (62%) was the acneiform lesion. At least 79% patients with FMF reported attacks with menstruation, notably abdominal pain which, majority thought, could be differentiated from dysmenorrhea. Additionally, 76% of healthy controls reported having abdominal pain consistent most probably with dysmenorrhea. This survey showed that, in 68% of the patients with BS at least one skin mucosa lesion was exacerbated with menstruation, this was most commonly acneiform lesion. Menstruation had a slightly stronger effect on FMF, triggering at least one symptom in 79%. The main limitation of the study was the self-reported assessment methodology.

  16. The relationship between Ramadan fasting with menstrual cycle pattern changes in teenagers

    Muhammad Ikhsan

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: During Ramadan fasting, there were changes in teenagers’ menstrual cycle especially in menstrual blood volume. There was significant difference (p < 0.001 in menstrual blood volume before and during Ramadan fasting.

  17. Kleptomania and Potential Exacerbating Factors

    2011-01-01

    Kleptomania is an impulse control disorder that can cause significant impairment and serious consequences. Often, the condition is kept secret by the patient, and usually help is sought only when confronted by the legal consequences of the impulsive behaviors. Historically, kleptomania has been viewed from a psychodynamic perspective, and the mainstay of treatment has been psychotherapy. Recently, attempts to explain kleptomania within a neuropsychiatric paradigm have highlighted the possible links between mood disorders, addictive behaviors, and brain injury with kleptomania. These associations with kleptomania can be extrapolated to pharmacological strategies that can potentially help in treating kleptomania. A case of kleptomania, which was potentially exacerbated by multiple factors, will be reviewed. Treatment modalities used in this case, including the use of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale as a surrogate marker to gauge response to treatment, will be discussed. PMID:22132369

  18. Vestibular characterization in the menstrual cycle Caracterização vestibular no ciclo menstrual

    Cintia Ishii

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal disorders in the menstrual cycle can affect labyrinthine fluid homeostasis, causing balance and hearing dysfunctions. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical prospective. AIM: compare the results from vestibular tests in young women, in the premenstrual and postmenstrual periods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: twenty women were selected with ages ranging from 18 to 35 years, who were not using any kind of contraceptive method for at least six months, and without vestibular or hearing complaints. The test was carried out in each subject before and after the menstrual period, respecting the limit of ten days before or after menstruation. RESULTS: there was a statistically significant difference in the menstrual cycle phases only in the following vestibular tests: calibration, saccadic movements, PRPD and caloric-induced nystagmus. We also noticed that age; a regular menstrual cycle; hearing loss or dizziness cases in the family; and premenstrual symptoms such as tinnitus, headache, sleep disorders, anxiety, nausea and hyperacusis can interfere in the vestibular test. CONCLUSION: there are differences in the vestibular tests of healthy women when comparing their pre and postmenstrual periods.As alterações hormonais do ciclo menstrual podem comprometer a homeostase dos fluidos labirínticos, gerando alterações no equilíbrio e na audição. FORMA DO ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo. OBJETIVO: Comparar os resultados dos testes do exame vestibular em mulheres jovens, nos períodos pré e pós-menstrual. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram selecionadas vinte mulheres, entre dezoito e trinta e cinco anos, que não fizessem uso de qualquer tipo de anticoncepcional, com audição normal e sem queixas vestibulares. O exame vestibular foi realizado em cada participante no período pré e no período pós-menstrual, em ordem aleatória, e respeitando o limite de até dez dias antes do início da menstruação e até dez dias após o início da menstruação. RESULTADO: Foi observada

  19. [Menstrual disorders in adolescents: commonplace or worrisome?].

    Jacot-Guillarmod, M; Renteria, S C

    2010-06-16

    The first menstrual cycles following menarche are often caracterized by irregular and/or heavy bleeding. The adolescent patient may be worried by these episodes of bleeding. In 50-80% of cases these are anovulatory bleeding due to the immaturity of the gonadotrophic axis. Nevertheless pathologies such as von Willebrand disease, genital infection, polycystic ovary syndrom, eating disorders, a tumor or a pregnancy may be diagnosed by bleeding abnormalities. The challenge for the physician is to distinguish between bleeding abnormalities secondary to anovulation and pathologies where investigations and specific follow-up is mandatory. Adolescents who experience abnormal bleeding must be counceled according to their perceptions and expectations.

  20. Nerve fibers and menstrual cycle in peritoneal endometriosis.

    Wang, Guoyun; Tokushige, Natsuko; Fraser, Ian S

    2011-06-30

    There was no difference in the density of nerve fibers across the menstrual cycle in peritoneal endometriotic lesions. These findings may explain why patients with peritoneal endometriosis often have painful symptoms throughout the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. No increased systemic fibrinolysis in women with heavy menstrual bleeding

    Wiewel-Verschueren, S.; Knol, H. M.; Lisman, T.; Bogchelman, D. H.; Kluin-Nelemans, J. C.; van der Zee, A.G.J.; Mulder, A.B.; Meijer, K.

    BackgroundBleeding disorders have been recognized as important etiologic or contributory factors in women with heavy menstrual bleeding. Fibrinolysis in the endometrium plays a role in heavy menstrual bleeding. It is unknown whether increased systemic fibrinolysis might also increase the risk of

  2. 21 CFR 884.5435 - Unscented menstrual pad.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unscented menstrual pad. 884.5435 Section 884.5435 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5435 Unscented menstrual pad. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 884.5470 - Unscented menstrual tampon.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unscented menstrual tampon. 884.5470 Section 884.5470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5470 Unscented menstrual tampon. (a)...

  4. Menstrual Health of In-School Adolescents in Ibadan: Knowledge ...

    We evaluated the knowledge, attitudes to and consequences of menstrual morbidities among in –school adolescents in Ibadan and determined their effect on school attendance. The pattern of drug use for menstrual symptoms was also assessed. Self-administered questionnaires were given to 1194 respondents in ...

  5. Menstrual hygiene management: education and empowerment for girls?

    Joshi, D.; Buit, G.; González-Botero, D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the recent attention of the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector to resolving the menstrual hygiene crisis for young girls in developing countries. Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) interventions, including the use of sanitary pads, education, and awareness, and where

  6. The Menstrual Cycle and Response to Erotic Literature

    Abramson, Paul R.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This study focuses upon the relationship between phase of the menstrual cycle and sexual arousability. Women (N=133) participated in an experiment that induced sexual arousal by means of an erotic story. Independent factors were use of contraceptive pills versus no contraceptive pills and phase of the menstrual cycle. (Author)

  7. Menstrual induction in preference to abortion.

    Csapo, A I; Peskin, E G; Sauvage, J P; Pulkkinen, M O; Lampe, L; Godeny, S; Laajoki, V; Kivikoski, A

    1980-01-12

    In the early 1970s the effort was begun to examine the clinical benefits of "menstrual induction" (MI) at 6 weeks pregnancy (last menstrual period), in the belief that if pregnancy is to be terminated there was no sound medical nor psychological reason to delay the procedure. It was found that the transcervical, intrauterine delivery of a "PG-impact" compromised the conceptus and terminated pregnancy in 95% of the cases, with clinical symptoms of menstruation rather than abortion. The side-effects were acceptable; the prematurity rate did not increase in subsequent pregnancies. Yet, the need for strict asepsis limited the use of this otherwise simple and effective procedure. Recently, this limitation has been overcome by the development of the PGE2 analogue 16-phenoxy-w17,18,19,20 tetranor-PGE2-methyl sulfanylamide ('Sulproston'). Clinical trials have been done in terms of dealing with the questions of efficacy, acceptability, and preference. 90 volunteers have been studied. At 14 days follow-up the success rate (negative pregnancy test) was 96%. The side effects were acceptable -- vomiting 26%, diarrhea 10%, and endometritis 2%. Of the 42 patients interviewed, 90% were satisfied with the procedure. Of those who had previously experienced surgical interruption, 89% preferred this pharmacological method.

  8. Aspectos nutricionais relacionados ao ciclo menstrual Nutritional aspects related to menstrual cycle

    Helena Alves de Carvalho SAMPAIO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da presente revisão é apresentar os principais tópicos discutidos na literatura quanto à associação da nutrição com o ciclo menstrual, contribuindo para a implementação do atendimento nutricional de mulheres. São revisados aspectos referentes à fisiologia da menstruação, alterações metabólicas durante o ciclo menstrual e comportamentos alimentares associados a ele. Considerando-se o ciclo menstrual dividido em duas fases, a folicular e a lútea, é nesta última que são descritas mais alterações, como retenção de água, elevação de peso, aumento de demanda energética, modificações no perfil lipídico e no metabolismo de vitamina D, cálcio, magnésio e ferro, hipersensibilidade emocional, dores generalizadas e mudança do comportamento alimentar. Em relação a este último item, podem ocorrer maior ingestão energética e o desenvolvimento de compulsões alimentares, principalmente por chocolate, doces e alimentos muito salgados. É fundamental que todos os aspectos citados sejam investigados durante a consulta nutricional, a fim de serem adotadas condutas mais específicas.The aim of the present review is to show the most important topics discussed in literature about the association between nutrition and menstrual cycle, contributing to improve the nutritional care for women. Aspects related to physiology of the menstruation, metabolic changes and feeding behavior during the menstrual cycle are reviewed. Considering the menstrual cycle divided in two phases, follicular and luteal, it is in this last one that more alterations are described, like fluid retention, weight gain, increase in caloric needs, modifications in the lipid profile and in the metabolism of vitamin D, calcium, magnesium and iron, emotional hypersensitivity, aches and changes in feeding behavior. In relation to this last item, it can occur a higher caloric intake and the development of food cravings, mainly for chocolate, candies and

  9. Association of menstrual phase with smoking behavior, mood and menstrual phase-associated symptoms among young Japanese women smokers.

    Sakai, Hiroko; Ohashi, Kazutomo

    2013-03-02

    Previous studies of the relationship between the menstrual phases and smoking behavior have been problematic, so the association of menstrual phases with smoking behavior and correlations among smoking, psychological and physical conditions in each phase of the menstrual cycle are unclear. To accurately examine the association between menstrual phases and the amount of smoking (number of cigarettes smoked and breath CO concentration), craving of smoking on visual analogue scale (VAS), depression in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, and menstrual phase-associated symptoms in the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ), we improved various methodological issues, specifically, 1) Ovulation was confirmed by measuring the basal body temperature and identifying a urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in two cycles; 2) The menstrual, follicular, and luteal phases were clearly defined for subjects with different menstrual cycles; 3) The breath CO concentration was measured every day. A notice was posted on public bulletin boards to recruit research subjects and twenty-nine young Japanese women smokers aged 19 to 25 years old were analyzed. The number of cigarettes smoked was greater and the CO concentration was higher in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase. The levels of craving for smoking (VAS), depressiveness (CES-D), and menstrual phase-associated symptoms (MDQ) in the menstrual and luteal phases were higher than those in the follicular phase. The mean score for CES-D was 16 points (the cut-off value in screening for depression) or higher in the menstrual (16.9 ± 8.2) and luteal phases (17.2 ± 8.4).The number of cigarettes smoked and CO concentration were significantly correlated with the levels of craving for smoking, depressiveness, and menstrual phase-associated symptoms in all phases except for MDQ scores in follicular phase. The amount of smoking in the luteal phase was most strongly correlated with these symptoms

  10. Optimizing antibiotic selection in treating COPD exacerbations

    Attiya Siddiqi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Attiya Siddiqi, Sanjay SethiDivision of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Western New York Health Care System and University of Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USAAbstract: Our understanding of the etiology, pathogenesis and consequences of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has increased substantially in the last decade. Several new lines of evidence demonstrate that bacterial isolation from sputum during acute exacerbation in many instances reflects a cause-effect relationship. Placebo-controlled antibiotic trials in exacerbations of COPD demonstrate significant clinical benefits of antibiotic treatment in moderate and severe episodes. However, in the multitude of antibiotic comparison trials, the choice of antibiotics does not appear to affect the clinical outcome, which can be explained by several methodological limitations of these trials. Recently, comparison trials with nontraditional end-points have shown differences among antibiotics in the treatment of exacerbations of COPD. Observational studies that have examined clinical outcome of exacerbations have repeatedly demonstrated certain clinical characteristics to be associated with treatment failure or early relapse. Optimal antibiotic selection for exacerbations has therefore incorporated quantifying the risk for a poor outcome of the exacerbation and choosing antibiotics differently for low risk and high risk patients, reserving the broader spectrum drugs for the high risk patients. Though improved outcomes in exacerbations with antibiotic choice based on such risk stratification has not yet been demonstrated in prospective controlled trials, this approach takes into account concerns of disease heterogeneity, antibiotic resistance and judicious antibiotic use in exacerbations.Keywords: COPD, exacerbation, bronchitis, antibiotics

  11. Characteristics of menstrual versus non-menstrual migraine during pregnancy: a longitudinal population-based study.

    Petrovski, Beáta Éva; Vetvik, Kjersti G; Lundqvist, Christofer; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2018-04-02

    Migraine is a common headache disorder that affects mostly women. In half of these, migraine is menstrually associated, and ranges from completely asymptomatic to frequent pain throughout pregnancy. The aim of the study was to define the pattern (frequency, intensity, analgesics use) of migrainous headaches among women with and without menstural migraine (MM) during pregnancy, and define how hormonally-related factors affect its intensity. The analysis was based upon data from 280 women, 18.6% of them having a self-reported MM. Women with MM described a higher headache intensity during early pregnancy and postpartum compared those without MM, but both groups showed improvement during the second half of pregnancy and directly after delivery. Hormonal factors and pre-menstrual syndrome had no effect upon headache frequency, but may affect headache intensity. Individual treatment plan is necessary for women with migrainous headaches during pregnancy, especially for those suffering highest symptoms load.

  12. Menstruation, menstrual protection and menstrual cycle problems. The knowledge, attitudes and practices of young Australian women.

    Abraham, S; Fraser, I; Gebski, V; Knight, C; Llewellyn-Jones, D; Mira, M; McNeil, D

    1985-02-18

    The results of a survey of 1377 young Australian women aged 14 to 19 years, conducted to determine their attitudes, state of knowledge and practices with regard to menstruation, are presented. The young women, as a group, lacked sufficient information about menstruation, about the time of ovulation, about menstrual discharge, and about the use of tampons. A high proportion (80%) considered menstruation to be inconvenient or embarrassing. Certain measures aimed at remedial action are suggested.

  13. Duet for menstrual protection: a feasibility study in Zimbabwe.

    Averbach, Sarah; Sahin-Hodoglugil, Nuriye; Musara, Petina; Chipato, Tsungai; van der Straten, Ariane

    2009-06-01

    Managing menses is a challenge for women in developing countries. Duet is a cervical barrier being developed for contraception and STI prevention. We explored the hypothetical acceptability of using Duet as a menstrual cup, among Zimbabwean women. A survey and focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with 43 women aged 18-45 years to gain information about their menstrual practices and attitudes regarding the use of Duet for menstrual protection. All 43 women reported that if Duet were available, they would "definitely" try it, and that it was "very important" that Duet is low cost and easy to clean; 86% reported that using it would make a difference in their lives. FGD findings highlighted unhygienic practices due to the lack of affordable options for menstrual management and a genuine interest in Duet, including its potential use for multiple purposes (contraception, disease prevention and menstrual protection). Accessing affordable and hygienic menstrual protection was a problem for these Zimbabwean women. Duet appeared acceptable and it would be feasible to conduct a user-acceptability study of Duet as a menstrual cup in Zimbabwe.

  14. Women's experiences with medication for menstrual regulation in Bangladesh.

    Marlow, Heather M; Biswas, Kamal; Griffin, Risa; Menzel, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Menstrual regulation has been legal in Bangladesh since 1974, but the use of medication for menstrual regulation is new. In this study, we sought to understand women's experiences using medication for menstrual regulation in Bangladesh. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with rural and urban women between December 2013 and February 2014. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, computer recorded and coded for analysis. The majority of women in our study had had positive experiences with medication for menstrual regulation and successful outcomes, regardless of whether they obtained their medication from medicine sellers/pharmacies, doctors or clinics. Women were strongly influenced by health providers when deciding which method to use. There is a need to educate not only women of reproductive age, but also communities as a whole, about medication for menstrual regulation, with a particular emphasis on cost and branding the medication. Continued efforts to improve counselling by providers about the dose, medication and side-effects of medication for menstrual regulation, along with education of the community about medication as an option for menstrual regulation, will help to de-stigmatise the procedure and the women who seek it.

  15. Crying, oral contraceptive use and the menstrual cycle.

    Romans, Sarah E; Clarkson, Rose F; Einstein, Gillian; Kreindler, David; Laredo, Sheila; Petrovic, Michele J; Stanley, James

    2017-01-15

    Crying, a complex neurobiological behavior with psychosocial and communication features, has been little studied in relationship to the menstrual cycle. In the Mood and Daily Life study (MiDL), a community sample of Canadian women aged 18-43 years, n=76, recorded crying proneness and crying frequency daily for six months along with menstrual cycle phase information. Crying proneness was most likely during the premenstruum, a little less likely during menses and least likely during the mid-cycle phase, with statistically significant differences although the magnitude of these differences were small. By contrast, actual crying did not differ between the three menstrual cycle phases. Oral contraceptive use did not alter the relationship between menstrual cycle phase and either crying variable. A wide range of menstrual cycle phase - crying proneness patterns were seen with visual inspection of the individual women's line graphs. timing of ovulation was not ascertained. Using a three phase menstrual cycle division precluded separate late follicular and early luteal data analysis. The sample size was inadequate for a robust statistical test of actual crying. reproductive aged women as a group report feeling more like crying premenstrually but may not actually cry more during this menstrual cycle phase. Individual patterns vary substantially. Oral contraceptive use did not affect these relationships. Suggestions for future research are included. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Asthma Exacerbation in Children: A Practical Review

    Lin-Shien Fu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is the most common chronic lower respiratory tract disease in childhood throughout the world. Despite advances in asthma management, acute exacerbations continue to be a major problem in patients and they result in a considerable burden on direct/indirect health care providers. A severe exacerbation occurring within 1 year is an independent risk factor. Respiratory tract viruses have emerged as the most frequent triggers of exacerbations in children. It is becoming increasingly clear that interactions may exist between viruses and other triggers, increasing the likelihood of an exacerbation. In this study, we provide an overview of current knowledge about asthma exacerbations, including its definition, impact on health care providers, and associated factors. Prevention management in intermittent asthma as well as intermittent wheeze in pre-school children and those with persistent asthma are discussed. Our review findings support the importance of controlling persistent asthma, as indicated in current guidelines. In addition, we found that early episodic intervention appeared to be crucial in preventing severe attacks and future exacerbations. Besides the use of medication, timely education after an exacerbation along with a comprehensive plan in follow up is also vitally important.

  17. Prevention of exacerbations of COPD with pharmacotherapy

    M. Miravitlles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Exacerbations are a frequent event in the evolution of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients. Individuals with COPD have a mean of 1–3 episodes per year, some of which lead to hospital admission and may even be a cause of death. The importance of COPD exacerbations has become increasingly apparent due to the impact these episodes have on the natural history of disease. It is now known that frequent exacerbations can adversely affect health-related quality of life and short- and long-term pulmonary function. Optimising treatment for stable COPD will help to reduce exacerbations. Long-acting bronchodilators, alone or combined with inhaled corticosteroids, have demonstrated efficacy in reducing the rate of exacerbations in patients with COPD. Other innovative approaches are being investigated, such as the long-term use of macrolides or the use of antibiotics in an effort to suppress bronchial colonisation and consequent exacerbations. Other drugs, such as mucolytics and immunomodulators, have recently provided positive results. Non-pharmacological interventions such as rehabilitation, self-management plans and the maintenance of high levels of physical activity in daily life are also useful strategies to prevent exacerbations in patients with COPD and should be implemented in regular clinical practice.

  18. A Community Based Study on Menstrual Hygiene among ...

    women in South Asia are uncomfortable discussing in public. ... hygiene and safe practices are less vulnerable to RTI ..... places. Privacy for washing, changing, or cleaning purpose is something very important for proper menstrual hygiene.

  19. Body composition, disordered eating and menstrual regularity in a ...

    Body composition, disordered eating and menstrual regularity in a group of South African ... e between body composition and disordered eating in irregular vs normal menstruating athletes. ... measured by air displacement plethysmography.

  20. Disordered eating and menstrual patterns in female university ...

    clinical eating disorders (i.e. anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa) ... studies have reported a higher prevalence of DE and menstrual disorders in female ... sity volunteered to take part in this descriptive, cross-sectional study which was ...

  1. Menstrual disturbances and fertility in chronic alcoholic women

    Becker, U; Tønnesen, H; Kaas-Claesson, N

    1989-01-01

    . 28%, P less than 0.001) and miscarriages (23% vs. 8%, P less than 0.05) than controls, but due to a higher number of pregnancies in the alcoholic group the proportion of abortions and miscarriages did not differ significantly. No differences existed between the groups regarding frequency of difficult......Data on menstrual pattern, gynecological disorders and infertility were obtained from 51 chronic alcoholic women aged 20--42 years attending an outpatient clinic for alcoholics, using 51 randomly drawn age-matched healthy women as controls. A higher variability (P less than 0.05) in the duration...... of both menstrual cycle and menstrual flow was recorded in the chronic alcoholic women during active alcoholism. A higher frequency (P less than 0.05) of menstrual disturbances (70% vs. 55%) and uterine curettages (38% vs. 16%) were found in the alcoholic women. The latter reported more abortions (63% vs...

  2. Neuropsychological performance and menstrual cycle: a literature review

    Souza,Eliana Gonçalves V.; Ramos,Melissa G.; Hara,Cláudia; Stumpf,Bárbara Perdigão; Rocha,Fábio L.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 80% of all women of reproductive age experience psychological and physical changes associated with the premenstrual phase. Cognitive alterations are among the most common complaints. In this context, studies have assessed cognitive performance across the menstrual cycle in healthy women and also in women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). The main objective of the present study was to review the literature on cognitive function in different phases of the menstrual cycle in women ...

  3. Menstrual characteristics in some adolescent girls in Accra, Ghana.

    Gumanga, S K; Kwame-Aryee, R A

    2012-03-01

    Menstruation has a variable pattern within a few years of menarche which may not be well understood by many adolescent girls. Providing accurate information on menstruation is necessary to reduce anxiety, menstrual morbidity and improve reproductive health of these adolescents. To determine the age at menarche, duration of menstruation, length of menstrual cycle, regularity of menstrual cycle, prevalence of dysmenorrhoea and sources of information on menstruation. S(T) Mary's Senior Secondary School, Accra. Cross-sectional descriptive study using self-administered questionnaire. Four hundred and fifty six girls whose ages ranged from 14-19 years with mean and median ages of 16 ± 0.93 years and 16 years respectively were surveyed. Their ages at menarche ranged from 9 years to 16 years and the mean age at menarche was 12.5 ±1.28 years. Their menstrual cycle lengths ranged from 21-35 days with mean menstrual cycle length of 27.9± 0.9 days; the mode and median were both 28 days. The mean duration of menstrual flow was 4.9 days with mode and median of 5 days. Seventy one percent (n=449) had menses lasting 3-5 days while 27.2% had menses lasting over 5 days. Some 24% (n=409) had irregular menses six months after their menarche and 59.6% (n=453) were experiencing menses with clots. The prevalence of dysmenorrhoea was 74.4% (n=453). Some 80.2% (n=378) of the girls got counselling and education on care for their menses from their parents. The age at menarche and other menstrual characteristics observed in this study are similar to adolescent menstrual characteristics described by studies in other populations in the world.

  4. Menstrual disorders among Zagazig University Students, Zagazig, Egypt

    Ahmed M. Nooh

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study are comparable to those in other parts of the world. Adolescents should be encouraged to chart their menstrual periods from menarche onwards in order to focus their attention on when and how to seek medical advice. Health education on menstrual disorders targeting adolescents and including education on reproductive health in the school/university curriculum may assist in early detection of these disorders.

  5. 'This is a natural process': managing menstrual stigma in Nepal.

    Crawford, Mary; Menger, Lauren M; Kaufman, Michelle R

    2014-01-01

    Menstrual stigma has been demonstrated in many societies. However, there is little research on menstrual attitudes in South Asia, despite religiously-based menstrual restrictions imposed on women. To understand menstrual stigma in this context, we conducted qualitative research with women in Nepal. Nepali Hinduism forbids menstruating women to enter a temple or kitchen, share a bed with a husband or touch a male relative. During menstruation, women are 'untouchable'. There has been virtually no research on how Nepali women make meaning of these practices. The current study employed focus groups and individual interviews to understand how some Nepali women experience menarche and menstrual stigma. We explored how women describe their experiences and the strategies they adopt to manage age-old stigma in a rapidly modernising society where they have multiple roles as workers, wives and mothers. Participants reported they experienced menarche with little preparation, which caused distress, and were subjected to ongoing stigmatisation as menstruating women. They described coping strategies to reduce the effects of this stigma. This study provides a unique perspective on coping with menstrual stigma in South Asia.

  6. Female social and sexual interest across the menstrual cycle: the roles of pain, sleep and hormones.

    Guillermo, Chrisalbeth J; Manlove, Heidi A; Gray, Peter B; Zava, David T; Marrs, Chandler R

    2010-05-27

    Although research suggests that socio-sexual behavior changes in conjunction with the menstrual cycle, several potential factors are rarely taken into consideration. We investigated the role of changing hormone concentrations on self-reported physical discomfort, sleep, exercise and socio-sexual interest in young, healthy women. Salivary hormones (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate-DHEAS, progesterone, cortisol, testosterone, estradiol and estriol) and socio-sexual variables were measured in 20 women taking oral contraceptives (OC group) and 20 not using OCs (control group). Outcome measures were adapted from questionnaires of menstrual cycle-related symptoms, physical activity, and interpersonal relations. Testing occurred during menstruation (T1), mid-cycle (T2), and during the luteal phase (T3). Changes in behavior were assessed across time points and between groups. Additionally, correlations between hormones and socio-behavioral characteristics were determined. Physical discomfort and sleep disturbances peaked at T1 for both groups. Exercise levels and overall socio-sexual interest did not change across the menstrual cycle for both groups combined. However, slight mid-cycle increases in general and physical attraction were noted among the control group, whereas the OC group experienced significantly greater socio-sexual interest across all phases compared to the control group. Associations with hormones differed by group and cycle phase. The estrogens were correlated with socio-sexual and physical variables at T1 and T3 in the control group; whereas progesterone, cortisol, and DHEAS were more closely associated with these variables in the OC group across test times. The direction of influence further varies by behavior, group, and time point. Among naturally cycling women, higher concentrations of estradiol and estriol are associated with lower attraction scores at T1 but higher scores at T3. Among OC users, DHEAS and progesterone exhibit opposing relationships

  7. Female social and sexual interest across the menstrual cycle: the roles of pain, sleep and hormones

    Gray Peter B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although research suggests that socio-sexual behavior changes in conjunction with the menstrual cycle, several potential factors are rarely taken into consideration. We investigated the role of changing hormone concentrations on self-reported physical discomfort, sleep, exercise and socio-sexual interest in young, healthy women. Methods Salivary hormones (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate-DHEAS, progesterone, cortisol, testosterone, estradiol and estriol and socio-sexual variables were measured in 20 women taking oral contraceptives (OC group and 20 not using OCs (control group. Outcome measures were adapted from questionnaires of menstrual cycle-related symptoms, physical activity, and interpersonal relations. Testing occurred during menstruation (T1, mid-cycle (T2, and during the luteal phase (T3. Changes in behavior were assessed across time points and between groups. Additionally, correlations between hormones and socio-behavioral characteristics were determined. Results Physical discomfort and sleep disturbances peaked at T1 for both groups. Exercise levels and overall socio-sexual interest did not change across the menstrual cycle for both groups combined. However, slight mid-cycle increases in general and physical attraction were noted among the control group, whereas the OC group experienced significantly greater socio-sexual interest across all phases compared to the control group. Associations with hormones differed by group and cycle phase. The estrogens were correlated with socio-sexual and physical variables at T1 and T3 in the control group; whereas progesterone, cortisol, and DHEAS were more closely associated with these variables in the OC group across test times. The direction of influence further varies by behavior, group, and time point. Among naturally cycling women, higher concentrations of estradiol and estriol are associated with lower attraction scores at T1 but higher scores at T3. Among OC users, DHEAS

  8. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder--review of actual findings about mental disorders related to menstrual cycle and possibilities of their therapy.

    Zukov, I; Ptácek, R; Raboch, J; Domluvilová, D; Kuzelová, H; Fischer, S; Kozelek, P

    2010-01-01

    It is known that mood disorders in women explicitly relates to estrogen production. Except for these findings phenomenon as Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder, directly connected to menstrual cycle in women, is widely discussed. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a set of subjectively unpleasant mental and somatic symptoms. It appears in luteal phase of ovarian cycle. During menstruation it remits and disappears up to one week from its termination. DSM IV classified PMDD into the category of "Other specific depressive disorders" and further revision DSM IV-TR classifies PMDD as a separate strictly defined psychiatric diagnosis. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) does not include any specific category as PMDD or similar. The closest category F38.8 does not represent the core of the phenomenon because it relates only to general depressive symptomatology and does not give specific diagnostic criteria to menstrual cycle related mood disorders (Grady-Weliky, 2003). In the presented article, possible effectivity of PMDD treatment with the focus to antidepressants of SSRI type (Serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors) is discussed. In spite of interesting and significant findings, the treatment of PMDD and accordingly PMS is above all multidisciplinary question and it must be treated like that.

  9. Relationship of Estimated SHIV Acquisition Time Points During the Menstrual Cycle and Thinning of Vaginal Epithelial Layers in Pigtail Macaques.

    Kersh, Ellen N; Ritter, Jana; Butler, Katherine; Ostergaard, Sharon Dietz; Hanson, Debra; Ellis, Shanon; Zaki, Sherif; McNicholl, Janet M

    2015-12-01

    HIV acquisition in the female genital tract remains incompletely understood. Quantitative data on biological HIV risk factors, the influence of reproductive hormones, and infection risk are lacking. We evaluated vaginal epithelial thickness during the menstrual cycle in pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina). This model previously revealed increased susceptibility to vaginal infection during and after progesterone-dominated periods in the menstrual cycle. Nucleated and nonnucleated (superficial) epithelial layers were quantitated throughout the menstrual cycle of 16 macaques. We examined the relationship with previously estimated vaginal SHIVSF162P3 acquisition time points in the cycle of 43 different animals repeatedly exposed to low virus doses. In the luteal phase (days 17 to cycle end), the mean vaginal epithelium thinned to 66% of mean follicular thickness (days 1-16; P = 0.007, Mann-Whitney test). Analyzing 4-day segments, the epithelium was thickest on days 9 to 12 and thinned to 31% thereof on days 29 to 32, with reductions of nucleated and nonnucleated layers to 36% and 15% of their previous thickness, respectively. The proportion of animals with estimated SHIV acquisition in each cycle segment correlated with nonnucleated layer thinning (Pearson r = 0.7, P layer thinning (Pearson r = 0.6, P = 0.15). These data provide a detailed picture of dynamic cycle-related changes in the vaginal epithelium of pigtail macaques. Substantial thinning occurred in the superficial, nonnucleated layer, which maintains the vaginal microbiome. The findings support vaginal tissue architecture as susceptibility factor for infection and contribute to our understanding of innate resistance to SHIV infection.

  10. Menstrual questionnaires for clinical and research use.

    Matteson, Kristen A

    2017-04-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) have the potential to be extremely valuable in the clinical care delivery for women who report heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). Increasingly, studies on HMB have incorporated PROMs to evaluate the impact of bleeding on quality of life. These measures have included semiquantitative charts and pictograms, questionnaires to assess symptoms and impact on quality of life, and health-related quality of life questionnaires. Recent systematic reviews have highlighted inconsistency of outcome measurement across studies on HMB as a challenge limiting the interpretability of the body of literature and the ability to generate consensus on the relative effectiveness of treatment options. Consequently, research initiatives and international collaborations are working to harmonize outcome measurement. Harmonizing the use of questionnaires in research and clinical care has the potential to improve patient-centered care delivery for women with HMB and improve the generation of patient-focused evidence-based guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of HMB. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Paternal understanding of menstrual concerns in young women.

    Girling, Jane E; Hawthorne, Samuel Cj; Marino, Jennifer L; Nur Azurah, Abdul G; Grover, Sonia R; Jayasinghe, Yasmin L

    2018-04-12

    No studies have specifically considered paternal understanding of menstruation. This study aimed to establish the degree of understanding of fathers of adolescent girls with menstrual symptoms relative to mothers. This is a cross-sectional survey-based study. Adolescent patients attending an outpatient gynaecology clinic for dysmenorrhoea and/or heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) and their parents were invited to complete surveys. 60 surveys were completed (24/40 daughters, 20/40 mothers, 16/40 fathers). Surveys aimed to test parents' understanding of menstrual symptoms and potential medications, as well as fathers' concerns with their daughters' health. The fathers' knowledge of menstrual symptoms was poorer than mothers, although most knew HMB (93%) and mood swings (87%). Many parents answered 'don't know' or did not answer questions about potential consequences of medications, although parents were clearly concerned about side effects. Most fathers (80%) were open to discussing menstrual concerns with daughters; however, only 52% of daughters were open to such discussions. Of fathers, 80% felt sympathetic/concerned, 53% helpless and 13% frustrated when daughters were in pain. When asked about impacts, 93% of fathers (79% of mothers) were worried about their daughter's welfare and 60% (21%) about schooling. We present the first insight into fathers' knowledge of their daughters' menstrual health. Overall, parents have an incomplete picture of menstrual symptoms. Even in this cohort, which could be expected to be well informed due to their daughters' attendance at a tertiary hospital, it is clear that further knowledge would assist them caring for their daughters. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Treatment Modalities in Adolescents Who present With Heavy Menstrual Bleeding.

    Alaqzam, Tasneem S; Stanley, Angela C; Simpson, Pippa M; Flood, Veronica H; Menon, Seema

    2018-03-07

    This study sought to determine the relationship of bleeding disorders to iron deficiency anemia. Additionally, this study was undertaken to examine all current treatment modalities used in a menorrhagia clinic with respect to heavy menstrual bleeding management to identify the most effective options for menstrual management in the setting of an underlying bleeding disorder. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANT, INTERVENTION, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Retrospective chart review of adolescent <21 years with heavy menstrual bleeding attending a multidisciplinary hematology-adolescent gynecology clinic. Information included demographics, bleeding diathesis, hematologic parameters, treatment, and the diagnosis was extracted from each chart. Subjects were grouped into two categories based on the diagnosis of a bleeding disorder. Hemoglobin level, iron deficiency anemia, and need for transfusion were compared between a bleeding disorder and no bleeding disorder group. Subjects were grouped into categories depending on hormonal modality and treatment success of the groups were compared. 73 subjects tested for a bleeding disorder. Of the subjects completing testing, 34 (46%) were diagnosed with a bleeding disorders. 39 (54%) subjects had heavy menstrual bleeding due to other causes. There was no significant difference in hemoglobin between those with and without a bleeding disorder. Iron deficiency anemia was significantly higher in subjects without bleeding disorder. When comparing hormone therapy success, the levonorgestrel IUD (LNG-IUD) (89%) had the highest rate of menstrual suppression followed by norethindrone acetate 5-10mg/day (83%), and the transdermal patch (80%). All subjects using both tranexamic acid and hormonal therapy had 100% achievement of menstrual suppression. A high frequency of bleeding disorder was found in those tested. Subjects with a bleeding disorder were less likely to present with severe anemia requiring blood transfusion and less likely to have iron

  13. COPD exacerbations by disease severity in England

    Merinopoulou E

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Evie Merinopoulou,1 Mireia Raluy-Callado,1 Sreeram Ramagopalan,1 Sharon MacLachlan,1 Javaria Mona Khalid2 1Real-World Evidence, Evidera, 2Takeda Development Centre Europe Ltd, London, UK Objectives: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are associated with accelerated disease progression and are important drivers of health care resource utilization. The study aimed to quantify the rates of COPD exacerbations in England and assess health care resource utilization by severity categories according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD 2013.Methods: Data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to Hospital Episode Statistics were used to identify patients with a COPD diagnosis aged ≥40 years. Those with complete spirometric, modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale information, and exacerbation history 12 months prior to January 1, 2011 (index date were classified into GOLD severity groups. Study outcomes over follow-up (up to December 31, 2013 were exacerbation rates and resource utilization (general practitioner visits, hospital admissions.Results: From the 44,201 patients in the study cohort, 83.5% were classified into severity levels GOLD A: 33.8%, GOLD B: 21.0%, GOLD C: 18.1%, and GOLD D: 27.0%. Mean age at diagnosis was 66 years and 52.0% were male. Annual exacerbation rates per person-year increased with severity, from 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81–0.85 for GOLD A to 2.51 (95% CI: 2.47–2.55 for GOLD D. General practitioner visit rates per person-year also increased with severity, from 4.82 (95% CI: 4.74–4.93 for GOLD A to 7.44 (95% CI: 7.31–7.61 for GOLD D. COPD-related hospitalization rates per person-year increased from less symptoms (GOLD A: 0.28, GOLD C: 0.39 to more symptoms (GOLD B: 0.52, GOLD D: 0.84.Conclusion: Patients in the most severe category (GOLD D experienced nearly three times the number of exacerbations and COPD

  14. Menstrual blood closely resembles the uterine immune micro-environment and is clearly distinct from peripheral blood

    Molen, R.G. van der; Schutten, J.H.; Cranenbroek, B. van; Meer, M. ter; Donckers, J.; Scholten, R.R.; Heijden, O.W.H. van der; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Joosten, I.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is menstrual blood a suitable source of endometrial derived lymphocytes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Mononuclear cells isolated from menstrual samples (menstrual blood mononuclear cells (MMC)) are clearly distinct from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and show a strong resemblance with

  15. The effect of a school-based educational intervention on menstrual health: an intervention study among adolescent girls in Bangladesh

    Haque, S.E.; Rahman, M.; Itsuko, K.; Mutahara, M.; Sakisaka, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the impact of a school-based menstrual education programme on: (1) menstrual knowledge, beliefs and practices, (2) menstrual disorders experienced, and (3) restrictions on menstruating adolescents. Design: Intervention study. Setting: Araihazar area, Bangladesh. Participants:

  16. Effect of the menstrual cycle in ethanol pharmacokinetics.

    Haddad, L; Milke, P; Zapata, L; de la Fuente, J R; Vargas-Vorácková, F; Lorenzana-Jiménez, M; Corte, G; Tamayo, J; Kaplan, M; Márquez, M; Kershenobich, D

    1998-01-01

    Differences in ethanol pharmacokinetics within the menstrual cycle have previously been reported and attributed to variations in body composition, hormonal influences and gastric emptying. To establish the role of the menstrual cycle in ethanol pharmacokinetics associated with changes in body composition, ethanol blood concentrations were measured in nine healthy women during the midfollicular (P1, days 8-10) and midluteal (P2, days 22-24) phases of the menstrual cycle after a postprandial oral ethanol dose (0.3 g kg(-1)). Total body water was assessed by dual-energy x-ray densitometry (DEXA) on both occasions. Median total body water did not vary during either phase of the menstrual cycle (P1 = 54.54%, P2 = 54.66%; P = 0.9296). Median area under the ethanol concentration-time curve (AUC) was lower during P1 (215.33 mg.h dl(-1)) than during P2 (231.33 mg.h dl(-1))(P = 0.8253). No significant differences were found on ethanol pharmacokinetics in either phase of the menstrual cycle.

  17. MARGINAL IODINE DEFICIENCY EXACERBATES PERCHLORATE THYROID TOXICITY.

    The environmental contaminant perchlorate disrupts thyroid homeostasis via inhibition of iodine uptake into the thyroid. This work tested whether iodine deficiency exacerbates the effects of perchlorate. Female 27 day-old LE rats were fed a custom iodine deficient diet with 0, 50...

  18. The Effect of Yoga on Menstrual Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    Oates, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    To summarize and evaluate evidence for the effect of yoga on menstrual disorders. PubMed, CINAHL/MEDLINE, Web of Science, AMED, and Scopus were searched for English-language literature relevant to the review question. All primary research studies were included. Fifteen studies described in 18 papers were included in the review. A range of yoga interventions were used. Some studies used a combination of Asana, Pranayama, and other yogic relaxation or meditation techniques. All included studies reported some change in their outcome measures, suggesting reduced symptoms of menstrual distress following a yoga intervention; however, the heterogeneity and intensity of the interventions and outcome measures meant that findings have limited generalizability and applicability in practice settings. Further research on the relationship between yoga practice and menstrual disorders is warranted, but there must be both consistency in the methods, measures, and quality of studies and a shift toward research on yoga practices that are replicable outside of the clinical trial setting.

  19. Prevention of Acute Exacerbations of COPD

    Bourbeau, Jean; Diekemper, Rebecca L.; Ouellette, Daniel R.; Goodridge, Donna; Hernandez, Paul; Curren, Kristen; Balter, Meyer S.; Bhutani, Mohit; Camp, Pat G.; Celli, Bartolome R.; Dechman, Gail; Dransfield, Mark T.; Fiel, Stanley B.; Foreman, Marilyn G.; Hanania, Nicola A.; Ireland, Belinda K.; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Marciniuk, Darcy D.; Mularski, Richard A.; Ornelas, Joseph; Stickland, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: COPD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States as well as throughout the rest of the world. An exacerbation of COPD (periodic escalations of symptoms of cough, dyspnea, and sputum production) is a major contributor to worsening lung function, impairment in quality of life, need for urgent care or hospitalization, and cost of care in COPD. Research conducted over the past decade has contributed much to our current understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of COPD. Additionally, an evolving literature has accumulated about the prevention of acute exacerbations. METHODS: In recognition of the importance of preventing exacerbations in patients with COPD, the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) and Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) joint evidence-based guideline (AECOPD Guideline) was developed to provide a practical, clinically useful document to describe the current state of knowledge regarding the prevention of acute exacerbations according to major categories of prevention therapies. Three key clinical questions developed using the PICO (population, intervention, comparator, and outcome) format addressed the prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD: nonpharmacologic therapies, inhaled therapies, and oral therapies. We used recognized document evaluation tools to assess and choose the most appropriate studies and to extract meaningful data and grade the level of evidence to support the recommendations in each PICO question in a balanced and unbiased fashion. RESULTS: The AECOPD Guideline is unique not only for its topic, the prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD, but also for the first-in-kind partnership between two of the largest thoracic societies in North America. The CHEST Guidelines Oversight Committee in partnership with the CTS COPD Clinical Assembly launched this project with the objective that a systematic review and critical evaluation of the published literature by clinical experts and researchers in

  20. A Confirmed Case of Toxic Shock Syndrome Associated with the Use of a Menstrual Cup

    Michael A Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Menstrual cups have been reported to be an acceptable substitute for tampons. These flexible cups have also been reported to provide a sustainable solution to menstrual management, with modest cost savings and no significant health risk.

  1. Psychoendocrinological assessment of the menstrual cycle: the relationship between hormones, sexuality, and mood

    van Goozen, S. H.; Wiegant, V. M.; Endert, E.; Helmond, F. A.; van de Poll, N. E.

    1997-01-01

    The role of sex hormones in sexuality and mood across the menstrual cycle was investigated. Twenty-one normal health women were followed for one menstrual cycle. Blood samples were taken frequently, and analyzed for estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone

  2. Women with minor menstrual irregularities have increased risk of preeclampsia and low birthweight in spontaneous pregnancies

    Bonnesen, Barbara; Oddgeirsdóttir, Hanna L; Naver, Klara Vinsand

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Very few studies describe the obstetric and neonatal outcome of spontaneous pregnancies in women with irregular menstrual cycles. However, menstrual cycle irregularities are common and may be associated with increased risk, and women who develop pregnancy complications more frequent...

  3. Menstrual Changes in Body Composition of Female Athletes.

    Stachoń, Aleksandra Jadwiga

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether the tendencies and scope of changes in body mass, body composition and body girths across the menstrual cycle were similar or different in women of different body build. Anthropometric examinations were carried out in a group of 40 naturally regularly menstruated females practicing team sports (aged 19-21, B-v 169.3+/-6.4 cm, body mass 59.6+/-7.0 kg), in the follicular, periovulatory and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. The phases were determined on the basis of data from two consecutive menstrual cycles taking into account the cycle’s length. To establish the type of body build, Body Mass Index, hydration status and skinfold thickness were measured. For a statistical analysis, a multiple comparisons with multiple confidence intervals were applied. The increase in body mass between the follicular and the luteal phases was observed in all groups of women, the biggest gain was recorded in slim women, who in the luteal phase weighted 0.8 kg more. The amount of fat mass increased significantly across the menstrual cycle only in more hydrated (by about 0.66 kg) and slim women (by about 0.54 kg). Significant changes between consecutive phases of the menstrual cycle in waist and hip girths, and suprailiac skinfold thickness in some groups of women also indicate influence of fatness and hydration status and slenderness. In view of the presented results, the body build seems important for an analysis of the pattern of each component’s changes across the menstrual cycle, especially for female athletes. Certain changes can be seen only in some groups of women, therefore somatic features can be considered as a predictor of the intensity of changes.

  4. Circulating microRNA Profile throughout the menstrual cycle.

    Kadri Rekker

    Full Text Available Normal physiological variables, such as age and gender, contribute to alterations in circulating microRNA (miRNA expression levels. The changes in the female body during the menstrual cycle can also be reflected in plasma miRNA expression levels. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the plasma miRNA profile of healthy women during the menstrual cycle and to assess which circulating miRNAs are derived from blood cells. The plasma miRNA expression profiles in nine healthy women were determined by quantitative real time PCR using Exiqon Human Panel I assays from four time-points of the menstrual cycle. This platform was also used for studying miRNAs from pooled whole blood RNA samples at the same four time-points. Our results indicated that circulating miRNA expression levels in healthy women were not significantly altered by the processes occurring during the menstrual cycle. No significant differences in plasma miRNA expression levels were observed between the menstrual cycle time-points, but the number of detected miRNAs showed considerable variation among the studied individuals. miRNA analysis from whole blood samples revealed that majority of miRNAs in plasma are derived from blood cells. The most abundant miRNA in plasma and blood was hsa-miR-451a, but a number of miRNAs were only detected in one or the other sample type. In conclusion, our data suggest that the changes in the female body during the menstrual cycle do not affect the expression of circulating miRNAs at measurable levels.

  5. Menstrual Pattern following Tubal Ligation: A Historical Cohort Study

    Shahideh Jahanian Sadatmahalleh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tubal ligation (TL is recommended for women who have completed their family planning. The existence of the menstrual disorders following this procedure has been the subject of debate for decades. This study was conducted to identify the relationship between tubal ligation and menstrual disorders. Materials and Methods: A historical cohort study was carried out on 140 women undergoing tubal ligation (TL group and on 140 women using condom as the main contraceptive method (Non-TL group. They aged between 20 and 40 years and were selected from a health care center in Rudsar, Guilan Province, Iran, during 2013-2014. The two groups were comparable in demographic characteristics, obstetrical features and menstrual bleeding pattern using a routine questionnaire. A validated pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBLAC was also used to measure the menstrual blood loss. Results: Women with TL had more menstrual irregularity than those without TL (24.3 vs. 10%, P=0.002. Women with TL had more polymenorrhea (9.3 vs. 1.4%, P=0.006, hypermenorrhea (12.1 vs. 2.1%, P=0.002, menorrhagia (62.9 vs. 22.1%, P<0.0001 and menometrorrhagia (15.7 vs. 3.6%, P=0.001 than those without TL. There is a significant difference in the PBLAC score between women with and without TL (P<0.0001. According to logistic regression, age odds ratio [(OR=1.08, confidence interval (CI:1.07-1.17, P=0.03], TL (OR=5.95, CI:3.45-10.26, P<0.0001 and cesarean section (OR=2.72, CI:1.49-4.97, P=0.001 were significantly associated with menorrhagia. Conclusion: We found significant differences in menstrual disorders between women with and without TL. Therefore, women should be informed by the health providers regarding the advantages and disadvantages of TL before the procedures.

  6. Cognitive Performance in College Women Throughout the Menstrual Cycle

    Fred Gustavo Manrique-Abril

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether fluctuations of estrogen levels across the menstrual cycle influence cognitive performance, 13 university women between 20 and 23 years old were tested in four cognitive tasks; verbal memory, visuospatial ability, short term memory and visuo-motor coordination, three times across a menstrual cycle. Radioimmunoassay tests were performed in order to determine the hormonal state. Significant differences were not found in visuo-spatial ability and visuo-motor coordination performance, but results suggest a better verbal memory performance associated with high estrogen levels; short term memory performance didn’t show to be sensitive to fluctuations in estrogen levels.

  7. Managing Heavy Menstrual Bleeding in Women at Risk of Thrombosis.

    Rivara, Andrew; James, Andra H

    2018-06-01

    Management of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in a woman with a history of thrombosis, or who is otherwise at high risk of thrombosis, or who takes medications for anticoagulation can present a challenge to health care providers. The goal of treating HMB is to reduce menstrual blood loss. First-line therapy is typically hormonal, and hormonal therapy can be contraindicated in women with a history of thrombosis unless they are on anticoagulation. As 70% of women on anticoagulation experience HMB, successful management of HMB may involve a modification in the anticoagulation or antiplatelet regimen, hormonal therapy tailored to the patient's situation, and/or surgical therapy.

  8. Effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding menstrual blood stem cells banking among nursing students

    Neelam Hans; Sandeep Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Background: Menstrual blood banking enables women to store their menstrual blood under required conditions and preserve it for future. Stem cells present in the menstrual blood have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body. The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding menstrual blood stem cells banking among nursing students studying in selected nursing college of Amritsar, Punjab. M...

  9. Characterisation and prevention of exacerbations in frequently exacerbating patienst with COPD

    S. Uzun (Sevim)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease which is characterised by airway inflammation and progressive airflow limitation with poor reversibility. Periods of acute deterioration lie in the natural course of the disease and are called exacerbations.

  10. Clinical characteristics of eosinophilic asthma exacerbations

    Bjerregaard, Asger; Laing, Ingrid A; Backer, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    blood cell counts and a screening for common respiratory viruses and bacteria. An eosinophilic exacerbation (EE) was defined as having sputum eosinophils ≥ 3% and a non-eosinophilic exacerbation as NEE). RESULTS: A total of 47 patients were enrolled; 37 (79%) had successful sputum induction...... at baseline, of whom 43% had sputum eosinophils ≥3% (EE). Patients with EE had a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) % predicted (70.8%, P = 0.03) than patients with NEE (83.6%). Furthermore, EE patients were more likely to require supplemental oxygen during admission (63% vs 14%, P...... = 0.002). The prevalence of respiratory viruses was the same in EE and NEE patients (44% vs 52%, P = 0.60), as was bacterial infection (6% vs 14%, P = 0.44). Fractional expiratory nitric oxide (FeNO) correlated with sputum %-eosinophils (ρ = 0.57, P

  11. Age at Menarche and Menstrual Problems Among School‑Going ...

    exists for strong health educational activities among the adolescent girls, their parents, and teachers for effective management of menstrual problems ... accompanied by mental and psychological development.[3] ... At the third stage, students from classes VI to XII of age ..... girls in Malaysia: A cross-sectional school survey.

  12. Influence of menstrual phase on ventilatory response to submaximal ...

    Objectives. To determine whether an increase in respiratory drive, due to elevated progesterone and oestrogen concentration during various menstrual phases, persists throughout prolonged submaximal exercise and potentially contributes to fatigue. Furthermore, to determine whether the difference in the ventilatory ...

  13. Menstrual cycle phase does not predict political conservatism.

    Scott, Isabel M; Pound, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Recent authors have reported a relationship between women's fertility status, as indexed by menstrual cycle phase, and conservatism in moral, social and political values. We conducted a survey to test for the existence of a relationship between menstrual cycle day and conservatism. 2213 women reporting regular menstrual cycles provided data about their political views. Of these women, 2208 provided information about their cycle date, 1260 provided additional evidence of reliability in self-reported cycle date, and of these, 750 also indicated an absence of hormonal disruptors such as recent hormonal contraception use, breastfeeding or pregnancy. Cycle day was used to estimate day-specific fertility rate (probability of conception); political conservatism was measured via direct self-report and via responses to the "Moral Foundations" questionnaire. We also recorded relationship status, which has been reported to interact with menstrual cycle phase in determining political preferences. We found no evidence of a relationship between estimated cyclical fertility changes and conservatism, and no evidence of an interaction between relationship status and cyclical fertility in determining political attitudes. Our findings were robust to multiple inclusion/exclusion criteria and to different methods of estimating fertility and measuring conservatism. In summary, the relationship between cycle-linked reproductive parameters and conservatism may be weaker or less reliable than previously thought.

  14. Change in women's eating habits during the menstrual cycle.

    Kammoun, Ines; Ben Saâda, Wafa; Sifaou, Amira; Haouat, Emna; Kandara, Hajer; Ben Salem, Leila; Ben Slama, Claude

    2017-02-01

    During the menstrual cycle, the influence of hormonal variations on dietary habits in women has been suggested by several studies. In this context, our work aimed to assess the spontaneous food intake and the anthropometric parameters of women at different periods of their menstrual cycles. This prospective study included 30 healthy women with regular periods (28 to 30 days), aged between 18 and 45. We assessed the spontaneous food intake and the anthropometric measurements (weight and waist circumference) of the participants, during the follicular, peri-ovulatory and luteal phases of their menstrual cycles. Our results showed a slight but significant increase in body weight during the luteal phase (P=0.022) and the follicular phase (P=0.017) compared with the peri-ovulatory phase, without any significant change in waist circumference. The caloric intake increased during the peri-ovulatory (P<0.001) and the luteal phases (P<0.001), compared with the follicular phase, with a significant increase in carbohydrate (P<0.001), lipid (P=0.008) and protein (P=0.008) intake. Our study showed a significant decrease in women's weight during the peri-ovulatory phase, with a significant increase in caloric intake during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Divergent results have been reported by other authors and the physiopathology of these changes is still poorly understood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Digit ratios, the menstrual cycle and social preferences

    Buser, T.

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether social preferences are partially determined by biological factors. We do this by investigating whether digit ratios (2D:4D) and menstrual cycle information are correlated with choices in ultimatum, trust, public good and dictator games. Digit ratios are thought to be a proxy for

  16. Characterization of chaotic dynamics in the human menstrual cycle

    Derry, Gregory; Derry, Paula

    2010-03-01

    The human menstrual cycle exhibits much unexplained variability, which is typically dismissed as random variation. Given the many delayed nonlinear feedbacks in the reproductive endocrine system, however, the menstrual cycle might well be a nonlinear dynamical system in a chaotic trajectory, and that this instead accounts for the observed variability. Here, we test this hypothesis by performing a time series analysis on data for 7438 menstrual cycles from 38 women in the 20-40 year age range, using the database maintained by the Tremin Research Program on Women's Health. Using phase space reconstruction techniques with a maximum embedding dimension of 6, we find appropriate scaling behavior in the correlation sums for this data, indicating low dimensional deterministic dynamics. A correlation dimension of 2.6 is measured in this scaling regime, and this result is confirmed by recalculation using the Takens estimator. These results may be interpreted as offering an approximation to the fractal dimension of a strange attractor governing the chaotic dynamics of the menstrual cycle.

  17. Attitude of Nigerian women to abnormal menstrual bleeding from ...

    Background: Depot Medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and Norethisterone Enanthate (Net-En) are frequently used progestogen-only injectable contraceptives in many developing countries including Nigeria. Their use is often complicated by abnormal and unpredictable menstrual bleeding patterns. This has often been ...

  18. Mood Effects of Alcohol and Expectancies during the Menstrual Cycle.

    Adesso, Vincent J.; Freitag, Wendy J.

    This research attempted to develop a profile of women's moods across the menstrual cycle and to determine alcohol's effects upon those moods. The Profile of Mood States was used to measure mood in 96 female college students who were heavy drinkers. Subjects were randomly assigned to the cells of the balanced placebo design with equal numbers in…

  19. Menstrual Disorders in Rural Igbo Women of Ebonyi State, South ...

    Background: Rural Igbo women frequently perceive disorders of menstruation in the context of their inability to achieve pregnancy, and may otherwise not volunteer information on such abnormalities in the gynaecological clinic. This study determined the prevalence and pattern of menstrual disorders in rural Igbo women of ...

  20. Haemostatic variables during normal menstrual cycle A systematic review

    Knol, H. Marieke; Kemperman, Ramses F. J.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Mulder, Andre B.; Meijer, Karina

    For a number of haemostatic factors menstrual cycle variation has been studied. Such variation could have clinical implications for the timing of haemostatic testing in women. It was our objective to systematically review the literature about evidence for timing of haemostatic testing during

  1. Menstrual hygiene among students of a tertiary institution in Benin ...

    Menstrual hygiene refers to a constellation of personal sanitation during menstruation and it involves use of appropriate sanitary pads, regular bathing and changing of clothes. The sustenance of menstruation related monthly sanitation, places an extra burden on the socioeconomic status and academic activity of females.

  2. Menstrual characteristics in some adolescent girls in Accra, Ghana ...

    Background: Menstruation has a variable pattern within a few years of menarche which may not be well understood by many adolescent girls. Providing accurate information on menstruation is necessary to reduce anxiety, menstrual morbidity and improve reproductive health of these adolescents. Objective: To determine ...

  3. Age at menarche and menstrual pattern in secondary schoolgirls in ...

    Menarche is the first menstruation in the life of a woman. Menstrual pattern involves the length of bleeding, the length of the cycle and other associated events such as pain ( ). Dysmenorrhoea has been identified as a reason for school absenteeismin girls. To determine the mean age at menarche and pattern of ...

  4. Pre-Menstrual Syndrome in Women with Down Syndrome

    Mason, Linda; Cunningham, Cliff

    2009-01-01

    Background: Prevalence of pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS) may be higher in women with Down syndrome due to syndrome specific characteristics in biochemistry, psychopathology and lifestyle. Recognition of PMS may be difficult for women with intellectual disabilities and their carers. Method: A daily diary, used to diagnose PMS with typical women, was…

  5. Sexual and menstrual practices: risks for cervix cancer | Maree ...

    Cervix cancer is the cancer that causes most female deaths in South Africa. Little is known about the sexual and menstrual practices in high-risk communities in South Africa. Knowledge of the risks inherent in these practices might lead to changed behaviour. The purpose of this study was to investigate if there are inherent ...

  6. Fluctuation in Spatial Ability Scores during the Menstrual Cycle.

    Moody, M. Suzanne

    Whether or not fluctuations in spatial ability as measured by S. G. Vandenberg's Mental Rotations Test occur during the menstrual cycle was studied with 133 female students from 9 undergraduate educational psychology and nursing classes. For comparison, 28 male students also took the test. Scores from 55 females fell into the relevant menstrual…

  7. Menstrual cycle phase does not predict political conservatism.

    Isabel M Scott

    Full Text Available Recent authors have reported a relationship between women's fertility status, as indexed by menstrual cycle phase, and conservatism in moral, social and political values. We conducted a survey to test for the existence of a relationship between menstrual cycle day and conservatism. 2213 women reporting regular menstrual cycles provided data about their political views. Of these women, 2208 provided information about their cycle date, 1260 provided additional evidence of reliability in self-reported cycle date, and of these, 750 also indicated an absence of hormonal disruptors such as recent hormonal contraception use, breastfeeding or pregnancy. Cycle day was used to estimate day-specific fertility rate (probability of conception; political conservatism was measured via direct self-report and via responses to the "Moral Foundations" questionnaire. We also recorded relationship status, which has been reported to interact with menstrual cycle phase in determining political preferences. We found no evidence of a relationship between estimated cyclical fertility changes and conservatism, and no evidence of an interaction between relationship status and cyclical fertility in determining political attitudes. Our findings were robust to multiple inclusion/exclusion criteria and to different methods of estimating fertility and measuring conservatism. In summary, the relationship between cycle-linked reproductive parameters and conservatism may be weaker or less reliable than previously thought.

  8. [Summary of the practice guideline 'Heavy menstrual bleeding'

    Vree, F.E.; Kooij, S.M. van der; Coppus, S.F.P.J.; Janssen, C.A.H.; Reekers, J.A.; Hehenkamp, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    - A new multidisciplinary practice guideline on heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) has recently been published.- HMB may occur with or without structural abnormalities.- The pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBAC) is the best method for estimating the amount of blood loss and for distinguishing

  9. Incidence and treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding in general practice

    van den Brink, Marian J.; Saaltink, Anne Linde; Groenhof, Feikje; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Lisman-van Leeuwen, Yvonne; Dekker, Janny H.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a common problem in women of reproductive age. In 2008, the Dutch guideline for general practitioners (GPs) was revised to recommend the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) as a first-choice treatment for HMB. However, GP prescribing practices

  10. Narratives of Menstrual Product Consumption: Convenience, Culture, or Commoditization?

    Davidson, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The environmental and social costs of consumer societies have increasingly been recognized. Achieving sustainable household consumption requires an understanding of the underlying roots of current consumption levels. Using the case study of menstrual care practices, different theoretical frameworks--or narratives--for understanding household…

  11. Menstrually related worsening of symptoms in multiple sclerosis

    Zorgdrager, A; DeKeyser, J

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether the menstrual cycle influences multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms. Seventy-two normally menstruating women (aged 20-50 years) with MS were interviewed. Of the 60 patients with a relapsing-remitting form of MS (RR-MS), 26 (43%) regularly

  12. GC/MS-based profiling of amino acids and TCA cycle-related molecules in ulcerative colitis.

    Ooi, Makoto; Nishiumi, Shin; Yoshie, Tomoo; Shiomi, Yuuki; Kohashi, Michitaka; Fukunaga, Ken; Nakamura, Shiro; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Hatano, Naoya; Shinohara, Masakazu; Irino, Yasuhiro; Takenawa, Tadaomi; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2011-09-01

    The roles that amino acids play in immunity and inflammation are well defined, and the relationship between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and certain amino acids has recently attracted attention. In this study, the levels of amino acids and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) cycle-related molecules in the colonic tissues and sera of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) were profiled by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), with the aim of evaluating whether the clinical state induced by UC leads to variations in the amino acid profile. Colonic biopsy samples from 22 UC patients were used, as well as serum samples from UC patients (n = 13), Crohn's disease (CD) patients (n = 21), and healthy volunteers (n = 17). In the GC/MS-based profiling of amino acids and TCA cycle-related molecules, lower levels of 16 amino acids and 5 TCA cycle-related molecules were observed in the colonic lesion tissues of the UC patients, and the serum profiles of amino acids and TCA cycle-related molecules of the UC patients were different from those of the CD patients and healthy volunteers. Our study raises the possibility that GC/MS-based profiling of amino acids and TCA cycle-related molecules is a useful early diagnostic tool for UC.

  13. A confirmed case of toxic shock syndrome associated with the use of a menstrual cup.

    Mitchell, Michael A; Bisch, Steve; Arntfield, Shannon; Hosseini-Moghaddam, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Menstrual cups have been reported to be an acceptable substitute for tampons. These flexible cups have also been reported to provide a sustainable solution to menstrual management, with modest cost savings and no significant health risk. The present article documents the first case of toxic shock syndrome associated with the use of a menstrual cup in a woman 37 years of age, using a menstrual cup for the first time. Toxic shock syndrome and the literature on menstrual cups is reviewed and a possible mechanism for the development of toxic shock syndrome in the patient is described.

  14. Hormonal responses to resistance exercise during different menstrual cycle states.

    Nakamura, Yuki; Aizawa, Katsuji; Imai, Tomoko; Kono, Ichiro; Mesaki, Noboru

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the effect of menstrual cycle states on ovarian and anabolic hormonal responses to acute resistance exercise in young women. Eight healthy women (eumenorrhea; EM) and eight women with menstrual disorders including oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea (OAM) participated in this study. The EM group performed acute resistance exercises during the early follicular (EF) and midluteal (ML) phases, and the OAM group performed the same exercises. All subjects performed three sets each of lat pull-downs, leg curls, bench presses, leg extensions, and squats at 75%-80% of one-repetition maximum with a 1-min rest between sets. Blood samples were obtained before exercise, immediately after, 30 min after, and 60 min after the exercise. In the EM group, resting serum levels of estradiol and progesterone in the ML phase were higher than those in the EF phase and higher than those in the OAM group. Serum estradiol and progesterone in the ML phase increased after the exercise but did not change in the EF phase or in the OAM group. In contrast, resting levels of testosterone in the OAM group were higher than those in both the ML and EF phases of the EM group. After the exercise, serum growth hormone increased in both the ML and EF phases but did not change in the OAM group. The responses of anabolic hormones to acute resistance exercise are different among the menstrual cycle states in young women. Women with menstrual disturbances with low estradiol and progesterone serum levels have an attenuated anabolic hormone response to acute resistance exercise, suggesting that menstrual disorders accompanying low ovarian hormone levels may affect exercise-induced change in anabolic hormones in women.

  15. The quality of life of adolescents with menstrual problems.

    Nur Azurah, Abdul Ghani; Sanci, Lena; Moore, Elya; Grover, Sonia

    2013-04-01

    To date, very few publications have examined the health related quality of life (HRQL) in the younger population with menstrual problems, despite their high prevalence in adolescent girls. We describe the health-related quality of life (HRQL) among adolescents with menstrual problems and identified factors that have an impact on it. The study was a questionnaire study (using PedsQL 4.0) of adolescents aged 13-18 referred to a tertiary gynecology center for menstrual problems between June 2009 and August 2010. One hundred eighty-four adolescents completed the questionnaires. The mean age was 15.10 ± 1.49 with the mean body mass index (BMI) of 22.83 ± 4.82 kg/m(2). The most common menstrual problems seen in the clinic were dysmenorrhea (38.6%) followed by heavy bleeding (33.6%), oligomenorrhea (19.6%), and amenorrhea (8.2%). The mean overall score was 70.40 ± 16.36 with 42.3% having a score below 1 standard deviation (SD) from the norms. Adolescents with dysmenorrhea had the poorest score in physical function, whereas those with amenorrhea had the lowest score in psychosocial function. Maternal parenting style, parental anxiety, adolescents' ill-health behavior, and BMI have been found to have impact on the girls' quality of life (QoL). Although menstrual problems are not life threatening, they can pose a significant impact on the quality of life of these patients. Identification of these impacts might lead to the recognition of potential services or education to improve this. Understanding the characteristics that predict QoL may help a clinician identify patients who are risk for poor QoL. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. All rights reserved.

  16. Myasthenia gravis exacerbation and diarrhea associated with erythromycin treatment

    Sora Yasri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An important problem in management of the case with myasthenia gravis (MG is the control of exacerbation. There are several possible causes of exacerbation of MG including the use of drug. Here, the authors report a case of MG exacerbation and diarrhea associated with erythromycin treatment.

  17. FLOW (finding lasting options for women): multicentre randomized controlled trial comparing tampons with menstrual cups.

    Howard, Courtney; Rose, Caren Lee; Trouton, Konia; Stamm, Holly; Marentette, Danielle; Kirkpatrick, Nicole; Karalic, Sanja; Fernandez, Renee; Paget, Julie

    2011-06-01

    To determine whether menstrual cups are a viable alternative to tampons. Randomized controlled trial. Prince George, Victoria, and Vancouver, BC. A total of 110 women aged 19 to 40 years who had previously used tampons as their main method of menstrual management. Participants were randomized into 2 groups, a tampon group and a menstrual cup group. Using online diaries, participants tracked 1 menstrual cycle using their regular method and 3 menstrual cycles using the method of their allocated group. Overall satisfaction; secondary outcomes included discomfort, urovaginal infection, cost, and waste. Forty-seven women in each group completed the final survey, 5 of whom were subsequently excluded from analysis (3 from the tampon group and 2 from the menstrual cup group). Overall satisfaction on a 7-point Likert scale was higher for the menstrual cup group than for the tampon group (mean [standard deviation] score 5.4 [1.5] vs 5.0 [1.0], respectively; P=.04). Approximately 91% of women in the menstrual cup group said they would continue to use the cup and recommend it to others. Women used a median of 13 menstrual products per cycle, or 169 products per year, which corresponds to approximately 771,248,400 products used annually in Canada. Estimated cost for tampon use was $37.44 a year (similar to the retail cost of 1 menstrual cup). Subjective vaginal discomfort was initially higher in the menstrual cup group, but the discomfort decreased with continued use. There was no significant difference in physician-diagnosed urovaginal symptoms between the 2 groups. Both of the menstrual management methods evaluated were well tolerated by subjects. Menstrual cups are a satisfactory alternative to tampons and have the potential to be a sustainable solution to menstrual management, with moderate cost savings and much-reduced environmental effects compared with tampons. Trial registration number C06-0478 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

  18. [Predictive factors associated with severity of asthma exacerbations].

    Atiş, Sibel; Kaplan, Eylem Sercan; Ozge, Cengiz; Bayindir, Suzan

    2008-01-01

    Several factors have been accused for asthma exacerbations, however, very few studies have evaluated whether different factors predict severity of asthma exacerbation. We aimed to determine the predictive factors for severity of asthma exacerbation. Retrospective analysis of data on 93 patients visited our emergency-department because of asthma exacerbation was reviewed. Hospitalization in intensive care unit and/or intubation because of asthma was accepted as the criteria for severe exacerbation. Logistic regression analysis estimated the strength of association of each variable, potentially related to severe asthmatic exacerbation, with severe/very severe as compared to mild/moderate asthmatic exacerbation. Independent variables included in the analysis were age, sex, smoking history, inhaler steroid using, compliance with medication, chronic asthma severity, presence of additional atopic diseases, prick test positivity, provocative factors, number of short-acting beta(2)-agonist using, number of visits to emergency department for asthma over one year period, previous severe exacerbation, pulmonary functions, and blood eosinophil count. 20 were severe/very severe and 73 mild/moderate asthmatic exacerbation. Frequent using of short-acting beta(2)-agonist (OR= 1.5, 95% CI= 1.08-5.3, p= 0.003), noncompliance with medication (OR= 3.6, 95% CI= 1.3-9.9, p= 0.013), previous severe asthmatic exacerbation (OR= 3.8, 95% CI= 1.48-10.01, p= 0.005) and recent admission to hospital (OR= 2.9, 95% CI= 1.07-8.09, p= 0.037) were found to be predictive factors for severe asthmatic exacerbation. Different predictive factors, in particular frequent using of short-acting beta(2)-agonist and noncompliance with medication may be associated with severe asthma exacerbations compared to milder exacerbations. This suggests different mechanisms are responsible for severity of asthma exacerbation.

  19. Menstrual Hygiene Practices and Sources of Menstrual Hygiene Information among Adolescent Secondary School Girls in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State

    Ilo, Cajetan I.; Nwimo, Ignatius O.; Onwunaka, Chinagorom

    2016-01-01

    Menstruation is clouded by socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of hygienic practices. The study was designed to ascertain the menstrual hygiene practices and sources of menstrual hygiene information among 1200 adolescent secondary school girls, who completed the questionnaire designed for the study. Out of…

  20. Evaluation of a menstrual cup to collect shed endometrium for in vitro studies.

    Koks, C A; Dunselman, G A; de Goeij, A F; Arends, J W; Evers, J L

    1997-09-01

    To evaluate whether a menstrual cup is a suitable instrument to collect antegradely shed endometrium for in vitro studies. A prospective, descriptive, cell biological and immunohistochemical study. Tertiary care university medical center. Nine female volunteers with regular cycles. Menstrual effluent was collected with a menstrual cup. Experience with the menstrual cup was described. Cytospin specimens, frozen sections, and cultures were prepared from the obtained menstrual tissue. The acceptability of the menstrual cup. The presence and viability of endometrial tissue was evaluated using immunohistochemical staining and culture outcome. All women except one described the menstrual cup as acceptable. Menstrual effluent contained single cells, clumps of cells, and glandlike structures. After 5 days of culture, the endometrial tissue appeared to be viable. Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for vimentin in most cytospin specimens, in all cryostat specimens, and in 10 of 17 cultures. Cytokeratin 18 stained most cytospin specimens, all cryostat specimens, and 10 of 17 cultures. Positive staining for BW495/36 was observed in most cytospin specimens, all cryostat specimens, and 11 of 17 cultures. A menstrual cup in an acceptable instrument to collect antegradely shed menstrual tissue. Menstruum contains viable endometrial tissue that can be used for in vitro studies of endometrium and endometriosis.

  1. Adolescent girls, the menstrual cycle, and bone health.

    Adams Hillard, Paula J; Nelson, Lawrence M

    2003-05-01

    In adolescent girls, amenorrhea is sometimes viewed as a variant of normal; in fact, however, during the first gynecologic year, the 95th percentile for cycle length is 90 days. Although early menstrual cycles are frequently anovulatory and may be somewhat irregular, girls with menses coming less frequently than every 90 days may have significant pathology associated with hypoestrogenism. Hypoestrogenism is a known risk factor for the development of osteoporosis. Causes of oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea include the relatively common conditions of hyperandrogenism, eating disorders, and exercise-induced amenorrhea, as well as uncommon conditions such as pituitary tumor, gonadal dysgenesis, and premature ovarian failure. Even functional hypothalamic oligomenorrhea has been linked to reduced bone density. Attention to menstrual irregularity and the earlier diagnosis of conditions causing it may lead to interventions that will benefit life-long bone health.

  2. Menstrual characteristics and prevalence of dysmenorrhea in college going girls

    MoolRaj Kural; Naziya Nagori Noor; Deepa Pandit; Tulika Joshi; Anjali Patil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dysmenorrhea is a common gynecological condition with painful menstrual cramps of uterine origin. Prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea is not yet clearly studied in central India. Objective: To study prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea in young girls and to evaluate associated clinical markers of dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, data was collected among 310 girls (18?25 years) on age at menarche, presence and absence of dysmenorrhea, dysmenorrhea durat...

  3. Menstrual hygiene: How hygienic is the adolescent girl?

    Dasgupta A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Objectives: (i To elicit the beliefs, conception and source of information regarding menstruation among the study population and (ii to find out the status of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 160 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the field practice area of Rural Health Unit and Training Center, Singur, West Bengal, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions. Results: Out of 160 respondents, 108 (67.5% girls were aware about menstruation prior to attainment of menarche. Mother was the first informant regarding menstruation in case of 60 (37.5% girls. One hundred and thirty-eight (86.25% girls believed it as a physiological process. Seventy-eight (48.75% girls knew the use of sanitary pad during menstruation. Regarding practices, only 18 (11.25% girls used sanitary pads during menstruation. For cleaning purpose, 156 (97.5% girls used both soap and water. Regarding restrictions practiced, 136 (85% girls practised different restrictions during menstruation. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the adolescent girl of today.

  4. Asthma exacerbations: risk factors for hospital readmissions.

    Gonzalez-Barcala, F-J; Calvo-Alvarez, U; Garcia-Sanz, M-T; Garcia-Couceiro, N; Martin-Lancharro, P; Pose, A; Carreira, J-M; Moure-Gonzalez, J-D; Valdes-Cuadrado, L; Muñoz, X

    2018-02-01

    The aim of our study is to analyse hospital readmissions due to asthma, as well as the factors associated with their increase. We carried out a retrospective study including all admissions of patients over 18 years old due to exacerbation of asthma occurring in our hospital between the years 2000 and 2010. The data were gathered by two members of the research team, by reviewing the clinical records. The first hospital admission of each patient was included for this study. An early readmission (ER) was defined as that which occurred in the following 15 days after hospital discharge and late readmission (LR) to that occurring from 16 days after discharge. This study included 2166 hospital admissions and 1316 patients, with a mean age of 62.6 years. Of the 1316 patients analysed, 36 (2.7%) had one ER and 313 (23.8%) one LR. The only factor independently associated with a higher probability of an ER was poor lung function. A higher probability of LR was associated with a greater severity of the asthma (OR: 17.8, for severe asthma versus intermittent asthma), to have had any hospital admission in the previous year (OR: 3.5) and the use of a combination of ICS-LABA as maintenance treatment. About 25% of the patients in our area admitted to hospital due to asthma exacerbation had repeat episodes of hospitalisation.

  5. Fine particulate pollution and asthma exacerbations.

    Bouazza, Naïm; Foissac, Frantz; Urien, Saik; Guedj, Romain; Carbajal, Ricardo; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Chappuy, Hélène

    2017-12-19

    As the results from epidemiological studies about the impact of outdoor air pollution on asthma in children are heterogeneous, our objective was to investigate the association between asthma exacerbation in children and exposure to air pollutants. A database of 1 264 585 paediatric visits during the 2010-2015 period to the emergency rooms from 20 emergency departments (EDs) of 'Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP)', the largest hospital group in Europe, was used. A total of 47 107 visits were classified as asthma exacerbations. Concentration of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, fine particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10  µm (PM 10 ) and 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 )), as well as meteorological data, evolution of respiratory syncytial virus infection and pollen exposition, were collected on an hourly or daily basis for the same period using institutional databases. To assess the association between air pollution and asthma, mixed-effects quasi-Poisson regression modelling was performed. The only compound independently associated with ED visits for asthma was PM 2.5 (Ppollutants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Menstrual Pattern among Unmarried Women from Northern India.

    Kumar, Dinesh; Goel, N K; Puri, Sonia; Pathak, Rambha; Sarpal, Sandeep Singh; Gupta, Sorab; Arora, Sumant

    2013-09-01

    Menstruation disorders are also responsible for emotional, physical, behavioural and dietary practice changes. These changes affect their normal functioning and social life. The present study was carried out to find the prevalence of menstrual problems among unmarried girls of Chandigarh, India and to compare their knowledge and beliefs regarding menstruation in different sub-groups. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 744 unmarried females in Rural, Urban and Slum strata of UT Chandigarh, India. Data were collected using a self-administered structured questionnaire on menstruation. Chi-square value was used for testing statistical significance. The mean age of the respondents was 16.84±3.05 years. Maximum respondents (40.9%) were educated up to 10th standard/High school. 448 (60.2%) were aware of menstruation before starting of menarche. Awareness was found to be significantly associated (p=0.02) with age. Socio-economic status and prior knowledge of respondents was also found to be significantly associated (pissue that needs to be addressed at all levels. A variety of factors are known to affect menstrual behaviors, the most influential ones being economic status. It is essential to design a mechanism to address and for the access of healthy menstrual practices.

  7. Progesterone and women's anxiety across the menstrual cycle.

    Reynolds, Tania A; Makhanova, Anastasia; Marcinkowska, Urszula M; Jasienska, Grazyna; McNulty, James K; Eckel, Lisa A; Nikonova, Larissa; Maner, Jon K

    2018-04-24

    Animal models and a few human investigations suggest progesterone may be associated with anxiety. Progesterone naturally fluctuates across the menstrual cycle, offering an opportunity to understand how within-person increases in progesterone and average progesterone levels across the cycle correspond to women's anxiety. Across two longitudinal studies, we simultaneously modeled the between- and within-person associations between progesterone and anxiety using multilevel modeling. In Study 1, 100 Polish women provided saliva samples and reported their anxiety at three phases of the menstrual cycle: follicular, peri-ovulatory, and luteal. A significant between-person effect emerged, revealing that women with higher average progesterone levels across their cycles reported higher levels of anxiety than women with lower progesterone cycles. This effect held controlling for estradiol. In Study 2, 61 American women provided saliva samples and reported their attachment anxiety during laboratory sessions during the same three cycle phases. A significant between-person and within-person association emerged: women with higher average progesterone levels reported higher levels of attachment anxiety, and as women's progesterone levels increased across their cycles, so too did their attachment anxiety. These effects held controlling for cortisol. In sum, both studies provide support for a link between menstrual cycle progesterone levels and subjective anxiety. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Changes in brain size during the menstrual cycle.

    Georg Hagemann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence for hormone-dependent modification of function and behavior during the menstrual cycle, but little is known about associated short-term structural alterations of the brain. Preliminary studies suggest that a hormone-dependent decline in brain volume occurs in postmenopausal, or women receiving antiestrogens, long term. Advances in serial MR-volumetry have allowed for the accurate detection of small volume changes of the brain. Recently, activity-induced short-term structural plasticity of the brain was demonstrated, challenging the view that the brain is as rigid as formerly believed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used MR-volumetry to investigate short-term brain volume changes across the menstrual cycle in women or a parallel 4 week period in men, respectively. We found a significant grey matter volume peak and CSF loss at the time of ovulation in females. This volume peak did not correlate with estradiol or progesterone hormone levels. Men did not show any significant brain volume alterations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data give evidence of short-term hormone-dependent structural brain changes during the menstrual cycle, which need to be correlated with functional states and have to be considered in structure-associated functional brain research.

  9. Menstrual Concerns and Intrauterine Contraception Among Adolescent Bariatric Surgery Patients

    Miller, Rachel J.; Inge, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective Adolescent obesity has dramatically increased in recent decades, and along with that so have other medical comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and pseudotumor cerebri. Obesity and related comorbidites may be contraindications to hormonal contraception, making contraception counseling of morbidly obese adolescents more challenging. Obese adolescent females seeking bariatric surgery need effective contraception in the postoperative period. This study is designed to determine the acceptance rate of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (IUD) and describe common menstrual problems in obese adolescent bariatric surgery patients. Methods This is a historic cohort study of adolescent females who underwent bariatric surgery over a 2-year period at a tertiary referral center for pediatric obesity. Data were systematically abstracted. The percent of patients with menstrual problems and the acceptance rate for the levonorgestrel-releasing IUD were determined. Results Twenty-five adolescents met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 17.4 years (standard deviation [SD] 2.6), and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 51.4 (SD 6.3) kg/m2. Eighty-four percent were white. Twenty-eight percent had menorrhagia, 32% had oligomenorrhea, 40% had dysmenorrhea, and 36% had PCOS. Ninety-two percent (23 of 25) underwent IUD placement. Conclusions There was a high prevalence of menstrual problems among this sample of severely obese adolescent females. The majority accepted the IUD, indicating it is a viable option among this population. PMID:21413894

  10. EXOGENOUS TESTOSTERONE DOES NOT INDUCE OR EXACERBATE THE METABOLIC FEATURES ASSOCIATED WITH PCOS AMONG TRANSGENDER MEN.

    Chan, Kelly J; Liang, Jennifer J; Jolly, Divya; Weinand, Jamie D; Safer, Joshua D

    2018-04-06

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a complex condition which can include menstrual irregularity, metabolic derangement, and increased androgen levels. The mechanism of PCOS is unknown. Some suggest that excess production of androgens by the ovaries may cause or exacerbate the metabolic findings. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of increased testosterone on metabolic parameters on individuals presumed to be chromosomally female by examination of these parameters in hormone-treated transgender men. In 2015 and 2016, we asked all transgender men who visited the Endocrinology Clinic at Boston Medical Center treated with testosterone for consent for a retrospective anonymous chart review. Of the 36 men, 34 agreed (94%). Serum metabolic factors and body mass index levels for each patient were graphed over time, from initiation of therapy through 6 years of treatment. Bivariate analyses were conducted to analyze the impact of added testosterone. Regressions measuring the impact of testosterone demonstrated no significant change in levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, triglycerides, or low density lipoprotein cholesterol. There was a statistically significant decrease in BMI with increasing testosterone. There was also a statistically significant decrease in high density lipoprotein levels upon initiation of testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy in transgender men across a wide range of doses and over many years did not result in the abnormalities in HbA1c or dyslipidemia seen with PCOS. Instead, treatment of transgender men with testosterone resulted only in a shift of metabolic biomarkers toward the average physiologic male body. This retrospective chart review of 34 transgender men found that testosterone therapy does not induce or exacerbate the metabolic features associated with PCOS.

  11. Comportamiento de la regulación menstrual en la adolescencia Behavior of menstrual regulation in adolescence

    Bárbara Enríquez Domínguez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la práctica del aborto es uno de los temas de mayor controversia a finales del siglo xx y comienzos del XXI, pero no constituye nada nuevo, ha existido en cada cultura conocida, con o sin alfabeto escrito, primitiva o moderna. En los últimos años se reconoce el valor que tiene la evacuación del útero en el embarazo temprano mediante el método de regulación menstrual. Objetivo: describir el comportamiento de la regulación menstrual en la adolescencia del área de salud de Párraga. Métodos: estudio observacional descriptivo transversal. El universo estuvo constituido por un total de 370 adolescentes que acudieron a la consulta de Regulación Menstrual del "Policlínico Párraga". La muestra fue de 360 pacientes; a todas se les aplicó el método de aspiración endometrial. Estas pacientes fueron seguidas en consulta evolutivamente a los siete días. Se analizaron las variables: edad, escolaridad, estado civil, antecedentes obstétricos, uso de método anticonceptivo previo y complicaciones inmediatas. Resultados: predominó el grupo de la adolescencia tardía con 220 casos. La edad de inicio de las relaciones sexuales fue de 14 a los 17 años con 249 (69,1 % adolescentes y el motivo por el cual no usaban los métodos anticonceptivos fue por olvido en 183 (50,8 % casos. Las complicaciones que más se presentaron fueron las reacciones vagales en 54 (15,0 % pacientes. Conclusiones: gran número de adolescentes hacen uso de la regulación menstrual por ser menos peligrosa que el aborto, más rápido, prescindir de anestesia y de otras complicaciones.Introduction: abortion is one of the most controversial topics at the end of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century. However, this is not a new situation since it has existed in every recognized culture, either primitive or modern, with or without written alphabet. In the last few years, the role of the menstrual regulation to empty the uterus in the early

  12. Energy availability discriminates clinical menstrual status in exercising women.

    Reed, Jennifer L; De Souza, Mary Jane; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Scheid, Jennifer L; Williams, Nancy I

    2015-01-01

    Conditions of low energy availability (EA) (exercise energy expenditure (EEE) in a controlled laboratory setting. The purpose of this study was to examine if EA, defined as EA = (EI-EEE)/kgLBM, is associated with disruptions in ovarian function in exercising women. Menstrual status was confirmed with daily measures of urinary reproductive metabolites across 1-3 menstrual cycles or 28-day monitoring periods. EA was calculated for exercise days using EI from 3-day diet logs, EEE from heart-rate monitors and/or exercise logs for a 7-day period, and body composition from DXA. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured by indirect calorimetry. Total triiodothyronine (TT3) was measured from a fasting blood sample. 91 exercising women (23.1 ± 0.5 years) were categorized clinically as either exercising amenorrheic (ExAmen, n = 30), exercising oligomenorrheic (ExOligo, n = 20) or exercising eumenorrheic (ExEumen, n = 41). The eumenorrheic group was further divided into more specific subclinical groups as either exercising ovulatory (ExOv, n = 20), exercising inconsistent (ExIncon, n = 13), or exercising anovulatory (ExAnov, n = 8). An EA threshold of 30 kcal/kgLBM did not distinguish subclinical menstrual status (χ (2) = 0.557, p = 0.46) nor did EA differ across subclinical disturbance groups (p > 0.05). EA was lower in the ExAmen vs. ExEumen (30.9 ± 2.4 vs. 36.9 ± 1.7 kcal/kgLBM, p = 0.04). The ratio of REE/predicted REE was lower in the ExAmen vs. ExEumen (0.85 ± 0.02 vs. 0.92 ± 0.01, p = 0.001) as was TT3 (79.6 ± 4.1 vs. 95.3 ± 2.9 ng/mL, p = 0.002). EA did not differ among subclinical forms of menstrual disturbances in a large sample of exercising women, but EA did discriminate clinical menstrual status, i.e., amenorrhea from eumenorrhea.

  13. The Menstrual Disorders in Women of Reproductive Age with Obesity

    Sh.U. Akhmedova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this article, the authors present the results of studies on reproductive health features in 25 women with obesity seeking medical help for infertility. Objective: to study the nature of menstrual disorders in women of childbearing age with obesity. Materials and methods. We have studied the features of reproductive health in 25 obese women seeking medical assistance for infertility in the Republican specialized scientific and practical centre of endocrinology in 2014–2015, who were included in the first study group. The second group consisted of 25 women with normal weight-for-stature values and without menstrual disorders. All the patients underwent the following tests, including complete blood count, blood biochemistry, radioimmunoassays of the blood hormones (prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, insulin, estradiol, progesterone, free testosterone, thyroxine, anti-Műllerian hormone, dehydroepiandrostenedione, ultrasound of the uterus and ovaries with folliculometry on 11–14th days of the menstrual cycle. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland. Results. In the history of the patients in both groups, diseases of the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal diseases were most common among somatic pathology. Among gynecological diseases, in both groups the most frequent disorders were chronic urogenital infection, candida vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis. Emphasis is placed on the data about the presence of hormone-dependent proliferative diseases in women with overweight: cervical pseudoerosions, endocervicosis, uterine fibroids, a history of endometriosis. The analysis of biochemical parameters in the first study group found increased triglycerids levels 3.0 mmol/L — in 34 %. The first group of patients had low values of the average parameters of LH, FSH, free and total testosterone (normogonadotropic hypogonadism against normoprolactinemia. The

  14. Effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women

    Park, Vivan Young Jean; KIm, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women, and to suggest an optimal period for scheduling breast MRIs. Between March and December 2012, 214 premenopausal breast cancer patients who underwent breast MRIs for preoperative evaluation were included. Levels of background parenchymal enhancement were retrospectively compared according to the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference between levels of background parenchymal enhancement (minimal, mild, moderate, and marked) according to the weeks of the menstrual cycle. However, the 1st and 2nd week of the menstrual cycle showed a significantly higher proportion of patients with minimal background parenchymal enhancement than the 3rd and 4th week of the menstrual cycle (47.0% vs. 32.0%; p = 0.025). For screening purposes and for the follow-up of Korean breast cancer patients, breast MRIs should be performed during the 1st or 2nd week of the menstrual cycle

  15. Effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women

    Park, Vivan Young Jean; KIm, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate the effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women, and to suggest an optimal period for scheduling breast MRIs. Between March and December 2012, 214 premenopausal breast cancer patients who underwent breast MRIs for preoperative evaluation were included. Levels of background parenchymal enhancement were retrospectively compared according to the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference between levels of background parenchymal enhancement (minimal, mild, moderate, and marked) according to the weeks of the menstrual cycle. However, the 1st and 2nd week of the menstrual cycle showed a significantly higher proportion of patients with minimal background parenchymal enhancement than the 3rd and 4th week of the menstrual cycle (47.0% vs. 32.0%; p = 0.025). For screening purposes and for the follow-up of Korean breast cancer patients, breast MRIs should be performed during the 1st or 2nd week of the menstrual cycle.

  16. Severe exacerbations and decline in lung function in asthma

    O'Byrne, Paul M; Pedersen, Søren; Lamm, Carl Johan

    2009-01-01

    RATIONALE: To evaluate the association between asthma exacerbations and the decline in lung function, as well as the potential effects of an inhaled corticosteroid, budesonide, on exacerbation-related decline in patients with asthma. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether severe asthma exacerbations...... with low-dose inhaled budesonide prevents severe asthma-related events (exacerbations requiring hospitalization or emergency treatment) and decline in lung function. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: There were 315 patients who experienced at least one severe asthma exacerbation, of which 305 were analyzable...... of reduction afforded by budesonide, in patients who experienced at least one severe asthma-related event compared with those who did not, was statistically significant (P = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: Severe asthma exacerbations are associated with a more rapid decline in lung function. Treatment with low doses...

  17. The risk of menstrual abnormalities after tubal sterilization: a case control study

    shobeiri, Mehri Jafari; AtashKhoii, Simin

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Tubal sterilization is the method of family planning most commonly used. The existence of the post-tubal-ligation syndrome of menstrual abnormalities has been the subject of debate for decades. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 112 women with the history of Pomeroy type of tubal ligation achieved by minilaparatomy as the case group and 288 women with no previous tubal ligation as the control group were assessed for menstrual abnormalities. Results Menstrual abnormalities...

  18. Reduced Transforming Growth Factor-β Activity in the Endometrium of Women With Heavy Menstrual Bleeding

    Maybin, Jacqueline A.; Boswell, Lyndsey; Young, Vicky J.; Duncan, William C.; Critchley, Hilary O. D.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is common and incapacitating. Aberrant menstrual endometrial repair may result in HMB. The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily contributes to tissue repair, but its role in HMB is unknown. Objective: We hypothesized that TGF-β1 is important for endometrial repair, and women with HMB have aberrant TGF-β1 activity at menses. Participants/Setting: Endometrial biopsies were collected from women, and menstrual blood loss objectively measured [HMB ...

  19. [Treatment of multiple sclerosis symptoms and exacerbations].

    Prieto González, José María

    2014-12-01

    In the last few years, there has been an explosion of new drugs acting on the clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS) but less attention has been paid to better knowledge of the symptoms of this disease and their pathogenesis and treatment, which is essential to improve patients' quality of life. Because many patients have numerous concurrent symptoms during their clinical course, their management is complex and consequently it is important to know which symptoms are a direct result of the degenerative lesions of MS. The present article describes all the therapeutic options available for spasticity and its associated pain, paroxystic symptoms, fatigue, genitourinary disorders and sexual dysfunction, tremor, ataxia, gait disorder and cognitive impairment, with special emphasis on novel treatments. The article also defines exacerbations, how to recognize them and the available treatments, mainly oral administration of high-dose methylprednisolone and plasmapheresis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Fibrinogen and alpha(1)-antitrypsin in COPD exacerbations

    Sylvan Ingebrigtsen, Truls; Marott, J. L.; Rode, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background We tested the hypotheses that fibrinogen and alpha(1)-antitrypsin are observationally and genetically associated with exacerbations in COPD. Methods We studied 13 591 individuals with COPD from the Copenhagen General Population Study (2003-2013), of whom 6857 were genotyped for FGB -455...... and exacerbations in instrumental variable analyses. Results Elevated fibrinogen and alpha(1)-antitrypsin levels were associated with increased risk of exacerbations in COPD, HR=1.14 (1.07 to 1.22, p...

  1. A STUDY TO EVALUATE THE ABNORMAL MENSTRUAL PATTERNS AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS IN BAREILLY

    Chauhan Sandhya, Kariwal Peeyush, Kumari Anita, Vyas Shaili

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstrual cycle abnormalities have been considered a common occurrence during puberty. Numerous earlier studies have analyzed the various patterns seen in the epidemiological data regarding menstrual cycle of adolescent girls. But there is dearth of data from Rohilkhand region of central UP state. Aims: To find out the abnormal menstrual patterns among adolescent girls in Bareilly city. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study conducted by presenting a pre-designed and pre-tested self administered questionnaire, containing questions pertaining to menstrual practices and knowledge to 994 adolescent girls of urban schools in Bareilly city. Results: Mean age of menarche was 13.11±0.95 years. 6.07% girls in the study reported cycles of abnormal lengths. This subset also had significantly higher prevalence of irregularity. Presence of irregular menses beyond 3 gynaecological years diminished the possibility of their regularization in near future. Among the girls with excessive dysmenorrhea, nearly 1/3rd had associated menstrual disturbances also. Conclusion: Incidence of irregular menstrual cycle was 20.75% and it was significantly more in oligomennorheic cycles. Among normal menstrual cycles also, presence of IMC was significantly more in adolescents having mild oligomennorhea. 6.07% of girls reported abnormal cycle lengths. 77.70% reported dysmennorhea. Chances of menstrual cycles getting regularized after 5 years of menarchy are minimal. Adequate knowledge regarding abnormal variations in the menstrual cycle pattern during adolescence may permit implementation of strategies for preventing potential reproductive and other health morbidities in adulthood.

  2. Blood Eosinophils and Exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune F; Lange, Peter

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Whether high blood eosinophils are associated with COPD exacerbations among individuals with COPD in the general population is largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that high blood eosinophils predict COPD exacerbations. METHODS: Among 81,668 individuals from the Copenhagen...... General Population Study, we examined 7,225 with COPD based on spirometry. We recorded blood eosinophils at baseline and future COPD exacerbations longitudinally, defined as moderate (short-course treatment of systemic corticosteroids) or severe (hospitalization). We also assessed exacerbation risk...... in a subgroup of 203 COPD individuals with clinical COPD, defined as participants with ≥ 10 pack-years, FEV1

  3. Long-term Prognosis in COPD Exacerbation: Role of Biomarkers, Clinical Variables and Exacerbation Type.

    Grolimund, Eva; Kutz, Alexander; Marlowe, Robert J; Vögeli, Alaadin; Alan, Murat; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Thomann, Robert; Falconnier, Claudine; Hoess, Claus; Henzen, Christoph; Zimmerli, Werner; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2015-06-01

    Long-term outcome prediction in COPD is challenging. We conducted a prospective 5-7-year follow-up study in patients with COPD to determine the association of exacerbation type, discharge levels of inflammatory biomarkers including procalctionin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count (WBC) and plasma proadrenomedullin (ProADM), alone or combined with demographic/clinical characteristics, with long-term all-cause mortality in the COPD setting. The analyzed cohort comprised 469 patients with index hospitalization for pneumonic (n = 252) or non-pneumonic (n = 217) COPD exacerbation. Five-to-seven-year vital status was ascertained via structured phone interviews with patients or their household members/primary care physicians. We investigated predictive accuracy using univariate and multivariate Cox regression models and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). After a median [25th-75th percentile] 6.1 [5.6-6.5] years, mortality was 55% (95%CI 50%-59%). Discharge ProADM concentration was strongly associated with 5-7-year non-survival: adjusted hazard ratio (HR)/10-fold increase (95%CI) 10.4 (6.2-17.7). Weaker associations were found for PCT and no significant associations were found for CRP or WBC. Combining ProADM with demographic/clinical variables including age, smoking status, BMI, New York Heart Association dyspnea class, exacerbation type, and comorbidities significantly improved long-term predictive accuracy over that of the demographic/clinical model alone: AUC (95%CI) 0.745 (0.701-0.789) versus 0.727 (0.681-0.772), (p) = .043. In patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbation, discharge ProADM levels appeared to accurately predict 5-7-year all-cause mortality and to improve long-term prognostic accuracy of multidimensional demographic/clinical mortality risk assessment.

  4. Incidence and risk factors for exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy

    Ali Z

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Zarqa Ali, Charlotte Suppli UlrikDepartment of Pulmonary Medicine, Hvidovre Hospital and University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkBackground: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among pregnant women. Acute exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy have an unfavorable impact on pregnancy outcome. This review provides an overview of current knowledge of incidence, mechanisms, and risk factors for acute exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy.Methods: A narrative literature review was carried out using the PubMed database.Results: During pregnancy, up to 6% of women with asthma are hospitalized for an acute exacerbation. The maternal immune system is characterized by a very high T-helper-2:T-helper-1 cytokine ratio during pregnancy and thereby provides an environment essential for fetal survival but one that may aggravate asthma. Cells of the innate immune system such as monocytes and neutrophils are also increased during pregnancy, and this too can exacerbate maternal asthma. Severe or difficult-to-control asthma appears to be the major risk factor for exacerbations during pregnancy, but studies also suggest that nonadherence with controller medication and viral infections are important triggers of exacerbations during pregnancy. So far, inconsistent findings have been reported regarding the effect of fetal sex on exacerbations during pregnancy. Other risk factors for exacerbation during pregnancy include obesity, ethnicity, and reflux, whereas atopy does not appear to be a risk factor.Discussion: The incidence of asthma exacerbations during pregnancy is disturbingly high. Severe asthma – better described as difficult-to-control asthma – nonadherence with controller therapy, viral infections, obesity, and ethnicity are likely to be important risk factors for exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy, whereas inconsistent findings have been reported with regard to the importance of sex of the fetus.Keywords: acute exacerbations

  5. Menstrual characteristics and prevalence of dysmenorrhea in college going girls

    Kural, MoolRaj; Noor, Naziya Nagori; Pandit, Deepa; Joshi, Tulika; Patil, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dysmenorrhea is a common gynecological condition with painful menstrual cramps of uterine origin. Prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea is not yet clearly studied in central India. Objective: To study prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea in young girls and to evaluate associated clinical markers of dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, data was collected among 310 girls (18–25 years) on age at menarche, presence and absence of dysmenorrhea, dysmenorrhea duration, pre-menstrual symptoms (PMS), family history, menses irregularities, menstrual history, severity grading using visual analogue scale (VAS) using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Dysmenorrhea was reported in 84.2% (261) girls and 15.8% (49) reported no dysmenorrhea. Using VAS, 34.2% of girls experienced severe pain, 36.6% moderate and 29.2% had mild pain. Bleeding duration was found to be significantly associated with dysmenorrhea (χ2 = 10.5; P dysmenorrhea (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.7–3). Moreover, girls with the presence of clots had 2.07 times higher chance of having dysmenorrhea (OR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.04–4.1) (P dysmenorrhea, 90.9% experience the condition themselves (χ2 = 11.5; P dysmenorrhea had three times greater chance of having the same problem (OR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.5–5.8; P = 0.001). Conclusion: Dysmenorrhea is found to be highly prevalent among college going girls. Family history, bleeding duration and presence of clots were significant risk factors for dysmenorrhea. PMID:26288786

  6. Changes of mood and anxiety during the menstrual cycle with use of oral contraceptives

    Gabriela Antunes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal action is one of the main factors for behavioral change observed in women, during the menstrual cycle, and especially in the premenstrual period, most women report a variation of mood and anxiety. The aim of this work was to verify the degrees of anxiety during the menstrual cycle, charting their variation and the possible influence of oral contraceptive use. For this purpose 32 women, divided in two groups according to the use (B or not use (A of oral contraceptive, with selfapplication of the STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory at three different times: before, during and after menstruation. The data was tabulated and analyzed statistically, indicating a variation of anxiety level for different menstrual periods, but with no significance as to anxiety type (trait or state or to the ingestion of contraceptive. For Trait-Anxiety, the post-test (Boferroni T-Test of variation among periods indicated significant difference for post-menstrual and other periods, in the A group; and between the premenstrual and menstrual periods, in the B group. For State Anxiety, the data indicated significant differences between the premenstrual and menstrual periods, in the A group, and between the premenstrual and menstrual periods and the menstrual and post-menstrual in the B group. The results indicate that: 1 the menstrual cycle is a generator of variations of related anxiety; 2 the use of oral contraceptives does not alter this relation; and 3 the correlated diminution of the Trait Anxiety may indicate alteration in self-perception of women during the menstrual cycle. Keywords: anxiety; mestrual cycle; STAI.

  7. Transvestite Corporeality in the Poetic Deformance of Naty Menstrual

    Guillermina Bevacqua

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, the Area of Gender’s Technology and the Area of Communication of Centro Cultural Rojas (UBA published El Teje. The first magazine of transvestites in Latin America. From it, the institution promoted the inclusion of transgender persons and questioned the dualism typical of the heterosexual contract. Many presentations of the magazine were accompanied by performances. We have studied the construction of the transvestite identity embodied by poet and performer Naty Menstrual in the first presentation of El Teje. For this, we apply postdramatic theatrical theory to the field of queer studies.

  8. Th17 profile in COPD exacerbations

    Ponce-Gallegos MA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Marco Antonio Ponce-Gallegos,1–3 Alejandra Ramírez-Venegas,4 Ramcés Falfán-Valencia1 1HLA Laboratory, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosío Villegas, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Medicine Academic Unit, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit. Tepic, Nayarit, Mexico; 3Interinstitutional Program for Strengthening Research and the Postgraduate in the Pacific (Dolphin, Tepic, Nayarit, México; 4Tobacco Smoking and COPD Research Department, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosío Villegas, Mexico City, Mexico Abstract: COPD is characterized by an ongoing inflammatory process of the airways that leads to obstruction or limitation of airflow. It is mainly associated with exposure to cigarette smoke. In addition, it is considered, at present, a serious public health problem, ranking fourth in mortality worldwide. Many cells participate in the pathophysiology of COPD, the most important are neutrophils, macrophages and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Neutrophil migration to the inflammation area could be mediated largely by cytokines related to CD4+ Th17 lymphocytes, because it has been shown that IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 act as inducers for CXCL8, CXCL1, CXCL5, G-CSF, and GM-CSF secretion by epithelial cells of the airways. The aims of these molecules are differentiation, proliferation and recruitment of neutrophils. Furthermore, it is believed that CD4+ lymphocytes Th17 may be involved in protection against pathogens for which Th1 and Th2 are not prepared to fight. In COPD exacerbations, there is an increased cellularity in the lung region and respiratory tract. Therefore, the increase in the number of neutrophils and macrophages in the airways and the increase in proinflammatory cytokines are directly related to the severity of exacerbations and that is the importance of the functions of Th17 profile in this entity. Keywords: IL-17A, bacteria, virus, IL-17F, IL-22, tobacco smoking

  9. Medically treated exacerbations in COPD by GOLD 1-4

    Sylvan Ingebrigtsen, Truls; Marott, Jacob L; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    AIM: We hypothesized that medically treated exacerbations in COPD defined as treatments with oral corticosteroids alone or in combination with antibiotics by register linkage with a nationwide prescription registry is a valid, robust and low-biased measure of exacerbations. METHODS: A total of 13...

  10. Factors associated with change in exacerbation frequency in COPD

    Donaldson, Gavin C; Müllerova, Hanna; Locantore, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be categorized as having frequent (FE) or infrequent (IE) exacerbations depending on whether they respectively experience two or more, or one or zero exacerbations per year. Although most patients do not change category from year to y...

  11. Inflammatory biomarkers and exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Thomsen, Mette; Ingebrigtsen, Truls Sylvan; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2013-01-01

    Exacerbations of respiratory symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have profound and long-lasting adverse effects on patients.......Exacerbations of respiratory symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have profound and long-lasting adverse effects on patients....

  12. Acute exacerbations and pulmonary hypertension in advanced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Judge, Eoin P

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for and outcomes of acute exacerbations in patients with advanced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and to examine the relationship between disease severity and neovascularisation in explanted IPF lung tissue. 55 IPF patients assessed for lung transplantation were divided into acute (n=27) and non-acute exacerbation (n=28) groups. Haemodynamic data was collected at baseline, at the time of acute exacerbation and at lung transplantation. Histological analysis and CD31 immunostaining to quantify microvessel density (MVD) was performed on the explanted lung tissue of 13 transplanted patients. Acute exacerbations were associated with increased mortality (p=0.0015). Pulmonary hypertension (PH) at baseline and acute exacerbations were associated with poor survival (p<0.01). PH at baseline was associated with a significant risk of acute exacerbations (HR 2.217, p=0.041). Neovascularisation (MVD) was significantly increased in areas of cellular fibrosis and significantly decreased in areas of honeycombing. There was a significant inverse correlation between mean pulmonary artery pressure and MVD in areas of honeycombing. Acute exacerbations were associated with significantly increased mortality in patients with advanced IPF. PH was associated with the subsequent development of an acute exacerbation and with poor survival. Neovascularisation was significantly decreased in areas of honeycombing, and was significantly inversely correlated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure in areas of honeycombing.

  13. Increased neutrophil expression of pattern recognition receptors during COPD exacerbations

    Pouwels, Simon D.; Van Geffen, Wouter H.; Jonker, Marnix R.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Nawijn, Martijn C.; Heijink, Irene H.

    Previously, we observed increased serum levels of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) during COPD exacerbations. Here, gene expression of DAMP receptors was measured in peripheral blood neutrophils of COPD patients during stable disease and severe acute exacerbation. The expression of

  14. Detection of rhinovirus-associated asthma exacerbations using ...

    Ehab

    between common viral respiratory infections and asthma exacerbations. Respiratory viruses have ... positive Rhinovirus RT-PCR test and 4 (50%) of the HRV positive patients were of the ... reaction volume was 50 µl, and the reaction mixture contained 0.9 ..... significance in asthma exacerbation and airway remodeling.

  15. Stability of the frequent COPD exacerbator in the general population

    Reilev, Mette; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Halling, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Exacerbation frequency is central in treatment strategies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients from the general population with frequent exacerbations continue to have frequent exacerbations over an extended period of time is c...... considerably over time. This could hold implications for COPD treatment and challenge assumptions made about disease progression....... is currently unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the stability of the frequent exacerbator in a population-based setting. To this end, we conducted a nationwide register-based descriptive study with a 10-year follow-up period of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with at least one...... obstructive pulmonary disease treatment guidelines and their practical application. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE: VARIATIONS IN DISEASE PROGRESSION: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who suffer from frequent exacerbations do not necessarily persist with such severity over time...

  16. Determinants of low risk of asthma exacerbation during pregnancy

    Ali, Z; Nilas, L; Ulrik, C S

    2018-01-01

    of Asthma during Pregnancy (MAP) programme at Hvidovre Hospital since 2007. Assessment of asthma control, adjustment of treatment, spirometry and measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) were performed, and baseline characteristics and exacerbation history were collected at enrolment. Determinants of low......: Clinically stable asthma at enrolment, together with no history of previous exacerbations and no prescribed controller medication, is a determinant of low risk of an asthma exacerbation during pregnancy, which may guide clinicians in individualizing surveillance of asthma during pregnancy.......BACKGROUND: Assessment of asthma control every 4-6 weeks during pregnancy is recommended to reduce risk of exacerbation, and by that improve outcome. OBJECTIVE: To identify determinants of pregnancies with low risk of asthma exacerbation. METHODS: All pregnant women enrolled into the Management...

  17. Predicting asthma exacerbations using artificial intelligence.

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Wood, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Modern telemonitoring systems identify a serious patient deterioration when it already occurred. It would be much more beneficial if the upcoming clinical deterioration were identified ahead of time even before a patient actually experiences it. The goal of this study was to assess artificial intelligence approaches which potentially can be used in telemonitoring systems for advance prediction of changes in disease severity before they actually occur. The study dataset was based on daily self-reports submitted by 26 adult asthma patients during home telemonitoring consisting of 7001 records. Two classification algorithms were employed for building predictive models: naïve Bayesian classifier and support vector machines. Using a 7-day window, a support vector machine was able to predict asthma exacerbation to occur on the day 8 with the accuracy of 0.80, sensitivity of 0.84 and specificity of 0.80. Our study showed that methods of artificial intelligence have significant potential in developing individualized decision support for chronic disease telemonitoring systems.

  18. Hormones and Dichotic Listening: Evidence from the Study of Menstrual Cycle Effects

    Cowell, Patricia E.; Ledger, William L.; Wadnerkar, Meghana B.; Skilling, Fiona M.; Whiteside, Sandra P.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents evidence for changes in dichotic listening asymmetries across the menstrual cycle, which replicate studies from our laboratory and others. Increases in the right ear advantage (REA) were present in women at phases of the menstrual cycle associated with higher levels of ovarian hormones. The data also revealed correlations…

  19. The Effect of Menstrual Cycle on Nasal Resonance Characteristics in Females

    Kumar, Suman; Basu, Shriya; Sinha, Anisha; Chatterjee, Indranil

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze resonance characteristics (nasality and nasalance values) during the menstrual cycle. Previous studies indicate changes in voice quality and nasal mucosa due to temporary falling estrogen levels in human females during their menstrual cycle. The present study compared the nasality and "nasalance scores"…

  20. Effects of the Menstrual Cycle and Oral Contraception on Singers' Pitch Control

    La, Filipa M. B.; Sundberg, Johan; Howard, David M.; Sa-Couto, Pedro; Freitas, Adelaide

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Difficulties with intonation and vibrato control during the menstrual cycle have been reported by singers; however, this phenomenon has not yet been systematically investigated. Method: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial assessing effects of the menstrual cycle and use of a combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP) on pitch…

  1. Age at Menarche and the Menstrual Pattern of Igbo Women of South ...

    This study determines the age at menarche and menstrual pattern of an Igbo population in 12 randomly selected rural communities of Ebonyi State. Information on recalled ages at menarche, menstrual flow duration and cycle length was collected using a semi structured questionnaire over three months. 1209 women of ...

  2. The relationship between food frequency and menstrual distress in high school females

    Soheila Mohamadirizi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: With regard to the inappropriate food frequency and high intensity of menstrual distress among high school students and as health care and educational efforts for prevention and health promotion in society are among the duties of health workers, the results of this study can help the officials involved in education to emphasize on nutrition and the menstrual health of students.

  3. The Effectiviness of Dysmenorrhea Gymnastics as an Alternative Therapy in Reducing Menstrual Pain

    Mei Lina Fitri Kumalasari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Menstrual pain occurs due to the imbalance of the hormones which will cause the uterine muscles to contract and lead to colic pain. Approximately 50 % of women worldwide  and  90 % of Indonesian women  suffer from menstrual pain. Pharmacological therapy is the most popular treatment used to relieve menstrual pain. Unfortunately, it leads to indisputable side effects on health. Therefore, safety alternative treatments such as dysmenorrhea gymnastics are signifficantly needed to improve bloodstream in the uterus and produce endorphins which can relieve menstrual pain. The aim of the study wasto determine the effectiveness of dysmenorrhea gymnastics to relieve the level of menstrual pain. The method of study is systematic review on 14 studies of the efectiveness of exercise dysmenorrhea gymnastics to relieve menstrual pain. The results obtained are dysmenorrhea gymnastcs can relieve menstrual pain with a mean value of 4.006. Conclusion: dysmenorrhea gymnastics can relieve menstrual pain and better  done in the afternoon.

  4. RNA/DNA co-analysis from human menstrual blood and vaginal secretion stains

    Haas, Claus; Hanson, E; Anjos, M J

    2014-01-01

    housekeeping genes for their suitability as reference genes. Six menstrual blood and six vaginal secretion stains, two dilution series (1/4-1/64 pieces of a menstrual blood/vaginal swab) and, optionally, bona fide or mock casework samples of human or non-human origin were analyzed by 24 participating...

  5. The impact of pre-menarcheal training on menstrual practices and ...

    Background: The menstrual practices of adolescents derive largely from health issues associated with their adjustment to reproductive life. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of pre-menarcheal training on the menstrual and hygiene practices of Nigerian school girls. Methods: A cross-sectional ...

  6. Changes in sodium and uric acid concentrations in plasma during the menstrual cycle.

    Mira, M; Stewart, P M; Gebski, V; Llewellyn-Jones, D; Abraham, S F

    1984-03-01

    Hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle are well documented, but many other biochemical variables have not been studied. We find that in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle the concentrations of sodium and uric acid are significantly lower. The changes may be of significance for the determination of the normal reference interval.

  7. Mastalgia cíclica pré-menstrual: placebo versus outras drogas Pre-menstrual cyclic mastalgia

    Laurival A. De Luca; Maria de Fátima V. S. Gonçalves; Lídia Raquel de Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    Os autores definem mastalgia cíclica pré-menstrual, (MCPM), repassam os principais mecanismos do ciclo celular da mama, e com base nestes conhecimentos propõem a sua classificação em três tipos, segundo a fisiologia do ciclo mamário: tipo 1 - caracterizado pela distensão localizada de ductos e adensamento do tecido conjuntivo em volta de pequenas dilatações. tipo II - caracterizado pelo edema intersticial, e tipo III - caracterizado pela combinação dos dois processos etiopatogênicos. OBJETIVO...

  8. Acceptability and performance of the menstrual cup in South Africa: a randomized crossover trial comparing the menstrual cup to tampons or sanitary pads.

    Beksinska, Mags E; Smit, Jenni; Greener, Ross; Todd, Catherine S; Lee, Mei-ling Ting; Maphumulo, Virginia; Hoffmann, Vivian

    2015-02-01

    In low-income settings, many women and girls face activity restrictions during menses, owing to lack of affordable menstrual products. The menstrual cup (MC) is a nonabsorbent reusable cup that collects menstrual blood. We assessed the acceptability and performance of the MPower® MC compared to pads or tampons among women in a low-resource setting. We conducted a randomized two-period crossover trial at one site in Durban, South Africa, between January and November 2013. Participants aged 18-45 years with regular menstrual cycles were eligible for inclusion if they had no intention of becoming pregnant, were using an effective contraceptive method, had water from the municipal system as their primary water source, and had no sexually transmitted infections. We used a computer-generated randomization sequence to assign participants to one of two sequences of menstrual product use, with allocation concealed only from the study investigators. Participants used each method over three menstrual cycles (total 6 months) and were interviewed at baseline and monthly follow-up visits. The product acceptability outcome compared product satisfaction question scores using an ordinal logistic regression model with individual random effects. This study is registered on the South African Clinical Trials database: number DOH-27-01134273. Of 124 women assessed, 110 were eligible and randomly assigned to selected menstrual products. One hundred and five women completed all follow-up visits. By comparison to pads/tampons (usual product used), the MC was rated significantly better for comfort, quality, menstrual blood collection, appearance, and preference. Both of these comparative outcome measures, along with likelihood of continued use, recommending the product, and future purchase, increased for the MC over time. MC acceptance in a population of novice users, many with limited experience with tampons, indicates that there is a pool of potential users in low-resource settings.

  9. Sex and menstrual cycle influences on three aspects of attention.

    Pletzer, Belinda; Harris, Ti-Anni; Ortner, Tuulia

    2017-10-01

    Sex differences and menstrual cycle influences have been investigated in a variety of cognitive abilities, but results regarding attention are comparably sparse. In the present study, 35 men and 32 naturally cycling women completed three attention tasks, which are commonly used in neuropsychological assessment situations. All participants completed two sessions, which were time-locked to the follicular (low progesterone) and luteal cycle phase (high progesterone) in women. The results reveal higher operation speed during sustained attention in men, but no sex differences in selected and divided attention. Menstrual cycle influences were observed on accuracy in all three tasks. During divided and sustained attention, for which a male advantage was previously reported, accuracy was higher during the early follicular compared to the mid-luteal cycle phase. Furthermore, during selected and sustained attention the learning effect from the first to the second test session was higher in women who started the experiment in their luteal cycle phase. These results suggest a possible role of progesterone in modulating the ability to focus on certain stimulus aspects, while inhibiting others and to sustain attention over a longer period of time. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Serum immunoglobulins E are related to menstrual cycle

    Vellutini, Mariella; Viegi, Giovanni; Parrini, Donatella; Pedreschi, Marzia; Baldacci, Sandra; Modena, Paola; Biavati, Batrizia; Simoni, Marzia; Carrozzi, Laura; Giuntini, Carlo

    1997-01-01

    During a cross sectional epidemiological survey on a general population sample, 596 fertile women underwent total serum IgE determination. They completed an interviewer-administered standardized questionnaire and were categorized according to their menstrual period. They were divided into two groups: those from days 10 to 20, who were considered to be in the periovulatory phase, and those in the other phases. IgE mean values were significantly different (p = 0.01) in the two groups: particularly, lower IgE values were found in those in periovulatory phase, after accounting for smoking habit and atopic status. By multiple regression analysis, taking into account the independent effects of menstrual period, age, smoking habit, hours of fast, skin prick test reactivity and presence of cough, significantly lower IgE values in the periovulatory phase were found. We hypothesize the possibility that a decrease of IgE concentration occurs during midcycle: a reduced immune response might facilitate the ovuli implantation. Further studies are necessary to longitudinally investigate the trend of IgE in the same women, as well as the distributions and the trends of other immunoglobulins

  11. Reproductive steroids and ADHD symptoms across the menstrual cycle.

    Roberts, Bethan; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory; Martel, Michelle M

    2018-02-01

    Although Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder shows (ADHD) male predominance, females are significantly impaired and exhibit additional comorbid disorders during adolescence. However, no empirical work has examined the influence of cyclical fluctuating steroids on ADHD symptoms in women. The present study examined estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and testosterone (T) associations with ADHD symptoms across the menstrual cycle in regularly-cycling young women (N=32), examining trait impulsivity as a moderator. Women completed a baseline measure of trait impulsivity, provided saliva samples each morning, and completed an ADHD symptom checklist every evening for 35days. Results indicated decreased levels of E2 in the context of increased levels of either P4 or T was associated with higher ADHD symptoms on the following day, particularly for those with high trait impulsivity. Phase analyses suggested both an early follicular and early luteal, or post-ovulatory, increase in ADHD symptoms. Therefore, ADHD symptoms may change across the menstrual cycle in response to endogenous steroid changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Detrimental Effects of Higher Body Mass Index and Smoking Habits on Menstrual Cycles in Korean Women.

    Jung, An Na; Park, Ju Hwan; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Seok Hyun; Jee, Byung Chul; Cha, Byung Heun; Sull, Jae Woong; Jun, Jin Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Alteration of menstrual cycle by individual lifestyles and unfavorable habits may cause menstrual irregularity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between lifestyle factors and menstrual irregularity in Korean women using data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012. This cross-sectional study included 3779 nondiabetic Korean women aged 19-49 years who did not take any oral contraceptives or sex hormonal compounds. We examined the association of menstrual irregularity with age, body mass index (BMI), drinking experience, and smoking habits. Age, Asian BMI, marriage status, age at menarche, and smoking habits were significantly associated with menstrual cycle irregularity (p smoking habits in middle-aged women aged 30-39 years (p smoking habits in nondiabetic Korean women. Weight loss and smoking cessation should be recommended to promote women's reproductive health.

  13. Relaxation time of normal breast tissues. Changes with age and variations during the menstrual cycle

    Dean, K.I.; Majurin, M.L.; Komu, M.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of age on the relaxation times of normal breast parenchyma and its surrounding fatty tissue were evaluated, and the variations during a normal menstrual cycle were analyzed using an ultra low field 0.02 T imager. Thirty-nine healthy volunteers aged 21 to 59 years were examined to determine T1 and T2 relaxation times, and 8 of these volunteers were studied once weekly during one menstrual cycle. The only significant trend was an increase in the T2 of breast parenchyma with increasing age. During the menstrual cycle there was a slight but insignificant (p=0.10) increase in T1 of the breast parenchyma values during the latter half of the menstrual cycle, and a corresponding increase in T2 values between the 2nd and 3rd weeks of the menstrual cycle, which was significant. (orig.)

  14. Relaxation time of normal breast tissues. Changes with age and variations during the menstrual cycle

    Dean, K.I. (University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology); Majurin, M.L. (University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology); Komu, M. (University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1994-05-01

    The influence of age on the relaxation times of normal breast parenchyma and its surrounding fatty tissue were evaluated, and the variations during a normal menstrual cycle were analyzed using an ultra low field 0.02 T imager. Thirty-nine healthy volunteers aged 21 to 59 years were examined to determine T1 and T2 relaxation times, and 8 of these volunteers were studied once weekly during one menstrual cycle. The only significant trend was an increase in the T2 of breast parenchyma with increasing age. During the menstrual cycle there was a slight but insignificant (p=0.10) increase in T1 of the breast parenchyma values during the latter half of the menstrual cycle, and a corresponding increase in T2 values between the 2nd and 3rd weeks of the menstrual cycle, which was significant. (orig.).

  15. Thyroid function in girls with menstrual disturbances in iodine-deficiency region

    O Konstantinova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The estimate the functional state of the female adolescent thyroid with menstrual cycle disorder, living in the iodine deficiency regions, 130 female adolescents with irregular menstrual cycle were examined. Hypothyroidism incidence (in them was 16.9%. In addition we considered TSH range 2.5–4.0 mU/l (highly normal TSH level the extent of which was 12.3%. High extent of antibody carriage to the thyroid (31.3% in girls with irregular menses, having high blood TSH level. There were no statistical differences between the structure of menstrual dysfunction and menstrual duration depending on thyroid function (p = 0.2383, respectively, as well as the average values of estradiol levels depending on TSH level (p = 0.3213. Thus, the influence of highly normal TSH on menstrual function development in female adolescents.

  16. Validation of a new menstrual pictogram (superabsorbent polymer-c version) for use with ultraslim towels that contain superabsorbent polymers.

    Magnay, Julia L; Nevatte, Tracy M; O'Brien, Shaughn; Gerlinger, Christoph; Seitz, Christian

    2014-02-01

    To validate the menstrual pictogram (superabsorbent polymer-c version) for Always Ultra-slim feminine towels containing superabsorbent polymers. Prospective, multicenter, evaluator-blinded study. Three gynecology research clinics in the United Kingdom. Women with self-perceived light, normal, or heavy menstrual periods who had not previously used a graphical method to assess their menstrual loss. One hundred twenty-two women were asked to complete the menstrual pictogram throughout two menstrual periods and collect their feminine towels for measurements of menstrual blood loss (MBL) by the alkaline hematin method and total menstrual fluid loss (MFL) by fluid weight. Agreement of menstrual pictogram MBL and MFL scores with alkaline hematin and towel weight, respectively. The percentage blood fraction was determined at various volumes of menstrual discharge. Alkaline hematin and fluid weight were highly correlated (r = .97). However, the percentage blood fraction progressively increased with total MFL and MBL score. After correction for this incremental rise in blood fraction, the menstrual pictogram gave a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 92% for a diagnosis of heavy menstrual bleeding. The menstrual pictogram (superabsorbent polymer-c version) provides a simple means of measuring MBL in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Menstrual Disorders from Puberty to Early Adult Age: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Krupa Hitesh Shah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A female encounters various menstrual disorders from puberty to menopause. We evaluated menstrual disturbances in post-menarche age and young adult age. Aim: To know the prevalence and impact of menstrual abnormalities at early adolescent and young adult age and to evaluate course of disorders identified at early adolescent age. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out through self-administered questionnaire on 367 consented students at Melaka Manipal Medical College at Manipal, during December 2015- April 2016. Data were analysed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 16.0 software. Results: Prevalence and pattern of menstrual disorders at early adolescent and at young adult age were noted. The mean age of menarche was 12.1 ±1.1 years. Menorrhagia was the most frequent (14.7% and 11.7% and polymenorrhea (7.6 % and 6% was least frequent menstrual disorder at adolescent age and young adult age respectively. Resolution of pubertal menstrual disorders was observed in all disorders, but noticed highest in oligomenorrhea (91%, (p-value <0.05. Prevalence of menstrual related disorder like dysmenorrhea was 88.7% at adolescent age and 67.6% at the young adult age. It was statistically significant reduction. Hindrance in academic performance and social behavior was noted more at young adult age, which was in 23.9% and 46.7% respectively (p-value <0.05. Conclusion: The most prevalent menstrual abnormality was menorrhagia at the early adolescent and the young adult age. Associated the most prevalent menstrual related symptoms were dysmenorrhea at early adolescent age, and premenstrual symptom at the young adult age. The study demonstrates the natural course (decreasing prevalence of all menstrual disorders from early adolescent to young adult age.

  18. High prevalence of subtle and severe menstrual disturbances in exercising women: confirmation using daily hormone measures.

    De Souza, M J; Toombs, R J; Scheid, J L; O'Donnell, E; West, S L; Williams, N I

    2010-02-01

    The identification of subtle menstrual cycle disturbances requires daily hormone assessments. In contrast, the identification of severe menstrual disturbances, such as amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea, can be established by clinical observation. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of subtle menstrual disturbances, defined as luteal phase defects (LPD) or anovulation, in exercising women, with menstrual cycles of 26-35 days, who engage in a variety of sports, both recreational and competitive. Secondly, the prevalence of oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea was also determined via measurement of daily urinary ovarian steroids rather than self report alone. Menstrual status was documented by daily measurements of estrone and pregnanediol glucuronide and luteinizing hormone across two to three consecutive cycles and subsequently categorized as ovulatory (Ovul), LPD, anovulatory (Anov), oligomenorrheic (Oligo) and amenorrheic (Amen) in sedentary (Sed) and exercising (Ex) women. Sed (n = 20) and Ex women (n = 67) were of similar (P > 0.05) age (26.3 +/- 0.8 years), weight (59.3 +/- 1.8 kg), body mass index (22.0 +/- 0.6 kg/m2), age of menarche (12.8 +/- 0.3 years) and gynecological maturity (13.4 +/- 0.9 years). The Sed group exercised less (P exercising women experience subtle menstrual disturbances, i.e. LPD and anovulation, and that one third of exercising women may be amenorrheic. Estimates of the prevalence of subtle menstrual disturbances in exercising women determined by the presence or absence of short or long cycles does not identify these disturbances. In light of known clinical consequences of menstrual disturbances, these findings underscore the lack of reliability of normal menstrual intervals and self report to infer menstrual status.

  19. The interplay of multiple sclerosis and menstrual cycle: Which one affects the other one?

    Mirmosayyeb, Omid; Badihian, Shervin; Manouchehri, Navid; Basiri, Akram Kahid; Barzegar, Mahdi; Esmaeil, Nafiseh; Fayyazi, Emad; Shaygannejad, Vahid

    2018-02-02

    Menstruation is suggested to affect multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms, while the effect of MS on menstruation is not studied before. Here, we aimed to compare the pattern of menstrual cycle and its symptoms between MS patients and healthy controls. This is a cross-sectional study conducted during 2015-2016 in MS clinic of Kashani hospital, Isfahan, Iran. We included female patients > 14 years with diagnosis of relapsing-remitting MS, and healthy subjects as the control group. We collected data regarding menarche age, menstrual characteristics, history of premenstrual syndrome, the amount of menstrual bleeding, and the possible perimenstrual symptoms from all subjects. Also, MS patients were asked to report changes in menstrual characteristics after MS occurrence. The final study population contained 181 MS patients and 202 healthy subjects. The mean age in MS and control group were 36.04 ± 9.86 and 35.16 ± 11.30, respectively (P-value = 0.426). Menarche age in MS patients and control group were not statistically different (13.59 ± 1.87 and 13.29 ± 1.53, respectively; P-value = 0.087). Changing menstrual characteristics was reported in 70 MS patients (38.7%). Irregular menstrual cycle increased from 21% to 40.3% after occurrence of MS (P-value < 0.001) and was reported 24.7% in the control group. MS patients versus controls reported more symptoms before, during, and after their menstrual period (P-values < 0.001). We found no difference regarding menstrual characteristics in MS patients before onset of the disease and healthy controls. Irregular menstrual cycle was observed more after the disease occurrence while other menstrual characteristics did not change. Moreover, MS patients reported many more perimenstrual symptoms. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The majority of irregular menstrual cycles in adolescence are ovulatory: results of a prospective study.

    Peña, Alexia S; Doherty, Dorota A; Atkinson, Helen C; Hickey, Martha; Norman, Robert J; Hart, Roger

    2018-03-01

    While ovulation is most likely to occur in adolescent girls with regular menstrual cycles, there are limited data on the incidence of ovulation in girls with irregular menstrual cycles in early postmenarcheal years. The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of ovulation in healthy postmenarcheal girls with irregular menstrual cycles. Prospective cohort study over 12 weeks including 40 healthy postmenarcheal girls recruited from the population-based cohort of adolescents from Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study with irregular menstrual cycles defined by either menstrual cycles 35 days in duration or cycle length that varied from month to month by >4 days according to menstrual diaries. Ovulation defined by urinary pregnanediol-3α-glucuronide/creatinine measurements higher than three times above minimum value obtained from 12 samples (1 per week). Forty girls (37 Caucasians) with irregular menstrual cycles aged 15.1 (median (IQR) 14.9-15.4) years who were 2.3 (1.9-3.3) years postmenarche were assessed. Urinary pregnanediol-3α-glucuronide/creatinine values identified that 33 girls (82.5%) ovulated during the 3 months of observation and 7 girls had anovulatory cycles. Menstrual diaries collected for a median (IQR) of 159 (137.5-188.2) days showed median minimal and maximum menstrual cycle duration of 24 (11.5-29) and 38.5 (35-48) days, respectively. A large proportion of healthy adolescent girls with irregular menstrual cycles are still ovulating despite irregular and infrequent menses. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Headache Exacerbates Pain Characteristics in Temporomandibular Disorders.

    Costa, Yuri Martins; Alves da Costa, Dayse Regina; de Lima Ferreira, Ana Paula; Porporatti, André Luís; Svensson, Peter; Rodrigues Conti, Paulo César; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of headache in adults with masticatory myofascial pain (MMP) on the outcome variables clinical pain (ie, self-reported pain intensity and pressure pain sensitivity), sleep quality, and pain catastrophizing. A total of 97 patients with MMP were diagnosed with co-existing headache (MMPH group, n = 50) or without headache (MMP group, n = 47) according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). The outcome parameters were the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); the Catastrophizing Thoughts subscale of the Pain-Related Self-Statement Scale (PRSS-C); pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles; and self-reported facial pain intensity measured on a 0- to 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS). Student t test for independent samples (α = 1.2%) and factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) (α = 5%) were used to analyze the data. The MMPH group showed significantly impaired sleep quality (mean ± standard deviation [SD] PSQI score 9.1 ± 3.5) compared with the MMP group (7.2 ± 3.4; P = .008). Subscale scores on the PRSS-C were significantly higher in the MMPH (2.1 ± 1.2) than in the MMP group (1.6 ± 1.4, uncorrected P = .048). Also, the PPTs (kgf/cm²) of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles were significantly lower in the MMPH group (1.52 ± 0.53; 1.29 ± 0.43, respectively) than in the MMP group (2.09 ± 0.73; 1.70 ± 0.68, respectively; P headache patients had lower PPTs in the anterior temporalis muscle (P = .041) in comparison with non-headache patients. Co-existence of headache further exacerbates clinical characteristics in patients with painful TMD, which implies involvement of common mechanisms and pathways of vulnerability in these patients.

  2. Exacerbation heterogeneity in COPD: subgroup analyses from the FLAME study

    Vogelmeier CF

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Claus F Vogelmeier,1 Kenneth R Chapman,2 Marc Miravitlles,3 Nicolas Roche,4 Jørgen Vestbo,5 Chau Thach,6 Donald Banerji,6 Robert Fogel,6 Francesco Patalano,7 Petter Olsson,8 Konstantinos Kostikas,7 Jadwiga A Wedzicha9 1Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL, Department of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University Medical Center Giessen and Marburg, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Marburg, Germany; 2Asthma and Airway Centre, University Health Network and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Barcelona, Spain; 4Service de Pneumologie AP-HP, Cochin Hospital, University Paris Descartes (EA2511, Paris, France; 5Institute of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, The University of Manchester and Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; 6Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 7Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 8Novartis Sverige AB, Täby, Sweden; 9National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK Background: The FLAME study compared once-daily indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY 110/50 µg with twice-daily salmeterol/fluticasone (SFC 50/500 µg in symptomatic patients with moderate to very severe COPD and a history of exacerbations in the previous year. Methods: This prespecified and post hoc subgroup analysis evaluated treatment efficacy on 1 moderate/severe exacerbations according to prior exacerbation history and treatment, and 2 types of exacerbations according to health care resource utilization (HCRU during 1-year follow-up. Results: IND/GLY reduced the rate of moderate/severe exacerbations versus SFC in patients with a history of 1 exacerbation (rate ratio [RR]: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.75–0.93, ≥2 exacerbations (RR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.70–1.03 and ≥2 exacerbations or ≥1 hospitalization in the previous year (RR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.74

  3. Relationship between airway colonization, inflammation and exacerbation frequency in COPD.

    Tumkaya, Munir; Atis, Sibel; Ozge, Cengiz; Delialioglu, Nuran; Polat, Gurbuz; Kanik, Arzu

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate bacterial colonization and the airway inflammatory response, and its relationship to the frequency of exacerbation in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Quantitative bacteriologic cultures, neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin (IL)-8 were measured in bronchoalveoler lavage (BAL) in 39 patients with stable COPD [19 with frequent exacerbation (> or = 3/year), and 20 with infrequent] and in 18 healthy controls (10 smokers and 8 non-smokers). BAL revealed the microorganisms with potential pathogenicity above the established threshold (> or = 10(3)cfu/ml) in 68.4% of patients with frequent exacerbation, 55% of infrequent exacerbation, 40% of smokers and 12.5% of non-smokers controls (P=0.05). BAL MPO, IL-8 and TNF-alpha levels were found to be significantly higher in COPD as compared to controls (P=0.001). However, only IL-8 level was significantly higher in COPD patients with frequent exacerbation as compared to infrequent (P=0.001). Airway bacterial load correlated with levels of airway inflammation markers in COPD (P<0.05). The bacterial load and airway inflammation contributes to each other in stable COPD. However, there is a link only between interleukine (IL)-8 and frequent exacerbations. Clearly, the relationship between bacterial colonization, airway inflammation and frequent exacerbations is of major importance in understanding of the COPD pathogenesis.

  4. Virus-induced exacerbations in asthma and COPD

    Daisuke eKurai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by chronic airway inflammation and/or airflow limitation due to pulmonary emphysema. Chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, and bronchial asthma may all be associated with airflow limitation; therefore, exacerbation of asthma may be associated with the pathophysiology of COPD. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that the exacerbation of asthma, namely virus-induced asthma, may be associated with a wide variety of respiratory viruses.COPD and asthma have different underlying pathophysiological processes and thus require individual therapies. Exacerbation of both COPD and asthma, which are basically defined and diagnosed by clinical symptoms, is associated with a rapid decline in lung function and increased mortality. Similar pathogens, including human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and coronavirus, are also frequently detected during exacerbation of asthma and/or COPD. Immune response to respiratory viral infections, which may be related to the severity of exacerbation in each disease, varies in patients with both COPD and asthma. In this regard, it is crucial to recognize and understand both the similarities and differences of clinical features in patients with COPD and/or asthma associated with respiratory viral infections, especially in the exacerbative stage.In relation to definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology, this review aims to summarize current knowledge concerning exacerbation of both COPD and asthma by focusing on the clinical significance of associated respiratory virus infections.

  5. Acute kidney injury in stable COPD and at exacerbation

    Barakat MF

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available MF Barakat,1 HI McDonald,1 TJ Collier,1 L Smeeth,1 D Nitsch,1 JK Quint1,2 1Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 2Department of Respiratory Epidemiology, Occupational Medicine and Public Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK Background: While acute kidney injury (AKI alone is associated with increased mortality, the incidence of hospital admission with AKI among stable and exacerbating COPD patients and the effect of concurrent AKI at COPD exacerbation on mortality is not known.Methods: A total of 189,561 individuals with COPD were identified from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Using Poisson and logistic regressions, we explored which factors predicted admission for AKI (identified in Hospital Episode Statistics in this COPD cohort and concomitant AKI at a hospitalization for COPD exacerbation. Using survival analysis, we investigated the effect of concurrent AKI at exacerbation on mortality (n=36,107 and identified confounding factors.Results: The incidence of AKI in the total COPD cohort was 128/100,000 person-years. The prevalence of concomitant AKI at exacerbation was 1.9%, and the mortality rate in patients with AKI at exacerbation was 521/1,000 person-years. Male sex, older age, and lower glomerular filtration rate predicted higher risk of AKI or death. There was a 1.80 fold (95% confidence interval: 1.61, 2.03 increase in adjusted mortality within the first 6 months post COPD exacerbation in patients suffering from AKI and COPD exacerbation compared to those who were AKI free.Conclusion: In comparison to previous studies on general populations and hospitalizations, the incidence and prevalence of AKI is relatively high in COPD patients. Coexisting AKI at exacerbation is prognostic of poor outcome. Keywords: acute renal failure, mortality, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, prognosis

  6. PARP-2 regulates cell cycle-related genes through histone deacetylation and methylation independently of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation

    Liang, Ya-Chen; Hsu, Chiao-Yu; Yao, Ya-Li; Yang, Wen-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► PARP-2 acts as a transcription co-repressor independently of PARylation activity. ► PARP-2 recruits HDAC5, 7, and G9a and generates repressive chromatin. ► PARP-2 is recruited to the c-MYC promoter by DNA-binding factor YY1. ► PARP-2 represses cell cycle-related genes and alters cell cycle progression. -- Abstract: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2) catalyzes poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) and regulates numerous nuclear processes, including transcription. Depletion of PARP-2 alters the activity of transcription factors and global gene expression. However, the molecular action of how PARP-2 controls the transcription of target promoters remains unclear. Here we report that PARP-2 possesses transcriptional repression activity independently of its enzymatic activity. PARP-2 interacts and recruits histone deacetylases HDAC5 and HDAC7, and histone methyltransferase G9a to the promoters of cell cycle-related genes, generating repressive chromatin signatures. Our findings propose a novel mechanism of PARP-2 in transcriptional regulation involving specific protein–protein interactions and highlight the importance of PARP-2 in the regulation of cell cycle progression

  7. The effect of the menstrual cycle on the optic nerve head analysis of migrainous women.

    Yucel, Iclal; Akar, Munire; Durukan, A; Akar, Yusuf; Taskin, Omur; Dora, Babur; Yilmaz, Nurgul

    2005-03-01

    To determine the effect of the menstrual cycle on the optic nerve head topographic analysis of normally menstruating migrainous women. Randomly selected one eye of 44 migrainous and 49 healthy control women with regular menstrual cycles were included in the study. All subjects underwent complete ocular examination. Optic nervehead topographic analysis were performed using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, HRT II (Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II, software version 1.6;Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). They were repeated for two times during the menstrual cycle: in follicular phase (7th to 10th day of the cycle) and in the luteal phase (days 3 to 4 before the menstrual bleeding). Serum estradiol, progesterone, and luteinizing hormone measurements were repeated at each menstrual phase. The mean age of migrainous and control subjects were 31.5 + 5.1 years and 33.4 +/- 3.7 years, respectively (P > 0.05). Their mean disc areas were 2.26 +/- 0.46 mm(2) and 1.95 +/- 0.39 mm(2), respectively(P 0.05). The parameter rim volume decreased, while the parameters cup volume and cup shape measure increased significantly in the luteal phase of the migrainous women (all P values cup parameters during the menstrual cycle of the migrainous women. Further clinical trials on ocular blood flow changes during the menstrual cycle of the migrainous women may highlight the role of sex steroids in the optic nerve head of the migrainous women.

  8. Prolonged menstrual cycles in female workers exposed to ethylene glycol ethers in the semiconductor manufacturing industry.

    Hsieh, G-Y; Wang, J-D; Cheng, T-J; Chen, P-C

    2005-08-01

    It has been shown that female workers exposed to ethylene glycol ethers (EGEs) in the semiconductor industry have higher risks of spontaneous abortion, subfertility, and menstrual disturbances, and prolonged waiting time to pregnancy. To examine whether EGEs or other chemicals are associated with long menstrual cycles in female workers in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey during the annual health examination at a wafer manufacturing company in Taiwan in 1997. A three tiered exposure-assessment strategy was used to analyse the risk. A short menstrual cycle was defined to be a cycle less than 24 days and a long cycle to be more than 35 days. There were 606 valid questionnaires from 473 workers in fabrication jobs and 133 in non-fabrication areas. Long menstrual cycles were associated with workers in fabrication areas compared to those in non-fabrication areas. Using workers in non-fabrication areas as referents, workers in photolithography and diffusion areas had higher risks for long menstrual cycles. Workers exposed to EGEs and isopropanol, and hydrofluoric acid, isopropanol, and phosphorous compounds also showed increased risks of a long menstrual cycle. Exposure to multiple chemicals, including EGEs in photolithography, might be associated with long menstrual cycles, and may play an important role in a prolonged time to pregnancy in the wafer manufacturing industry; however, the prevalence in the design, possible exposure misclassification, and chance should be considered.

  9. Effectiveness and safety of dydrogesterone in regularization of menstrual cycle: a post-marketing study.

    Trivedi, Nilesh; Chauhan, Naveen; Vaidya, Vishal

    2016-08-01

    Oral administration of dydrogesterone during second half of menstrual cycle has been shown to reduce menstrual irregularities. This prospective, observational study aimed to determine continued effectiveness of dydrogesterone (prescribed between 1 and 6 cycles or longer) in menstrual cycle regularization in Indian women aged ≥18 years with irregular menstrual cycle for at least 3 months. Those achieving regular cycles (21 to 35 days, inclusive) during treatment were followed up for 6 months after cessation of dydrogesterone treatment. Of the 910 women completing dydrogesterone treatment, 880 (96.7%) achieved cycle regularization (p<0.0001 for 90% success rate) at end of treatment (EOT). Of the 788 subjects available for follow up at 6 months, 747 (94.8%) reported cycle regularity (p<0.0001 for 90% success rate). At EOT, the mean cycle duration reduced by 16.14 (±24.04) days and mean amount of menstrual bleeding decreased by 0.45 (±1.20) pads/day. While five subjects reported worst pain at baseline, none experienced it at EOT. One serious adverse event (appendicitis) and three non-serious adverse events were reported. Dydrogesterone regularizes and improves the duration of the menstrual cycle, reduces the amount of bleeding, relieves menstrual pain and prevents relapse of irregular cycles at six months after discontinuation of treatment.

  10. Menstrual cyclic changes of human physiological uterus analized by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

    Yasuzawa, Michio

    1989-01-01

    MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) is useful facilitation to perform analysis of tissue structures with the gray scale. By use of super-conducting MRI with 0.5T resistive magnet, present study was designed to analyse characteristic features of the human uterus throughout menstrual cycle. Both T 1 and T 2 values of the endometrium, the junctional zone and the myometrium were estimated on total nine volunteers of nomal healthy women aged from 21 to 30 y.o. during menstrual cycle. MRI was taken in the mid ∼ late proliferative, the secretory, and the menstrual stage. Moreover, relative square ratio of the endometrium and the junctional zone to the corpus uteri were measured by computed image analyser (Lusex 500). Following results were obtained. 1) Both T 1 and T 2 values of the endometrium and the junctional zone were lowest in the menstrual phase. In the myometrium, T 1 values were shown as same tendency comparing with the above two layers but T 2 values were lowest in the proliferative phase and the menstrual one. 2) Proportional values of the endometrium to the corpus uteri increased from 13.8% in the proliferative phase to 17.9% in the secretory phase and decreased to 8.0% in the menstrual phase. While that in the junctional zone decreased from 26.6% to 23.4% in secretory phase and increased to 35.0% in the menstrual phase. (author)

  11. Menstrual cyclic changes of human physiological uterus analized by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

    Yasuzawa, Michio

    1989-05-01

    MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) is useful facilitation to perform analysis of tissue structures with the gray scale. By use of super-conducting MRI with 0.5T resistive magnet, present study was designed to analyse characteristic features of the human uterus throughout menstrual cycle. Both T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ values of the endometrium, the junctional zone and the myometrium were estimated on total nine volunteers of nomal healthy women aged from 21 to 30 y.o. during menstrual cycle. MRI was taken in the mid /similar to/ late proliferative, the secretory, and the menstrual stage. Moreover, relative square ratio of the endometrium and the junctional zone to the corpus uteri were measured by computed image analyser (Lusex 500). Following results were obtained. (1) Both T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ values of the endometrium and the junctional zone were lowest in the menstrual phase. In the myometrium, T/sub 1/ values were shown as same tendency comparing with the above two layers but T/sub 2/ values were lowest in the proliferative phase and the menstrual one. (2) Proportional values of the endometrium to the corpus uteri increased from 13.8% in the proliferative phase to 17.9% in the secretory phase and decreased to 8.0% in the menstrual phase. While that in the junctional zone decreased from 26.6% to 23.4% in secretory phase and increased to 35.0% in the menstrual phase. (author).

  12. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice on Menstrual Hygiene Management among School Adolescents.

    Yadav, Ram Naresh; Joshi, Shrijana; Poudel, Rajesh; Pandeya, Pawan

    2018-01-01

    Menstrual hygiene management remains a taboo in many communities in Nepal. Cultural beliefs about menstruation such as food taboos and untouchability have negative impact on dignity, health and education of adolescent girls. The objective of the study was to assess the current knowledge, attitude and practice of school adolescents on menstrual hygiene management in Doti District in Far-Western Nepal. This cross-sectional study was carried out from October to December 2016 at seven village development committees in Doti district, Nepal. This study was done among 276 students from grade seven and eight of 11 schools. Self-administered structured questionnaire was used to obtain information from school students. Descriptive analysis was done to analyse the knowledge, attitude and practice of school adolescents on menstrual hygiene management. 67.4% respondents had fair knowledge and 26.4% respondents had good knowledge on menstrual hygiene management. However, out of 141 female adolescent respondents, only 56 (40%) were engaged in good menstrual hygiene practices. Around half of the respondents had positive attitude towards menstrual hygiene management related issues. Although knowledge on menstrual hygiene management among school adolescents is fair, still attitude and practice need to improve. Findings indicate the need of behavior change communication campaigns along with frequent reinforcement of school health education programs.

  13. Western herbal medicine consultations for common menstrual problems; practitioner experiences and perceptions of treatment.

    Fisher, Carole; Adams, Jon; Frawley, Jane; Hickman, Louise; Sibbritt, David

    2018-03-01

    To explore the prevalence with which Australian Western herbalists treat menstrual problems and their related treatment, experiences, perceptions, and interreferral practices with other health practitioners. Members of the Practitioner Research and Collaboration Initiative practice-based research network identifying as Western Herbalists (WHs) completed a specifically developed, online questionnaire. Western Herbalists regularly treat menstrual problems, perceiving high, though differential, levels of effectiveness. For menstrual problems, WHs predominantly prescribe individualised formulas including core herbs, such as Vitex agnus-castus, and problem-specific herbs. Estimated clients' weekly cost (median = $25.00) and treatment duration (median = 4-6 months) covering this Western herbal medicine treatment appears relatively low. Urban-based women are more likely than those rurally based to have used conventional treatment for their menstrual problems before consulting WHs (p = .001). Only 19% of WHs indicated direct contact by conventional medical practitioners regarding treatment of clients' menstrual problems despite 42% indicating clients' conventional practitioners recommended consultation with WH. Western herbal medicine may be a substantially prevalent, cost-effective treatment option amongst women with menstrual problems. A detailed examination of the behaviour of women with menstrual problems who seek and use Western herbal medicine warrants attention to ensure this healthcare option is safe, effective, and appropriately co-ordinated within women's wider healthcare use. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The Menstrual Cycle Influences Emotion but Has Limited Effect on Cognitive Function.

    Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2018-01-01

    From a psychological perspective, the menstrual cycle has been a research topic for more than 50 years. The most recent menstrual cycle research has been driven by an increased interest in sex differences in neuroscience, and the urge to understand sex disparities in prevalence, clinical presentation, and treatment response in psychiatric or neurologic disorders. Indeed, the menstrual cycle is an excellent model of ovarian steroid influence on emotion, behavior, and cognition. This review summarizes the emotion-related and cognitive findings of methodologically sound menstrual cycle studies. In particular, the review is devoted to the sex hormone-induced emotional disturbances in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder, a subgroup of women responding with enhanced sensitivity to the normal fluctuations in endogenous hormone levels during the menstrual cycle. In addition, emotion processing and cognitive findings across the menstrual cycle in healthy women are also discussed. The overall conclusion is that that menstrual cycle differences in sexually dimorphic cognitive tasks are small and difficult to replicate. Emotion-related changes are more consistently found and are better associated with progesterone and the luteal phase, than with estradiol. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding including coagulopathies and other menstrual disorders.

    Deligeoroglou, Efthimios; Karountzos, Vasileios

    2018-04-01

    Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) is a frequent cause of visits to the emergency department and a major reason for concern among adolescents and their families. The most common cause of AUB, in otherwise healthy adolescents, is ovulatory dysfunction, although 5-36% of adolescents who present with heavy menstrual bleeding, have an underlying bleeding disorder (BD). The most common form of BDs is von Willebrand Disease, reflecting 13% of adolescents with AUB. Management of AUB depends on the underlying etiology, the bleeding severity, as well as the need for hospitalization. Treatment of adolescents with an underlying coagulopathy depends on the severity of the BD, while therapeutic interventions are summarized in supportive measures, hormonal treatments (e.g. Combined Oral Contraceptives), non-hormonal treatments (e.g. tranexamic acid and desmopressin), surgical options (e.g. dilatation & curettage) and treatment options in specific conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Menstrual cycle variation of women's interest in erotica.

    Zillmann, D; Schweitzer, K J; Mundorf, N

    1994-10-01

    Female respondents were given the opportunity to choose feature films for viewing. Choices were made on the basis of synopses and promotional videos. These materials projected (i) a focus on erotic, sexual events, (ii) romantic themes, (iii) action-packed violent drama, and (iv) hilarious comedy. Additionally, respondents evaluated the appeal of the projected films. Respondents' position in the menstrual cycle was then determined, with placement into one of seven 4-day phases. Measured in both choices and evaluations, a postmenstrual surge in erotic interest was evident. Erotic interest was also pronounced prior to and during menses. In contrast, it was at a minimum during the first half of the luteal phase. The choice of romantic films was not appreciably influenced by cycle position. However, in evaluating films with romantic themes, premenstrual women expressed particularly little interest in this genre.

  17. Modeling Women's Menstrual Cycles using PICI Gates in Bayesian Network.

    Zagorecki, Adam; Łupińska-Dubicka, Anna; Voortman, Mark; Druzdzel, Marek J

    2016-03-01

    A major difficulty in building Bayesian network (BN) models is the size of conditional probability tables, which grow exponentially in the number of parents. One way of dealing with this problem is through parametric conditional probability distributions that usually require only a number of parameters that is linear in the number of parents. In this paper, we introduce a new class of parametric models, the Probabilistic Independence of Causal Influences (PICI) models, that aim at lowering the number of parameters required to specify local probability distributions, but are still capable of efficiently modeling a variety of interactions. A subset of PICI models is decomposable and this leads to significantly faster inference as compared to models that cannot be decomposed. We present an application of the proposed method to learning dynamic BNs for modeling a woman's menstrual cycle. We show that PICI models are especially useful for parameter learning from small data sets and lead to higher parameter accuracy than when learning CPTs.

  18. Susceptibility to exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Hurst, John R; Vestbo, Jørgen; Anzueto, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although we know that exacerbations are key events in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), our understanding of their frequency, determinants, and effects is incomplete. In a large observational cohort, we tested the hypothesis that there is a frequent-exacerbation phenotype...... of follow-up were 0.85 per person for patients with stage 2 COPD (with stage defined in accordance with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] stages), 1.34 for patients with stage 3, and 2.00 for patients with stage 4. Overall, 22% of patients with stage 2 disease, 33% with stage 3...... of COPD that is independent of disease severity. METHODS: We analyzed the frequency and associations of exacerbation in 2138 patients enrolled in the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) study. Exacerbations were defined as events that led a care provider...

  19. Risk factors for asthma exacerbation in patients presenting to an ...

    Conclusion: Lack of corticosteroid use and upper respiratory tract infections are ... Key words: Asthma, asthma exacerbations, risk factors, corticosteroids ..... recall bias may be a limitation. ... obstructive picture on spirometry were included as.

  20. Age-Specific Characteristics of Inpatients with Severe Asthma Exacerbation

    Kiyoshi Sekiya

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The characteristics of inpatients with severe asthma vary depending on age. We need to establish countermeasures for asthma exacerbation according to the characteristics of patients depending on age.

  1. Incidental ovarian 18F-FDG accumulation on PET: correlation with the menstrual cycle

    Kim, Seok-Ki; Kang, Keon Wook; Roh, Ju Won; Sim, Jung Suk; Lee, Eun Sook; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nature of incidental ovarian 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) accumulation on positron emission tomography (PET) and the correlation with the menstrual cycle and menopause. We identified 19 incidental FDG accumulations in the ovary (FAOs). FDG PET images were compared with other anatomical imaging methods [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) or ultrasonography (US)]. Pathological findings, FDG PET scan during the next menstrual cycle and follow-up images (PET, CT and MRI) were reviewed. To establish the relation of FAOs to the menstrual cycle, we reviewed whole-body FDG PET acquired from 207 consecutive women and the pre-examination questionnaires, including data regarding the menstrual cycle. All spherical or discoid FAOs were attributed to normally developing ovarian follicles and corpora lutea on the basis of concurrent MRI, US or the follow-up PET scan. Three of the FAOs were proved pathologically to be either normal ovaries or a haemorrhagic corpus luteum. Fifteen FAOs spontaneously disappeared on the short-term follow-up PET scans. Of 207 women, 61 had active menstrual cycles. FAOs were found in 12 out of 61 premenopausal women (20%), appearing between the 10th and 25th days of the menstrual cycle. No FAOs were found in the women who did not have a menstrual cycle. Physiological ovarian FDG accumulation could be found around the time of ovulation and during the early luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in premenopausal woman. Since FAO is dependent on the menstrual cycle, it can be avoided by scheduling PET just after menstruation. (orig.)

  2. Sexual desire changes during menstrual cycle and relationship with premenstrual syndrome

    Kiani Asiabar A.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual function in women may be affected by their menstrual cycle. Lack of sexual drive is a deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity. This study aims at determining the changes in sexual desire during the menstrual cycle and those associated with premenstrual syndrome (PMS and evaluates sexual desire during the menstrual cycle and the associated changes with PMS. Methods: The sample for this cross-sectional study includes 150 women employed in factories in Tehran. The instruments for data collection were questionnaires and journals of premenstrual experiences.Results: Analysis of the data showed that the mean age of the subjects was 31 years standard deviation = 8.46(. The most frequent decrease in sexual desire was during the week prior to the start of menstrual bleeding (27.3% and the least frequent was from the end of bleeding to one week before the next period of menstrual bleeding (5.3%. In 24.7% of the cases, an increase in sexual desire occurred during the middle of the menstrual cycle and 27.3% during the course of menstrual bleeding. Moreover, 10.7% of the subjects had an increase in sexual desire during the week before bleeding. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between changes in sexual desire and PMS (p<0.001. In addition, a positive correlation was found between changes in sexual desire and breast tenderness, joint and muscle pain. Conclusions: The sexual desire of women, with or without PMS, changes during the menstrual cycle. The greatest decrease in sexual desire occurs during the first week before menstrual bleeding in women with PMS. Such information can greatly help toward understanding and treatment in sexual therapy for couples.

  3. Menstrual cycle influence on cognitive function and emotion processing - from the reproductive perspective

    Inger Sundström Sundström Poromaa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The menstrual cycle has attracted research interest ever since the 1930s. For many researchers the menstrual cycle is an excellent model of ovarian steroid influence on emotion, behavior, and cognition. Over the past years methodological improvements in menstrual cycle studies have been noted, and this review summarizes the findings of methodologically sound menstrual cycle studies in healthy women. Whereas the predominant hypotheses of the cognitive field state that sexually dimorphic cognitive skills that favor men are improved during menstrual cycle phases with low estrogen and that cognitive skills that favor women are improved during cycle phases with increased estrogen and/or progesterone, this review has not found sufficient evidence to support any of these hypotheses. Mental rotation has gained specific interest in this aspect, but a meta-analysis yielded a standardized mean difference in error rate of 1.61 (95% CI -0.35 – 3.57, suggesting, at present, no favor of an early follicular phase improvement in mental rotation performance. Besides the sexually dimorphic cognitive skills, studies exploring menstrual cycle effects on tasks that probe prefrontal cortex function, for instance verbal or spatial working memory, have also been reviewed. While studies thus far are few, results at hand suggest improved performance at times of high estradiol levels. Menstrual cycle studies on emotional processing, on the other hand, tap into the emotional disorders of the luteal phase, and may be of relevance for women with premenstrual disorders. Although evidence at present is limited, it is suggested that emotion recognition, consolidation of emotional memories, and fear extinction is modulated by the menstrual cycle in women. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, several studies report changes in brain reactivity across the menstrual cycle, most notably increased amygdala reactivity in the luteal phase.

  4. Apparent diffusion coefficient values of the normal uterus: Interindividual variations during menstrual cycle

    Tsili, A.C., E-mail: a_tsili@yahoo.gr [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital of Ioannina (Greece); Argyropoulou, M.I., E-mail: margyrop@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital of Ioannina (Greece); Tzarouchi, L., E-mail: ltzar@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital of Ioannina (Greece); Dalkalitsis, N., E-mail: ndalkal@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital of Ioannina (Greece); Koliopoulos, G., E-mail: georgekoliopoulos@yahoo.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital of Ioannina (Greece); Paraskevaidis, E., E-mail: eparaske@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital of Ioannina (Greece); Tsampoulas, K., E-mail: ctsampou@uoi.gr [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital of Ioannina (Greece)

    2012-08-15

    Objectives: To assess the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes of the normal uterine zones among reproductive women during the menstrual cycle. Methods: The study included 101 women of reproductive age, each with regular cycle and normal endometrium/myometrium, as proved on histopathology or MR imaging examination. Diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging was performed along the axial plane, using a single shot, multi-slice spin-echo planar diffusion pulse sequence and b-values of 0 and 800 s/mm{sup 2}. The mean and standard deviation of the ADC values of normal endometrium/myometrium were calculated for menstrual, proliferative and secretory phase. Analysis of variance followed by the least significant difference test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The ADC values of the endometrium were different in the three phases of the menstrual cycle (menstrual phase: 1.25 {+-} 0.27; proliferative phase: 1.39 {+-} 0.20; secretory phase: 1.50 {+-} 0.18) (F: 9.64, p: 0.00). Statistical significant difference was observed among all groups (p < 0.05). The ADC values of the normal myometrium were different in the three phases of the menstrual cycle (menstrual phase: 1.91 {+-} 0.35; proliferative phase: 1.72 {+-} 0.27; secretory phase: 1.87 {+-} 0.28) (F: 3.60, p: 0.03). Statistical significant difference was observed between menstrual and proliferative phase and between proliferative and secretory phase (p < 0.05). No significant difference was noted between menstrual and secretory phase (p > 0.05). Conclusions: A wide variation of ADC values of normal endometrium and myometrium is observed during different phases of the menstrual cycle.

  5. Effective factors on menstrual health among female students in Bam city: a qualitative study.

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Vaezi, Aliakbar; Mohammadinia, Neda

    2018-02-01

    Menarche is an independent puberty event in a girl's life, and is associated with physical growth, ability in marriage and fertility. Therefore, poor menstrual health can be a major determinant of morbidity, as well as physical, mental and social problems in this age group. The aim of this study was to explore the effective factors on menstrual health among female students in Bam city. The qualitative study was conducted using content analysis approach in 2017. The participants were 32 individuals consisting of 13 students, 10 mothers of the same students, 9 school associates and health educators of 5 secondary schools in Bam city, who were selected based on an objective-oriented approach. The sampling was done until data saturation. Data collection methods were semi-structured and in-depth interview. Data analysis was performed using the steps suggested by Graneheim and Landman. There were two categories (easy interaction and inappropriate adaptation to changes in health behavior), 13 sub-categories and 52 initial codes. The positive factors included easy access to sanitary pads, appropriate school education, easy access to health and therapeutic services and school flexibility on menstrual issues, while the negative factors included inadequate facilities for sanitary pad disposal, lack of access to informed people about menstrual issues, insufficient attention to menstrual problems, feeling ashamed, the high cost of menstrual health, self-medication with traditional medicines, inadequate self-directed education, lack of awareness and trust in health center staff, and following family and teachers in menstrual problems. Overall, this study indicated that economic, social, cultural and educational factors affect menstrual health. Therefore, the identification of each of these factors helps planners to apply the most appropriate methods and strategies for menstrual health improvement.

  6. Effective factors on menstrual health among female students in Bam city: a qualitative study

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Vaezi, Aliakbar

    2018-01-01

    Background Menarche is an independent puberty event in a girl’s life, and is associated with physical growth, ability in marriage and fertility. Therefore, poor menstrual health can be a major determinant of morbidity, as well as physical, mental and social problems in this age group. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the effective factors on menstrual health among female students in Bam city. Methods The qualitative study was conducted using content analysis approach in 2017. The participants were 32 individuals consisting of 13 students, 10 mothers of the same students, 9 school associates and health educators of 5 secondary schools in Bam city, who were selected based on an objective-oriented approach. The sampling was done until data saturation. Data collection methods were semi-structured and in-depth interview. Data analysis was performed using the steps suggested by Graneheim and Landman. Results There were two categories (easy interaction and inappropriate adaptation to changes in health behavior), 13 sub-categories and 52 initial codes. The positive factors included easy access to sanitary pads, appropriate school education, easy access to health and therapeutic services and school flexibility on menstrual issues, while the negative factors included inadequate facilities for sanitary pad disposal, lack of access to informed people about menstrual issues, insufficient attention to menstrual problems, feeling ashamed, the high cost of menstrual health, self-medication with traditional medicines, inadequate self-directed education, lack of awareness and trust in health center staff, and following family and teachers in menstrual problems. Conclusion Overall, this study indicated that economic, social, cultural and educational factors affect menstrual health. Therefore, the identification of each of these factors helps planners to apply the most appropriate methods and strategies for menstrual health improvement. PMID:29629053

  7. Assessment of menstrual hygiene among reproductive age women in South-west Delhi

    Gunjan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of menstrual hygiene is inadequately acknowledged in our nation. The use of sanitary pads and washing the genital area are essential practices for good menstrual hygiene. Poor menstrual hygiene may lead to itching or rashes in the perineal region, bad odor, and sometimes, major complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease and toxic shock syndrome. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene among reproductive age group women. Methods: A Community-based cross-sectional study design was employed. Study was conducted from January 2012 to April 2013. Data were collected using a pretested semi-structured structured questionnaire. The data were entered and analyzed into a computer using SPSS version 20. Results: In this study, 584 (81.7% respondents had good practice of menstrual hygiene. The findings of the study showed a significant positive association between good practices of menstrual hygiene and years of education of the study subject (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =9.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.4–19.5, having a higher socioeconomic status (AOR = 9.27, 95% CI: 4.7–18.03. Conclusions: Awareness of good menstrual practices is of utmost importance. Health education regarding menstrual hygiene should be a part of school curriculum and health institutes. Social marketing of good quality, low-cost sanitary napkins at accessible outlets, provision for adequate water supply, vending machines for low-cost sanitary napkins, privacy and wall-mounted incinerators for disposal in schools, workplaces, and public places would go a long way in improving the menstrual hygiene and help them in securing healthy lifestyle.

  8. Impact of menstrual awareness and knowledge among adolescents in a rural area

    Bhavna Langer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Socio-cultural factors have a bearing on women's attitude towards menstruation. Health care providers should be aware of how women react to menstruation while providing health care. Aims & Objectives: To elicit menstrual awareness and knowledge of the rural adolescent girls and assess how this awareness, knowledge and demographics influence their menstrual attitude. Methodology: A community based descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken among 245 adolescent school going girls in a rural area. Adolescent Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (AMAQ was used as a data collection device. Data were compared by using SPSS (ver. 20.0 at the level of 0.05. Results: At menarche, 59.9% adolescents were aware of menstruation and in 3/4th of them, mothers were the source of information. There was a statistically significant effect of menstrual awareness (yes or no and menstrual knowledge (nil, partial and complete on the combined dependent variables (F(6,238=9.0, p= 0.000, Wilk’s Lambda=0.81, partial eta square=0.29 and F(6,237=8.01, p= 0.000, Wilk’s Lambda=0.69, partial eta square=0.20  respectively. Older adolescents had favorable attitude towards menstruation in three significant dimensions i.e. living with menarche, openness and acceptance. Significant effect of mother’s educational level was observed on five dimensions of menstrual attitude. Conclusion: Menstrual attitude is significantly affected by menstrual awareness and knowledge.  Demographics too contributed in bringing positive attitude. There is a need to plan menstrual health education programme for adolescent girls and their mothers.

  9. Impact of menstrual awareness and knowledge among adolescents in a rural area

    Bhavna Langer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Socio-cultural factors have a bearing on women's attitude towards menstruation. Health care providers should be aware of how women react to menstruation while providing health care. Aims & Objectives: To elicit menstrual awareness and knowledge of the rural adolescent girls and assess how this awareness, knowledge and demographics influence their menstrual attitude. Methodology: A community based descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken among 245 adolescent school going girls in a rural area. Adolescent Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (AMAQ was used as a data collection device. Data were compared by using SPSS (ver. 20.0 at the level of 0.05. Results: At menarche, 59.9% adolescents were aware of menstruation and in 3/4th of them, mothers were the source of information. There was a statistically significant effect of menstrual awareness (yes or no and menstrual knowledge (nil, partial and complete on the combined dependent variables (F(6,238=9.0, p= 0.000, Wilk’s Lambda=0.81, partial eta square=0.29 and F(6,237=8.01, p= 0.000, Wilk’s Lambda=0.69, partial eta square=0.20  respectively. Older adolescents had favorable attitude towards menstruation in three significant dimensions i.e. living with menarche, openness and acceptance. Significant effect of mother’s educational level was observed on five dimensions of menstrual attitude. Conclusion: Menstrual attitude is significantly affected by menstrual awareness and knowledge.  Demographics too contributed in bringing positive attitude. There is a need to plan menstrual health education programme for adolescent girls and their mothers.

  10. Incidental ovarian {sup 18}F-FDG accumulation on PET: correlation with the menstrual cycle

    Kim, Seok-Ki; Kang, Keon Wook; Roh, Ju Won; Sim, Jung Suk; Lee, Eun Sook; Park, Sang-Yoon [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Gyeonggi (Korea)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nature of incidental ovarian {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) accumulation on positron emission tomography (PET) and the correlation with the menstrual cycle and menopause. We identified 19 incidental FDG accumulations in the ovary (FAOs). FDG PET images were compared with other anatomical imaging methods [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) or ultrasonography (US)]. Pathological findings, FDG PET scan during the next menstrual cycle and follow-up images (PET, CT and MRI) were reviewed. To establish the relation of FAOs to the menstrual cycle, we reviewed whole-body FDG PET acquired from 207 consecutive women and the pre-examination questionnaires, including data regarding the menstrual cycle. All spherical or discoid FAOs were attributed to normally developing ovarian follicles and corpora lutea on the basis of concurrent MRI, US or the follow-up PET scan. Three of the FAOs were proved pathologically to be either normal ovaries or a haemorrhagic corpus luteum. Fifteen FAOs spontaneously disappeared on the short-term follow-up PET scans. Of 207 women, 61 had active menstrual cycles. FAOs were found in 12 out of 61 premenopausal women (20%), appearing between the 10th and 25th days of the menstrual cycle. No FAOs were found in the women who did not have a menstrual cycle. Physiological ovarian FDG accumulation could be found around the time of ovulation and during the early luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in premenopausal woman. Since FAO is dependent on the menstrual cycle, it can be avoided by scheduling PET just after menstruation. (orig.)

  11. Tongue color changes within a menstrual cycle in eumenorrheic women

    Shu-Feng Hsieh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tongue color (舌色 shé sè has been used to diagnose abnormal body conditions for thousands of years in traditional Chinese Medicine (中醫 zhōng yī. However, it is not clear whether tongue color alters with physiological changes within a normal menstrual cycle (月經周期 yuè jīng zhōu qī. This study investigated difference in tongue color between the follicular phase and luteal phase in eumenorrheic women. Tongue surface photographs were taken in the follicular phase and the luteal phase of thirty-two volunteers with biphasic basal body temperature. Color values on five areas of the tongue surface were examined and comparisons of color values were made between the two phases according to the red–green–blue (RGB, hue–saturation–brightness (HSB, luminance-a-b (Lab, and cyan–magenta–yellow–black (CMYK models. Based on the RGB model, the values of green and blue in the tip area were larger in the follicular phase than both in the luteal phase. The values of magenta and yellow based in the CMYK model were smaller in the tip area in the follicular phase than that in the luteal phase. The saturation in the tip area was smaller in the follicular phase than that in the luteal phase. Based on the Lab model, b value in the middle area was smaller in the follicular phase than that in the luteal phase. The data revealed that tongue color varied within a eumenorrheic menstrual cycle, suggesting that tongue color differences between the follicular and luteal phases need to be considered while practicing tongue diagnosis (舌診 shé zhěn or performing clinical studies among childbearing women.

  12. Nebulized corticosteroids in the management of acute exacerbation of COPD

    Gaude G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute exacerbations in chronic onstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are common and systemic steroids play an important role in the management of these cases along with the bronchodilators. Nebulized budesonide is being used in the acute attacks of bronchial asthma either in children or in adults. But the role of nebulized steroids in acute exacerbation of COPD is not much studied in the literature. In this clinical review we have evaluated the role of nebulized corticosteroids in the management of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD. Through Medline, Pubmed and Embase we analyzed the various studies that has been done to study the role of nebulized corticosteroids in the management of acute exacerbation of COPD. The key words used for the search criteria were: acute exacerbation, COPD, nebulized corticosteroids, budesonide, fluticasone. Only eight studies were found which had evaluated the role of nebulized corticosteroids in acute exacerbations of COPD. All these studies had used nebulized budesonide in AECOPD in different dosages, and had been compared with both either parental or oral steroids, and standard bronchodilator therapy. All the studies had found the clinical efficacy of nebulized budesonide to be of similar extent to that of either parental or oral steroids in AECOPD. Side effects profile of nebulized budesonide was minimal and acceptable as compared to systemic steroids. Nebulized budesonide may be an alternative to parental/oral prednisolone in the treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD but further studies should be done to evaluate its long-term impact on clinical outcomes after an initial episode of COPD exacerbation.

  13. Oxygen therapy in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Ringbaek, T.; Lange, P.; Mogensen, T.

    2008-01-01

    Acute exacerbation of COPD is a major cause of hospitalisation in Denmark. Most of the patients require supplemental oxygen in the acute phase and some patients continue oxygen therapy at home after discharge. In this paper we discuss the physiological mechanisms of respiratory failure seen...... in acute exacerbations of COPD. The principles for oxygen therapy in the acute phase are described and recommendations for oxygen therapy are suggested Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5/5...

  14. Antibiotics usefulness and choice in BPCO acute exacerbation

    Bruno Tartaglino

    2005-01-01

    Although the debate on the role of bacterial infections and antibiotic treatment in AE-COPD remains open, there is evidence that the persistence of bacteria after acute exacerbation (residual bacterial colony) influences the frequency and severity of subsequent acute exacerbation and that antibiotic treatment that induces faster and more complete eradication produces better clinical outcomes. New aspects must now be considered, given that COPD is a chronic illness subject to acute exacerbatio...

  15. Accelerated extracellular matrix turnover during exacerbations of COPD

    Sand, Jannie M B; Knox, Alan J; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    progression. Extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover reflects activity in tissues and consequently assessment of ECM turnover may serve as biomarkers of disease activity. We hypothesized that the turnover of lung ECM proteins were altered during exacerbations of COPD. METHODS: 69 patients with COPD hospitalised...... of circulating fragments of structural proteins, which may serve as markers of disease activity. This suggests that patients with COPD have accelerated ECM turnover during exacerbations which may be related to disease progression....

  16. Antibiotics usefulness and choice in BPCO acute exacerbation

    Bruno Tartaglino

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the debate on the role of bacterial infections and antibiotic treatment in AE-COPD remains open, there is evidence that the persistence of bacteria after acute exacerbation (residual bacterial colony influences the frequency and severity of subsequent acute exacerbation and that antibiotic treatment that induces faster and more complete eradication produces better clinical outcomes. New aspects must now be considered, given that COPD is a chronic illness subject to acute exacerbations of varying frequencies and that acute exacerbations correspond to functional respiratory deterioration. One of the parameters that is currently acquiring clinical relevance is the interval free of infection (IFI, the period that elapses between one acute exacerbation and the next, caused by bacterial infection. Another guiding concept in the choice of antibiotic treatment is that not all patients benefit in the same way; those requiring more aggressive treatment are most likely to be those with FEV1 < 50%, frequent exacerbations (> 3/year treated with antibiotics, relevant co-morbidity, under chronic steroid treatment, etc., for these patients it is recommended to administer antibiotics active on the three most common pathogens (in particular H. influenzae, considering the resistance acquired in recent years, and on Pseudomomias aeruginosa.

  17. Body composition and menstrual status in adults with a history of anorexia nervosa

    Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel; Frølich, Jacob Stampe; Schulpen, Maya

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between body composition measures and menstrual status in a large sample of adult patients with a history of anorexia nervosa and to calculate the predicted probability of resumption of menstrual function. Furthermore, to establish whether fat percentage...... is superior to body mass index in predicting the resumption of menses. METHOD: One hundred and thirteen adult women with a history of anorexia nervosa underwent a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan and completed questionnaires regarding medication prescription and menstrual function. RESULTS: Fifty...

  18. Fundamental studies, reference values and relationship to menstrual cycle on Prolactin RIA BEAD II

    Kobayashi, Midori; Sakai, Rinko; Satoh, Shigekiyo; Maruyama, Kiyoji; Kanai, Masamitsu

    1989-01-01

    We have tried fundamental studies, reference values and relationship to menstrual cycle on Prolactin RIA BEAD II kit which has a method of IRMA using monocronal antibody. On clinical studies, we investigated change of serum prolactin level during the menstrual cycle and relationship to other hormones (LH, FSH, estradiol, progesterone). It was the result that prolactin level of follicular phase was lower than that of preavulatory phase and luteal phase. We conclude that change of prolactin level during the menstrual cycle is related with change of estradiol level. (author)

  19. Fundamental studies, reference values and relationship to menstrual cycle on Prolactin RIA BEAD II

    Kobayashi, Midori; Sakai, Rinko; Satoh, Shigekiyo; Maruyama, Kiyoji; Kanai, Masamitsu (Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-06-01

    We have tried fundamental studies, reference values and relationship to menstrual cycle on Prolactin RIA BEAD II kit which has a method of IRMA using monocronal antibody. On clinical studies, we investigated change of serum prolactin level during the menstrual cycle and relationship to other hormones (LH, FSH, estradiol, progesterone). It was the result that prolactin level of follicular phase was lower than that of preavulatory phase and luteal phase. We conclude that change of prolactin level during the menstrual cycle is related with change of estradiol level. (author).

  20. Sociocultural attitudes surrounding menstruation and alternative menstrual products: the explanatory role of self-objectification.

    Grose, Rose Grace; Grabe, Shelly

    2014-01-01

    We extend objectification theory research to consider the relationship between self-objectification and attitudes toward an alternative menstrual product in a diverse sample of female undergraduates from the United States (N = 151). We use a survey design to investigate attitudes toward one's menstruation as a potential mechanism that may explain this relationship. Reactions to an alternative menstrual product were predominantly negative, supporting prior research on stigma and shame surrounding menstruation. Exploratory structural equation modeling revealed attitudes toward one's menstruation mediated the relationship between self-objectification and participants' reactions to an alternative menstrual product. Implications for women's health are discussed.

  1. A STUDY ON MENSTRUAL HEALTH IN SCHOOL GOING ADOLESCENT GIRLS FROM SOUTH INDIA

    Vinitra Dayalan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The major Problems occurring during the adolescent period is related to menstrual cycle. Data regarding the burden of menstrual disturbances in school going children of South India is lacking. Assessing the burden in such children may aid in revealing the current state of menstrual health and hence aiding the policy makes to take appropriate measures. Hence, we assessed the prevalence of menstrual disturbances in school going adolescent girls of South India. The primary aim of this study is to assess the burden of menstrual disorders in school going adolescent girls. The secondary objective were to assess individual menstrual disturbance in the study group and to assess the various factors influencing the menstrual health. MATERIALS AND METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in two government girl’s higher secondary school in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. After receiving approval, a structured questionnaire in the regional language (Tamil was distributed to the school going children between the age of 10 and 19 years. Demographic data and details regarding menstrual health were collected. Frequency of medical assistance and school absenteeism were also analysed in patients with dysmenorrhea. Data were analysed using the SPSS 13.0.1. RESULTS Data of 340 girls who have attained menarche and who have completed the questionnaire was analysed. The median age of menarche in the study group was 13 years. (IQR; 12, 14 and 13.2% attained early menarche(before12 years. There was a higher prevalence of menstrual disturbances; (46.2% with polymenorrhea and (12% with oligomenorrhea. there was a significantly higher usage of sanitary pads in our study population in our study group (98%. In addition, (41.5% had premenstrual symptoms and (36.8% had dysmenorrhea. With a higher prevalence of dysmenorrhea (n=125, 35 had school absenteeism. But, only 8/35 consulted a physician and took treatment. Five of these patients were told to have

  2. Metabolic implications of menstrual cycle length in non-hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology.

    Alebić, Miro Šimun; Stojanović, Nataša; Baldani, Dinka Pavičić; Duvnjak, Lea Smirčić

    2016-12-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between menstrual cycle lenght and metabolic parameters in non-hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology, n = 250. Metabolic profiles of all participants were evaluated using anthropometric parameters (body mass index, waist circumference), parameters of dyslipidemia (total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides) and markers of insulin resistance (fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index). The associations between menstrual cycle lenght and cardiometabolic risk factors such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and obesity were investigated. In non-hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology, menstrual cycle lenght was associated with hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance independently of body mass index. Moreover, menstrual cycle lenght added value to body mass index in predicting hypertriglyceridemia. The optimal menstrual cycle lenght cut-off value for identifying of non-hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology at metabolic risk was found to be 45 days. Metabolic profile of non-hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology (n = 75) with menstrual cycle lenght >45 days was similar to that of hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology (n = 138) while metabolic profile of non-hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology with menstrual cycle lenght ≤45 days (n = 112) was similar to that of controls (n = 167). Non-hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology with menstrual cycle lenght >45 days had higher prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors compared to those with menstrual cycle lenght ≤45 days. Non-hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology are not metabolically homogeneous. Menstrual cycle lenght is an easy-to-obtain clinical parameter positively associated with the probability of unfavorable metabolic status in non

  3. [The effect of fenspiride on the number of exacerbations and the time of first exacerbation in patients with chronic bronchitis].

    Pirozyński, Michał; Skucha, Wojciech; Słomiński, Marek; Chyczewska, Elzbieta; Malinowski, Janusz; Nowak, Dariusz; Bartmińiski, Wojciech; Pachocki, Robert

    2005-08-01

    The aim of the work was evaluation of efficacy of fenspiride b.i.d. on the number of exacerbations and the time to the first exacerbation in patients with chronic bronchitis. Randomized, multicentre study controlled versus placebo was carried out in 12 centers in Poland. All patients, 89 females and 68 males aged between 20 and 74, were treated with fenspiride at the dose of 160 mg/day for a period of 6 months. The following symptoms were recorded every month in order to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy: sputum quality and quantity, cough intensity, dyspnea and bronchospasm. Based on these symptoms diagnosis of exacerbation was performed according to American Thoracic Society criteria. Quality and quantity of sputum and cough significantly improved in the fenspiride group (comparing to the placebo group p= 0.027 and p = 0.049 adequately for sputum and cough). A significant difference between groups was observed in the number of exacerbation episodes and their duration. In the fenspiride group there were 0.53 episodes of exacerbation compared with 1.12 episodes in the placebo group (p = 0.038). Mean duration of exacerbation was 3.3 days in the fenspiride group and 7.3 days in the placebo treated patients (p = 0.034). Time to the first exacerbation differed between groups, but this difference was not statistically significant. Number of side effects observed did not differ between groups. Fenspiride treatment was assessed as relatively effective in terms of influence on exacerbations, and well tolerated during six month therapy.

  4. 21 CFR 884.5425 - Scented or scented deodorized menstrual pad.

    2010-04-01

    ...) added for aesthetic purposes (scented menstrual pad) or for deodorizing purposes (scented deodorized...) are exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter...

  5. SHORTER MENSTRUAL CYCLES ASSOCIATED WITH CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Shorter Menstrual Cycles Associated with Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water. Gayle Windham, Kirsten Waller, Meredith Anderson, Laura Fenster, Pauline Mendola, Shanna Swan. California Department of Health Services.In previous studies of tap water consumption we...

  6. Effect of the Menstrual Cycle on Maximum Oxygen Consumption and Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation

    Andrews, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    .... We studied endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the brachial artery during three phases of the menstrual cycle in 20 eumenorrheic subjects to determine the effect of endogenous estradiol and progesterone...

  7. Effects of Menstrual Phase on Pulmonary Function and Exercise Performance in Young Active Duty Women

    Hnatiuk, Oleh

    1996-01-01

    ....' However, if the APFT is given to female soldiers during a phase of their menstrual cycle when their ability to perform maximally is reduced, this critical test would not be an accurate reflection of true maximal performance level.

  8. Impact of the Menstrual Cycle on Immunologic Markers in HIV-Infected Taiwanese Women

    Kuang-Han Chao

    2006-03-01

    Conclusions: The CD8+ T cells were increased and activated in women with HIV infection but these alterations were not affected by the menstrual cycle. Therefore, sex hormones seem not to affect the course of HIV infection.

  9. The risk of menstrual abnormalities after tubal sterilization: a case control study

    AtashKhoii Simin

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tubal sterilization is the method of family planning most commonly used. The existence of the post-tubal-ligation syndrome of menstrual abnormalities has been the subject of debate for decades. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 112 women with the history of Pomeroy type of tubal ligation achieved by minilaparatomy as the case group and 288 women with no previous tubal ligation as the control group were assessed for menstrual abnormalities. Results Menstrual abnormalities were not significantly different between the case and control groups (p = 0.824. The abnormal uterine bleeding frequency differences in two different age groups (30–39 and 40–45 years old were statistically significant (p = 0.0176. Conclusion Tubal sterilization does not cause menstrual irregularities.

  10. Body weight, exercise and menstrual status among ballet dancers in training.

    Abraham, S F; Beumont, P J; Fraser, I S; Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1982-07-01

    A prospective study of the menstrual pattern and weight changes was made in the first year of training of 29 new female entrants to a professional ballet school. Seventy-nine per cent of the student girls had menstrual disturbances at entry: primary amenorrhoea, four; secondary amenorrhoea, 11; irregular menses, eight. The incidence of secondary amenorrhoea increase substantially by the end of the year (20), but was not associated with any significant change in body weight. Only three students menstruated regularly during the year. Menstrual regularity improved during periods of injury and long vacation and it appears that deterioration of the menstrual pattern during dancing periods was related to strenuous physical exercise rather than to any change in body weight.

  11. Current and past menstrual status is an important determinant of femoral neck geometry in exercising women.

    Mallinson, Rebecca J; Williams, Nancy I; Gibbs, Jenna C; Koehler, Karsten; Allaway, Heather C M; Southmayd, Emily; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2016-07-01

    Menstrual status, both past and current, has been established as an important determinant of bone mineral density (BMD) in young exercising women. However, little is known regarding the association between the cumulative effect of menstrual status and indices of bone health beyond BMD, such as bone geometry and estimated bone strength. This study explores the association between cumulative menstrual status and indices of bone health assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), including femoral neck geometry and strength and areal BMD (aBMD), in exercising women. 101 exercising women (22.0±0.4years, BMI 21.0±0.2kg/m(2), 520±40min/week of self-reported exercise) participated in this cross-sectional study. Women were divided into three groups as follows based on their self-reported current and past menstrual status: 1) current and past regular menstrual cycles (C+P-R) (n=23), 2) current and past irregular menstrual cycles (C+P-IR) (n=56), 3) and current or past irregular cycles (C/P-RIR) (n=22). Current menstrual status was confirmed using daily urinary metabolites of reproductive hormones. DXA was used to assess estimates of femoral neck geometry and strength from hip strength analysis (HSA), aBMD, and body composition. Cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), cross-sectional area (CSA), strength index (SI), diameter, and section modulus (Z) were calculated at the femoral neck. Low CSMI, CSA, SI, diameter, and Z were operationally defined as values below the median. Areal BMD (g/cm(2)) and Z-scores were determined at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. Low BMD was defined as a Z-score0.05). However, after controlling for confounding variables, cumulative menstrual status was not a significant predictor of low aBMD. In exercising women, the cumulative effect of current and past menstrual irregularity appears to be an important predictor of lower estimates of femoral neck geometry, as observed by smaller CSMI and CSA, which may serve as an

  12. Menstrual pad, a cervical cancer screening tool, a population-based study in rural India.

    Budukh, Atul; Palayekar, Vrushali; Maheshwari, Amita; Deodhar, Kedar; Purwar, Pallavi; Bagal, Sonali; Vadigoppula, Ashok; Lokhande, Manoj; Panse, Nandkumar; Dikshit, Rajesh; Badwe, Rajendra

    2017-07-12

    In the rural areas of India, women generally use a piece of old cloth as a menstrual device. The aim of this study was to detect human papilloma virus (HPV) from menstrual blood on the menstrual pad and assess whether this could be a useful screening tool for cervical cancer. In Jamkhed area of rural Maharashtra, (population A), we collected menstrual pads from women who provided consent in the 30-50 year age group. The women who had provided menstrual pads underwent HC2 testing. We standardized the method for extracting DNA by PCR from the menstrual pad. The women who tested HPV positive, on the basis of HC2/PCR testing, underwent colposcopy. In the rural population of Pune area of Maharashtra state (population B), menstrual pads were collected. HPV was tested using the PCR method. HPV-positive women and a few HPV-negative women, selected randomly, underwent colposcopy and HC2 testing. In population A, 164 women provided their used menstrual pads and also underwent an HC2 screening test. Of these, six (3.2%) cases were reported as HPV positive. In population B, 365 women provided their used menstrual pads for HPV testing, of which 18 (4.9%) cases were diagnosed as HPV positive. The women who tested HPV positive, on the basis of PCR testing, and 10% randomly selected HPV-negative cases (37) and 18 women who voluntary requested testing underwent colposcopy and HC2 testing. The sensitivity of menstrual pad HPV testing compared with gold standard HC2 testing was 83% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47-0.97], 67% (95% CI: 0.30-0.91) and specificity was 99% (95% CI: 0.96-0.99), 88% (95% CI: 0.77-0.94) in population A and population B, respectively. The sensitivity of diagnosing CIN lesion was 83% (95% CI: 0.44-0.97) and specificity was 95% (95% CI: 0.91-0.97). On the basis of the sensitivity and specificity results, and the completely noninvasive, simple and convenient method of detecting HPV, menstrual pad might be considered a cervical cancer screening tool in rural

  13. The Effect of Fennelin,Vitagnus and Mefenamic Acid in the Treatment of Menstrual Bleeding

    F. Shobeiri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Most women in the course of their lives will experience menstrual bleeding. Some have bleeding almost all the time. Different approaches have been proposed and drugs with fewer side effects are preferred. The aim of this study was to compare the ef-fects of herbal medicines (fennelin & vitagnus and mefenamic acid in the treatment of severity of menstrual bleeding. Materials & Methods: This double blind clinical trial was carried out in one hundred and five students with severe menstrual bleeding at Hamadan University of medical sciences in 2010. The students were randomly grouped in four groups and herbal medicines of fennelin & vitagnus, mefenamic acid and placebo. The severity of menstrual bleeding was detected by the Higham table during one cycle before and two cycles after the intervention. The data analyzed by SPSS/16 and P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Demographic characteristics of the students were similar in the four groups. There was not a significant difference in the mean of severity of menstrual bleeding during the one cycle before intervention between the four groups, but the difference was significant dur-ing the two cycles after the intervention. Mefenamic acid reduces menstrual bleeding com-pared with vitagnus & fennelin and showed no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: All three drugs; mefenamic acid, fennelin and vitagnus have been effective in reducing menstrual bleeding. The two herbal medicines (vitagnus and fennelin can be used as effective and safe drugs to reduce menstrual bleeding. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21(3:171-176

  14. Levels of immunoreactive inhibin-like material in urine during the menstrual cycle

    Dandekar, S.P.; Vanage, G.R.; Arbatti, N.J.; Sheth, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Using a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay, the authors determined levels of inhibinlike material in the urine of eight healthy women with normal menstrual cycle length of 28 +- 4 days. The results revealed a cyclic variation in urinary immunoreactive inhibin levels during the menstrual cycles, with a sharp rise in levels three to four days prior to luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) peaks. These levels of immunoreactive inhibin may thus serve as a parameter to detect impending LH surge. (author)

  15. The relationship between food frequency and menstrual distress in high school females

    Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Kordi, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nutrition pattern is one of the important factors predicting menstrual distress, which varies among different cultures and countries. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between food frequency and menstrual distress in high school girls from Mashhad. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 using a two-stage sampling method on 407 high school female students from Mashhad who met the inclusion criteria. Subjects completed que...

  16. Resting state alpha frequency is associated with menstrual cycle phase, estradiol and use of oral contraceptives

    Brötzner, Christina P.; Klimesch, Wolfgang; Doppelmayr, Michael; Zauner, Andrea; Kerschbaum, Hubert H.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing intrinsic brain activity in resting, but awake humans is dominated by alpha oscillations. In human, individual alpha frequency (IAF) is associated with cognitive performance. Noticeable, performance in cognitive and emotional tasks in women is associated with menstrual cycle phase and sex hormone levels, respectively. In the present study, we correlated frequency of alpha oscillation in resting women with menstrual cycle phase, sex hormone level, or use of oral contraceptives. Electro...

  17. Effects of the menstrual cycle phases on the tilt testing results in vasovagal patients.

    Zyśko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek; Terpiłowski, Lukasz; Agrawal, Anil Kumar; Wróblewski, Paweł; Rudnicki, Jerzy

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the distribution of positive tilt testing (TT) throughout the menstrual cycle and to determine if the phase of menstrual cycle contributes to the duration of the loss of consciousness. TT results of 183 premenopausal women, aged 29.5 ± 9.8 years, were studied. The menstrual cycle was divided into four phases based on the first day of the last menstrual bleeding: perimenstrual (M), preovulatory (F), periovulatory (O) and postovulatory (L). Positive TT results were equally distributed. In patients with TT in O phase, the highest percentage of NTG provocation was needed. Patients in L phase had significantly lower incidence of cardioinhibitory reaction. The longest duration of loss of consciousness was in the M phase. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the duration of loss of consciousness during positive TT was significantly associated with higher number of syncopal events, TT performed in M phase and lower heart rate at TT termination. Cardiodepressive type of neurocardiogenic reaction was more frequent during M and O phase than during L phase. The distribution of positive TT results as well as syncope and presyncope does not differ throughout the menstrual cycle. Diagnostic TT in premenopausal women with unexplained syncope could be performed irrespective of the phase of menstrual cycle. TT has similar sensitivity throughout the menstrual cycle. During the postovulatory phase, cardioinhibitory reaction is less frequent than in M and O phases. The duration of loss of consciousness is longer during the M phase of the menstrual cycle independently of the higher syncope number and lower heart rate at TT termination.

  18. Menstrual hygiene management among adolescent schoolgirls in low- and middle-income countries: research priorities

    Phillips-Howard, Penelope; Caruso, Bethany; Torondel, Belen; Zulaika, Garazi; Sahin, Murat; Sommer, Marni

    2016-01-01

    Background: A lack of adequate guidance on menstrual management; water, disposal, and private changing facilities; and sanitary hygiene materials in low- and middle-income countries leaves schoolgirls with limited options for healthy personal hygiene during monthly menses. While a plethora of observational studies have described how menstrual hygiene management (MHM) barriers in school impact girls’ dignity, well-being, and engagement in school activities, studies have yet to confirm if inade...

  19. Relationships between paranoid thinking, self-esteem and the menstrual cycle.

    Brock, R.; Rowse, G.; Slade, P.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether paranoid experiences and levels of self-esteem fluctuate over the menstrual cycle and whether levels of self-esteem are lower when perceived persecution is felt to be deserved. Measures of anxiety, depression, persecution, deservedness and self-esteem were completed on-line by 278 women over their menstrual cycle. Responses were compared at the paramenstrual (3 days before and after menses onset) and mid-cycle phase. At the paramenstrual phase persecuti...

  20. Estradiol modulates functional brain organization during the menstrual cycle : an analysis of interhemispheric inhibition.

    Weis, S.; Hausmann, M.; Stoffers, B.; Vohn, R.; Kellermann, T.; Sturm, W.

    2008-01-01

    According to the hypothesis of progesterone-mediated interhemispheric decoupling (Hausmann and Güntürkün, 2000), functional cerebral asymmetries (FCAs), which are stable in men and change during the menstrual cycle in women, are generated by interhemispheric inhibition of the dominant on the nondominant hemisphere. The change of lateralization during the menstrual cycle in women might indicate that sex hormones play an important role in modulating FCAs. We used functional magnetic resonance i...

  1. The effect of the menstrual cycle on optic nerve head analysis in healthy women.

    Akar, Munire Erman; Taskin, Omur; Yucel, Iclal; Akar, Yusuf

    2004-12-01

    To determine the effect of the menstrual cycle on optic nerve head topographic analysis in normally menstruating, healthy women. The study included single eyes selected randomly from each of 52 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles. All subjects underwent a complete ocular examination. Optic nerve head topographic analyses were performed using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II (HRT II, software version 1.6). The analyses were repeated three times during the menstrual cycle: in the follicular phase (days 7-10 of the cycle), at ovulation, and in the late luteal phase (days 1-3 before menstrual bleeding). Serum oestradiol, progesterone and luteinizing hormone levels were measured at each menstrual phase. Fourteen subjects were excluded from the study. The mean age of the subjects (n = 38) was 25.6 +/- 3.7 years (range 21-34 years). Blood oestradiol levels were significantly lower in the late luteal phase (35.8 pg/ml) (p cup : disc ratio, cup : disc area ratio and the cup area were significantly higher during the luteal phase (p menstrual cycle in healthy women significantly alter neuroretinal rim area and cup variables of the optic nerve head. These findings should be taken into consideration in the clinical follow-up of young women with glaucoma.

  2. Promoting menstrual health among persian adolescent girls from low socioeconomic backgrounds: a quasi-experimental study.

    Fakhri, Moloud; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Hajikhani Golchin, Nayereh Azam; Komili, Abdulhay

    2012-03-15

    Research in the past decade has revealed average to poor menstrual health among many Iranian girls. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a health promotion project on improving menstrual health in adolescent girls in Iran. A quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the health intervention program. A total of 698 students (study participants and controls) in several schools in Mazandaran province, Iran were included. The project comprised 10 two-hour educational sessions. Educational topics included the significance of adolescence, physical and emotional changes during adolescence, pubertal and menstruation health and premenstrual syndrome. A self-administered questionnaire measuring demographic characteristics, behaviors during menstruation, menstrual patterns, sources of information about menstruation and personal health data was administered. The questionnaire was administered to all participating students after the experimental group received the training. Among the most significant results was the impact of educational sessions on bathing and genital hygiene. A total of 61.6% in the experimental group compared with 49.3% in the control group engaged in usual bathing during menstruation (p = 0.002). Individual health status was significantly statistically correlated with menstrual health. Attitude towards menstruation was also significantly related to menstrual health. The present study confirms that educational interventions, such as the health promotion project in this study, can be quite effective in promoting menstrual health.

  3. Spatial and temporal characterization of endometrial mesenchymal stem-like cells activity during the menstrual cycle

    Shan, Xu; Chan, Rachel W.S.; Ng, Ernest H.Y.; Yeung, William S.B.

    2017-01-01

    The human endometrium is a highly dynamic tissue with the ability to cyclically regenerate during the reproductive life. Endometrial mesenchymal stem-like cells (eMSCs) located throughout the endometrium have shown to functionally contribute to endometrial regeneration. In this study we examine whether the menstrual cycle stage and the location in the endometrial bilayer (superficial and deep portions of the endometrium) has an effect on stem cell activities of eMSCs (CD140b"+CD146"+ cells). Here we show the percentage and clonogenic ability of eMSCs were constant in the various stages of the menstrual cycle (menstrual, proliferative and secretory). However, eMSCs from the menstrual endometrium underwent significantly more rounds of self-renewal and enabled a greater total cell output than those from the secretory phase. Significantly more eMSCs were detected in the deeper portion of the endometrium compared to the superficial layer but their clonogenic and self-renewal activities remained similar. Our findings suggest that eMSCs are activated in the menstrual phase for the cyclical regeneration of the endometrium. - Highlights: • The percentages of endometrial mesenchymal-like stem cells (eMSCs) were constant across the menstrual cycle. • Menstruation eMSCs display superior self-renewal and long-term proliferative activities. • More eMSCs reside in the deeper portion of the endometrium than the superficial layer.

  4. Work loss associated with increased menstrual loss in the United States.

    Côté, Isabelle; Jacobs, Philip; Cumming, David

    2002-10-01

    To estimate the effect of increased menstrual flow on the loss of work. Heavy or otherwise abnormal menstrual bleeding is a common problem among women in the reproductive age range. Until now, there has been no evidence of its effect on absences from work. We used data from the National Health Interview Survey 1999, a personal interview household survey using a nationwide representative sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States. Participants were 3133 women aged between 18 and 64 years who reported having a natural menstrual period in the last 12 months and in the last 3 months, never having taken medication containing estrogen (except past use of oral contraceptives), and never having been told that they had reproductive cancer. Analysis was performed using data from 2805 women, 373 having self-described heavy flow and 2432 having normal flow. The main outcome measure was work loss associated with the degree of menstrual flow. Using binary logistic regression, age, marital status, education, family size, perception of health, and flow of menstrual periods are associated with work losses (P women who have a heavier flow are 72% as likely to be working as are women who have a lighter or normal flow. Menstrual bleeding has significant economic implications for women in the workplace: work loss from increased blood flow is estimated to be $1692 annually per woman.

  5. Spatial and temporal characterization of endometrial mesenchymal stem-like cells activity during the menstrual cycle

    Shan, Xu [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Chan, Rachel W.S., E-mail: rwschan@hku.hk [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Centre of Reproduction, Development of Growth, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Ng, Ernest H.Y.; Yeung, William S.B. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Centre of Reproduction, Development of Growth, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR (China)

    2017-01-01

    The human endometrium is a highly dynamic tissue with the ability to cyclically regenerate during the reproductive life. Endometrial mesenchymal stem-like cells (eMSCs) located throughout the endometrium have shown to functionally contribute to endometrial regeneration. In this study we examine whether the menstrual cycle stage and the location in the endometrial bilayer (superficial and deep portions of the endometrium) has an effect on stem cell activities of eMSCs (CD140b{sup +}CD146{sup +} cells). Here we show the percentage and clonogenic ability of eMSCs were constant in the various stages of the menstrual cycle (menstrual, proliferative and secretory). However, eMSCs from the menstrual endometrium underwent significantly more rounds of self-renewal and enabled a greater total cell output than those from the secretory phase. Significantly more eMSCs were detected in the deeper portion of the endometrium compared to the superficial layer but their clonogenic and self-renewal activities remained similar. Our findings suggest that eMSCs are activated in the menstrual phase for the cyclical regeneration of the endometrium. - Highlights: • The percentages of endometrial mesenchymal-like stem cells (eMSCs) were constant across the menstrual cycle. • Menstruation eMSCs display superior self-renewal and long-term proliferative activities. • More eMSCs reside in the deeper portion of the endometrium than the superficial layer.

  6. Pain Perception and Anxiety Levels during Menstrual Cycle Associated with Periodontal Therapy

    Nikhat Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the pain perception and anxiety levels of female patients undergoing scaling and root planing during menstrual (perimenstrual period with those observed during postmenstrual period. Materials and Methods. This was a single blind study, with a split-mouth design. Forty-four women with chronic periodontitis with regular menstrual cycles were subjected to complete Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS during their first debridement visit. Patients were randomly selected to undergo their first debridement visit during either their menstrual or postmenstrual period. Scaling was performed under local anesthesia in bilateral quadrants of patients during the periods. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS was used to score pain levels for each quadrant after performing scaling and root planing. Results. Increase in pain perception among females during their menstrual or perimenstrual period was significantly greater than their postmenstrual period (P < 0.05. It is observed that women whose first appointment was given in perimenstrual period had more pain (VAS (P = 0.0000 when compared to those women whose first appointment was given in postmenstrual period. Conclusion. Females in their menstrual period demonstrated higher pain responses and high anxiety levels to supra- and subgingival debridement. This increase in the pain levels of women during their menstrual period was statistically significant. If the appointments are given in postmenstrual period, women feel less pain.

  7. The effects of menstrual phase on orthodontic pain following initial archwire engagement.

    Long, H; Gao, M; Zhu, Y; Liu, H; Zhou, Y; Liao, L; Lai, W

    2017-04-01

    To explore the effects of menstrual cycle on orthodontic pain following initial archwire engagement. Female participants with regular menstrual cycles were recruited and assigned into follicular group or luteal group. Demographical and baseline variables were collected: age, education, menstrual duration, anxiety, oral health impact profile-14 (OHIP-14), and index of complexity outcome and need (ICON). Following initial archwire engagement, orthodontic pain was determined through visual analogue scale (VAS) on 1st day, 2nd day, and 3rd day. Demographical and baseline variables were compared between the two groups. Two-way repeated-measures anova was used to examine the effects of menstrual phase, time, and their interactions on orthodontic pain. Multivariate linear regression was employed to examine the independent effect of each variable on orthodontic pain. Finally, 37 and 39 were assigned to the follicular and luteal groups, respectively, with balanced demographical and baseline data. Orthodontic pain was significantly affected by menstrual phase and time (both P  0.05). Moreover, orthodontic pain was independently predicted by menstrual phase, OHIP, education level, and anxiety (all P < 0.05). We suggest that practitioners arrange female patients to receive initial archwire engagement during their follicular phases to relieve orthodontic pain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effects of menstrual cycle phase on cocaine self-administration in rhesus macaques.

    Cooper, Ziva D; Foltin, Richard W; Evans, Suzette M

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological findings suggest that men and women vary in their pattern of cocaine use resulting in differences in cocaine dependence and relapse rates. Preclinical laboratory studies have demonstrated that female rodents are indeed more sensitive to cocaine's reinforcing effects than males, with estrous cycle stage as a key determinant of this effect. The current study sought to extend these findings to normally cycling female rhesus macaques, a species that shares a nearly identical menstrual cycle to humans. Dose-dependent intravenous cocaine self-administration (0.0125, 0.0250, and 0.0500 mg/kg/infusion) using a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement was determined across the menstrual cycle. The menstrual cycle was divided into 5 discrete phases - menses, follicular, periovulatory, luteal, and late luteal phases - verified by the onset of menses and plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone. Dependent variables including number of infusions self-administered per session, progressive ratio breakpoint, and cocaine intake were analyzed according to cocaine dose and menstrual cycle phase. Analysis of plasma hormone levels verified phase-dependent fluctuations of estradiol and progesterone, with estrogen levels peaking during the periovulatory phase, and progesterone peaking during the luteal phase. Progressive ratio breakpoint, infusions self-administered, and cocaine intake did not consistently vary based on menstrual cycle phase. These findings demonstrate that under the current experimental parameters, the reinforcing effects of cocaine did not vary across the menstrual cycle in a systematic fashion in normally cycling rhesus macaques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of the menstrual cycle, eating disorders and self-esteem of Polish adolescents.

    Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Bąk-Sosnowska, Monika; Sajdak, Dominika; Białka, Agnieszka; Kobiołka, Agnieszka; Franik, Grzegorz; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2017-03-01

    Eating disorders are an important factor in menstrual cycle disorders in girls. Moreover, low self-esteem among adolescent girls may be a risk factor for eating disorders. The aim of the study was to assess the menstrual cycle, eating habits and self-esteem of Polish adolescents. The study was conducted from January 2014 to March 2015 and included 623 girls, aged 15-19, from randomly selected junior high schools in Silesia, Poland, in which their menstrual cycle, risk of eating disorders and self-esteem were evaluated. A five-part questionnaire was used to assess basic demographic data, lifestyle and physical activity, gynecological history, as well as Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES) and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26). Irregular menstrual cycles were observed in 236 (37.88%) girls; 5.20% presented secondary amenorrhea. Based on the EAT-26 test, 101 (16.21%) girls were indicated being at risk for an eating disorder. Low self-esteem was observed in 340 (54.57%) study girls on the base of SES. Girls with irregular menses had higher scores on the EAT-26 test in subscales: EAT-overall score, EAT-diet and EAT-bulimia, while lower scores on the SES. In our study, we did not observe a significant relationship between exercise intensity, body mass, BMI and menstrual cycle regularity. Low self-esteem among adolescent girls may be a risk factor for eating disorders which could interrupt the menstrual cycle.

  10. Promoting menstrual health among persian adolescent girls from low socioeconomic backgrounds: a quasi-experimental study

    Fakhri Moloud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research in the past decade has revealed average to poor menstrual health among many Iranian girls. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a health promotion project on improving menstrual health in adolescent girls in Iran. Methods A quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the health intervention program. A total of 698 students (study participants and controls in several schools in Mazandaran province, Iran were included. The project comprised 10 two-hour educational sessions. Educational topics included the significance of adolescence, physical and emotional changes during adolescence, pubertal and menstruation health and premenstrual syndrome. A self-administered questionnaire measuring demographic characteristics, behaviors during menstruation, menstrual patterns, sources of information about menstruation and personal health data was administered. The questionnaire was administered to all participating students after the experimental group received the training. Results Among the most significant results was the impact of educational sessions on bathing and genital hygiene. A total of 61.6% in the experimental group compared with 49.3% in the control group engaged in usual bathing during menstruation (p = 0.002. Individual health status was significantly statistically correlated with menstrual health. Attitude towards menstruation was also significantly related to menstrual health. Conclusions The present study confirms that educational interventions, such as the health promotion project in this study, can be quite effective in promoting menstrual health.

  11. Influence of the Wenchuan earthquake on self-reported irregular menstrual cycles in surviving women.

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Qin, Lang; Hu, Han; Luo, Shan; Li, Lei; Fan, Wei; Xiao, Zhun; Li, Ying-Xing; Li, Shang-Wei

    2011-09-01

    To explore the influence of stress induced by the Wenchuan earthquake on the menstrual cycles of surviving women. Self-reports of the menstrual cycles of 473 women that survived the Wenchuan earthquake were analyzed. Menstrual regularity was defined as menses between 21 and 35 days long. The death of a child or the loss of property and social resources was verified for all surviving women. The severity of these losses was assessed and graded as high, little, and none. About 21% of the study participants reported that their menstrual cycles became irregular after the Wenchuan earthquake, and this percentage was significantly higher than before the earthquake (6%, p irregularity after the earthquake. Association analyses showed that some stressors of the Wenchuan earthquake were strongly associated with self-reports of menstrual irregularity, including the loss of children (RR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.28), large amounts of property (RR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.15), social resources (RR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.80) and the hormonal contraception use (RR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.83). Self-reported menstrual irregularity is common in women that survived the Wenchuan earthquake, especially in those who lost children, large amounts of property and social resources.

  12. Cine MRI during spontaneous cramps in women with menstrual pain.

    Hellman, Kevin M; Kuhn, Caroline S; Tu, Frank F; Dillane, Katlyn E; Shlobin, Nathan A; Senapati, Sangeeta; Zhou, Xiaojie; Li, Wei; Prasad, Pottumarthi V

    2018-05-01

    The lack of noninvasive methods to study dysmenorrhea has resulted in poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying pain, insufficient diagnostic tests, and limited treatment options. To address this knowledge gap, we have developed a magnetic resonance imaging-based strategy for continuously monitoring the uterus in relationship to participants' spontaneous pain perception. The study objective was to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging can detect real-time changes in myometrial activity during cramping episodes in women with dysmenorrhea, with a handheld squeeze bulb for pain reporting. Sixteen women with dysmenorrhea and 10 healthy control women both on and off their menses were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging while not taking analgesic medication. Continuous magnetic resonance imaging was acquired using half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo sequence along with simultaneous reporting of pain severity with a squeeze bulb. Pearson's coefficient was used to compare results between reviewers. Proportional differences between women with dysmenorrhea and controls on/off menses were evaluated with a Fisher exact test. The temporal relationships between signal changes were evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations. Spontaneous progressive decreases in myometrial signal intensity were more frequently observed in women on their menses than in the absence of pain in the same women off their menses or participants without dysmenorrhea (P < .01). Women without reductions in myometrial signal intensity on their menses either had a history of endometriosis or were not in pain. Observations of myometrial events were consistently reported between 2 raters blinded to menstrual pain or day status (r = 0.97, P < .001). Episodes of cramping occurred either immediately before or 32-70 seconds after myometrial signal change onset (P < .05). Transient decreases in myometrial uterine T2-weighted signal intensity can be reliably measured in women with

  13. Plausibility of Menstrual Cycle Apps Claiming to Support Conception.

    Freis, Alexander; Freundl-Schütt, Tanja; Wallwiener, Lisa-Maria; Baur, Sigfried; Strowitzki, Thomas; Freundl, Günter; Frank-Herrmann, Petra

    2018-01-01

    The interval of peak fertility during the menstrual cycle is of limited duration, and the day of ovulation varies, even in women with fairly regular cycles. Therefore, menstrual cycle apps identifying the "fertile window" for women trying to conceive must be quite precise. A deviation of a few days may lead the couple to focus on less- or non-fertile days for sexual intercourse and thus may be worse than random intercourse. The aim of the present investigation was to develop a scoring system for rating available apps for determining the fertile window and secondarily pilot test 12 apps currently available in both German and English (consisting of 6 calendar-based apps: Clue Menstruations- und Zykluskalender, Flo Menstruationskalender, Maya-Mein Periodentracker, Menstruationskalender Pro, Period Tracker Deluxe, and WomanLog-Pro-Kalender; 2 calculothermal apps: Ovy and Natural Cycles; and 4 symptothermal apps: myNFP, Lady Cycle, Lily, and OvuView). The calendar-based apps were investigated by entering several series of cycles with varying lengths, whereas the symptom-based apps were examined by entering data of cycles with known temperature rise, cervical mucus pattern, and clinical ovulation. The main criteria for evaluating the cycle apps were as follows: (1) What methods/parameters were used to determine the fertile window? (2) What study results exist concerning that underlying method/parameters? (3) What study results exist concerning the app itself? (4) Was there a qualified counseling service? The calendar-based apps predicted the fertile days based on data of previous cycles. They obtained zero points in our scoring system, as they did not comply with any of the evaluated criteria. Calculothermal apps had similar deficits for predicting the most fertile days and produced suboptimal results (Ovy 3/30 points and Natural Cycles 2/30 points). The symptothermal apps determined the fertile days based on parameters of the current cycle: Lady Cycle scored 20

  14. Glucose tolerance during pulmonary exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis.

    John Widger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF are relatively insulinopenic and are at risk of diabetes, especially during times of stress. There is a paucity of data in the literature describing glucose tolerance during CF pulmonary exacerbations. We hypothesised that glucose tolerance would be worse during pulmonary exacerbations in children with CF than during clinical stability. METHODS: Patients with CF, 10 years or older, admitted with a pulmonary exacerbation underwent an OGTT within 48 hours of admission. A repeat OGTT was performed 4 to 6 weeks post discharge when the patients were well. RESULTS: Nine patients completed the study. Four patients were found to have normal glucose tolerance, 3 with impaired and 2 with CF related diabetes during the exacerbation. Mean change in 2-hour glucose was 1.1 mmol (SD = 0.77. At the follow up OGTT, 8 of 9 (89% remained within their respective glucose tolerance status groupings. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show that there is little difference in glucose tolerance during CF exacerbations compared to clinical stability in the majority of patients.

  15. The profile of psychiatric symptoms exacerbated by methamphetamine use.

    McKetin, Rebecca; Dawe, Sharon; Burns, Richard A; Hides, Leanne; Kavanagh, David J; Teesson, Maree; McD Young, Ross; Voce, Alexandra; Saunders, John B

    2016-04-01

    Methamphetamine use can produce symptoms almost indistinguishable from schizophrenia. Distinguishing between the two conditions has been hampered by the lack of a validated symptom profile for methamphetamine-induced psychiatric symptoms. We use data from a longitudinal cohort study to examine the profile of psychiatric symptoms that are acutely exacerbated by methamphetamine use. 164 methamphetamine users, who did not meet DSM-IV criteria for a lifetime primary psychotic disorder, were followed monthly for one year to assess the relationship between days of methamphetamine use and symptom severity on the 24-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms with methamphetamine use was quantified using random coefficient models. The dimensions of symptom exacerbation were examined using principal axis factoring and a latent profile analysis. Symptoms exacerbated by methamphetamine loaded on three factors: positive psychotic symptoms (suspiciousness, unusual thought content, hallucinations, bizarre behavior); affective symptoms (depression, suicidality, guilt, hostility, somatic concern, self-neglect); and psychomotor symptoms (tension, excitement, distractibility, motor hyperactivity). Methamphetamine use did not significantly increase negative symptoms. Vulnerability to positive psychotic and affective symptom exacerbation was shared by 28% of participants, and this vulnerability aligned with a past year DSM-IV diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis (38% vs. 22%, χ(2)(df1)=3.66, p=0.056). Methamphetamine use produced a symptom profile comprised of positive psychotic and affective symptoms, which aligned with a diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis, with no evidence of a negative syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nickel patch test reactivity and the menstrual cycle

    Rohold, A E; Halkier-Sørensen, L; Thestrup-Pedersen, K

    1994-01-01

    Premenstrual exacerbation of allergic contact dermatitis and varying allergic patch test responses have been reported at different points of the period. Using a dilution series of nickel sulphate, we studied the variation in patch test reactivity in nickel allergic women in relation to the menstr......Premenstrual exacerbation of allergic contact dermatitis and varying allergic patch test responses have been reported at different points of the period. Using a dilution series of nickel sulphate, we studied the variation in patch test reactivity in nickel allergic women in relation...... were tested first on day 7-10 and the other half first on day 20-24. There was no difference in the degree of patch test reactivity, when the results from day 7-10 and day 20-24 were compared (p > 0.4). However, when we compared the patch test results from the first and second test procedure, we found...... of positive patch tests led to an increased skin reactivity towards the same allergen, when the patients were retested weeks later....

  17. Postpartum airway responsiveness and exacerbation of asthma during pregnancy

    Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    , diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, bronchial responsiveness to inhaled mannitol, and inflammatory characteristics in induced sputum. Obtained data were analyzed in relation to exacerbation status during pregnancy. The PD15 is defined as the cumulative administered dose causing a 15% decline in forced......BACKGROUND: Airway responsiveness and inflammation are associated with the clinical manifestations of asthma and the response to pharmacological therapy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if airway responsiveness and inflammatory characteristics are related to asthma exacerbations during pregnancy....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: In women with asthma who were prescribed controller medication and monitored closely during pregnancy, the risk of exacerbations was analyzed in relation to postpartum measures of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), skin prick test reactivity, static and dynamic lung volumes...

  18. Job strain and the risk of severe asthma exacerbations

    Heikkilä, K; Madsen, I E H; Nyberg, S T

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients and healthcare professionals believe that work-related psychosocial stress, such as job strain, can make asthma worse, but this is not corroborated by empirical evidence. We investigated the associations between job strain and the incidence of severe asthma exacerbations...... in working-age European men and women. METHODS: We analysed individual-level data, collected between 1985 and 2010, from 102 175 working-age men and women in 11 prospective European studies. Job strain (a combination of high demands and low control at work) was self-reported at baseline. Incident severe...... asthma exacerbations were ascertained from national hospitalization and death registries. Associations between job strain and asthma exacerbations were modelled using Cox regression and the study-specific findings combined using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 10 years...

  19. Menstrual cycle phase affects discrimination of infant cuteness.

    Lobmaier, Janek S; Probst, Fabian; Perrett, David I; Heinrichs, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that women are more sensitive than men to subtle cuteness differences in infant faces. It has been suggested that raised levels in estradiol and progesterone may be responsible for this advantage. We compared young women's sensitivity to computer-manipulated baby faces varying in cuteness. Thirty-six women were tested once during ovulation and once during the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle. In a two alternative forced-choice experiment, participants chose the baby which they thought was cuter (Task 1), younger (Task 2), or the baby that they would prefer to babysit (Task 3). Saliva samples to assess levels of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone were collected at each test session. During ovulation, women were more likely to choose the cuter baby than during the luteal phase, in all three tasks. These results suggest that cuteness discrimination may be driven by cyclic hormonal shifts. However none of the measured hormones were related to increased cuteness sensitivity. We speculate that other hormones than the ones measured here might be responsible for the increased sensitivity to subtle cuteness differences during ovulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Serum Thyrotropin and Phase of the Menstrual Cycle

    Salvatore Benvenga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available About one-fifth of patients treated with levothyroxine have serum thyrotropin (TSH above target concentrations but, in approximately 15% of them, the cause of this TSH insufficient normalization remains unknown. We report the cases of two regularly menstruating women with known thyroid disease who had TSH levels consistently >3 mU/L (and sometimes above target levels during mid-cycle, but consistently lower serum levels during the follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle. A major TSH release by the thyrotrophs in response to high circulating levels of estradiol (E2 at mid-cycle may increase levels of TSH compared to other phases of the cycle. The increased TSH can be misinterpreted as refractory hypothyroidism if the woman is under L-T4 replacement therapy or as subclinical hypothyroidism if the woman is not. Our findings might have important implications for diagnosis and management of thyroid disease, suggesting to request serum TSH measurements outside of the periovulatory days.

  1. Pattern recognition in menstrual bleeding diaries by statistical cluster analysis

    Wessel Jens

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper is to empirically identify a treatment-independent statistical method to describe clinically relevant bleeding patterns by using bleeding diaries of clinical studies on various sex hormone containing drugs. Methods We used the four cluster analysis methods single, average and complete linkage as well as the method of Ward for the pattern recognition in menstrual bleeding diaries. The optimal number of clusters was determined using the semi-partial R2, the cubic cluster criterion, the pseudo-F- and the pseudo-t2-statistic. Finally, the interpretability of the results from a gynecological point of view was assessed. Results The method of Ward yielded distinct clusters of the bleeding diaries. The other methods successively chained the observations into one cluster. The optimal number of distinctive bleeding patterns was six. We found two desirable and four undesirable bleeding patterns. Cyclic and non cyclic bleeding patterns were well separated. Conclusion Using this cluster analysis with the method of Ward medications and devices having an impact on bleeding can be easily compared and categorized.

  2. Teaching menstrual care skills to intellectually disabled female students.

    Altundağ, Sebahat; Çalbayram, Nazan Çakırer

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to teach pad replacement skills to intellectually disabled adolescent female students during their menstruation periods by demonstrating on a dummy. It may be difficult to make intellectually disabled adolescents achieve self-care during menstruation. In addition, there are difficulties experienced in explaining menstruation, such as physical changes and the practice of cleaning during this period. The study used a 'One group pretest and post-test model'. The study was performed in a special educational institution. The population consisted of 77 female students in the high school section. Calculation of a sample size was not attempted, and 54 students with no attendance issues agreed to take part in the study and were included. In this work, we found that pad replacement training significantly changed the scores of mentally disabled adolescents before and after training. Our training yielded positive results, and the population improved their skills at all stages of skill building. Training adolescents with mental disabilities helped them gain hygiene habits. Performance of these trainings occurs at the beginning of menstrual hygiene education. To achieve improved success in life, it is important that adolescents assume the responsibility of self-care and manage sustained care activity on their own. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Body Mass Index and Menstrual Patterns in Dancers.

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Quinn, Bridget J; Geminiani, Ellen; Kinney, Susan; McCrystal, Tara; Owen, Michael; Pepin, Michael J; Stein, Cynthia J

    2016-04-18

    Questionnaires were distributed to investigate body mass index (BMI) and menstrual patterns in female dancers aged 12 to 17 years. The study cohort consisted of 105 dancers, mean age 14.8 ± 1.1 years, and mean BMI 19.5 ± 2.3 kg/m 2 In all, 92% were healthy weight for height. First menses age ranged from 10 to 15 years (mean 12.9 ± 1.1 years). A total of 44% reported irregular menses; of those, 14% described irregularity as "every other month," 37% as "every 3 months," and 49% as "skips a month occasionally." A total of 36% of the dancers stop getting their menses during times of increased activity/dance, and 30% have gone >3 months at any time without getting their menses. A significant negative correlation between BMI and age of first menses was found with lower BMI associated with increased age of first menses (linear regression, β = -0.49,P= .021). This study supports an association between BMI and age of menarche among young female dancers. Given bone health reliance on hormonal milieu in female dancers, future research is warranted. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. COPD exacerbations in general practice: variability in oral prednisolone courses

    de Vries Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of oral corticosteroids as treatment of COPD exacerbations in primary care is well established and evidence-based. However, the most appropriate dosage regimen has not been determined and remains controversial. Corticosteroid therapy is associated with a number of undesirable side effects, including hyperglycaemias, so differences in prescribing might be relevant. This study examines the differences between GPs in dosage and duration of prednisolone treatment in patients with a COPD exacerbation. It also investigates the number of general practitioners (GPs who adjust their treatment according to the presence of diabetic co-morbidity. Methods Cross-sectional study among 219 GPs and 25 GPs in training, located in the Northern part of the Netherlands. Results The response rate was 69%. Nearly every GP prescribed a continuous dose of prednisolone 30 mg per day. Among GPs there were substantial differences in treatment duration. GPs prescribed courses of five, seven, ten, or fourteen days. A course of seven days was most common. The duration of treatment depended on exacerbation and disease severity. A course of five days was especially prescribed in case of a less severe exacerbation. In a more severe exacerbation duration of seven to fourteen days was more common. Hardly any GP adjusted treatment to the presence of diabetic co-morbidity. Conclusion Under normal conditions GPs prescribe prednisolone quite uniformly, within the range of the current Dutch guidelines. There is insufficient guidance regarding how to adjust corticosteroid treatment to exacerbation severity, disease severity and the presence of diabetic co-morbidity. Under these circumstances, there is a substantial variation in treatment duration.

  5. The effects of fennel on menstrual bleeding: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Abdollahi, Nafiseh Ghassab; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Mollazadeh, Sanaz

    2018-03-02

    Introduction Fennel has many medicinal properties and is used in the treatment of dysmenorrhea. Given the widespread use of herbal medicine among women for menstrual problems and considering the fact that there has been no study to date about the effect of fennel on menstrual bleeding and duration of menstrual bleeding through systematic review, the present study was conducted to determine the effect of fennel on the amount (primary outcome) and duration of menstrual bleeding and its side-effects (secondary outcomes). Materials All articles, including Persian and English, with no time limit were searched for in the following databases: Medline (through PubMed), Scopus, EMBASE (through Ovid), Cochrane Library, Web of Sciences, Google Scholar, ProQuest, Clininaltrial.gov, SID, Magiran, Irandoc, and Iranmedex, using MeSH terms, including menstrual bleeding, menstruation, severity of bleeding, hypermenorrhea, menorrhagia, fennel, fennelin, Foeniculum vulgare, dysmenorrhea, and painful menstruation, which were searched separately or in combination. Two authors separately reviewed articles to determine the inclusion criteria, and any disagreement was resolved by reaching consensus with a third person. Results A total of 7993 articles were identified through searching the databases, of which 7327 were excluded as duplicates and 666 were screened for inclusion. Six hundread and forty six were excluded by title and abstract based on not being relevant to the review and being conducted on animals. Eventually, six articles were included in the study and four articles entered into the meta-analysis. The results from meta-analysis showed that using fennel caused a significant increase in mean menstrual bleeding in the first cycle after treatment in the intervention group compared to the control (Std. mean difference: 0.46; 95 % CI: 0.18-0.73; p = 0.001; I2 = 9 %). However, it had no significant effect on menstrual bleeding in the second cycle after treatment (Mean

  6. Marker evaluation for differentiation of blood and menstrual fluid by methylation-sensitive SNaPshot analysis.

    Holtkötter, Hannah; Schwender, Kristina; Wiegand, Peter; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Vennemann, Marielle

    2018-03-01

    The differentiation of blood and menstrual fluid is especially important in cases of alleged sexual assault. While the identification of blood is relatively straightforward, the identification of menstrual fluid in trace evidence has been shown to be more challenging. This may be due to the complex nature of menstrual fluid that leads to intra- and inter-individual differences in composition. Nevertheless, recent advances in DNA methylation profiling have revealed promising markers for the differentiation of the two body fluids and furthermore, markers to distinguish menstrual fluid from vaginal fluid. A literature study was performed and in total, 11 markers were evaluated in this study of which seven could be validated for menstrual fluid and blood identification purposes. Marker "BLU2" (chr16:29757334) was identified as most suitable for differentiation of blood and menstrual fluid.

  7. DNA alkylation and tumor induction in regenerating rat liver after cell cycle-related continuous N-nitrosodimethylamine infusion

    Rabes, H.M.; Kerler, R.; Wilhelm, R.

    1983-01-01

    Synchronized regenerating rat liver after partial hepatectomy was used to study cell cycle-related DNA base alkylation and liver carcinogenesis. A continuous iv infusion of (/sup 14/C)N-nitrosodimethylamine (DMN) at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/hour was given to inbred male Wistar Af/Han rats over a period of 8 hours either during the G1 phase, hydroxyurea-synchronized DNA synthesis, or the G2+M-phase of regenerating liver or to untreated rats (G0-phase liver--carcinogen dose, 1.5 mg/kg/hour). Two hours after the end of the infusion, the amount of 7-methylguanine was highest in the G0-phase liver, with a decrease in the G1 phase, the S-phase, and the G2+M-phase. After continuous DMN exposure, the O/sub 6/-methylguanine:7-methylguanine ratio was lower in the S-phase and G2+M-phase livers than in the G0-phase and G1-phase livers, indicating an increased O/sub 6/-methylguanine repair during DNA synthesis and the G2+M-phase. Liver tumors in rats treated by continuous DMN infusion either during the G0 phase or the S-phase developed only after carcinogen exposure during DNA synthesis.

  8. Withdrawal of inhaled glucocorticoids and exacerbations of COPD

    Magnussen, Helgo; Disse, Bernd; Rodriguez-Roisin, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    fluticasone propionate (500 μg twice daily) during a 6-week run-in period. Patients were then randomly assigned to continued triple therapy or withdrawal of fluticasone in three steps over a 12-week period. The primary end point was the time to the first moderate or severe COPD exacerbation. Spirometric......-acting bronchodilators has not been fully explored. METHODS: In this 12-month, double-blind, parallel-group study, 2485 patients with a history of exacerbation of COPD received triple therapy consisting of tiotropium (at a dose of 18 μg once daily), salmeterol (50 μg twice daily), and the inhaled glucocorticoid...

  9. Can resistive breathing injure the lung? Implications for COPD exacerbations

    Vassilakopoulos T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Theodoros Vassilakopoulos, Dimitrios Toumpanakis Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece Abstract: In obstructive lung diseases, airway inflammation leads to bronchospasm and thus resistive breathing, especially during exacerbations. This commentary discusses experimental evidence that resistive breathing per se (the mechanical stimulus in the absence of underlying airway inflammation leads to lung injury and inflammation (mechanotransduction. The potential implications of resistive breathing-induced mechanotrasduction in COPD exacerbations are presented along with the available clinical evidence. Keywords: resistive breathing, COPD, mechanotransduction, bronchoconstriction, inflammation

  10. Quintupling Inhaled Glucocorticoids to Prevent Childhood Asthma Exacerbations.

    Jackson, Daniel J; Bacharier, Leonard B; Mauger, David T; Boehmer, Susan; Beigelman, Avraham; Chmiel, James F; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Gaffin, Jonathan M; Morgan, Wayne J; Peters, Stephen P; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Sheehan, William J; Cabana, Michael D; Holguin, Fernando; Martinez, Fernando D; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Baxi, Sachin N; Benson, Mindy; Blake, Kathryn; Covar, Ronina; Gentile, Deborah A; Israel, Elliot; Krishnan, Jerry A; Kumar, Harsha V; Lang, Jason E; Lazarus, Stephen C; Lima, John J; Long, Dayna; Ly, Ngoc; Marbin, Jyothi; Moy, James N; Myers, Ross E; Olin, J Tod; Raissy, Hengameh H; Robison, Rachel G; Ross, Kristie; Sorkness, Christine A; Lemanske, Robert F

    2018-03-08

    Asthma exacerbations occur frequently despite the regular use of asthma-controller therapies, such as inhaled glucocorticoids. Clinicians commonly increase the doses of inhaled glucocorticoids at early signs of loss of asthma control. However, data on the safety and efficacy of this strategy in children are limited. We studied 254 children, 5 to 11 years of age, who had mild-to-moderate persistent asthma and had had at least one asthma exacerbation treated with systemic glucocorticoids in the previous year. Children were treated for 48 weeks with maintenance low-dose inhaled glucocorticoids (fluticasone propionate at a dose of 44 μg per inhalation, two inhalations twice daily) and were randomly assigned to either continue the same dose (low-dose group) or use a quintupled dose (high-dose group; fluticasone at a dose of 220 μg per inhalation, two inhalations twice daily) for 7 days at the early signs of loss of asthma control ("yellow zone"). Treatment was provided in a double-blind fashion. The primary outcome was the rate of severe asthma exacerbations treated with systemic glucocorticoids. The rate of severe asthma exacerbations treated with systemic glucocorticoids did not differ significantly between groups (0.48 exacerbations per year in the high-dose group and 0.37 exacerbations per year in the low-dose group; relative rate, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.8 to 2.1; P=0.30). The time to the first exacerbation, the rate of treatment failure, symptom scores, and albuterol use during yellow-zone episodes did not differ significantly between groups. The total glucocorticoid exposure was 16% higher in the high-dose group than in the low-dose group. The difference in linear growth between the high-dose group and the low-dose group was -0.23 cm per year (P=0.06). In children with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma treated with daily inhaled glucocorticoids, quintupling the dose at the early signs of loss of asthma control did not reduce the rate of severe asthma

  11. Subcutaneous implant with etonogestrel (Implanon®) for catamenial exacerbations in a patient with cystic fibrosis: a case report.

    Lamas, Adelaida; Máiz, Luis; Ruiz de Valbuena, Marta; González-Casbas, José Manuel; Suárez, Lucrecia

    2014-10-24

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease with equal prevalence across sexes. However, women present worse lung function with faster function decline, earlier onset of bacterial colonization, more frequent pulmonary exacerbations (PE), greater bronchial hyper-responsiveness, and higher mortality rates after puberty than men. The etiology of this gender disparity remains elusive but female hormones have been implicated in several studies. A 20-year-old female with CF with severe recurrent PE, always related to the menstrual cycle since menarche, combined with lung function decline requiring multiple courses of intravenous antibiotics. We report the cessation of PE and recovery of pulmonary function following the insertion of a subcutaneous implant with 68 mg of etonogestrel (Implanon®, Organon Española S.A. Laboratories, Madrid, Spain). Our case report supports the key role of female hormones in the development of PE and in the decline of lung function in a woman with CF. When appropriate, hormonal manipulation through contraceptive methods should be considered as potential treatment.

  12. Studying allergic inflammation and spirometry over menstrual cycles in well-controlled asthmatic women: Changes in progesterone and estradiol affect neither FENO levels nor lung function.

    Nittner-Marszalska, Marita; Dor-Wojnarowska, Anna; Wolańczyk-Mędrala, Anna; Rosner-Tenerowicz, Anna; Zimmer, Mariusz; Dobek, Julia; Gomułka, Krzysztof; Parużyńska, Anna; Panaszek, Bernard

    2018-05-01

    It has been reported that female sex hormones influence on allergic inflammation and ventilation parameters in asthma but conclusions drawn by different researchers are divergent. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of progesterone (Pg) and estradiol (E) on the dynamics of allergic inflammation and spirometry test results in regularly menstruating women with stable allergic asthma. 13 women (28 days menstrual cycle), aged 18-45, taking no hormonal contraceptives, with mild and moderate asthma, without reported exacerbations at the near-ovulation and/or menstruation time, were monitored during two consecutive menstrual cycles. They had 4 visits per cycle (the first day of menstruation was assumed to be day 1 of the cycle; visits were carried out on days: 3-4, 10-11, 13-14 and 23-24). At each visit asthma symptoms, asthma control test (ACT) results, asthma treatment, fractioned nitric oxide (FENO) levels, spirometry test results, Pg and E, levels were analyzed. As a result of the study, no essential variability in FENO values and ventilation parameters' values in the course of menstruation cycle were observed. Negative correlation between FENO values and Pg concentrations was demonstrated (r = 0.27), but no correlation between FENO values and E levels was shown. No relationship between the ACT values and ventilation parameters and the levels of the sex hormones under investigation was detected. We conclude that changing levels of estradiol and progesterone (regardless of the negative correlation of progesterone and FENO values) affect neither the dynamics of allergic inflammation nor pulmonary function in women with stable allergic mild/moderate asthma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The changes of 18F-FDG uptake and ADC value of the normal endometrium during the menstrual cycle

    Seko, Ayumi; Kanasaki, Shuzou; Kitahara, Sawako; Murata, Kiyoshi; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Hayashida, Kohei; Sakashita, Yoko; Hamanaka, Yasuyo

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the normal endometrium of reproductive age using positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and Diffusion-weighted MR imaging. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value were classified according to the menstrual cycle. On PET/CT, FDG uptake was significant high at the menstrual and ovulatory phase. On diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), ADC value was significant low at the menstrual phase. (author)

  14. Impact of gender and menstrual cycle phase on plasma cytokine concentrations.

    O'Brien, Sinead M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: The lifetime prevalence of major depression is twice as high in females as in males. Depression is known to increase at periods where there are changes in gonadal hormones. We examined pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels during the normal menstrual cycle of healthy females compared to similar time points in healthy males. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in healthy females during the normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and also in males at similar time points. RESULTS: The luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is associated with increased production of sIL-6R, IL-4 and TNF-alpha compared to the early follicular phase. No change was observed in IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 concentration throughout the menstrual cycle. We found IL-4 positively correlated with oestrogen while TNF-alpha positively correlated with progesterone. Females were found to have significantly higher concentrations of TNF-alpha and sIL-6R across all phases of the menstrual cycle, compared to males across similar time points. CONCLUSION: The normal menstrual cycle is associated with increased production of sIL-6R, IL-4 and TNF-alpha in the luteal phase compared to the early follicular phase. Females have significantly higher concentrations of sIL-6R and TNF-alpha at all time points across the menstrual cycle than males.

  15. The relationship between food frequency and menstrual distress in high school females.

    Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Kordi, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition pattern is one of the important factors predicting menstrual distress, which varies among different cultures and countries. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between food frequency and menstrual distress in high school girls from Mashhad. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 using a two-stage sampling method on 407 high school female students from Mashhad who met the inclusion criteria. Subjects completed questionnaires of demographic characteristics, food frequency, and Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) during three phases of the menstrual cycle (a week before bleeding, during menstrual bleeding period, and a week after menstruation). The collected data were analyzed by statistical tests such as Pearson correlation coefficient test, independent Student's t-test, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that 87.7% of the students were at moderate economic status, 82.2% were exposed to cigarette smoke, 94.8% had mothers without university education, and 9.4% had working mothers. About 71% of the students reported minor pre-menstruation distress, 81% reported minor distress during bleeding, and 39% reported minor post-menstruation distress. In addition, the mean (SD) values for sweet-fatty foods, salty-fatty foods, fast foods, and caffeine were 3.6, 3.3, 1.3, and 10.2 per week, respectively. In addition, Pearson correlation coefficient test showed no significant correlation between total menstruation distress and food frequency (P > 0.05). With regard to the inappropriate food frequency and high intensity of menstrual distress among high school students and as health care and educational efforts for prevention and health promotion in society are among the duties of health workers, the results of this study can help the officials involved in education to emphasize on nutrition and the menstrual health of students.

  16. Variation in the Hearing Threshold in Women during the Menstrual Cycle.

    Souza, Dayse da Silva; Luckwu, Brunna; Andrade, Wagner Teobaldo Lopes de; Pessoa, Luciane Spinelli de Figueiredo; Nascimento, João Agnaldo do; Rosa, Marine Raquel Diniz da

    2017-10-01

    Introduction  The hormonal changes that occur during the menstrual cycle and their relationship with hearing problems have been studied. However, they have not been well explained. Objective  The objective of our study is to investigate the variation in hearing thresholds in women during the menstrual cycle. Method  We conducted a cohort and longitudinal study. It was composed of 30 volunteers, aged 18-39 years old, of which 20 were women during the phases of the menstrual cycle and 10 were men (control group) who underwent audiometry and impedance exams, to correlate the possible audiological changes in each phase of the menstrual cycle. Results  There were significant changes in hearing thresholds observed during the menstrual cycle phases in the group of women who used hormonal contraceptives and the group who did not use such contraceptives. Improved hearing thresholds were observed in the late follicular phase in the group who did not use hormonal contraceptives and the hearing thresholds at high frequencies were better. Throughout the menstrual cycle phases, the mean variation was 3.6 db HL between weeks in the group who used hormonal contraceptives and 4.09 db HL in the group who did not use them. Conclusions  The present study found that there may be a relationship between hearing changes and hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle based on changes in the hearing thresholds of women. In addition, this study suggests that estrogen has an otoprotective effect on hearing, since the best hearing thresholds were found when estrogen was at its maximum peak.

  17. Risk factors for asthma exacerbation in patients presenting to an ...

    Background: Asthma exacerbations are caused by a variety of risk factors. Reducing exposure to these risk factors improves the control of asthma and reduces medication needs. Knowledge of the particular risk factors is essential in formulating controlling and treatment protocols. This study set out to determine the risk ...

  18. Prevalence and pattern of asthma exacerbation in children seen at ...

    2016-01-15

    Jan 15, 2016 ... asthma. Aim: To determine the prevalence and pattern of acute exacerbation of asthma in ... cost to health care systems and seriously diminish the quality of life of .... also from USA, 2% of all outpatient visits and 2.3% of.

  19. How Clinical Diagnosis Might Exacerbate the Stigma of Mental Illness

    Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    Stigma can greatly exacerbate the experience of mental illness. Diagnostic classification frequently used by clinical social workers may intensify this stigma by enhancing the public's sense of "groupness" and "differentness" when perceiving people with mental illness. The homogeneity assumed by stereotypes may lead mental health professionals and…

  20. Susceptibility to exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Hurst, John R; Vestbo, Jørgen; Anzueto, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    be predicted on the basis of the patient's recall of previous treated events. In addition to its association with more severe disease and prior exacerbations, the phenotype was independently associated with a history of gastroesophageal reflux or heartburn, poorer quality of life, and elevated white-cell count...

  1. Quadrupling Inhaled Glucocorticoid Dose to Abort Asthma Exacerbations.

    McKeever, Tricia; Mortimer, Kevin; Wilson, Andrew; Walker, Samantha; Brightling, Christopher; Skeggs, Andrew; Pavord, Ian; Price, David; Duley, Lelia; Thomas, Mike; Bradshaw, Lucy; Higgins, Bernard; Haydock, Rebecca; Mitchell, Eleanor; Devereux, Graham; Harrison, Timothy

    2018-03-08

    Asthma exacerbations are frightening for patients and are occasionally fatal. We tested the concept that a plan for patients to manage their asthma (self-management plan), which included a temporary quadrupling of the dose of inhaled glucocorticoids when asthma control started to deteriorate, would reduce the incidence of severe asthma exacerbations among adults and adolescents with asthma. We conducted a pragmatic, unblinded, randomized trial involving adults and adolescents with asthma who were receiving inhaled glucocorticoids, with or without add-on therapy, and who had had at least one exacerbation in the previous 12 months. We compared a self-management plan that included an increase in the dose of inhaled glucocorticoids by a factor of 4 (quadrupling group) with the same plan without such an increase (non-quadrupling group), over a period of 12 months. The primary outcome was the time to a first severe asthma exacerbation, defined as treatment with systemic glucocorticoids or an unscheduled health care consultation for asthma. A total of 1922 participants underwent randomization, of whom 1871 were included in the primary analysis. The number of participants who had a severe asthma exacerbation in the year after randomization was 420 (45%) in the quadrupling group as compared with 484 (52%) in the non-quadrupling group, with an adjusted hazard ratio for the time to a first severe exacerbation of 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.71 to 0.92; P=0.002). The rate of adverse effects, which were related primarily to local effects of inhaled glucocorticoids, was higher in the quadrupling group than in the non-quadrupling group. In this trial involving adults and adolescents with asthma, a personalized self-management plan that included a temporary quadrupling of the dose of inhaled glucocorticoids when asthma control started to deteriorate resulted in fewer severe asthma exacerbations than a plan in which the dose was not increased. (Funded by the Health Technology

  2. Antiproliferative activity and interactions with cell-cycle related proteins of the organotin compound triethyltin(IV)lupinylsulfide hydrochloride.

    Barbieri, F; Sparatore, F; Cagnoli, M; Bruzzo, C; Novelli, F; Alama, A

    2001-03-14

    Organotin compounds, particularly tri-organotin, have demonstrated cytotoxic properties against a number of tumor cell lines. On this basis, triethyltin(IV)lupinylsulfide hydrochloride (IST-FS 29), a quinolizidine derivative, was synthesized and developed as a potential antitumor agent. This tin-derived compound exhibited potent antiproliferative effects on three different human cancer cell lines: teratocarcinoma of the ovary (PA-1), colon carcinoma (HCT-8) and glioblastoma (A-172). Cytotoxic activity was assessed by MTT and cell count assays during time course experiments with cell recovery after compound withdrawal. Significant cell growth inhibition (up to 95% in HCT-8 after 72 h of exposure), which also persisted after drug-free medium change, was reported in all the cell lines by both assays. In addition, the cytocidal effects exerted by IST-FS 29 appeared more consistent with necrosis or delayed cell death, rather than apoptosis, as shown by morphologic observations under light microscope, DNA fragmentation analysis and flow cytometry. In the attempt to elucidate whether this compound might affect genes playing a role in G1/S phase transition, the expressions of p53, p21(WAF1), cyclin D1 and Rb, mainly involved in response to DNA-damaging stress, were analyzed by Western blot. Heterogeneous patterns of expression during exposure to IST-FS 29 were evidenced in the different cell lines suggesting that these cell-cycle-related genes are not likely the primary targets of this compound. Thus, the present data seem more indicative of a direct effect of IST-FS-29 on macromolecular synthesis and cellular homeostasis, as previously hypothesized for other organotin complexes.

  3. Overexpression of Zwint predicts poor prognosis and promotes the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma by regulating cell-cycle-related proteins

    Ying H

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hanning Ying,1,2 Zhiyao Xu,3 Mingming Chen,1,2 Senjun Zhou,1,2 Xiao Liang,1,2 Xiujun Cai1,2 1Department of General Surgery, 2Key Laboratory of Endoscopic Technique Research of Zhejiang Province, 3Central Lab of Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China Introduction: Zwint, a centromere-complex component required for the mitotic spindle checkpoint, has been reported to be overexpressed in different human cancers, but it has not been studied in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC.Materials and methods: The role of Zwint in hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation capacities was evaluated by using cell counting kit-8 (CCK8, flow cytometry, clone formation and tumor formation assay in nude mice. Western blot analysis and qPCR assay were performed to assess Zwint interacting with cell-cycle-related proteins.Results: We report that ZWINT mRNA and protein expression were upregulated in HCC samples and cell lines. An independent set of 106 HCC-tissue pairs and corresponding noncancerous tissues was evaluated for Zwint expression using immunohistochemistry, and elevated Zwint expression in HCC tissues was significantly correlated with clinicopathological features, such as tumor size and number. Kaplan–Meier survival and Cox regression analysis revealed that high expression of Zwint was correlated with poor overall survival and a greater tendency for tumor recurrence. Ectopic expression of Zwint promoted HCC-cell proliferation, and Zwint expression affected the expression of several cell-cycle proteins, including PCNA, cyclin B1, Cdc25C and CDK1.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that upregulation of Zwint may contribute to the progression of HCC and may be a prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for treating HCC. Keywords: Zwint, hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC, prognosis, cell proliferation, cell cycle

  4. Menstrual characteristics amongst south-eastern Nigerian adolescent school girls.

    Adinma, E D; Adinma, J I B

    2009-03-01

    Information on pattern of menstruation and its implications is lacking amongst adolescents in Nigeria. To examine the characteristics of menstruation amongst adolescent Igbo school girls with respect to the biosocial characteristics, the pattern of menstruation, associated complications, and the source of information on menstruation. A descriptive cross-sectional study of 550 students recruited from a multi-sampling of 50 secondary schools in Onitsha, Anambra State, Nigeria, using pre-tested, semistructured, and interviewer administered questionnaires. Four hundred and sixteen (75.6%) respondents were aged 15-17 years; 338 (61.4%) of whom were Catholics. Menarcheal age range of respondents was 11-16 years, with a mean age of 13.40 +/- 1.15 years. Menstruation was regular in 410 (74.5%), and irregular in 124 (22.5%) of respondents. Duration of menstrual flow ranged between two and eight days, although a four-day flow occurred most commonly, 268 (53.6%). Abdominal pain, (66.2%), and waist pain, (38.5%), constituted the major problems associated with menstruation, followed by depression, (24.4%); vomiting, (6.9%); school absenteeism, (4.5%); anorexia, (1.8%); weakness, (1.5%); and increased appetite, (1.1%). The commonest source of information on menstruation (prior to menarche) amongst respondents was from the mother, 48.4%, followed by elder sister, and friends --14.2%, and 8.7% respectively, while the teacher constituted the least source, 1.1%. The characteristics of menstruation in this study do not differ considerably from what obtains amongst other adolescent girls. Associated complications may have profound psychosocial impact on the growing adolescent girl, requiring address, best achieved through the empowerment of mothers and teachers under a comprehensive family life education scheme.

  5. Predicting Acute Exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Samp, Jennifer C; Joo, Min J; Schumock, Glen T; Calip, Gregory S; Pickard, A Simon; Lee, Todd A

    2018-03-01

    With increasing health care costs that have outpaced those of other industries, payers of health care are moving from a fee-for-service payment model to one in which reimbursement is tied to outcomes. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease where this payment model has been implemented by some payers, and COPD exacerbations are a quality metric that is used. Under an outcomes-based payment model, it is important for health systems to be able to identify patients at risk for poor outcomes so that they can target interventions to improve outcomes. To develop and evaluate predictive models that could be used to identify patients at high risk for COPD exacerbations. This study was retrospective and observational and included COPD patients treated with a bronchodilator-based combination therapy. We used health insurance claims data to obtain demographics, enrollment information, comorbidities, medication use, and health care resource utilization for each patient over a 6-month baseline period. Exacerbations were examined over a 6-month outcome period and included inpatient (primary discharge diagnosis for COPD), outpatient, and emergency department (outpatient/emergency department visits with a COPD diagnosis plus an acute prescription for an antibiotic or corticosteroid within 5 days) exacerbations. The cohort was split into training (75%) and validation (25%) sets. Within the training cohort, stepwise logistic regression models were created to evaluate risk of exacerbations based on factors measured during the baseline period. Models were evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. The base model included all confounding or effect modifier covariates. Several other models were explored using different sets of observations and variables to determine the best predictive model. There were 478,772 patients included in the analytic sample, of which 40.5% had exacerbations during the outcome period. Patients with

  6. Assessment of knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene among high school girls in Western Ethiopia.

    Upashe, Shivaleela P; Tekelab, Tesfalidet; Mekonnen, Jalane

    2015-10-14

    The issue of menstrual hygiene is inadequately acknowledged and has not received proper attention. Use of sanitary pads and washing the genital area are essential practices to keep the menstrual hygiene. Unhygienic menstrual practices can affect the health of the girls and there is an increased vulnerability to reproductive tract infections and pelvic inflammatory diseases and other complications. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene among high school girls at Nekemte town, Oromia region, Western Ethiopia. A school based cross-sectional study design was employed in Nekemte Town, Western Ethiopia. A multi stage sampling technique was used to select 828 female high school students. Data collection was carried out from May 04 to May 30, 2014 using a pre- tested structured questionnaire. The data were entered into a computer using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and then exported to SPSS for Windows version 20.0 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done at 95 % confidence interval. In this study, 504 (60.9 %) and 330 (39.9 %) respondents had good knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene respectively. The findings of the study showed a significant positive association between good knowledge of menstruation and educational status of mothers (AOR = 1.51, 95 % CI = 1.02 - 2.22), having radio/TV (AOR = 2.42, 95 % CI: 1.64 - 3.56). Educational status of the mother (AOR = 2.03, 95 % CI = 1.38 - 2.97) and earning permanent pocket money from parents (AOR = 2.73, 95 % CI = 1.76 - 4.26) revealed significant positive association with good practice of menstrual hygiene. The findings showed that the knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene is low. Awareness regarding the need for information about good menstrual practices is very important. So, health education program should be setup to create awareness and practice of good menstrual hygiene.

  7. Common Menstrual Problems among Slum Adolescent Girls of Western Maharashtra, India

    Ganganahalli P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation, an important part of female reproductive cycle but menstrual dysfunction in adolescent girls may affect normal life of adolescent and young adult women.Objectives: To assess the percentage of common menstrual problems among adolescent girls from urban slums and to determine the correlation between common menstrual problems with nutritional status of these girls. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted among adolescent girls residing in urban slum area under the field practice area of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Karad of Western Maharashtra, India during the month of November - December 2011. 237 adolescent girls,age between 12-19 years were interviewed and examined using pretested semistructured questionnaire. Data was collected by researchers with the help of Medical Officer and Medical Social Worker of Urban Health Training Center by personal interview and clinical examination method. Data was compiled and presented into frequency percentage distribution. Chisquare test was applied to determine the association between common menstrual problem swith body mass index and anemia. Results: Out of total 237 adolescent girls, 230 (97.04% had attained menarche of which, 147 girls(63.91% had regular and 83(36.08% had irregular menstrual cycle with mean age at menarche by recall method was 12.8 yrs. The percentage of common menstrual problems such as oligomenorrhea, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia,hypomenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual syndrome were 16.08%, 17.82%, 27.39%,59.56%, 49.13% and 46.52% respectively,however amenorrhea ( primary was seen in 3(0.01% girls. Prevalence of under nutrition and anemia was 40.86% and 60.43%. Health seeking behavior for common menstrual problem was seen in only 25.75% girls. Oligomenorrhea, menorrhagia, hypomenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual syndrome were significantly associated with anemia; however BMI was significantly associated with dysmenorrhea

  8. Effect of ibuprofen on menstrual blood prostaglandin levels in dysmenorrheic women.

    Pulkkinen, M O; Csapo, A I

    1979-07-01

    In a randomized crossover study 15 dysmenorrheic women were treated during two consecutive menstrual period, once with the potent prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitor: ibuprofen and once with an identical looking placebo. Each patient was medicated for 12 hours during the first day of her menstrual flow and was subsequently fitted with a cervical cup for the collection of menstrual blood during three hours. In these samples the concentrations of prostaglandin (PG)F and PGE were measured by radioimmunoassay. The patients receiving placebo had high PGF levels 135 +/- 27 ng/ml (Mean +/- S.E.) which were significnatly reduced by Ibuprofen to 24 +/- 5 ng/ml (P less than 0.001). The PGE concentrations decreased from 5 +/- 1 ng/ml to 2 +/- 1 ng/ml (P less than 0.05). Ibuprofen also reduced the menstrual pain significantly (P less than 0.001). These results substantiate the earlier conclusion that a causal relationship exists between effective treatment with PG-synthesis inhibitors and decrease in menstrual blood PG levels, intrauterine pressure and dysmenorrheic pain.

  9. Is the menstrual cup harmless? A case report of an unusual cause of renal colic.

    Nunes-Carneiro, Diogo; Couto, Tiago; Cavadas, Vítor

    2018-01-01

    Menstrual cup is increasingly gaining acceptance among women to control the menstrual period. The majority of brands advocate that these devices are 100% safe to the users, notwithstanding there are some reports of rare complications associated with these devices. In this case we present a woman who developed a right renal colic using a menstrual cup. The pain was difficult to manage with conventional analgesics. The plain abdominal X-ray revealed the device in the pelvis occupying more than one third of the pelvis minor diameter and oriented to the right side. The ultrasound revealed right ureterohydronephrosis with no identifiable obstructive cause. The symptoms and the ureterohydronephrosis relieved completely after the removal of the device. Despite of being a safe device, problems with the menstrual cup could occur and we believe that the mechanism behind this clinical picture was the extrinsic compression of the right ureter by the cup. The control of the pain in this patient was challenging and we managed the problem with the device removal. The menstrual cup is gaining acceptance among women and it is important for clinicians to be aware of this device and possible complications associated with its use. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Does the phase of menstrual cycle affect MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery of uterine leiomyomas?

    So, Minna J.; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Zou, Kelly H.; McDannold, Nathan; Hynynen, Kullervo; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; Stewart, Elizabeth A.; Rybicki, Frank J.; Tempany, Clare M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the phase of menstrual cycle at the time of MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) treatment for uterine leiomyomas affects treatment outcome. Methods: We enrolled all patients participating in a prospective phase III clinical trial from our center who completed 6 months of clinical and imaging follow-up. Patients with irregular cycles and those on oral contraceptives were excluded. Data prospectively documenting the date of the last menstrual period (LMP) at the time of treatment, length and duration of cycle, and raw symptom severity score (SSS) from the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life questionnaire, at baseline and 6 months were collected. Proliferative phase patients were determined retrospectively as those who were treated within less than 14 days from LMP; secretory phase patients were classified as those who were treated greater than 14 days from LMP. Results: A total of 58 patients were enrolled. There was no significant difference in the mean SSS at baseline and mean SSS at 6 months between patients treated in the proliferative versus secretory phase of the cycle. No significant difference in the SSS change from baseline to 6 months was seen between the two groups. Conclusions: Menstrual cycle phase does not influence MRgFUS treatment outcome. Symptomatic improvement occurs with treatment during either phase of the menstrual cycle. Thus, the scheduling of MRgFUS treatment need not be based upon the phase of the menstrual cycle

  11. Apparent diffusion coefficient values of the normal uterus: Interindividual variations during menstrual cycle

    Tsili, A.C.; Argyropoulou, M.I.; Tzarouchi, L.; Dalkalitsis, N.; Koliopoulos, G.; Paraskevaidis, E.; Tsampoulas, K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes of the normal uterine zones among reproductive women during the menstrual cycle. Methods: The study included 101 women of reproductive age, each with regular cycle and normal endometrium/myometrium, as proved on histopathology or MR imaging examination. Diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging was performed along the axial plane, using a single shot, multi-slice spin-echo planar diffusion pulse sequence and b-values of 0 and 800 s/mm 2 . The mean and standard deviation of the ADC values of normal endometrium/myometrium were calculated for menstrual, proliferative and secretory phase. Analysis of variance followed by the least significant difference test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The ADC values of the endometrium were different in the three phases of the menstrual cycle (menstrual phase: 1.25 ± 0.27; proliferative phase: 1.39 ± 0.20; secretory phase: 1.50 ± 0.18) (F: 9.64, p: 0.00). Statistical significant difference was observed among all groups (p 0.05). Conclusions: A wide variation of ADC values of normal endometrium and myometrium is observed during different phases of the menstrual cycle.

  12. The menstrual cycle regularization following D-chiro-inositol treatment in PCOS women: a retrospective study.

    La Marca, Antonio; Grisendi, Valentina; Dondi, Giulia; Sighinolfi, Giovanna; Cianci, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by irregular cycles, hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovary at ultrasound and insulin resistance. The effectiveness of D-chiro-inositol (DCI) treatment in improving insulin resistance in PCOS patients has been confirmed in several reports. The objective of this study was to retrospectively analyze the effect of DCI on menstrual cycle regularity in PCOS women. This was a retrospective study of patients with irregular cycles who were treated with DCI. Of all PCOS women admitted to our centre, 47 were treated with DCI and had complete medical charts. The percentage of women reporting regular menstrual cycles significantly increased with increasing duration of DCI treatment (24% and 51.6% at a mean of 6 and 15 months of treatment, respectively). Serum AMH levels and indexes of insulin resistance significantly decreased during the treatment. Low AMH levels, high HOMA index, and the presence of oligomenorrhea at the first visit were the independent predictors of obtaining regular menstrual cycle with DCI. In conclusion, the use of DCI is associated to clinical benefits for many women affected by PCOS including the improvement in insulin resistance and menstrual cycle regularity. Responders to the treatment may be identified on the basis of menstrual irregularity and hormonal or metabolic markers.

  13. Menstrual irregularities and lactation failure may precede thyroid dysfunction or goitre.

    Joshi J

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Menstrual and reproductive history of 178 women referred to the thyroid clinic was compared with 49 healthy controls. Cases were classified as euthyroid, hypothyroid or hyperthyroid after clinical examination and after serum T3, T4, TSH measurements. Reproductive history was related chronologically to symptoms and signs of thyroid dysfunction. Only 31.8% of hypothyroid and 35.3% of hyperthyroid women had normal menstrual pattern in contrast with 56.3% of Euthyroid and 87.8% of healthy controls (p < 0.001. Reproductive failure (infertility, pregnancy wastage, failure of lactation occurred in 37.5% of hypothyroid and 36.5% of hyperthyroid cases against 16.3% of euthyroid and 16.7% of healthy controls (p < 0.05. Interestingly, in 45% of cases with menstrual abnormality, the anomaly was antecedent to other clinical features by a variable period of two months to ten years. Reproductive failure and lactation failure also preceded thyroid dysfunction or goitre. Reproductive dysfunction may therefore be considered as one of the presenting symptoms of thyroid disorders in women, keeping in mind both menstrual irregularities and lactation failure may also arise from other common or idiopathic origins. Especially in women with menstrual irregularities in the perimenopausal age if thyroid dysfunction is detected, pharmacotherapy may be a superior alternative to surgical interventions like hysterectomy.

  14. Comparison of anthropometrical parameters and dietary habits of young women with and without menstrual disorders.

    Łagowska, Karolina; Kazmierczak, Daria; Szymczak, Katarzyna

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and dietary habits of young women, in order to explore their relationship with the menstrual cycle and to determine the proportion of women with menstrual cycle irregularities. A total of 348 young women aged 15-25 years (19.7 ± 3.7 years) participated in the study and were assigned to a younger group (15-18 years; YG) or an older group (19-25 years; OG). Two subgroups were also distinguished: women with menstrual disorders (MD) and women with regular cycles (RC). Body mass, waist circumference, fat mass (FM), energy and nutrient intakes, and eating behaviour of the subjects were evaluated. In both age groups, women with menstrual cycle disorders were more likely to have higher body weight, higher body mass index, larger waist circumference and higher body FM. The daily diets of these women contained larger quantities of animal protein and fat, including saturated fat (in OG), but were poorer in vitamins B 1 and B 6 (in YG) and in iron. Disinhibition was significantly more common in the MD group. The results of this study suggest that nutritional habits and status can interfere with the course of the menstrual cycle in young women. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  15. A study to evaluate mobility of teeth during menstrual cycle using Periotest

    Poonam Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Over a century, an increased prevalence of gingival disease associated with increasing plasma sex steroid hormone levels has been reported. These situations present unique challenges to the oral health care professional. It is believed that hormonal fluctuations such as those associated with pregnancy, menstruation, and use of hormonal contraceptives lead to an increase in tooth mobility. However, this effect of female sex hormones on periodontal ligament and tooth supporting alveolar bone has rarely been investigated. So this study was undertaken to understand the effect on tooth mobility because of hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle. Materials and Methods: The mobility of index teeth 16, 13, 21, 23, 24, 36, 33, 41, 43, and 44 was measured with Periotest in 50 females at menstruation, ovulation, and premenstruation time points. Simplified oral hygiene index, plaque index, gingival index, and probing depth were also evaluated during the different phases of menstrual cycle for each subject participating in the study. Statistical Analysis: The results of the study were subjected to statistical analysis. Data analysis was done by applying Z test for comparing difference between two sample means. Result: The stages of menstrual cycle had no significant influence on the Periotest value. Despite no significant change in plaque levels, GI was significantly higher during ovulation and premenstruation time points. Conclusion: No change in tooth mobility was seen during the phases of the menstrual cycle. However, an exaggerated gingival response was seen during ovulation and premenstruation time when the entire menstrual cycle was observed.

  16. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of West Bengal, India: A school based comparative study

    Adrija Datta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are often less informed, less experienced, and less comfortable accessing reproductive health information and services than adults. In many developing countries, a culture of silence surrounds the topic of menstruation and related issues; as a result many young girls lack appropriate and sufficient information regarding menstrual hygiene. This may result in incorrect and unhealthy behaviour during their menstrual period. Objectives: To assess and compare knowledge, belief, ideas, source of knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene between school-going adolescents in an urban and a rural school of West Bengal, India. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescent female students of Howrah district of West Bengal, India in the year 2011. Data was collected by pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured self administered questionnaire. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.1 years among urban and 12.2 years among the rural participants. More than 80% participants had some restrictions imposed during menstruation. Significantly higher number of urban girls had pre-menarchal knowledge on menstruation and used sanitary napkins. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. For improvement of menstrual hygiene, sanitary napkins should be made universally available and affordable.

  17. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of West Bengal, India: A school based comparative study

    Adrija Datta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are often less informed, less experienced, and less comfortable accessing reproductive health information and services than adults. In many developing countries, a culture of silence surrounds the topic of menstruation and related issues; as a result many young girls lack appropriate and sufficient information regarding menstrual hygiene. This may result in incorrect and unhealthy behaviour during their menstrual period. Objectives: To assess and compare knowledge, belief, ideas, source of knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene between school-going adolescents in an urban and a rural school of West Bengal, India. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescent female students of Howrah district of West Bengal, India in the year 2011. Data was collected by pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured self administered questionnaire. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.1 years among urban and 12.2 years among the rural participants. More than 80% participants had some restrictions imposed during menstruation. Significantly higher number of urban girls had pre-menarchal knowledge on menstruation and used sanitary napkins. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. For improvement of menstrual hygiene, sanitary napkins should be made universally available and affordable.

  18. Does the phase of menstrual cycle affect MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery of uterine leiomyomas?

    So, Minna J. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Fennessy, Fiona M. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Zou, Kelly H. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); McDannold, Nathan [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hynynen, Kullervo [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Jolesz, Ferenc A. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Stewart, Elizabeth A. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Rybicki, Frank J. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Tempany, Clare M. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: ctempanyafdhal@partners.org

    2006-08-15

    Purpose: To determine whether the phase of menstrual cycle at the time of MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) treatment for uterine leiomyomas affects treatment outcome. Methods: We enrolled all patients participating in a prospective phase III clinical trial from our center who completed 6 months of clinical and imaging follow-up. Patients with irregular cycles and those on oral contraceptives were excluded. Data prospectively documenting the date of the last menstrual period (LMP) at the time of treatment, length and duration of cycle, and raw symptom severity score (SSS) from the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life questionnaire, at baseline and 6 months were collected. Proliferative phase patients were determined retrospectively as those who were treated within less than 14 days from LMP; secretory phase patients were classified as those who were treated greater than 14 days from LMP. Results: A total of 58 patients were enrolled. There was no significant difference in the mean SSS at baseline and mean SSS at 6 months between patients treated in the proliferative versus secretory phase of the cycle. No significant difference in the SSS change from baseline to 6 months was seen between the two groups. Conclusions: Menstrual cycle phase does not influence MRgFUS treatment outcome. Symptomatic improvement occurs with treatment during either phase of the menstrual cycle. Thus, the scheduling of MRgFUS treatment need not be based upon the phase of the menstrual cycle.

  19. Changes in ultrasound shear wave elastography properties of normal breast during menstrual cycle.

    Rzymski, P; Skórzewska, A; Opala, T

    2011-01-01

    Elastography is a novel technique capable of noninvasively assessing the elastic properties of breast tissue. Because the risk factors for breast cancer include hormonal status and proliferation, the aim of our study was to estimate the intensity of sonoelastographic changes during the menstrual cycle. Eight women aged 20-23 years with regular menstrual cycles underwent B-mode sonography and sonoelastography (ShearWave on Aixplorer, France) on days 3, 10, 17 and 24. Mean values of glandular and fat tissue elasticity did not change statistically significantly during the menstrual cycle as well as glandular to fat tissue ratio. During almost the whole cycle differences between outer and inner quadrants in glandular and fat tissue were statistically significant. The lowest values of elasticity occurred on the 10th day and the highest on the 24th of the menstrual cycle. There were statistically significant differences in elasticity between inner and outer quadrants of both breasts close to day 3 and 17 of the menstrual cycle.

  20. Reduced Transforming Growth Factor-β Activity in the Endometrium of Women With Heavy Menstrual Bleeding.

    Maybin, Jacqueline A; Boswell, Lyndsey; Young, Vicky J; Duncan, William C; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2017-04-01

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is common and incapacitating. Aberrant menstrual endometrial repair may result in HMB. The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily contributes to tissue repair, but its role in HMB is unknown. We hypothesized that TGF-β1 is important for endometrial repair, and women with HMB have aberrant TGF-β1 activity at menses. Endometrial biopsies were collected from women, and menstrual blood loss objectively measured [HMB >80 mL/cycle; normal menstrual bleeding (NMB) endometrial TGF-β1 ligand, receptors, and downstream SMADs in women with NMB and HMB. The function and regulation of TGF-β1 were examined using cell culture. TGFB1 mRNA was maximal immediately prior to menses, but no differences detected between women with NMB and HMB at any cycle stage. Histoscoring of TGFB1 revealed reduced staining in the stroma during menses in women with HMB (P endometrial stromal cells (HES; P Endometrial SMAD2 and SMAD3 were lower in women with HMB during menstruation (P scratch assays revealed increased repair in HES cells treated with TGF-β1 versus control (P endometrial stromal cell repair. Decreased TGF-β1 activity may hinder repair of the denuded menstrual endometrium, resulting in HMB. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  1. Hormone profiles and their relation with menstrual cycles in patients undergoing hemodialysis

    Deniz Cemgil Arıkan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the etiology of menstrual disorders among patients undergoing hemodialysis due to chronic renal failure by assessing menstrual history, serum hormone levels, and other biochemical factors. Material and methods: Thirty patients undergoing hemodialysis and 30 healthy women at reproductive age were enrolled in our study. Demographic characteristics, hormonal and biochemical data, and sonographically measured endometrial thickness values of the subjects were compared. In addition, the present and the pre-hemodialysis menstrual pattern of the patients undergoing hemodialysis were recorded. The hormonal, hematological, and biochemical data of the patients were compared according to their menstrual patterns. Results: No statistical significance was seen between age, BMI, gravida, parity, abortion, and curettage among groups (p>0.05. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were significantly lower in the hemodialysis group than in the control (p0.05. Mean serum LH and prolactin levels were significantly higher in the hemodialysis group compared to the control (p0.05. Serum LH and prolactin levels were higher, and serum FSH, estradiol and TSH levels were lower in patients who developed amenorrhea after hemodialysis treatment when compared to non-amenorrheic subjects. However, these differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05. Discussion: The most important factor in the etiology of menstrual disorders seen in chronic renal failure patients was high serum LH and prolactin levels. Hemodialysis is a successful treatment that extends life expectancy and ameliorates the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis in chronic renal failure patients.

  2. The Burden of Illness Related to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations in Québec, Canada

    Tam Dang-Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD prevalence in Canada has risen over time. COPD-related exacerbations contribute to the increased health care utilization (HCU in this population. This study investigated the impact of exacerbations on COPD-related HCU. Methods. This retrospective observational cohort study used patient data from the Québec provincial health insurance databases. Eligible patients with a new HCU claim with a diagnostic billing for COPD during 2001–2010 were followed until March 31, 2011. Exacerbation rates and time to first exacerbation were assessed. Unadjusted analyses and multivariable models compared the rate of HCU by exacerbation classification (any [moderate/severe], moderate, or severe. Results. The exacerbation event rate in patients with an exacerbation was 34.3 events/100 patient-years (22.7 for moderate exacerbations and 11.6 for severe exacerbations. Median time to first exacerbation of any classification was 37 months. In unadjusted analyses, COPD-related HCU significantly increased with exacerbation severity. In the multivariable, HCU rates were significantly higher after exacerbation versus before exacerbation (p<0.01 for patients with an exacerbation or moderate exacerbations. For severe exacerbations, general practitioner, respiratory specialist, emergency room, and hospital visits were significantly higher after exacerbation versus before exacerbation (p<0.001. Conclusions. Exacerbations were associated with increased HCU, which was more pronounced for patients with severe exacerbations. Interventions to reduce the risk of exacerbations in patients with COPD may reduce disease burden.

  3. Mastalgia cíclica pré-menstrual: placebo versus outras drogas Pre-menstrual cyclic mastalgia

    Laurival A. De Luca

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Os autores definem mastalgia cíclica pré-menstrual, (MCPM, repassam os principais mecanismos do ciclo celular da mama, e com base nestes conhecimentos propõem a sua classificação em três tipos, segundo a fisiologia do ciclo mamário: tipo 1 - caracterizado pela distensão localizada de ductos e adensamento do tecido conjuntivo em volta de pequenas dilatações. tipo II - caracterizado pelo edema intersticial, e tipo III - caracterizado pela combinação dos dois processos etiopatogênicos. OBJETIVO: Por meio de estudo prospectivo, aleatório, triplo cego e controlado, comparar a ação de placebo com associação de vitaminas A-D-E e doses baixas de ácido acetilsalicílico. MÉTODOS: Foram observadas 259 portadoras de MCPM, acompanhadas durante seis meses para estudo comparativo das drogas empregadas no alívio da dor. Destas, foram selecionadas 81 pacientes por critérios rigorosos, divididas em três grupos de 27, que receberam, respectivamente, aspirina, associação de vitaminas e placebo. A dor foi classificada em grau I (sem dor, grau II (dor moderada e grau III (dor intensa. Os métodos estatísticos realizados mostraram que o número de pacientes em cada grupo era satisfatório. Foi empregado o teste de Tukey para comparação dos resultados e significância a 5%. RESULTADOS: As características clínicas, idade, peso, altura e IMC, antecedentes obstétricos e duração da amamentação foram semelhantes nos três grupos. Houve redução de intensidade da dor nos três grupos, principalmente naquele que recebeu placebo. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo realizado, segundo metodologia aceitável, porque foi prospectivo, controlado, triplo cego e aleatório, não mostrou diferenças significativas no tratamento da mastalgia cíclica pré-menstrual entre aspirina e associação de vitaminas, mas revelou superioridade do placebo.OBJECTIVES: To compare therapeutic effects of placebo with intake of low doses of acetyl-salysilic acid (aspirin and a

  4. [Vitex Agnus Castus in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia and menstrual disorders - a case report].

    Męczekalski, Błażej; Czyżyk, Adam

    2015-07-01

    We describe a patient with mild hyperprolactinemia and menstrual disorders (oligomenorrhea). She presented relative hypoestrogenism in laboratory tests. Magnetic resonans excluded the presence of pituitary adenoma. Because patient developed a bromocriptine intolerance, the Vitex Agnus Castus (VAC) extract has been introduced. The VAC therapy was effective, with symptoms relief and improvement of hormonal tests. The VAC medicines are indicated for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), mastalgia, menstrual disorders and mild hyperprolactinemia. The mechanism of action is not fully understood, but it is related to dopaniergic activity of diterpenes and castacin in VAC. The randomized clinical trials revealed efficacy of VAC extract in the treatmet of hyperprolactinemia, menstrual disorders, PMS and mastalgia. Good tolerability, lack of serious side-effects and drug interactions are the advantages of the VAC preparations. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  5. Relationship of premenstrual and menstrual symptoms to alexithymia among nursing students.

    Öksüz, Emine; Guvenc, Gulten

    2018-03-23

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship of premenstrual and menstrual symptoms to alexithymia among nursing students. This descriptive study was conducted with 284 undergraduate nursing students. Data were collected using Premenstrual Syndrome Scale (PMSS), Menstrual Symptom Scale (MSQ), and Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20). The PMSS, MSQ, and TAS-20 mean scores were 103.56 ± 35.08, 2.92 ± 0.8, and 45.22 ± 9.17, respectively. There was statistically significant positive correlation between TAS-20 and PMSS and MSQ mean scores (p < .05). Women should be evaluated for alexithymia to prevent the adverse effects of premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on heavy menstrual bleeding: a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.

    Kashefi, Farzaneh; Khajehei, Marjan; Alavinia, Mohammad; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Asili, Javad

    2015-01-01

    A wide range of herbal plants have been reported to treat various gynecological problems of women. This study was set out to investigate the effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in high school girls. Ninety-two young women who experienced HMB and met the inclusion criteria were recruited in this study. Participants were evaluated for six consecutive menstrual cycles. During 3 assessment cycles, their HMB was confirmed by Pictorial Blood Assessment Chart. They were then randomly allocated to two study groups to receive either ginger or placebo capsules. The participants filled in the same chart during three intervention cycles. The level of menstrual blood loss dramatically declined during the three intervention cycles in ginger-receiving group. The decrease of blood loss in ginger-receiving group was significantly more remarkable than that of participants receiving placebo (pginger may be considered as an effective therapeutic option for HMB. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The effect of tranexamic acid on the quality of life of women with heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Winkler, U H

    2001-12-01

    To investigate whether medical treatment with tranexamic acid would increase the quality of life of women with heavy menstrual bleeding. This open, uncontrolled usage study included 849 women diagnosed with heavy menstrual bleeding and considered eligible for tranexamic-acid treatment. The condition of the women was investigated at baseline and after the first and the third treated menstruation. Quality of life and subjectively experienced state of health were assessed with the aid of a questionnaire. Satisfaction with the treatment was registered. After the third menstruation, 80% of the women were satisfied with the treatment. Impairment of social activities and impairment at work were greatly reduced by the treatment. Substantial improvements were also recorded with regard to alertness, productivity, cleanliness, spirits, action radius and overall well-being. Adverse reactions to the drug used for the treatment were few and non-serious. Medical treatment with tranexamic acid increases quality of life for women with heavy menstrual bleeding.

  8. Prevalence of psychological and physical symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome in female students

    Awanish Kumar Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-menstrual syndrome is a group of physical and psychological symptoms that appears before the menstrual bleeding. The study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome among female students of technical institution in Gorakhpur. Two hundred students aged between 15 to 30 years participated in the study and revealed that all the participants of study experienced at least 1 symptom of PMS. The most common physical symptom was joint\\muscle pain (77.5%. Lethargy (83% was reported as most common psychological symptom in the study. The study concluded that prevalence of PMS is 100%, and most of the participants (42.5% have more than 5 symptoms of PMS.

  9. [Menstrual prostaglandin and dysmenorrhea: modulation by non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs].

    Di Girolamo, G; Gimeno, M A; Faletti, A; de los Santos, A R; Martí, M L; Zmijanovich, R

    1999-01-01

    The analgesic efficacy and tolerance of lysine clonixinate (LC) as well as LC-induced changes in menstrual prostaglandin levels were studied according to a prospective double-blind randomized crossover design, controlled with ibuprofen (I) and placebo (P). Treatment consisted in 4 consecutive phases: in the first phase, patients refrained from taking medication and during the remaining three phases, they received double-blind fixed doses of 1 tablet of lysine clonixinate 125 mg, I 400 mg or P, q.6 h. at random, three days before onset of menses and during 8 days thereafter. Controls were carried out at each menstrual cycle, assessing pain according to a scale from 0 to 4, onset of premenstrual and intramenstrual symptoms, relief of pain and occurrence of side-effects. During menstruation, patients recorded their assessments of pain in a diary and collected the whole menstrual bleeding during the first three days. The intensity of menstrual pain remained unchanged in controls upon admission (3.16) and during the phase with no treatment (3.04), but was significantly reduced with P (2.4), LC (1.79) and I (1.54). Significantly lower pain intensities compared with placebo were seen with active treatment phases. Forty-two percent of patients treated with P reported premenstrual pain which was significantly reduced to 17% with LC and to 12.5% with I. Active treatment phases revealed 21% of asymptomatic patients during premenstrual and menstrual periods and 71% (LC) and 75% (I) of cases with partial relief of pain. Patients' diaries showed significant pain reductions with LC and I, during the 1st and 2nd days compared with P; such differences were gradually reduced to nil by the 4th day. Levels of menstrual PGs changed according to pain intensity reductions from baseline (P: 29%, (NS); LC: 58% and I: 61%; both were statistically significant, p < 0.01).

  10. Big Data and Dysmenorrhea: What Questions Do Women and Men Ask About Menstrual Pain?

    Chen, Chen X; Groves, Doyle; Miller, Wendy R; Carpenter, Janet S

    2018-04-30

    Menstrual pain is highly prevalent among women of reproductive age. As the general public increasingly obtains health information online, Big Data from online platforms provide novel sources to understand the public's perspectives and information needs about menstrual pain. The study's purpose was to describe salient queries about dysmenorrhea using Big Data from a question and answer platform. We performed text-mining of 1.9 billion queries from ChaCha, a United States-based question and answer platform. Dysmenorrhea-related queries were identified by using keyword searching. Each relevant query was split into token words (i.e., meaningful words or phrases) and stop words (i.e., not meaningful functional words). Word Adjacency Graph (WAG) modeling was used to detect clusters of queries and visualize the range of dysmenorrhea-related topics. We constructed two WAG models respectively from queries by women of reproductive age and bymen. Salient themes were identified through inspecting clusters of WAG models. We identified two subsets of queries: Subset 1 contained 507,327 queries from women aged 13-50 years. Subset 2 contained 113,888 queries from men aged 13 or above. WAG modeling revealed topic clusters for each subset. Between female and male subsets, topic clusters overlapped on dysmenorrhea symptoms and management. Among female queries, there were distinctive topics on approaching menstrual pain at school and menstrual pain-related conditions; while among male queries, there was a distinctive cluster of queries on menstrual pain from male's perspectives. Big Data mining of the ChaCha ® question and answer service revealed a series of information needs among women and men on menstrual pain. Findings may be useful in structuring the content and informing the delivery platform for educational interventions.

  11. Menstrual Cycle and the Prevalence of Premenstrual Syndrome/Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder in Adolescent Athletes.

    Czajkowska, Mariola; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Gałązka, Iwona; Naworska, Beata; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the menstrual cycle, menstrual disorders and premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMS/PMDD) in girls and young women participating in competitive sports. The impact of PMS/PMDD symptoms on the quality of life was also analyzed. The prospective study encompassed 125 girls and young women with the aim to determine the presence of menstrual disorders and the prevalence of PMS/PMDD. The studied group was composed of 75 female athletes aged 16 to 22 years. The control group included 50 healthy girls and young women who did not practice competitive sports. The studied athletes and the controls prospectively evaluated their 2 consecutive menstrual cycles by using a questionnaire. The research tools were a purpose-built questionnaire, a daily log of PMS symptoms according to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' guidelines, and a daily log of PMDD symptoms based on the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnostic criteria. To determine the impact of competitive sports on the menstrual cycle, menstrual disorders, and the prevalence of PMS/PMDD in girls and young women. Intensive physical exercise delayed menarche. PMDD was diagnosed in 8% and PMS in 42.4% of all respondents. The prevalence of PMDD did not differ significantly between the groups (9.33% versus 6.00%). PMS was significantly more frequent among athletes than among controls (49.33% versus 32%, P = .045). The prevalence of PMS correlated significantly with mean age (P = .00001) and age at menarche (P = .03) in athletes. PMS was more frequent in older athletes and in girls with older age at menarche. Competitive sports, older mean age, older age at menarche, length of sporting career, and intensity of training are conducive to PMS. The prevalence of PMS increases with the duration and intensification of competitive exercises. Copyright © 2015 North American Society

  12. Influence of menstrual cycle phase on pulmonary function in asthmatic athletes.

    Stanford, Kristin I; Mickleborough, Timothy D; Ray, Shahla; Lindley, Martin R; Koceja, David M; Stager, Joel M

    2006-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between menstrual cycle phase and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in female athletes with mild atopic asthma. Seven eumenorrheic subjects with regular 28-day menstrual cycles were exercised to volitional exhaustion on day 5 [mid-follicular (FOL)] and day 21 [mid-luteal (LUT)] of their menstrual cycle. Pulmonary function tests were conducted pre- and post-exercise. The maximal percentage decline in post-exercise forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and forced expiratory flow from 25 to 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF(25-75%)) was significantly greater (Pphase) (-17.35+/-2.32 and -26.28+/-6.04%, respectively), when salivary progesterone concentration was highest, compared to day 5 (mid-FOL phase) (-12.81+/-3.35 and -17.23+/-8.20%, respectively), when salivary progesterone concentration was lowest. The deterioration in the severity of EIB during the mid-LUT phase was accompanied by worsening asthma symptoms and increased bronchodilator use. There was a negative correlation between the percent change in pre- to post-exercise FEV(1) and salivary progesterone concentration. However, no such correlation was found between salivary estradiol and the percentage change in pre- to post-exercise FEV(1). This study has shown for the first time that menstrual cycle phase is an important determinant of the severity of EIB in female athletes with mild atopic asthma. Female asthmatic athletes may need to adjust their training and competition schedules to their menstrual cycle and to consider the potential negative effects of the LUT phase of the menstrual cycle on exercise performance.

  13. Menstrual Characteristics and Related Problems in 9-18 Year- Old Turkish School Girls.

    Yücel, Gül; Kendirci, Mustafa; Gül, Ülkü

    2018-03-14

    To determine the cross-sectional characteristics of menstruating girls, dysmenorrhea and the frequencies of related problems. Descripitive, cross-sectional study. Randomly selected primary, junior and high schools in the city center of Kayseri. 2000 female adolescents of ages between 9 and 18 years. We used a questionnaire addressing the epidemiological characteristics of menstruation, such as age at menarche, duration of menstrual intervals, average days of bleeding, and any menstrual problems and their frequencies. This study consists of a sufficient number of participants from all age groups. Of the participant (n= 2000) girls, 63.7% (n: 1274) had started menstruating. The mean age at menarche was 12.74 ± 1.03 years. With a prevalence of 84.8% (n: 1080), dysmenorrhea was the most prevalent menstrual problem and the average pain score was 5.87 ± 2.45. Of the menstruating girls, 34% (n: 439) used painkillers, the most commonly used was acetaminophen; during their period the prevalence of non-medical methods to relieve pain was % 35.2; the rate of seeking medical help for dysmenorrhea was 9.3 % (n: 119). In menstruating participants, 90.8 % was discussed their menstrual problems with their mothers. The rate of school absenteeism in menstruating girls was 15.9 % in general and 18 % in those with dysmenorrhea. Problems related to menstruation are common in adolescents and these problems affect their social life. In adolescent girls, the most common menstrual problem is dysmenorrhea and it affects school performance and attendance. Girls with menstrual problems showed a low rate of seeking medical help. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Enhanced response to ozone exposure during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

    Fox, S.D.; Adams, W.C.; Brookes, K.A.; Lasley, B.L. (Univ. of Calfornia, Davis (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Exposure to ozone (O[sub 3]), a toxic component of photochemical smog, results in significant airway inflammation, respiratory discomfort, and pulmonary function impairment. These effects can be reduced via pretreatment with anti-inflammatory agents. Progesterone, a gonadal steroid, is known to reduce general inflammation in the uterine endometrium. However, it is not known whether fluctuation in blood levels of progesterone, which are experienced during the normal female menstrual cycle, could alter O[sub 3] inflammatory-induced pulmonary responses. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that young, adult females are more responsive to O[sub 3] inhalation with respect to pulmonary function impairment during their follicular (F) menstrual phase when progesterone levels are lowest that during their mid-luteal (ML) phase when progesterone levels are highest. Nine subjects with normal ovarian function were exposed in random order for 1 hour each to filtered air and to 0.30 ppm O[sub 3] in their F and ML menstrual phases. Ozone responsiveness was measured by percent change in pulmonary function from pre- to postexposure. Significant gas concentration effects (filtered air versus O[sub 3]) were observed for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV[sub 1]), and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF[sub 25-75]), showed a significant menstrual phase and gas concentration interaction effect, with larger decrements observed in the F menstrual phase when progesterone concentrations were significantly lower. We conclude that young, adult females appear to be more responsive to acute O[sub 3] exposure during the F phase than during the ML phase of their menstrual cycles. This difference in pulmonary function response could be related to the anti-inflammatory effects of increased progesterone concentrations during the luteal phase.

  15. Thyroid hormones and menstrual cycle function in a longitudinal cohort of premenopausal women.

    Jacobson, Melanie H; Howards, Penelope P; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Meadows, Juliana W; Kesner, James S; Spencer, Jessica B; Terrell, Metrecia L; Marcus, Michele

    2018-03-08

    Previous studies have reported that hyperthyroid and hypothyroid women experience menstrual irregularities more often compared with euthyroid women, but reasons for this are not well-understood and studies on thyroid hormones among euthyroid women are lacking. In a prospective cohort study of euthyroid women, this study characterised the relationship between thyroid hormone concentrations and prospectively collected menstrual function outcomes. Between 2004-2014, 86 euthyroid premenopausal women not lactating or taking hormonal medications participated in a study measuring menstrual function. Serum thyroid hormones were measured before the menstrual function study began. Women then collected first morning urine voids and completed daily bleeding diaries every day for three cycles. Urinary oestrogen and progesterone metabolites (estrone 3-glucuronide (E 1 3G) and pregnanediol 3-glucuronide (Pd3G)) and follicle-stimulating hormone were measured and adjusted for creatinine (Cr). Total thyroxine (T 4 ) concentrations were positively associated with Pd3G and E 1 3G. Women with higher (vs lower) T 4 had greater luteal phase maximum Pd3G (Pd3G = 11.7 μg/mg Cr for women with high T 4 vs Pd3G = 9.5 and 8.1 μg/mg Cr for women with medium and low T 4 , respectively) and greater follicular phase maximum E 1 3G (E 1 3G = 41.7 ng/mg Cr for women with high T 4 vs E 1 3G = 34.3 and 33.7 ng/mg Cr for women with medium and low T 4 , respectively). Circulating thyroid hormone concentrations were associated with subtle differences in menstrual cycle function outcomes, particularly sex steroid hormone levels in healthy women. Results contribute to the understanding of the relationship between thyroid function and the menstrual cycle, and may have implications for fertility and chronic disease. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Sexual harassment and menstrual disorders among Italian university women: A cross-sectional observational study.

    Romito, P; Cedolin, C; Bastiani, F; Beltramini, L; Saurel-Cubizolles, M J

    2017-07-01

    Menstrual disorders and sexual harassment are common among young women and interfere with their life and activities. We aimed to describe the association of sexual harassment and menstrual disorders among female university students. This cross-sectional, observational study examined the association between sexual harassment and menstrual disorders in a sample of 349 university students in Italy. Students answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive bivariate analyses and logistic regression analyses were performed. Main outcome measures were associations between levels of exposure to sexual harassment (none, levels 1 and 2) and five menstrual disorders (premenstrual symptoms, heavy bleeding, pain, irregular cycles, and amenorrhea). Among the women interviewed (mean age 20.4 ± 1.45 years), 146 (41.8%) had experienced sexual harassment in the previous 12 months: 91 (26.1%) level 1 and 55 (15.7%) level 2. The frequency of premenstrual symptoms was 31.9% ( n=110); heavy bleeding, 35.3% ( n=124); pain, 51.4% ( n=181); irregular cycles, 55.5% ( n=195); and amenorrhea, 6.7% ( n=23). After adjustment for age, place of birth, being in a couple relationship and receiving hormone therapy, the frequency of menstrual disorders, except for amenorrhea, was increased with sexual harassment, with a regular gradient from no harassment to level 2 harassment. Introducing factors of depression, specific gynaecological problems and lifetime sexual violence did not change the results. For instance, the adjusted odds ratios of premenstrual symptoms were 2.10 [1.19-3.68] for women with level 1 harassment and 3.58 [1.83-7.03] for women with level 2 compared with women without harassment exposure. Sexual harassment is related to the prevalence of menstrual disorders. Healthcare providers should encourage dialogue with patients and address the issue of sexual violence or harassment.

  17. Assessment of serum HE4 levels throughout the normal menstrual cycle.

    Moore, Richard G; Plante, Beth; Hartnett, Erin; Mitchel, Jessica; Raker, Christine A; Vitek, Wendy; Eklund, Elizabeth; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn

    2017-07-01

    Human epididymis protein 4 is a serum biomarker to aid in differentiating benign and malignant disease in women with a pelvic mass. Interpretation of human epididymis protein 4 results relies on robust normative data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether human epididymis protein 4 levels are variable in women during the normal menstrual cycle. Healthy women, 18-45 years old, with regular menstrual cycles were recruited from community gynecologic practices in Rhode Island. Women consented to enroll and to participate by the donation of blood and urine samples at 5 specific times over the course of each cycle. Levels of reproductive hormones and human epididymis protein 4 were determined. Data were analyzed with the use of linear regression after log transformation. Among 74 enrolled cycles, 53 women had confirmed ovulation during the menstrual cycle and completed all 5 sample collections. Levels of estradiol, progesterone, and luteinizing hormone displayed the expected menstrual cycle patterns. Levels of human epididymis protein 4 in serum were relatively stable across the menstrual cycle, except for a small ovulatory (median, 37.0 pM) increase. Levels of human epididymis protein 4 in urine, after correction for creatinine, displayed the same pattern of secretion observed in serum. Serum human epididymis protein 4 levels are relatively stable across the menstrual cycle of reproductive-aged women and can be determined on any day to evaluate risk of ovarian malignancy. A slight increase is expected at ovulation; but even with this higher human epididymis protein 4 level, results are well within the healthy reference range for women (<120 pM). Levels of human epididymis protein 4 in urine warrant further investigation for use in clinical practice as a simple and convenient sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of weight loss on menstrual function in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Ornstein, Rollyn M; Copperman, Nancy M; Jacobson, Marc S

    2011-06-01

    To compare the effects of a hypocaloric low-fat diet with those of a very low carbohydrate diet on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and menstrual function in overweight adolescent females with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Randomized pilot trial of two diets in a prospective, 12-week study. A hospital-based, academic adolescent medicine division. 24 females, age 12-22 years (mean 15.8 ± 2.2), with PCOS and a BMI above the 85(th) percentile for age (mean 35.7 ± 6.0 kg/m(2)). Nutrition counseling was given biweekly, and dietary compliance, menstrual history, and weight were recorded. WC was measured at the beginning and end of the study. Changes in weight, BMI, WC, and improvement in menstrual function over the course of the study period. 16 participants completed the study. 12 completers menstruated during the study period, 8 with regularity. The number of periods over 3 months increased from 0.6 ± 0.6 pre-treatment to 1.6 ± 1.3 post-treatment (P = 0.003). Overall, weight loss averaged 6.5% (P weight were 3.4 times more likely to have improved menstrual function (P = 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Weight loss is feasible in adolescents with PCOS and results in significant improvements in BMI, WC, and menstrual function. Weight management may be preferable as first-line treatment in adolescents, because it targets both the menstrual dysfunction and risk factors for long-term morbidity associated with PCOS. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between different phases of menstrual cycle and body image measures of perceived size, ideal size, and body dissatisfaction.

    Teixeira, André Luiz S; Dias, Marcelo Ricardo C; Damasceno, Vinícius O; Lamounier, Joel A; Gardner, Rick M

    2013-12-01

    The association between phases of the menstrual cycle and body image was investigated. 44 university women (M age = 23.3 yr., SD = 4.7) judged their perceived and ideal body size, and body dissatisfaction was calculated at each phase of the menstrual cycle, including premenstrual, menstrual, and intermenstrual. Participants selected one of nine figural drawings ranging from very thin to obese that represented their perceived size and ideal size. Body dissatisfaction was measured as the absolute difference between scores on perceived and ideal figural drawings. During each menstrual phase, anthropometric measures of weight, height, body mass index, circumference of waist and abdomen, and body composition were taken. There were no significant differences in any anthropometric measures between the three menstrual cycle phases. Perceived body size and body dissatisfaction were significantly different between menstrual phases, with the largest perceived body size and highest body dissatisfaction occurring during the menstrual phase. Ideal body size did not differ between menstrual phases, although participants desired a significantly smaller ideal size as compared to the perceived size.

  20. The impact of gastric bypass surgery on sex hormones and menstrual cycles in premenopausal women

    Kjær, Mette Mandrup; Madsbad, Sten; Hougaard, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity has adverse effects on ovulation, menstrual cyclicity and oocyte development leading to clinical symptoms such as infertility and menstrual disorders. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) leads to weight loss, improved insulin sensitivity and may improve ovarian function. In 31 premenopausal...... women, 18 eu- and 13 oligo-/amenorrhoic, we followed the changes in follicular phase sex hormones 3, 6 and 12 month after RYGB. The average weight loss during the first postoperative year was 39.6 kg. The insulin sensitivity and serum insulin improved markedly especially within the first three...

  1. Menstrual hygiene management among women and adolescent girls in the aftermath of the earthquake in Nepal.

    Budhathoki, Shyam Sundar; Bhattachan, Meika; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Sagtani, Reshu Agrawal; Rayamajhi, Rajan Bikram; Rai, Pramila; Sharma, Gaurav

    2018-02-02

    Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) is an essential aspect of hygiene for women and adolescent girls between menarche and menopause. Despite being an important issue concerning women and girls in the menstruating age group MHM is often overlooked in post-disaster responses. Further, there is limited evidence of menstrual hygiene management in humanitarian settings. This study aims to describe the experiences and perceptions of women and adolescent girls on menstrual hygiene management in post-earthquake Nepal. A mixed methods study was carried out among the earthquake affected women and adolescent girls in three villages of Sindhupalchowk district of Nepal. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire that captured experiences and perceptions of respondents on menstrual hygiene management in the aftermath of the Nepal earthquake. Quantitative data were triangulated with in-depth interview regarding respondent's personal experiences of menstrual hygiene management. Menstrual hygiene was rated as the sixth highest overall need and perceived as an immediate need by 18.8% of the respondents. There were 42.8% women & girls who menstruated within first week of the earthquake. Reusable sanitary cloth were used by about 66.7% of the respondents before the earthquake and remained a popular method (76.1%) post-earthquake. None of the respondents reported receiving menstrual adsorbents as relief materials in the first month following the earthquake. Disposable pads (77.8%) were preferred by respondents as they were perceived to be clean and convenient to use. Most respondents (73.5%) felt that reusable sanitary pads were a sustainable choice. Women who were in the age group of 15-34 years (OR = 3.14; CI = (1.07-9.20), did not go to school (OR = 9.68; CI = 2.16-43.33), married (OR = 2.99; CI = 1.22-7.31) and previously used reusable sanitary cloth (OR = 5.82; CI = 2.33-14.55) were more likely to use the reusable sanitary cloth. In

  2. Levels of immunoreactive inhibin-like material in urine during the menstrual cycle

    Dandekar, S.P.; Vanage, G.R.; Arbatti, N.J.; Sheth, A.R. (Institute for Research in Reproduction, Parel, Bombay (India))

    1983-12-01

    Using a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay, the authors determined levels of inhibin-like material in the urine of eight healthy women with normal menstrual cycle length of 28 +- 4 days. The results revealed a cyclic variation in urinary immunoreactive inhibin levels during the menstrual cycles, with a sharp rise in levels three to four days prior to luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) peaks. These levels of immunoreactive inhibin may thus serve as a parameter to detect impending LH surge. 23 refs.

  3. Cytogenetic studies in femalie X-ray assistants with menstrual disturbances

    Marinova, G.; Dimcheva, M.; Kincheva, V.

    1976-01-01

    Cytogenetic analyses were performed in thirty, otherwise genitally and extragenitally unaffected, female X-ray assistants with menstrual disturbances (oligomenorrhea, secondary amenorrhea, irregular bleedings, hypermenorrhea) developing in the course of occupational experience under intermittent, chronic, low-level exposure conditions, the dose accumulated remaining below the maximum permissible dose. Seventeen of these subjects showed changes in chromosome constitution, namely: aneuploidy, up to 34,2%; breaks, 2 - 14,3%; gaps, 5,6 - 16,7;; and dicentrics, in one case, 2,8%. Increase in occupational experience was found to be associated with increase in percentage of menstrual disturbances and in chromosome aberrations. (author)

  4. Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis triggered by Aspergillus empyema

    Atsushi Suzuki

    Full Text Available Acute exacerbation (AE is a severe and life-threatening complication of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. In 2016, the definition and diagnostic criteria for AE-IPF were updated by an international working group. The new definition includes any acute, clinically significant respiratory deterioration (both idiopathic and triggered events characterized by evidence of new widespread alveolar abnormality in patients with IPF. There are no currently proven beneficial management strategies for idiopathic and triggered AE-IPF. This is the first report describing AE-IPF triggered by Aspergillus empyema, which was improved by a combination of corticosteroid, systemic antifungal therapy, local antifungal therapy, and additional pharmacological therapies. Future research may reveal optimal strategies for both idiopathic and triggered AE-IPF. Keywords: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Acute exacerbation, AE-IPF, Triggered AE, Aspergillus infection

  5. Study design considerations in a large COPD trial comparing effects of tiotropium with salmeterol on exacerbations

    K-M. Beeh (Kai-Michael); B. Hederer (Bettina); T. Glaab (Thomas); A. Müller (Achim); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen); S. Kesten (Steven); C. Vogelmeier (Claus)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Currently available long-acting inhaled bronchodilators (tiotropium, salmeterol, formoterol) have demonstrated beneficial effects on exacerbations in placebo-controlled trials. However, there have been no direct comparisons of these drugs with exacerbations as the primary

  6. Serum Reactive Oxygen Metabolite Levels Predict Severe Exacerbations of Asthma

    Nakamoto, Keitaro; Watanabe, Masato; Sada, Mitsuru; Inui, Toshiya; Nakamura, Masuo; Honda, Kojiro; Wada, Hiroo; Mikami, Yu; Matsuzaki, Hirotaka; Horie, Masafumi; Noguchi, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Koyama, Hikari; Kogane, Toshiyuki; Kohyama, Tadashi; Takizawa, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Bronchial asthma (BA) is a chronic airway disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, which are intimately linked to chronic airway inflammation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide are generated by inflammatory cells that are involved in the pathogenesis of BA. However, the role of ROS in the management of BA patients is not yet clear. We attempted to determine the role of ROS as a biomarker in the clinical setting of BA. Subjects and Methods We enrolled patients with BA from 2013 through 2015 and studied the degrees of asthma control, anti-asthma treatment, pulmonary function test results, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), serum reactive oxygen metabolite (ROM) levels, and serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Results We recruited 110 patients with BA. Serum ROM levels correlated with white blood cell (WBC) count (rs = 0.273, p = 0.004), neutrophil count (rs = 0.235, p = 0.014), CRP (rs = 0.403, p < 0.001), and IL-6 (rs = 0.339, p < 0.001). Serum ROM levels and IL-8 and CRP levels negatively correlated with %FEV1 (rs = -0.240, p = 0.012, rs = -0.362, p < 0.001, rs = -0.197, p = 0.039, respectively). Serum ROM levels were significantly higher in patients who experienced severe exacerbation within 3 months than in patients who did not (339 [302–381] vs. 376 [352–414] CARR U, p < 0.025). Receiver-operating characteristics analysis showed that ROM levels correlated significantly with the occurrence of severe exacerbation (area under the curve: 0.699, 95% CI: 0.597–0.801, p = 0.025). Conclusions Serum levels of ROM were significantly associated with the degrees of airway obstruction, WBC counts, neutrophil counts, IL-6, and severe exacerbations. This biomarker may be useful in predicting severe exacerbations of BA. PMID:27776186

  7. [Local immune and oxidative status in exacerbated chronic apical periodontitis].

    Konoplya, A I; Goldobin, D D; Loktionov, A L

    The aim of the study was to define local immune and oxidative changes in patients with exacerbated chronic apical periodontitis. These changes were assessed in saliva of 67 patients with the mean age of 31±2.5 before and after treatment. The study revealed disturbances in cytokines and complement system balance and activation of lipids peroxidation. Combination of Gepon or Vobenzim with Essentiale forte H and Kaskatol proved to be the most effective for correction of this imbalance.

  8. Changes in skin blood flow during the menstrual cycle: the influence of the menstrual cycle on the peripheral circulation in healthy female volunteers.

    Bartelink, M L; Wollersheim, H; Theeuwes, A; van Duren, D; Thien, T

    1990-05-01

    1. It is known that females have a lower skin perfusion than males. In women there are also differences in blood flow at different reproductive stages of their lives. As an initial investigation of the possible contribution of sex hormones to these differences, we studied skin and forearm blood flow during the natural changes in hormone levels which occur during the menstrual cycle. 2. Thirty-one healthy female volunteers were studied. The effect of a standardized finger cooling test (immersion of a gloved hand in a 16 degrees C water bath) on finger skin temperature and on laser Doppler flux in the finger, and forearm blood flow (strain gauge venous occlusion plethysmography) was assessed at four different times during one cycle: during menstruation, 1 day before ovulation, 2 days after ovulation and at the mid-luteal phase. Test days were determined by daily measurements of basal body temperature and were confirmed afterwards by determinations of serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, 17 beta-oestradiol and progesterone. 3. Peripheral skin circulation varied significantly within one menstrual cycle. The extremes were a mean finger skin temperature of 25.9 +/- 3.0 degrees C in the luteal phase compared with 28.4 +/- 3.7 degrees C in the pre-ovulatory phase (P = 0.002). The respective values for the mean laser Doppler flux were 18.4 +/- 10.9 compared with 29.2 +/- 16.4 arbitrary units (P = 0.003). 4. Baseline forearm muscle blood flow also varied significantly (P = 0.04) within one menstrual cycle, with low values in the menstrual phase compared with the other phases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. T cells exacerbate Lyme borreliosis in TLR2-deficient mice

    Carrie E. Lasky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Infection of humans with the spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, causes Lyme borreliosis and can lead to clinical manifestations such as, arthritis, carditis and neurological conditions. Experimental infection of mice recapitulates many of these symptoms and serves as a model system for the investigation of disease pathogenesis and immunity. Innate immunity is known to drive the development of Lyme arthritis and carditis, but the mechanisms driving this response remain unclear. Innate immune cells recognize B. burgdorferi surface lipoproteins primarily via Toll-like receptor (TLR2; however, previous work has demonstrated TLR2-/- mice had exacerbated disease and increased bacterial burden. We demonstrate increased CD4 and CD8 T cell infiltrates in B. burgdorferi-infected joints and hearts of C3H TLR2-/- mice. In vivo depletion of either CD4 or CD8 T cells reduced Borrelia-induced joint swelling and lowered tissue spirochete burden, while depletion of CD8 T cells alone reduced disease severity scores. Exacerbation of Lyme arthritis correlated with increased production of CXCL9 by synoviocytes and this was reduced with CD8 T cell depletion. These results demonstrate T cells can exacerbate Lyme disease pathogenesis and prolong disease resolution possibly through dysregulation of inflammatory responses and inhibition of bacterial clearance.

  10. High salt intake does not exacerbate murine autoimmune thyroiditis

    Kolypetri, P; Randell, E; Van Vliet, B N; Carayanniotis, G

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that high salt (HS) intake exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and have raised the possibility that a HS diet may comprise a risk factor for autoimmune diseases in general. In this report, we have examined whether a HS diet regimen could exacerbate murine autoimmune thyroiditis, including spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis (SAT) in non-obese diabetic (NOD.H2h4) mice, experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in C57BL/6J mice challenged with thyroglobulin (Tg) and EAT in CBA/J mice challenged with the Tg peptide (2549–2560). The physiological impact of HS intake was confirmed by enhanced water consumption and suppressed aldosterone levels in all strains. However, the HS treatment failed to significantly affect the incidence and severity of SAT or EAT or Tg-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels, relative to control mice maintained on a normal salt diet. In three experimental models, these data demonstrate that HS intake does not exacerbate autoimmune thyroiditis, indicating that a HS diet is not a risk factor for all autoimmune diseases. PMID:24528002

  11. Serum eosinophil cationic protein levels can be useful for predicting acute exacerbation of asthma

    Mitsuhiro Kamimura

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a case in which five consecutive exacerbations of asthma were monitored by following serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP levels. The serum ECP level correlated well with each exacerbation and tended to increase even before the exacerbations of asthma became apparent. This case shows that serum levels of ECP can be useful markers of disease activity and may also be predictive markers for acute exacerbation.

  12. Predictors of frequent exacerbations in (ex)smoking and never smoking adults with severe asthma

    Westerhof, Guus A.; de Groot, Jantina C.; Amelink, Marijke; de Nijs, Selma B.; ten Brinke, Anneke; Weersink, Els J.; Bel, Elisabeth H.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent eosinophilic airway inflammation is an important driver for asthma exacerbations in non-smokers with asthma. Whether eosinophilic inflammation is also a predictor of asthma exacerbations in (ex)smokers is not known. The aim was to investigate factors associated with frequent exacerbations

  13. Menstrual cycle and its disorders in women with congenital heart disease

    Drenthen, Willem; Hoendermis, Elke S.; Moons, Philip; Heida, Karst Y.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Vliegen, Hubert W.; Sollie, Krystyna M.; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Lely, A. Titia; Canobbio, Mary M.; Pieper, Petronella G.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the age at menarche, the prevalence of menstrual cycle (interval) disorders, and determinants in women with congenital heart disease (CHD). DESIGN: Using two CHD registries, 1802 (82%) of the 2196 women with CHD contacted (aged 18-58 years) provided written informed

  14. Menstrual cycle and its disorders in women with congenital heart disease.

    Drenthen, W.; Hoendermis, E.S.; Moons, P.; Heida, K.Y.; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.; Mulder, B.J.M.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Vliegen, H.W.; Sollie, K.M.; Berger, R.M.; Lely, A.T.; Canobbio, M.M.; Pieper, P.G.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the age at menarche, the prevalence of menstrual cycle (interval) disorders, and determinants in women with congenital heart disease (CHD). DESIGN: Using two CHD registries, 1802 (82%) of the 2196 women with CHD contacted (aged 18-58 years) provided written informed

  15. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on glucose kinetics in healthy women & women with premenstrual symptoms.

    Meena K. Nandimath

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the blood glucose levels during the two phases of the menstrual cycle between healthy women and patients with premenstrual syndrome (PMS.Methods: From January of 2012 to the August of 2013, a descriptive cross-sectional study was performed among staff of tertiary care hospital.Inclusion Criteria: 1100 women aged 18 to 45 years, 2 Regular Menstrual cycle.Exclusion Criteria: 1 Menopause 2 Patient on Oral Contraceptive pills.After approval from IEC and informed consent from the 100 enrolled subjects with either the most severe symptoms of PMS or healthy controls. 2ml of venous blood was collected on fasting condition during the follicular phase (5-11 days of  menstrual cycleand the luteal phase of the cycle (19-28 days menstrual cycle and analyzed the serum concentrations of glucose by using the glucose oxidase method.Results: The statistical analysis was done using student's paired T test. P value less than 0.0001was taken as significant.No significant differences between the demographic data of the control and PMS groups were observed. The mean concentrations of glucose were significantly different during the follicular and luteal phases.

  16. Factor 11 single-nucleotide variants in women with heavy menstrual bleeding

    Wiewel-Verschueren, Sophie; Mulder, Andre B.; Meijer, Karina; Mulder, Rene

    2017-01-01

    In a previous study it was shown that lower factor XI (FXI) levels in women with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). Our aim was to determine the single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the F11 gene in women with HMB. In addition, an extensive literature search was performed to determine the clinical

  17. Fertility, Menstrual Characteristics, and Contraceptive Practices among White, Black, and Southeast Asian Refugee Adolescents.

    Swenson, Ingrid; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Compared fertility and menstrual characteristics and contraceptive practices of adolescents in maternal and infant care program. Hmong subjects were more likely to have live birth; Asians were usually married while Whites and Blacks were not. Asians were less likely to have used contraceptives and Hmongs were less likely to choose contraception…

  18. The use of oral contraception by adolescents for contraception, menstrual cycle problems or acne

    Hooff, M.H.A. van; Hirasing, R.A.; Kaptein, M.B.M.; Koppenaal, C.; Voorhorst, F.J.; Schoemaker, J.

    1998-01-01

    Background. Oral contraceptives are prescribed as contraception but also as therapy for menstrual cycle disturbances and acne. We studied the prevalence of oral contraceptive (OC) use and the indications to start OC use among adolescents. Methods. A cohort consisting of ninth grade secondary school

  19. Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistics for differentiating menstrual and peripheral blood.

    Sikirzhytskaya, Aliaksandra; Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Lednev, Igor K

    2014-01-01

    Body fluids are a common and important type of forensic evidence. In particular, the identification of menstrual blood stains is often a key step during the investigation of rape cases. Here, we report on the application of near-infrared Raman microspectroscopy for differentiating menstrual blood from peripheral blood. We observed that the menstrual and peripheral blood samples have similar but distinct Raman spectra. Advanced statistical analysis of the multiple Raman spectra that were automatically (Raman mapping) acquired from the 40 dried blood stains (20 donors for each group) allowed us to build classification model with maximum (100%) sensitivity and specificity. We also demonstrated that despite certain common constituents, menstrual blood can be readily distinguished from vaginal fluid. All of the classification models were verified using cross-validation methods. The proposed method overcomes the problems associated with currently used biochemical methods, which are destructive, time consuming and expensive. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. On the behavior of surface electromyographic variables during the menstrual cycle

    Soares, Fabiano Araujo; Salomoni, Sauro Emerick; De Carvalho, Joao Luiz Azevedo; Nascimento, Francisco Assis de Oliveira; Veneziano, Wilson Henrique; Pires, Kenia Fonseca; Da Rocha, Adson Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work is to study the behavior of electromyographic variables during the menstrual cycle. Ten female volunteers (24.0 ± 2.8 years of age) performed fatiguing isometric contractions, and electromyographic signals were measured on the biceps brachii in four phases of the menstrual cycle. Adaptations of classical algorithms were used for the estimation of the root mean square (RMS) value, absolute rectified value (ARV), mean frequency (MNF), median frequency (MDF), and conduction velocity (CV). The CV estimator had a higher (p = 0.002) rate of decrease at the end of the follicular phase and at the end of the luteal phase. The MDF (p = 0.002) and MNF (p = 0.004) estimators had a higher rate of decrease at the beginning of the follicular phase and at the end of the luteal phase. No significant differences between phases of the menstrual cycle were detected with the ARV and RMS estimators (p > 0.05). These results suggest that the behavior of the muscles in women presents different characteristics during different phases of the menstrual cycle. In particular, women were more susceptible to fatigue at the end of the luteal phase

  1. Menstrual cycle effects on jealousy : A study in Curaçao

    Buunk, A.P.; van Brummen-Girigori, Odette

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on changes in female behavior and preferences across the menstrual cycle have been conducted in samples comprised of largely white undergraduate students from Western populations. The present study examined cyclical shifts in reactive, preventive and anxious jealousy in a sample of 71

  2. Determination of urinary estradiol using an enzymatic method during the menstrual cycle

    Patricot, M.C.; Mathian, B.; Serpentie, S.; Revol, A.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results of enzymatic determination of urinary estradiol with results from a method using isotope dilution-mass fragmentography. Urine samples were collected from women during the menstrual cycle. The results obtained differed in absolute values, but showed good correlation. (Auth.)

  3. Uterine uptake of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine during the menstrual phase of uterine cycle

    Bomanji, J.; Britton, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    Radioiodinated I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) has been used for diagnostic purposes for detection of apudomas. In this paper normal physiological uptake of I-123 MIBG by the uterus during the menstrual phase of the uterine cycle is reported. It is likely that I-123 MIBG can be used to evaluate some of the problems in this context

  4. Uterine uptake of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine during the menstrual phase of uterine cycle

    Bomanji, J.; Britton, K.E.

    1987-08-01

    Radioiodinated I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) has been used for diagnostic purposes for detection of apudomas. In this paper normal physiological uptake of I-123 MIBG by the uterus during the menstrual phase of the uterine cycle is reported. It is likely that I-123 MIBG can be used to evaluate some of the problems in this context.

  5. APPLICATIONS OF A MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    APPLICATIONS OF A MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Leona H. Clark1, Paul M. Schlosser2, and James F. Selgrade3. 1US Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC; 2CIIT, Research Triangle Park, NC; 3North Carolina State Un...

  6. Interleukin-6 and Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness Do Not Vary during the Menstrual Cycle

    Chaffin, Morgan E.; Berg, Kris E.; Meendering, Jessica R.; Llewellyn, Tamra L.; French, Jeffrey A.; Davis, Jeremy E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a difference in interleukin-6 (IL-6) and delayed onset muscles soreness (DOMS) exists in two different phases of the menstrual cycle. Nine runners performed one 75-min high-intensity interval running session during the early follicular (EF) phase and once during the midluteal (ML) phase of the…

  7. Transvaginal sonographic evaluation at different menstrual cycle phases in diagnosis of uterine lesions

    Hajishaiha M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Masomeh Hajishaiha1, Mohammad Ghasemi-rad2, Nazila Karimpour1, Nikol Mladkova3, Farzaneh Boromand11Department of Gynecology, 2Student Research Committee (SRC, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Islamic Republic of Iran; 3Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, London, UKPurpose: Intrauterine lesions (IULs are a common finding in women of reproductive age, particularly infertile women. Transvaginal sonography (TVS is a popular tool for IUL detection, but there are conflicting data with respect to its accuracy.Methods: Five hundred and six women were enrolled into the study. Of these, 496 underwent hysterosalpingography and subsequent TVS six different times during the course of their menstrual cycle. If a lesion was detected, it was further evaluated by sonohysterography (SHG and hysteroscopy.Results: Of 496 women, 41 were shown to have IULs by TVS and those lesions were confirmed in 39 by SHG and hysteroscopy. All 39 lesions were detectable during the ovulatory and early luteal phase (days 16–19 of the menstrual cycle. Accuracy of TVS during different phases was largely dependent on the size of the lesion. TVS falsely detected two lesions and missed fine adhesions in two patients.Conclusion: Accuracy of TVS in detection of IULs is highly dependent on the menstrual cycle phase, with the ovulatory and early luteal phase being the optimal time for this examination.Keywords: menstrual cycle phase, space occupying lesions, transvaginal sonography

  8. Influence of age and menstrual cycle on mammography and MR imaging of the breast

    Mueller-Schimpfle, M.; Ohmenhaeuser, K.; Claussen, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    Age and menstrual cycle have an important influence on the breast. This well-known fact is experienced in the daily routine of gynecologists and radiologists. The number of publications addressing the effect of these influences on imaging, however, is surprisingly low. The aim of this work is to describe the influences of age and menstrual cycle on the breast and to address their clinical relevance for mammography and MR mammography. Therefore, own data are presented concerning the age and menstrual cycle influences on breast parenchyma in dynamic MR mammography. Literature data are used to correlate mammography and MR imaging findings with these influences. The changes of the breast due to age and menstrual cycle have important direct implications on performing and reading conventional mammography and MR mammography. The knowledge of these changes is also helpful in the interpretation of findings when comparing different methods. Finally, the data gained by using imaging methods enable important basic insights into physiology and physiopathology of the breast in vivo. (orig.) [de

  9. Menstrual Knowledge and Practices of Female Adolescents in Urban Karachi, Pakistan

    Ali, Tazeen Saeed; Rizvi, Syeda Naghma

    2010-01-01

    Menstruation is a normal physiological process that is managed differently according to various social and cultural understandings. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the menstrual practices among 1275 female adolescents of urban Karachi, Pakistan from April to October 2006 by using interviews. Data was entered and…

  10. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Menstrual Hygiene among High Schools Students in Jatinangor

    Maryam Balqis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation is a physiological process in female adolescents which usually started at age of 9–12 years. Menstrual hygiene is a hygienic practice during menstruation which can prevent women from the infection in reproductive and urinary tract. Lack of knowledge regarding menstruation and menstrual hygiene lead to poor attitude and practice. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of menstrual hygiene among high schools students in Jatinangor. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from May until June 2013 in high schools around Jatinangor. This study population was taken from four schools selected through cluster random sampling from 17 junior and senior high schools available in Jatinangor. Total sampling from four schools was undertaken and a total of 238 female high school students’ data were established. The respondents aged between 13–19 years old. Results: The level of knowledge, attitude and practice among participants were 180 (75.63%, 186 (78.15% and 210 (88.24% respectively which were mostly good. Conclusions: Overall, most of the participants in this study have good knowledge, attitude and practice about menstrual hygiene, but a few of them still have poor and moderate knowledge and attitude, although there is no poor practice among them.

  11. Estradiol, SHBG and leptin interplay with food craving and intake across the menstrual cycle

    Objective: To understand the association between ovarian hormones, non-acute satiety hormones and craving calorie dense foods in the luteal phase. Methods: 17 premenopausal women, mean age 23.2 y, mean BMI 22.4 kg/m2 with regular menstrual cycles were studied during late follicular (FP) and luteal ...

  12. MR mammography: influence of menstrual cycle on the dynamic contrast enhancement of fibrocystic disease

    Rieber, A.; Nuessle, K.; Merkle, E.; Tomczak, R.; Brambs, H.J.; Kreienberg, R.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetic resonance mammography (MRM) provides data regarding the nature of tumours based on contrast medium dynamics; fibrocystic changes in the breast, however, may lead to false-positive results. This study investigated whether the contrast medium dynamics of fibrocystic changes are dependent on the menstrual cycle. Twenty-four patients with palpable lumps but normal mammographies and ultrasound studies were examined. The MRM technique was performed during the first and second part of the menstrual cycle using a FLASH 3D sequence, both native and at 1, 2, 3 and 8 min after intravenous application of 0.15 mmol/kg body weight of gadodiamide. The calculated time-intensity curves were evaluated based on the following criteria: early percentage of contrast medium uptake in relation to the native value; formation of a plateau phenomenon after the second minute; the point of maximal contrast medium uptake; and calculation of the contrast enhancing index. During the second half of the menstrual cycle, a generally greater contrast medium uptake was observed. Nevertheless, when further diagnostic criteria, such as continuous contrast medium increase as a function of time, were considered, there was no increased rate of false-positive findings. The phase of the menstrual cycle may affect the specificity of the examination, if only the quantitative contrast medium uptake and the percentage of contrast medium uptake in the first 2 min are considered. A control MRM during the other half of the cycle may then be indicated and additional diagnostic criteria may improve specificity. (orig.)

  13. MENSTRUAL HYGIENE: GAPS IN THE KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES IN ADOLESCENT SCHOOL GIRLS

    Sumana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Menstrual hygiene is an issue that is insufficiently acknowledged. Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio - cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls lacking knowledge and remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes res ult into adverse health outcomes. Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections (RTI, is a vital aspect of health education. Menarche is a significant milestone in the transitory developmental journey of an adolescent. Poor personal hygiene and defective menstrual management practices give rise to repeated reproductive tract infections (RTIs, which are otherwise preventable. Menstruation is generally considered as unclean in the Indian society. Isolation of the menstrua ting girls and restrictions being imposed on them in the family, have reinforced a negative attitude towards this phenomenon. There is a substantial lacuna in the knowledge about menstruation among adolescent. This study was conducted to assess the knowled ge, attitudes and practices of adolescent school girls of a secondary school in an urban setting. It was found that there was lack of knowledge in specific areas. This study throws light on lack of basic amenities in school for girls which in turn leads to unhygienic practices during menstruation. These reinforce the fact that health education has to be more effective and also that the need of the hour is basic amenities in schools.

  14. A community-based study of menstrual beliefs in Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Wall, L Lewis; Belay, Shewaye; Bayray, Alemayehu; Salih, Seidi; Gabrehiwot, Mitiku

    2016-12-01

    To investigate knowledge and beliefs about menstruation in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. Between May 5 and May 25, 2015, a cross-sectional survey using semi-structured questionnaires was undertaken in 10 subdistricts (5 urban, 5 rural) in the Tigray Region of northern Ethiopia by trained data collectors (native speakers of the local languages). Individuals in randomly selected households who were aged 10years or older and who were willing to participate were asked various questions regarding the nature and management of menstruation. Interviews were recorded, and handwritten field notes were taken during the interview process. Data were compiled, transcribed, translated into English, categorized, and analyzed thematically. Overall, 428 household members (349 female, 79 male) were interviewed. Reproductive anatomy and biology of menstrual regulation were poorly understood by the respondents. The belief that menstruating girls should not attend school was voiced by 17 (21.5%) male and 37 (10.6%) female respondents. Satisfactory management of menstrual hygiene was acknowledged to be a problem, and many respondents complained about the high cost of commercially produced, disposable menstrual pads. Improved education on menstruation and better access to low-cost, reusable menstrual hygiene supplies would be worthwhile in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mood Management during the Menstrual Cycle through Selective Exposure to Television.

    Weaver, James B., III; Laird, Elizabeth A.

    1995-01-01

    Finds that women's preferences for comedy television programs were strongest immediately prior to and during menses when negative affect was also most evident. Finds also that at the midpoint of the menstrual cycle, when positive affect proved the strongest, an elevated interest in suspense drama programs was apparent. (SR)

  16. An Introduction to Menstrual Management for Women Who Have an Intellectual Disability and High Support Needs.

    Griffen, Jeni; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a project researching the management of menstruation for women who have severe/profound intellectual disability. It outlines the importance of acceptance of menstruation, the possibility of partial participation in menstrual care, key factors to consider in developing skill development activities (such as attitudes of care…

  17. Menstrual migraine: a review of current and developing pharmacotherapies for women.

    Allais, G; Chiarle, Giulia; Sinigaglia, Silvia; Benedetto, Chiara

    2018-02-01

    Migraine is one of the most common neurological disorders in the general population. It affects 18% of women and 6% of men. In more than 50% of women migraineurs the occurrence of migraine attacks correlates strongly with the perimenstrual period. Menstrual migraine is highly debilitating, less responsive to therapy, and attacks are longer than those not correlated with menses. Menstrual migraine requires accurate evaluation and targeted therapy, that we aim to recommend in this review. Areas covered: This review of the literature provides an overview of currently available pharmacological therapies (especially with triptans, anti-inflammatory drugs, hormonal strategies) and drugs in development (in particular those acting on calcitonin gene-related peptide) for the treatment of acute migraine attacks and the prophylaxis of menstrual migraine. The studies reviewed here were retrieved from the Medline database as of June 2017. Expert opinion: The treatment of menstrual migraine is highly complex. Accurate evaluation of its characteristics is prerequisite to selecting appropriate therapy. An integrated approach involving neurologists and gynecologists is essential for patient management and for continuous updating on new therapies under development.

  18. Menstrual-Cycle and Menstruation Disorders in Episodic vs Chronic Migraine: An Exploratory Study.

    Spierings, Egilius L H; Padamsee, Aliya

    2015-07-01

    Migraine is a chronic condition of recurring moderate-to-severe headaches that affects an estimated 6% of men and 18% of women. The highest prevalence is in those 18-49 years of age, generally when women menstruate. It is divided into episodic and chronic migraine depending on the total number of headache days per month being 14 or less or 15 or more, respectively. Migraine has been associated with menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, and endometriosis, the latter particularly in chronic migraine. We conducted a questionnaire survey of 96 women with migraine, 18-45 years old, to determine the occurrence of the menstrual-cycle disorders, oligomenorrhea, polymenorrhea, and irregular cycle, and the menstruation disorders, dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia, in episodic vs chronic migraine. The prevalence of menstrual-cycle disorders in general (41.2 vs 22.2%) and dysmenorrhea (51.0 vs 28.9%) was statistically significantly higher in the women with chronic migraine than in those with episodic migraine (P ≤ 0.05) (not corrected for multiple comparisons). Whether the migraine was menstruation sensitive, that is, the headaches consistently occurred or worsened with menstruation, did not impact the prevalence of menstrual disorders. We conclude that chronic migraine is possibly more often than episodic migraine associated with menstrual-cycle disorders in general and dysmenorrhea, without impact on menstruation sensitivity of the headaches. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Sudomotor and vasomotor activity during the menstrual cycle with global heating.

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Lee, Haneul; Khowailed, Iman Akef

    2017-07-01

    Many studies have reported that there are changes in sympathetic activity throughout the menstrual cycle as there are oestrogen receptor in the hypothalamus and all other parts of the sympathetic nervous system. The purpose of this study was to see whether there were variations in sympathetic activity, skin vasomotor and sweat gland sudomotor rhythms during the menstrual cycle. Eight young female subjects with a regular menstrual cycle participated in the study. Subjects were tested once during the follicular phase and once during the luteal phase. Skin blood flow and sweat rate were significantly higher in the luteal phase compared with the follicular phase (p < .05), but the frequency and magnitude of sudomotor and vasomotor rhythms were significantly greater in the follicular phase (p < .05). In contrast, spectral data showed less sympathetic activity in the luteal phase. A significant finding here is that the sudomotor rhythm of sweat glands is altered by the menstrual cycle. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Resting state alpha frequency is associated with menstrual cycle phase, estradiol and use of oral contraceptives.

    Brötzner, Christina P; Klimesch, Wolfgang; Doppelmayr, Michael; Zauner, Andrea; Kerschbaum, Hubert H

    2014-08-19

    Ongoing intrinsic brain activity in resting, but awake humans is dominated by alpha oscillations. In human, individual alpha frequency (IAF) is associated with cognitive performance. Noticeable, performance in cognitive and emotional tasks in women is associated with menstrual cycle phase and sex hormone levels, respectively. In the present study, we correlated frequency of alpha oscillation in resting women with menstrual cycle phase, sex hormone level, or use of oral contraceptives. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 57 women (aged 24.07 ± 3.67 years) having a natural menstrual cycle as well as from 57 women (aged 22.37 ± 2.20 years) using oral contraceptives while they sat in an armchair with eyes closed. Alpha frequency was related to the menstrual cycle phase. Luteal women showed highest and late follicular women showed lowest IAF or center frequency. Furthermore, IAF as well as center frequency correlated negatively with endogenous estradiol level, but did not reveal an association with endogenous progesterone. Women using oral contraceptives showed an alpha frequency similar to women in the early follicular phase. We suggest that endogenous estradiol modulate resting alpha frequency. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduced bone mineral density in adult women diagnosed with menstrual disorders during adolescence.

    Wiksten-Almströmer, Marianne; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindën; Hagenfeldt, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects on bone mineral density (BMD) in women diagnosed with menstrual disorders in their adolescence. Prospective follow-up study six years after the initial investigation. A youth clinic that is part of the school health system in Stockholm. Eighty-seven women diagnosed with secondary amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea in adolescence. Subjects underwent gynecological examination, evaluation of eating behavior and physical activity. Whole body Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry was used for measurement of BMD. BMD. The overall frequency of osteopenia/osteoporosis was 52%, and three girls had osteoporosis. Women with previous secondary amenorrhea had significantly lower BMD in the pelvis and lumbar spine than those with previous oligomenorrhea. The strongest predictor of low BMD was a restrictive eating disorder in adolescence and the most important counteraction was high physical activity at follow-up and a body mass index (BMI) > or = 22. Persistent menstrual dysfunction at follow-up was associated with polycystic ovary syndrome and lower frequency of osteopenia. This clinical follow-up study has demonstrated a high frequency of osteopenia in women diagnosed with menstrual disorders in adolescence. Previous anorectic behavior was the strongest negative predictor of BMD. It is important to pay attention to an underlying eating disorder in young women with menstrual dysfunction in order to promote bone health.

  2. Subtle disorders of the menstrual cycle in subfertile and aging women

    Zonneveld, P. van

    2001-01-01

    Why do some women fail to become pregnant although they have regular menstrual cycles? Why does female fertility decrease with age? In this thesis, several groups of women have been investigated. We examined the growth of ovarian follicles by ultrasound, and we followed the concentrations of some

  3. Changes in the elasticity of fibroadenoma during the menstrual cycle determined by real-time sonoelastography.

    Kılıç, Fahrettin; Kayadibi, Yasemin; Kocael, Pinar; Velidedeoglu, Mehmet; Bas, Ahmet; Bakan, Selim; Aydogan, Fatih; Karatas, Adem; Yılmaz, Mehmet Halit

    2015-06-01

    Shear-wave elastography (SWE) presents quantitative data that thought to represent intrinsic features of the target tissue. Factors affecting the metabolism of the breast parenchyma as well as age, menstrual cycle, hormone levels, pregnancy and lactation, pre-compression artifact during the examination could affect these elastic intrinsic features. Aim of our study is to determine variation of fibroadenoma elasticity during the menstrual cycle (MC) by means of real-time shear-wave elastography (SWE) and identify the optimal time for SWE evaluation. Thirty volunteers (aged 20-40 years) who had biopsy-proven fibroadenoma greater than 1cm in diameter, with regular menstrual cycle and without contraceptive medication underwent SWE (ShearWave on Aixplorer, France) once weekly during MC. Statistical data were processed by using the software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 19.0. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used for each lesion where the repeated factor was the elastographic measurements (premenstrual, menstrual and postmenstrual). Pillai's trace test was used. Pairwise correlation was calculated using Bonferroni correction. Values of p0.05). In this study, we found that there is significant difference between the elasticity values of fibroadenomas on premenstrual and postmenstrual period. We propose that one week after menstruation would be appropriate time to perform breast SWE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlation between Mechanical Properties of the Ankle Muscles and Postural Sway during the Menstrual Cycle.

    Yim, JongEun; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Lee, Haneul

    2018-03-01

    Ankle and foot injuries are common among athletes and physically active individuals. The most common residual disability, ankle sprain, is characterized by instability along with postural sway. If the supporting structures around a joint become lax, posture stability and balance are also affected. Previous studies have examined muscle stiffness and elasticity and postural sway separately; however, the relationship between these factors is yet unknown. It is well known that the levels of sex hormones, especially estrogen, change in women over the phase of the menstrual cycle. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between the mechanical properties of tissue and balance activity using a non-invasive digital palpation device to determine if they undergo any changes over the menstrual cycle in young women. Sixteen young women with regular menstrual cycles completed the study. Tone, stiffness, and elasticity of the ankle muscles (lateral gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, and tibialis anterior) were measured using a non-invasive digital palpation device. Postural sway was recorded while the participants performed balance tasks during ovulation and menstruation. Significantly greater posture sway characteristics and ankle muscle elasticity were found during ovulation than during menstruation; lower tone and stiffness of the ankle muscles were observed at ovulation (p connective tissues. We therefore postulate that estrogen increases joint and muscle laxity and affects posture stability according to the phase of the menstrual cycle.

  5. Menstrual Cycle Effects on Anaerobic Power, Muscular Strength, and Muscular Endurance in Trained and Untrained Females.

    Rosenburg, Beth S.; And Others

    A study determined if anaerobic power, isometric strength, and isometric endurance are affected by the menstrual cycle and if endurance trained females and untrained females are affected in the same manner on these performance parameters. Subjects were healthy, normally menstruating females, ages 18-34 years who were classified as either trained…

  6. Using a Cyclical Diagram to Visualize the Events of the Ovulatory Menstrual Cycle

    Ho, Ivan Shun; Parmar, Navneet K.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, college textbooks in human anatomy and physiology have typically presented the events of the ovulatory menstrual cycle in a linear format, with time in days shown on the x-axis, and hormone levels, follicular development, and uterine lining on the y-axis. In addition, the various events are often shown over a 28-day cycle,…

  7. Menstrual change during the menopause transition: do women find it problematic?

    Mackey, Sandra

    2009-10-20

    To describe changes in the characteristics of women's menstrual cycles during the menopause transition and to identify whether such changes are perceived by women as being problematic. A cross-sectional descriptive study using a community-based convenience sample of 119 women aged 37-70 years. Participants completed a questionnaire to obtain data on demographic characteristics, menopausal status and changes to menstrual flow, duration, frequency and regularity. There was a common pattern of menstrual change which was of heavier, less frequent, irregular menstruation. Forty one percent of post-menopausal and 40% of women still in the menopause transition stated that, in terms of overall perception, the changes to menstruation experienced during the menopause transition were not problematic or disruptive. When specific change characteristics were examined, significant differences were found in duration of menses (p=0.014) and cycle irregularity (p=0.005) but no significant differences were found on the amount of flow (p=0.125) or frequency of cycles (p=0.142). Increased duration and increased irregularity of occurrence of each period are problematic for women going through the menopause transition, however, increased amount of menstrual flow at each period and increased frequency of cycles are not problematic changes.

  8. Neural mechanisms underlying changes in stress-sensitivity across the menstrual cycle

    Ossewaarde, Lindsey; Hermans, Erno J.; van Wingen, Guido A.; Kooijman, Sabine C.; Johansson, Inga-Maj; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Fernández, Guillén

    2010-01-01

    Hormonal fluctuations across the menstrual cycle are thought to play a central role in premenstrual mood symptoms. In agreement, fluctuations in gonadal hormone levels affect brain processes in regions involved in emotion regulation. Recent findings, however, implicate psychological stress as a

  9. Neural mechanisms underlying changes in stress-sensitivity across the menstrual cycle.

    Ossewaarde, L.; Hermans, E.J.; Wingen, G.A. van; Kooijman, S.C.; Johansson, I.M.; Backstrom, T.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2010-01-01

    Hormonal fluctuations across the menstrual cycle are thought to play a central role in premenstrual mood symptoms. In agreement, fluctuations in gonadal hormone levels affect brain processes in regions involved in emotion regulation. Recent findings, however, implicate psychological stress as a

  10. Human Performance: Women in Nontraditional Occupations and the Influence of the Menstrual Cycle (A Selected Bibliography)

    1980-05-01

    82171. Women in the Labor Force. 3. Work Patterns of Women. 10. Unemployed Women. 15. Women as Family Heads. 21. Working Wives. 32. Employment by...reaction time in the menstrual cycle.] Sportarzt u Sportsmedizin, 1968, 19, 73. - 19. Hildebrandt, G., & Witzenrath, A. [ Psychic performance and

  11. Antibiotics for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Vollenweider, Daniela J; Jarrett, Harish; Steurer-Stey, Claudia A; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Puhan, Milo A

    2012-12-12

    Many patients with an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are treated with antibiotics. However, the value of antibiotics remains uncertain as systematic reviews and clinical trials have shown conflicting results. To assess the effects of antibiotics in the management of acute COPD exacerbations on treatment failure as observed between seven days and one month after treatment initiation (primary outcome) and on other patient-important outcomes (mortality, adverse events, length of hospital stay). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and other electronically available databases up to September 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in people with acute COPD exacerbations comparing antibiotic therapy and placebo with a follow-up of at least seven days. Two review authors independently screened references and extracted data from trial reports. We kept the three groups of outpatients, inpatients and patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) separate for benefit outcomes and mortality because we considered them to be clinically too different to be summarised in one group. We considered outpatients to have a mild to moderate exacerbation, inpatients to have a severe exacerbation and ICU patients to have a very severe exacerbation. Where outcomes or study details were not reported we requested missing data from the authors of the primary studies. We calculated pooled risk ratios (RR) for treatment failure, Peto odds ratios (OR) for rare events (mortality and adverse events) and weighted mean differences (MD) for continuous outcomes using fixed-effect models. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence. Sixteen trials with 2068 participants were included. In outpatients (mild to moderate exacerbations), there was evidence of low quality that antibiotics did statistically significantly reduce the risk for treatment failure between seven days and one month after treatment

  12. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on corticolimbic brain activation by visual food cues.

    Frank, Tamar C; Kim, Ginah L; Krzemien, Alicja; Van Vugt, Dean A

    2010-12-02

    Food intake is decreased during the late follicular phase and increased in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. While a changing ovarian steroid milieu is believed to be responsible for this behavior, the specific mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Brain activity in response to visual food stimuli was compared during the estrogen dominant peri-ovulatory phase and the progesterone dominant luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Twelve women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during the peri-ovulatory and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in a counterbalanced fashion. Whole brain T2* images were collected while subjects viewed pictures of high calorie (HC) foods, low calorie (LC) foods, and control (C) pictures presented in a block design. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in the late follicular phase and luteal phase was determined for the contrasts HC-C, LC-C, HC-LC, and LC-HC. Both HC and LC stimuli activated numerous corticolimbic brain regions in the follicular phase, whereas only HC stimuli were effective in the luteal phase. Activation of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), amygdala, and hippocampus in response to the HC-C contrast and the hippocampus in response to the LC-C contrast was significantly increased in the late follicular phase compared to the luteal phase. Activation of the orbitofrontal cortex and mid cingulum in response to the HC-LC contrast was greater during the luteal phase. These results demonstrate for the first time that brain responses to visual food cues are influenced by menstrual cycle phase. We postulate that ovarian steroid modulation of the corticolimbic brain contributes to changes in ingestive behavior during the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Improving menstrual hygiene management in emergency contexts: literature review of current perspectives.

    VanLeeuwen, Crystal; Torondel, Belen

    2018-01-01

    Management of menstruation in contexts of humanitarian emergencies can be challenging. A lack of empirical research about effective interventions which improve menstrual hygiene management (MHM) among female populations in humanitarian emergencies and a lack of clarity about which sectors within a humanitarian response should deliver MHM interventions can both be attributable to the lack of clear guidance on design and delivery of culturally appropriate MHM intervention in settings of humanitarian emergencies. The objective of this review was to collate, summarize, and appraise existing peer-reviewed and gray literature that describes the current scenario of MHM in emergency contexts in order to describe the breadth and depth of current policies, guidelines, empirical research, and humanitarian aid activities addressing populations' menstrual needs. A structured-search strategy was conducted for peer-reviewed and gray literature to identify studies, published reports, guidelines, and policy papers related to menstrual response in emergency humanitarian contexts. Of the 51 articles included in the review, 16 were peer-reviewed papers and 35 were gray literature. Most of the literature agreed that hardware interventions should focus on the supply of adequate material (not only absorbent material but also other supportive material) and adequate sanitation facilities, with access to water and private space for washing, changing, drying, and disposing menstrual materials. Software interventions should focus on education in the usage of materials to manage menstruation hygienically and education about the female body's biological processes. There was clear agreement that the needs of the target population should be assessed before designing any intervention. Although there is insight about which factors should be included in an effective menstrual hygiene intervention, there is insufficient empirical evidence to establish which interventions are most effective in

  14. Progesterone mediates brain functional connectivity changes during the menstrual cycle - A pilot resting state MRI study

    Katrin eArelin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in intrinsic brain organization has sparked various innovative approaches to generating comprehensive connectivity-based maps of the human brain. Prior reports point to a sexual dimorphism of the structural and functional human connectome. However, it is uncertain whether subtle changes in sex hormones, as occur during the monthly menstrual cycle, substantially impact the functional architecture of the female brain. Here, we performed eigenvector centrality (EC mapping in 32 longitudinal resting state fMRI scans of a single healthy subject without oral contraceptive use, across four menstrual cycles, and assessed estrogen and progesterone levels. To investigate associations between cycle-dependent hormones and brain connectivity, we performed correlation analyses between the EC maps and the respective hormone levels. On the whole brain level, we found a significant positive correlation between progesterone and EC in the bilateral DLPFC and bilateral sensorimotor cortex. In a secondary region-of-interest analysis, we detected a progesterone-modulated increase in functional connectivity of both bilateral DLPFC and bilateral sensorimotor cortex with the hippocampus. Our results suggest that the menstrual cycle substantially impacts intrinsic functional connectivity, particularly in brain areas associated with contextual memory-regulation, such as the hippocampus. These findings are the first to link the subtle hormonal fluctuations that occur during the menstrual cycle, to significant changes in regional functional connectivity in the hippocampus in a longitudinal design, given the limitation of data acquisition in a single subject. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of such a longitudinal rs-fMRI design and illustrates a means of creating a personalized map of the human brain by integrating potential mediators of brain states, such as menstrual cycle phase.

  15. Factors impacting on menstrual hygiene and their implications for health promotion.

    Lahme, Anne Mutunda; Stern, Ruth; Cooper, Diane

    2018-03-01

    In the lives of women, puberty is marked by the onset of menarche. From this stage onwards until menopause, reproductive health and menstrual hygiene are important aspects of women's lives. In Zambia's Western Province, the natural process of menstruation is a taboo and dealt with secretly. Information and knowledge about menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls is inadequate. This paper explores the factors influencing the understanding, experiences and practices of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls in Mongu District, Western Province of Zambia. An explorative study design was used by means of six focus group discussions conducted with 51 respondents, aged 13-20 years, from three secondary schools. Their age at menarche was 11-15. For data analysis thematic content analysis was used. The paper shows that the girls suffer from poor menstrual hygiene, originating from lack of knowledge, culture and tradition, and socio-economic and environmental constraints, leading to inconveniences, humiliation and stress. This leads to reduced school attendance and poor academic performance, or even drop outs, and ultimately infringes upon the girls' human rights. To address these shortcomings, a 'super setting approach' is recommended, in which a Health Promoting School could improve the girls' individual and group needs, and a community setting which would address the broader socio-economic, cultural and environmental conditions. This would enable creating a supportive environment for the girls to manage their periods. To successfully utilize the approach, all stakeholders (parents, teachers, children, governments and communities) should cooperate to generate context-specific solutions for creating safe menstrual care, and better and dignified conditions for adolescent girls. Therefore, this calls for comprehensive, strident advocacy for policy changes at national level, and mediation and involvement at community level.

  16. The NRP1 migraine risk variant shows evidence of association with menstrual migraine.

    Pollock, Charmaine E; Sutherland, Heidi G; Maher, Bridget H; Lea, Rodney A; Haupt, Larisa M; Frith, Alison; Anne MacGregor, E; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2018-04-18

    In 2016, a large meta-analysis brought the number of susceptibility loci for migraine to 38. While sub-type analysis for migraine without aura (MO) and migraine with aura (MA) found some loci showed specificity to MO, the study did not test the loci with respect to other subtypes of migraine. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated with migraine are individually or collectively associated with menstrual migraine (MM). Genotyping of migraine susceptibility SNPs was conducted using the Agena MassARRAY platform on DNA samples from 235 women diagnosed with menstrual migraine as per International Classification for Headache Disorders II (ICHD-II) criteria and 140 controls. Alternative genotyping methods including restriction fragment length polymorphism, pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing were used for validation. Statistical analysis was performed using PLINK and SPSS. Genotypes of 34 SNPs were obtained and investigated for their potential association with menstrual migraine. Of these SNPs, rs2506142 located near the neuropilin 1 gene (NRP1), was found to be significantly associated with menstrual migraine (p = 0.003). Genomic risk scores were calculated for all 34 SNPs as well as a subset of 7 SNPs that were nearing individual significance. Overall, this analysis suggested these SNPs to be weakly predictive of MM, but of no prognostic or diagnostic value. Our results suggest that NRP1 may be important in the etiology of MM. It also suggests some genetic commonality between common migraine subtypes (MA and MO) and MM. The identification of associated SNPs may be the starting point to a better understanding of how genetic factors may contribute to the menstrual migraine sub-type.

  17. [EEG alpha indices in dependence on the menstrual cycle phase and salivary progesterone].

    Bazanova, O M; Kondratenko, A V; Kuz'minova, O I; Muravleva, K B; Petrova, S E

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the neurohumoral status on the EEG alpha - activity indices were studied in a within-subject design with 78 women aged 18-27 years during 1-2 menstrual cycle. Psychometric and EEG indices of alpha waves basal body temperature, saliva progesterone and cortisol level were monitored every 2-3 days. Menstrual and follicular recording sessions occurred before the ovulatory temperature rise, luteal recording session--after increasing progesterone level more than 20% respect to previous day and premenstrual sessions after decreasing progesterone level more that 20% respect to previous day. The design consisted of rest and task periods EEG, EMG and ECG recordings. Half the subjects began during their menstrual phase and half began during their luteal phase. All 5 phases were compared for differences between psychometric features EEG alpha activity, EMG and ECG baseline resting levels, as well as for reactivity to cognitive task. The results showed menstrual phase differences in all psychometric and alpha EEG indices. The cognitive fluency, alpha peak frequency, alpha band width, power in alpha-2 frequency range are maximal at luteal, alpha visual activation and reactivity to cognitive task performance--at follicular phase. The hypothesis that the EEG alpha activity depends on the hormonal status supported by the positive association salivary progesterone level with the alpha peak frequency, power in the alpha-2 band and negative--with the power of the alpha-1 band. According these results, we conclude that psycho-physiological recording sessions with women might be provided with a glance to phase of menstrual cycle.

  18. Effects of taping on knee joint position sense of female athletes across the menstrual cycle

    Rose fouladi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tearing is more common in female athletes and one of thereasons is the effect of sex hormones. It was illustrated that knee joint position sense (JPS isaltered across the menstrual cycle and its lowest level is at menses. Therefore, it’s important to find a method to reduce injury risk at menses. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of taping as a stimulator of skin, on the knee JPS in healthy female athletes across the menstrual cycle with different levels of estrogen and progesterone. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 16 healthy female athletes with regular menstrual cycle voluntarily participated. Knee JPS was measured at 3 menstrual cycle phases, before and after patellataping. JPS was evaluated by reproduction of the target angle (30° flexion in standing position, from full extension. Serum estrogen and progesterone levels were collected in these 3 phases. Knee angles were measured by using a system comprised of skin markers, digital photography, and autoCAD software. Absolute error was considered as a dependent variable.Results: There was a significant difference between the knee JPS in 3 phases of measurement before taping (P=0.025, while no significant difference was found between knee JPS in 3 phases after taping (P=0.965. Conclusion: Findings of this study suggest that healthy female athletes have different levels of knee JPS across a menstrual cycle and its accuracy decreasesat menses. This differencecan be reduced by skin stimulatingmethods, such as taping. Therefore, kinesio taping would improve the knee JPSdeficiency at menses.

  19. Does interval laparoscopic sterilisation influence the risk of lower genital tract infections and menstrual abnormalities

    G Kistan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tubal sterilisation is a safe, accessible and effective contraceptive method. There is a paucity of data regarding the risk of genital tract infections and menstrual abnormalities post sterilisation in Durban, South Africa.Objectives. To evaluate the risk of lower genital tract infections (LGTIs and menstrual abnormalities following interval laparoscopic sterilisation.Methods. A prospective cohort study of 225 women undergoing sterilisation between August 2012 and April 2013, with follow-up 1 year post procedure, was conducted at King Dinuzulu Hospital, Durban.Results. Following sterilisation, LGTIs were increased only in women with a history of infection pre sterilisation (odds ratio 6.7; 95% CI 2.2 - 20.9; p=0.002. There was no significant risk of HIV acquisition post sterilisation. In women who had not used contraception or used barrier methods pre sterilisation, we found no significant change in menstrual patterns post sterilisation. There was an increase in menstrual bleeding and dysmenorrhoea post sterilisation among previous combined oral contraceptive users. Among women with amenorrhoea on injectable contraception pre sterilisation, 73.8% reported return to regular menses and 26.2% reported abnormal uterine bleeding post sterilisation. Among injectable contraceptive users with regular menses pre sterilisation, 71.4% reported no change in menses post sterilisation and 28.6% reported abnormal uterine bleeding post sterilisation.Conclusion. In women undergoing interval tubal sterilisation, the risk of LGTIs was only increased in those women with a history. Menstrual abnormalities post sterilisation were more likely in women who used steroid contraception prior to sterilisation.

  20. CROSSECTIONAL STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF DYSMENORRHEA AND PRE MENSTRUAL SYNDROME IN COLLEGE STUDENTS

    Joylene Diana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dysmenorrhea or pain during menstruation is the most common gynaecological complaint among adolescents and college students. A good majority of patients with dysmenorrhea also experience pre - menstrual symptoms ( PMS . The objective of this cross s ectional study was to assess prevalence of dysmennorhea , PMS , college absenteeism and knowledge attitudes and practices relating to the same among college going students between the age of 18 to 26 years. METHODS: A cross s ectional analysis of a total of 420 students using questionnaires related to dysmenorrhea was done . The questionnaire dealt with the regularity of menstrual cycles , occurrence of dysmenorrhea , college absenteeism , premenstrual symptoms and lifestyle attributes of the students. RESULTS: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea of varying degrees was found to be as high as 97 percent . Dysmennorhea was seen in 45.8 percent of students with regular cycles and 97.7 percent of students with irregular cycles. 47.5 percentage of students missed their college working days due to menstruation related complaints. Among the students who had pre - menstrual syndrome , majority of them revealed life style attributes like eating fast food and also consuming over the counter pain medicines. Also psychological and emotional changes were commonly seen during the premenstrual phase. CONCLUSION: This study showed that though dysmennorhea of varying degrees is widely prevalent among college going students , the prevalence of pre - menstrual syndrome was higher. The study suggests that adequate counseling and education about menstrual symptoms and abuse of OTC analgesics if made a part of college curriculum as well as lifestyle modifications could come a long way in helping to alleviate the problems college students face due to dysmennorhea and PMS.

  1. India moves towards menstrual hygiene: subsidized sanitary napkins for rural adolescent girls-issues and challenges.

    Garg, Rajesh; Goyal, Shobha; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2012-05-01

    The onset of menstruation is one of the most important physiological changes occurring among girls during the adolescent years. Menstruation heralds the onset of physiological maturity in girls. It becomes the part and parcel of their lives until menopause. Apart from personal importance, this phenomenon also has social significance. In India, menstruation is surrounded by myths and misconceptions with a long list of "do's" and "don'ts" for women. Hygiene-related practices of women during menstruation are of considerable importance, as it may increase vulnerability to Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI's). Poor menstrual hygiene is one of the major reasons for the high prevalence of RTIs in the country and contributes significantly to female morbidity. Most of the adolescent girls in villages use rags and old clothes during menstruation, increasing susceptibility to RTI's. Adolescents constitute one-fifths of India's population and yet their sexual health needs remain largely unaddressed in the national welfare programs. Poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. In June 2010, the Government of India proposed a new scheme towards menstrual hygiene by a provision of subsidized sanitary napkins to rural adolescent girls. But there are various other issues like awareness, availability and quality of napkins, regular supply, privacy, water supply, disposal of napkins, reproductive health education and family support which needs simultaneous attention for promotion of menstrual hygiene. The current article looks at the issue of menstrual hygiene not only from the health point of view, but also considers social and human rights values attached to it.

  2. Frequency of von willebrand disease in patients of heavy menstrual bleeding

    Anjum, N.; Shaheen, Z.; Altaf, C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of Von Willebrand disease (vWD) in patients of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). Study Design: Hospital based cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at the Gynecology and Obstetrics department, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi in collaboration with Haematology Department of Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) Rawalpindi, from Jul to Dec 2015. Material and Methods: Women presenting with HMB were enrolled in the study after informed consent. HMB was defined as cyclical bleeding at normal intervals but patient is using more than 5 pads per day or increase in duration 8/28 or more for at least last 06 months. Venous blood samples were taken and screened for the hemoglobin level (Hb), platelet count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and Von Willebrand antigen (vWF:Ag) in addition to bleeding time (BT) at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP). The demographic details (age, age at menarche), clinical features (menstrual history, quantity of bleeding) and laboratory findings were recorded on the study proforma. Results: A total of 200 patients were enrolled in this study with mean age of 32.3 +- 8.5 years. Mean flow of menstrual blood was 9.8 +- 2.5 pads / day. Mean Hb percent was 8.1 +- 1.4 g/dl. Twenty nine (14.5 percent) patients were having low level of vWF:Ag. Conclusion: There is high frequency of von Willebrand disease among females presenting with heavy menstrual bleeding in our set up. Therefore all patients with heavy menstrual bleeding except those with obvious causes like multiple fibroid should be screened for von Willebrand disease. (author)

  3. Menstrual cycle characteristics and reproductive hormone levels in women exposed to atrazine in drinking water.

    Cragin, Lori A; Kesner, James S; Bachand, Annette M; Barr, Dana Boyd; Meadows, Juliana W; Krieg, Edward F; Reif, John S

    2011-11-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly used herbicide in the U.S. and a wide-spread groundwater contaminant. Epidemiologic and laboratory evidence exists that atrazine disrupts reproductive health and hormone secretion. We examined the relationship between exposure to atrazine in drinking water and menstrual cycle function including reproductive hormone levels. Women 18-40 years old residing in agricultural communities where atrazine is used extensively (Illinois) and sparingly (Vermont) answered a questionnaire (n=102), maintained menstrual cycle diaries (n=67), and provided daily urine samples for analyses of luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol and progesterone metabolites (n=35). Markers of exposures included state of residence, atrazine and chlorotriazine concentrations in tap water, municipal water and urine, and estimated dose from water consumption. Women who lived in Illinois were more likely to report menstrual cycle length irregularity (odds ratio (OR)=4.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.58-13.95) and more than 6 weeks between periods (OR=6.16; 95% CI: 1.29-29.38) than those who lived in Vermont. Consumption of >2 cups of unfiltered Illinois water daily was associated with increased risk of irregular periods (OR=5.73; 95% CI: 1.58-20.77). Estimated "dose" of atrazine and chlorotriazine from tap water was inversely related to mean mid-luteal estradiol metabolite. Atrazine "dose" from municipal concentrations was directly related to follicular phase length and inversely related to mean mid-luteal progesterone metabolite levels. We present preliminary evidence that atrazine exposure, at levels below the US EPA MCL, is associated with increased menstrual cycle irregularity, longer follicular phases, and decreased levels of menstrual cycle endocrine biomarkers of infertile ovulatory cycles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Menstrual cycle mediates vastus medialis and vastus medialis oblique muscle activity.

    Tenan, Matthew S; Peng, Yi-Ling; Hackney, Anthony C; Griffin, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Sports medicine professionals commonly describe two functionally different units of the vastus medialis (VM), the VM, and the vastus medialis oblique (VMO), but the anatomical support is equivocal. The functional difference of the VMO is principle to rehabilitation programs designed to alleviate anterior knee pain, a pathology that is known to have a greater occurrence in women. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the motor units of the VM and VMO are differentially recruited and if this recruitment pattern has an effect of sex or menstrual cycle phase. Single motor unit recordings from the VM and VMO were obtained for men and women during an isometric ramp knee extension. Eleven men were tested once. Seven women were tested during five different phases of the menstrual cycle, determined by basal body temperature mapping. The recruitment threshold and the initial firing rate at recruitment were determined from 510 motor unit recordings. The initial firing rate was lower in the VMO than that in the VM in women (P recruitment thresholds for the VM and VMO in either sex or across the menstrual cycle. There was a main effect of menstrual phase on initial firing rate, showing increases from the early follicular to late luteal phase (P = 0.003). The initial firing rate in the VMO was lower than that in the VM during ovulatory (P = 0.009) and midluteal (P = 0.009) phases. The relative control of the VM and VMO changes across the menstrual cycle. This could influence patellar pathologies that have a higher incidence in women.

  5. The Relationship of Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms with Menstrual Attitude and Sleep Quality in Turkish Nursing Student

    Özlem Aşcı

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Symptoms induced by premenstrual syndrome (PMS adversely affect the women in reproduction period and decrease their quality of life. In literature, it is a common opinion thought that PMS could be associated with both sleep quality and menstrual attitudes. However, there has been no sufficient number of studies to define in what ways the PMS symptoms are correlated with sleep quality and menstrual attitudes. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of PMS symptoms with menstrual attitude and sleep quality. Methods: The data were collected from 183 nursing students at Health School of Artvin Çoruh University by using a correlational design. Voluntary students completed a questionnaire involving socio-demographic characteristics, Premenstrual Syndrome Scale (PMSS, Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Results: Average age was 19.9 (1.8. The study determined a positively significant correlation between score of PMSS and mean scores of PSQI (r=0.306; P<0.001, and a negatively significant correlation between score of PMSS and total mean score of MAQ (r=-0.317; P<0.01. Similarly, multiple linear regression analysis showed that PSQI total score (​b=5.412; P<0.001 and MAQ total score (​ b=-27.455; P=0.001 significantly affected total score of PMSS.Conclusion: The intensity of PMS symptoms is associated with poor sleep quality and negative menstrual attitudes. Determining the methods of coping with PMS and strengthening the young girls on this subject may enhance their quality of future life.

  6. Nature and Prevalence of Menstrual Disorders among Teenage Female Students at Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

    Nooh, Ahmed M; Abdul-Hady, Atiea; El-Attar, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    To determine the nature and prevalence of menstrual disorders among teenage girls. An observational descriptive cross-sectional study. Zagazig University Students' Hospital, Zagazig, Egypt. A representative sample of female students who attended the university pre-enrollment medical examination. Self-administered questionnaire covering items on the adolescents' demographic data and menstruation characteristics. Information about menarche, body mass index, physical exercise, cycle length and regularity, duration of menses, menstrual blood loss, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual syndrome. A total of 285 questionnaires were analyzed. Mean age at menarche was 12.3 ± 1.5 years. Oligomenorrhea was reported by 18 participants (6.3%) and 5 others (1.8%) mentioned having polymenorrhea. Hypomenorrhea was noted in 25 students (8.8%), and hypermenorrhea was reported by 12 (4.2%). Irregular periods were mentioned by 24 students (8.4%). Dysmenorrhea was reported in 188 students (66.0%). Of these, 81 (28.4%) graded their pain as mild, 69 (24.2%) as moderate, and 38 (13.3%) as severe. Premenstrual syndrome was mentioned by 160 girls (56.1%). Consulting somebody regarding their menstrual problems was reported by 36 students (12.6%). Our results are not greatly different from those in other parts of the world. Data on nature and prevalence of menstrual disorders and their effect on young women's health status, quality of life, and social integration suggest that management of these disorders should be given more attention within the available reproductive health care programs. Further research into prevalence of and risk factors for menstrual disorders and their morbidity is warranted and anxiously awaited. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Knee joint kinaesthesia and neuromuscular coordination during three phases of the menstrual cycle in moderately active women.

    Fridén, Cecilia; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Saartok, Tönu; Renström, Per

    2006-04-01

    An increased incidence of sports related injuries in the premenstrual phase as well as in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle has been described. This may be explained by alterations in proprioception and neuromuscular coordination due to hormonal variations. Prospective, within women analysis of knee joint kinesthesia and neuromuscular coordination were performed by repeated measures analysis of variance in three hormonally verified phases of three consecutive menstrual cycles. Thirty-two healthy, moderately active female subjects volunteered to participate in the study. Twenty-five of the subjects performed at least one hormonally verified menstrual cycle. A specially designed device was used to investigate knee joint kinaesthesia and neuromuscular coordination was measured with the square hop test. These tests were carried out in the menstrual phase, ovulation phase and premenstrual phase determined by hormone analyses in three consecutive menstrual cycles. An impaired knee joint kinaesthesia was detected in the premenstrual phase and the performance of square hop test was significantly improved in the ovulation phase compared to the other two phases. The results of this study indicate that the variation of sex hormones in the menstrual cycle has an effect on performance of knee joint kinaesthesia and neuromuscular coordination.

  8. Attitudes toward menstruation, menstrual-related symptoms, and premenstrual syndrome among adolescent girls: a rural school-based survey.

    Wong, Li Ping

    2011-06-21

    Folk culture surrounding menstrual-related matters has considerable implications for symptom expression and treatment-seeking behavior. A cross-sectional survey of 1,295 rural adolescent girls aged 13 to 19 years was conducted between February 4 and April 16, 2009 to examine these associations. With a higher score indicating a more positive attitude toward menstruation, the mean attitude score was 3.84 (SD ± 1.62) out of a maximum of six. No significant association was observed between the severity of menstrual symptoms and attitudes. Most (63.1%) of the participants identified themselves as having premenstrual symptoms, and 61.1% viewed premenstrual symptoms as a normal part of menstrual cycle. Participants with a higher severity of symptoms in the premenstrual (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10) and menstrual phase (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07), were more likely to consult a physician for premenstrual symptoms, and having a divorced/separated parents was associated with a reduced odds of consulting a physician compared to those having parents that were married (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.05-0.83). The findings imply the need for education to help adolescent girls manage menstrual symptoms and increase awareness of the benefit of treating them. Given that menstrual-related information was widely available from mothers, family, and social culture are potentially important in shaping good menstrual attitudes.

  9. The effect of a school-based educational intervention on menstrual health: an intervention study among adolescent girls in Bangladesh.

    Haque, Syed Emdadul; Rahman, Mosiur; Itsuko, Kawashima; Mutahara, Mahmuda; Sakisaka, Kayako

    2014-07-03

    To assess the impact of a school-based menstrual education programme on: (1) menstrual knowledge, beliefs and practices, (2) menstrual disorders experienced, and (3) restrictions on menstruating adolescents. Intervention study. Araihazar area, Bangladesh. 416 adolescent female students aged 11-16 years, in grade 6-8, and living with their parents. A school-based health education study conducted from April 2012 to April 2013. We randomly selected 3 of 26 high schools in the study area. We delivered 6 months of educational intervention by trained (by an obstetrician and gynaecologist) research assistants (RAs) on menstrual hygiene among school girls. RAs read the questionnaire and participants answered. The changes in knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding menstruation, menstrual disorders experienced, and the restrictions and behaviours practiced by menstruating adolescents were compared between the baseline and the follow-up assessments. After health education, participants reported a significant improvement (pmenstruation (78.6% vs 59.6%). The programme produced significant changes in the knowledge, beliefs and practices of menstrual hygiene, complications from lack of hygiene, and the behaviour and restrictions of the menstruating adolescents. These results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a health education programme for adolescents on menstrual hygiene in secondary schools serving rural Bangladesh. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. A search for covert precipitating clinical parameters in frequent exacerbators of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Ankit Bhatia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute exacerbations are a significant source of morbidity and mortality associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Some patients suffer an inordinate number of exacerbations while others remain relatively protected. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potentially modifiable precipitating parameters of frequent severe exacerbations requiring hospital admission in COPD. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients admitted with acute exacerbation of COPD for a period of one year in a tertiary care hospital were evaluated prospectively. Data regarding the number of exacerbations in the previous year, current comorbidities, medications, and clinical and functional status of COPD patients were evaluated. Results: We included 98 COPD patients (81.63% men admitted consecutively with exacerbations in our department. The mean number of severe exacerbations was (2.42 per patient/per year, and 65% of the patients had frequent severe exacerbations. Multivariate analysis indicated that serum uric acid, serum total IgE, depression and anxiety, gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms, air pollution, poor adherence to inhaled therapy, and irregular outpatient followup visits were independent predictors of frequent severe exacerbations. Conclusion: COPD patients with frequent exacerbations should be carefully assessed for modifiable confounding risk factors regardless of poor lung function to decrease exacerbation frequency and related poor prognosis. Raised serum total IgE levels may point towards atopy as an additional comorbidity in COPD while uric acid can have a clinically useful role in risk stratification in a primary care setting.

  11. Predicting an asthma exacerbation in children 2 to 5 years of age

    Swern, A.S.; Tozzi, C.A.; Knorr, B.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma exacerbations in young children are prevalent. Identification of symptoms or other factors that are precursors of asthma exacerbations would be useful for early treatment and prevention. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether diary symptoms and beta2-agonist use before an exacerbation...... could predict an asthma exacerbation in children 2 to 5 years of age. METHODS: Post hoc analyses were conducted on data collected in a study of 689 patients 2 to 5 years of age with asthma symptoms, randomly assigned to montelukast, 4 mg, or placebo daily for 12 weeks. During the study, 196 patients had...... of an exacerbation. These methods predicted 149 (66.8%) of the exacerbations with a very low false-positive rate of 14.2%. CONCLUSIONS: No individual symptom was predictive of an imminent asthma exacerbation, but a combination of increased daytime cough, daytime wheeze, and nighttime beta2-agonist use 1 day before...

  12. Combined factors effect of menstrual cycle and background noise on visual inspection task performance: a simulation-based task.

    Wijayanto, Titis; Tochihara, Yutaka; Wijaya, Andi R; Hermawati, Setia

    2009-11-01

    It is well known that women are physiologically and psychologically influenced by the menstrual cycle. In addition, the presence of background noise may affect task performance. So far, it has proven difficult to describe how the menstrual cycle and background noise affect task performance; some researchers have found an increment of performance during menstruation or during the presence of noise, others found performance deterioration, while other still have reported no dominant effect either of the menstrual cycle in performance or of the presence of noise. However, no study to date has investigated the combinational effect between the menstrual cycle and the presence of background noise in task performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the combined factor effect of menstrual cycle and background noise on visual inspection task performance indices by Signal Detection Theory (SDT) metrics: sensitivity index (d') and response criteria index (beta). For this purpose, ten healthy female students (21.5+/-1.08 years) with a regular menstrual cycle participated in this study. A VDT-based visual inspection task was used for the experiment in 3x2 factorial designs. Two factors, menstrual phase, pre-menstruation (PMS), menstruation (M), and post-menstruation (PM) and background noise, with 80 dB(A) background noise and without noise, were analyzed as the main factors in this study. The results concluded that the sensitivity index (d') of SDT was affected in all the menstrual cycle conditions (pbackground noise (pbackground noise was found in this study. On the other hand, no significant effect was observed in the subject's tendency in visual inspection, shown by beta along the menstrual cycle and the presence of background noise. According to the response criteria for each individual subject, the presence of noise affected the tendency of some subjects in detecting the object and making decision during the visual inspection task.

  13. Menstrual disorders and premenstrual symptoms in adolescents: prevalence and relationship to serum calcium and vitamin D concentrations.

    Bahrami, Afsane; Bahrami-Taghanaki, Hamidreza; Afkhamizadeh, Mozhgan; Avan, Amir; Mazloum Khorasani, Zahra; Esmaeili, Habibollah; Amin, Bahareh; Jazebi, Samine; Kamali, Delaram; Ferns, Gordon A; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2018-03-21

    There have been several studies evaluating the association between vitamin and mineral status and menstrual disturbance. In the present study, we aimed to assess the relationship between the menstrual bleeding pattern and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and calcium levels in adolescent girls. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 897 high school girls from northeastern Iran. The prevalence of hypocalcaemia, normal serum calcium and hypercalcaemia was 27.1, 59.8 and 13.1%, respectively. The menstrual flow of participants differed significantly between the calcium status groups (p = .005). There was no significant association between the symptoms of PMS, as assessed by the questionnaire and serum vitamin D status, or serum calcium concentrations, apart from the irritability. There appears to be an association between serum calcium, menstrual blood loss and irritability in adolescent girls. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? Several studies have evaluated the association of vitamin and mineral status with menstrual disturbance, although these relationships are not consistent, specifically among calcium and vitamin D levels with a menstrual bleeding pattern. What do the results of this study add? In the present study, we investigated the correlation of menstrual bleeding patterns and PMS with calcium and vitamin D levels in a large population in adolescent girls. We found that the level of calcium was associated with the level of menstrual blood loss and irritability. However, no significant association was observed between the menstrual bleeding pattern or the PMS symptoms with a vitamin D status. What are the implications of these findings for future clinical practise/research? Further studies are required to assess the value of a calcium adequate intake or a calcium supplementation for the amelioration of PMS and a better understanding the role of calcium in PMS.

  14. Awareness of menstrual abnormality amongst college students in urban area of Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

    Esimai O

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disturbances of menstrual bleeding are major social and medical problem for women and account for high percentage of gynecological visit. Objectives: The objective of the study was to document menstrual abnormalities experienced by female college students, their awareness and health seeking behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken, 400 students were selected using stratified sampling technique and interviewed using semi-structured self-administered questionnaire. Inferential statistical analysis such as Chi-square test and logistic regressions were carried out. Results: The mean age at menarche was 14.18 years. Irregular menstrual cycles were reported in 9.0%. Dysmenorrhea was present in 62.5%, and 12.5% reported school absenteeism. Students′ awareness of menstrual abnormalities was poor (29%. A few of them (10.5% decided to seek help for menstrual abnormalities. The awareness of students on menstrual abnormalities was significantly influenced by their age (OR = 2.33, P = 0.03; however, age at menarche and level of study did not influence their awareness (OR = 0.45, P = 0.24 and OR = 1.42, P = 0.12. History of dysmenorrheal (OR = 10.2, P = 0.001 and academic disturbance (OR = 5.45, P = 0.001 had significant influence on the health seeking behavior of the students. Conclusion: There was a general lack of information about menstrual issues and when to seek help. There is a need to educate female college students about menstrual issues in order to improve their health seeking behavior as regards menstrual abnormalities.

  15. Does gastroesophageal reflux increase chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations?

    Iliaz, Sinem; Iliaz, Raim; Onur, Seda Tural; Arici, Serpil; Akyuz, Umit; Karaca, Cetin; Demir, Kadir; Besisik, Fatih; Kaymakoglu, Sabahattin; Akyuz, Filiz

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been investigated less than asthma-GER. We aimed to evaluate the presence of GER in patients with COPD and its impact on exacerbations. We included 24 patients with stable mild-moderate stage COPD and 19 volunteers as the control group. We conducted a gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptom questionnaire, gastroscopy, manometry, and an ambulatory 24-h pH-impedance study. According to the GERD questionnaire, only 5 (20.8%) patients with COPD had typical GER symptoms. According to the 24-h pH-impedance study, the mean DeMeester score (DMS) was 38.1 ± 34.6 in the COPD group and 13.3 ± 16.8 in the control group (p = 0.01). The acid reflux (DMS > 14.7) rate was higher in patients with COPD than in controls (73.9% vs 26.3%, p = 0.01). The symptom association probability positivity rate was 17.4% (n = 4) in the COPD group, which was similar to the controls (p = 0.11). The mean proximal extension rate of reflux (Z 17 cm) was 26.4 ± 12.9% in the COPD group. The proximal extent of reflux was positively correlated with the number of COPD exacerbations per year (p = 0.03, r = 0.448). In the motility results, only 2 (20%) patients in the control group had a minor motility disorder. Seventeen (70.8%) patients in the COPD group had a minor motility disorder, and 4 (16.7%) had major motility disorders (p gastroesophageal reflux was frequent in patients with COPD, but only a quarter had typical reflux symptoms. The proximal extent of reflux may trigger frequent exacerbations of COPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Performing Aspirin Desensitization in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease.

    Waldram, Jeremy D; Simon, Ronald A

    2016-11-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is characterized by chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, asthma, and reactions to cyclooxygenase-1-inhibiting drugs. This condition is often refractory to standard medical treatments and results in aggressive nasal polyposis that often requires multiple sinus surgeries. Aspirin desensitization followed by daily aspirin therapy is an important treatment option, and its efficacy has been validated in multiple research studies. Aspirin desensitization is not without risk, but specific protocols and recommendations exist to mitigate the risk. Most patients with AERD can undergo aspirin desensitization in an outpatient setting under the supervision of an allergist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Incidence and outcomes of patients hospitalized with COPD exacerbation with and without pneumonia

    Søgaard M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mette Søgaard,1 Morten Madsen,1 Anders Løkke,2 Ole Hilberg,2 Henrik Toft Sørensen,1 Reimar W Thomsen1 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, Denmark Background: Pneumonia may be a major contributor to hospitalizations for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbation and influence their outcomes.Methods: We examined hospitalization rates, health resource utilization, 30-day mortality, and risk of subsequent hospitalizations for COPD exacerbations with and without pneumonia in Denmark during 2006–2012.Results: We identified 179,759 hospitalizations for COPD exacerbations, including 52,520 first-time hospitalizations (29.2%. Pneumonia was frequent in first-time exacerbations (36.1%, but declined in successive exacerbations to 25.6% by the seventh or greater exacerbation. Pneumonic COPD exacerbations increased 20% from 0.92 per 1,000 population in 2006 to 1.10 per 1,000 population in 2012. Nonpneumonic exacerbations decreased by 6% from 1.74 per 1,000 population to 1.63 per 1,000 population during the same period. A number of markers of health resource utilization were more prevalent in pneumonic exacerbations than in nonpneumonic exacerbations: length of stay (median 7 vs 4 days, intensive care unit admission (7.7% vs 12.5%, and several acute procedures. Thirty-day mortality was 12.1% in first-time pneumonic COPD exacerbations versus 8.3% in first-time nonpneumonic cases (adjusted HR [aHR] 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17–1.24. Pneumonia also predicted increased mortality associated with a second exacerbation (aHR 1.14, 95% CI 1.11–1.18, and up to a seventh or greater exacerbation (aHR 1.10, 95% CI 1.07–1.13. In contrast, the aHR of a subsequent exacerbation was 8%–13% lower for patients with pneumonic exacerbations.Conclusions: Pneumonia is frequent among patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbations and is associated with increased health care

  18. Exacerbation of bronchiectasis by Pseudomonas monteilii: a case report.

    Aditi; Shariff, Malini; Beri, Kiran

    2017-07-24

    Pseudomonas spp are important opportunistic and nosocomial pathogens. One such species is Pseudomonas monteilii (P. monteilii). It has been described as an environmental contaminant and potential pathogen. We identified this organism as the causative agent of an exacerbation of bronchiectasis and an environmental contaminant in our hospital on two separate occasions. P. monteilii was the cause of an exacerbation of bronchiectasis in a 30-year-old HIV negative male. Patient presented with cough with sputum production and exertional dyspnea. The isolate was recovered from a sputum sample in significant counts and definitively identified by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation- Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). He was treated with piperacillin-tazobactam and recovered clinically and microbiologically. Another two isolates of the organism were contaminants from the hospital environment. The three isolates were susceptible to all tested antibiotics. Typing by Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) found no clonal relationship between them. Less common species of Pseudomonas need to be identified accurately. This organism is identified by commonly used phenotypic systems as P. putida which may have contributed to a lower reported prevalence. P. monteilii is a known environmental contaminant and must also be considered as a potential pathogen, particularly in patients with chronic lung disease.

  19. 5-Aminosalicylate intolerance causing exacerbation in pediatric ulcerative colitis.

    Shimizu, Hirotaka; Arai, Katsuhiro; Tang, Julian; Hosoi, Kenji; Funayama, Rie

    2017-05-01

    5-Aminosalicylate (5-ASA) is widely used as the first-line drug for ulcerative colitis (UC). 5-ASA is mostly a safe and effective drug, but it can bring about exacerbation due to 5-ASA intolerance. 5-ASA intolerance can be confusing and it can mislead physicians into considering unnecessary treatment escalation, including corticosteroid (CS), biologics, or even surgery. In spite of the clinical importance of 5-ASA intolerance, there have been few studies on its incidence, clinical features, and diagnosis. In order to evaluate the incidence, characteristic symptoms, disease course, and laboratory data of children with 5-ASA intolerance, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 80 children with UC. Eleven of 80 children (13.8%) with UC were diagnosed with 5-ASA intolerance. The median time between the initiation of 5-ASA and the onset of 5-ASA intolerance was 10 days (range, 4-20 days) in patients not receiving CS. Drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test (DLST) was performed in 10 patients, and was positive in eight. C-reactive protein (CRP) increased significantly when exacerbation of colitis symptoms occurred. The incidence of 5-ASA intolerance was relatively high. Besides the challenge test, elevation of CRP and positive DLST appeared to support the diagnosis of 5-ASA intolerance. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  20. Tic Exacerbation in Adults with Tourette Syndrome: A Case Series

    Sara M. Schaefer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tourette syndrome (TS has been described as peaking in adolescence with subsequent regression. We report patients who were diagnosed with TS during childhood who experienced a latent period (significant reduction in or absence of tics followed by tic re-emergence in adulthood.Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of outpatients over age 21 seen at the Yale neurology clinic between January 2012 and July 2016 who were diagnosed with childhood-onset tics, and who experienced a latent period of greater than 1 year followed by an exacerbation.Results: Sixteen patients were identified. The mean latent period was 16 years. Ten patients (62.5% identified an exacerbation trigger, most commonly changes in substance use (five patients. Seven patients (43.8% reported worsening of tics since childhood. Six patients (37.5% had received pharmacological intervention for tics as children, and 15 patients (93.8% as adults. Six of 15 patients (40.0% had an effective response from those pharmacological intervention(s.Discussion: Our study demonstrates that the decline in symptoms as patients age may represent temporary improvement. The latent period lasted years in our patients, different from the more rapid waxing and waning in children. A change in substance use was an important trigger. Requests for pharmacological intervention were not necessarily correlated with worsening tic severity. 

  1. Tic Exacerbation in Adults with Tourette Syndrome: A Case Series.

    Schaefer, Sara M; Chow, Christopher A; Louis, Elan D; Robakis, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) has been described as peaking in adolescence with subsequent regression. We report patients who were diagnosed with TS during childhood who experienced a latent period (significant reduction in or absence of tics) followed by tic re-emergence in adulthood. We performed a retrospective chart review of outpatients over age 21 seen at the Yale neurology clinic between January 2012 and July 2016 who were diagnosed with childhood-onset tics, and who experienced a latent period of greater than 1 year followed by an exacerbation. Sixteen patients were identified. The mean latent period was 16 years. Ten patients (62.5%) identified an exacerbation trigger, most commonly changes in substance use (five patients). Seven patients (43.8%) reported worsening of tics since childhood. Six patients (37.5%) had received pharmacological intervention for tics as children, and 15 patients (93.8%) as adults. Six of 15 patients (40.0%) had an effective response from those pharmacological intervention(s). Our study demonstrates that the decline in symptoms as patients age may represent temporary improvement. The latent period lasted years in our patients, different from the more rapid waxing and waning in children. A change in substance use was an important trigger. Requests for pharmacological intervention were not necessarily correlated with worsening tic severity.

  2. Chronic Hepatitis B with Spontaneous Severe Acute Exacerbation

    Wei-Lun Tsai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a major global health problem with an estimated 400 million HBV carriers worldwide. In the natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB, spontaneous acute exacerbation (AE is not uncommon, with a cumulative incidence of 10%–30% every year. While exacerbations can be mild, some patients may develop hepatic decompensation and even die. The underlying pathogenesis is possibly related to the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated immune response against HBV. An upsurge of serum HBV DNA usually precedes the rise of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and bilirubin. Whether antiviral treatment can benefit CHB with severe AE remains controversial, but early nucleos(tide analogues treatment seemed to be associated with an improved outcome. There has been no randomized study that compared the effects of different nucleos(tide analogues (NA in the setting of CHB with severe AE. However, potent NAs with good resistance profiles are recommended. In this review, we summarized current knowledge regarding the natural history, pathogenetic mechanisms, and therapeutic options of CHB with severe AE.

  3. Changes in the elasticity of fibroadenoma during the menstrual cycle determined by real-time sonoelastography

    Kılıç, Fahrettin; Kayadibi, Yasemin; Kocael, Pinar; Velidedeoglu, Mehmet; Bas, Ahmet; Bakan, Selim; Aydogan, Fatih; Karatas, Adem; Yılmaz, Mehmet Halit

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We used SWE to evaluate the elasticity of fibroadenomas at different phases of the menstrual cycle, and found significant differences in the premenstrual and postmenstrual stages of the cycle. • We propose that one week after menstruation would be appropriate time to perform breast SWE. • Evaluations for the postmenstrual phase may reduce the false-positive rates of SWE examinations. - Abstract: Objective: Shear-wave elastography (SWE) presents quantitative data that thought to represent intrinsic features of the target tissue. Factors affecting the metabolism of the breast parenchyma as well as age, menstrual cycle, hormone levels, pregnancy and lactation, pre-compression artifact during the examination could affect these elastic intrinsic features. Aim of our study is to determine variation of fibroadenoma elasticity during the menstrual cycle (MC) by means of real-time shear-wave elastography (SWE) and identify the optimal time for SWE evaluation. Methods: Thirty volunteers (aged 20–40 years) who had biopsy-proven fibroadenoma greater than 1 cm in diameter, with regular menstrual cycle and without contraceptive medication underwent SWE (ShearWave on Aixplorer, France) once weekly during MC. Statistical data were processed by using the software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 19.0. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used for each lesion where the repeated factor was the elastographic measurements (premenstrual, menstrual and postmenstrual). Pillai's trace test was used. Pairwise correlation was calculated using Bonferroni correction. Values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The mean elasticity value of fibroadenomas in mid-cycle was 28.49 ± 12.92 kPa, with the highest value obtained in the third week corresponding to the premenstrual stage (32.98 ± 13.35 kPa) and the lowest value obtained in the first week corresponding to the postmenstrual stage (25.39 ± 10.21 k

  4. Changes in the elasticity of fibroadenoma during the menstrual cycle determined by real-time sonoelastography

    Kılıç, Fahrettin; Kayadibi, Yasemin [Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Kocael, Pinar; Velidedeoglu, Mehmet [Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Department of General Surgery (Turkey); Bas, Ahmet; Bakan, Selim [Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Aydogan, Fatih [Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Department of General Surgery (Turkey); Karatas, Adem, E-mail: ysmnkayadibi@gmail.com [Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Department of General Surgery (Turkey); Yılmaz, Mehmet Halit [Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We used SWE to evaluate the elasticity of fibroadenomas at different phases of the menstrual cycle, and found significant differences in the premenstrual and postmenstrual stages of the cycle. • We propose that one week after menstruation would be appropriate time to perform breast SWE. • Evaluations for the postmenstrual phase may reduce the false-positive rates of SWE examinations. - Abstract: Objective: Shear-wave elastography (SWE) presents quantitative data that thought to represent intrinsic features of the target tissue. Factors affecting the metabolism of the breast parenchyma as well as age, menstrual cycle, hormone levels, pregnancy and lactation, pre-compression artifact during the examination could affect these elastic intrinsic features. Aim of our study is to determine variation of fibroadenoma elasticity during the menstrual cycle (MC) by means of real-time shear-wave elastography (SWE) and identify the optimal time for SWE evaluation. Methods: Thirty volunteers (aged 20–40 years) who had biopsy-proven fibroadenoma greater than 1 cm in diameter, with regular menstrual cycle and without contraceptive medication underwent SWE (ShearWave on Aixplorer, France) once weekly during MC. Statistical data were processed by using the software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 19.0. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used for each lesion where the repeated factor was the elastographic measurements (premenstrual, menstrual and postmenstrual). Pillai's trace test was used. Pairwise correlation was calculated using Bonferroni correction. Values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The mean elasticity value of fibroadenomas in mid-cycle was 28.49 ± 12.92 kPa, with the highest value obtained in the third week corresponding to the premenstrual stage (32.98 ± 13.35 kPa) and the lowest value obtained in the first week corresponding to the postmenstrual stage (25.39 ± 10.21 k

  5. Improving menstrual hygiene management in emergency contexts: literature review of current perspectives

    VanLeeuwen C

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Crystal VanLeeuwen, Belen Torondel Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK Abstract: Management of menstruation in contexts of humanitarian emergencies can be challenging. A lack of empirical research about effective interventions which improve menstrual hygiene management (MHM among female populations in humanitarian emergencies and a lack of clarity about which sectors within a humanitarian response should deliver MHM interventions can both be attributable to the lack of clear guidance on design and delivery of culturally appropriate MHM intervention in settings of humanitarian emergencies. The objective of this review was to collate, summarize, and appraise existing peer-reviewed and gray literature that describes the current scenario of MHM in emergency contexts in order to describe the breadth and depth of current policies, guidelines, empirical research, and humanitarian aid activities addressing populations’ menstrual needs. A structured-search strategy was conducted for peer-reviewed and gray literature to identify studies, published reports, guidelines, and policy papers related to menstrual response in emergency humanitarian contexts. Of the 51 articles included in the review, 16 were peer-reviewed papers and 35 were gray literature. Most of the literature agreed that hardware interventions should focus on the supply of adequate material (not only absorbent material but also other supportive material and adequate sanitation facilities, with access to water and private space for washing, changing, drying, and disposing menstrual materials. Software interventions should focus on education in the usage of materials to manage menstruation hygienically and education about the female body’s biological processes. There was clear agreement that the needs of the target population should be assessed before designing any intervention. Although there is insight about which factors should be

  6. Prediction and course of symptoms and lung function around an exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    van den Berge Maarten

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frequent exacerbations induce a high burden to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD. We investigated the course of exacerbations in the published COSMIC study that investigated the effects of 1-year withdrawal of fluticasone after a 3-month run-in treatment period with salmeterol/fluticasone in patients with COPD. Methods In 373 patients, we evaluated diary cards for symptoms, Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF, and salbutamol use and assessed their course during exacerbations. Results There were 492 exacerbations in 224 patients. The level of symptoms of cough, sputum, dyspnea and nocturnal awakening steadily increased from 2 weeks prior to exacerbation, with a sharp rise during the last week. Symptoms of cough, sputum, and dyspnea reverted to baseline values at different rates (after 4, 4, and 7 weeks respectively, whereas symptoms of nocturnal awakening were still increased after eight weeks. The course of symptoms was similar around a first and second exacerbation. Increases in symptoms and salbutamol use and decreases in PEF were associated with a higher risk to develop an exacerbation, but with moderate predictive values, the areas under the receiver operating curves ranging from 0.63 to 0.70. Conclusions Exacerbations of COPD are associated with increased symptoms that persist for weeks and the course is very similar between a first and second exacerbation. COPD exacerbations are preceded by increased symptoms and salbutamol use and lower PEF, yet predictive values are too low to warrant daily use in clinical practice.

  7. Factors influencing exacerbation-related self-management in patients with COPD: a qualitative study.

    Korpershoek, Yjg; Vervoort, Scjm; Nijssen, Lit; Trappenburg, Jca; Schuurmans, M J

    2016-01-01

    In patients with COPD, self-management skills are important to reduce the impact of exacerbations. However, both detection and adequate response to exacerbations appear to be difficult for some patients. Little is known about the underlying process of exacerbation-related self-management. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify and explain the underlying process of exacerbation-related self-management behavior. A qualitative study using semi-structured in-depth interviews was performed according to the grounded theory approach, following a cyclic process in which data collection and data analysis alternated. Fifteen patients (male n=8; age range 59-88 years) with mild to very severe COPD were recruited from primary and secondary care settings in the Netherlands, in 2015. Several patterns in exacerbation-related self-management behavior were identified, and a conceptual model describing factors influencing exacerbation-related self-management was developed. Acceptance, knowledge, experiences with exacerbations, perceived severity of symptoms and social support were important factors influencing exacerbation-related self-management. Specific factors influencing recognition of exacerbations were heterogeneity of exacerbations and habituation to symptoms. Feelings of fear, perceived influence on exacerbation course, patient beliefs, ambivalence toward treatment, trust in health care providers and self-empowerment were identified as specific factors influencing self-management actions. This study provided insight into factors influencing exacerbation-related self-management behavior in COPD patients. The conceptual model can be used as a framework for health care professionals providing self-management support. In the development of future self-management interventions, factors influencing the process of exacerbation-related self-management should be taken into account.

  8. Antibody deficiency in patients with frequent exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    McCullagh, Brian N; Comellas, Alejandro P; Ballas, Zuhair K; Newell, John D; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Azar, Antoine E

    2017-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is the third leading cause of death in the US, and is associated with periodic exacerbations, which account for the largest proportion of health care utilization, and lead to significant morbidity, mortality, and worsening lung function. A subset of patients with COPD have frequent exacerbations, occurring 2 or more times per year. Despite many interventions to reduce COPD exacerbations, there is a significant lack of knowledge in regards to their mechanisms and predisposing factors. We describe here an important observation that defines antibody deficiency as a potential risk factor for frequent COPD exacerbations. We report a case series of patients who have frequent COPD exacerbations, and who were found to have an underlying primary antibody deficiency syndrome. We also report on the outcome of COPD exacerbations following treatment in a subset with of these patients with antibody deficiency. We identified patients with COPD who had 2 or more moderate to severe exacerbations per year; immune evaluation including serum immunoglobulin levels and pneumococcal IgG titers was performed. Patients diagnosed with an antibody deficiency syndrome were treated with either immunoglobulin replacement therapy or prophylactic antibiotics, and their COPD exacerbations were monitored over time. A total of 42 patients were identified who had 2 or more moderate to severe COPD exacerbations per year. Twenty-nine patients had an underlying antibody deficiency syndrome: common variable immunodeficiency (8), specific antibody deficiency (20), and selective IgA deficiency (1). Twenty-two patients had a follow-up for at least 1 year after treatment of their antibody deficiency, which resulted in a significant reduction of COPD exacerbations, courses of oral corticosteroid use and cumulative annual dose of oral corticosteroid use, rescue antibiotic use, and hospitalizations for COPD exacerbations. This case series identifies antibody deficiency as a

  9. Women at Altitude: Effect of Menstrual-Cycle Phase on Acute Mountain Sickness During Deployment to High Altitude Terrain

    Rock, Paul

    2001-01-01

    The physiologic responses to the cyclic fluctuations in ovarian steroid hormones associated with the menstrual cycle in women are well known to affect certain disease states and could alter responses...

  10. The Effects of Melatonin on Menstrual Characteristics, Prolactin and Premenstrual Syndrome-Like Symptoms During a Simulated Eastward Deployment

    Kirby, Albert

    1998-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the effect of exogenous melatonin (10 mg) given at bedtime (2300) for 7 consecutive days during the late follicular and early luteal phase of the monthly cycle, on menstrual characteristics...

  11. Menstrual Hygiene, Management, and Waste Disposal: Practices and Challenges Faced by Girls/Women of Developing Countries

    Rajanbir Kaur; Kanwaljit Kaur; Rajinder Kaur

    2018-01-01

    Menstruation and menstrual practices still face many social, cultural, and religious restrictions which are a big barrier in the path of menstrual hygiene management. In many parts of the country especially in rural areas girls are not prepared and aware about menstruation so they face many difficulties and challenges at home, schools, and work places. While reviewing literature, we found that little, inaccurate, or incomplete knowledge about menstruation is a great hindrance in the path of p...

  12. Effects of carbohydrate supplements on exercise-induced menstrual dysfunction and ovarian subcellular structural changes in rats

    Can Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Female adult rats with 9-week continuous exercise can cause menstrual dysregulation as a model for EAMD. Post-EAMD intervention with glucose and oligosaccharide intake can normalize the menstrual cycle, restore the follicular subcellular structure, and reverse the exercise-induced reduction of ovary sex hormones. It suggests a positive feedback of hypothalamus–pituitary–ovary axis might be involved in the molecular mechanisms of energy intake in treating EAMD.

  13. Association between Body Weight Changes and Menstrual Irregularity: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012.

    Ko, Kyung Min; Han, Kyungdo; Chung, Youn Jee; Yoon, Kun Ho; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2017-06-01

    Menstrual irregularity is an indicator of endocrine disorders and reproductive health status. It is associated with various diseases and medical conditions, including obesity and underweight. We aimed to assess the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity in Korean women. A total of 4,621 women 19 to 54 years of age who participated in the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect medical information assessing menstrual health status and body weight changes. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to evaluate the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity. Significantly higher ORs (95% CI) were observed in the association between menstrual irregularity and both weight loss (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.48) and weight gain (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.86) after adjusting for age, body mass index, current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, calorie intake, education, income, metabolic syndrome, age of menarche, parity, and stress perception. Of note, significant associations were only observed in subjects with obesity and abdominal obesity, but not in non-obese or non-abdominally obese subjects. U-shaped patterns were demonstrated in both obese and abdominally obese subjects, indicating that greater changes in body weight are associated with higher odds of menstrual irregularity. We found a U-shaped pattern of association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity among obese women in the general Korean population. This result indicates that not only proper weight management but also changes in body weight may influence the regulation of the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2017 Korean Endocrine Society

  14. Association between Body Weight Changes and Menstrual Irregularity: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012

    Kyung Min Ko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMenstrual irregularity is an indicator of endocrine disorders and reproductive health status. It is associated with various diseases and medical conditions, including obesity and underweight. We aimed to assess the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity in Korean women.MethodsA total of 4,621 women 19 to 54 years of age who participated in the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect medical information assessing menstrual health status and body weight changes. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated to evaluate the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity.ResultsSignificantly higher ORs (95% CI were observed in the association between menstrual irregularity and both weight loss (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.48 and weight gain (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.86 after adjusting for age, body mass index, current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, calorie intake, education, income, metabolic syndrome, age of menarche, parity, and stress perception. Of note, significant associations were only observed in subjects with obesity and abdominal obesity, but not in non-obese or non-abdominally obese subjects. U-shaped patterns were demonstrated in both obese and abdominally obese subjects, indicating that greater changes in body weight are associated with higher odds of menstrual irregularity.ConclusionWe found a U-shaped pattern of association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity among obese women in the general Korean population. This result indicates that not only proper weight management but also changes in body weight may influence the regulation of the menstrual cycle.

  15. Altered cell cycle-related gene expression in brain and lymphocytes from a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease [amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (PS1)].

    Esteras, Noemí; Bartolomé, Fernando; Alquézar, Carolina; Antequera, Desireé; Muñoz, Úrsula; Carro, Eva; Martín-Requero, Ángeles

    2012-09-01

    Cumulative evidence indicates that aberrant re-expression of many cell cycle-related proteins and inappropriate neuronal cell cycle control are critical events in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Evidence of cell cycle activation in post-mitotic neurons has also been observed in murine models of AD, despite the fact that most of these mice do not show massive loss of neuronal bodies. Dysfunction of the cell cycle appears to affect cells other than neurons, as peripheral cells, such as lymphocytes and fibroblasts from patients with AD, show an altered response to mitogenic stimulation. We sought to determine whether cell cycle disturbances are present simultaneously in both brain and peripheral cells from the amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin 1 (PS1) mouse model of AD, in order to validate the use of peripheral cells from patients not only to study cell cycle abnormalities as a pathogenic feature of AD, but also as a means to test novel therapeutic approaches. By using cell cycle pathway-specific RT(2)Profiler™ PCR Arrays, we detected changes in a number of cell cycle-related genes in brain as well as in lymphocytes from APP/PS1 mice. Moreover, we found enhanced 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation into DNA in lymphocytes from APP/PS1 mice, and increased expression of the cell proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor Cdkn2a, as detected by immunohistochemistry in cortical neurons of the APP/PS1 mice. Taken together, the cell cycle-related changes in brain and blood cells reported here support the mitosis failure hypothesis in AD and validate the use of peripheral cells as surrogate tissue to study the molecular basis of AD pathogenesis. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Short term effects of kinesio taping on pain and functional disability in young females with menstrual low back pain: A randomised control trial study.

    Forozeshfard, Mohammad; Bakhtiary, Amir Hoshang; Aminianfar, Atefeh; Sheikhian, Sajedeh; Akbarzadeh, Zeinab

    2016-11-21

    Menstrual low back pain (LBP) in young females can reduce daily activity and cause functional disability, while the progressive application of kinesio-taping (KT) on pain reduction and functional correction has been stated. This study has been designed to investigate the efficacy of the lumbar vertebral column KT in young female with menstrual LBP. Thirty-two young females with menstrual LBP participated in this crossover study and were assigned randomly in two separate groups. The first group received KT during their first menstrual cycle and No-KT in their next menstrual, while the other group had no KT during the first mentrual cycle and received KT during the next menstrual cycle. The primary outcome measurements included the visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain, Oswestry disability index and McGill pain questionnaire score which were planned to collect at the end of the third day of the menstrual cycle. Comparing pain and disability between two conditions, of menstrual cycle with KT and menstrual cycle without KT, revealed significant reduction in VAS (mean change = 1.7; 95%CI = 0.6 to 2.8; P= 0.005), McGill pain score (mean change = 20.1; 95%CI = 8.7 to 31.3; P= 0.001) and functional disability (mean change = 12.3; 95%CI = 7.2 to 17.5; Pkinesiotaping in young females with menstrual LBP.

  17. Prediction of exacerbation chronic bronchopulmonary diseases in children with influenza

    O. I. Afanaseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective: To develop a method for predicting exacerbation of chronic illness in children with asthma and cystic fibrosis, patients with influenza, based on the study of the dynamics of cytokines. Materials and methods: Were examined 52 patients with bronchial asthma and 45 children with cystic fibrosis at the age from 1 year to 12 years, located in infectious pulmonary Department at the planned treatment of underlying pathology, in which influenza was in-hospital infection. Control group observations included 40 patients with the flu, without concomitant pulmonary disease. The etiology of viral infection was established by detection of viral RNA in nasopharyngeal swabs by PCR. Among the influenza viruses were identified influenza АH1N1, АH3N2, influenza B, and in 2009–2010 the predominant antigen was the pandemic influenza virus АH1N1pdm09. Determination of the concentration of serum interleukins IL-1β, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, ТNF-α, IFN-γ was performed in the 1st and 3rd day of hospitalization cytokines by the solid-phase immune-enzyme assay. Analysis of the results performed using statistical package SPSS 17.0 EN for Windows. Results: The flu caused the aggravation associated bronchopulmonary pathology in 2/3 of children, as MV patients, and patients with BA (65,4%-66,7%, respectively. With an increase of the ratio of IL-4 / IFN-γ and IL-10/IFN-γ, at least 5-6 times, influenza can be considered a trigger of exacerbation of chronic bronchopulmonary pathologies that require amplification of the therapy of bronchial asthma and of сystic fibrosis. The growth of prognostic coefficients in 2-3 times allows using for treatment of influenza in these patients only antiviral agents. Conclusion: The study has shown a method for predicting exacerbation of bronchial asthma and cystic fibrosis in children at an early stage of influenza by calculating the ratio of IL-4/IFN-γ and IL-10/IFN-γ in children aged from 1 year to 12 years. 

  18. Bevacizumab Exacerbates Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathy: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Ayumu Matsuoka

    Full Text Available Bevacizumab (BEV, a humanized anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF monoclonal antibody, enhances the antitumor effectiveness of paclitaxel (PTX-based chemotherapy in many metastatic cancers. A recent study in mice showed that VEGF receptor inhibitors can interfere with the neuroprotective effects of endogenous VEGF, potentially triggering the exacerbation of PTX-induced neuropathy. In clinical trials, exacerbation of neuropathy in patients who received PTX combined with BEV (PTX+BEV has generally been explained by increased exposure to PTX owing to the extended duration of chemotherapy. We investigated whether the concurrent use of BEV is associated with the exacerbation of PTX-induced neuropathy.Female patients with breast cancer who had received weekly PTX or PTX+BEV from September 2011 through May 2016 were studied retrospectively. PTX-induced neuropathy was evaluated at the same time points (at the 6th and 12th courses of chemotherapy in both cohorts. A multivariate Cox proportional-hazards model was used to assess the independent effect of BEV on the time to the onset of neuropathy.A total of 107 patients (median age, 55 years; range, 32-83 were studied. Sixty-one patients received PTX as adjuvant chemotherapy, 23 received PTX for metastatic disease, and 23 received PTX+BEV for metastatic disease. Peripheral sensory neuropathy was worse in patients who received PTX+BEV than in those who received PTX alone: at the 6th course, Grade 0/1/2/3 = 4/13/4/0 vs. 25/42/6/0 (P = 0.095; at the 12th course, 2/3/11/3 vs. 7/30/23/2 (P = 0.016. At the 12th course, the incidence of Grade 2 or higher neuropathy was significantly higher in patients treated with PTX+BEV than in those treated with PTX alone (74% vs. 40%; P = 0.017. In multivariate analysis, BEV was significantly associated with an increased risk of neuropathy (HR 2.32, 95% CI 1.21-4.44, P = 0.012.The concurrent use of BEV could worsen PTX-induced neuropathy in patients with breast

  19. Delayed Diagnosis of Vesicouterine Fistula After Treatment for Mixed Urinary Incontinence: Menstrual Cup Management and Diagnosis.

    Goldberg, Leah; Elsamra, Sammy; Hutchinson-Colas, Juana; Segal, Saya

    2016-01-01

    A vesicouterine fistula is a rare form of urogenital fistula, yet there is increasing prevalence in the United States because of the rising rate of cesarean deliveries. Vesicouterine fistulas have various presentations including menouria, hematuria, or urinary incontinence. A 39-year-old multiparous woman presented with urine leakage after her third cesarean delivery. She had been treated for mixed urinary incontinence with overactive bladder medications and a midurethral sling with continued complaints of urine leakage. The patient noticed her symptoms of urine leakage improved during menses when she used a menstrual cup. After confirmation of vesicouterine fistula, the patient underwent robotic-assisted surgery and her symptoms of insensible urine leakage resolved. When evaluating women with urinary incontinence and a history of cesarean deliveries, use of menstrual cup may aid in the diagnosis of vesicouterine fistula. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic repair with tissue interposition flap is an efficacious minimally invasive method for treatment of vesicouterine fistula.

  20. Menstrual cyclicity post OC withdrawal in PCOS: Use of non-hormonal options.

    Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Arora, Arpita; Pahuja, Isha; Sharma, Neera; Pant, Shubhi

    2016-08-01

    There is no data on menstrual cyclicity post oral contraceptive (OC) withdrawal with nonhormonal options in PCOS patients. OC could affect obesity, insulin and gonadotropins factors integral to pathogenesis of PCOS, thereby adversely affecting the HPG axis. Menstrual cycles of PCOS patients were retrospectively studied post OCP. Patients developing regular versus irregular cycles post OC were compared. Forty-eight PCOS patients were followed for an average of 1.9 years post OC. Thirty-six (75%) achieved regular cycles over a period of one year with other nonhormonal options like spironolactone and metformin. Seven patients required no treatment. Patients who continued to have irregular cycles had a longer pre OC cycle length (p PCOS may not require any treatment post OC.

  1. The menstrual cycle and sexual behavior: relationship to eating, exercise, sleep, and health patterns.

    Brown, Susan G; Morrison, Lynn A; Calibuso, Marites J; Christiansen, Tess M

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of eating, exercise, sleep, and health were investigated across 180 menstrual cycles of 89 women who engaged in sex with a male (n = 45; cycles = 85), a female (n = 21; cycles = 37), or abstained from sex (n = 33; cycles = 58) from January 2005 to December 2007 (10 contributed to 2 groups). Cycles were divided into 5 phases based on their luteinizing hormone surges. Daily questionnaires and saliva for IgA and cortisol analyses were obtained. Women indicated that they ate more (p Sexually active women had lower cortisol and IgA levels than abstinent women (p = .02). Our study discovered, and confirmed, systematic differences in eating, sleeping, and health patterns across women's menstrual cycles.

  2. Luteinizing hormone receptors in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    Yamoto, M.; Nakano, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Ikoma, H.; Furukawa, K.

    1986-01-01

    The binding of 125 I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (hLH) to the 2000-g fraction of human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the entire menstrual cycle was examined. Specific high affinity, low capacity receptors for hLH were demonstrated in the 2000-g fraction of both follicles and corpora lutea. Specific binding of 125 I-labeled hLH to follicular tissue increased from the early follicular phase to the ovulatory phase. Specific binding of 125 I-labeled hLH to luteal tissue increased from the early luteal phase to the midluteal phase and decreased towards the late luteal phase. The results of the present study indicate that the increase and decrease in receptors for hLH during the menstrual cycle might play an important role in the regulation of the ovarian cycle

  3. Randomized Trial of Modified Stretching Exercise Program for Menstrual Low Back Pain.

    Chen, Huei-Mein; Hu, Hsou-Mei

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a modified stretching exercise program on young women with menstrual low back pain. Overall, 127 young women were randomly assigned to the experimental ( n = 63) and control ( n = 64) groups. The experimental group followed the modified stretching exercise program, whereas the control group performed their usual activities. At 1, 4, 8, and 12 months, the experimental group had significantly lower scores on the visual analog scale for pain (95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.73, 1.96]; p < .05) and the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire than the control group (95% CI = [0.68, 2.03]; p < .001). At 12 months, the experimental group showed significantly higher exercise self-efficacy than the control group (95% CI = [-6.87, 0.62]; p = .003). These findings can be used to enhance self-care capabilities by using the modified stretching exercise program for young women with menstrual low back pain.

  4. Serum Leptin Concentrations during the Menstrual Cycle in Iranian Healthy Women

    Nahid Einollahi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, a circulating 16-kd polypeptide consisting of 167 amino acids, appears to be involved in the body weight homeostasis. Moreover leptin plays an important role for the reproductive system, early embryogenesis, and fat metabolism during pregnancy and puberty. Significant correlations have been found between leptin and sexual hormones, which is a cytokine and has hormonal properties. The aim of this study was to determine serum leptin levels during the menstrual cycle, and the association between serum leptin and reproductive hormones in young, healthy Iranian women. 42 healthy women volunteered for the study. They all had regular menstrual cycles, with cycle length varying between 26 and 32 days. None of them used oral contraceptives. All were of normal weight, with body mass index ( BMI

  5. Luteinizing hormone receptors in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    Yamoto, M.; Nakano, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Ikoma, H.; Furukawa, K.

    1986-08-01

    The binding of /sup 125/I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (hLH) to the 2000-g fraction of human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the entire menstrual cycle was examined. Specific high affinity, low capacity receptors for hLH were demonstrated in the 2000-g fraction of both follicles and corpora lutea. Specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hLH to follicular tissue increased from the early follicular phase to the ovulatory phase. Specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hLH to luteal tissue increased from the early luteal phase to the midluteal phase and decreased towards the late luteal phase. The results of the present study indicate that the increase and decrease in receptors for hLH during the menstrual cycle might play an important role in the regulation of the ovarian cycle.

  6. Development of the Military Women's Attitudes Toward Menstrual Suppression Scale: from construct definition to pilot testing.

    Trego, Lori L

    2009-01-01

    The Military Women's Attitudes Toward Menstrual Suppression scale (MWATMS) was created to measure attitudes toward menstrual suppression during deployment. The human health and social ecology theories were integrated to conceptualize an instrument that accounts for military-unique aspects of the environment on attitudes toward suppression. A three-step instrument development process was followed to develop the MWATMS. The instrument was pilot tested on a convenience sample of 206 military women with deployment experience. Reliability was tested with measures of internal consistency (alpha = .97); validity was tested with principal components analysis with varimax rotation. Four components accounted for 65% of variance: Benefits/Interest, Hygiene, Convenience, and Soldier/Stress. The pilot test of the MWATMS supported its reliability and validity. Further testing is warranted for validation of this instrument.

  7. Influences of menstrual cycle position and sex hormone levels on spontaneous intrusive recollections following emotional stimuli.

    Ferree, Nikole K; Kamat, Rujvi; Cahill, Larry

    2011-12-01

    Spontaneous intrusive recollections (SIRs) are known to follow emotional events in clinical and non-clinical populations. Previous work in our lab has found that women report more SIRs than men after exposure to emotional films, and that this effect is driven entirely by women in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. To replicate and extend this finding, participants viewed emotional films, provided saliva samples for sex hormone concentration analysis, and estimated SIR frequency following film viewing. Women in the luteal phase reported significantly more SIRs than did women in the follicular phase, and SIR frequency significantly correlated with salivary progesterone levels. The results are consistent with an emerging pattern in the literature suggesting that menstrual cycle position of female participants can potently influence findings in numerous cognitive domains. The potential implications of these results for disorders characterized by intrusions, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene amongst adolescent school girls in Kano, Northwestern Nigeria.

    Lawan, U M; Yusuf, Nafisa Wali; Musa, Aisha Bala

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the knowledge and practices of adolescent school girls in Kano, Nigeria around menstruation and menstrual hygiene. Data was collected quantitatively and analyzed using Epi info version 3.2.05. The mean age of the students was 14.4 +/- 1.2 years; majority was in their mid adolescence. The students attained menarche at 12.9 +/- 0.8 years. Majority had fair knowledge of menstruation, although deficient in specific knowledge areas. Most of them used sanitary pads as absorbent during their last menses; changed menstrual dressings about 1-5 times per day; and three-quarter increased the frequency of bathing. Institutionalizing sexuality education in Nigerian schools; developing and disseminating sensitive adolescent reproductive health massages targeted at both parents and their adolescent children; and improving access of the adolescents to youth friendly services are veritable means of meeting the adolescent reproductive health needs in Nigeria.

  9. Levonorgestrel intrauterine system: Current role in management of heavy menstrual bleeding

    Navneet Magon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of literature was conducted to report on the effectiveness of levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS in women with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB. The relevant data were obtained by computerized searches of PubMed up to December 2012 and other references available with the authors. Information was obtained from references listed. Studies and case reports were excluded if they did not specifically provide information about LNG-IUS usage in women with HMB. After perusal, each relevant publication was summarized and appraised in terms of whether it contained information relevant to the stated objective. Available data shows that LNG-IUS therapy is effective and safe, providing significant reduction of menstrual bleeding in patients with HMB. LNG-IUS is a good strategy to reduce the number of hysterectomies in women with HMB.

  10. Frequency of exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an analysis of the SPIROMICS cohort.

    Han, MeiLan K; Quibrera, Pedro M; Carretta, Elizabeth E; Barr, R Graham; Bleecker, Eugene R; Bowler, Russell P; Cooper, Christopher B; Comellas, Alejandro; Couper, David J; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Criner, Gerard; Dransfield, Mark T; Hansel, Nadia N; Hoffman, Eric A; Kanner, Richard E; Krishnan, Jerry A; Martinez, Carlos H; Pirozzi, Cheryl B; O'Neal, Wanda K; Rennard, Stephen; Tashkin, Donald P; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Woodruff, Prescott; Paine, Robert; Martinez, Fernando J

    2017-08-01

    Present treatment strategies to stratify exacerbation risk in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rely on a history of two or more events in the previous year. We aimed to understand year to year variability in exacerbations and factors associated with consistent exacerbations over time. In this longitudinal, prospective analysis of exacerbations in the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) cohort, we analysed patients aged 40-80 years with COPD for whom 3 years of prospective data were available, identified through various means including care at academic and non-academic medical centres, word of mouth, and existing patient registries. Participants were enrolled in the study between Nov 12, 2010, and July 31, 2015. We classified patients according to yearly exacerbation frequency: no exacerbations in any year; one exacerbation in every year during 3 years of follow-up; and those with inconsistent exacerbations (individuals who had both years with exacerbations and years without during the 3 years of follow-up). Participants were characterised by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) spirometric category (1-4) on the basis of post-bronchodilator FEV 1 . Stepwise logistic regression was used to compare factors associated with one or more acute exacerbations of COPD every year for 3 years versus no exacerbations in the same timeframe. Additionally, a stepwise zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to assess predictors of exacerbation count during follow-up in all patients with available data. Baseline symptom burden was assessed with the COPD assessment test. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01969344. 2981 patients were enrolled during the study. 1843 patients had COPD, of which 1105 patients had 3 years of complete, prospective follow-up data. 538 (49%) of 1105 patients had at least one acute exacerbation during the 3 years of follow-up, whereas

  11. Influences of the Menstrual Phase on Cortisol Response to Stress in Nicotine Dependent Women: A Preliminary Examination.

    Nakajima, Motohiro; Allen, Sharon; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2018-04-10

    Evidence indicates that menstrual cycle phase plays a role in smoking withdrawal symptoms and craving. Stress increases these symptoms. Whether the stress regulatory mechanism is associated with menstrual phase and withdrawal symptoms is not well understood. Thirty-seven female smokers and 16 female nonsmokers were asked to complete a laboratory session. In each group, approximately half of the participants were tested when they were in the follicular phase and the other half was tested in the luteal phase. The session included resting baseline, stress, and recovery periods. Saliva samples for the measurement of cortisol and subjective measures of craving and withdrawal symptoms were collected at the end of each period. A series of repeated measures ANCOVAs found a significant smoking group x menstrual phase x sampling time interaction in cortisol levels (p < .05). Follow-up analyses indicated a reduced cortisol stress response in the luteal group relative to the follicular group in smokers (p < .02). This difference was not found in nonsmokers. Menstrual cycle phase is related to hormonal stress response and smoking withdrawal symptomatology. We show influences of the menstrual cycle phase on stress response among smokers. This is demonstrated by a reduced cortisol response to stress in the luteal group relative to the follicular group among smokers. This menstrual phase difference was not found in nonsmokers.

  12. The Effect of Aromatherapy Abdominal Massage on Alleviating Menstrual Pain in Nursing Students: A Prospective Randomized Cross-Over Study

    Marzouk, Tyseer M. F.; El-Nemer, Amina M. R.; Baraka, Hany N.

    2013-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a common cause of sickness absenteeism from both classes and work. This study investigated the effect of aromatherapy massage on a group of nursing students who are suffering of primary dysmenorrhea. A randomized blind clinical trial of crossover design was used. In the first treatment phase, group 1 (n = 48) received aromatherapy abdominal massage once daily for seven days prior to menstruation using the essential oils (cinnamon, clove, rose, and lavender in a base of almond oil). Group 2 (n = 47) received the same intervention but with placebo oil (almond oil). In the second treatment phase, the two groups switched to alternate regimen. Level and duration of pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were evaluated at the baseline and after each treatment phase. During both treatment phases, the level and duration of menstrual pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were significantly lower in the aromatherapy group than in the placebo group. These results suggests that aromatherapy is effective in alleviating menstrual pain, its duration and excessive menstrual bleeding. Aromatherapy can be provided as a nonpharmacological pain relief measure and as a part of nursing care given to girls suffering of dysmenorrhea, or excessive menstrual bleeding. PMID:23662151

  13. Evidence from neuroimaging for the role of the menstrual cycle in the interplay of emotion and cognition.

    Julia eSacher

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Women show increased predisposition for certain psychiatric disorders, such as depression, that are associated with disturbances in the integration of emotion and cognition. While this suggests that sex hormones need to be considered as modulating factors in the regulation of emotion, we still lack a sound understanding of how the menstrual cycle impacts emotional states and cognitive function. Though signals for the influence of the menstrual cycle on the integration of emotion and cognition have appeared as secondary findings in numerous behavioral and neuroimaging studies, this has only very rarely been the primary research goal. This review summarizes evidence: (1 that the menstrual cycle modulates the integration of emotional and cognitive processing on a behavioral level, and (2 that this change in behavior can be associated with functional, molecular and structural changes in the brain during a specific menstrual cycle phase. The growing evidence for menstrual cycle-specific differences suggests a modulating role for sex hormones on the neural networks supporting the integration of emotional and cognitive information. It will further be discussed what methodological aspects need to be considered to capture the role of the menstrual cycle in the emotion-cognition interplay more systematically.

  14. Effects of a Bovine Lactoferrin Formulation from Cow’s Milk on Menstrual Distress in Volunteers: A Randomized, Crossover Study

    Hiroshi M. Ueno

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dysmenorrhea is a highly prevalent complaint and highly undiagnosed gynecologic condition. Dairy products have a potential in the management of menstrual distress, and bovine lactoferrin can help the subjective dysphoria associated with dysmenorrhea. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of a lactoferrin formulation isolated from cow’s milk on menstrual symptoms in volunteers. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of the iron-lactoferrin complex (FeLf was performed in thirty-five healthy Japanese women. Participants received the 150 mg FeLf (per day or placebo from day ten of the luteal phase to day four of the follicular phase. The Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ was measured for menstrual distress, and heart rate variability was measured as an index of autonomic nerve balance during menses. A visual analog scale for menstrual pain, and a verbal rating scale for quality of life during the first three days of menstruation were measured. The MDQ score for the automatic nervous system subscale was lower and the parasympathetic nervous system activity was greater in FeLf than in placebo for intention-to-treat or per-protocol populations. The other variables were not different between the groups. No treatment-related side effects were observed during the study. The results indicate that FeLf can provide a beneficial effect on the psychological symptoms in women affected by menstrual distress.

  15. The Effect of Aromatherapy Abdominal Massage on Alleviating Menstrual Pain in Nursing Students: A Prospective Randomized Cross-Over Study

    Tyseer M. F. Marzouk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysmenorrhea is a common cause of sickness absenteeism from both classes and work. This study investigated the effect of aromatherapy massage on a group of nursing students who are suffering of primary dysmenorrhea. A randomized blind clinical trial of crossover design was used. In the first treatment phase, group 1 ( received aromatherapy abdominal massage once daily for seven days prior to menstruation using the essential oils (cinnamon, clove, rose, and lavender in a base of almond oil. Group 2 ( received the same intervention but with placebo oil (almond oil. In the second treatment phase, the two groups switched to alternate regimen. Level and duration of pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were evaluated at the baseline and after each treatment phase. During both treatment phases, the level and duration of menstrual pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were significantly lower in the aromatherapy group than in the placebo group. These results suggests that aromatherapy is effective in alleviating menstrual pain, its duration and excessive menstrual bleeding. Aromatherapy can be provided as a nonpharmacological pain relief measure and as a part of nursing care given to girls suffering of dysmenorrhea, or excessive menstrual bleeding.

  16. Prevalence of menstrual problems and their association with psychological stress in young female students studying health sciences

    Nazish Rafique

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify the prevalence of various menstrual problems in young females studying health sciences and to identify their association with academic stress. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in the health colleges of Immam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia between February 2015 and February 2016. Seven hundred and thirty-eight female students aged 18-25 years anonymously completed menstrual problem identification and perceived stress scale questionnaire. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16.0. Results: Ninety-one percent of the students were suffering from some kind of menstrual problem. The different menstrual problems reported, and their incidences included irregular menstruation (27%, abnormal vaginal bleeding (9.3%, amenorrhea (9.2%, menorrhagia (3.4%, dysmenorrhea (89.7%, and premenstrual symptoms (46.7%. High perceived stress (HPS was identified in 39% of the students. A significant positive correlation was found between HPS and menstrual problems. Students with HPS had 4 times, 2 times, and 2.8 times increased odds ratio for experiencing amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual syndrome (p less than 0.05. Conclusion: The most prevalent menstrual problems (dysmenorrhea and premenstrual symptoms in the target population were strongly associated with stress. Therefore, it is recommended that health science students should be provided with early psychological and gynecological counselling to prevent future complications.

  17. Comparison of menstrual disorders in hospital nursing staff according to shift work pattern.

    Albert-Sabater, Josep Amílcar; Martínez, José Miguel; Baste, Valborg; Moen, Bente E; Ronda-Perez, Elena

    2016-11-01

    To assess the association between work in a rotating shift schedule and menstruation characteristics among nurse staff in a prospective study. Rotating shifts have been linked to alterations in the reproductive cycle. In the case of menstrual alterations, the conclusions are not clear. Prospective epidemiological study with follow-up over four months. All the female nurse staff (shifts and characteristics of their menstruation (duration, amount of blood, dysmenorrhoea). They had two types of shifts: (1) Rotating shift schedule (two mornings, two afternoons, one night and two days off) including morning shifts (8:00-15:00), afternoon/evening shifts (15:00-22:00) and night shifts (22:00-8:00), and (2) Day shift schedule including morning shifts (8:00-15:00) and/or afternoon/evening shifts (15:00-22:00). The crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were calculated using logistic generalised estimating equations (GEE) taking into account the correlations of multiple cycles per worker. One hundred and thirteen workers on the rotating shift and 75 on the day shift participated, and information from 730 menstrual cycles were obtained. There were no differences in prolonged duration, dysmenorrhoea, prolonged duration dysmenorrhoea and excessive bleeding among nurses on rotating shift compared to those on the day shift. For prolonged duration of menstruation, workers with more than five years on the rotating shift showed a slightly lower (nonsignificant) risk compared with those with shift did not show increased risk of having menstrual disorders comparing with day staff. Shifts with short rotation cycles and a progressive sequence do not appear to cause menstrual disorders in nurse staff who work rotating shifts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Urinary steroid profile in females - the impact of menstrual cycle and emergency contraceptives.

    Mullen, Jenny E; Thörngren, John-Olof; Schulze, Jenny J; Ericsson, Magnus; Gårevik, Nina; Lehtihet, Mikael; Ekström, Lena

    2017-07-01

    Today's doping tests involving longitudinal monitoring of steroid profiles are difficult in women. Women have more complex hormonal fluctuations than men and commonly take drugs such as hormonal contraceptives that are shown to affect biomarkers used in these doping tests. In this study, we followed six women's urinary steroid profile during one menstrual cycle, including both glucuronides and sulfate conjugated fractions. Additionally, we studied what happens to the steroidal module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) after administration of an emergency contraceptive (levonorgestrel, NorLevo®). The study shows that there are large individual variations in all metabolites included in the ABP and that the administration of emergency contraceptives may lead to suspicious steroid profile findings in the ABP. Urinary epitestosterone concentration increased during the menstrual cycle, leading to a decrease in the testosterone/epitestosterone ratio. The ratios followed in the ABP varied widely throughout the menstrual cycle, the coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 4 to 99%. There was a 3-fold decrease in epitestosterone 24 h post administration of the emergency contraceptive pill and androsterone, etiocholanolone, and 5β- androstan-3α,17β-diol concentrations decreased about 2-fold. When analyzed with the ABP software, one of the six women had an atypical profile after taking the emergency contraceptive. Furthermore, we could not find any alterations in excretion routes (i.e., if the metabolites are excreted as glucuronide or sulfate conjugates) during the menstrual cycle or after administration of emergency contraceptive, indicating no direct effect on phase II enzymes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES ABOUT MENSTRUAL HYGIENE AMONG HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL GIRLS

    Pragya Verma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Issues related to menstruation and its practices are still foggy due to taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining uninformed of the technical facts and hygienic practices to keep good health that is why sometimes it results in to adverse health outcomes. Objectives: (i To find out the age of menarche.(ii To elicit the beliefs, perception and source of information regarding menstruation among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among 120 adolescent girls of a higher secondary school situated in Varanasi District. Information was obtained with the help of a predesigned and pretested questionnaire in a local language. Results: About half of the girls (58.3% were aware about menstruation prior to attainment of menarche. The mean age of menarche was found to be 12.98yrs (+0.77.The most common menstrual pattern was 30/3 days. Mother was the first informant regarding menstruation in case of (41.66% of girls. Most of the girls (85.8% believed it as a physiological process. Regarding practices, only 61(50.8% girls informed about the use of sanitary pads during menstruation. Most of the girls 59 (49.16% used old plain cloth as menstrual absorbent. About (82.5% girls practiced different restrictions during menstruation. Conclusion: Menstrual hygiene is still a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections and it is a vital component of the health education to the adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/ health personnel, motivated school teachers, and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the critical messages of correct practices about menstrual hygiene to the adolescent girls of today.

  20. MENSTRUAL HYGIENE PRACTICES AND RTI AMONG EVER-MARRIED WOMEN IN RURAL SLUM

    Sadhana Singh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Considering huge burden of RTI across community based study settings- either iatrogenic or endogenous and not necessarily sexually transmitted, menstrual hygiene practices by reproductive age group women have documented evidence of being a key determinant/ predictor of RTI and bear causal association with key Socio-demographic attributes. This is more so in view of vulnerability to health risk, access to treatment and reduced economical choice for a marginal & disadvantaged population like the ‘in-migrants/itinerants. Objectives: 1. To study menstrual hygiene practices of ever-married ‘in-migrant’ women from Dehradun as a key determinant of reproductive health needs. 2. To establish causal association between menstrual hygiene practices and (i key socio-demographic attributes & (ii RTI. Methodology: An observational (cross-sectional study was designed with a probability sample from 5033 ever-married women from 06 ‘make-shift settlements’/slums along immediate precincts i.e 50 meters into the mainland from the banks of rivers ‘Chandrabhaga’, ‘Ganga’, ‘Song’ and ‘Rispana’- all in the district of Dehradun. Result& Conclusion: The present study findings revealed that as key determinant of reproductive health needs, menstrual hygiene practices of the study population bore significant statistical association with their (i literacy status or education (ii religion (iii key reproductive tract infection symptoms and (iv socio-economic status. The findings reinforced the felt need to address knowledge, attitude and practices of the disadvantaged study population by appropriate behaviour change communication, build community & provider capacity and strategies to deliver services at such resource - poor setting keeping in view the four A’s of primary health care.

  1. Tranexamic acid for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding: efficacy and safety

    Leminen, Henri; Hurskainen, Ritva

    2012-01-01

    Tranexamic acid has proven to be an effective treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). It reduces menstrual blood loss (MBL) by 26%–60% and is significantly more effective than placebo, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oral cyclical luteal phase progestins, or oral etamsylate, while the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system reduces MBL more than tranexamic acid. Other treatments used for HMB are oral contraceptives, danazol, and surgical interventions (endometrial ablation and hysterectomy). Medical therapy is usually considered a first-line treatment for idiopathic HMB. Tranexamic acid significantly improves the quality of life of women treated for HMB. The recommended oral dosage is 3.9–4 g/day for 4–5 days starting from the first day of the menstrual cycle. Adverse effects are few and mainly mild. No evidence exists of an increase in the incidence of thrombotic events associated with its use. An active thromboembolic disease is a contraindication. In the US, a history of thrombosis or thromboembolism, or an intrinsic risk for thrombosis or thromboembolism are considered contraindications as well. This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in the treatment of idiopathic HMB. We searched for medical literature published in English on tranexamic acid from Ovid Medline, PubMed, and Cinahl. Additional references were identified from the reference lists of articles. Ovid Medline, PubMed, and Cinahl search terms were “tranexamic acid” and “menorrhagia” or “heavy menstrual bleeding.” Searches were last updated on March 25, 2012. Studies with women receiving tranexamic acid for HMB were included; randomized controlled studies with a description of appropriate statistical methodology were preferred. Relevant data on the physiology of menstruation and the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of tranexamic acid are also included. PMID:22956886

  2. Menstrual Cycle, Vocal Performance, and Laryngeal Vascular Appearance: An Observational Study on 17 Subjects.

    Shoffel-Havakuk, Hagit; Carmel-Neiderman, Narin N; Halperin, Doron; Shapira Galitz, Yael; Levin, Dan; Haimovich, Yaara; Cohen, Oded; Abitbol, Jean; Lahav, Yonatan

    2018-03-01

    To assess the anatomical and functional features of the vocal folds during different phases of the female menstrual cycle. An observational study of 17 healthy fertile female volunteers not using hormonal contraception was carried out. Each volunteer underwent two examinations: first, during the early days of the menstrual cycle when progesterone levels are low (p-depletion), and second, during premenstruation when progesterone levels are high (p-peak). The workup included blood hormone levels, Voice Handicap Index, acoustic analysis, rigid telescopy, stroboscopy, and narrow band imaging. The videos were evaluated by blinded observers. The participants' mean age was 31.7 ± 5.6 (range 23-43). Progesterone levels were 13- to 45-fold higher in p-peak relative to p-depletion. No significant differences were detected in Voice Handicap Index scores, stroboscopic reports, or acoustic analysis between p-peak and p-depletion examinations. Analyzing the rigid telescopy and narrow band imaging videos, the observers tended to estimate the different laryngeal subsites more vascularized during the p-peak examination. Moreover, this tendency was significantly correlated with blood progesterone levels during the p-depletion examinations; the lower the blood progesterone levels were during p-depletion, the higher the probability for the observers to estimate the p-peak examinations more vascularized (P value = 0.024). Alterations in laryngeal vascular characteristics are evident throughout the menstrual cycle and may suggest increased congestion during premenstrual days. Variations in progesterone levels during the menstrual cycle correlate with laryngeal vascular changes. Hormone-related alterations in vocal folds' vascularity may have a role in the variability of vocal performance in certain women. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Biological characteristics of human menstrual blood-derived endometrial stem cells.

    Liu, Yanli; Niu, Rongcheng; Yang, Fen; Yan, Yan; Liang, Shengying; Sun, Yuliang; Shen, Ping; Lin, Juntang

    2018-03-01

    Successful isolation of human endometrial stem cells from menstrual blood, namely menstrual blood-derived endometrial stem cells (MenSCs), has provided enticing alternative seed cells for stem cell-based therapy. MenSCs are enriched in the self-regenerative tissue, endometrium, which shed along the periodic menstrual blood and thus their acquisition involves no physical invasiveness. However, the impact of the storage duration of menstrual blood prior to stem cell isolation, the age of the donor, the number of passages on the self-renewing of MenSCs, the paracrine production of biological factors in MenSCs and expression of adhesion molecules on MenSCs remain elusive. In this study, we confirmed that MenSCs reside in shedding endometrium, and documented that up to 3 days of storage at 4°C has little impact on MenSCs, while the age of the donor and the number of passages are negatively associated with proliferation capacity of MenSCs. Moreover, we found that MenSCs were actually immune-privileged and projected no risk of tumour formation. Also, we documented a lung- and liver-dominated, spleen- and kidney-involved organic distribution profile of MenSC 3 days after intravenous transfer into mice. At last, we suggested that MenSCs may have potentially therapeutic effects on diseases through paracrine effect and immunomodulation. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  4. Treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding with a new combination of estradiol valerate and dienogest

    Luis Bahamondes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Luis Bahamondes, Ilza Monteiro, Arlete FernandesHuman Reproduction Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medical Sciences and National Institute of Hormones and Women’s Health, University of Campinas, Campinas, BrazilAbstract: The first combined oral contraceptive (OC was launched in the US 50 years ago and was followed by another formulation introduced in Germany one year later. The most common estrogen component in current formulations is ethinylestradiol; however, many concerns have been raised with respect to this estrogen. Although the natural estrogen produced by the ovary, 17-beta estradiol, is the most potent of the estrogens, it is poorly absorbed orally, and previous attempts to use it in combined OCs have been unsuccessful due to the occurrence of irregular bleeding. Recently, a new combined OC was developed containing a natural estrogen, estradiol valerate, and a new progestin, dienogest, in a dynamic 26-day, four-phasic (estrogen stepdown and progestin stepup scheme of administration. In clinical trials, its contraceptive performance was excellent, with good cycle control and bleeding patterns compared with other combined OCs or with placebo. This review focuses predominantly on the use of an estradiol valerate-dienogest combined OC for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. The findings of two large, randomized, controlled trials have shown that this combined OC constitutes an effective treatment for women with heavy menstrual bleeding, representing a new therapeutic option to reduce menstrual blood loss. Further studies are necessary to confirm these data.Keywords: dienogest, estradiol valerate, heavy menstrual bleeding, menorrhagia, contraception

  5. MR mammography: influence of menstrual cycle on the dynamic contrast enhancement of fibrocystic disease

    Rieber, A.; Nuessle, K.; Merkle, E.; Tomczak, R.; Brambs, H.J. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Radiologie 1 (Roentgendiagnostik); Kreienberg, R. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Gynecology

    1999-08-01

    Magnetic resonance mammography (MRM) provides data regarding the nature of tumours based on contrast medium dynamics; fibrocystic changes in the breast, however, may lead to false-positive results. This study investigated whether the contrast medium dynamics of fibrocystic changes are dependent on the menstrual cycle. Twenty-four patients with palpable lumps but normal mammographies and ultrasound studies were examined. The MRM technique was performed during the first and second part of the menstrual cycle using a FLASH 3D sequence, both native and at 1, 2, 3 and 8 min after intravenous application of 0.15 mmol/kg body weight of gadodiamide. The calculated time-intensity curves were evaluated based on the following criteria: early percentage of contrast medium uptake in relation to the native value; formation of a plateau phenomenon after the second minute; the point of maximal contrast medium uptake; and calculation of the contrast enhancing index. During the second half of the menstrual cycle, a generally greater contrast medium uptake was observed. Nevertheless, when further diagnostic criteria, such as continuous contrast medium increase as a function of time, were considered, there was no increased rate of false-positive findings. The phase of the menstrual cycle may affect the specificity of the examination, if only the quantitative contrast medium uptake and the percentage of contrast medium uptake in the first 2 min are considered. A control MRM during the other half of the cycle may then be indicated and additional diagnostic criteria may improve specificity. (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 24 refs.

  6. Are Elite Female Soccer Athletes at Risk for Disordered Eating Attitudes, Menstrual Dysfunction, and Stress Fractures?

    Prather, Heidi; Hunt, Devyani; McKeon, Kathryn; Simpson, Scott; Meyer, E Blair; Yemm, Ted; Brophy, Robert

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of stress fractures, menstrual dysfunction and disordered eating attitudes in elite female soccer athletes. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Female soccer athletes were recruited from a national level youth soccer club, an NCAA Division I university team, and a women's professional team. Two hundred twenty female soccer athletes with a mean age of 16.4 ± 4 years and BMI of 20.8 ± 2 kg/m(2) completed the study, representing all athletes from the included teams. One-time surveys completed by the athletes. Height and weight were recorded, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each athlete. Athletes reported age of menarche, history of missing 3 or more menses within a 12-month period and stress fracture. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to assess the athlete's body perception and attitudes toward eating. Of the 220 soccer athletes, 3 athletes (1.6%) had a low BMI for their age, and 19 (8.6%) reported stress fractures of the lower extremity. Among athletes who had reached menarche, the average onset was 13 + 1 year; menstrual dysfunction were present in 21 (19.3%). On the EAT-26, 1 player scored in the high risk range (>20) and 17 (7.7%) scored in the intermediate risk range (10-19) for eating disorders. Athletes with an EAT-26 score ≥ 10 points had a significantly higher prevalence of menstrual dysfunction in the past year compared to athletes with an EAT-26 score of less than 10 (P = .02). Elite female soccer athletes are susceptible to stress fractures and menstrual dysfunction and have delayed onset of menarche despite normal BMI and appropriate body perception and attitudes towards eating. Further studies are needed to better understand stress fracture risk in female soccer athletes and in other team sports to determine how these findings relate to long-term bone health in this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Relating smoking, obesity, insulin resistance and ovarian biomarker changes to the final menstrual period (FMP)

    Sowers, MaryFran R.; McConnell, Daniel; Yosef, Matheos; Jannausch, Mary L.; Harlow, Sioban D.; Randolph, John F.

    2010-01-01

    In order to determine if smoking, obesity, and insulin resistance mediated age at final menstrual period (FMP), we examined anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin B, and follicle-stimulating hormone as biomarkers of changing follicle status and ovarian aging. We performed a longitudinal data analysis from a cohort of premenopausal women followed to their FMP. Our results found that smokers had an earlier age at FMP (p

  8. Impact of menstrual cycle phase on endocrine effects of partial sleep restriction in healthy women.

    LeRoux, Amanda; Wright, Lisa; Perrot, Tara; Rusak, Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    There is extensive evidence that sleep restriction alters endocrine function in healthy young men, increasing afternoon cortisol levels and modifying levels of other hormones that regulate metabolism. Recent studies have confirmed these effects in young women, but have not investigated whether menstrual cycle phase influences these responses. The effects on cortisol levels of limiting sleep to 3h for one night were assessed in two groups of women at different points in their menstrual cycles: mid-follicular and mid-luteal. Eighteen healthy, young women, not taking oral contraceptives (age: 21.8±0.53; BMI: 22.5±0.58 [mean±SEM]), were studied. Baseline sleep durations, eating habits and menstrual cycles were monitored. Salivary samples were collected at six times of day (08:00, 08:30, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00, 20:00) during two consecutive days: first after a 10h overnight sleep opportunity (Baseline) and then after a night with a 3h sleep opportunity (Post-sleep restriction). All were awakened at the same time of day. Women in the follicular phase showed a significant decrease (p=0.004) in their cortisol awakening responses (CAR) after sleep restriction and a sustained elevation in afternoon/evening cortisol levels (p=0.008), as has been reported for men. Women in the luteal phase showed neither a depressed CAR, nor an increase in afternoon/evening cortisol levels. Secondary analyses examined the impact of sleep restriction on self-reported hunger and mood. Menstrual cycle phase dramatically altered the cortisol responses of healthy, young women to a single night of sleep restriction, implicating effects of spontaneous changes in endocrine status on adrenal responses to sleep loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Interactive Effects of Estrogen and Progesterone on Changes in Emotional Eating Across the Menstrual Cycle

    Klump, Kelly L.; Keel, Pamela K.; Racine, Sarah E.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Neale, Michael; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Boker, Steven; Hu, Jean Yueqin

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that within-person changes in estrogen and progesterone predict changes in binge eating across the menstrual cycle. However, samples have been extremely small (maximum N = 9), and analyses have not examined the interactive effects of hormones that are critical for changes in food intake in animals. The aims of the current study were to examine ovarian hormone interactions in the prediction of within-subject changes in emotional eating in the largest sample of women to date (N ...

  10. A CROSS - SECTIONAL STUDY OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES REGARDING MENSTRUAL PATTERN IN ADOLESCENT GIRL

    Preeti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a transitional period during which a child matures into an adult. Menstrual related problem contribute to school absenteeism. beliefs, concepts, hygiene , and knowledge attitude about menstruation is objectively analysed and found that menarche was attained by 70% girls at 12 - 13 years and the mother helped the girls with information , 76% used the old clothes and reused them . 10% of the girls had school absenteeism. There is a need for imparting knowledge by including in the school curriculum.

  11. Changes in preference for male faces during the menstrual cycle in a Spanish population

    Muñoz-Reyes, José A.; Iglesias-Julios, Marta; Martín-Elola, Cristina; Losada-Pérez, María; Monedero, Ignacio; Pita, Miguel; Turiégano, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    A recent and controversial hypothesis suggests the presence of an oestrus phase in women as in other mammals. This implies that women at their optimal fertility point of the menstrual cycle exhibit behaviors focused to maximize the genetic quality of their offspring. Several studies support this hypothesis, finding that women in the fertile phase tend to prefer men with traits associated to phenotypic quality, such as greater facial masculinization and symmetry. We experimentally tested some ...

  12. Does the menstrual cycle modulate how trustworthy a woman sounds? Evidence from sighted and blind participants

    Klatt, Wilhelm K.; Lobmaier, Janek S.

    2017-01-01

    The attractiveness of a woman’s voice is affected by her menstrual cycle. We investigated whether the cycle also affects the perceived trustworthiness of a speaker, and whether the speech content plays a role. Because blind people have been found to possess superior voice processing capabilities, we also tested blind individuals. We recorded women while they were uttering neutral sentences and sentences suggesting a context in which you want to get to know someone (affiliation context). Ea...

  13. Comparing the effects of aerobic exercise and Foeniculum vulgare on pre-menstrual syndrome

    Hassan Pazoki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS has been identified by a number of psychological and physical symptoms which occur cyclically in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The present study has been carried out to compare the effects of regular exercise and Foeniculum vulgare extract (fennel together and separately on PMS in high school girls. Materials and methods: In this randomized clinical trial 48 students aged 16–18 years were selected by filling the daily record of severity of problem questionnaire (DRSP-Q. The participants were divided into four equal groups: the first group received fennel, the second group had aerobic exercise, the third group received fennel along with exercise and the last group was control group without fennel and exercise. Participants filled DRSP-Q three times: the first menstrual cycle before the intervention, the first menstrual cycle after four weeks and finally the first menstrual cycle after eight weeks of intervention. Results: After 8 weeks of intervention the severity of PMS symptoms reduced significantly in experimental groups (fennel, exercise and fennel + exercise compared to control group (P < 0.05. Meanwhile, there were not any significant differences in age, body mass index, age at menarche, age at dysmenorrhea onset and duration of menstruation among the four groups. Discussions: The result of this study indicated that fennels and exercise could reduce the severity of premenstrual syndrome. In addition, fennel extract and exercise together seem to be more effective on symptoms of anxiety and depression compared with using them alone.

  14. Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD

    Lei eNi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episodes are attributed to infections, although environmental stress also plays a role. Increasing urbanization and associated air pollution, especially in developing countries, have been shown to contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM in polluted air are strongly correlated with the onset and development of various respiratory diseases. In this review, we have conducted an extensive literature search of recent studies of the role of PM2.5 (fine PM in AECOPD. PM2.5 leads to AECOPD via inflammation, oxidative stress, immune dysfunction, and altered airway epithelial structure and microbiome. Reducing PM2.5 levels is a viable approach to lower AECOPD incidence, attenuate COPD progression and decrease the associated healthcare burden.

  15. [Etiological and exacerbation factors for COPD. Body weight loss].

    Yokoyama, Akihito

    2016-05-01

    Hunger or malnutrition is not only a historical issue but also a current problem worldwide. Biological responses to hunger are evolutionary prepared in our body, including energy generation by degradation of body proteins. Extreme weight loss (malnutrition) can cause air space enlargement in human and rodents. However, the changes in rodents could be reversible, since refeeding could repair the pathology. On the other hand, weight loss is a common feature in patients with more severe COPD. Complex factors, such as increased energy consumption, decreased food uptake by low grade inflammation, socio-economic factors and so on, are involved in weight loss. Weight loss in patients with COPD also increases the risk of exacerbation, hospitalization, and death.

  16. Will climate change exacerbate water stress in Central Asia?

    Siegfried, Tobias; Bernauer, Thomas; Guiennet, Renaud

    2012-01-01

    the Soviet Union collapsed. Will climate change exacerbate water stress and thus conflicts? We have developed a coupled climate, land-ice and rainfall-runoff model for the Syr Darya to quantify impacts and show that climatic changes are likely to have consequences on runoff seasonality due to earlier snow......-melt. This will increase water stress in unregulated catchments because less water will be available for irrigation in the summer months. Threats from geohazards, above all glacier lake outbursts, are likely to increase as well. The area at highest risk is the densely populated, agriculturally productive, and politically......Millions of people in the geopolitically important region of Central Asia depend on water from snow- and glacier-melt driven international rivers, most of all the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. The riparian countries of these rivers have experienced recurring water allocation conflicts ever since...

  17. Ulcerative colitis: criteria and methods of prognosis of exacerbation

    Kashkina E.l.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: research is devoted to the development of criteria and methods for prognosis of the next recurrence of exacerbation of ulcerative colitis (UC after the patient discharged from hospital. Material and Methods: During a period of a year 38 patients with UC were supervised. The criteria used in the prognosis of recurrence included results of the evaluation of quality of life (SF-36 questionnaire, the analysis of the autonomic nervous system (coefficient Hildebrant and Kerdo index and the level of stressful load procedure Holmes-Rage. Results. It has been established that the risk factors for recurrence include low quality of life on the scale of RP, SF and MH SF-36, the coefficient Hildebrant >5.6 units, Kerdo index 314 points. Conclusion: The obtained data have been processed by multivariate mathematical statistics and the obtained analytical expression allows to prognose the time of recurrence of ulcerative colitis.

  18. Predictive factors for moderate or severe exacerbations in asthma patients receiving outpatient care

    Guti?rrez, Francisco Javier ?lvarez; Galv?n, Marta Ferrer; Gallardo, Juan Francisco Medina; Mancera, Marta Barrera; Romero, Beatriz Romero; Falc?n, Auxiliadora Romero

    2017-01-01

    Background Asthma exacerbations are important events that affect disease control, but predictive factors for severe or moderate exacerbations are not known. The objective was to study the predictive factors for moderate (ME) and severe (SE) exacerbations in asthma patients receiving outpatient care. Methods Patients aged?>?12?years with asthma were included in the study and followed-up at 4-monthly intervals over a 12-month period. Clinical (severity, level of control, asthma control test [AC...

  19. The effect of Iron Supplying on VO2 MAX and Haematology Parameter on Menstrual Woman

    Nailuvar Sinaga, Rika; Sari Harahap, Novita; Mediyana Sari, Rima

    2018-03-01

    One of the supporting factors to have good aerobic endurance requires high VO2 max levels supported by good quality and quantity level of Haematology parameter especially such as erythrocytes, hematocrit and hemoglobin. One of the components in hemoglobin is iron which functions as theoxygen transport to parts of all body required in the process of metabolism. The objective of this research was to find out the difference between VO2 Max and Haematology parameter between iron supplying and no iron supplyingonmenstrual woman. The type of this research is quasi experimental research with non-randomized control group Pretest-Postest Design. The subjectsarethe studentsat faculty of Sports Sciences, Medan State University with the criteria of female gender, monthly regular menstrual cycle, having the level of health and the level of training, willing to be a sample by filling out informed consent. The total number of research subjectsis twenty students, divided into two groups namely the treatment group and the control group. The hematology parameter was measuredby Haemotology analyzer and VO2 Max was measured by multi-stage run. The result showed that there was a significant effect of iron supplyingon the increase of erythrocyte level on menstrual women, hemotocrit, haemoglobin and an increase in VO2 Max. Iron supplying on menstrual woman has the effect on the increase of erythrocyte, hematocrit, hemoglobin level and VO2 Max

  20. Tissue remodeling and nonendometrium-like menstrual cycling are hallmarks of peritoneal endometriosis lesions.

    Sohler, Florian; Sommer, Anette; Wachter, David L; Agaimy, Abbas; Fischer, Oliver M; Renner, Stefan P; Burghaus, Stefanie; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Fuhrmann, Ulrike; Strick, Reiner; Strissel, Pamela L

    2013-01-01

    We identified differentially expressed genes comparing peritoneal endometriosis lesions (n = 18), eutopic endometrium (n = 17), and peritoneum (n = 22) from the same patients with complete menstrual cycles using microarrays (54 675 probe sets) and immunohistochemistry. Peritoneal lesions and peritoneum demonstrated 3901 and 4973 significantly differentially expressed genes compared to eutopic endometrium, respectively. Peritoneal lesions significantly revealed no correlation with a specific menstrual cycle phase by gene expression and histopathology, exhibited low expressed proliferation genes, and constant levels of steroid hormone receptor genes. Tissue remodeling genes in cytoskeleton, smooth muscle contraction, cellular adhesion, tight junctions, and O-glycan biosynthesis were the most significant to lesions, including desmin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain 11. Protein expression and location of desmin, alpha-actin, and h-caldesmon in peritoneal lesions discriminated between smooth muscle hyperplasia and metaplasia. Peritoneal lesions demonstrate no menstrual cycle phasing but constant steroid hormone receptor expression where a slow but steady growth is linked with tissue remodeling. Our study contributes to the molecular pathology of peritoneal endometriosis and will help to identify clinical targets for treatment and management.